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1

Intravenous Imferon masquerading as an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction.  

PubMed

The case of a 74-year-old woman with a history of chronic iron deficiency anemia requiring transfusion is reported. Shortly after receiving intravenous iron-dextran, the patient was transfused with two units of crossmatch compatible packed red blood cells and subsequently experienced severe racking chills associated with mild elevation of temperature. In the evaluation of this febrile reaction, her serum exhibited a distinct red-brown discoloration which was interpreted as free hemoglobin. Laboratory studies performed to evaluate the possibility of acute intravascular hemolysis were all within normal limits. Subsequent investigation revealed that the color of the recipients serum was due to iron-dextran. Caution is urged in the evaluation of patients for hemolytic transfusion reactions who have been administered intravenous iron-dextran, since the drug imparts a red-brown tinge to the plasma which may be misinterpreted as free hemoglobin. PMID:7071921

Colburn, W J; Barnes, A

1982-01-01

2

[Blood matching and transfusion for 12 acute autoimmune hemolytic anemia patients by extracorporal hemolysis test].  

PubMed

In order to screen the compatible red cells by using extracorporal hemolysis test for acute autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) patients who were difficult to be matched by automatic microcolumn gel indirect antiglobulin test. Twenty-six cases of AIHA were chosen as control group, to whom the same type of donor red blood cells were infused with the weakest blood agglutination; 12 cases of acute AIHA patients were chosen as test group, these patients were difficult to be matched by automatic microcolumn gel indirect antiglobulin test, and the donor red cells without hemolysis by extracoral hemolysis test were transfused for them. The results showed that compared with the control group,the effect of transfusion was better in test group (P < 0.01), with 2.26 U leukocyte-depleted erythrocyte suspension in average, whose hemoglobin, reticulocyte and total bilirubin levels were changed significantly compared with those before blood transfusion (P < 0.01) . It is concluded that the compatible red blood cells for the acute AIHA patients can be screened by the extracorporal hemolysis test, when it is difficult to screen by the automatic microcolumn gel indirect antiglobulin test. PMID:25543503

Yuan, Min; Tang, Cong-Hai; Wu, A-Yang; Yang, Hui-Cong; Gan, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Tian-Xin; Huang, Yan-Xue; Xu, Wei-Ping

2014-12-01

3

Incompatible blood transfusion: Challenging yet lifesaving in the management of acute severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is characterized by the production of autoantibodies directed against red cell antigens. Most patients of AIHA arrive in the emergency or out-patient department (OPD) with severe anemia requiring urgent blood transfusion. Here we share our experience of managing these patients with incompatible blood transfusions and suggest the minimal test required to assure patient safety. Materials and Methods: A total of 14 patients admitted with severe anemia, diagnosed with AIHA and requiring blood transfusion urgently were included in the study. A series of immunohematological investigations were performed to confirm the diagnosis and issue best match packed red blood cells (PRBC) to these patients. Results: A total of 167 PRBC units were crossmatched for 14 patients of which 46 units (28%) were found to be best match ones and 26 (56.5%) of these units were transfused. A mean turn around time of 222 min was observed in issuing the “best match” blood. Severe hemolysis was observed in all patients with a median hemoglobin increment of 0.88 g/dl after each unit PRBC transfusion. Conclusion: Decision to transfuse in AIHA should be based on the clinical condition of the patient. No critical patient should be denied blood transfusion due to serological incompatibility. Minimum investigations such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT), antibody screening and autocontrol should be performed to ensure transfusion safety in patients. All transfusion services should be capable of issuing “best match” PRBCs in AIHA. PMID:25161349

Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, Rafiq Uz; Safi, Mohammad

2014-01-01

4

Transfusion reaction - hemolytic  

MedlinePLUS

... transfusion reaction. Mild symptoms may be treated with: Acetaminophen, a pain reliever to reduce fever and discomfort Fluids given through a vein (intravenous) and other medicines to treat or prevent kidney ...

5

Initiation and Regulation of Complement during Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions  

PubMed Central

Hemolytic transfusion reactions represent one of the most common causes of transfusion-related mortality. Although many factors influence hemolytic transfusion reactions, complement activation represents one of the most common features associated with fatality. In this paper we will focus on the role of complement in initiating and regulating hemolytic transfusion reactions and will discuss potential strategies aimed at mitigating or favorably modulating complement during incompatible red blood cell transfusions. PMID:23118779

Stowell, Sean R.; Winkler, Anne M.; Maier, Cheryl L.; Arthur, C. Maridith; Smith, Nicole H.; Girard-Pierce, Kathryn R.; Cummings, Richard D.; Zimring, James C.; Hendrickson, Jeanne E.

2012-01-01

6

Hypothesis: Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions Represent an Alternative Type of Anaphylaxis  

PubMed Central

Classical anaphylaxis is the most severe, and potentially fatal, type of allergic reaction, manifested by hypotension, bronchoconstriction, and vascular permeability. Similarly, a hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) is the most feared consequence of blood transfusion. Evidence for the existence of an alternative, IgG-mediated pathway of anaphylaxis may be relevant for explaining the pathophysiology of IgG-mediated-HTRs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for this alternative pathway of anaphylaxis and to present the hypothesis that an IgG-mediated HTR is one example of this type of anaphylaxis. PMID:18830382

Hod, Eldad A.; Sokol, Set A.; Zimring, James C.; Spitalnik, Steven L.

2009-01-01

7

[Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction in sicle cell disease patients: A new challenge for the Hemovigilance network].  

PubMed

Delayed hemolytic reaction transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is a serious and still under diagnosed event. Clinical and biological presentation mimics an acute SCD complication. It is a life-threatening event, especially in hyperhemolysis syndrome (HS) characterized by a massive destruction of both the donor's and patient's red blood cells. The main cause is related to the presence of alloantibodies directed against red blood cell antigens, more rarely autoantibodies. In approximately a third of the cases, no new antibody is highlighted. Pathophysiological hypotheses are still under debate but most of the authors agree on the role played by the SCD inflammatory state. Several therapeutic approaches are used but the data are still insufficient to estimate their efficiency. It is admitted that a new transfusion may exacerbate the phenomenon and the benefit-risk of any transfusion must be carefully evaluated. Measures limiting alloimmunization and rigorous follow-up of SCD patients and their immunohematologic status can prevent some of these accidents. The Hemovigilance network has a role to play in the recognition and the description of this risk. A first analysis realized on the French national Hemovigilance database of the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety (ANSM) over the period 2000-2013, shows us interesting information but some inadequacies, described here, must be taken into account to strengthen these data and insure in the future a better reporting quality. PMID:25441454

Rieux, C; De Meyer, E; Boudjedir, K

2015-03-01

8

Red blood cell transfusions in acute paediatrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions should usually be given only to restore or maintain oxygen delivery to vital organs and tissues. Medical history has clearly documented the importance of blood transfusion in saving lives threatened by acute haemorrhage or severe anaemia. The availability of blood products has facilitated many surgical and medical advances, allowing the support of patients who could

S L Morley

2009-01-01

9

[Serological characteristics and transfusion efficacy evaluation in 61 cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to analyze the serological characteristics, efficacy and safety of incompatible RBC transfusion in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The patients with idiopathic or secondary AIHA were analyzed retrospectively, then the serological characteristics and the incidence of adverse transfusion reactions were investigated, and the efficacy and safety of incompatible RBC transfusion were evaluated according to the different autoantibody type and infused different RBC components. The results showed that out of 61 cases of AIHA, 21 cases were idiopathic, and 40 cases were secondary. 8 cases (13.1%) had IgM cold autoantibody, 50 cases (82.0%) had IgG warm autoantibody, and 3 cases (4.9%) had IgM and IgG autoantibodies simultaneously. There were 18 cases (29.5%) combined with alloantibodies. After the exclusion of alloantibodies interference, 113 incompatible RBC transfusions were performed for 36 patients with AIHA, total efficiency rate, total partial efficiency rate and total inefficiency rate were 56.6%, 15.1% and 28.3%, respectively. Incompatible RBC transfusions were divided into non-washed RBC group and washed RBC group. The efficiency rate, partial efficiency rate and inefficiency rate in non-washed RBC group were 57.6%, 13.0% and 29.4%, respectively. The efficiency rate, partial efficiency rate and inefficiency rate in washed RBC group were 53.6%, 21.4% and 25.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference of transfusion efficacy (P > 0.05) in two groups. Incompatible RBC transfusions were also divided into IgM cold autoantibody group and IgG warm autoantibody group. The efficiency rate, partial efficiency rate and inefficiency rate in IgM cold autoantibody group were 46.2%, 30.8% and 29.4%, respectively. The efficiency rate, partial efficiency rate and inefficiency rate in IgG warm autoantibody group were 56.7%, 13.4% and 29.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference of transfusion efficacy (P > 0.05 ) in two groups. Hemolytic transfusion reaction was not observed in all incompatible RBC transfusions. It is concluded that the same ABO type of non-washed RBC transfusion and O type washed RBC transfusion are all relatively safe for the AIHA patients with severe anemia after the exclusion of alloantibodies interference. There is no significant difference of transfusion efficacy in two groups. The same ABO type of non-washed RBC transfusion is more convenient and efficient than washed RBC transfusion, and excessive use of type O RBCs can also be avoided. PMID:24156449

Yu, Yang; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Chun-Ya; Guan, Xiao-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Lin-Fen; Wang, Ke; Luo, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Yi; Li, Ming-Wei; Feng, Yan-Nan; Tong, Shan; Yu, Shuai; Yang, Lu; Wu, Yue-Qing; Zhuang, Yuan; Pan, Ji-Chun; Fen, Qian; Zhang, Ting; Wang, De-Qing

2013-10-01

10

Transfusion support of autoimmune hemolytic anemia: how could the blood group genotyping help?  

PubMed

Conventional pretransfusion testing based on hemagglutination assays can be challenging for patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) because of the presence of auto-antibodies. It has been suggested that deoxyribonucleic acid-based methods could be more efficient in the selection of antigen-matched red blood cell units in those settings. Because of the high risk of alloimmunization of these patients and the labor-intensive nature of adsorption techniques, we decided to evaluate the feasibility of selecting antigen-matched units on the basis of RBC genotyping. We included in our routine RBC genotyping program samples from 7 patients with AIHA presenting a strongly positive direct antiglobulin test. This made the routine compatibility tests difficult. Most patients had previously received transfusions because of warm AIHA. Matched donor units were selected according to the genotype. For all but 1 patient, blood group genotyping could be done on time to allow antigen-matched transfusion. Four patients received antigen-matched red blood cell units based on RBC genotyping and for 1 patient the fact that no matched units were available led us to postpone the transfusion. After each transfusion, the recovery was recorded and considered satisfactory for all transfused patients. PMID:24120494

El Kenz, Hanane; Efira, André; Le, Phu Quoc; Thiry, Claire; Valsamis, Joseph; Azerad, Marie-Agnès; Corazza, Francis

2014-01-01

11

Pulmonary Transfusion Reactions  

PubMed Central

Summary Background In recent years, pulmonary transfusion reactions have gained increasing importance as serious adverse transfusion events. Methods Review of the literature. Results Pulmonary transfusion reactions are not extremely rare and, according to hemovigilance data, important causes of transfusion-induced major morbidity and death. They can be classified as primary with predominant pulmonary injury and secondary as part of another transfusion reaction. Primary reactions include transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion-associated dyspnea (TAD). Secondary pulmonary reactions are often observed in the wake of hemolytic transfusion reactions, hypotensive/anaphylactic reactions, and transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections. Conclusion Knowledge and careful management of cases of pulmonary transfusion reactions are essential for correct reporting to blood services and hemovigilance systems. Careful differentiation between TRALI and TACO is important for taking adequate preventive measures. PMID:21512622

Bux, Jürgen; Sachs, Ulrich J. H.

2008-01-01

12

Transfusion-related acute lung injury; clinical perspectives  

PubMed Central

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was introduced in 1983 to describe a clinical syndrome seen within 6 h of a plasma-containing blood products transfusion. TRALI is a rare transfusion complication; however, the FDA has suggested that TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis of TRALI will facilitate adopting preventive strategies, such as deferring high plasma volume female product donors. This review outlines the clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of TRALI.

Kim, Jeongmin

2015-01-01

13

Recognition, Investigation and Management of Acute Transfusion Reactions  

PubMed Central

The recognition and management of transfusion reactions (TRs) are critical to ensure patient safety during and after a blood transfusion. Transfusion reactions are classified into acute transfusion reactions (ATRs) or delayed transfusion reactions, and each category includes different subtypes. Different ATRs share common signs and symptoms which can make categorisation difficult at the beginning of the reaction. Moreover, TRs are often under-recognised and under-reported. To ensure uniform practice and safety, it is necessary to implement a national haemovigilance system and a set of national guidelines establishing policies for blood transfusion and for the detection and management of TRs. In Oman, there are currently no local TR guidelines to guide physicians and hospital blood banks. This paper summarises the available literature and provides consensus guidelines to be used in the recognition, management and reporting of ATRs. PMID:25097764

Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Al-Hashmi, Sabria; Al-Arimi, Zainab; Wadsworth, Louis D.; Al-Rawas, Abdulhakim; Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Daar, Shahina

2014-01-01

14

Estimation of the prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. Methods The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients’ records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients’ records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1st January – 31st December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions1. Results From January 1 – December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6–14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. Conclusion The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality are required in Namibia. PMID:24333079

Meza, Benjamin P.L.; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

2014-01-01

15

Adverse Effects of Plasma Transfusion  

PubMed Central

Plasma utilization has increased over the last two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions following infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of the risks associated with plasma transfusion. Risks commonly associated with FFP include: (1) transfusion related acute lung injury; (2) transfusion associated circulatory overload, and (3) allergic/anaphylactic reactions. Other less common risks include (1) transmission of infections, (2) febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, (3) RBC allo-immunization, and (4) hemolytic transfusion reactions. The affect of pathogen inactivation/reduction methods on these risks are also discussed. Fortunately, a majority of the adverse effects are not lethal and are adequately treated in clinical practice. PMID:22578374

Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N.

2012-01-01

16

Pure red-cell aplasia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with acute hepatitis A  

PubMed Central

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) have rarely been reported as an extrahepatic manifestation of acute hepatitis A (AHA). We report herein a case of AHA complicated by both PRCA and AIHA. A 49-year-old female with a diagnosis of AHA presented with severe anemia (hemoglobin level, 6.9 g/dL) during her clinical course. A diagnostic workup revealed AIHA and PRCA as the cause of the anemia. The patient was treated with an initial transfusion and corticosteroid therapy. Her anemia and liver function test were completely recovered by 9 months after the initial presentation. We review the clinical features and therapeutic strategies for this rare case of extrahepatic manifestation of AHA. PMID:25032187

Chang, Hyo Jeong; Cho, Sung Gyun; Oh, Tae Hoon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Won Chang; Choi, Won Choong

2014-01-01

17

Pure red-cell aplasia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with acute hepatitis A.  

PubMed

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) have rarely been reported as an extrahepatic manifestation of acute hepatitis A (AHA). We report herein a case of AHA complicated by both PRCA and AIHA. A 49-year-old female with a diagnosis of AHA presented with severe anemia (hemoglobin level, 6.9 g/dL) during her clinical course. A diagnostic workup revealed AIHA and PRCA as the cause of the anemia. The patient was treated with an initial transfusion and corticosteroid therapy. Her anemia and liver function test were completely recovered by 9 months after the initial presentation. We review the clinical features and therapeutic strategies for this rare case of extrahepatic manifestation of AHA. PMID:25032187

Chang, Hyo Jeong; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Cho, Sung Gyun; Oh, Tae Hoon; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Won Chang; Choi, Won Choong

2014-06-01

18

Severe hemolytic transfusion reaction due to anti-d in a d+ patient with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old male with sickle cell disease presented with pain, dark urine, and fatigue 10 days after a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated severe anemia, blood type O+, and anti-D in the serum. Anti-D in a D+ patient led to RH genotyping, which revealed homozygosity for RHD*DAU4 that encodes partial D antigen. Anti-D in this patient whose RBCs exclusively express partial D caused a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction after exposure to D+ RBCs. The finding of anti-D in a D+patient should be investigated by molecular methods to help distinguish an alloantibody from an autoantibody. PMID:25171447

Ipe, Tina S; Wilkes, Jennifer J; Hartung, Helge D; Westhoff, Connie M; Chou, Stella T; Friedman, David F

2015-03-01

19

Tc-99m red blood cells for the study of rapid hemolytic processes associated with heterologous blood transfusions  

SciTech Connect

Chromium-51 labeled erythrocytes (Cr-51 RBC) are suitable for the study of hematologic disorders which involve relatively slow destruction of circulating erythrocytes, taking several days to several weeks. However, Cr-51 RBC are not suitable for investigating rapid hemolytic processes which occur within a matter of a few hours due to the variable and unpredictable elution of Cr-51 from the erythrocytes during the first 24 hours or so. Imaging, which could be useful in identifying organ systems involved in the hemolytic process, cannot be performed with Cr-51 RBC because of the high dose commitment caused by the low yield of gamma rays from Cr-51 (2). A method of labeling RBC with Tc-99m, which results in a radiopharmaceutical that combines the excellent dosimetric and imaging qualities of Tc-99m with an extremely stable bond between the Tc-99m and the RBC, is reported. The successful application of this technique in providing red cell support for a cancer patient with an unusual history of intravascular hemolytic transfusion reactions is also reported.

Benedetto, A.R.; Harrison, C.R.; Blumhardt, R.; Trow, L.L.

1984-10-01

20

Resolution of alloimmunization and refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a multi-transfused beta-thalassemia major patient  

PubMed Central

Beta-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent autosomal disorders, which affect more than 400,000 newborn per year worldwide. In India, the carrier rate of beta-thalassemia varies from 3-17%. The overall rate of alloimmunization in thalassemia patients has been reported to be 5-30% in the world, which is mostly contributed by the alloimmunization to minor blood group antigen. Among Asians, the incidence of red cell alloimmunization is 22%. The recommended treatment for beta-thalassemia major is regular blood transfusion every 3 to 4 weeks. The development of anti-red cell antibodies (alloantibodies and/or autoantibodies) can significantly complicate transfusion therapy. Alloantibodies are commonly associated with red cell hemolysis. Red cell autoantibodies appear less frequently, but they can result in clinical hemolysis called autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), and in difficulty in cross-matching blood. Patients with autoantibodies may have a higher transfusion rate and often require immunosuppressive drugs or alternative treatments including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody). PMID:25161355

Philip, Joseph; Jain, Neelesh

2014-01-01

21

Resolution of alloimmunization and refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a multi-transfused beta-thalassemia major patient.  

PubMed

Beta-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent autosomal disorders, which affect more than 400,000 newborn per year worldwide. In India, the carrier rate of beta-thalassemia varies from 3-17%. The overall rate of alloimmunization in thalassemia patients has been reported to be 5-30% in the world, which is mostly contributed by the alloimmunization to minor blood group antigen. Among Asians, the incidence of red cell alloimmunization is 22%. The recommended treatment for beta-thalassemia major is regular blood transfusion every 3 to 4 weeks. The development of anti-red cell antibodies (alloantibodies and/or autoantibodies) can significantly complicate transfusion therapy. Alloantibodies are commonly associated with red cell hemolysis. Red cell autoantibodies appear less frequently, but they can result in clinical hemolysis called autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), and in difficulty in cross-matching blood. Patients with autoantibodies may have a higher transfusion rate and often require immunosuppressive drugs or alternative treatments including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody). PMID:25161355

Philip, Joseph; Jain, Neelesh

2014-07-01

22

The hazards of blood transfusion in historical perspective  

PubMed Central

The beginning of the modern era of blood transfusion coincided with World War II and the resultant need for massive blood replacement. Soon thereafter, the hazards of transfusion, particularly hepatitis and hemolytic transfusion reactions, became increasingly evident. The past half century has seen the near eradication of transfusion-associated hepatitis as well as the emergence of multiple new pathogens, most notably HIV. Specific donor screening assays and other interventions have minimized, but not eliminated, infectious disease transmission. Other transfusion hazards persist, including human error resulting in the inadvertent transfusion of incompatible blood, acute and delayed transfusion reactions, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), and transfusion-induced immunomodulation. These infectious and noninfectious hazards are reviewed briefly in the context of their historical evolution. PMID:18809775

Klein, Harvey G.

2008-01-01

23

Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction with multiple alloantibody (Anti S, N, K) and a monospecific autoanti-JKb in intermediate ?-thalassemia patient in Tabriz  

PubMed Central

It appears that delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions may occur several days after the administration of donor red cells is true even though they have been shown to be compatible in cross match tests by the antiglobulin technique. A specific case was observed in our center, which confirms the fact. The patient was a 37-year-old male suffering from intermediate ?-thalassemia. He had a history of two previous transfusions, with unknown transfusion reaction. In the last transfusion, laboratory data showed: Hb 7.8 g/dL and Hematocrit (Hct) 24.2%. The patient received two units of cross matched, compatible concentrated red blood cells (RBCs). After eight days a severe reaction was observed with clinical evidence of tachycardia, fatigue, fever, back pain, chest discomfort, jaundice, nausea and anorexia. Accordingly delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction was suspected, and anti-RBC antibodies were tested. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of three alloantibodies: Anti-N, anti-S, anti-K, and a monospecific autoanti-JKb. PMID:24014947

Dolatkhah, Roya; Esfahani, Ali; Torabi, Seyed Esmaeil; Kermani, Iraj Asvadi; Sanaat, Zohreh; Ziaei, Jamal Eivazei; Nikanfar, Alireza; Chavoshi, Seyed Hadi; Ghoreishi, Zohreh; Kermani, Atabak Asvadi

2013-01-01

24

Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction with multiple alloantibody (Anti S, N, K) and a monospecific autoanti-JK(b) in intermediate ?-thalassemia patient in Tabriz.  

PubMed

It appears that delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions may occur several days after the administration of donor red cells is true even though they have been shown to be compatible in cross match tests by the antiglobulin technique. A specific case was observed in our center, which confirms the fact. The patient was a 37-year-old male suffering from intermediate ?-thalassemia. He had a history of two previous transfusions, with unknown transfusion reaction. In the last transfusion, laboratory data showed: Hb 7.8 g/dL and Hematocrit (Hct) 24.2%. The patient received two units of cross matched, compatible concentrated red blood cells (RBCs). After eight days a severe reaction was observed with clinical evidence of tachycardia, fatigue, fever, back pain, chest discomfort, jaundice, nausea and anorexia. Accordingly delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction was suspected, and anti-RBC antibodies were tested. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of three alloantibodies: Anti-N, anti-S, anti-K, and a monospecific autoanti-JK(b). PMID:24014947

Dolatkhah, Roya; Esfahani, Ali; Torabi, Seyed Esmaeil; Kermani, Iraj Asvadi; Sanaat, Zohreh; Ziaei, Jamal Eivazei; Nikanfar, Alireza; Chavoshi, Seyed Hadi; Ghoreishi, Zohreh; Kermani, Atabak Asvadi

2013-07-01

25

Acute ventricular septal perforation in a patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 71-year-old woman with autoimmune hemolytic anemia underwent an emergency endocardial patch repair for ventricular septal\\u000a perforation after acute myocardial infarction. Use of washed red blood cells was effective in averting hemolytic crisis throughout\\u000a perioperative period. In spite of improvement of her hemodynamics, liver dysfunction which had been present preoperatively\\u000a deteriorated after the operation. Finally she died of hepatic failure

Hitoshi Matsumoto; Toshiyuki Yuda; Takayuki Ueno; Akira Taira

1998-01-01

26

Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomation leading to acute hemolytic anemia in six adolescents.  

PubMed

Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider) bites often cause local envenomation reactions; however, acute hemolysis from systemic loxoscelism is rare. To highlight this important diagnostic consideration for unexplained hemolysis in areas endemic for brown recluse spiders, we report on 6 adolescents with acute hemolytic anemia from presumed L reclusa bites. PMID:20006769

McDade, Jenny; Aygun, Banu; Ware, Russell E

2010-01-01

27

Three episodes of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions due to multiple red cell antibodies, anti-Di, anti-Jk and anti-E.  

PubMed

There is no report in which three episodes of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) occurred from multiple antibodies to red cells (RBCs) in the course of treatment of a patient. This paper describes episodes of anemia and hyperbilirubinemia in concert with the development of three alloantibodies in a multiple transfused patient. The patient was a 71-year-old male suffering from valvular heart disease and hemophilia B with a history of transfusions. Although he received compatible RBCs from 14 donors as judged by a crossmatch test using the albumin-antiglobulin method, three episodes of DHTR occurred after surgery. The first hemolytic episode on day 7 after surgery was due to anti-Di(a) because of clinical and laboratory evidence which included jaundice, sudden increases in total bilirubin (T-Bil) and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) levels, and a decrease (2.2 g/dl) in hemoglobin (Hb) level. The second hemolytic episode on day 16 resulted from newly producted anti-Jk(b). The patient experienced fever, fatigue, nausea and anorexia, and laboratory data showed a second increase in T-Bil, a second decrease (3 g/dl) in Hb, and moderate elevations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) levels. The third hemolytic episode on day 39 was due to anti-E. The patient complained of fever and fatigue and had a third unexplained drop (1.5 g/dl) in Hb despite no bleeding. This is the first reported case in which three episodes of DHTR occurred from different red cell antibodies. PMID:11035271

Yasuda, H; Ohto, H; Yamaguchi, O; Sakuma, S; Suzuki, T; Mita, M; Tsuneyama, H; Uchikawa, M

2000-10-01

28

Platelet Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is a Potential Mediator of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective The occurrence of non-hemolytic transfusion reactions is highest with platelet and plasma administration. Some of these reactions are characterized by endothelial leak, especially transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). Elevated concentrations of inflammatory mediators secreted by contaminating leukocytes during blood product storage may contribute to such reactions, but platelet-secreted mediators may also contribute. We hypothesized that platelet storage leads to accumulation of the endothelial permeability mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and that intravascular administration of exogenous VEGF leads to extensive binding to its lung receptors. Methods Single donor, leukocyte-reduced apheresis platelet units were sampled over 5 days of storage. VEGF protein content of the centrifuged supernatant was determined by ELISA, and the potential contribution of VEGF from contaminating leukocytes was quantified. Isolated-perfused rat lungs were used to study the uptake of radiolabeled VEGF administered intravascularly, and the effect of unlabeled VEGF on lung leak. Results There was a time-dependent release of VEGF into the plasma fraction of the platelet concentrates (62 ± 9 pg/ml on day one, 149 ± 23 pg/ml on day 5; mean ± SEM, p<0.01, n=8) and a contribution by contaminating leukocytes was excluded. Exogenous 125I-VEGF bound avidly and specifically to the lung vasculature, and unlabeled VEGF in the lung perfusate caused vascular leak. Conclusion Rising concentrations of VEGF occur during storage of single donor platelet concentrates due to platelet secretion or disintegration, but not due to leukocyte contamination. Exogenous VEGF at these concentrations rapidly binds to its receptors in the lung vessels. At higher VEGF concentrations, VEGF causes vascular leak in uninjured lungs. These data provide further evidence that VEGF may contribute to the increased lung permeability seen in TRALI associated with platelet products. PMID:25705568

Maloney, James P; Ambruso, Daniel R; Voelkel, Norbert F; Silliman, Christopher C

2015-01-01

29

Acute hemolytic anemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency complicated by Ginkgo biloba.  

PubMed

We report on a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency who developed acute hemolytic anemia after having received an injection of Ginkgo biloba for dementia prophylaxis without medical advice. She suddenly developed general malaise, generalized yellowish skin color, and tea-colored urine. Intravenous fluid infusion and cessation of G. biloba quickly relieved her clinical symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of G. biloba-induced acute hemolytic anemia in vivo. PMID:23970095

Lai, Shiue-Wei; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Woei-Yau

2013-01-01

30

Red Blood Cell Transfusion Practices in Acute Lung Injury: What do patient factors contribute?  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices and evaluate the association between patient-related factors and pre-transfusion hemoglobin concentration in acute lung injury (ALI). Design Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data Setting 9 intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 teaching hospitals in Baltimore, MD Patients 249 consecutive, mechanically ventilated ALI patients Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between the nadir hemoglobin concentration on the day of initial RBC transfusion and 20 patient-level demographic, clinical and ICU treatment factors as well as ICU type. Of 249 ALI patients, 47% received a RBC transfusion in the ICU without evidence of active hemorrhage or acute cardiac ischemia. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) nadir hemoglobin on the day of first transfusion was 7.7 (1.1) g/dL with 67%, 36%, 15%, and 5% of patients transfused at >7, >8, >9, and >10g/dL, respectively. Transfused patients received a mean (SD) of 5 (6) RBC units from ALI diagnosis to ICU discharge. Pre-hospital use of iron or erythropoietin and platelet transfusion in the ICU were independently associated with lower pre-transfusion hemoglobin concentrations. No patient factors were associated with higher hemoglobin concentrations. Admission to a surgical (vs. medical) ICU was associated with a 0.6 g/dL (95% CI: 0.1, 1.1 g/dL) higher pre-transfusion hemoglobin. Conclusions ALI patients commonly receive RBC transfusions in the ICU. The pre-transfusion hemoglobin observed in our study was lower than earlier studies, but a restrictive strategy was not universally adopted. Patient factors do not explain the gap between clinical trial evidence and routine transfusion practices. Future studies should further explore ICU- and physician-related factors as a source of variability in transfusion practice. PMID:19384204

Murphy, David J.; Howard, David; Muriithi, Angela; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro; Sevransky, Jonathan; Shanholtz, Carl; Netzer, Giora; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

2009-01-01

31

An Attempt to Induce Transient Immunosuppression Pre-erythrocytapheresis in a Girl With Sickle Cell Disease, a History of Severe Delayed Hemolytic Transfusion Reactions and Need for Hip Prosthesis  

PubMed Central

Abstract We report on a case of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) occurred 7 days after an erythrocytapheresis or eritroexchange procedure (EEX) treated with rituximab and glucocorticoids in a 15-years old patient with sickle cell disease. EEX was performed despite a previous diagnosis of alloimmunization, in order to reduce hemoglobin S rate before a major surgery for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. A first dose of rituximab was administered before EEX. However, rituximab couldn’t prevent DHTR that occurred with acute hemolysis, hemoglobinuria and hyperbilirubinemia. A further dose of rituximab and three boli of methylprednisolone were given after the onset of the reaction. It is likely that the combined use of rituximab and steroids managed to gradually improve both patient’s general conditions and hemoglobin levels. Nor early or late side effects were registered in a 33-months follow-up period. This report suggests the potential effectiveness and safety of rituximab in combination with steroids in managing and mitigating the symptoms of delayed post-transfusional hemolytic reactions in alloimmunized patients affected by sickle cell disease with absolute need for erythrocytapheresis. PMID:23888247

Cattoni, Alessandro; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Perseghin, Paolo; Zatti, Giovanni; Gaddi, Diego; Cossio, Andrea; Biondi, Andrea; Corti, Paola; Masera, Nicoletta

2013-01-01

32

Effect of transfusion in acute chest syndrome of sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the effects of transfusion on the clinical course and oxygenation indexes of children with sickle cell disease and acute chest syndrome. Methods: During a 2-year period, 36 children with sickle cell disease admitted with a total of 40 episodes of acute chest syndrome were examined. Patients were given a clinical severity score indicative of the degree of

Umit Emre; Scott T. Miller; Manuel Gutierez; Phillip Steiner; Sreedhar P. Rao; Madu Rao

1995-01-01

33

Platelet Transfusion – The New Immunology of an Old Therapy  

PubMed Central

Platelet transfusion has been a vital therapeutic approach in patients with hematologic malignancies for close to half a century. Randomized trials show that prophylactic platelet transfusions mitigate bleeding in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, even with prophylactic transfusions, as many as 75% of patients, experience hemorrhage. While platelet transfusion efficacy is modest, questions and concerns have arisen about the risks of platelet transfusion therapy. The acknowledged serious risks of platelet transfusion include viral transmission, bacterial sepsis, and acute lung injury. Less serious adverse effects include allergic and non-hemolytic febrile reactions. Rare hemolytic reactions have occurred due to a common policy of transfusing without regard to ABO type. In the last decade or so, new concerns have arisen; platelet-derived lipids are implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury after transfusion. With the recognition that platelets are immune cells came the discoveries that supernatant IL-6, IL-27 sCD40L, and OX40L are closely linked to febrile reactions and sCD40L with acute lung injury. Platelet transfusions are pro-inflammatory, and may be pro-thrombotic. Anti-A and anti-B can bind to incompatible recipient or donor platelets and soluble antigens, impair hemostasis and thus increase bleeding. Finally, stored platelet supernatants contain biological mediators such as VEGF and TGF-?1 that may compromise the host versus tumor response. This is particularly of concern in patients receiving many platelet transfusions, as for acute leukemia. New evidence suggests that removing stored supernatant will improve clinical outcomes. This new view of platelets as pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents suggests that innovative approaches to improving platelet storage and pre-transfusion manipulations to reduce toxicity could substantially improve the efficacy and safety of this long-employed therapy. PMID:25699046

Stolla, Moritz; Refaai, Majed A.; Heal, Joanna M.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Garraud, Olivier; Phipps, Richard P.; Blumberg, Neil

2015-01-01

34

Platelet transfusion - the new immunology of an old therapy.  

PubMed

Platelet transfusion has been a vital therapeutic approach in patients with hematologic malignancies for close to half a century. Randomized trials show that prophylactic platelet transfusions mitigate bleeding in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, even with prophylactic transfusions, as many as 75% of patients, experience hemorrhage. While platelet transfusion efficacy is modest, questions and concerns have arisen about the risks of platelet transfusion therapy. The acknowledged serious risks of platelet transfusion include viral transmission, bacterial sepsis, and acute lung injury. Less serious adverse effects include allergic and non-hemolytic febrile reactions. Rare hemolytic reactions have occurred due to a common policy of transfusing without regard to ABO type. In the last decade or so, new concerns have arisen; platelet-derived lipids are implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury after transfusion. With the recognition that platelets are immune cells came the discoveries that supernatant IL-6, IL-27 sCD40L, and OX40L are closely linked to febrile reactions and sCD40L with acute lung injury. Platelet transfusions are pro-inflammatory, and may be pro-thrombotic. Anti-A and anti-B can bind to incompatible recipient or donor platelets and soluble antigens, impair hemostasis and thus increase bleeding. Finally, stored platelet supernatants contain biological mediators such as VEGF and TGF-?1 that may compromise the host versus tumor response. This is particularly of concern in patients receiving many platelet transfusions, as for acute leukemia. New evidence suggests that removing stored supernatant will improve clinical outcomes. This new view of platelets as pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents suggests that innovative approaches to improving platelet storage and pre-transfusion manipulations to reduce toxicity could substantially improve the efficacy and safety of this long-employed therapy. PMID:25699046

Stolla, Moritz; Refaai, Majed A; Heal, Joanna M; Spinelli, Sherry L; Garraud, Olivier; Phipps, Richard P; Blumberg, Neil

2015-01-01

35

[A case of acute autoimmune hepatitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia].  

PubMed

A 61-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with severe jaundice and anemia. She was diagnosed with severe acute hepatitis secondary to autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) on the basis of positive anti-nuclear antibody titers, high serum IgG levels, and liver biopsy. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) was diagnosed because of the presence of reticulocytosis, decreased haptoglobin, positive direct Coombs test, and erythroid hyperplasia in the bone marrow. Although AIH occurs in association with various immunological disorders, an association with AIHA is rarely reported. We report a rare case of severe AIH associated with AIHA. PMID:24097153

Hanai, Tatsunori; Naiki, Takafumi; Takamatsu, Manabu; Imai, Kenji; Kitagawa, Junichi; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Takai, Koji; Shiraki, Makoto; Shimizu, Masahito; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

2013-10-01

36

Acute Iatrogenic Polycythemia Induced by Massive Red Blood Cell Transfusion During Subtotal Abdominal Colectomy  

PubMed Central

A 46 year old man was transfused ten units of packed red blood cells during subtotal colectomy after intraoperative point-of-care testing values demonstrated hemoglobin values less than seven grams per deciliter (g/dL). A postoperative hemoglobin analyzed in a standard hematologic laboratory revealed a hemoglobin value of 27.8 g/dL. He underwent emergent red blood cell depletion therapy which decreased his hemoglobin to 7.5 g/dL. The physiologic consequences of iatrogenic polycythemia caused by massive transfusion during major abdominal surgery must take into account the fluid shifts that interplay between the osmotic load, viscosity of blood, and postoperative third spacing of fluid. Treatment of acute iatrogenic polycythemia can be effectively accomplished by red blood cell depletion therapy. However, fluid shifts caused by massive transfusion followed by rapid red cell depletion produce a unique physiologic state that is without a well-described algorithm for management.

Chiapaikeo, David; Rohani, Pejman

2015-01-01

37

Restrictive transfusion practice during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.  

PubMed

Recommendations concerning the management of hemoglobin levels and hematocrit in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) still advise maintenance of a normal hematocrit. In contrast, current transfusion guidelines for critically ill patients support restrictive transfusion practice. We report on a series of patients receiving venovenous ECMO (vvECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated according to the restrictive transfusion regimen recommended for critically ill patients. We retrospectively analyzed 18 patients receiving vvECMO due to severe ARDS. Hemoglobin concentrations were kept between 7 and 9?g/dL with a transfusion trigger at 7?g/dL or when physiological transfusion triggers were apparent. We assessed baseline data, hospital mortality, time on ECMO, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit, quantities of packed red blood cells received, and lactate concentrations and compared survivors and nonsurvivors. The overall mortality of all patients on vvECMO was 38.9%. Mean hemoglobin concentration over all patients and ECMO days was 8.30?±?0.51?g/dL, and hematocrit was 0.25?±?0.01, with no difference between survivors and nonsurvivors. Mean numbers of given PRBCs showed a trend towards higher quantities in the group of nonsurvivors, but the difference was not significant (1.97?±?1.47 vs. 0.96?±?0.76 units; P?=?0.07). Mean lactate clearance from the first to the third day was 45.4?±?28.3%, with no significant difference between survivors and nonsurvivors (P?=?0.19). In our cohort of patients treated with ECMO due to severe ARDS, the application of a restrictive transfusion protocol did not result in an increased mortality. Safety and feasibility of the application of a restrictive transfusion protocol in patients on ECMO must further be evaluated in randomized controlled trials. PMID:25349127

Voelker, Maria T; Busch, Thilo; Bercker, Sven; Fichtner, Falk; Kaisers, Udo X; Laudi, Sven

2015-04-01

38

The simultaneous incidence of acute pancreatitis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a rare duo in a patient with SLE  

PubMed Central

A young female presented with acute abdominal pain of two days duration consistent with acute pancreatitis. During her stay in the hospital she had a sudden drop in hemoglobin to 6 g/dl without any overt blood loss. On evaluation, it was evident that she had acute pancreatitis, in addition to displaying features of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. She had been a known case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and had discontinued her treatment. She was managed with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Her clinical condition improved, and she has been regularly attending our clinic for the last 2 years. According to a literature search in Medline, it would appear that this is the first report of a case in which SLE with autoimmune hemolytic anemia has been associated with acute pancreatitis in a single case. PMID:25276114

Masoodi, Ibrahim

2014-01-01

39

Pathogenesis of non-antibody mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury from bench to bedside.  

PubMed

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a major cause of transfusion-related mortality. Causative factors are divided in antibody mediated TRALI and non-antibody mediated TRALI. Antibody mediated TRALI is caused by passive transfusion of cognate antibodies and non-antibody mediated TRALI is caused by transfusion of aged cellular blood products. This review focuses on mechanisms in non-antibody mediated TRALI which includes soluble mediators accumulating during storage of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets (PLTs), as well as changes in morphology and function of aged PLTs and RBCs. These mediators cause TRALI in two-hit animal models and have been implicated in TRALI onset in clinical studies. Pre-clinical studies show a clear relation between TRALI and increased storage time of cellular blood products. Observational clinical studies however report conflicting data. Knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms of TRALI is necessary to improve storage conditions of blood products, develop prevention strategies and develop a therapy for TRALI. PMID:25277811

Peters, Anna L; van Hezel, Maike E; Juffermans, Nicole P; Vlaar, Alexander P J

2015-01-01

40

Pathobiology of transfusion reactions.  

PubMed

Antibody-induced hemolytic transfusion reactions were first described over 300 years ago. Indeed, during its early evolution, transfusion medicine focused almost exclusively on issues in immunohematology to prevent such events. However, despite the best of efforts to avoid them, incompatible transfusions still occur, through both error and an inability to obtain compatible red blood cells for patients who are alloimmunized against multiple antigens. Because transfusing units of incompatible blood is potentially lethal, studies on human volunteers are not ethical. Thus, understanding of hemolytic transfusion reactions is generated through clinical cases, animal models, inference from related human pathologies, or studies using small volumes of transfused red blood cells. Over the past several decades, substantial new knowledge has been accumulated regarding the mechanisms of hemolysis, the metabolism of products of hemolysis, and the effects of both on recipient biology. Using these data sources, this article traces the historical generation of this knowledge and describes recent advances. PMID:25621658

Zimring, James C; Spitalnik, Steven L

2015-01-24

41

The Effect of Previous Pregnancy and Transfusion on HLA Alloimmunization in Blood Donors: Implications for a Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) Risk Reduction Strategy  

PubMed Central

Background Antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in donated blood have been implicated as a cause of transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). A potential measure to reduce the risk of TRALI includes screening platelet apheresis donors for HLA antibodies. The prevalence of HLA antibodies and their relationship to previous transfusion or pregnancy in blood donors was determined. Study design and methods 8171 volunteer blood donors were prospectively recruited by 6 U.S. blood centers from December 2006 to May 2007. Donors provided a detailed history of pregnancy and transfusion, and a sample for HLA class I and II antibody testing by multi-antigen bead flow analysis. Results 8171 donors were enrolled, 7920 (96.9%) had valid HLA antibody test results and 7841(99%) of those had complete pregnancy and transfusion information. The prevalence of any HLA antibody was similar in non-transfused (n=1138) and transfused (n=895) men, 1.0 vs. 1.7% (p=0.16). HLA antibodies were detected in 17.3% of all female donors (n=5834) and in 24.4 % of those with a history of previous pregnancy (n=3992). The prevalence of HLA antibodies increased in women with greater numbers of pregnancy: 1.7%(zero), 11.2%(one), 22.5%(two), 27.5%(three) and 32.2%(four or more pregnancies), p<0.0001. Conclusion HLA class I and class II antibodies are detectable at low prevalence in male donors regardless of transfusion and in female donors without known immunizing events. The prevalence of HLA antibodies increases significantly with more pregnancies. These data will allow blood centers to estimate the impact of HLA antibody testing as a potential TRALI risk-reduction measure. PMID:19453983

Triulzi, Darrell J.; Kleinman, Steven; Kakaiya, Ram M.; Busch, Michael. P.; Norris, Philip J.; Steele, Whitney R.; Glynn, Simone A.; Hillyer, Christopher. D.; Carey, Patricia; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Murphy, Edward L.; Rios, Jorge A.; Ness, Paul M.; Wright, David J.; Carrick, Danielle; Schreiber, George B.

2010-01-01

42

Reversal of anemia with allogenic RBC transfusion prevents post-cardiopulmonary bypass acute kidney injury in swine  

PubMed Central

Anemia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is strongly associated with acute kidney injury in clinical studies; however, reversal of anemia with red blood cell (RBC) transfusions is associated with further renal injury. To understand this paradox, we evaluated the effects of reversal of anemia during CPB with allogenic RBC transfusion in a novel large-animal model of post-cardiac surgery acute kidney injury with significant homology to that observed in cardiac surgery patients. Adult pigs undergoing general anesthesia were allocated to a Sham procedure, CPB alone, Sham+RBC transfusion, or CPB+RBC transfusion, with recovery and reassessment at 24 h. CPB was associated with dilutional anemia and caused acute kidney injury in swine characterized by renal endothelial dysfunction, loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, vasoconstriction, medullary hypoxia, cortical ATP depletion, glomerular sequestration of activated platelets and inflammatory cells, and proximal tubule epithelial cell stress. RBC transfusion in the absence of CPB also resulted in renal injury. This was characterized by endothelial injury, microvascular endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and equivalent cortical tubular epithelial phenotypic changes to those observed in CPB pigs, but occurred in the absence of severe intrarenal vasoconstriction, ATP depletion, or reductions in creatinine clearance. In contrast, reversal of anemia during CPB with RBC transfusion prevented the reductions in creatinine clearance, loss of NO bioavailability, platelet activation, inflammation, and epithelial cell injury attributable to CPB although it did not prevent the development of significant intrarenal vasoconstriction and endothelial dysfunction. In conclusion, contrary to the findings of observational studies in cardiac surgery, RBC transfusion during CPB protects pigs against acute kidney injury. Our study underlines the need for translational research into indications for transfusion and prevention strategies for acute kidney injury. PMID:21653630

Patel, Nishith N.; Lin, Hua; Toth, Tibor; Welsh, Gavin I.; Jones, Ceri; Ray, Paramita; Satchell, Simon C.; Sleeman, Philippa; Angelini, Gianni D.

2011-01-01

43

Suspected Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury Improving following Administration of Tranexamic Acid: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 16-year-old woman with craniofacial injury developed severe acute respiratory failure under the primary reconstructive surgical procedure requiring several units of blood and plasma. A transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) was suspected and supportive treatment was initiated. Because of the severity of symptoms, acute extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was planned. During preparation for ECMO, a single intravenous dose, 1?g of tranexamic acid, was administered and a remarkable improvement was observed shortly thereafter. The patient was placed on ECMO for 16 hours. The further course was uncomplicated and the patient was discharged from ICU on the 6th day after admission fully and she recovered. A clinical improvement was observed in a timely fashion following the administration of tranexamic acid. The handling of a suspected TRALI and potential benefit from administration of tranexamic acid are discussed in this case report. PMID:24995132

Ryniak, Stan; Harbut, Piotr; Östlund, Anders; Jakobsson, Jan G.

2014-01-01

44

[Case of transfusion-related acute lung injury associated with severe intraoperative hypoxemia].  

PubMed

A 39-year-old woman, undergoing debridement and flap reconstruction for a soft tissue infection in an upper limb, developed transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and hypoxemia after an intraoperative transfusion. Perioperatively, she received 8 units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) and 5 units of fresh frozen plasma. Shortly thereafter, hemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased from 100% to 94%, as measured with a pulse oximeter. Chest radiography showed diffuse bilateral pulmonary edema without heart enlargement and echocardiography revealed normal cardiac function. Based on the findings and clinical course, we diagnosed TRALI, started respiratory support with positive endexpiratory pressure ventilation, and administrated sivelestat and dopamine. Hemodynamics and pulmonary vascular permeability were assessed using transpulmonary thermodilution method (PiCCO, PULSION Medical Systems), which enabled determination of cardiac output and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI). EVLWI is useful for quantification of pulmonary edema, a beneficial indicator of cardiorespiratory management. Pulmonary edema improved and the trachea was extubated 34 hours after surgery. Antibodies against HLA were detected in the RBC donor serum sample, and a crossmatch test between the patient lymphocytes and donor serum was positive. We concluded that perioperative transfusion of blood components has a potential to provoke serious TRALI. PMID:18975546

Ito, Taishin; Kusunoki, Shinji; Kawamoto, Masashi

2008-10-01

45

Restrictive vs Liberal Blood Transfusion for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Rationale and Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Feasibility Trial  

PubMed Central

Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is the commonest reason for hospitalization with hemorrhage in the UK and the leading indication for transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs). Observational studies suggest an association between more liberal RBC transfusion and adverse patient outcomes, and a recent randomised trial reported increased further bleeding and mortality with a liberal transfusion policy. TRIGGER (Transfusion in Gastrointestinal Bleeding) is a pragmatic, cluster randomized trial which aims to evaluate the feasibility and safety of implementing a restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion policy in adult patients admitted with AUGIB. The trial will take place in 6 UK hospitals, and each centre will be randomly allocated to a transfusion policy. Clinicians throughout each hospital will manage all eligible patients according to the transfusion policy for the 6-month trial recruitment period. In the restrictive centers, patients become eligible for RBC transfusion when their hemoglobin is < 8 g/dL. In the liberal centers patients become eligible for transfusion once their hemoglobin is < 10 g/dL. All clinicians will have the discretion to transfuse outside of the policy but will be asked to document the reasons for doing so. Feasibility outcome measures include protocol adherence, recruitment rate, and evidence of selection bias. Clinical outcome measures include further bleeding, mortality, thromboembolic events, and infections. Quality of life will be measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D at day 28, and the costs associated with hospitalization for AUGIB in the UK will be estimated. Consent will be sought from participants or their representatives according to patient capacity for use of routine hospital data and day 28 follow up. The study has ethical approval for conduct in England and Scotland. Results will be analysed according to a pre-defined statistical analysis plan and disseminated in peer reviewed publications to relevant stakeholders. The results of this study will inform the feasibility and design of a phase III randomized trial. PMID:23706959

Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C.; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J.; Mora, Ana; Dyer, Claire; Stokes, Elizabeth A.; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Bailey, Adam A.; Dallal, Helen; Everett, Simon M.; James, Martin W.; Stanley, Adrian J.; Church, Nicholas; Darwent, Melanie; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Reckless, Ian; Campbell, Helen E.; Meredith, Sarah; Palmer, Kelvin R.; Logan, Richard F.A.; Travis, Simon P.L.; Walsh, Timothy S.; Murphy, Michael F.

2013-01-01

46

[Acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating an acute chest syndrome: potential benefit of early combination of exchange transfusion and prone positioning].  

PubMed

We report the case of an 8-year-old sickle cell anemia child admitted for acute respiratory failure complicating acute chest syndrome. Because of threatening respiratory failure, tracheal intubation was performed immediately after ICU admission. The patient met the criteria for ARDS with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 94mmHg. An exchange transfusion was performed immediately after admission. HbS fraction failed from 69 % to 30 %. Fluid resuscitation with crystalloids and continuous norepinephrine infusion was needed because of arterial hypotension. Due to persistent severe hypoxemia with PaO2/FiO2 ratio below 100, the patient was placed in prone positioning 16hours after admission, for a total duration of 14hours. A second 12-hour session of prone positioning was performed 41h after admission and PaO2/FiO2 ratio reached 300mmHg after. Treatment also included transfusion of two red-cell pack on day 1 and 2 after admission in order to maintain hemoglobin level above 8g/dL, and a daily folic acid supplementation. The control of hyperthermia was achieved by a systematic parenteral administration of paracetamol. Cefotaxime and erythromycine were continued until day 7 despite the negative results of all bacteriological samples. The outcome was favorable from day 3 and the patient met the criteria for extubation on day 5. A first attempt of extubation was performed on day 5, but re-intubation was required because of laryngeal edema. Steroids were given for 48h and the patient was successfully extubated on day 7. She was discharged from the ICU on day 8, and from the hospital on day 12. We discuss the various treatments available for the management of acute chest syndrome and their actual relevance in acute respiratory distress syndrome in the absence of strong evidence-based guidelines in pediatric ARDS. PMID:25458459

Dusacre, J-A; Pons, B; Piednoir, P; Soubirou, J-F; Thiery, G

2014-12-01

47

Massive transfusion.  

PubMed

Massive Transfusion is a part of Damage Control Resuscitation. The aim of transfusion therapy is to restore oxygen delivery to poorly perfused tissues and to treat the acute coagulopathy of trauma. The severity and complexity of modern injuries have led to the use of swift, protocol-driven care with the use of'Shock Packs' and management of metabolic complications. The proactive treatment of the coagulopathy has been termed Haemostatic Resuscitation. The delivery of this transfusion capability has required an increasingly sophisticated logistic and laboratory response. New operational capabilities have included cold chain solutions; laboratory management information systems; platelet apheresis and ROTEM. This investment in the massive transfusion capability has delivered rapid resuscitation. It has also enabled clinicians to direct individualised transfusion support following initial resuscitation i.e. goal directed therapy. Future technical solutions should further support the prehospital delivery of transfusion while addressing the logistic tail. However, the key to success is the knowledge and skills of frontline staff to deliver safe and appropriate blood transfusion. PMID:22049808

Doughty, H A; Woolley, T; Thomas, G O R

2011-09-01

48

Impact of chronic transfusion on incidence of pain and acute chest syndrome during the Stroke Prevention Trial (STOP) in sickle-cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The Stroke Prevention Trial (STOP) demonstrated that chronic transfusion is highly effective in reducing the risk of stroke in children with sickle-cell disease and an abnormal transcranial Doppler ultrasonography examination result. Our objective was to determine whether chronic transfusion therapy reduces the incidence of pain and acute chest syndrome. Methods: During STOP, 130 children with sickle-cell anemia or sickle

Scott T. Miller; Elizabeth Wright; Miguel Abboud; Brian Berman; Bea Files; Charles D. Scher; Lori Styles; Robert J. Adams

2001-01-01

49

Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia in a child following Loxosceles reclusa envenomation.  

PubMed

Previously reported cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis secondary to brown recluse spider bite have been questioned due to lack of identification of the spider or because of the concomitant administration of antibiotics. We report a 9-year-old boy who arrived at the emergency department with a confirmed Loxosceles reclusa bite to the neck. On the third day of hospitalization, he developed hundreds of monomorphous, sterile pustules, initially in intertriginous areas. The eruption disseminated and was followed by pinpoint desquamation typical for acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. During this he also developed late onset Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia and systemic loxoscelism. Sphingomyelinase in Loxosceles venom induces the production of interleukin-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, providing a mechanism by which Loxosceles reclusa bite may trigger acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. We suggest that this case adds Loxosceles envenomation to the spectrum of agents that can trigger acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. PMID:22082464

Lane, Leanna; McCoppin, Holly H; Dyer, Jonathan

2011-01-01

50

[Immunological safety of transfusion].  

PubMed

Transfusion safety lies on the strict application of measures aimed: at avoiding the occurrence of acute hazards, as far as they can be prevented by e.g. the ABO compatibility for red blood cell concentrates and therapeutic plasma; at reducing the frequency of other acute accidents such as TRALI or post-transfusion GVH (based on the implementation of measures which prove to be largely efficacious though not completely); and at reducing delayed incidents and hazards. The implementation of such immunological safety measures also aim at favoring the transfusion efficacy, in avoiding the lysis of transfused red cells or platelets. Perfect immunological compatibility (match) is impossible because transfused cells expose several hundreds of molecular variants with antigenic properties. Adaptive immunity is largely based upon antigen/antibody conflicts and it predominates in transfusion immunological hazards, but inflammation (as well as other components of innate immunity) is now acknowledged as a major actor of transfusion immunological linked hazards. PMID:25578545

Muller, Jean-Yves; Chiaroni, Jacques; Garraud, Olivier

2015-02-01

51

Blood still kills: six strategies to further reduce allogeneic blood transfusion-related mortality.  

PubMed

After reviewing the relative frequency of the causes of allogeneic blood transfusion-related mortality in the United States today, we present 6 possible strategies for further reducing such transfusion-related mortality. These are (1) avoidance of unnecessary transfusions through the use of evidence-based transfusion guidelines, to reduce potentially fatal (infectious as well as noninfectious) transfusion complications; (2) reduction in the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury in recipients of platelet transfusions through the use of single-donor platelets collected from male donors, or female donors without a history of pregnancy or who have been shown not to have white blood cell (WBC) antibodies; (3) prevention of hemolytic transfusion reactions through the augmentation of patient identification procedures by the addition of information technologies, as well as through the prevention of additional red blood cell alloantibody formation in patients who are likely to need multiple transfusions in the future; (4) avoidance of pooled blood products (such as pooled whole blood-derived platelets) to reduce the risk of transmission of emerging transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) and the residual risk from known TTIs (especially transfusion-associated sepsis [TAS]); (5) WBC reduction of cellular blood components administered in cardiac surgery to prevent the poorly understood increased mortality seen in cardiac surgery patients in association with the receipt of non-WBC-reduced (compared with WBC-reduced) transfusion; and (6) pathogen reduction of platelet and plasma components to prevent the transfusion transmission of most emerging, potentially fatal TTIs and the residual risk of known TTIs (especially TAS). PMID:20303034

Vamvakas, Eleftherios C; Blajchman, Morris A

2010-04-01

52

Acute methemoglobinemia with hemolytic anemia following bio-organic plant nutrient compound exposure: Two case reports  

PubMed Central

Two young women, were reffered to our hospital on two different occasions with history of breathlessness and mental confusion, following consumption of two different bio-organic plant nutrient compounds with a suicidal intent. On examination, they had cyanotic mucous membranes, and their blood samples showed the classic ‘dark chocolate brown’ appearance. Work up revealed cyanosis unresponsive to oxygen supplementation and absence of cardiopulmonary abnormality. Pulse oximetry revealed saturation of 75% in case 1 and 80% in case 2, on 8 liters oxygen supplementation via face masks, although their arterial blood gas analysis was normal, suggestive of “saturation gap”. Methemoglobinemia was suspected based on these findings and was confirmed by Carbon monoxide-oximetry (CO-oximetry). Methylene blue was administered and the patients showed dramatic improvement. Both the patients developed evidence of hemolysis approximately 72 hours following admission which improved with blood transfusion and supportive treatment. The patients were eventually discharged without any neurological sequalae. PMID:24678158

Malkarnekar, Santoshi Balkrishna; Anjanappa, Raveesha; Naveen, L.; Kiran, B. G.

2014-01-01

53

Blood product transfusions and reactions.  

PubMed

Blood product transfusions are an essential component of the practice of emergency medicine. From acute traumatic hemorrhage to chronic blood loss necessitating transfusion for symptomatic anemia, familiarity with individual blood products and their indications for transfusion is an essential tool for every emergency physician (EP). Although the focus of this article is primarily on the transfusion of red blood cells, many of the concepts are applicable to the transfusion of all blood products. EPs must be fully familiar with both the individual blood components and the potential reactions and complications of these transfusions. PMID:25060259

Osterman, Jessica L; Arora, Sanjay

2014-08-01

54

Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. The atypical form of HUS is a disease characterized by complement overactivation. Inherited defects in complement genes and acquired autoantibodies against complement regulatory proteins have been described. Incomplete penetrance of mutations in all predisposing genes is reported, suggesting that a precipitating event or trigger is required to unmask the complement regulatory deficiency. The underlying genetic defect predicts the prognosis both in native kidneys and after renal transplantation. The successful trials of the complement inhibitor eculizumab in the treatment of atypical HUS will revolutionize disease management. PMID:24161037

Kavanagh, David; Goodship, Tim H.; Richards, Anna

2013-01-01

55

The impact of acute lung injury, ECMO and transfusion on oxidative stress and plasma selenium levels in an ovine model.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of smoke induced acute lung injury (S-ALI), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and transfusion on oxidative stress and plasma selenium levels. Forty ewes were divided into (i) healthy control (n=4), (ii) S-ALI control (n=7), (iii) ECMO control (n=7), (iv) S-ALI+ECMO (n=8) and (v) S-ALI+ECMO+packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion (n=14). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were analysed at baseline, after smoke injury (or sham) and 0.25, 1, 2, 6, 7, 12 and 24h after initiation of ECMO. Peak TBARS levels were similar across all groups. Plasma selenium decreased by 54% in S-ALI sheep (1.36±0.20 to 0.63±0.27?mol/L, p<0.0001), and 72% in sheep with S-ALI+ECMO at 24h (1.36±0.20 to 0.38±0.19, p<0.0001). PRBC transfusion had no effect on TBARS, selenium levels or glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma. While ECMO independently increased TBARS in healthy sheep to levels which were similar to the S-ALI control, the addition of ECMO after S-ALI caused a negligible increase in TBARS. This suggests that the initial lung injury was the predominant feature in the TBARS response. In contrast, the addition of ECMO in S-ALI sheep exacerbated reductions in plasma selenium beyond that of S-ALI or ECMO alone. Clinical studies are needed to confirm the extent and duration of selenium loss associated with ECMO. PMID:25744503

McDonald, Charles I; Fung, Yoke Lin; Shekar, Kiran; Diab, Sara D; Dunster, Kimble R; Passmore, Margaret R; Foley, Samuel R; Simonova, Gabriela; Platts, David; Fraser, John F

2015-04-01

56

DETERMINATION OF CIRCULATION PERIODS FOR TRANSFUSED Cr⁵¹ LABELLED THROMBOCYTES IN ACUTE RADIATION SICKNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duration of circulation for transfused thrombocytes labeled with Cr\\/; sup 51\\/, in dogs under normal conditions and immediately after irradiation, was ; studied. With the thromobocytes introduced on the 2nd-3rd und 9th- 10th days ; following irradiation, the circulation time of the plaques was reduced to 3-4 and ; 2-3 days, respectively, as against 5\\/8 days in normal conditions.

M. G. Shitikova; G. I. Kozinets

1962-01-01

57

The Safety of Blood Transfusions  

PubMed Central

Blood transfusion therapy carries a small risk of complications—usually minor—which include allergic reactions, hemolysis, and the transmission of infections. Fatal hemolytic transfusion reactions are rare and are usually due to human error resulting in administration of ABO incompatible blood. Viral hepatitis (usually non-A, non-B) remains the major infectious complication, with a risk of two to five percent. The transmission by transfusion of AIDS has also been reported, but the risk is much lower—about 0.001%. As yet, no blood substitute is available for clinical use. Routine hepatitis B testing and the volunteer blood donor system ensure that transfusion risks are minimal in Canada. By limiting transfusion to those patients who truly need it, a high therapeutic index can be maintained. PMID:21279095

Schroeder, M. L.; Rayner, H. L.

1984-01-01

58

Phase II trial of standard versus increased transfusion volume in Ugandan children with acute severe anemia  

PubMed Central

Background Severe anemia (SA, hemoglobin <6 g/dl) is a leading cause of pediatric hospital admission in Africa, with significant in-hospital mortality. The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood (20 ml/kg) for transfusion, but this is commonly associated with a frequent need for repeat transfusion and poor outcome. Evidence is lacking on what hemoglobin threshold criteria for intervention and volume are associated with the optimal survival outcomes. Methods We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a higher volume of whole blood (30 ml/kg; Tx30: n?=?78) against the standard volume (20 ml/kg; Tx20: n?=?82) in Ugandan children (median age 36 months (interquartile range (IQR) 13 to 53)) for 24-hour anemia correction (hemoglobin >6 g/dl: primary outcome) and 28-day survival. Results Median admission hemoglobin was 4.2 g/dl (IQR 3.1 to 4.9). Initial volume received followed the randomization strategy in 155 (97%) patients. By 24-hours, 70 (90%) children in the Tx30 arm had corrected SA compared to 61 (74%) in the Tx20 arm; cause-specific hazard ratio?=?1.54 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.18, P?=?0.01). From admission to day 28 there was a greater hemoglobin increase from enrollment in Tx30 (global P <0.0001). Serious adverse events included one non-fatal allergic reaction and one death in the Tx30 arm. There were six deaths in the Tx20 arm (P?=?0.12); three deaths were adjudicated as possibly related to transfusion, but none secondary to volume overload. Conclusion A higher initial transfusion volume prescribed at hospital admission was safe and resulted in an accelerated hematological recovery in Ugandan children with SA. Future testing in a large, pragmatic clinical trial to establish the effect on short and longer-term survival is warranted. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier: NCT01461590 registered 26 October 2011. Please see related commentary article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/68/abstract. PMID:24767094

2014-01-01

59

[Correct performance of transfusion].  

PubMed

The administration of blood products is strictly regulated. Warming of blood components at body temperature is required only in rare cases. Addition of drugs to blood products is not allowed. During transfusion the monitoring of the patient is continued. In the case of an adverse event, exclusion of acute hemolysis is very important. As emergency transfusions have a higher risk than standard transfusions, their indications have to be restricted. When transfusion is completed the blood bag has to be preserved for 24 h. The effects of the blood transfusion have to be controlled. The administration of blood products must be documented to allow a possible cross-check from the recipient to the donor as well as from the donor to the recipient. The disposal of administered and of non-administered blood components is subject to the guidelines for hospital waste. PMID:25142316

Strobel, E; Henschler, R

2014-10-01

60

Management of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia: a practical guide.  

PubMed

Despite their transfusion-independence, non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) patients experience a variety of serious clinical complications that require prompt and comprehensive management. Transfusion therapy may still be an important part of management of this disease, in cases of acute stress, to support growth and development in childhood, or to prevent clinical morbidities stemming from ineffective erythropoiesis or hemolytic anemia. Although splenectomy is associated with improvements in hemoglobin levels, it leads to several short- and long-term adverse events, warranting caution in application of this intervention. Fetal hemoglobin induction therapy has been evaluated in non-randomized studies, with benefits extending beyond hematologic improvements to lowering morbidity risk. Effective and safe iron chelation therapy is now available for NTDT patients in whom iron overload develops, irrespective of transfusions, due to increased intestinal absorption, ultimately leading to clinically high iron burden levels and subsequent morbidity. Optimal management of NTDT patients requires a holistic approach targeting all hallmarks of the disease to ensure favorable patient outcomes. PMID:25255924

Taher, Ali T; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

2014-10-01

61

Successful extracorporeal membranous oxygenation for a patient with life-threatening transfusion-related acute lung injury.  

PubMed

A case of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) that was successfully treated with extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO) is reported. A 58-year-old male patient underwent hepatectomy, and pulmonary edema occurred after the administration of fresh-frozen plasma and packed red cells. In the postoperative period, the impaired oxygenation progressively worsened, resulting in life-threatening hypoxemia, despite vigorous treatments. ECMO was therefore applied to the patient as a method of safe emergency support. Aggressive treatments under ECMO led to the successful improvement of the impaired oxygenation. TRALI is recognized as part of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As a treatment for ARDS, ECMO does not cure the underlying disease of the lungs, however, with ECMO, TRALI, usually improves within 96 h with respiratory support. ECMO for TRALI-induced lethal hypoxemia is useful for providing time to allow the injured lung to recover. It is suggested that ECMO might be a useful option for the treatment of TRALI-induced, potentially lethal hypoxemia. PMID:19685127

Kuroda, Hiromitsu; Masuda, Yoshiki; Imaizumi, Hitoshi; Kozuka, Yuji; Asai, Yasufumi; Namiki, Akiyoshi

2009-01-01

62

Characterization of transfusion-elicited acute antibody-mediated rejection in a rat model of kidney transplantation.  

PubMed

Animal models of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) may provide important evidence supporting proof of concept. We elicited donor-specific antibodies (DSA) by transfusion of donor blood (Brown Norway RT1(n) ) into a complete mismatch recipient (Lewis RT1(l) ) 3 weeks prior to kidney transplantation. Sensitized recipients had increased anti-donor splenocyte IgG1, IgG2b and IgG2c DSA 1 week after transplantation. Histopathology was consistent with ABMR characterized by diffuse peritubular capillary C4d and moderate microvascular inflammation with peritubular capillaritis + glomerulitis > 2. Immunofluorescence studies of kidney allograft tissue demonstrated a greater CD68/CD3 ratio in sensitized animals, primarily of the M1 (pro-inflammatory) phenotype, consistent with cytokine gene analyses that demonstrated a predominant T helper (TH )1 (interferon-?, IL-2) profile. Immunoblot analyses confirmed the activation of the M1 macrophage phenotype as interferon regulatory factor 5, inducible nitric oxide synthase and phagocytic NADPH oxidase 2 were significantly up-regulated. Clinical biopsy samples in sensitized patients with acute ABMR confirmed the dominance of M1 macrophage phenotype in humans. Despite the absence of tubulitis, we were unable to exclude the effects of T cell-mediated rejection. These studies suggest that M1 macrophages and TH 1 cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute mixed rejection in sensitized allograft recipients. PMID:24708533

Huang, G; Wilson, N A; Reese, S R; Jacobson, L M; Zhong, W; Djamali, A

2014-05-01

63

[Autoimmune hemolytic anemia].  

PubMed

Autoimmune hemolytic anemias (AIHAs) are the most ancient and well known example of clinical autoimmunity. They may be still distinguished in two main groups, that is with "warm" or "cold" antibodies, according to the optimal temperature at which they react with the erythrocyte antigens in vivo and in vitro. There is also a subgroup where both kinds of autoantibodies coexist. AIHAs may be idiopathic or secondary. The immunologic techniques for the demonstration of the antibodies are well established, but one must remember that there are infrequent cases with negative DAT (Coombs) test when performed with conventional procedures. The fundamental concepts of therapy are discussed, and the detailed review of the principal procedures is performed, including blood transfusions (when and how), plasma exchanges, high-dose immunoglobulins, glycocorticosteroids, splenectomy, cytotoxic agents and stem cell transplantation, autologous and allogeneic. PMID:11072741

Marmont, A; Zanella, A

2000-10-01

64

Transfusion practices in trauma.  

PubMed

Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424

Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari

2014-09-01

65

Transfusion-Associated Babesiosis after Heart Transplant  

PubMed Central

We describe a 54-year-old spleen-intact man with transfusion-associated Babesia microti infection after a heart transplant. Adult respiratory distress syndrome developed in the patient, and he required mechanical ventilation. Our experiences with this patient suggest that babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of transplant patients who have fever and hemolytic anemia. PMID:12533293

Lux, Joseph Z.; Weiss, Don; Linden, Jeanne V.; Kessler, Debra; Herwaldt, Barbara L.; Wong, Susan J.; Keithly, Jan; Della-Latta, Phyllis

2003-01-01

66

MHC class I-specific antibody binding to nonhematopoietic cells drives complement activation to induce transfusion-related acute lung injury in mice.  

PubMed

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a form of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that develops during or within 6 h after a blood transfusion, is the most frequent cause of transfusion-associated death in the United States. Because development of TRALI is associated with donor antibodies (Abs) reactive with recipient major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a mouse model has been studied in which TRALI-like disease is caused by injecting mice with anti-MHC class I monoclonal Ab (mAb). Previous publications with this model have concluded that disease is caused by FcR-dependent activation of neutrophils and platelets, with production of reactive oxygen species that damage pulmonary vascular endothelium. In this study, we confirm the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of this mouse model of TRALI and show ultrastructural evidence of pulmonary vascular injury within 5 min of anti-MHC class I mAb injection. However, we demonstrate that disease induction in this model involves macrophages rather than neutrophils or platelets, activation of complement and production of C5a rather than activation of Fc?RI, Fc?RIII, or Fc?RIV, and binding of anti-MHC class I mAb to non-BM-derived cells such as pulmonary vascular endothelium. These observations have important implications for the prevention and treatment of TRALI. PMID:22025304

Strait, Richard T; Hicks, Wyenona; Barasa, Nathaniel; Mahler, Ashley; Khodoun, Marat; Köhl, Jörg; Stringer, Keith; Witte, David; Van Rooijen, Nico; Susskind, Brian M; Finkelman, Fred D

2011-11-21

67

MHC class I–specific antibody binding to nonhematopoietic cells drives complement activation to induce transfusion-related acute lung injury in mice  

PubMed Central

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a form of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that develops during or within 6 h after a blood transfusion, is the most frequent cause of transfusion-associated death in the United States. Because development of TRALI is associated with donor antibodies (Abs) reactive with recipient major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a mouse model has been studied in which TRALI-like disease is caused by injecting mice with anti–MHC class I monoclonal Ab (mAb). Previous publications with this model have concluded that disease is caused by FcR-dependent activation of neutrophils and platelets, with production of reactive oxygen species that damage pulmonary vascular endothelium. In this study, we confirm the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of this mouse model of TRALI and show ultrastructural evidence of pulmonary vascular injury within 5 min of anti–MHC class I mAb injection. However, we demonstrate that disease induction in this model involves macrophages rather than neutrophils or platelets, activation of complement and production of C5a rather than activation of Fc?RI, Fc?RIII, or Fc?RIV, and binding of anti–MHC class I mAb to non-BM–derived cells such as pulmonary vascular endothelium. These observations have important implications for the prevention and treatment of TRALI. PMID:22025304

Strait, Richard T.; Hicks, Wyenona; Barasa, Nathaniel; Mahler, Ashley; Khodoun, Marat; Köhl, Jörg; Stringer, Keith; Witte, David; Van Rooijen, Nico; Susskind, Brian M.

2011-01-01

68

Thromboelastometry Based Early Goal-Directed Coagulation Management Reduces Blood Transfusion Requirements, Adverse Events, and Costs in Acute Type A Aortic Dissection: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background In aortic surgery bleeding complications can be fatal. Therefore, rotational thromboelastometry(ROTEM™)-based coagulation management was introduced. Methods After 5 cases of acute type A aortic dissection and aortic arch replacement had been treated based on ROTEM findings (ROTEM group; RG), 5 cases without ROTEM were matched as control group (CG). CG treatment was based on conventional tests and clinical findings. Blood component and coagulation factor requirements, ventilation time, duration of stay at intensive care unit (ICU), hospitalization, and thrombotic or bleeding incidents as well as transfusion-associated costs were compared. Results Administration of blood products and coagulation factor concentrates, ventilation time, ICU length of stay, and hospitalization tended to be lower in RG. Postoperative plasma transfusion (p = 0.038), recognized incidents (p = 0.048), and resulting costs on coagulation treatment (p = 0.049) were significantly reduced. Conclusion Our data suggest that ROTEM-based coagulation management can reduce transfusion requirements and corresponding costs in patients with aortic arch replacement. These data has to be confirmed by prospective randomized trials. PMID:22670130

Hanke, Alexander A.; Herold, Ulf; Dirkmann, Daniel; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Jakob, Heinz; Görlinger, Klaus

2012-01-01

69

Blood Transfusion  

MedlinePLUS

... time to test a person's Rh type. Blood Banks Blood banks collect, test, and store blood. They carefully screen ... Are the Risks of a Blood Transfusion?" ) Blood bank staff also screen each blood donation to find ...

70

Typical and Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemolytic uremic syndrome is the most frequent cause of acute renal failure in childhood. In the vast majority of patients, the syndrome of acute hemolysis, thrombopenia and renal dysfunction is preceded by an episode of diarrhea with or without bloody stools. This colitis is caused by different strains of Escherichia coli which produce shiga like toxins. These toxins are

Willem Proesmans

1996-01-01

71

Types of Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood (with ... underway for Blood Transfusion, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Blood Transfusion in the News February 3, 2015 NHLBI Media ...

72

Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... might be the red blood cells, platelets or plasma . Rarely is whole blood (red cells, plasma, platelets, and white cells) used for a transfusion. ... important for other components such as platelets and plasma, where most of the red blood cells have ...

73

Gemcitabine induced hemolytic uremic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Gemcitabine is frequently used for the treatment of many cancers. Not infrequently it leads to development of hemolytic uremic syndrome, presenting with hemolytic anemia, acute kidney injury and occasionally peripheral edema, livedo reticularis and digital necrosis. Case Report: A 78 year old man with non-small cell lung cancer developed uremic syndrome following treatment with multiple chemotherapy agents including gemcitabine. He was treated aggressively with hemodialysis and plasmapheresis. Initially he responded but upon attempts at decreasing the frequency of plasmapheresis, lactate dehydrogenase increased and platelet count decreased, indicating continuing hemolysis. Hemolysis responded to splenectomy but he continued to require hemodialysis treatment. Conclusions: Although many cases of gemcitabine induced HUS have been reported, its cause and pathogenesis remain unclear and it should be used with caution. Frequent monitoring of renal function and close observation of the patient are essential. PMID:23569497

Sadjadi, Seyed-Ali; Annamaraju, Pavan

2012-01-01

74

Transfusion medicine  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

1986-01-01

75

Immune hemolytic anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... be caused by: Complication of another disease Past blood transfusions Pregnancy (if the baby's blood type is different ... cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), and rituximab (Rituxan) have been used. Blood transfusions are given with caution, because the blood may ...

76

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: From lab to bedside.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is not an uncommon clinical disorder and requires advanced, efficient immunohematological and transfusion support. Many AIHA patients have underlying disorder and therefore, it is incumbent upon the clinician to investigate these patients in detail, as the underlying condition can be of a serious nature such as lymphoproliferative disorder or connective tissue disorder. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT) still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. The sensitive gel technology has enabled the immunohematologist not only to diagnose serologically such patients, but also to characterize red cell bound autoantibodies with regard to their class, subclass and titer in a rapid and simplified way. Detailed characterization of autoantibodies is important, as there is a relationship between in vivo hemolysis and strength of DAT; red cell bound multiple immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G subclass and titer. Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption. At times, it may be almost impossible to find a fully matched unit to transfuse these patients. However, transfusion should not be withheld in a critically ill patient even in the absence of compatible blood. The "best match" or "least incompatible units" can be transfused to such patients under close supervision without any serious side-effects. All blood banks should have the facilities to perform the necessary investigations required to issue "best match" packed red blood cells in AIHA. Specialized techniques such as elution and adsorption, which at times are helpful in enhancing blood safety in AIHA should be established in all transfusion services. PMID:24678166

Chaudhary, R K; Das, Sudipta Sekhar

2014-01-01

77

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: From lab to bedside  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is not an uncommon clinical disorder and requires advanced, efficient immunohematological and transfusion support. Many AIHA patients have underlying disorder and therefore, it is incumbent upon the clinician to investigate these patients in detail, as the underlying condition can be of a serious nature such as lymphoproliferative disorder or connective tissue disorder. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT) still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. The sensitive gel technology has enabled the immunohematologist not only to diagnose serologically such patients, but also to characterize red cell bound autoantibodies with regard to their class, subclass and titer in a rapid and simplified way. Detailed characterization of autoantibodies is important, as there is a relationship between in vivo hemolysis and strength of DAT; red cell bound multiple immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G subclass and titer. Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption. At times, it may be almost impossible to find a fully matched unit to transfuse these patients. However, transfusion should not be withheld in a critically ill patient even in the absence of compatible blood. The “best match” or “least incompatible units” can be transfused to such patients under close supervision without any serious side-effects. All blood banks should have the facilities to perform the necessary investigations required to issue “best match” packed red blood cells in AIHA. Specialized techniques such as elution and adsorption, which at times are helpful in enhancing blood safety in AIHA should be established in all transfusion services. PMID:24678166

Chaudhary, R. K.; Das, Sudipta Sekhar

2014-01-01

78

Plasma thrombospondin-1 is increased during acute sickle cell vaso-occlusive events and associated with acute chest syndrome, hydroxyurea therapy, and lower hemolytic rates  

PubMed Central

Platelets are activated in sickle cell disease (SCD), and particularly during vaso-occlusive episodes (VOE). Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), a major secretory product of activated platelets, is increased in the circulation in VOE and binds to sickle red blood cells (RBC) promoting vascular adhesion. Thus, we hypothesized that TSP1 may represent a plasma biomarker of disease severity in SCD. We tested the plasma collected from patients in steady state (n = 27) and VOE (n = 14), as well as healthy controls (n = 17) at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), and from patients in steady state enrolled in the walk-PHaSST clinical trial (n = 483). We found that TSP1 levels were increased in VOE in the UPMC cohort. Among steady-state patients at UPMC, TSP1 values correlated positively with lifetime history of acute chest syndrome (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.49, P = 0.01), and negatively with markers of hemolysis, such as LDH (r = ?0.50, P = 0.009). Analysis of the walk-PHaSST cohort also showed a positive association between TSP1 levels and hydroxyurea use (r = 0.14, P = 0.003), and confirmed the negative associations with the severity of hemolysis. Our results suggest that TSP1 levels are associated with more VOE, hydroxyurea use and lower rates of hemolysis. High TSP1 concentrations may indicate higher risk of the viscosity/vaso-occlusion phenotype of SCD. PMID:22318901

Novelli, Enrico M; Kato, Gregory J.; Ragni, Margaret V.; Zhang, Yingze; Hildesheim, Mariana E.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Barge, Suchitra; Meyer, Michael P.; Hassett, Andrea Cortese; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.

2013-01-01

79

Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT) haemovigilance and progress is improving transfusion safety  

PubMed Central

Summary The Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT) UK confidential haemovigilance reporting scheme began in 1996. Over the 16 years of reporting, the evidence gathered has prompted changes in transfusion practice from the selection and management of donors to changes in hospital practice, particularly better education and training. However, half or more reports relate to errors in the transfusion process despite the introduction of several measures to improve practice. Transfusion in the UK is very safe: 2·9 million components were issued in 2012, and very few deaths are related to transfusion. The risk of death from transfusion as estimated from SHOT data in 2012 is 1 in 322 580 components issued and for major morbidity, 1 in 21 413 components issued; the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection is much lower. Acute transfusion reactions and transfusion-associated circulatory overload carry the highest risk for morbidity and death. The high rate of participation in SHOT by National Health Service organizations, 99·5%, is encouraging. Despite the very useful information gained about transfusion reactions, the main risks remain human factors. The recommendations on reduction of errors through a ‘back to basics’ approach from the first annual SHOT report remain absolutely relevant today. PMID:24032719

Bolton-Maggs, Paula H B; Cohen, Hannah

2013-01-01

80

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in patients with ?-thalassemia major.  

PubMed

Hemolysis is a common feature in patients with ?-thalassemia major. As a result, autoimmune hemolytic anemia complicating ?-thalassemia is easily overlooked. Here, the authors described the clinical features and management of 7 patients with ?-thalassemia major and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. These patients had fever, cough, and tea-colored urine on admission. The laboratory investigations showed a significant drop in hemoglobin and increased serum bilirubin. Coombs' tests revealed that anti-immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-C3 was positive in 7 and 5 cases, respectively, whereas anti-Rh E alloantibody was positive in 3 cases. All the patients received corticosteroids treatments and blood transfusions. Patients with anti-Rh E alloantibodies also received immunoglobulin treatments. Six of the patients responded well to the management, but 1 patient developed recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia that required cyclosporin A treatment. All the patients remained well by following up for more than 6 months. PMID:22475299

Xu, Lu-Hong; Fang, Jian-Pei; Weng, Wen-Jun; Huang, Ke; Zhang, Ya-Ting

2012-04-01

81

Clinical practice guideline: Red blood cell transfusion in adult trauma and critical care  

Microsoft Academic Search

proved by the EAST Board of Directors, the Board of Regents of the ACCM and the Council of SCCM. Results: Key recommendations are listed by category, including (A) Indications for RBC transfusion in the general critically ill patient; (B) RBC transfusion in sepsis; (C) RBC transfusion in patients at risk for or with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress

Lena M. Napolitano; Stanley Kurek; Fred A. Luchette; Howard L. Corwin; Philip S. Barie; Samuel A. Tisherman; Paul C. Hebert; Gary L. Anderson; Michael R. Bard; William Bromberg; William C. Chiu; Mark D. Cipolle; Keith D. Clancy; Lawrence Diebel; William S. Hoff; K. Michael Hughes; Imtiaz Munshi; Donna Nayduch; Rovinder Sandhu; Jay A. Yelon

2009-01-01

82

Trends in trauma transfusion  

PubMed Central

Trauma is the leading cause of death in young adults and acute blood loss contributes to a large portion of mortality in the early post-trauma period. The recognition of lethal triad of coagulopathy, hypothermia and acidosis has led to the concepts of damage control surgery and resuscitation. Recent experience with managing polytrauma victims from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars has led to a few significant changes in clinical practice. Simultaneously, transfusion practices in the civilian settings have also been extensively studied retrospectively and prospectively in the last decade. Early treatment of coagulopathy with a high ratio of fresh frozen plasma and platelets to packed red blood cells (FFP:platelet:RBC), prevention and early correction of hypothermia and acidosis, monitoring of hemostasis using point of care tests like thromoboelastometry, use of recombinant activated factor VII, antifibrinolytic drugs like tranexamic acid are just some of the emerging trends. Further studies, especially in the civilian trauma centers, are needed to confirm the lessons learned in the military environment. Identification of patients likely to need massive transfusion followed by immediate preventive and therapeutic interventions to prevent the development of coagulopathy could help in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with uncontrolled hemorrhage in trauma patients. PMID:22096774

Bhananker, Sanjay M; Ramaiah, Ramesh

2011-01-01

83

Detection of rare blood group, Bombay (Oh) phenotype patients and management by acute normovolemic hemodilution  

PubMed Central

Background: Due to lack of correct blood grouping practices, the rare Bombay Oh phenotype may be missed, subjecting patients to the risk of severe hemolytic transfusion reaction. In the absence of blood donor registry, transfusion management of patients needing immediate surgery is a challenge. This study presents detection of rare Bombay Oh phenotype patients and their management by acute peri-operative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in a hospital from central India. Materials and Methods: Blood grouping of patients and blood donors with a standard tube method was carried out and samples identified as rare Bombay phenotype were confirmed by saliva inhibition test. Surgical management of cases needing transfusion was done by ANH, as per the British Committee for Standards in Hematology guidelines. Results: The incidence of Bombay phenotype was 0.002% or 1 in 51,924 in the study. Amongst three cases (patients) identified as Bombay phenotype, one was Bombay Oh, Rh negative. Two cases were missed in the first instance and one case actually did not require transfusion. In the absence of a blood donor registry for Bombay phenotype, the cases needing transfusion were successfully managed with ANH in the operation theatre. Conclusion: A simple test like blood grouping should be done with serious intention with incorporation of both forward and reverse grouping, so that no patient receives wrong blood leading to fatal hemolysis due to transfusion. ANH is a cost-effective transfusion option for suitable patients. Appropriate clinical decision making, use of strategies to decrease peri-operative blood losses and cost-effective country based planning could be more widely applied to improve clinical transfusion practice. PMID:25722578

Shrivastava, Manisha; Navaid, Seema; Peethambarakshan, A.; Agrawal, Kalpana; Khan, Athar

2015-01-01

84

Cardiopulmonary Complications of Sickle Cell Disease: Role of Nitric Oxide and Hemolytic Anemia  

E-print Network

Medical advances in the management of patients with sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemolytic anemias have led to significant increases in life expectancy. Improved public health, neonatal screen-ing, parental and patient education, advances in red cell transfusion medicine, iron

Speakers Mark; T. Gladwin; Md Richard Lottenberg; Mark C. Walters; Mark T. Gladwin; Gregory J. Kato

85

Hemolytic disease of the newborn due to isoimmunization with anti-E antibodies: a case report.  

PubMed

Minor blood group hemolytic disease is extremely rare, since the overall potency of minor blood groups in inducing antibodies is significantly lower when compared with that of Rh (D) antigen. We hereby report a very rare case of severe neonatal anti-E hemolytic disease due to E minor blood group incompatibility. A term newborn born to a 27-year-old, gravida 3, para 3 mother was referred due to a high and increasing serum bilirubin level despite phototherapy on the 4th day of life. On admission physical examination was normal except for the jaundice, and results of the laboratory investigation demonstrated a moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin 7.8 g/dl) and a severe hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia (serum total and indirect bilirubin levels 36 mg/ dl and 32.8 mg/dl, respectively; reticulocyte count 15%; and a positive direct antiglobulin test). As there was no apparent cause of the hemolytic disease such as Rh or ABO incompatibilities, further investigation (a positive indirect antiglobulin test and a positive irregular anti-E antibody in both the patient and mother, and minor blood group antigen profiles in family members compatible with E minor blood group isoimmunization) revealed the presence of anti-E hemolytic disease due to E minor blood group incompatibility. Two exchange transfusions with a 12-hour-interval were performed with minor blood group compatible fresh whole blood, and the patient was discharged in a healthy condition on the 10th postnatal day. If the most common causes of severe neonatal hemolytic disease such as Rh and ABO incompatibilities cannot be demonstrated in a newborn with significant hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia, anti-E hemolytic disease should strongly be considered in differential diagnosis. It should be kept in mind that a very severe from of minor group antibody hemolytic disease characterized by anemia and severe hyperbilirubinemia many exchange transfusions may be encountered during the course of the disease. PMID:12405439

Sarici, S Umit; Alpay, Faruk; Ye?ilkaya, Ediz; Ozcan, Okan; Gökçay, Erdal

2002-01-01

86

Whole blood transfusion in small animals: indications and effects.  

PubMed

Transfusion therapy is a major resource that can improve the patient's capability to overcome the underlying disease. However, the effects of whole blood infusion, and how they affect the patient's outcome, are not yet clear. For this study, a protocol was developed in order to monitor a group of 15 animals (9 dogs, 6 cats) that received a total of 19 transfusions; 3 animals received more than one transfusion each. The most common indications for blood transfusion included acute blood loss (47%), coagulopathy (33%) and other anaemias (20%). The mean pre-transfusion packed cell volume (PCV) of animals with acute blood loss (18%) was higher than in the group of coagulopathy (15%) or other anaemias (15%). The survival rates at 6 days after transfusion were greater in the coagulopathy (80.0%) and other anaemias (66.7%) than in the group of acute blood loss (42.9%). After transfusion, pulse rate ( p <0.01) and platelet count ( p <0.05) decreased significantly, and there was a significant increase in body temperature of the animals that suffered from hypothermia before the transfusion ( p <0.05). Overall survival was predictable based upon posttransfusion body temperature, observed PCV change, the difference between the obtained and the calculated PCV, and administered transfusion volume ( p <0.05). PMID:21670882

Godinho-Cunha, Luís F; Ferreira, Rui M R F; Silvestre-Ferreira, Ana C

2011-06-01

87

Blood Transfusion-Induced Immunomodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

lood transfusion therapy is associated with many risks, including major or minor blood transfusion reaction, non-A non-B hepatitis, hepatitis B, and HIV infection. Blood transfusion may result in immunologic changes (immunomodulation) that are beneficial in some patients but harmful in others. After reports of increased renal allograft sur- vival in patients receiving pretransplant transfusion (l), Gantt (2) questioned whether transfusion

Dennis F. Landers; Gary E. Hill; K. C. Wong; Ira J. Fox

1996-01-01

88

Hemolytic anemia and metabolic acidosis: think about glutathione synthetase deficiency.  

PubMed

Glutathione synthetase deficiency (GSSD) is a rare disorder of glutathione metabolism with varying clinical severity. Patients may present with hemolytic anemia alone or together with acidosis and central nervous system impairment. Diagnosis is made by clinical presentation and detection of elevated concentrations of 5-oxoproline in urine and low glutathione synthetase activity in erythrocytes or cultured skin fibroblasts. The prognosis seems to depend on early diagnosis and treatment. We report a 4 months old Tunisian male infant who presented with severe metabolic acidosis with high anion gap and hemolytic anemia. High level of 5-oxoproline was detected in her urine and diagnosis of GSSD was made. Treatment consists of the correction of acidosis, blood transfusion, and supplementation with antioxidants. He died of severe metabolic acidosis and sepsis at the age of 15 months. PMID:25166299

Ben Ameur, Salma; Aloulou, Hajer; Nasrallah, Fehmi; Kamoun, Thouraya; Kaabachi, Naziha; Hachicha, Mongia

2015-02-01

89

A case of recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia during remission associated with acute pure red cell aplasia and hemophagocytic syndrome due to human parvovirus B19 infection successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy with a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

The patient was a 47-year-old man diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in April 2011. He also had a congenital chromosomal abnormality, a balanced translocation. Treatment with prednisolone (PSL) 60 mg/day resulted in resolution of the AIHA, and the treatment was completed in November 2011. While the patient no longer had anemia, the direct and indirect Coombs tests remained positive. In May 2013, he developed recurrent AIHA associated with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection. Tests for anti-erythropoietin and anti-erythropoietin receptor antibodies were positive. Steroid pulse therapy resulted in resolution of the AIHA, PRCA, as well as HPS. The serum test for anti-erythropoietin antibodies also became negative after the treatment. However, although the serum was positive for anti-HPV B19 IgG antibodies, the patient continued to have a low CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4, <300/?L) and persistent HPV B19 infection (HPV B19 DNA remained positive), suggesting the risk of recurrence and bone marrow failure. PMID:24966977

Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

2014-01-01

90

A case of recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia during remission associated with acute pure red cell aplasia and hemophagocytic syndrome due to human parvovirus B19 infection successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy with a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The patient was a 47-year-old man diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in April 2011. He also had a congenital chromosomal abnormality, a balanced translocation. Treatment with prednisolone (PSL) 60 mg/day resulted in resolution of the AIHA, and the treatment was completed in November 2011. While the patient no longer had anemia, the direct and indirect Coombs tests remained positive. In May 2013, he developed recurrent AIHA associated with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection. Tests for anti-erythropoietin and anti-erythropoietin receptor antibodies were positive. Steroid pulse therapy resulted in resolution of the AIHA, PRCA, as well as HPS. The serum test for anti-erythropoietin antibodies also became negative after the treatment. However, although the serum was positive for anti-HPV B19 IgG antibodies, the patient continued to have a low CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4, <300/?L) and persistent HPV B19 infection (HPV B19 DNA remained positive), suggesting the risk of recurrence and bone marrow failure. PMID:24966977

Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

2014-01-01

91

Long-term follow-up of acute and chronic nonA, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis: evidence of progression to liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term outcome of non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis was evaluated in 21 patients who developed the illness after open-heart surgery and could be followed thereafter up to five years. Histological chronic sequelae were documented in 13 patients, and consisted of chronic persistent hepatitis in one case, chronic lobular hepatitis in two and chronic active hepatitis in 10, five of whom

G Realdi; A Alberti; M Rugge; A M Rigoli; F Tremolada; L Schivazappa; A Ruol

1982-01-01

92

Management of hemolytic uremic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury, although other organs may be involved. Most cases are due to infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Early identification and initiation of best supportive care, with microbiological input to identify the pathogen, result in a favorable outcome in most patients. The remaining 10% of HUS cases are classed together as atypical HUS and have a diverse etiology. The majority are due to inherited or acquired abnormalities that lead to a failure to control complement activation. Atypical HUS occurring in other situations (for example, related to pregnancy or kidney transplantation) may also involve excessive complement activation. Plasma therapies can reverse defective complement control, and it is now possible to specifically target complement activation. This has led to improved outcomes in patients with atypical forms of HUS. We will review our current understanding of the pathogenesis of HUS and how this has led to advances in patient care. PMID:25580273

Kavanagh, David; Raman, Shreya

2014-01-01

93

Necrotizing tonsillitis caused by group C beta-hemolytic streptococci.  

PubMed

Tonsillitis and pharyngitis are among the most common infections in the head and neck. Viral tonsillitis is usually caused by enterovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, rhinovirus and Epstein-Barr virus (causing infectious mononucleosis). Acute bacterial tonsillitis is most commonly caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. On the other hand, pseudomembranous and necrotizing tonsillitis are usually caused by fusiform bacilli and spirochetes. Here we report what is, to our knowledge, the first case of necrotizing tonsillitis caused by group C beta-hemolytic streptococci. PMID:25738719

Bastaki, Jassem M

2015-03-01

94

Platelet transfusion: basic aspects.  

PubMed

Platelet transfusions have been shown to prevent major haemorrhage and improve survival in thrombocytopenic patients. Since then, advances in the preparation of platelet components, including the introduction of pathogen reduction techniques, have been achieved. The number of transfused platelet components is still growing owing to the increasing number of patients treated for haemato-oncological diseases. Additionally, indications have been extended, for example to patients with drug-induced platelet dysfunction. This review focuses on current platelet component production and storage techniques, including pathogen reduction, indications for platelet transfusion and safety issues including alloimmunisation and management of platelet refractoriness. PMID:24338781

Holbro, Andreas; Infanti, Laura; Sigle, Jörg; Buser, Andreas

2013-01-01

95

Transfusion-transmitted infections  

PubMed Central

Although the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections today is lower than ever, the supply of safe blood products remains subject to contamination with known and yet to be identified human pathogens. Only continuous improvement and implementation of donor selection, sensitive screening tests and effective inactivation procedures can ensure the elimination, or at least reduction, of the risk of acquiring transfusion transmitted infections. In addition, ongoing education and up-to-date information regarding infectious agents that are potentially transmitted via blood components is necessary to promote the reporting of adverse events, an important component of transfusion transmitted disease surveillance. Thus, the collaboration of all parties involved in transfusion medicine, including national haemovigilance systems, is crucial for protecting a secure blood product supply from known and emerging blood-borne pathogens. PMID:17553144

Bihl, Florian; Castelli, Damiano; Marincola, Francesco; Dodd, Roger Y; Brander, Christian

2007-01-01

96

Truth about Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... call the place that collects it the blood bank . Get it? A bank is a safe place for money and other ... a blood transfusion. After blood is collected, blood banks test it very carefully to make sure the ...

97

Blood Transfusion and Donation  

MedlinePLUS

... the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

98

[TRALI is an overlooked severe complication related to blood transfusion.  

PubMed

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is recognized as the most frequent cause of transfusion-related severe morbidity and mortality. TRALI is characterized by post-transfusional respiratory distress, hypoxaemia and radiographic verified lung infiltration, in the absence of sign of circulatory overload. TRALI is predominantly triggered by human leukocyte antigen or human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies from the transfused blood component. Particularly antibodies against the HNA-3a are involved in severe and fatal TRALI cases. The serological investigation is important to trace and exclude blood donors with TRALI antibodies. PMID:25096345

Haunstrup, Thure Mors; Baech, John; Varming, Kim; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; Nielsen, Kaspar René

2014-03-31

99

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined by the triad of mechanical hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment. Atypical HUS (aHUS) defines non Shiga-toxin-HUS and even if some authors include secondary aHUS due to Streptococcus pneumoniae or other causes, aHUS designates a primary disease due to a disorder in complement alternative pathway regulation. Atypical HUS represents 5 -10% of HUS in children, but the majority of HUS in adults. The incidence of complement-aHUS is not known precisely. However, more than 1000 aHUS patients investigated for complement abnormalities have been reported. Onset is from the neonatal period to the adult age. Most patients present with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure and 20% have extra renal manifestations. Two to 10% die and one third progress to end-stage renal failure at first episode. Half of patients have relapses. Mutations in the genes encoding complement regulatory proteins factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), factor I or thrombomodulin have been demonstrated in 20-30%, 5-15%, 4-10% and 3-5% of patients respectively, and mutations in the genes of C3 convertase proteins, C3 and factor B, in 2-10% and 1-4%. In addition, 6-10% of patients have anti-factor H antibodies. Diagnosis of aHUS relies on 1) No associated disease 2) No criteria for Shigatoxin-HUS (stool culture and PCR for Shiga-toxins; serology for anti-lipopolysaccharides antibodies) 3) No criteria for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (serum ADAMTS 13 activity > 10%). Investigation of the complement system is required (C3, C4, factor H and factor I plasma concentration, MCP expression on leukocytes and anti-factor H antibodies; genetic screening to identify risk factors). The disease is familial in approximately 20% of pedigrees, with an autosomal recessive or dominant mode of transmission. As penetrance of the disease is 50%, genetic counseling is difficult. Plasmatherapy has been first line treatment until presently, without unquestionable demonstration of efficiency. There is a high risk of post-transplant recurrence, except in MCP-HUS. Case reports and two phase II trials show an impressive efficacy of the complement C5 blocker eculizumab, suggesting it will be the next standard of care. Except for patients treated by intensive plasmatherapy or eculizumab, the worst prognosis is in factor H-HUS, as mortality can reach 20% and 50% of survivors do not recover renal function. Half of factor I-HUS progress to end-stage renal failure. Conversely, most patients with MCP-HUS have preserved renal function. Anti-factor H antibodies-HUS has favourable outcome if treated early. PMID:21902819

2011-01-01

100

[Blood transfusion receivers' perception of the transfusion process].  

PubMed

Qualitative research, descriptive exploratory, aimed to know the perception of blood transfusion recipients as to the process. The research was carried out at a blood bank in a city in southern Brazil, and the data were analyzed using the Collective Subject Discourse. Were interviewed using a semistructured instrument, eleven patients, men and women between 30 and 95 years, post-surgical recovery of cardiac surgery, underwent blood transfusion. Four central ideas emerged: loss and blood replacement; Preservation of life; Recognition of the transfusion process; and transfusion safety. The perception about the change that post-transfusion begin to live from the transfusion process raises a reframing of life itself. This study showed that transfused patients perceive the transfusion process as a means of survival, and even having knowledge about the process and their meanings, there is the permanence of fears and anxieties that can be minimized by the multidisciplinary team. PMID:25590884

Faquetti, Maritza Margareth; Rosa, Raquel Luzia; Bellaguarda, Maria Lígia Dos Reis; Lazzari, Daniele Delacanal; Tholl, Adriana Dutra; Moraes, Cladis Loren Kiefer

2014-01-01

101

[History of blood transfusion].  

PubMed

The idea of transfusing blood of an animal to another or from an animal to a man or from one to another man, is very ancient. When the doctrine of blood circulation was diffused, in the first third of the XVII century, this idea was give fresh impetus. On began also to inject some substance into the blood, wich will permit to introduce medicaments intravenously. It is worthy to be remembered that in the same year when the Harveyan monography De motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus was published (1628), the Paduan professor Giovanni Colle suggested a procedure for blood transfusions. Later (1645) the Tuscan physician Francesco Folli showed another procedure, in the presence of the great duke of Toscana, Ferdinando II de Medici. On his side, the surgeon Giovanni Guglielmo Riva realized blood transfusions from animals to men in 1668. Transfusions were already carried out by Richard Lower in London and by Jean-Baptiste Denis in Paris. During the XVIII century, blood transfusions were not effectuated because of some failure occurred in the formed century and of the proscription by civil and religious authorities. Nevertheless these were renewed during the first third of the XIX century in England as well as in the continental Europe. In Mexico the first blood transfusion was effectuated in 1845 by the physician Matias D. Beistegui. At the time persisted the problem of blood coagulation, which could be resolved during the XX century in North America (Crile, 1906) as well as in Latin America (Luis Agote, 1914). Moreover the blood groups were described in 1900 by the Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner, who identified later the Rh factor. It seems completely justified the inscription shining on the façade of the National Archive in Washington: "The past is only prologue". PMID:12685224

Izaguirre Avila, Raúl; de Micheli, Alfredo

2002-01-01

102

Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia  

MedlinePLUS

Immune hemolytic anemia secondary to drugs; Anemia - immune hemolytic - secondary to drugs ... In some cases, a drug can cause the immune system to mistake your own red blood cells for foreign substances. The body responds by making ...

103

Transfusion problems associated with transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have reviewed the role of blood transfusions in renal and marrow graft recipients. Striking contrasts are evident: while transfusions may promote successful kidney grafting, any transfusions before initiation of the transplant conditioning regimen may jeopardize the treatment of severe aplastic anemia by marrow transplantation. Researchers have suggested guidelines for the transfusion support of transplant candidates before transplantation and for marrow graft recipients after transplantation. It is important to recognize that after conditioning for marrow transplantation, all patients will be profoundly pancytopenic for a limited period of time, and intensive transfusion support is vital to patient survival.

Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.

1981-04-01

104

Thymoma with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia  

PubMed Central

A 38-year-old Japanese male was referred to our hospital with abnormal chest X-ray results and severe Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia. He was diagnosed with a stage IV, WHO type A thymoma and was treated with oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) and subsequent chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, the patient underwent surgical resection of the thymoma. Hemolysis rapidly disappeared and did not return after the discontinuation of oral corticosteroids. Corticosteroid therapy may be preferable to chemotherapy or thymoma surgical resection in the management of autoimmune hemolytic anemia with thymoma. PMID:25722666

Suzuki, Kensuke; Inomata, Minehiko; Shiraishi, Shiori; Hayashi, Ryuji; Tobe, Kazuyuki

2014-01-01

105

Transfusion and risk of infection in Canada: Update 2012  

PubMed Central

Although multiple critical steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection from transfusion of blood or blood products in developed countries, this risk can never be entirely eliminated. In Canada, the risks of noninfectious transfusion reactions, such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and major allergic or anaphylactic reactions, are greater than that of infection. This updated practice point provides an overview of transfusion infection risks in Canada. Infectious agents, systemic conditions, donor and recipient factors, and collection and infusion techniques are considered. Suggestions are offered to improve both system and process, and to help practitioners who are discussing informed consent with patients and parents before administering blood or a blood product. PMID:24294070

MacDonald, Noni E; O’Brien, Sheila F; Delage, Gilles

2012-01-01

106

Iron and transfusion medicine.  

PubMed

Blood bankers have focused their energy to secure blood transfusion, and only recently have studies been published on the effect of blood donation on iron metabolism. In many facilities, hemoglobin measurement is only performed just before or even during blood donation, but the determination of iron stores is largely ignored. The 2013 paradox of transfusion medicine is due to the fact that blood donation may be harmful and leads to iron deficiency with or without anemia, but for other individuals, it may be a healthy measure preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this review is to discuss iron metabolism in the perspective of blood donation, notably regarding their possible genetic profiles that eventually will discriminate "good" iron absorbers from "bad" iron responders. PMID:24148756

Waldvogel-Abramovski, Sophie; Waeber, Gérard; Gassner, Christoph; Buser, Andreas; Frey, Beat M; Favrat, Bernard; Tissot, Jean-Daniel

2013-11-01

107

Update on massive transfusion.  

PubMed

Massive haemorrhage requires massive transfusion (MT) to maintain adequate circulation and haemostasis. For optimal management of massively bleeding patients, regardless of aetiology (trauma, obstetrical, surgical), effective preparation and communication between transfusion and other laboratory services and clinical teams are essential. A well-defined MT protocol is a valuable tool to delineate how blood products are ordered, prepared, and delivered; determine laboratory algorithms to use as transfusion guidelines; and outline duties and facilitate communication between involved personnel. In MT patients, it is crucial to practice damage control resuscitation and to administer blood products early in the resuscitation. Trauma patients are often admitted with early trauma-induced coagulopathy (ETIC), which is associated with mortality; the aetiology of ETIC is likely multifactorial. Current data support that trauma patients treated with higher ratios of plasma and platelet to red blood cell transfusions have improved outcomes, but further clinical investigation is needed. Additionally, tranexamic acid has been shown to decrease the mortality in trauma patients requiring MT. Greater use of cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrate might be beneficial in MT patients from obstetrical causes. The risks and benefits for other therapies (prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant activated factor VII, or whole blood) are not clearly defined in MT patients. Throughout the resuscitation, the patient should be closely monitored and both metabolic and coagulation abnormalities corrected. Further studies are needed to clarify the optimal ratios of blood products, treatment based on underlying clinical disorder, use of alternative therapies, and integration of laboratory testing results in the management of massively bleeding patients. PMID:24335401

Pham, H P; Shaz, B H

2013-12-01

108

Transfusion of Prematures (TOP) Trial: Does a Liberal Red Blood Cell Transfusion  

E-print Network

Transfusion of Prematures (TOP) Trial: Does a Liberal Red Blood Cell Transfusion Strategy Frequency ofBlood Transfusions in Neonatal Units........................................................... 2 2.4 Failure of Other Strategies to Prevent Allogeneic Red Blood Cell Transfusions

Baker, Chris I.

109

Shiga Toxins Present in the Gut and in the Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Circulating in the Blood of Children with Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, the main cause of acute renal failure in early childhood, is caused primarily by intestinal infections from some Escherichia coli strains that produce Shiga toxins. The toxins released in the gut are targeted to renal endothelium after binding to polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The presence of Shiga toxins in the feces and the circulating neutrophils of 20 children with hemolytic

Maurizio Brigotti; Alfredo Caprioli; Alberto E. Tozzi; Pier Luigi Tazzari; Francesca Ricci; Roberto Conte; Domenica Carnicelli; Maria Antonietta Procaccino; Fabio Minelli; Alfonso V. S. Ferretti; Fabio Paglialonga; Alberto Edefonti; Gianfranco Rizzoni; Thomas Åkerlund; Bo Svenungsson; Åsa Lagergren; Lars G. Burman; Anna C. Noller; M. Catherine McEllistrem; Kathleen A. Shutt; Lee H. Harrison

2006-01-01

110

Massive blood transfusions: the impact of Vietnam military data on modern civilian transfusion medicine.  

PubMed

To determine the coagulation defects associated with massive blood transfusions, coagulation studies were performed on 21 battle casualties admitted to the US Naval Support Activity Hospital, Da Nang, Vietnam. All but one patient who received less than 20 units of Acid-Citrate-Dextrose blood (7 patients) did not develop a coagulopathy. All patients who received more than 20 units (14 patients) developed a clinically significant coagulation defect. Although the partial thromboplastin and prothrombin times were markedly prolonged (i.e., low Factor V and XIII levels), restoring these times to normal levels by fresh frozen plasma administration did not terminate the clinical coagulopathy.In all 12 patients who had platelet counts less than 60,000/mm(3), a clinical bleeding problem (coagulopathy) developed. The coagulopathy eventually spontaneously resolved (n = 4), was successfully treated with fresh blood (n = 4), or the patients died (n = 4). A mathematical analysis confirmed that the thrombocytopenia is dilutional in origin and is the primary cause of a coagulopathy from massive blood transfusions. The authors conclude that clinically important coagulopathies predictably occur after administration of 20-25 units of stored Acid-Citrate-Dextrose blood in acutely wounded, previously healthy soldiers. Fresh frozen plasma should not be a major therapeutic choice for coagulopathies in massive blood transfusions. Treatment of dilutional thrombocytopenia (50,000/mm(3)) is a primary component of treating coagulopathies associated with massive blood transfusions. PMID:19417598

Miller, Ronald D

2009-06-01

111

Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

The treatment of two common adverse effects of dapsone (methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia) is discussed, and a case of acute dapsone intoxication is described. A pregnant 29-year-old woman was admitted to an emergency room three hours after ingesting 50 tablets of dapsone (100 mg each) and six alcoholic drinks. One hour after admission 50 g of activated charcoal was given p.o., and 65 mg of methylene blue was given i.v. The patient was found to have a methemoglobin concentration of 25.1%. Arterial blood gases while the patient was breathing 4 L/min of oxygen by nasal cannula were PO2, 136 mm Hg (72.1% saturation); PCO2, 28.9 mm Hg; bicarbonate content, 18.9 mmol/L; and pH, 7.42. Oxygen therapy was changed to 100% oxygen by face mask, 50 g of activated charcoal in sorbitol was administered p.o., and another 65 mg of methylene blue was given i.v. Two more 50-g doses of activated charcoal in sorbitol were given (18.5 and 22 hours after dapsone ingestion). Methylene blue 130 mg was given 14 hours after dapsone ingestion, and 65 mg was given 21, 36, and 55.5 hours after ingestion. Methemoglobin concentrations never rose above 20% after the sixth dose of methylene blue. On hospital days 2 and 3, laboratory values were consistent with a diagnosis of hemolytic anemia; the patient received two units of packed red blood cells. The hematocrit decreased over the next three days to 23.9%, and the patient received four units of packed red blood cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1521404

Erstad, B L

1992-09-01

112

Transfusion--whence and why.  

PubMed

The past is prologue. Reviewing the history of transfusion tells us how far we have come, but also where we need to go. The past has been filled with innovation and important discoveries, but is also fraught with stumbling blocks and unintended side effects. Although much has been achieved and transfusion is safer today than ever, nonetheless we are recognizing new potential concerns with transfusion and we are undergoing a paradigm shift in our attitudes, approach and patient management in regard to blood transfusion. PMID:24393629

Freedman, John

2014-02-01

113

Current understanding of allergic transfusion reactions: incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment  

PubMed Central

Non-haemolytic transfusion reactions are the most common type of transfusion reaction and include transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, allergic reactions, febrile reactions, post-transfusion purpura and graft-versus- host disease. Although life-threatening anaphylaxis occurs rarely, allergic reactions occur most frequently. If possible, even mild transfusion reactions should be avoided because they add to patients' existing suffering. During the last decade, several new discoveries have been made in the field of allergic diseases and transfusion medicine. First, mast cells are not the only cells that are key players in allergic diseases, particularly in the murine immune system. Second, it has been suggested that immunologically active undigested or digested food allergens in a donor's blood may be transferred to a recipient who is allergic to these antigens, causing anaphylaxis. Third, washed platelets have been shown to be effective for preventing allergic transfusion reactions, although substantial numbers of platelets are lost during washing procedures, and platelet recovery after transfusion may not be equivalent to that with unwashed platelets. This review describes allergic transfusion reactions, including the above-mentioned points, and focusses on their incidence, pathogenesis, laboratory tests, prevention and treatment. PMID:23215650

Hirayama, Fumiya

2013-01-01

114

Hemolytic uremic syndrome: toxins, vessels, and inflammation.  

PubMed

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy of the glomerular microcirculation and other vascular beds. Its defining clinical phenotype is acute kidney injury (AKI), microangiopathic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. There are many etiologies of HUS including infection by Shiga toxin-producing bacterial strains, medications, viral infections, malignancy, and mutations of genes coding for proteins involved in the alternative pathway of complement. In the aggregate, although HUS is a rare disease, it is one of the most common causes of AKI in previously healthy children and accounts for a sizable number of pediatric and adult patients who progress to end stage kidney disease. There has been great progress over the past 20?years in understanding the pathophysiology of HUS and its related disorders. There has been intense focus on vascular injury in HUS as the major mechanism of disease and target for effective therapies for this acute illness. In all forms of HUS, there is evidence of both systemic and intra-glomerular inflammation and perturbations in the immune system. Renewed investigation into these aspects of HUS may prove helpful in developing new interventions that can attenuate glomerular and tubular injury and improve clinical outcomes in patients with HUS. PMID:25593915

Cheung, Victoria; Trachtman, Howard

2014-01-01

115

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Toxins, Vessels, and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy of the glomerular microcirculation and other vascular beds. Its defining clinical phenotype is acute kidney injury (AKI), microangiopathic anemia, and thrombocytopenia. There are many etiologies of HUS including infection by Shiga toxin-producing bacterial strains, medications, viral infections, malignancy, and mutations of genes coding for proteins involved in the alternative pathway of complement. In the aggregate, although HUS is a rare disease, it is one of the most common causes of AKI in previously healthy children and accounts for a sizable number of pediatric and adult patients who progress to end stage kidney disease. There has been great progress over the past 20?years in understanding the pathophysiology of HUS and its related disorders. There has been intense focus on vascular injury in HUS as the major mechanism of disease and target for effective therapies for this acute illness. In all forms of HUS, there is evidence of both systemic and intra-glomerular inflammation and perturbations in the immune system. Renewed investigation into these aspects of HUS may prove helpful in developing new interventions that can attenuate glomerular and tubular injury and improve clinical outcomes in patients with HUS. PMID:25593915

Cheung, Victoria; Trachtman, Howard

2014-01-01

116

Gemcitabine-Induced Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare thrombotic complication characterized by a triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. HUS may be caused by several different conditions, including infection, malignancy, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as mitomycin, cisplatin, and most recently, gemcitabine. The outcome of gemcitabine-induced HUS is poor, and the disease has a high mortality rate. This study reports a case of gemcitabine-induced HUS in a patient with pancreatic cancer in Korea. PMID:24516709

Lee, Hye Won; Kang, Huapyong; Choi, Heun; Choi, Youn Jeong; Lee, Kyung Joo; Lee, Seung Woo; Han, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Jin Seok; Song, Si Young

2014-01-01

117

[Ethics and blood transfusion].  

PubMed

Blood donation is an act of solidarity. Most often, this act is done on a volunteer basis and, depending on countries and circumstances, is not remunerated. The increase in need, the always-greater number of deferral criteria, the safety issues and the changes in the structures of our societies are among the many subjects for ethical debates. Taking these into account, the actors of the transfusion must analyze certain parameters: the value of a donation, the meaning of volunteering, the appropriateness of remunerating the act of giving a part of one's self, no longer as a donation or an expression of altruism and solidarity, but as a commercial act regimented by economic laws. PMID:23916572

Tissot, J-D; Garraud, O; Danic, B; Cabaud, J-J; Lefrère, J-J

2013-09-01

118

Blood transfusion and alloimmunization in patients with thalassemia: multicenter study.  

PubMed

One of transfusion's side effects is alloimmunization against red blood cell (RBC) antigens. Early diagnosis by antibody screening is an important step in the detection of these alloantibodies. The authors studied the frequency of alloimmunization in thalassemic patients of 4 centers (2 adult and 2 pediatric centers) and compared the rates in children (up to 15 years) and adults. Antibody screening tests were performed by gel method according to its standard pattern and respective program. In positive cases, antibody identification test by gel method was performed. Eight hundred thirty-five patients were studied; 548 (65.6%) were adults (mean age = 24.5), and 287 (34.4%) cases were pediatrics (mean age = 10.05). Of these patients, 74.1% had no history of transfusion reaction, whereas 21 (2.5%) had hemolytic complications. Seventy-eight (9.3%) exhibited allergic symptoms, and 117 (14%) cases experienced febrile reactions during transfusion. Antibody screening showed positive results in 22 pediatric cases (7.7%) and 79 adults (14.4%); 72 (71.3%), 19 (18.8%), 3 (3%), and 1 (1%) cases exhibited single, double, triple, and autoantibodies, respectively. Anti-Kell antibody was seen in 34 (33.7%) cases, anti-D was seen in 11 (10.9%) cases, and anti-E in was seen in 10 (9.9%) cases. The authors observed 8 anti-D+C (7.9%) cases, 1 anti-D+E (1%), 3 anti-Kell+E, 3 anti-Kell+Kpa (3%), and 1 anti-Kell+D double antibodies. These antibodies were also a combination of Rh subgroups or Rh and Kell subgroups. The authors observed meaningful relations between history of transfusion reactions and age with antibody screening results (P = .005). Based on alloantibodies types, more than two thirds of them were Rh subgroups and Kell groups. Phenotype determination of RBCs before beginning chronic blood transfusion and careful cross-matching with Kell and Rh subgroups in addition to ABO may help reduce alloimmunization in chronic transfusion patients. PMID:21854216

Azarkeivan, Azita; Ansari, Shahla; Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hajibeigy, Bashir; Maghsudlu, Mahtab; Nasizadeh, Soheila; Shaigan, Mojgan; Toolabi, Abdolmajid; Salahmand, Mitra

2011-09-01

119

Fatal carboplatin-induced immune hemolytic anemia in a child with a brain tumor  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is an uncommon side effect of pharmacologic intervention. A rare mediator of DIIHA, carboplatin is an agent used to treat many pediatric cancers. We describe here, the first case of fatal carboplatin induced DIIHA in a pediatric patient and a brief review of the literature. Our patient developed acute onset of multi-organ failure with evidence of complement activation, secondary to a drug induced red cell antibody. Early recognition of the systemic insult associated with carboplatin induced hemolytic anemia may allow for future affected patients to receive plasmapheresis, a potentially effective therapy. PMID:24868179

Haley, Kristina M; Russell, Thomas B; Boshkov, Lynn; Leger, Regina M; Garratty, George; Recht, Michael; Nazemi, Kellie J

2014-01-01

120

Possible Risks of Blood Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... it. After that, both a nurse and blood bank lab technician look at the information about the ... minutes or hours after the transfusion starts. Blood banks routinely test platelets and destroy units of blood ...

121

Transfusion medicine as of 2014  

PubMed Central

Transfusion of blood components is one of the most common medical treatments, and in spite of the time that has evolved since we started to transfuse blood routinely in the 1930s, there are issues associated with its use that we are still trying to improve. Issues such as when to transfuse and adverse effects associated with the transfusion are fields where new evidence is being generated that ideally should help us to indicate when and what to transfuse to the patients. The recognition that the evidence generated in randomized control trials was not widely applied to guide the indication of the transfusion of blood components has provoked the development of initiatives that try to reduce its unnecessary usage. Those initiatives, grouped under the name of patient blood management, have represented a significant paradigm change, and a growing number of activities in this field are performed in health-care facilities around the world. This article tries to summarize the latest publications in those fields. PMID:25580259

Cid, Joan

2014-01-01

122

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: New Developments in Pathogenesis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Hemolytic uremic syndrome is defined by the characteristic triad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. In children, most cases of HUS are caused by Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria, especially Escherichia coli O157:H7. Common vehicles of transmission include ground beef, unpasteurized milk, and municipal or swimming water. Shiga-toxin-associated HUS is a main cause of acute renal failure in young children. Management remains supportive as there is at present no specific therapy to ameliorate the prognosis. Immediate outcome is most often favourable but long-term renal sequelae are frequent due to nephron loss. Atypical HUS represents 5% of cases. In the past 15 years, mutations in complement regulators of the alternative pathway have been identified in almost 60% of cases, leading to excessive complement activation. The disease has a relapsing course and more than half of the patients either die or progress to end-stage renal failure. Recurrence after renal transplantation is frequent. PMID:21876803

Boyer, Olivia; Niaudet, Patrick

2011-01-01

123

Effect of Transfusion Therapy on Arteriographic Abnormalities and on Recurrence of Stroke in Sickle Cell Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stroke is a relatively frequent and severe complication of sickle cell disease. We performed cerebral arteriograms in 30 patients with sickle cell disease to evaluate the cause of acute neurologic deficits and to assess the effects of transfusion therapy given for a year or more after the acute episode. Twenty-three patients with motor and speech deficits had multiple abnormalities of

Marie Olivieri Russell; Herbert I. Goldberg; Andrew Hodson; Haewon C. Kim; Joanne Halus; Martin Reivich; Elias Schwartz

1984-01-01

124

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with Malaria.  

PubMed

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA), a very infrequent condition which represents a group of disorders in which presence of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens leads to shortened red cell survival. Till date, a very few cases of AIHA in Malaria patients are reported worldwide but still AIHA should be considered a relatively rare cause of anemia in malaria. A 20 year male presented with intermittent fever since seven days and yellowish discoloration of urine and sclera since 5 days. He was transfused three units of blood at a private clinic before one month. On examination, pallor, icterus and spelnomegaly were present. Hemoglobin (Hb) was 3.2 gm% and peripheral smear revealed ring forms of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Serum LDH and Serum billirubin (Indirect and Direct) were high. This patient's blood group was B +ve with positive autocontrol. Indirect Antiglobulin Test (IAT), antibody screening and antibody identification were pan-positive with reaction strength of +4 against each cell. Direct Antiglobulin Test was +4 positive anti IgG and negative with anti C3. He was treated with Artesunate and methylprednisone. Least incompatible, saline washed O Neg and B neg red cells were transfused on the 2(nd) day of starting treatment. Hb was raised to 6.1 gm% on 4(th) day. Patient was discharged on 9th day with Hb 7.0 gm% with oral tapering dose of steroids. In the above case, patient was suffering from high grade malarial parasitemia with co-existing autoimmune RBC destruction by IgG auto-antibodies which led to sudden drop in Hb and rise in serum LDH and indirect billirubin. Least incompatible packed red cells along with antimalarials and steroids led to clinical improvement. So far, one case report each from India, Korea, Canada and Germany and one case series report of three cases from India have been reported. Under-reporting or rarity of this phenomenon may be accountable for this. PMID:24014948

Sonani, Rajesh; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Maitrey, Gajjar

2013-07-01

125

Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias.  

PubMed

Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias include a variety of phenotypes that, unlike patients with beta (?)-thalassemia major, do not require regular transfusion therapy for survival. The most commonly investigated forms are ?-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/?-thalassemia, and ?-thalassemia intermedia (hemoglobin H disease). However, transfusion-independence in such patients is not without side effects. Ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis, the hallmarks of disease process, lead to a variety of subsequent pathophysiologies including iron overload and hypercoagulability that ultimately lead to a number of serious clinical morbidities. Thus, prompt and accurate diagnosis of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia is essential to ensure early intervention. Although several management options are currently available, the need to develop more novel therapeutics is justified by recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. Such efforts require wide international collaboration, especially since non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias are no longer bound to low- and middle-income countries but have spread to large multiethnic cities in Europe and the Americas due to continued migration. PMID:23729725

Musallam, Khaled M; Rivella, Stefano; Vichinsky, Elliott; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A

2013-06-01

126

Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias  

PubMed Central

Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias include a variety of phenotypes that, unlike patients with beta (?)-thalassemia major, do not require regular transfusion therapy for survival. The most commonly investigated forms are ?-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/?-thalassemia, and ?-thalassemia intermedia (hemoglobin H disease). However, transfusion-independence in such patients is not without side effects. Ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis, the hallmarks of disease process, lead to a variety of subsequent pathophysiologies including iron overload and hypercoagulability that ultimately lead to a number of serious clinical morbidities. Thus, prompt and accurate diagnosis of non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia is essential to ensure early intervention. Although several management options are currently available, the need to develop more novel therapeutics is justified by recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of disease. Such efforts require wide international collaboration, especially since non-transfusion-dependent thalassemias are no longer bound to low- and middle-income countries but have spread to large multiethnic cities in Europe and the Americas due to continued migration. PMID:23729725

Musallam, Khaled M.; Rivella, Stefano; Vichinsky, Elliott; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A.

2013-01-01

127

Occurrence of hemolytic anemia in patients with GBS treated with high-dose IVIg  

PubMed Central

Objective: We describe an underrecognized side effect of high-dose IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), hemolytic anemia. Background: There are no established guidelines on treating patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) who relapse or do not improve after a standard course of treatment (IVIg or plasma exchange). Some centers will opt for a second course of the initial treatment. There is an ongoing trial of a second course of IVIg in patients with severe GBS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 4 patients with severe GBS who received high-dose IVIg. One patient inadvertently received a high dose of IVIg for Miller Fisher syndrome. All patients received a total of at least 2 courses of the standard dose of IVIg (total >4 g/kg). We review their clinical course and side effects. Results: All patients with non-O blood types developed clinically significant hemolytic anemia requiring blood transfusion. Conclusion: Hemolytic anemia may limit doses of IVIg for treatment of severe GBS in patients with non-O blood types. PMID:25520957

Biliciler, Suur; Wahed, Amer; Sheikh, Kazim

2014-01-01

128

Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to immunoglobulin g autoantibody exacerbated by epstein-barr virus.  

PubMed

Most cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are caused by the production of an autoantibody that targets determinants on red blood cells (RBCs). This autoantibody can be immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, or IgA. Some autoantibodies react optimally at 0° to 4°C (ie, cold agglutinin) and usually are clinically insignificant. High-titer cold agglutinins are associated with IgM autoantibody and complement fixation induced by infectious agents, including the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This case report describes a 31-year-old man who had jaundice, a hemoglobin of 6.0 gdL, and was diagnosed with a hemolytic crisis of AIHA. He received a total of 11 RBC transfusions during a 15-hour period without sustained response and later died. The direct antiglobulin test results for this patient were positive, whereas the cold-agglutinin-testing results were negative. We detected EBV DNA in blood via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a rare case of AIHA associated with an IgG autoantibody and exacerbated by EBV infection, causing a fatal hemolytic anemia. PMID:25617394

Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Simmons, Julie H; Jones, Mary Rose; Palavecino, Elizabeth L; Pomper, Gregory J

2015-01-01

129

[Clinical effects of the transfusion of leukocytes isolated by filtration from continuous flux].  

PubMed

The present work studies clinical effects of leukocyte transfusions to patients with medular aplasis. Leukocytes were collected by filtration on a continuous flow, according to the technique earlier described in this review [9]. Two major points are stressed on tolerance by the patients of the injected products and clinical efficiency. Seventy eight suspensions were prepared and transfused to 30 patients in the course of 36 incidents of myeloid insufficiency. All patients but two evidenced by the time of transfusion a number of polynuclears inferior to 500 per cubic millimeter. The infection was quite serious with increased gravity despite the antibiotherapy. Intolerance was noticeable in about one third of the cases, half of which consisted only in chillis by the end or after transfusion. Only one accident consisting in acute respiration troubles and shock was observed. This however does not occur by chance. It involves sensitization which may be related to HLA system but may also be of different nature, although not clearly identified. Nevertheless is efficiency of the injected products demonstrated by recirculation of the transfused leukocytes. This was noticed within an hour following transfusion for more than 50 percent of the cases. Furthermore it lasted for 16 hours in more than one fourth of the patients. In addition following results are in favour of real clinical efficiency. Certainly in the course of 16 aplasic incidents, no improvement was observed. For most patients however transfusions were late and not renewed or the patients were highly immunized. Conversely the infection state did improve in 8 patients, the disease responsible for aplasia running its course on its own. Lastly in the course of 12 aplasic incidents, infection and acute aplasia did cure. All these observations should lead one to study with great care the immunological state of the recipient. Instructions being known, the number of transfused leukocytes should be sufficient and renewals frequent enough. Under these conditions leukocyte (filtered and eluted) transfusions appear safe and reliable. PMID:918498

Malinvaud, G; Gailiard, S; Gualde, N

1977-09-01

130

Successful treatment of severe immune hemolytic anemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with bortezomib: report of a case and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background Immune hemolytic anemia is a well-known complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Posttransplant hemolytic anemia results in increased red blood cell transfusions and medical sequelae including iron overload. Case Report We present a case report of immune hemolytic anemia that occurred after allogeneic HSCT from an ABO major–mismatched, HLA-matched unrelated donor. The patient had high anti-donor A type antibodies that were unresponsive to treatment with steroids and rituximab, resulting in persistent transfusion dependence. A detailed time course of anti-A titers, plasma cell content of the marrow, and B-cell content of the blood is presented. Treatment with bortezomib, a protease inhibitor, eliminated residual host-type plasma cells secreting anti-A and restored normal donor-derived erythropoiesis. Conclusion This report, and a review of literature for treatment of immune hemolytic anemia after allogeneic HSCT, supports the utility of bortezomib as plasma cell–targeted therapy in this setting. PMID:25156334

Hosoba, Sakura; Jaye, David L; Cohen, Cynthia; Roback, John D; Waller, Edmund K

2015-01-01

131

Pathology Case Study: Transfusion Reaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a man with a history of renal failure complained of hemorrhoidal bleeding. Visitors are given charts, test results, transfusion information and patient history, to provide the opportunity for viewers to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transfusion pathology.

Kohler, Lisa J.

132

Transfusion transmitted infections in solid organ transplantation.  

PubMed

While the risk of infectious disease transmission through blood transfusion has been greatly reduced as a result of improved screening methods, transfusion-transmissible infections remain a concern for transplant recipients, especially those receiving multiple transfusions. Although transfusion and transplant recipients are at risk for similar infections, the current reporting requirements for infections transmitted by transfusions and organ transplantation vary greatly and remain distinctly separate with no communication between reporting systems. This article reviews 23 past reports of transfusion-transmitted infections in organ recipients acquired through transfusions. While cytomegalovirus was a major focus of such reports in the 1980s, more recent reports have focused on West Nile virus transmission. Additionally, this article highlights challenges in determining transfusion-transmitted infection risk in transplant recipients related to the current reporting systems. PMID:25612502

Mezochow, A K; Henry, R; Blumberg, E A; Kotton, C N

2015-02-01

133

[HLA and transfusion: new approaches with Luminex™ technology].  

PubMed

The major histocompatibility complex is a multigenic system highly polymorphic coding for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules, which are the strongest antigens for immune response and play a major role in allograft rejection. Class I antigens are expressed on almost all nucleated cells and platelets, whereas HLA class II antigens are mostly on antigen presenting cells. During transfusion, anti-HLA antibodies can induce transfusion incidents like fever, transfusion-related acute lung injury TRALI and refractoriness to the platelets transfusion. Identification of HLA class I antibodies is very important to find HLA compatible platelets concentrates. Since the end of 1960s, the complement-dependent microlymphocytotoxicity assay has been the standard internationally recognized method for cross matching and screening of HLA antibodies. It became necessary to improve the test sensitivity because some clinical relevant antibodies were not detected. Sensitive methods appeared in the 1990 s: flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and now Luminex™. This latter is the most sensitive method with single HLA antigen panel assays to generate the most informative reactivity pattern of antibodies. The high sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex™ technology performed to screen HLA antibodies allows the best selection of platelets donors. When no compatible concentrates are available for highly immunized recipients, the cross-matching method could be used to select a platelet concentrate. PMID:21397543

Giannoli, C; Nguyen, T-K-T; Dubois, V

2011-04-01

134

Treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemias  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a relatively uncommon disorder caused by autoantibodies directed against self red blood cells. It can be idiopathic or secondary, and classified as warm, cold (cold hemagglutinin disease (CAD) and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) or mixed, according to the thermal range of the autoantibody. AIHA may develop gradually, or have a fulminant onset with life-threatening anemia. The treatment of AIHA is still not evidence-based. The first-line therapy for warm AIHA are corticosteroids, which are effective in 70–85% of patients and should be slowly tapered over a time period of 6–12 months. For refractory/relapsed cases, the current sequence of second-line therapy is splenectomy (effective approx. in 2 out of 3 cases but with a presumed cure rate of up to 20%), rituximab (effective in approx. 80–90% of cases), and thereafter any of the immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil). Additional therapies are intravenous immunoglobulins, danazol, plasma-exchange, and alemtuzumab and high-dose cyclophosphamide as last resort option. As the experience with rituximab evolves, it is likely that this drug will be located at an earlier point in therapy of warm AIHA, before more toxic immunosuppressants, and in place of splenectomy in some cases. In CAD, rituximab is now recommended as first-line treatment. PMID:25271314

Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma

2014-01-01

135

Treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemias.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a relatively uncommon disorder caused by autoantibodies directed against self red blood cells. It can be idiopathic or secondary, and classified as warm, cold (cold hemagglutinin disease (CAD) and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) or mixed, according to the thermal range of the autoantibody. AIHA may develop gradually, or have a fulminant onset with life-threatening anemia. The treatment of AIHA is still not evidence-based. The first-line therapy for warm AIHA are corticosteroids, which are effective in 70-85% of patients and should be slowly tapered over a time period of 6-12 months. For refractory/relapsed cases, the current sequence of second-line therapy is splenectomy (effective approx. in 2 out of 3 cases but with a presumed cure rate of up to 20%), rituximab (effective in approx. 80-90% of cases), and thereafter any of the immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil). Additional therapies are intravenous immunoglobulins, danazol, plasma-exchange, and alemtuzumab and high-dose cyclophosphamide as last resort option. As the experience with rituximab evolves, it is likely that this drug will be located at an earlier point in therapy of warm AIHA, before more toxic immunosuppressants, and in place of splenectomy in some cases. In CAD, rituximab is now recommended as first-line treatment. PMID:25271314

Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma

2014-10-01

136

CLINICAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM IN TRANSFUSION MEDICINE  

E-print Network

Blood Services. There is a broad scope of reference immunohematology and clinical transfusion medicine these will include weekly Joint Hematology rounds, daily blood bank sign out rounds, weekly Transfusion MedicineCLINICAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM IN TRANSFUSION MEDICINE The Department of Pathology and Laboratory

MacMillan, Andrew

137

Highland Procedures Center Blood Transfusion Referral Process  

E-print Network

Highland Procedures Center Blood Transfusion Referral Process Telephone: 585.341.0078 Fax: 585 to the Highland Procedures Center before a date and time will be given for blood transfusion. Fax number is 585. Current medication list. 6. Consent for blood transfusion signed and dated by MD/NP/PA, and patient

Goldman, Steven A.

138

Director of Transfusion Service Department of Pathology  

E-print Network

in Blood Banking, to be the Medical Director of the Transfusion Service at Stanford Medical Center Transfusion Service operations, including its interactions with the Stanford Blood Center, which collectsDirector of Transfusion Service Department of Pathology The Department of Pathology at Stanford

Bogyo, Matthew

139

A Prospective Study on Red Blood Cell Transfusion Related Hyperkalemia in Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Transfusion-associated hyperkalemic cardiac arrest is a serious complication in patients receiving packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. Mortality from hyperkalemia increases with large volumes of PRBC transfusion, increased rate of transfusion, and the use of stored PRBCs. Theoretically, hyperkalemia may be complicated by low cardiac output, acidosis, hyperglycemia, hypocalcemia, and hypothermia. In this study, we focus on transfusion-related hyperkalemia involving only medical intensive care unit (MICU) patients. Method This prospective observational study focuses on PRBC transfusions among MICU patients greater than 18 years of age. Factors considered during each transfusion included patient’s diagnosis, indication for transfusion, medical co-morbidities, acid-base disorders, K+ levels before and after each PRBC transfusion, age of stored blood, volume and rate of transfusion, and other adverse events. We used Pearson correlation and multivariate analysis for each factor listed above and performed a logistic regression analysis. Results Between June 2011 and December 2011, 125 patients received a total of 160 units of PRBCs. Median age was 63 years (22 - 92 years). Seventy-one (57%) were females. Sixty-three patients (50%) had metabolic acidosis, 75 (60%) had acute renal failure (ARF), and 12 (10%) had end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Indications for transfusion included septic shock (n = 65, 52%), acute blood loss (n = 25, 20%), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (n = 25, 20%) and preparation for procedures (n = 14, 11%). Baseline K+ value was 3.9 ± 1.1 mEq/L compared to 4.3 ± 1.2 mEq/L post-transfusion respectively (P = 0.9). During this study period, 4% of patients developed hyperkalemia (K+ 5.5 mEq/L or above). The mean change of serum potassium in patients receiving transfusion ? 12 days old blood was 4.1 ± 0.4 mEq/L compared to 4.8 ± 0.3 mEq/L (mean ± SD) in patients receiving blood 12 days or less old. Sixty-two patients (77.5%) that were transfused stored blood (for more than 12 days) had increased serum K+; eight (17.7%) patients received blood that was stored for less than 12 days. In both univariate (P = 0.02) and multivariate (P = 0.04) analysis, findings showed that among all factors, transfusion of stored blood was the only factor that affected serum potassium levels (95% CI: 0.32 - 0.91). No difference was found between central and peripheral intravenous access (P = 0.12), acidosis (P = 0.12), ARF (P = 0.6), ESRD (P = 0.5), and multiple transfusions (P = 0.09). One subject developed a sustained cardiac arrest after developing severe hyperkalemia (K+ = 9.0) following transfusion of seven units of PRBCs. Multivariate logistic regression showed linear correlation between duration of stored blood and serum K+ (R2 = 0.889). Conclusion This study assesses factors that affect K+ in patients admitted to MICU. Results from the study show that rise in serum K+ level is more pronounced in patients who receive stored blood (> 12 days). Future studies should focus on the use of altered storage solution, inclusion of potassium absorption filters during transfusion and cautious use of blood warmer in patients requiring massive blood transfusions.

Raza, Shahzad; Ali Baig, Mahadi; Chang, Christopher; Dabas, Ridhima; Akhtar, Mallika; Khan, Areej; Nemani, Krishna; Alani, Rahima; Majumder, Omran; Gazizova, Natalya; Biswas, Shaluk; Patel, Priyeshkumar; Al-Hilli, Jaffar A.; Shad, Yasar; Berger, Barbara J.; Zaman, Mohammad

2015-01-01

140

The platelet as an immune cell--CD40 ligand and transfusion immunomodulation  

PubMed Central

The discovery that platelets possess cell membrane, cytoplasmic and secreted forms of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 ligand (CD40L, also known as CD154) has led to a revolution in the view of this anucleate, differentiated cell fragment, previously thought only to be involved in blood clotting (hemostasis). During the last decade it has become clear that platelets function in innate and adaptive immunity and possess pro-inflammatory, as well as pro-thrombotic properties. They interact not only with other platelets and endothelial cells, but with lymphocytes, dendritic cells and structural cells such as fibroblasts. Soluble forms of CD40L (sCD40L) in the human circulation are almost entirely derived from platelets. Elevated levels of CD40L are associated with clinically important conditions, such as vascular disease, abnormal clotting (thrombosis), lung injury and autoimmune disease. Each year millions of platelet transfusions are given to patients that contain large amounts of sCD40L. sCD40L in the supernatant of stored platelets can induce cytokines, chemokines and lipid mediators by activating CD40 bearing cells. Increased levels of sCD40L in transfused blood are associated with transfusion related acute lung injury, a potentially fatal complication, as well as more common, milder transfusion reactions such as fever and rigors. These effects come under the rubric of transfusion immunomodulation, which postulates that transfusion recipient biology, particularly immune function, is dramatically altered by transfusion of stored allogeneic blood. PMID:19184537

Blumberg, Neil; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Francis, Charles W.; Taubman, Mark B.; Phipps, Richard P.

2010-01-01

141

Anesthetic management of living donor liver transplantation for complement factor H deficiency hemolytic uremic syndrome: a case report.  

PubMed

We experienced a living donor liver transplantation for a 26-month-old girl with complement factor H deficiency. Complement factor H is a plasma protein that regulates the activity of the complement pathway. Complement overactivity induced by complement factor H deficiency is associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Liver transplantation can be the proper treatment for this condition. During the liver transplantation of these patients, prevention of the complement overactivation is necessary. Minimizing complement activation, through the use of modalities such as plasma exchange before the surgery and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma throughout the entire perioperative period, may be the key for successful liver transplantation in these patients. PMID:25006375

Park, Suk-Hee; Kim, Gaab-Soo

2014-06-01

142

Cholelithiasis following Escherichia coli O157?:?H7-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Sequelae of Escherichia coli O157?:?H7-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) 2?–?3 years following an outbreak in Washington State have been prospectively\\u000a studied to identify predictors of adverse sequelae. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between\\u000a findings in the acute course and long-term renal and gastrointestinal outcomes. Twenty-one percent of patients had gastrointestinal\\u000a sequelae, which included cholelithiasis resulting in

John R. Brandt; Mark W. Joseph; Laurie S. Fouser; Phillip I. Tarr; Israel Zelikovic; Ruth A. McDonald; Ellis D. Avner; Nancy G. McAfee; Sandra L. Watkins

1998-01-01

143

Hemolytic uremic syndrome in solid-organ transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-transplant hemolytic uremic syndrome characterized by microangiopathic hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure is an infrequent but potentially serious complication in organ transplant recipients. Hemolytic uremic syndrome developed in 2% (2\\/100) of our consecutive liver transplants. We report our patients and review a total of 91 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome in adult solid organ transplant recipients reported in the literature.

Nina Singh; Timothy Gayowski; Ignazio R. Marino

1996-01-01

144

Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections  

PubMed Central

The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas’ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply. PMID:20859503

Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh

2010-01-01

145

Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections.  

PubMed

The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas' disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply. PMID:20859503

Singh, Gagandeep; Sehgal, Rakesh

2010-07-01

146

Thrombotic microangiopathies: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura / hemolytic uremic syndrome.  

PubMed

Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) are pathological conditions characterized by generalized microvascular occlusion by platelet thrombi, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Two typical phenotypes of TMAs are hemolytic- uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Other disorders occasionally present with similar manifestations. Depending on whether renal or brain lesions prevail, two pathologically indistinguishable but somehow clinically different disorders have been described: HUS and TTP. Injury to the endothelial cell is the central and likely inciting factor in the sequence of events leading to TMA. Loss of physiological thromboresistance, leukocyte adhesion to damaged endothelium, complement consumption, abnormal von Willebrand factor release and fragmentation, and increased vascular shear stress may then sustain and amplify the microangiopathic process. Intrinsic abnormalities of the complement system and of the von Willebrand factor pathway may account for a genetic predisposition to the disease that may play a paramount role in particular in familial and recurrent forms. In the case of diarrhea-associated HUS (D+HUS), renal endothelial damage is mediated (at least in large part) by the bacterial agent Shigatoxin (Stx), which is actually a family of toxins elaborated by certain strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae. Outcome is usually good in childhood, Shiga toxin-associated HUS, whereas renal and neurological sequelae are more frequently reported in adult, atypical, and familial forms of HUS and in TTP. Recent studies have demonstrated that deficiency in the von Willebrand factor cleaving protease ADAMTS13, due to deficiency of ADAMTS13 can be genetic or more common, acquired, resulting from autoimmune production of inhibitory anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies, that causes TTP. During the last decade, atypical HUS (aHUS) has been demonstrated to be a disorder of the complement alternative pathway dysregulation, as there is a growing list of mutations and polymorphisms in the genes encoding the complement regulatory proteins that alone or in combination may lead to aHUS. Approximately 60% of aHUS patients have so-called 'loss-of-function' mutations in the genes encoding the complement regulatory proteins, which normally protect host cells from complement activation: complement factor H (CFH), factor I (CFI) and membrane cofactor protein (MCP or CD46), or have 'gain-of-function' mutations in the genes encoding the complement factor B or C3. In addition, approximately 10% of aHUS patients have a functional CFH deficiency due to anti-CFH antibodies. Although TMAs are highly heterogeneous pathological conditions, one-third of TMA patients have severe deficiency of ADAMTS13. Platelet transfusions are contraindicated. Plasma infusion or exchange (PE) is the only treatment of proven efficacy. PMID:21103695

Polito, Maria Goretti; Kirsztajn, Gianna Mastroianni

2010-01-01

147

Hemolytic Streptococci in Raw Market Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laneefield technic (1) for the serologic grouping of hemolytic strep- tococci has furnished, for the first time, a method of detecting significant differences within this group of organisms. This procedure has been used to study streptococci of bovine origin by Plastridge and Hartsell (2), Stable- forth (3), Stewart (4) and Edwards (5) among others. Sherman and Riven (6) and

J. B. Gunnison; M. P. Luxen; M. S. Marshall; B. Q. Engle

1940-01-01

148

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) associated with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is an uncommon clinical presentation, especially in children. We report a 8-year-old-boy who presented like aHUS but the kidney biopsy showed MPGN type 1. PMID:24036644

Mehta, Kumud; More, Vaishali; Chitale, Arun; Khubchandani, Shaila

2013-08-01

149

[Blood components and good practices in transfusion].  

PubMed

Each year, more than three millions of blood components are transfused to more than five hundred thousand patients in France. The optimal use of blood components requires that physicians prescribing blood components master the clinical indications of red blood cells concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. In addition, physicians in charge of blood component prescription should provide adequate pre- and post-transfusion information to their patients. Compliance of blood components administration in patients with safety guidelines contributes as well to their optimal use. In addition, for each blood component transfused, a proper evaluation of its safety and its efficacy should be done. Finally, a regular evaluation of transfusion practice in hospital services were blood components are used, through audits made in cooperation with their blood component provider, either blood transfusion centre or the hospital blood bank, enables to appreciate the level of compliance with safety and clinical guidelines, and more globally how the transfusion process is mastered. PMID:25542709

Andreu, Georges

2015-02-01

150

Saudi Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension: Pulmonary hypertension associated with hemolytic anemia  

PubMed Central

Hereditary hemoglobin disorders affecting the globin chain synthesis namely thalassemia syndromes and sickle cell disease (SCD) are the most common genetic disorders in human. Around 7% of the world population carries genes for these disorders, mainly the Mediterranean Basin, Middle and Far East, and Sub-Saharan Africa. An estimated 30 million people worldwide are living with sickle cell disease, while 60-80 million carry beta thalassemia trait. About 400,000 children are born with severe hemoglobinopathies each year. Cardiovascular complications of hemoglobinopathies include left and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, arrhythmias, pericarditis, myocarditis, valvular heart disease, myocardial ischemia, and notably pulmonary hypertension (PH). Because of a unique pathophysiology, pulmonary hypertension associated with hemolytic disorders was moved from WHO group I to group V PH diseases. Treatment strategies are also unique and include blood transfusion, iron chelation, hydroxyurea, and oxygen therapy. The role of PH-specific agents has not been established. PMID:25077000

Saleemi, Sarfraz

2014-01-01

151

[Study on blood ABO typing in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia].  

PubMed

To explore effect of autoantibody on identification of ABO and RhD blood group, the blood samples of 38 patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) were identified by routine typing and typing after chloroquine elution test as well as PCR. The results showed that out of 38 patients with AIHA, 11 cases (31.6%) of ABO blood group were difficulty typed, indirect antiglobulin test were positive, and contradiction between cells typing and sera typing were observed. 1 case of RhD(-) was mistyped as RhD(+) and anti-D was found in its serum. The blood group of these cases were typed correctly by chloroquine elution test. It is concluded that blood group identification of patients with AIHA can be interfered by autoantibody, and the correct typing for blood group of these patients may be determined by using combination of several methods to ensure safe transfusion. PMID:15363147

Zhu, Jian-Ying; Lan, Jiong-Cai; Hu, Li-Ya; Meng, Qing-Bao; Luo, Hong-Qing

2004-08-01

152

Anti B cell targeted therapy for autoimmune hemolytic anemia in an infant.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an immune mediated destruction of erythrocytes, which has a good prognosis in children. It is known to have chronic, remitting or relapsing course, especially in infants and adolescents. Treatment of refractory or relapsing AIHA is a challenge as the other aim of the treatment is to avoid prolonged exposure to steroids or other immunosuppressants in small children. Rituximab is used in patients who are non-responsive to conventional treatment such as steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and transfusion therapy. It has varying therapeutic success rate. We report a case of AIHA in a 4-month-old infant who had ill-sustained response to conventional therapy, but responded to rituximab. PMID:24130393

Makadia, Darshak; Siddaiahgari, Sirisha Rani; Latha, M S

2013-01-01

153

Post-transfusion hepatitis type B following multiple transfusions of HBsAg-negative blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Post-transfusion hepatitis continues to occur, though with decreasing frequency, even after screening donor blood for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and alanine aminotransferase activity. Data from developing countries on the frequency and type of post-transfusion hepatitis are scarce. We undertook this prospective study to determine the incidence and type of post-transfusion hepatitis at our center after transfusion of blood negative for

Shubhangi Saraswat; Kakoli Banerjee; Navjyoti Chaudhury; Tekchand Mahant; Pramod Khandekar; Rakesh Kumar Gupta; Sita Naik

1996-01-01

154

Mode of hepatitis C infection not associated with blood transfusion among chronic hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective study carried out on about 730 patients with chronic renal failure who underwent ambulatory hemodialysis from January 1991 to June 1994, 49 patients were found to have developed acute hepatitis C, as confirmed by seroconversion for anti-HCV antibodies without blood transfusion in the preceding 6-month period. Epidemiological survey disclosed that two patients undergoing dialysis at consoles separated

Kunio Okuda; Haruyuki Hayashi; Susumu Kobayashi; Yasubumi Irie

1995-01-01

155

Parathyroid hormone secretion during exchange transfusion.  

PubMed Central

Plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphate, citrate, albumin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured during and after exchange transfusion of infants suffering from haemolytic disease using blood anticoagulated with acid-citrate and dextrose (ACD) or heparin. Pretransfusion plasma PTH and phosphate both correlated positively with postnatal age but not with each other. Transfusion with ACD blood caused a twelvefold rise in plasma citrate levels but no significant change in plasma calcium, phosphate, or PTH of the infant, despite the concentration of these substances being lower in the donor blood. The concentration of calcium, phosphate, and albumin was higher in heparinized than in ACD donor blood, and infants transfused with heparinized blood showed no change in the plasma concentration of any substance measured during transfusion. The addition of 50 mug glucagon to ACD donor blood had no effect on PTH secretion. 3 hours after transfusion there was a rise in the plasma PTH infants who had received ACD blood but not in those given heparinized blood. Transfusion with ACD blood caused a net loss of calcium, phosphate and albumin from the infant, whereas transfusion with heparin blood did not. Both types of transfusion caused a net loss of PTH but this was significantly greater in those given ACD blood. These results show that transfusion with ACD blood results in increased secretion of PTH, probably due to the fall in ionized calcium concentration caused by the citrate load. PMID:1170813

Milner, R D; Woodhead, J S

1975-01-01

156

Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion  

MedlinePLUS

... leukocyte reduction), allergic reactions are less common. Fluid overload: Transfusion recipients can receive more fluid than their ... Special Blood Donation Procedures Next: Overview of Iron Overload

157

[Blood transfusion: history ethic and law].  

PubMed

The paper outlines the stages of the history of blood transfusion from the earlier attempts and difficulties to the important discoveries of the early XX century and to recent developments, that have made blood transfusion an easy life-saving method. The authors also examine the ethical motivations underlying transfusion refusal as well as the economical measures of solidarity contained in the Italian law n. 210/1992 to protect HIV HCV or HBV patients, especially those having contracted infection because of mandatory vaccinations or infected blood transfusions. PMID:17152591

Frati, Paola; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Di Luca, Natale Mario

2005-01-01

158

Molecular basis of erythroenzymopathies associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia: tabulation of mutant enzymes.  

PubMed

Molecular abnormalities of erythroenzymopathies associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia have been determined by means of molecular biology. Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is the most common and well-characterized enzyme deficiency in the glycolytic pathway, and it causes hereditary hemolytic anemia. To date, 47 gene mutations have been identified. We identified one base deletion, one splicing mutation, and six distinct missense mutations in 12 unrelated families with a homozygous PK deficiency. Mutations located near the substrate or fructose-1,6- diphosphate binding site may change the conformation of the active site, resulting in a drastic loss of activity and severe clinical symptoms. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)deficiency is the most common metabolic disorder, and it is associated with chronic hemolytic anemia and/or drug- or infection-induced acute hemolytic attack. An estimated 400 million people are affected worldwide. The mutations responsible for about 78 variants have been determined. Some have polymorphic frequencies in different populations. Most variants are produced by one or two nucleotide substitutions. Molecular studies have disclosed that most of the class 1 G6PD variants associated with chronic hemolysis have the mutations surrounding either the substrate or the NADP binding site. Among rare enzymopathies, missense mutations have been determined in deficiencies of glucosephosphate isomerase, (TPI), phosphoglycerate kinase, and adenylate kinase. Compound heterozygosity with missense mutation and base deletion has been determined in deficiencies of hexokinase and diphosphoglyceromutase. Compound heterozygosity with missense and nonsense mutations has been identified in TPI deficiency. One base junction mutations resulting in abnormally spliced PFK-M mRNA have been identified in homozygous PFK deficiency. An exception is hemolytic anemia due to increased adenosine deaminase activity. The basic abnormality appears to result from the overproduction of a structurally normal enzyme. PMID:8579052

Miwa, S; Fujii, H

1996-02-01

159

Clinical Response and Transfusion Reactions of Sheep Subjected to Single Homologous Blood Transfusion  

PubMed Central

Studies in relation to blood conservation and responses to transfusion are scarce for ruminants. We evaluated the clinical manifestations of sheep that received a single homologous transfusion of whole blood, focusing on transfusion reactions. Eighteen adult sheep were subjected to a single phlebotomy to withdraw 40% of the total blood volume, which was placed into CPDA-1 bags and then divided into G0, animals that received fresh blood, and G15 and G35, animals that received blood stored for 15 or 35 days, respectively. Clinical observations were recorded throughout the transfusion, whereas heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were assessed at the following times: 24 hours after phlebotomy and before transfusion; 30 minutes, six, twelve, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and eight and 16 days after transfusion. All groups presented transfusion reactions, among which hyperthermia was the most frequent (50% of animals). Tachycardia occurred most frequently in the G35 animals (50% of them). During transfusion G35 animals presented more clinical manifestation (P < 0.05). Transfusion of fresh or stored total blood improved the blood volume, but transfusion reactions occurred, demonstrating that a single transfusion of fresh or stored blood can cause inflammatory and febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions in sheep. PMID:25544959

Sousa, Rejane Santos; Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hamad; Araújo, Carolina Akiko Sato Cabral; Rodrigues, Frederico Augusto Mazzocca Lopes; Oliveira, Francisco Leonardo Costa; Zaminhan, Janaina Larissa Rodrigues; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Sousa, Isadora Karolina Freitas; Ortolani, Enrico Lippi; Barrêto Júnior, Raimundo Alves

2014-01-01

160

Risks and benefits of transfusion for children with severe anemia in Africa.  

PubMed

Severe anemia contributes significantly to child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Blood transfusion is used in emergencies but carries risks. In BMC Medicine, Olupot-Olupot and colleagues report the findings of a phase II trial in children with severe anemia in Eastern Uganda. They provide important early safety and efficacy data supporting large volume whole blood transfusion (30 ml/kg) compared with the World Health Organization recommendation of 20 ml/kg. Large volume transfusions result in more rapid and frequent correction of severe anemia; they can be expected to reduce the risk of transfusions, and help manage the scarce resource of donor blood. However, severe anemia arises from varying combinations of acute, sub-acute and chronic etiologies. The Fluid Expansion As Supportive Therapy study reminds us that the risks and benefits of even simple interventions are complex, and that rapid normalization of physiology may not always be the best strategy. There is no substitute for high quality evidence and to this end we strongly support Olupot-Oluput and colleagues' call for a definitive trial of large volume transfusions in severe anemia. Please see related research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/67/abstract. PMID:24767140

Brick, Thomas; Peters, Mark J

2014-01-01

161

Bone marrow replacement in the treatment of hemolytic disease in mice  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow replacement therapy following whole-body x- or gamma-irradiation has until now proven to be of limited value in the treatment of individuals with hemolytic disease. The large doses of radiation required for destruction of defective erythropoietic tissues coupled with their resultant high mortality appears to limit its usefulness. Techniques have been developed by the authors to limit the extent of exposure and to improve survival following irradiation. These techniques include shielding of all parts of the body except the hind limbs, prophylactic use of antibiotics, and preparatory blood transfusion to suppress the development of indigenous defective erythrocytes. Using these combined techniques we were able to establish high rates of survival, successful engraftment, and long-term clinical improvement in mice with several hemolytic disorders emanating from hereditary defects in spectrin production and incorporation. Evidence is presented indicating that complete bone marrow replacement occurs even in nonirradiated portions of the erythron and that only donor type red blood cells appear in the circulation.

Bernstein, S.E.; Deveau, S.A. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (USA))

1989-11-01

162

Indications and organisational methods for autologous blood transfusion procedures in Italy: results of a national survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pre-operative donation of autologous blood is a practice that is now being abandoned. Alternative methods of transfusing autologous blood, other than predeposited blood, do however play a role in limiting the need for transfusion of allogeneic blood. This survey of autologous blood transfusion practices, promoted by the Italian Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology more than 2 years after the publication of national recommendations on the subject, was intended to acquire information on the indications for predeposit in Italy and on some organisational aspects of the alternative techniques of autotransfusion. Materials and methods A structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions on the indications and organisational methods of autologous blood transfusion was made available on a web platform from 15 January to 15 March, 2013. The 232 Transfusion Services in Italy were invited by e-mail to complete the online survey. Results Of the 232 transfusion structures contacted, 160 (69%) responded to the survey, with the response rate decreasing from the North towards the South and the Islands. The use of predeposit has decreased considerably in Italy and about 50% of the units collected are discarded because of lack of use. Alternative techniques (acute isovolaemic haemodilution and peri-operative blood salvage) are used at different frequencies across the country. Discussion The data collected in this survey can be considered representative of national practice; they show that the already very limited indications for predeposit autologous blood transfusion must be adhered to even more scrupulously, also to avoid the notable waste of resources due to unused units. Users of alternative autotransfusion techniques must be involved in order to gain a full picture of the degree of use of such techniques; multidisciplinary agreement on the indications for their use is essential in order for these indications to have an effective role in “patient blood management” programmes. PMID:25350961

Catalano, Liviana; Campolongo, Alessandra; Caponera, Maurizio; Berzuini, Alessandra; Bontadini, Andrea; Furlò, Giuseppe; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.

2014-01-01

163

Multiple cavitations in posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome.  

PubMed

We describe a 4-year-old boy with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome. He exhibited bloody stool by Escherichia coli O157: H7 infection with acute renal failure. He subsequently presented high blood pressure, followed by visual disturbance and loss of consciousness. Brain MRI revealed bilateral occipital high intensities by T2-weighted images and high value by apparent diffusion coefficient map, thus we made a diagnosis of posterior reversible leukoencephaly syndrome associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome. In spite of immediate blood pressure control, occipital lesions developed day by day, resulting in multiple subcortical cavitations. Although posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome is originally characterized by reversible vasogenic edema, this case rarely resulted in irreversible changes with cystic formation. We concluded that precipitating factors, i.e., clotting abnormalities, Shiga toxin, vasospasms and endothelial dysfunction might have synergistically induced irreversible brain infarcts, and caused unusual cavitations. PMID:21723058

Fujii, Katsunori; Matsuo, Kaoru; Takatani, Tomozumi; Uchikawa, Hideki; Kohno, Yoichi

2012-04-01

164

Studies on the nature of hemolytic effect induced by ethylene glycol alkyl ethers.  

PubMed

The nature of hemolytic effect induced by ethylene glycol alkyl ethers was analyzed taking into account G-6-PDH activity, ATP, pyruvate and thiols levels in peripheral blood of rats treated with single doses of 2-ethoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol. In addition, the susceptibility to autoxidation of rat erythrocyte lipids was evaluated. A decrease of ATP level in a dose-dependent manner and an increase in protein- and nonprotein-bound sulfhydryl groups were observed. These results indicate that an acute hemolytic effect of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers is not associated with alterations in G-6-PDH activity and the susceptibility of erythrocyte lipids to autoxidation. Increases in protein- and nonprotein-bound sulfhydryl groups seem to indicate the selective hemolysis of the aged erythrocytes. The increase in pyruvate and thiol levels may protect erythrocytes against the appearance of oxidative stress. PMID:19051582

Starek, Andrzej

2008-01-01

165

Management of fetofetal transfusion syndrome.  

PubMed

Feto-fetal transfusion syndrome contributes heavily to high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity in monochorionic multiple pregnancies. Its prenatal management has been controversial for at least 25 years. We review the recent literature in order to present the basis for a pragmatic reappraisal of the management of this condition. Laser surgery of the chorionic plate inter-twin anastomoses is the best first-line treatment when the syndrome develops before 26 weeks' gestation. Survival (including quality of survival) and gestational age at delivery are improved when compared to serial amnioreduction. Second-line treatment options include repeat-laser, intra-uterine blood transfusion, serial amnioreduction, selective feticide using bipolar cord coagulation or elective delivery, depending upon gestational age and the severity of the disease and its complications. We have found that fetoscopic placental surgery has proven itself over simplicity of amnioreduction. There is no evidence that treatment should be customized according to the stage of the disease at diagnosis. Early recognition of the syndrome through fortnightly serial ultrasound follow-up of all monochorionic pregnancies should ensure timely referral and make up for geographical constraints. Laser surgery should now be available in fetal medicine units that are managing at least 20 cases per year. PMID:16170843

Robyr, R; Quarello, E; Ville, Y

2005-09-01

166

Management of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in children  

PubMed Central

Acute renal failure associated with a fulminant, life-threatening systemic disease is rare in previously healthy young children; however, when it occurs, the most common cause is hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). In most cases (90%), this abrupt and devastating illness is a result of ingestion of food or drink contaminated with pathogens that produce very potent toxins. Currently, there are no proven treatment options that can directly inactivate the toxin or effectively interfere with the cascade of destructive events triggered by the toxin once it gains access to the bloodstream and binds its receptor. However, HUS is self-limited, and effective supportive management during the acute phase is proven to be a life saver for children affected by HUS. A minority of childhood HUS cases, approximately 5%, are caused by various genetic mutations causing uncontrolled activation of the complement system. These children, who used to have a poor prognosis leading to end-stage renal disease, now have access to exciting new treatment options that can preserve kidney function and avoid disease recurrences. This review provides a summary of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of childhood HUS, focusing on a practical approach to best management measures. PMID:24966691

Grisaru, Silviu

2014-01-01

167

Transfusion Medicine: An Overview and Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of AIDS in the 1980s and its rapid evolution as a major concern for physicians and their patients have led to many questions about the safety of the blood supply. The attention placed on AIDS has led to new discoveries and technologies to reduce the risk of other transfusion complications such as hepatitis, bac- terial contamination, and transfusion-associated

Paul M. Ness

168

Department and function: Institute for Transfusion Medicine  

E-print Network

Department and function: Institute for Transfusion Medicine Education: 1996 MD, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen 2002 Medical specialist in transfusion medicine 2003 W1-Professor for molecular immunohematology, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Blood Bank, Humboldt-University Berlin 1997-2000: Resourch Group

Manstein, Dietmar J.

169

[Blood transfusion: The challenges for tomorrow?].  

PubMed

As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. The availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all lead to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. The main tools available to improve transfusion and the transfusion chain management are the following: programs of patient blood management (PBM) to optimize the use of blood products with a patient centred approach, blood supply management tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, donor management tools to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, and coordination of these activities. A better understanding of these tools and their implementation will certainly be major challenges for transfusion medicine in the near future. Integrating these evolutions in regulations through the revision of the European Directives on blood and blood components (the review process is expected to be launched in 2015) should enroll them in the long term, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain. PMID:25578549

Folléa, Gilles; Garraud, Olivier; Tiberghien, Pierre

2015-02-01

170

Psychrobacter arenosus bacteremia after blood transfusion, France.  

PubMed

We report a case of transfusion-associated bacteremia caused by Psychrobacter arenosus. This psychrotolerant bacterium was previously isolated in 2004 from coastal sea ice and sediments in the Sea of Japan, but not from humans. P. arenosus should be considered a psychrotolerant bacterial species that can cause transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:23764120

Caspar, Yvan; Recule, Christine; Pouzol, Patricia; Lafeuillade, Bruno; Mallaret, Marie-Reine; Maurin, Max; Croize, Jacques

2013-07-01

171

Transfusion practices for elective orthopedic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Use of blood conservation techniques in elective surgery reduces the risk of infection and transfusion reactions that result from using allogeneic blood products. We examined the transfusion practice and blood conservation strate- gies for elective orthopedic procedures in 19 Canadian hospitals. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent total hip or knee joint arthroplasty between June

Brian G. Feagan; Cindy J. Wong; William C. Johnston; Ramiro Arellano; Nigel Colterjohn; Keyvan Karkouti; Kim Turner

172

Partial splenectomy for children with congenital hemolytic anemia and massive splenomegaly.  

PubMed

Partial splenectomy is an alternative to total splenectomy for the treatment of congenital hemolytic anemias (CHAs) in children, although the feasibility of this technique in the setting of massive splenomegaly is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of partial splenectomy in children with CHAs and massive splenomegaly. This retrospective study examined 29 children with CHAs who underwent partial splenectomy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on splenic size: 8 children had splenic volumes greater than 500 mL, whereas 21 children had splenic volumes less than 500 mL. Outcome variables included perioperative complications, transfusion requirements, hematocrits, reticulocyte counts, bilirubin levels, splenic sequestration, and splenic regrowth. All 29 children underwent successful partial splenectomy with 0.02 to 10 years of follow-up. After partial splenectomy, children overall had decreased transfusion requirements, increased hematocrits, decreased bilirubin levels, decreased reticulocyte counts, and elimination of splenic sequestration. Children with massive splenomegaly had similar outcomes compared with children without massive splenomegaly. Long-term complications included 3 mild infections, 4 cases of gallstones requiring cholecystectomy, and 1 child who required completion splenectomy. Partial splenectomy is a safe, effective, and technically feasible option for children with various CHAs, even in the setting of massive splenomegaly. PMID:18358283

Diesen, Diana L; Zimmerman, Sherri A; Thornburg, Courtney D; Ware, Russell E; Skinner, Michael; Oldham, Keith T; Rice, Henry E

2008-03-01

173

Alemtuzumab Plus Cyclosporine Treatment of the Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in an Adult Bowel Transplant  

PubMed Central

An adult male underwent a bowel transplant for tufting enteropathy, receiving alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, and steroids as immunosuppressants. Five years later, he developed an autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), anti-IgG positive, with reduced reticulocyte count, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia with antiplatelet antibodies. After an unsuccessful initial treatment with high dose steroids, reduction in tacrolimus dose, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a bone marrow biopsy revealed absence of erythroid maturation with precursor hyperplasia. The patient was switched to sirolimus and received four doses of rituximab plus two courses of plasmapheresis, which decreased his transfusion requirements. After a febrile episode one month later, the AIHA relapsed with corresponding decreases in platelet and leukocyte count: cyclosporine A (CsA) was started with a second course of rituximab and IVIG without response, even though repeat bone marrow biopsy did not reveal morphology correlated to an acquired pure red cell aplasia (APRCA). Considering the similarity in his clinical and laboratory findings to APRCA, alemtuzumab was added (three doses over a week) with CsA followed by steroids. The patient was eventually discharged transfusion-independent, with increasing hemoglobin (Hb) levels and normal platelet and leukocyte count. One year later he is still disease-free with functioning graft. PMID:25177510

Lauro, A.; Stanzani, M.; Finelli, C.; Zanfi, C.; Morelli, M. C.; Pasqualini, E.; Dazzi, A.; Ravaioli, M.; Di Simone, M.; Giudice, V.; Pironi, L.; Pinna, A. D.

2014-01-01

174

Alemtuzumab plus cyclosporine treatment of the autoimmune hemolytic anemia in an adult bowel transplant.  

PubMed

An adult male underwent a bowel transplant for tufting enteropathy, receiving alemtuzumab, tacrolimus, and steroids as immunosuppressants. Five years later, he developed an autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), anti-IgG positive, with reduced reticulocyte count, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia with antiplatelet antibodies. After an unsuccessful initial treatment with high dose steroids, reduction in tacrolimus dose, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a bone marrow biopsy revealed absence of erythroid maturation with precursor hyperplasia. The patient was switched to sirolimus and received four doses of rituximab plus two courses of plasmapheresis, which decreased his transfusion requirements. After a febrile episode one month later, the AIHA relapsed with corresponding decreases in platelet and leukocyte count: cyclosporine A (CsA) was started with a second course of rituximab and IVIG without response, even though repeat bone marrow biopsy did not reveal morphology correlated to an acquired pure red cell aplasia (APRCA). Considering the similarity in his clinical and laboratory findings to APRCA, alemtuzumab was added (three doses over a week) with CsA followed by steroids. The patient was eventually discharged transfusion-independent, with increasing hemoglobin (Hb) levels and normal platelet and leukocyte count. One year later he is still disease-free with functioning graft. PMID:25177510

Lauro, A; Stanzani, M; Finelli, C; Zanfi, C; Morelli, M C; Pasqualini, E; Dazzi, A; Ravaioli, M; Di Simone, M; Giudice, V; Pironi, L; Pinna, A D

2014-01-01

175

Hemolytic crisis in a G6PD-deficient infant after ingestion of pumpkin.  

PubMed

A 8 month-old infant presented with acute onset of severe jaundice, anemia requiring transfusion and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. The infant did not take drugs, he did not consume fava beans, but fava beans DNA was found on pumpkin he consumed the day before jaundice onset. This is the first case of hemolysis triggered by ingestion of food cross-contaminated with fava beans. PMID:25048415

Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Redaelli, Francesca; Gualdi, Valentina; Rizzi, Valeria; Mameli, Chiara; Dilillo, Dario; Fabiano, Valentina

2014-01-01

176

[Documents and transfusion acts: heterogeneous practices].  

PubMed

Blood transfusion is currently a delegated medical act in patient care services. Blood transfusion safety depends on the strict respect of processes from the prescription of blood products and required patient immuno-hematology exams to the administration of blood products and follow-up of the patient. We conducted a survey among haemovigilance correspondents to establish the documents needed to practice blood transfusion. Blood products delivery depends on the hospitals local organizations and blood products traceability relies on hospitals levels of computerization. We notice heterogeneous practices. Consequently, an updating of the December 15th 2003 circular relative to the transfusion act seems necessary and could thus lead to blood transfusions homogenous practices. PMID:25270982

Damais-Cépitélli, A; Lassale, B

2014-11-01

177

Sensitization to Multiple Rh Antigens by Transfusion of Random Donor Platelet Concentrates in a -D- Phenotype Patient  

PubMed Central

The -D- phenotype is a rare Rh phenotype that strongly expresses D antigen without C, c, E, or e antigens. In -D- phenotype individuals, anti-Rh17 (Hro) is commonly found if there is a history of pregnancy or transfusion with red blood cells (RBCs) that express C, c, E, or e antigens. We report the first case of a -D- phenotype patient with multiple Rh antibodies including anti-Rh17 who had a history of two occasions of transfusion with eight random donor platelet concentrates two and six years ago. We found that a trivial amount of RBCs in the platelet components was able to trigger sensitization to RBC antigens, especially the highly immunogenic and clinically significant Rh antigens, including C, c, E, e or CcEe polypeptides. To avoid unnecessary sensitization and to minimize the risk of hemolytic transfusion reactions in patients with this rare Rh phenotype, a modified strategy for pretransfusion screenings needs to be discussed in the field of transfusion medicine. PMID:23130343

Yun, Jae Won; Kang, Eun-Suk; Ki, Chang-Seok; Koh, Kwang Cheol

2012-01-01

178

Case Report: Severe form of hemolytic-uremic syndrome with multiple organ failure in a child: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a leading cause of acute renal failure in infants and young children. It is traditionally defined as a triad of acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia that occur within a week after prodromal hemorrhagic enterocolitis. Severe cases can also be presented by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), toxic megacolon with ileus, pancreatitis, central nervous system (CNS) disorders and multiple organ failure (MOF). Case presentation: A previously healthy 4-year old Caucasian girl developed acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia following a short episode of abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. By the end of the first week the diagnosis of the typical HUS was established. During the second week the disease progressed into MOF that included ileus, pancreatitis, hepatitis, coma and ARDS, accompanied by hemodynamic instability and extreme leukocytosis. Nonetheless, the girl made a complete recovery after one month of the disease. She was successfully treated in the intensive care unit and significant improvement was noticed after plasmapheresis and continuous veno-venous hemodialysis. Conclusions: Early start of plasmapheresis and meticulous supportive treatment in the intensive care unit, including renal placement therapy, may be the therapy of choice in severe cases of HUS presented by MOF. Monitoring of prognostic factors is important for early performance of appropriate diagnostic and therapeutical interventions. PMID:25075296

Mijatovic, Dino; Blagaic, Ana; Zupan, Zeljko

2014-01-01

179

Blood transfusion and infection after cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

Cardiac surgery is the largest consumer of blood products in medicine; although believed life saving, transfusion carries substantial adverse risks. This study characterizes the relationship between transfusion and risk of major infection after cardiac surgery. In all, 5,158 adults were prospectively enrolled to assess infections after cardiac surgery. The most common procedures were isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery (31%) and isolated valve surgery (30%); 19% were reoperations. Infections were adjudicated by independent infectious disease experts. Multivariable Cox modeling was used to assess the independent effect of blood and platelet transfusions on major infections within 60 ± 5 days of surgery. Red blood cells (RBC) and platelets were transfused in 48% and 31% of patients, respectively. Each RBC unit transfused was associated with a 29% increase in crude risk of major infection (p < 0.001). Among RBC recipients, the most common infections were pneumonia (3.6%) and bloodstream infections (2%). Risk factors for infection included postoperative RBC units transfused, longer duration of surgery, and transplant or ventricular assist device implantation, in addition to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and elevated preoperative creatinine. Platelet transfusion decreased the risk of infection (p = 0.02). Greater attention to management practices that limit RBC use, including cell salvage, small priming volumes, vacuum-assisted venous return with rapid autologous priming, and ultrafiltration, and preoperative and intraoperative measures to elevate hematocrit could potentially reduce occurrence of major postoperative infections. PMID:23647857

Horvath, Keith A; Acker, Michael A; Chang, Helena; Bagiella, Emilia; Smith, Peter K; Iribarne, Alexander; Kron, Irving L; Lackner, Pamela; Argenziano, Michael; Ascheim, Deborah D; Gelijns, Annetine C; Michler, Robert E; Van Patten, Danielle; Puskas, John D; O'Sullivan, Karen; Kliniewski, Dorothy; Jeffries, Neal O; O'Gara, Patrick T; Moskowitz, Alan J; Blackstone, Eugene H

2013-06-01

180

Transfusion medicine : support of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

There is still no alternative that is as effective or as well tolerated as blood; nevertheless, the search for ways to conserve, and even eliminate blood transfusion, continues. Based on hemoglobin levels, practice guidelines for the use of perioperative transfusion of red blood cells in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting have been formulated by the National Institutes of Health and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. However, it has been argued that more physiologic indicators of adequacy of oxygen delivery should be used to assess the need for blood transfusion. Methods used for conserving blood during surgery include autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution and intra- and postoperative blood recovery and reinfusion. The guidelines for the use of autologous blood transfusion are controversial and it does not appear to be cost effective compared with allogeneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Similarly, the cost effectiveness of intra- and postoperative blood recovery and reinfusion need further evaluation. Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) remains unapproved in the US for patients undergoing cardiac or vascular surgery, but it is a valuable adjunct in Jehovah's Witness patients, for whom blood is unacceptable. The characterization of darbepoetin alfa, a novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein with a 3-fold greater plasma elimination half-life compared with rhEPO, is an important advance in this field. Darbepoetin alfa appears to be effective in treating the anemia in patients with renal failure or cancer and trials in patients with surgical anemia are planned. Desmopressin has been used to effectively reduce intraoperative blood loss. Topical agents to prevent blood loss, such as fibrin glue and fibrin gel, and agents that alter platelet function, such as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) or dipyridamole, need further evaluation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Aprotinin has been shown to preserve hemostasis and reduce allogeneic blood exposure to a greater extent than the antifibrinolytic agents tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid. Controlled clinical trials comparing the costs of these agents with clinical outcomes, along with tolerability profiles in patients at risk for substantial perioperative bleeding are needed. PMID:14728016

Goodnough, L T; Despotis, G J

2001-01-01

181

Highly efficient prion transmission by blood transfusion.  

PubMed

It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely on infectious titers measured in rodent models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) using intra-cerebral (IC) inoculation of blood components. To address the biological relevance of this approach, we compared the efficiency of TSE transmission by blood and blood components when administrated either through transfusion in sheep or by intra-cerebral inoculation (IC) in transgenic mice (tg338) over-expressing ovine PrP. Transfusion of 200 µL of blood from asymptomatic infected donor sheep transmitted prion disease with 100% efficiency thereby displaying greater virulence than the transfusion of 200 mL of normal blood spiked with brain homogenate material containing 10³ID?? as measured by intracerebral inoculation of tg338 mice (ID?? IC in tg338). This was consistent with a whole blood titer greater than 10³·?ID?? IC in tg338 per mL. However, when the same blood samples were assayed by IC inoculation into tg338 the infectious titers were less than 32 ID per mL. Whereas the transfusion of crude plasma to sheep transmitted the disease with limited efficacy, White Blood Cells (WBC) displayed a similar ability to whole blood to infect recipients. Strikingly, fixation of WBC with paraformaldehyde did not affect the infectivity titer as measured in tg338 but dramatically impaired disease transmission by transfusion in sheep. These results demonstrate that TSE transmission by blood transfusion can be highly efficient and that this efficiency is more dependent on the viability of transfused cells than the level of infectivity measured by IC inoculation. PMID:22737075

Andréoletti, Olivier; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbière, Fabien; Lugan, Séverine; Costes, Pierrette; Schelcher, François; Vilette, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Lacroux, Caroline

2012-01-01

182

[Acute erythroblastopenia due to Parvovirus B19 revealing hereditary spherocytosis].  

PubMed

Acute Parvovirus B19 infection is responsible for blocking the erythroblastic line, usually with no consequences on hematopoiesis except in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia in whom it can evolve to potentially serious acute anemia. We report 2 observations of acute erythroblastopenia revealing hereditary spherocytosis in 2 children (1 boy and 1 girl) of non-consanguineous parents. PMID:21820287

Kamoun, T; Chabchoub, I; Aissa, K; Ben Mansour, L; Hachicha, M

2011-09-01

183

[Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].  

PubMed

The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments. PMID:25578550

Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

2015-02-01

184

Quality of transfusion products in blood banking.  

PubMed

The primary goal in transfusion medicine and cellular therapies is to promote high standards of quality and produce ever safer and more efficacious products. The establishment of a transfusion service quality management system, which includes several organizational structures, responsibilities, policies, processes, procedures, and resources, is now mandatory and widely regulated worldwide. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the quality system in transfusion medicine as applied to the production of blood components, including red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma. PMID:24474089

Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Turdo, Rosalia; Glingani, Claudia

2014-03-01

185

Transfusion associated circulatory overload: a critical incident.  

PubMed

Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a serious but under-recognised complication of blood transfusion. While the exact incidence rate is unknown the associated morbidity and mortality make this a transfusion reaction worthy of attention. This article provides details of a critical incident involving TACO followed by a literature review and discussion written from the perspective of a student ODP. The goal of this article is to raise awareness of TACO amongst hospital staff to facilitate faster recognition and earlier intervention in future events. PMID:24516967

Goodall, E

2014-01-01

186

Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 59 Final Diagnosis: Atyipcal hemolytic uremic syndrome Symptoms: Delirium • headache Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare disease Background: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease characterized by hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and renal dysfunction. It is a disease related to genetic mutations in the alternative complement pathway and has a distinct pathophysiology but is difficult to differentiate from other thrombotic microangiopathies. Case Report: We present a case of a 59-year-old female patient who presented with accelerated hypertension, acute renal failure, hemolysis, and encephalopathy. She was managed with antihypertensive medication, but her encephalopathy did not improve. Evaluation resulted in our impression of the disease being atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The patient continued to be managed with good blood pressure control and later was started on eculizumab, but evaluation of response to therapy was hindered by the patient’s non-compliance with therapy and follow-up appointments. Conclusions: We have a very limited understanding of the genetics and epidemiology of atypical HUS, and the overlapping clinical features sometimes delay diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment of this rare disease. PMID:25708146

Rafiq, Arsalan; Tariq, Hassan; Abbas, Naeem; Shenoy, Roopalekha

2015-01-01

187

Blood Donation and Transfusion: A Primer for Health Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a primer for health educators about blood donation and transfusion, examining the nature of human blood, the background of blood transfusion, blood donation criteria, risks related to homologous blood transfusion, directed blood donation, potential alternatives to homologous transfusion, and resources for education on the subject. (SM)

Felts, W. Michael; Glascoff, Mary A.

1991-01-01

188

[Blood transfusion, an investigation on its brief history].  

PubMed

Transfusion has developed as a practical clinical technique. Its development has experienced from ignorance to science and from cruelty to civilization for hundreds of year. Transfusion has made great contribution for saving lives and expanding operation coverage. To understand the history of transfusion, we can have reference to promote again the development of transfusion technique. PMID:11624684

Wang, B; Peng, X

2000-07-01

189

Perioperative intravenous iron: an upfront therapy for treating anaemia and reducing transfusion requirements.  

PubMed

Perioperative anaemia, with iron deficiency being its leading cause, is a frequent condition among surgical patients, and has been linked to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality, and decreased quality of life. Postoperative anaemia is even more frequent and is mainly caused by perioperative blood loss, aggravated by inflammation-induced blunting of erythropoiesis. Allogenic transfusion is commonly used for treating acute perioperative anaemia, but it also increases the rate of morbidity and mortality in surgical and critically ill patients. Thus, overall concerns about adverse effects of both preoperative anaemia and allogeneic transfusion have prompted the review of transfusion practice and the search for safer and more biologically rational treatment options. In this paper, the role of intravenous iron therapy (mostly with iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose), as a safe and efficacious tool for treating anaemia and reducing transfusion requirements in surgical patients, as well as in other medical areas, has been reviewed. From the analysis of published data and despite the lack of high quality evidence in some areas, it seems fair to conclude that perioperative intravenous iron administration, with or without erythropoiesis stimulating agents, is safe, results in lower transfusion requirements and hastens recovery from postoperative anaemia. In addition, some studies have reported decreased rates of postoperative infection and mortality, and shorter length of hospital stay in surgical patients receiving intravenous iron. PMID:23588429

Muñoz, M; Gómez-Ramírez, S; Martín-Montañez, E; Pavía, J; Cuenca, J; García-Erce, J A

2012-01-01

190

Transfusion-Transmitted Babesia spp.: Bull's-Eye on Babesia microti  

PubMed Central

Summary: Babesia spp. are intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of animals and humans that cause babesiosis, a zoonotic disease transmitted primarily by tick vectors. Although a variety of species or types of Babesia have been described in the literature as causing infection in humans, the rodent parasite Babesia microti has emerged as the focal point of human disease, especially in the United States. Not only has B. microti become established as a public health concern, this agent is increasingly being transmitted by blood transfusion: estimates suggest that between 70 and 100 cases of transfusion-transmitted Babesia (TTB) have occurred over the last 30 years. A recent upsurge in TTB cases attributable to B. microti, coupled with at least 12 fatalities in transfusion recipients diagnosed with babesiosis, has elevated TTB to a key policy issue in transfusion medicine. Despite clarity on a need to mitigate transmission risk, few options are currently available to prevent the transmission of B. microti by blood transfusion. Future mitigation efforts may stress serological screening of blood donors in regionalized areas of endemicity, with adjunct nucleic acid testing during the summer months, when acute infections are prevalent. However, several hurdles remain, including the absence of a licensed blood screening assay and a thorough cost-benefit analysis of proposed interventions. Despite current obstacles, continued discussion of TTB without proactive intervention is no longer a viable alternative. PMID:21233506

Leiby, David A.

2011-01-01

191

Transfusion-transmitted Babesia spp.: bull's-eye on Babesia microti.  

PubMed

Babesia spp. are intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of animals and humans that cause babesiosis, a zoonotic disease transmitted primarily by tick vectors. Although a variety of species or types of Babesia have been described in the literature as causing infection in humans, the rodent parasite Babesia microti has emerged as the focal point of human disease, especially in the United States. Not only has B. microti become established as a public health concern, this agent is increasingly being transmitted by blood transfusion: estimates suggest that between 70 and 100 cases of transfusion-transmitted Babesia (TTB) have occurred over the last 30 years. A recent upsurge in TTB cases attributable to B. microti, coupled with at least 12 fatalities in transfusion recipients diagnosed with babesiosis, has elevated TTB to a key policy issue in transfusion medicine. Despite clarity on a need to mitigate transmission risk, few options are currently available to prevent the transmission of B. microti by blood transfusion. Future mitigation efforts may stress serological screening of blood donors in regionalized areas of endemicity, with adjunct nucleic acid testing during the summer months, when acute infections are prevalent. However, several hurdles remain, including the absence of a licensed blood screening assay and a thorough cost-benefit analysis of proposed interventions. Despite current obstacles, continued discussion of TTB without proactive intervention is no longer a viable alternative. PMID:21233506

Leiby, David A

2011-01-01

192

[Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes].  

PubMed

The association between autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AHA) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) was found in seven out of 156 patients with SMD who received several transfusions as supportive therapy. Three patients were diagnosed of refractory anaemia (RA), three more of refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB) and one of refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS). All patients showed a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and the presence of anti-red blood cell IgG type antibodies, both in serum and eluate. Clinically, three patients showed signs of low grade haemolysis. It is suggested that in the reported patients, who seem to be immunologically predisposed, red blood cell transfusions could trigger the autoantibodies and the AHA development. PMID:2617384

Martín Vega, C; Vallespí, T; Juliá, A; Zuazu, J; Torrabadella, M

1989-10-01

193

Thromboelastography-Guided Transfusion Algorithm Reduces Transfusions in Complex Cardiac Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfusion therapy after cardiac surgery is empirically guided, partly due to a lack of specific point-of-care hemo- stasis monitors. In a randomized, blinded, prospective trial, we studied cardiac surgical patients at moderate to high risk of transfusion. Patients were randomly assigned to either a thromboelastography (TEG)-guided transfu- sion algorithm (n 5 53) or routine transfusion therapy (n 5 52) for

Linda Shore-Lesserson; Heather E. Manspeizer; Marietta DePerio; Sanjeev Francis; Frances Vela-Cantos; M. Arisan Ergin

1999-01-01

194

Blood doping: the flip side of transfusion and transfusion alternatives.  

PubMed

Blood doping in sports has been a hot topic of present. Longitudinal follow up of hematological parameters in different endurance sports, during the 1990s and early 2000s, has provided considerable suspicions about extensive blood manipulation, with performance enhancing effects. Recent doping revelations in the media also prove that blood doping is not an anticipated myth but it is, in fact, real. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents and autologous blood transfusions are used in synergy with substantial effect on the maximum oxygen uptake and delivery to muscles. Whilst both methods of blood manipulation represent a potential health hazard, in the context of an elevated hematocrit, nevertheless despite a number of suspicious deaths amongst athletes, this has not yet been fully documented. A reliable test for detection of recombinant human erythropoietin was implemented in 2000, but this is probably circumvented by microdose regimens. The Athlete's Biological Passport represents the progeny of the idea of an indirect approach based on long term monitoring of hematological parameters, thus making it possible to detect autologous blood doping and erythropoietin use after the substance is excreted. Nevertheless with advances in anti-doping measures it is possible that the levels of excretion of substances used can be masked. Clearly more sensitive and specific diagnostic tools and research/development in these areas of major concern are warranted, which, combined with changes in the athlete's attitude, will help in reaching the vision of fair play. PMID:23791798

Cacic, Daniel Limi; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard

2013-08-01

195

Transfusion Practices in Postpartum Haemorrhage: a Population-Based Study1 Running headline: Transfusion in Postpartum Haemorrhage3  

E-print Network

-00809169,version1-8Apr2013 #12;4 Abstract1 2 Objective: To describe transfusion practices and blood loss the rate of red blood cell (RBC)8 transfusion in PPH overall and according to transfusion guidelines. Transfusion practices and9 blood loss severity were described by mode of delivery and cause of PPH in women

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

[Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and CREST syndrome].  

PubMed

There are few studies addressing the frequency and etiology of anemia in progressive systemic sclerosis. Anemia is present in about 25% of these patients. Among the implicated causes are ferropenia, generally associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and renal failure. In a considerable number of patients, the specific etiology of anemia remained unknown. We report a 59-year-old female with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and incomplete CREST syndrome. We emphasize the rarity of autoimmune hemolysis as a cause of anemia in systemic sclerosis, and we discuss its significance as indirectly supporting the possible autoimmune pathogenesis of that condition. PMID:2201843

Jordana, R; Tolosa, C; Selva, A; Ordi, J

1990-05-19

197

Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Uncompensated autoantibody-mediated red blood cell (RBC) consumption is the hallmark of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Classification of AIHA is pathophysiologically based and divides AIHA into warm, mixed or cold-reactive subtypes. This thermal-based classification is based on the optimal autoantibody-RBC reactivity temperatures. AIHA is further subcategorized into idiopathic and secondary with the later being associated with a number of underlying infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. In most cases AIHA is confirmed by a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). The standard therapeutic approaches to treatment of AIHA include corticosteroids, splenectomy, immunosuppressive agents and monoclonal antibodies. PMID:24418298

Bass, Garrett F; Tuscano, Emily T; Tuscano, Joseph M

2014-01-01

198

Older Blood Just as Good for Transfusions  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Older Blood Just as Good for Transfusions Canadian study found no significant ... been stored for a few weeks is just as beneficial as fresh blood for patients with life- ...

199

[Correct preparation of a transfusion: Part 1].  

PubMed

The administration of blood products is strictly regulated. Several weeks before the operation the preparation for transfusion begins with optimizing the patient's hematological and hemostaseological situation. In elective surgery blood group testing and antibody screening are performed soon after admission of the patient. The identification of the blood sample is important. Informed consent of the recipient has to be obtained. On the day before the operation a further blood sample is necessary for cross-matching if red blood cells are to be transfused. Usually blood products are issued for immediate administration. Before transfusion begins the blood product has to be checked, the identity of the patient must be controlled and in the case of red blood cell transfusions the AB0 bedside test has to be performed. PMID:25085082

Strobel, E; Henschler, R

2014-09-01

200

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a rare condition that occurs only in identical twins while they are in the womb. ... TTTS occurs when the blood supply of one twin moves to the other the shared placenta. The ...

201

Attending rounds: microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with renal insufficiency.  

PubMed

The classification of thrombotic microangiopathy has evolved and expanded due to treatment and advances in understanding of the diseases associated with this clinical presentation. The three clinical forms of thrombotic microangiopathy-thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and disseminated intravascular coagulation-encompass a wide range of disorders that can be classified as either primary (idiopathic) or secondary to another identifiable disease or clinical context. Identification of an inhibitor to a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) in the idiopathic and acute forms of TTP, recognition of the absence of ADAMTS13 inhibition in diarrheal HUS, identification of complement abnormalities in atypical HUS, and a better understanding of the role of plasma therapy, rituximab, and eculizumab therapy have all had a major effect on current understanding of the thrombotic microangiopathies. In this Attending Rounds, a patient with a thrombotic microangiopathy is presented, along with discussion highlighting the difficulty of differentiating TTP from HUS and disseminated intravascular coagulation, the need for a prompt diagnosis, and the role for plasma therapy in appropriately selected patients. The discussion attempts to provide a simple clinical approach to the diagnosis, treatment options, and future course of adults and children suffering from a thrombotic microangiopathy. PMID:22193233

Clark, William F; Hildebrand, Ainslie

2012-02-01

202

Hemorrhagic retinopathy in an infant with hemolytic-uremic syndrome.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 23-month-old female infant with a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemorrhagic retinopathy. The patient had a past history of abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and acute renal failure. On ophthalmologic examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed extensive areas of flame-shaped hemorrhage, cotton wool spots, macular edema and optic nerve head neovascularization in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography showed severe bilateral retinal ischemia and neovascularization leakage in disk. The patient, who had the visual acuity of 20/1000 in the right eye (OD) and 20/540 in the left eye (OS) at the first examination, was treated with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and presented at the end of the 6th month of follow-up improvement to 20/540 in OD and 20/270 in OS. There was also a regression of disc neovascularization, hemorrhages and macular edema. Despite intense retinal ischemia, there were no complications related to angiogenesis such as vitreous hemorrhage and/or neovascular glaucoma. We describe, in this report, the association between hemorrhagic retinopathy with features of Purtscher-like disease and HUS. PMID:25627190

Geraissate, João Caetano Ávila; Yamamoto, Rafael Eidi; Isaac, David Leonardo Cruvinel; Ávila, Marcos Pereira de

2014-12-01

203

Transfusion and coagulation management in liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

There is wide variation in the management of coagulation and blood transfusion practice in liver transplantation. The use of blood products intraoperatively is declining and transfusion free transplantations take place ever more frequently. Allogenic blood products have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality. Primary haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis are altered by liver disease. This, combined with intraoperative disturbances of coagulation, increases the risk of bleeding. Meanwhile, the rebalancing of coagulation homeostasis can put patients at risk of hypercoagulability and thrombosis. The application of the principles of patient blood management to transplantation can reduce the risk of transfusion. This includes: preoperative recognition and treatment of anaemia, reduction of perioperative blood loss and the use of restrictive haemoglobin based transfusion triggers. The use of point of care coagulation monitoring using whole blood viscoelastic testing provides a picture of the complete coagulation process by which to guide and direct coagulation management. Pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs to reduce fibrinolysis, and rarely, the use of recombinant factor VIIa. Factor concentrates are increasingly used; fibrinogen concentrates to improve clot strength and stability, and prothrombin complex concentrates to improve thrombin generation. Non-pharmacological methods to reduce blood loss include surgical utilisation of the piggyback technique and maintenance of a low central venous pressure. The use of intraoperative cell salvage and normovolaemic haemodilution reduces allogenic blood transfusion. Further research into methods of decreasing blood loss and alternatives to blood transfusion remains necessary to continue to improve outcomes after transplantation. PMID:24876736

Clevenger, Ben; Mallett, Susan V

2014-01-01

204

Generation of hemolytic activity in ozone-treated phosphatidylcholine  

SciTech Connect

When liposomes prepared from purified soybean phosphatidylcholine were treated with ozone, at least two types of hemolytic agents were formed. One type was stable at 0 degree C but was destroyed rapidly at 37 degrees C. A second type was evolved during storage of ozone-treated phosphatidylcholine at 37 degrees C in the absence of EDTA. This study is concerned mainly with the heat-labile type. The hemolytic activity was not associated with lipid hydroperoxides. A number of substances were shown to inhibit the hemolytic activity and these may be divided into two classes. The first included cysteine, polyamines, n-heptylamine, semicarbazide, and tryptophan. Preincubation of the ozone-treated phosphatidylcholine was necessary with a Class 1 inhibitor, presumably for the interaction of the inhibitor with a functional group of the hemolytic agents. The Class II inhibitors, including BHT and vitamin C, required no preincubation. These possibly abolished the hemolytic activity by scavenging free radicals in the process.

Butterman, J.; Chan, P.C.; Kesner, L.

1987-04-01

205

Immunotherapy Treatments of Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA) is one of four clinical types of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), with the characteristics of autoantibodies maximally active at body temperature. It produces a variable anemia—sometimes mild and sometimes severe. With respect to the absence or presence of an underlying condition, WAIHA is either idiopathic (primary) or secondary, which determines the treatment strategies in practice. Conventional treatments include immune suppression with corticosteroids and, in some cases, splenectomy. In recent years, the number of clinical studies with monoclonal antibodies and immunosuppressants in the treatment of WAIHA increased as the knowledge of autoimmunity mechanisms extended. This thread of developing new tools of treating WAIHA is well exemplified with the success in using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, Rituximab. Following this success, other treatment methods based on the immune mechanisms of WAIHA have emerged. We reviewed these newly developed immunotherapy treatments here in order to provide the clinicians with more options in selecting the best therapy for patients with WAIHA, hoping to stimulate researchers to find more novel immunotherapy strategies. PMID:24106518

Gu, Wangang

2013-01-01

206

[Hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia associated with anti-omeprazole antibody].  

PubMed

An 80-year-old woman was admitted with anemia, jaundice and a bleeding tendency about 5 weeks after starting omeprazole. On admission, the hemoglobin was 6.4 g/dl, platelets 0.1 x 10(4)/microliter, leukocyte count 7,500/microliter, and reticulocyte count 325/1000. The total bilirubin was 1.9 mg/dl, indirect bilirubin 0.6 mg/dl, lactate dehydrogenase 572 IU/l, and haptoglobin < 10 mg/dl. Both the direct and the indirect Coombs' tests were positive. The platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG) was 1,100.0 ng/10(7) cells. A decrease in the complement value was observed. There was an increase in the number of megakaryocytes and erythroblasts in the marrow film. After omeprazole administration was halted, her hemoglobin and platelet levels gradually returned to normal. On the 27th hospital day, the direct Coombs' test was positive but the indirect Coombs' test became negative. The PAIgG value also returned to normal, and she was discharged on the 59th hospital day. The acute phase of the drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test was negative, however, we detected the IgG antibody to omeprazole. In the recovery phase, the IgG value decreased. Forty days after discharge, the direct Coombs' test had become negative. This is apparently the first report of a patient with acute hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia due to omeprazole through an immune complex mechanism. PMID:9695674

Hayashibara, T

1998-06-01

207

Efficacy of eculizumab in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria requiring transfusions 14 years after a diagnosis in childhood.  

PubMed

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired clonal disorder characterized by chronic complement-mediated hemolysis. The humanized anti-C5 antibody eculizumab binds to the C5 protein and suppresses hemolysis by inhibiting C5b-9 generation. Here, we report on a 27-year-old woman who was found to have PNH in 1997 (at 13 years of age), without subsequent transfusions, thrombosis, or renal disorder. She had been experiencing frequent malaise and fatigue and was sometimes unable to participate in social activities. She had also experienced repeated hemolytic episodes due to infection, and the hemoglobin level had decreased from 7.0 to 5.0 g/dL several times since February 2010. Red blood cell transfusion was necessary, and 6 months later, treatment with eculizumab was started. The hemoglobin level stabilized, and the patient became transfusion-independent. Furthermore, the patient showed significant improvements in fatigue scale scores and quality of life. Six months after the start of eculizumab therapy, the percentage of PNH-type red blood cells was found to have increased from 82.0% (1.95 × 10(12) cells/L) to 89.1% (2.78 × 10(12) cells/L). Furthermore, during treatment with eculizumab, intravascular hemolysis occurred due to a viral infection accompanied by a high fever. We also observed a persistent elevation in reticulocytes and total bilirubin levels, as well as a persistent reduction in haptoglobin levels. Extravascular hemolytic findings were also observed. Because treatment with eculizumab was started at a young age (27 years) and will be continued for many years, careful observation of the patient is required. PMID:23657069

Ueda, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Jun; Yamanishi, Miho; Maeda, Miho; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka

2013-01-01

208

Factor IX levels in patients with hemophilia B (Christmas disease) following transfusion with concentrates of factor IX or fresh frozen plasma (FFP).  

PubMed

There has been no systematic re-examination of variables that may affect the level and duration of response of patients with hemophilia B (Christmas disease) to transfusion. Therefore, 49 of our transfusion episodes and 171 previously reported transfusions were evaluated. Mean calculated initial increase of Factor IX levels (delta %/unit (U) of procoagulant activity infused/kg) was 0.82 +/- 0.09% (mean +/-S.E.) in previously reported cases and 1.01 +/- 0.13% in our patients, after transfusion of concentrate; but only 0.05 +/- 0.11% after fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Response was not altered by acute hemorrhage, baseline Factor IX levels, or body weight. Proplex (Hyland) and Konyne (Cutter) produced similar responses. Following transfusion, the disappearance curve was biphasic. The mean T1/2 for the second component was 27.5 hrs, but the direct T1/2 was only 6.4 +/- 1.0 hr. Regardless of common clinical variables, increase of Factor IX following transfusion of American concentrates is 1.0% (or 0.01 U)/1 administered/kg. Appropriate frequency of transfusion depends upon an understanding of the biphasic disappearance of Factor IX. Importantly, the initial frequency of transfusion therapy should be based on a direct T1/2 of only 6 to 8 hrs. PMID:859444

Zauber, N P; Levin, J

1977-05-01

209

[History of blood transfusion--development and future of blood transfusion in Japan].  

PubMed

Blood was mentioned as possible therapeutic measures throughout human history. However modern blood transfusion medicine has developed only during the 20th century. In Japan, blood transfusion was tried since 1919 by several surgeons who had experienced during World War I in Europe. In 1930, the Prime Minister, Osachi Hamaguchi, was shot and became shock for intra-abdominal bleeding. He was saved by the blood transfusion by his son. This affair made Japanese people know the value of blood transfusion. After World War II (1945), blood transfusion has come into wide use in Japan. But posttransfusion infections, for example, hepatitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus I infection have been big problems these 30 years. We must try to make this life-saving treatment safer whenever possible. PMID:9301276

Miura, A B

1997-09-01

210

Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins  

PubMed Central

Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG) component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT), antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2) had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia) due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well. PMID:25722586

Arora, Satyam; Doda, Veena; Maria, Arti; Kotwal, Urvershi; Goyal, Saurabh

2015-01-01

211

Transfusion requirements in septic shock (TRISS) trial - comparing the effects and safety of liberal versus restrictive red blood cell transfusion in septic shock patients in the ICU: protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) is recommended in septic shock and the majority of these patients receive RBC transfusion in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, benefit and harm of RBCs have not been established in this group of high-risk patients. Methods/Design The Transfusion Requirements in Septic Shock (TRISS) trial is a multicenter trial with assessor-blinded outcome assessment, randomising 1,000 patients with septic shock in 30 Scandinavian ICUs to receive transfusion with pre-storage leuko-depleted RBC suspended in saline-adenine-glucose and mannitol (SAGM) at haemoglobin level (Hb) of 7 g/dl or 9 g/dl, stratified by the presence of haematological malignancy and centre. The primary outcome measure is 90-day mortality. Secondary outcome measures are organ failure, ischaemic events, severe adverse reactions (SARs: anaphylactic reaction, acute haemolytic reaction and transfusion-related circulatory overload, and acute lung injury) and mortality at 28 days, 6 months and 1 year. The sample size will enable us to detect a 9% absolute difference in 90-day mortality assuming a 45% event rate with a type 1 error rate of 5% and power of 80%. An interim analysis will be performed after 500 patients, and the Data Monitoring and Safety Committee will recommend the trial be stopped if a group difference in 90-day mortality with P ?0.001 is present at this point. Discussion The TRISS trial may bridge the gap between clinical practice and the lack of efficacy and safety data on RBC transfusion in septic shock patients. The effect of restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion strategy on mortality, organ failure, ischaemic events and SARs will be evaluated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01485315. Registration date 30 November 2011. First patient was randomised 3 December 2011. PMID:23702006

2013-01-01

212

Exchange transfusion in severe falciparum malaria.  

PubMed

Malaria associated with complications or a fatal outcome is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The mortality due to this disease is parallel to the degree of parasitemia. Successful use of exchange blood transfusion as a therapeutic adjunct for this infection was reported. The rationale for this form of therapy is based on (1) rapid reduction in parasite load by exchange transfusion, (2) removal of toxic substances and (3) reducing microcirculatory sludging. We describe here thirteen cases of severe falciparum malaria treated with infusion of quinine dihydrochloride and exchange transfusion 2,320-8,000 ml of whole blood. We observed that the greatest reduction in the average circulating infected red blood cells, from 20.7 per cent to 9.3 per cent, seemed to occur early in the first 2,000 ml of blood exchange and the parasitemia often reduced to 5.1 per cent in patients who had 4,000 ml of blood exchange. In order to reduce the initial parasitemia to 5 per cent by exchange transfusion, we suggest the volume of exchange transfusion should be 2,000 ml for average parasitemia 10 per cent, 4,000 ml for parasitemia > 20 per cent and 2,000-4,000 ml for parasitemia 10-20 per cent. PMID:10087731

Gulprasutdilog, S; Chongkolwatana, V; Buranakitjaroen, P; Jaroonvesama, N

1999-01-01

213

Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.  

PubMed

The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. PMID:23643789

Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

2013-07-01

214

Postoperative Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Associated with Complement C3 Mutation  

PubMed Central

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) can be distinguished from typical or Shiga-like toxin-induced HUS. The clinical outcome is unfavorable; up to 50% of affected patients progress to end-stage renal failure and 25% die during the acute phase. Multiple conditions have been associated with aHUS, including infections, drugs, autoimmune conditions, transplantation, pregnancy, and metabolic conditions. aHUS in the nontransplant postsurgical period, however, is rare. An 8-month-old boy underwent surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia developed 25 days later, and aHUS was diagnosed. Further evaluation revealed that his complement factor H (CFH) level was normal and that anti-FH antibodies were not detected in his plasma. Sequencing of his CFH, complement factor I, membrane cofactor protein, complement factor B, and thrombomodulin genes was normal. His ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin-1 repeats 13) activity was also normal. However, he had a potentially causative mutation (R425C) in complement component C3. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that his father and aunt also had this mutation; however, they had no symptoms of aHUS. We herein report a case of aHUS that developed after cardiovascular surgery and was caused by a complement C3 mutation. PMID:25431709

Matsukuma, Eiji; Imamura, Atsushi; Iwata, Yusuke; Takeuchi, Takamasa; Yoshida, Yoko; Fujimura, Yoshihiro; Fan, Xinping; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Kuwahara, Takashi

2014-01-01

215

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in the Tunisian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Hemolytic uremic syndrome consists of a triad of acquired hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  Our objectives were to determine epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with atypical hemolytic\\u000a uremic syndrome (aHUS) to determine the relationship between the complement protein deficit and aHUS in the Tunisian population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied retrospectively four cases of atypical HUS in adults admitted in

Nadia LebanSabra; Sabra Aloui; Dalel Touati; Ramzy Lakhdhar; Habib Skhiri; Gerard Lefranc; Abdellatif Achour; Mezri Elmay; Margarita Lopez-Trascasa; Pilar Sanchez-Corral; Jemni Chibani; Amel Haj Khelil

2011-01-01

216

Reappraisal of the Etiology of Extracorpuscular Non-Autoimmune Acquired Hemolytic Anemia in 2657 Hospitalized Patients with Non-Neoplastic Disease  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Unlike autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), literature on the etiological study of non-autoimmune hemolytic anemia (non-AIHA) is scarce. The incidence and prevalence of non-AIHA in different geographic regions are largely unknown perhaps owing to the lack of perspective investigation and different profiles of etiologies from different geographic regions. We aimed to examine the real-world etiology or mechanisms of the non-hereditary non-AIHA from a nationwide population-based administrative claim database in Taiwan. PATIENTS AND METHODS The National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan was adopted for this research. The studied population was total inpatient claim records including both pediatric and adult patients, contributed by a population of 23 million insured individuals in Taiwan. From 2002 to 2008, we retrieved 3,903 patients having no pre-existing malignancy discharged after inpatient management for acquired hemolytic anemia, which was defined as coding in discharge diagnoses containing ICD-9-CM code 283. By contrast, ICD-9-CM code 282 and all of the sub-codes are for hereditary hemolytic anemias. RESULTS AIHA accounted for 32% of the total cases. Among 2,657 patients with non-AIHA, mechanical or microangiopathic mechanism accounted for 19% of cases; hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) 4%, hemoglobinuria because of hemolysis from external causes such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and march hemoglobinuria 7%, and chronic idiopathic hemolytic anemia or other unspecified non-AIHA 69%. We looked further for specific etiology or mechanism for this group of patients with non-hereditary extrinsic non-AIHA (n = 2,657). The explanatory disease states or conditions were splenomegaly; alcohol use disorder (spur cell hemolysis); heart-valve prosthesis; malignant hypertension; disseminated intravascular coagulation; transfusion reaction; dengue fever-induced hemolytic anemia; direct parasitization; snake, lizard, or spider bite; and Wilson’s disease with internal toxin mechanism. All these cases can explain up to 34.6% of all the non-hereditary extrinsic non-AIHA cases. Fragmentation hemolysis (HUS, heart-valve prosthesis, malignant hypertension, and disseminated intravascular coagulation) accounted for 7.4% of non-AIHA hospitalized patients with non-neoplastic disease. CONCLUSIONS This article is the first one to clearly demonstrate that the non-neoplastic-induced HUS requiring hospitalization cases in Taiwan, which has a population of over 23 million were 110 over a span of seven years, 16 cases per year. Although the etiologies of non-AIHA are well known and described in the literature, this work added the statistical percentages of the various etiologies of non-AIHA in Taiwan. PMID:24808725

Kok, Victor C; Lee, Chien-Kuan; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Lin, Che-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang

2014-01-01

217

[The importance of antenatal immunoprophylaxis for prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn].  

PubMed

Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a consequence of maternal alloimmunization against fetal red blood cell antigens. Alloimmunization against D antigen from Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is particularly important because of its strong immunogenicity. During the last few decades, the introduction of RhD prophylaxis by postpartum administration of anti-D immunoglobulin to RhD negative women, now improved with antenatal prophylaxis, has led to a dramatic decrease in perinatal mortality and morbidity from HDFN. However, severe cases have not disappeared, mostly due to prophylaxis failure. In our case, inappropriate prenatal care during the first pregnancy in an RhD negative mother resulted in primary immunization. In the next pregnancy with an RhD positive child, the mother's secondary immune response was extremely strong and led to early development of severe fetal anemia. The fetus survived thanks to the treatment with intrauterine transfusions (IUT), but they caused suppression of erythropoiesis, which lasted for months after birth. The long lasting, late anemia was treated with repeated postnatal red cell transfusions and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Despite the severity of HDFN in our case, the short-term outcome is good. The boy has normal growth until now, but due to the possibility of an adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcome, this case requires continuous follow up. It also reminds of the fact that RhD alloimmunization remains an actual problem in daily routine. Antenatal prophylaxis is a crucial step in quality care of those who are at a risk of HDFN. PMID:21568074

Starcevi?, Mirta; Mataija, Marina; Sovi?, Dragica; Dodig, Javorka; Matijevi?, Ratko; Kukuruzovi?, Monika

2011-03-01

218

Massive blood transfusion for trauma patients.  

PubMed

Transfusion of large amounts of blood products is a complex and changing practice. British and American military experience of the process in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the findings of the international CRASH 2 study (Shakur et al 2010), have led to changes in practice (Moor et al 2009). The procedure has evolved into a targeted therapy involving a selection of blood products and drugs. This article explores the practice of massive transfusion adopted by the British military in Afghanistan, including the drugs used, and describes the training given to staff in a controlled environment. PMID:22876403

Bird, James

2012-07-01

219

[Blood transfusion - safety of the inventory].  

PubMed

Over the years, transfusion medicine has been faced to many different problems, notably those related to transmission of pathogens. Major progresses have been accomplished in terms of security. However, nowadays, the discipline is confronted to the day-to-day variability and availability of blood products. More and more donors are excluded from blood donation due to various reasons, and the donor selection criteria have increased over the years, influencing the number of donors able to give blood. This paradox represents one of the constraints that transfusion medicine should resolve in the future. This paper presents some aspects either common or different between France and Switzerland. PMID:25592756

Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Danic, Bruno; Schneider, Thierry

2015-02-01

220

Minneapolis bridges falling down: emergency transfusion preparedness.  

PubMed

The 7/1/2007 bridge collapse into the Mississippi River was instructional from both a disaster response and a mass casualty transfusion response perspective. It is a well cited example of how community disaster response coordination can work well, especially following systematic preparation of an integrated response network. The blood center is and should be an integral part of this disaster response and should be included in drills where appropriate. We give personal perspectives on both the hospital and transfusion service response to this particularly dramatic event. PMID:23820433

Gorlin, Jed B; Hick, John L

2013-12-01

221

Blood Transfusion and Donation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Transfusion and Donation - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... Arabic) ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian ... Receiving Blood Transfusions Transfuzije krvi - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual ...

222

What Are the Risks of a Blood Transfusion?  

MedlinePLUS

... will have a reaction after the transfusion. Iron Overload Getting many blood transfusions can cause too much iron to build up in your blood (iron overload). People who have a blood disorder like thalassemia , ...

223

42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a facility stores or maintains blood or blood products for transfusion outside of a monitored refrigerator, the...promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to the laboratory and, as...

2011-10-01

224

Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma  

E-print Network

Abstract Introduction The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical...

Stanworth, Simon J; Morris, Timothy P; Gaarder, Christine; Goslings, J Carel; Maegele, Marc; Cohen, Mitchell J; Koenig, Thomas C; Davenport, Ross A; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Johannson, Par I; Allard, Shubha; Johnson, Tony; Brohi, Karim

2010-12-30

225

42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a facility stores or maintains blood or blood products for transfusion outside of a monitored refrigerator, the...promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to the laboratory and, as...

2012-10-01

226

42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a facility stores or maintains blood or blood products for transfusion outside of a monitored refrigerator, the...promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to the laboratory and, as...

2010-10-01

227

42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a facility stores or maintains blood or blood products for transfusion outside of a monitored refrigerator, the...promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to the laboratory and, as...

2013-10-01

228

42 CFR 493.1103 - Standard: Requirements for transfusion services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...a facility stores or maintains blood or blood products for transfusion outside of a monitored refrigerator, the...promptly identify, investigate, and report blood and blood product transfusion reactions to the laboratory and, as...

2014-10-01

229

Genetics Home Reference: Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... is caused by infection with certain strains of Escherichia coli bacteria that produce toxic substances called Shiga-like ... clotting ; cell ; chronic ; clotting ; end-stage renal disease ; Escherichia coli ; ESRD ; familial ; gene ; hemolysis ; hemolytic anemia ; idiopathic ; immune ...

230

Hemolytic Anemia Following Rasburicase Administration: A Review of Published Reports  

PubMed Central

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal complication of anticancer treatment. It is caused by the rapid death of malignant cells after initiation of cytotoxic therapy and is typically observed in patients with bulky or highly proliferative malignancies. Currently, rasburicase is one of the recommended therapies for this oncologic emergency. Although this drug is generally well tolerated among patients, there have been several reports of hemolytic anemia following rasburicase infusions. With drug-induced hemolytic anemia, the condition usually resolves shortly after the offending agent is discontinued. However, anemia that is prolonged or severe can lead to problems such as splenomegaly and rapid heart rate. This paper will review primary literature identified through PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Embase concerning the incidence of hemolytic anemia with rasburicase use. From the available data, the occurrence of hemolytic anemia will be discussed.

Nguyen, Annhien P.

2014-01-01

231

The Signaling Role of CD40 Ligand in Platelet Biology and in Platelet Component Transfusion  

PubMed Central

The CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a transmembrane molecule of crucial interest in cell signaling in innate and adaptive immunity. It is expressed by a variety of cells, but mainly by activated T-lymphocytes and platelets. CD40L may be cleaved into a soluble form (sCD40L) that has a cytokine-like activity. Both forms bind to several receptors, including CD40. This interaction is necessary for the antigen specific immune response. Furthermore, CD40L and sCD40L are involved in inflammation and a panoply of immune related and vascular pathologies. Soluble CD40L is primarily produced by platelets after activation, degranulation and cleavage, which may present a problem for transfusion. Soluble CD40L is involved in adverse transfusion events including transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). Although platelet storage designed for transfusion occurs in sterile conditions, platelets are activated and release sCD40L without known agonists. Recently, proteomic studies identified signaling pathways activated in platelet concentrates. Soluble CD40L is a good candidate for platelet activation in an auto-amplification loop. In this review, we describe the immunomodulatory role of CD40L in physiological and pathological conditions. We will focus on the main signaling pathways activated by CD40L after binding to its different receptors. PMID:25479079

Aoui, Chaker; Prigent, Antoine; Sut, Caroline; Tariket, Sofiane; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Pozzetto, Bruno; Richard, Yolande; Cognasse, Fabrice; Laradi, Sandrine; Garraud, Olivier

2014-01-01

232

Two septic transfusion reactions presenting as TRALI from a split plateletpheresis unit  

PubMed Central

Objectives We report two simultaneous cases of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis initially consistent with and diagnosed as transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). The sepsis in both cases resulted from transfusion of two split products from a single contaminated plateletpheresis unit. In each case the platelets were given along with numerous other blood products during posterior spine surgery. The discussion includes presentation, clinical course, diagnosis and similarities between sepsis and TRALI. The cases and discussion highlight the importance of considering sepsis as part of the differential for any patient believed to have TRALI with clinical features of sepsis. Data Sources Data were collected from the patients’ electronic medical records and the hospital laboratory medicine database. Conclusions Our cases highlight the importance of vigilant investigation in patients suspected of TRALI, as septic transfusions are easily missed and may mimic or coexist with TRALI. Sepsis should be strongly considered whenever clinical features such as hypotension, leucopenia and fever are noted in patients with suspected TRALI. In comparison to patients receiving red blood cells or plasma, platelet transfusion recipients are at a greater risk for sepsis from a contaminated unit. Patients developing sepsis from a contaminated blood product may meet the clinical definition of TRALI. In such cases, if the clinical syndrome is attributed solely to TRALI and bacterial sepsis is not suspected, the correct diagnosis may be missed or delayed. Consequently, appropriate treatment for sepsis would also be delayed or not provided and likely result in increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22809916

Rollins, Mark D.; Molofsky, Ari B.; Nambiar, Ashok; Pandey, Suchitra; Weiskopf, Richard B.; Toy, Pearl

2013-01-01

233

Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TAGVHD) - with reference to neonatal period.  

PubMed

Abstract Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease [TAGVHD] results from the engraftment of transfused immuno-competent cells in blood transfusion recipients, whose immune system is unable to reject them. All blood products containing viable, immuno-competent T cells have been implicated in TAGVHD. Presence of a "one-way HLA match between donor and recipient" is associated with a significantly increased risk of TAGVHD. Though sharing of haplotype is the most probable explanation, it is far from adequate. Since TAGVHD is not seen in patients with AIDS, and an acute GVHD-like syndrome has been noted in some identical twins and autologous (self) transplants, some other processes, possibly of an "autoimmune" nature are responsible for TAGVHD. Most of the cases have been reported from Japan. This clustering in space and time is rather intriguing. We offer here alternative hypothesis. Foetal and then neonatal lymphocytes exhibit tolerance towards donor cytotoxic T lymphocytes; and consequently very few cases of TAGVHD have been reported in neonates than expected. This tolerance is a part of altered immunology of pregnancy. We feel that it is possible to use maternal blood for transfusion to her newborn baby by following certain protocol and procedure and TAGVHD is no barrier. PMID:24871361

Gokhale, Sanjay G; Gokhale, Sankalp S

2014-07-01

234

A systematic review of pre-operative anaemia and blood transfusion in patients with fractured hips.  

PubMed

We systematically reviewed the observational associations of anaemia with outcomes and the effects of interventions to increase haemoglobin concentrations following hip fracture in older people. Anaemia on hospital admission was associated with increased mortality, relative risk 1.64 (95% CI 1.47-1.82), p < 0.0001. After adjustment for co-morbidities, the association of anaemia with increased mortality remained in four of eight observational studies. There was no association of postoperative transfusion with mortality after adjusting for covariates. Transfusion at 80 g.l(-1) vs 100 g.l(-1) increased acute myocardial infarction, relative risk 1.67 (95% CI 1.01-2.77), p = 0.05. Transfusion threshold was not associated with differences in other outcomes. There were insufficient high-quality studies to inform pre-operative blood transfusion or the use of peri-operative iron or erythropoietin. Studies for most interventions recruited too few participants to determine effects on infections, mortality or function. PMID:25764405

Potter, L J; Doleman, B; Moppett, I K

2015-04-01

235

Rh Disease: Intravascular Fetal Blood Transfusion by Cordocentesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 130 cordocenteses, including 96 intravascular fetal blood transfusions, were performed in 21 pregnancies complicated by red cell isoimmunization. Transfusions were commenced at 18–34 weeks’ gestation and repeated up to 7 times, at 1- to 4-week intervals. The volumes of transfused blood were 5–150 ml, the haematocrits 62–88 % and the rate of transfusions 1–15 ml\\/min. The pretransfusion

K. H. Nicolaides; P. W. Soothill; C. H. Rodeck; W. Clewell

1986-01-01

236

Hemolytic effects of water-soluble fullerene derivatives.  

PubMed

A series of water-soluble fullerene C(60) derivatives has been investigated for their cytotoxic and hemolytic properties, with the aim to correlate structure with toxicity. We observed that cationic chains induce significant toxicity while the presence of neutral or anionic moieties did not produce any response in our model. A validation of these experimental observations has been performed by theoretical studies in which hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface areas were correlated quantitatively with hemolytic properties. PMID:15615520

Bosi, Susanna; Feruglio, Luigi; Da Ros, Tatiana; Spalluto, Giampiero; Gregoretti, Barbara; Terdoslavich, Michela; Decorti, Giuliana; Passamonti, Sabina; Moro, Stefano; Prato, Maurizio

2004-12-30

237

A multicomponent hemolytic system in the pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri.  

PubMed Central

A hemolytic activity associated with postnuclear supernatant fractions of Naegleria fowleri has been partially characterized in an attempt to isolate cytolytic molecules that may participate in naeglerial cytopathogenicity. Hemolysis by naeglerial postnuclear supernatant fractions was sensitive to heat and trypsin hydrolysis, and was inhibited by divalent cations. The majority of the hemolytic activity was nonlatent and associated with a particle fraction sedimenting at 48,000 X g (maximum) for 1 h. This particle-associated hemolytic activity appears to be membrane associated, as high salt concentration, chelating agents, and pH extremes were ineffective in solubilizing the hemolytic activity, whereas treatment with 0.15% Zwittergent 3-12, a dipolar ionic detergent, results in 98% release of the sedimentable hemolysin. The sigmoidal nature of the progress curve of postnuclear supernatant hemolysis, as well as synergistic interactions between fractions of amoebal whole cell extracts, suggests that the hemolytic activity has a multicomponent nature, with at least two and possibly three components participating in the hemolytic event. The significance of these findings in the context of naeglerial cytopathogenicity is discussed. PMID:6469359

Lowrey, D M; McLaughlin, J

1984-01-01

238

Transfusion immunomodulation or TRIM: What does it mean clinically?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from a variety of sources indicate that allogeneic blood transfusions can induce clinically significant immunosuppression, as well as other effects, in recipients. This clinical syndrome is generally referred to in the Transfusion Medicine literature as transfusion-associated immunomodulation, or TRIM. TRIM has been linked to an improved clinical outcome in the setting of renal allograft transplantation. Possible deleterious TRIM-associated effects

M. A. Blajchman

2005-01-01

239

The Blood Transfusion Service Joel Umlas and Christopher P. Stowell  

E-print Network

319 Chapter The Blood Transfusion Service Joel Umlas and Christopher P. Stowell Transfusion in France using lamb's blood (1). A fourth patient died, apparently as a direct result of the procedure, which led to the banning of transfusions by the French Parliament (2). Blood banking, the stor- age

Mootha, Vamsi K.

240

An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for estimating red cell survival of transfused red cells-validation using CR-51 labeling  

SciTech Connect

The survival time of transfused red cells antigenically distinct from the recipient's red cells was determined using an indirect enzyme linked antiglobulin test. These results were then compared to those determined by Cr-51 labeling. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias and one patient (2 studies) with traumatic hemolytic anemia caused by a prosthetic heart valve were studied. Survival times were performed by transfusing a 5cc aliquot of Cr-51 labeled cells along with the remaining unit. One hour post transfusion, a blood sample was drawn and used as the 100% value. Subsequent samples drawn over a 2-3 week period were then compared to the initial sample to determine percent survival for both methods. The ELISA method for measuring red cell survival in antigenically distinct cells is in close agreement with the Cr-51 method. Although CR-51 labeling is the accepted method for red cell survival determination the ELISA method can be used when radioisotopes are unavailable or contraindicated or when the decision to estimate red cell survival is made after transfusion.

Drew, H.; Kickler, T.; Smith, B.; LaFrance, N.

1984-01-01

241

Delayed-onset hemolytic anemia in patients with travel-associated severe malaria treated with artesunate, france, 2011-2013.  

PubMed

Artesunate is the most effective treatment for severe malaria. However, delayed-onset hemolytic anemia has been observed in ?20% of travelers who receive artesunate, ?60% of whom require transfusion. This finding could discourage physicians from using artesunate. We prospectively evaluated a cohort of 123 patients in France who had severe imported malaria that was treated with artesunate; our evaluation focused on outcome, adverse events, and postartesunate delayed-onset hemolysis (PADH). Of the 123 patients, 6 (5%) died. Overall, 97 adverse events occurred. Among the 78 patients who received follow-up for >8 days after treatment initiation, 76 (97%) had anemia, and 21 (27%) of the 78 cases were recorded as PADH. The median drop in hemoglobin levels was 1.3 g/dL; 15% of patients with PADH had hemoglobin levels of <7 g/dL, and 1 required transfusion. Despite the high incidence of PADH, the resulting anemia remained mild in 85% of cases. This reassuring result confirms the safety and therapeutic benefit of artesunate. PMID:25898007

Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Thellier, Marc; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Ader, Flavie; Roussel, Camille; Sonneville, Romain; Mayaux, Julien; Matheron, Sophie; Angoulvant, Adela; Wyplosz, Benjamin; Rapp, Christophe; Pistone, Thierry; Lebrun-Vignes, Bénédicte; Kendjo, Eric; Danis, Martin; Houzé, Sandrine; Bricaire, François; Mazier, Dominique; Buffet, Pierre; Caumes, Eric

2015-05-01

242

Two cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to brucellosis: a review of hemolytic disorders in patients with brucellosis.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease associated with hemolytic complications, including thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and hemolytic anemia. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare clinical presentation of this disease. In this report, we describe the cases of two patients with brucellosis who presented with Coombs-positive AIHA. We also include a review of the literature on the hemolytic complications of brucellosis. Both patients were successfully treated with a combination of doxycycline and rifampicin in addition to steroids. In the medical literature, there are several cases of TMA associated with brucellosis, although only a few cases of Coombs test-positive AIHA have been reported. Antibiotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment, and the selection of antibiotics and duration of treatment do not differ between brucellosis patients with and without hemolysis. Although rare, the potential for brucellosis should always be kept in mind in patients who present with hemolysis, especially those living in areas where brucellosis is endemic. PMID:24881740

Eskazan, Ahmet Emre; Dal, Mehmet Sinan; Kaya, Safak; Dal, Tuba; Ayyildiz, Orhan; Soysal, Teoman

2014-01-01

243

Transmission of prion diseases by blood transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to detect infectivity in the blood of humans and animals affected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) have often been inconclusive because of the limitations of cross-species bioassays and the small volumes of blood that can be injected by the intracerebral route. A model has been developed for the experimental study of TSE transmission by blood transfusion

Nora Hunter; James Foster; Angela Chong; Sandra McCutcheon; David Parnham; Samantha Eaton; Calum MacKenzie; Fiona Houston

2002-01-01

244

Utilization Management in the Blood Transfusion Service  

PubMed Central

The scope of activity of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) makes it unique among the clinical laboratories. The combination of therapeutic and diagnostic roles necessitates a multi-faceted approach to utilization management in the BTS. We present our experience in utilization management in large academic medical center. PMID:24080431

Peña, Jeremy Ryan Andrew; Dzik, Walter “Sunny”

2015-01-01

245

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome, or TTTS, is a disease of the placenta. This condition affects twins or other multiples that share a single placenta containing blood vessels going from one baby to the other. Blood from the smaller "donor" twin is transferred to the larger " ...

246

[Some historic references to blood transfusion].  

PubMed

Remote antecedents of blood transfusion and its chronological evolution up to nouvadays are here stated. The enumeration of researchers who carried out this method presents a particular interest, as well as the elements used and the different luck they had. PMID:11625384

Jaitt, J C

1995-06-01

247

[Blood transfusion: Control of infectious risks].  

PubMed

From blood donor collection to transfusion of the recipient, there are several layers of protection of the blood supply. These measures combined with huge progresses over the three past decades in pathogen discovery and blood testing for specific pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)), provide the greatest safety. With the implementation of serological and molecular testing, at least in high-income countries, transfusion-transmitted infections have become extremely rare. However, for pathogen agents, which are not tested and especially those which are responsible for emerging infectious disease, it became apparent that full control of infectious disease had not been achieved. In addition, the immune status of the recipient has also an impact in the outcome of infectious diseases transmitted by transfusion. Blood safety is based on several measures: education and deferral of donors with risk factors for transmissible disease, blood testing, pathogen reduction interventions, and patient blood management. This paper proposes a review of the residual risk of transmission of infectious diseases by transfusion and of the additional interventions able to further reduce it. PMID:25547992

Laperche, Syria; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Morel, Pascal; Pouchol, Elodie; Pozzetto, Bruno

2015-02-01

248

Patient blood management to reduce transfusion need.  

PubMed

Patient blood management is a multidisciplinary, patient-centered approach aimed at improving patient outcomes, preserving the blood supply, and reducing costs. By identifying patients at risk for transfusion and taking steps to maintain hemoglobin concentration, manage anemia, optimize hemostasis, and minimize blood loss, clinicians can improve patient outcomes. PMID:25621967

Lynn, Shannon

2015-02-01

249

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia attributed to an intrauterine contraceptive device  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Evans syndrome is a rare condition manifested by combined autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and thrombocytopenia or neutropenia. It is often associated with other autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. CASE REPORT We describe a patient with Evans syndrome that may have been related to exposure to a polyethylene-based intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). A 26-year-old white female presented with severe, symptomatic AIHA and subsequently developed severe thrombocytopenia. She had a refractory course resistant to multiple treatments including corticosteroids, intravenous immune globulin, rituximab, splenectomy, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, eculizumab, and plasma exchange. It was then noticed that her serum autoantibody agglutinated red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) but not in the absence of PEG nor when an alternative agglutination enhancing technique, low-ionic-strength solution, was used. Therefore, her polyethylene-containing IUD, which was a polyethylene frame with a levonorgestrel-releasing device, was removed. Norgestrel-dependent, platelet (PLT)-reactive antibodies were not identified by either flow cytometry or in vivo in a NOD/SCID mouse. Testing for PEG-dependent antibodies was not possible. Remission, with no requirement for RBC or PLT transfusions and return of her hemoglobin and PLT counts to normal, followed removal of the IUD. CONCLUSION The patient’s recovery after removal of the IUD and the PEG dependence of RBC agglutination suggested a possibility that the IUD may have been a contributing factor to the etiology of Evans syndrome in this patient. PMID:25208591

Khawandanah, Mohamad O.; Weiss, Susan M.; Cherry, Mohamad A.; Maymani, Hossein; Selby, George B.; Aster, Richard H.; George, James N.; Holter Chakrabarty, Jennifer L.

2015-01-01

250

Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia  

SciTech Connect

Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

1987-12-01

251

A novel hemoglobin-binding peptide reduces cell-free hemoglobin in murine hemolytic anemia  

PubMed Central

Hemolysis can saturate the hemoglobin (Hb)/heme scavenging system, resulting in increased circulating cell-free Hb (CF-Hb) in hereditary and acquired hemolytic disease. While recent studies have suggested a central role for intravascular hemolysis and CF-Hb in the development of vascular dysfunction, this concept has stimulated considerable debate. This highlights the importance of determining the contribution of CF-Hb to vascular complications associated with hemolysis. Therefore, a novel Hb-binding peptide was synthesized and linked to a small fragment of apolipoprotein E (amino acids 141–150) to facilitate endocytic clearance. Plasma clearance of hE-Hb-b10 displayed a rapid phase t1/2 of 16 min and slow phase t1/2 of 10 h, trafficking primarily through the liver. Peptide hE-Hb-B10 decreased CF-Hb in mice treated with phenylhydrazine, a model of acute hemolysis. Administration of hE-Hb-B10 also attenuated CF-Hb in two models of chronic hemolysis: Berkeley sickle cell disease (SS) mice and mice with severe hereditary spherocytosis (HS). The hemolytic rate was unaltered in either chronic hemolysis model, supporting the conclusion that hE-Hb-B10 promotes CF-Hb clearance without affecting erythrocyte lysis. Interestingly, hE-Hb-B10 also decreased plasma ALT activity in SS and HS mice. Although acetylcholine-mediated facialis artery vasodilation was not improved by hE-Hb-B10 treatment, the peptide shifted vascular response in favor of NO-dependent vasodilation in SS mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hE-Hb-B10 decreases CF-Hb with a concomitant reduction in liver injury and changes in vascular response. Therefore, hE-Hb-B10 can be used to investigate the different roles of CF-Hb in hemolytic pathology and may have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of CF-Hb-mediated tissue damage. PMID:23125208

Hanson, Madelyn S.; Xu, Hao; Flewelen, Timothy C.; Holzhauer, Sandra L.; Retherford, Dawn; Jones, Deron W.; Frei, Anne C.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Hillery, Cheryl A.; Hogg, Neil

2013-01-01

252

Hemolytic anemia with impaired hexokinase activity  

PubMed Central

Analyses of key glycolytic intermediates in freshly drawn red cells from six related individuals suggest that decreased hexokinase activity underlies the hemolytic process in the two members with overt hemolysis. Low red cell glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) was observed not only in the anemic patients but in the presumptive heterozygotes as well and served as a useful marker for the presence of the trait. Hexokinase activity was labile in distilled water hemolysates but was only slightly low when protected by glucose, mercaptoethanol, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). Normal red cell hexokinase was demonstrated to be dependent on glucose for maintenance of activity after heating to 45°C. The cells of the proposita are unable to utilize glucose efficiently at glucose concentrations lower than 0.2 mmole/liter whereas normal cells maintain linear glucose consumption to at least 0.05 mM glucose. These qualitative abnormalities could result from the presence of a mutant hexokinase with an abnormally reactive sulfhydryl group and altered substrate affinity in the red cells of this kindred. PMID:4980929

Keitt, Alan S.

1969-01-01

253

Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival  

SciTech Connect

In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Furthermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfusion of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion or irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted.

van der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

1982-04-01

254

Alloantibodies to a paternally derived RBC KEL antigen lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn in a murine model  

PubMed Central

Exposure to nonself red blood cell (RBC) antigens, either from transfusion or pregnancy, may result in alloimmunization and incompatible RBC clearance. First described as a pregnancy complication 80 years ago, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is caused by alloimmunization to paternally derived RBC antigens. Despite the morbidity/mortality of HDFN, women at risk for RBC alloimmunization have few therapeutic options. Given that alloantibodies to antigens in the KEL family are among the most clinically significant, we developed a murine model with RBC-specific expression of the human KEL antigen to evaluate the impact of maternal/fetal KEL incompatibility. After exposure to fetal KEL RBCs during successive pregnancies with KEL-positive males, 21 of 21 wild-type female mice developed anti-KEL alloantibodies; intrauterine fetal anemia and/or demise occurred in a subset of KEL-positive pups born to wild type, but not agammaglobulinemic mothers. Similar to previous observations in humans, pregnancy-associated alloantibodies were detrimental in a transfusion setting, and transfusion-associated alloantibodies were detrimental in a pregnancy setting. This is the first pregnancy-associated HDFN model described to date, which will serve as a platform to develop targeted therapies to prevent and/or mitigate the dangers of RBC alloantibodies to fetuses and newborns. PMID:23801629

Stowell, Sean R.; Henry, Kate L.; Smith, Nicole H.; Hudson, Krystalyn E.; Halverson, Greg R.; Park, Jaekeun C.; Bennett, Ashley M.; Girard-Pierce, Kathryn R.; Arthur, C. Maridith; Bunting, Silvia T.; Zimring, James C.

2013-01-01

255

FIBTEM provides early prediction of massive transfusion in trauma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prediction of massive transfusion (MT) among trauma patients is difficult in the early phase of trauma management. Whole-blood thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) tests provide immediate information about the coagulation status of acute bleeding trauma patients. We investigated their value for early prediction of MT. Methods This retrospective study included patients admitted to the AUVA Trauma Centre, Salzburg, Austria, with an injury severity score ?16, from whom blood samples were taken immediately upon admission to the emergency room (ER). ROTEM® analyses (extrinsically-activated test with tissue factor (EXTEM), intrinsically-activated test using ellagic acid (INTEM) and fibrin-based extrinsically activated test with tissue factor and the platelet inhibitor cytochalasin D (FIBTEM) tests) were performed. We divided patients into two groups: massive transfusion (MT, those who received ?10 units red blood cell concentrate within 24 hours of admission) and non-MT (those who received 0 to 9 units). Results Of 323 patients included in this study (78.9% male; median age 44 years), 78 were included in the MT group and 245 in the non-MT group. The median injury severity score upon admission to the ER was significantly higher in the MT group than in the non-MT group (42 vs 27, P < 0.0001). EXTEM and INTEM clotting time and clot formation time were significantly prolonged and maximum clot firmness (MCF) was significantly lower in the MT group versus the non-MT group (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Of patients admitted with FIBTEM MCF 0 to 3 mm, 85% received MT. The best predictive values for MT were provided by hemoglobin and Quick value (area under receiver operating curve: 0.87 for both parameters). Similarly high predictive values were observed for FIBTEM MCF (0.84) and FIBTEM A10 (clot amplitude at 10 minutes; 0.83). Conclusions FIBTEM A10 and FIBTEM MCF provided similar predictive values for massive transfusion in trauma patients to the most predictive laboratory parameters. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:22078266

2011-01-01

256

Giant cell hepatitis with autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a nine month old infant.  

PubMed

Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) with autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare entity, limited to young children, with an unknown pathogenesis. We report the case of 9-mo old who presented with fever, diarrhea and jaundice four days before hospitalization. Physical examination found pallor, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly. The laboratory workup showed serum total bilirubin at 101 ?mol/L, conjugated bilirubin at 84 ?mol/L, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-C3d positive direct Coombs' test. The antinuclear, anti-smooth muscle and liver kidney microsomes 1 non-organ specific autoantibodies, antiendomisium antibodies were negative. Serological assays for viral hepatitis B and C, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex and Epstein Barr virus were negative. The association of acute liver failure, Evan's syndrome, positive direct Coomb's test of mixed type (IgG and C3) and the absence of organ and non-organ specific autoantibodies suggested the diagnosis of GCH. The diagnosis was confirmed by a needle liver biopsy. The patient was treated by corticosteroids, immunomodulatory therapy and azathioprine but died with septicemia. PMID:23671728

Bouguila, Jihene; Mabrouk, Sameh; Tilouche, Samia; Bakir, Dajla; Trabelsi, Amel; Hmila, Amel; Boughammoura, Lamia

2013-04-27

257

Autoimmune neurological disorders associated with group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection.  

PubMed

Although central nervous system (CNS) disorders associated with group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection occur only rarely, Sydenham's chorea is a well-recognized disease that can arise following infection. Children may develop a tic, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and extrapyramidal movement subsequent to GABHS infection. These disorders have been termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci (PANDAS). Herein we report one case each of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), PANDAS and subacute encephalitis associated with GABHS infection. To evaluate the pathogenesis of the CNS disorders associated with GABHS infection, we measured levels of neurotransmitters, cytokines, anti-neuronal autoantibodies, and performed immunohistochemistry using patient sera to stain human brain sections. All three cases showed psychiatric behavioral disorders. Immunotherapy was effective, and homovanillic acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were elevated at the acute stage in all three cases. In each case of ADEM and PANDAS, immunohistochemistry demonstrated neuronal impairment in the basal ganglia during the acute stage. Neuronal immunoreactivity was visualized in the cerebral cortex at the acute stage in the case of subacute encephalitis. There was no direct correlation between immunoreactivity of patient sera on the brain sections and positivity of anti-neuronal autoantibodies or CSF biomarkers. The results suggest that autoimmune responses may modulate neurotransmission, and the use of patient serum for immunohistochemistry is a sensitive screening method for the detection of anti-neuronal autoantibodies in CNS disorders associated with GABHS infection. PMID:23142103

Hachiya, Yasuo; Miyata, Rie; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Hongou, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Keiko; Shimoda, Konomi; Kanda, Sachiko; Hoshino, Ai; Hanafusa, Yukiko; Kumada, Satoko; Kurihara, Eiji; Hayashi, Masaharu

2013-08-01

258

Current treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Summary Tremendous advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS), an extremely rare disease. Insights into the molecular biology of aHUS resulted in rapid advances in treatment with eculizumab (Soliris®, Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc.). Historically, aHUS was associated with very high rates of mortality and morbidity. Prior therapies included plasma therapy and/or liver transplantation. Although often life saving, these were imperfect and had many complications. We review the conditions included under the rubric of aHUS: S. pneumoniae HUS (SpHUS), inborn errors of metabolism, and disorders of complement regulation, emphasizing their differences and similarities. We focus on the clinical features, diagnosis, and pathogenesis, and treatment of aHUS that results from mutations in genes encoding alternative complement regulators, SpHUS and HUS associated with inborn errors of metabolism. Mutations in complement genes, or antibodies to their protein products, result in unregulated activity of the alternate complement pathway, endothelial injury, and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits the production of the terminal complement components C5a and the membrane attack complex (C5b-9) by binding to complement protein C5a. This blocks the proinflammatory and cytolytic effects of terminal complement activation. Eculizumab use has been reported in many case reports, and retrospective and prospective clinical trials in aHUS. There have been few serious side effects and no reports of tachphylaxis or drug resistance. The results are very encouraging and eculizumab is now recognized as the treatment of choice for aHUS. PMID:25343125

Kaplan, Bernard S.; Ruebner, Rebecca L.; Spinale, Joann M.; Copelovitch, Lawrence

2014-01-01

259

Use of an identification system based on biometric data for patients requiring transfusions guarantees transfusion safety and traceability  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most serious risks of blood transfusions is an error in ABO blood group compatibility, which can cause a haemolytic transfusion reaction and, in the most severe cases, the death of the patient. The frequency and type of errors observed suggest that these are inevitable, in that mistakes are inherent to human nature, unless significant changes, including the use of computerised instruments, are made to procedures. Methods In order to identify patients who are candidates for the transfusion of blood components and to guarantee the traceability of the transfusion, the Securblood system (BBS srl) was introduced. This system records the various stages of the transfusion process, the health care workers involved and any immediate transfusion reactions. The patients and staff are identified by fingerprinting or a bar code. The system was implemented within Ragusa hospital in 16 operative units (ordinary wards, day hospital, operating theatres). Results In the period from August 2007 to July 2008, 7282 blood components were transfused within the hospital, of which 5606 (77%) using the Securblood system. Overall, 1777 patients were transfused. In this year of experience, no transfusion errors were recorded and each blood component was transfused to the right patient. We recorded 33 blocks of the terminals (involving 0.6% of the transfused blood components) which required the intervention of staff from the Service of Immunohaematology and Transfusion Medicine (SIMT). Most of the blocks were due to procedural errors. Conclusions The Securblood system guarantees complete traceability of the transfusion process outside the SIMT and eliminates the possibility of mistaken identification of patients or blood components. The use of fingerprinting to identify health care staff (nurses and doctors) and patients obliges the staff to carry out the identification procedures directly in the presence of the patient and guarantees the presence of the doctor at the start of the transfusion. PMID:19657483

Bennardello, Francesco; Fidone, Carmelo; Cabibbo, Sergio; Calabrese, Salvatore; Garozzo, Giovanni; Cassarino, Grazia; Antolino, Agostino; Tavolino, Giuseppe; Zisa, Nuccio; Falla, Cadigia; Drago, Giuseppe; Di Stefano, Giovanna; Bonomo, Pietro

2009-01-01

260

Management of patients who refuse blood transfusion.  

PubMed

A small group of people belonging to a certain religion, called Jehovah's witness do not accept blood transfusion or blood products, based on biblical readings. When such group of people are in need of health care, their faith and belief is an obstacle for their proper treatment, and poses legal, ethical and medical challenges for attending health care provider. Due to the rapid growth in the membership of this group worldwide, physicians attending hospitals should be prepared to manage such patients. Appropriate management of such patients entails understanding of ethical and legal issues involved, providing meticulous medical management, use of prohaemostatic agents, essential interventions and techniques to reduce blood loss and hence, reduce the risk of subsequent need for blood transfusion. An extensive literature search was performed using search engines such as Google scholar, PubMed, MEDLINE, science journals and textbooks using keywords like 'Jehovah's witness', 'blood haemodilution', 'blood salvage' and 'blood substitutes'. PMID:25535432

Chand, N Kiran; Subramanya, H Bala; Rao, G Venkateswara

2014-09-01

261

Pathology Case Study: Post Transfusion Hemolysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 56-year-old female with a 20 year history of systemic lupus erythematosis with a history of deep venous thrombosis and a recent myocardial infarct. Visitors are given patient history and admission data along with data results from the resulting transfusion reaction investigation. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Hari, Raj

262

Photodynamic decontamination of blood for transfusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently transfused cellular components of blood are not available in a sterile form and carry a small risk of transmitting viral and parasite diseases. Using phthalocyanines and red light, lipid enveloped viruses, e.g., HIV-1, can be inactivated in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Under conditions leading to virus sterilization the blood borne parasites Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) could be eliminated to undetectable levels (> 4 log10 kill). RBC damage during treatment could be avoided by increasing the light fluence rate to 80 mW/cm2, and by including the free radical scavenger glutathione and the vitamin E derivative Trolox during light exposure. Similar sterilization of platelet concentrates was achieved with the psoralen derivative AMT and UVA light. Platelet damage due to PUVA treatment was avoided by including the plant flavonoid rutin during irradiation. It is concluded that elimination of the risk of transmitting pathogens during blood transfusion is feasible with photochemical treatments.

Ben-Hur, Ehud; Margolis-Nunno, H.; Gottlieb, P.; Lustigman, S.; Horowitz, Bernard

1995-01-01

263

Perioperative neonatal and paediatric blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

Paediatric patients undergoing surgical procedures commonly require some volume of blood or blood component replacement in the perioperative period. Paediatric patients undergoing major surgery associated with substantial blood loss should be evaluated pre-operatively. Pre-operative correction of anaemia may be done considering the age, plasma volume status, clinical status and comorbidities. Maximum allowable blood loss (MABL) for surgery must be calculated, and appropriate quantity of blood and blood components should be arranged. Intraoperative monitoring of blood loss should be done, and volume of transfusion should be calculated in a protocol based manner considering the volemia and the trigger threshold for transfusion for the patient and the MABL. Early haemostasis should be achieved by judicious administration of red blood cells, blood components and pharmacological agents. PMID:25535431

Bharadwaj, Avnish; Khandelwal, Mamta; Bhargava, Suresh Kumar

2014-01-01

264

Management of patients who refuse blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

A small group of people belonging to a certain religion, called Jehovah's witness do not accept blood transfusion or blood products, based on biblical readings. When such group of people are in need of health care, their faith and belief is an obstacle for their proper treatment, and poses legal, ethical and medical challenges for attending health care provider. Due to the rapid growth in the membership of this group worldwide, physicians attending hospitals should be prepared to manage such patients. Appropriate management of such patients entails understanding of ethical and legal issues involved, providing meticulous medical management, use of prohaemostatic agents, essential interventions and techniques to reduce blood loss and hence, reduce the risk of subsequent need for blood transfusion. An extensive literature search was performed using search engines such as Google scholar, PubMed, MEDLINE, science journals and textbooks using keywords like ‘Jehovah's witness’, ‘blood haemodilution’, ‘blood salvage’ and ‘blood substitutes’. PMID:25535432

Chand, N Kiran; Subramanya, H Bala; Rao, G Venkateswara

2014-01-01

265

Blood transfusion before radiation for malignancies  

SciTech Connect

This editorial discusses the situation of administering blood to patients prior to radiotherapy in an attempt to increase tissue/tumor oxygen tension. The author believes that since the rate at which tumor cells consume oxygen is highly variable, the aim of achieving high cellular oxygen tension may be met better by maintaining a high blood perfusion rate. Blood volume can be maintained without relying on transfusion, and safer alternatives are available.

Hunt, T.K. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1989-10-27

266

Principles of transfusion medicine in small animals.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review was to provide the reader with an updated overview of small animal transfusion medicine, and an approach to integrating it into private practice, based on a review of the veterinary and human literature spanning the last 3 decades. Electronic, online databases that were searched included CAB International and Medline; multiple keywords or subject headings were searched that were appropriate to each of the sections reviewed: canine and feline blood groups, blood-typing and crossmatching, donors, blood collection, storage, blood components, blood transfusion, blood component therapy, blood substitutes, and adverse reactions. The safe use of blood component therapy requires knowledge of blood groups and antibody prevalence, and knowledge of the means to minimize the risk of adverse reactions by including the use of proper donors and screening assays that facilitate detection of serological incompatibility. The 2 assays available to the practitioner are crossmatching, which is readily done in-house, and blood typing. Blood typing is available in the form of a commercial testing kit, through use of purchased reagents, or via a request to an external laboratory. The risk of potentially fatal adverse reactions is higher in cats than in dogs. The decision to transfuse and the type of product to administer depend on several factors, such as the type of anemia and the size of the animal. In conclusion, transfusion medicine has become more feasible in small animal practice, with improved access to blood products through either on-site donors, the purchase of blood bank products, external donor programs, or the availability of blood component substitutes. PMID:11424576

Lanevschi, A; Wardrop, K J

2001-01-01

267

Staging of Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of sonographic and clinical parameters to develop a staging classification of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).STUDY DESIGN:Severe TTTS was defined as the presence of polyhydramnios (maximum vertical pocket of ?8 cm) and oligohydramnios (maximum vertical pocket of ?2 cm). Nonvisualization of the bladder in the donor twin (?BDT) and absence

Rubén A Quintero; Walter J Morales; Mary H Allen; Patricia W Bornick; Patricia K Johnson; Michael Kruger

1999-01-01

268

Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival  

SciTech Connect

In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Futhermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfuson of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion of irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted.

Van Der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

1982-04-01

269

78 FR 79469 - Strategies To Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions; Public Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug...Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions.'' The purpose of the public workshop...Globulin Intravenous (IGIV) (Human) infusion. Complications of hemolysis...

2013-12-30

270

[Methologic contribution to blood transfusion materials surveillance].  

PubMed

To reduce seriousness and frequency of iatrogenic risk implies prevention policies and efficient operational systems for vigilance. This risk management implies definition of precise organizations and procedures able to locate and to notify quickly undesirable events. This is the case about single use medical devices (SUMD) used in blood transfusion. This article is a contribution to the organisation of the implemented material vigilance in blood transfusion, collectively carried out with actors concerned (users, manufacturers, National Commission for Material Vigilance). It presents a lot of tools and methods to favour practices harmonization, as well as preventive a curative (specifications before purchase, main part of the quality contract between customer and supplier; internal control plan; index for medical device used in transfusion; illustrated glossaries for three main families of medical devices; index about symptomatic events; definitions of seriousness levels with their operational consequences; methods to manage a single use medical device judged as defective; tool for the review of incidents according to reference and batch). Then, the management of incidents about SUMD is presented within a material vigilance system integrated into the quality system of the institution, for user as for manufacturer. This is done in a chronological order with successively description of the incident, the assessment of the impact, the management of the associated risk, the periodical review of incidents and management of matters in dispute. PMID:11642028

Roussel, P; Pujol-Rey, A; Arzur, C

2001-08-01

271

Chikungunya virus: possible impact on transfusion medicine.  

PubMed

In recent years, large chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks originating in Kenya have spread to islands of the Indian Ocean and parts of India, Southeast Asia, and Europe. Concern of transfusion transmission has been heightened for this mosquito-borne arbovirus because of high population infection incidence during outbreaks and the high-titer viremia lasting approximately 6 days. The virus has not circulated in the Americas; however, the abundant presence of competent mosquito vectors suggests large outbreaks are possible should the virus be introduced and autochthonous transmission occur. Chikungunya virus produces a fever-arthralgia syndrome resulting in considerable morbidity and some mortality, particularly among older age groups and/or those with pre-existing conditions. Estimated transfusion risks range as high as 150 per 10 000 donations during outbreaks. Possible measures to prevent possible CHIKV transfusion transmission include deferral of symptomatic donors, discontinuing blood collections in affected areas, and CHIKV nucleic acid screening of donations. Even a relatively small outbreak in Italy resulted in considerable adverse impact on blood collections and economic consequence. Assays suitable for testing donations for CHIKV RNA are not yet available, and given the highly geographically and temporally sporadic nature of CHIKV outbreaks, there may be considerable reluctance to develop and implement them. PMID:19962571

Petersen, Lyle R; Stramer, Susan L; Powers, Ann M

2010-01-01

272

Arthrographis kalrae soluble antigens present hemolytic and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

Arthrographis kalrae is a dimorphic, cosmopolitan and neurotropic fungus that has been described as a rare human pathogen. This study investigated the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of A. kalrae cell-free antigens (CFAs). Total CFAs and their Sephadex chromatography fractions were tested on mouse erythrocytes for hemolysis and on the P3U1 cell line for cytotoxicity. Hemolytic and cytotoxic activities were detected in distinct molecular mass (MM) fractions. Additionally, antibodies against isogenic erythrocytes sensitized with CFAs (anti-E-CFAs) inhibited hemolysis but not cytotoxicity. Hemolysis was not affected by heating, and a higher reactivity was detected in the carbohydrate-rich fractions, which decreased after reduction by periodate treatment. The pioneering nature of this work is due to the demonstration of the cytotoxic activity in A. kalrae and the suggestion that this activity may be due to molecules distinct from the hemolytic factor, with the latter potentially being a component with a high MM. PMID:25449999

Nagashima, Luciene Airy; Akagi, Claudia Yuri; Sano, Ayako; Álvares e Silva, Paula Leonello; Murata, Yoshiteru; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa

2014-12-01

273

Splenic infarction in a patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and protein C deficiency  

PubMed Central

Splenic infarction is most commonly caused by cardiovascular thromboembolism; however, splenic infarction can also occur in hematologic diseases, including sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytosis, chronic myeloproliferative disease, leukemia, and lymphoma. Although 10% of splenic infarction is caused by hematologic diseases, it seldom accompanies autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with iron deficiency anemia who presented with pain in the left upper abdominal quadrant, and was diagnosed with AIHA and splenic infarction. Protein C activity and antigen decreased to 44.0% (60-140%) and 42.0% (65-140%), respectively. Laboratory testing confirmed no clinical cause for protein C deficiency, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, sepsis, hepatic dysfunction, or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Protein C deficiency with splenic infarction has been reported in patients with viral infection, hereditary spherocytosis, and leukemia. This is a rare case of splenic infarction and transient protein C deficiency in a patient with AIHA. PMID:22259634

Park, Min Yong; Kim, Jung A; Yi, Seong Yoon; Chang, Sun Hee; Um, Tae Hyun

2011-01-01

274

Coomb’s Positive Hemolytic Anemia Due To Insect Bite  

PubMed Central

Hemolytic anemia has occasionally been described in association with insect bites. The venom of certain spiders, bees and wasps, and some snakes can rarely cause intravascular hemolysis. We report here a case of Coombs positive hemolytic anemia due to an insect bite. These bites often pose diagnostic challenges and when associated with systemic manifestations necessitate early intervention. This communication reviews the clinico- hematologic spectrum in these cases and also emphasizes the need to capture the insect as identification would help in early diagnosis and management. PMID:22400097

2007-01-01

275

[Clinical effects of packed red blood cells transfusion according to storage life and time of transfusion].  

PubMed

It was studied 66 males aged 39.5±5.3 years with hemorrhagic shock II degree. Gas composition of arterial and venous blood was studied twice (before and after transfusion). It was revealed that succinct transfusion of packed red blood cells (to 2 doses) with storage life to 3 days after bleeding stop and hypovolemia filling is the most effective correction of hemorrhagic shock II degree. Replacement therapy in operating room in condition of stopped bleeding and unrepaired hypovolemia is burdening factor because it does not conducive to transfer of oxygen at the tissue level and inhibits stimulation of bone marrow in response to hypoxia. PMID:25146544

Lukach, V N; Orlov, Iu P; Dolgikh, V T; Dolgikh, T I; Glushenko, A V; Ivanov, A V

2014-01-01

276

Development and evaluation of a new paediatric blood transfusion protocol for Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe anaemia is a common childhood emergency in developing countries. Practical evidence-based guidance on when to transfuse, volume of transfusion and ideal duration of transfusion is lacking. The aim of this study is to develop a paediatric transfusion protocol for use in under-resourced environments and evaluate its usability in a busy African hospital setting. A paediatric transfusion protocol based on

B. Cheema; E. M. Molyneux; J. C. Emmanuel; B. M'baya; M. Esan; H. Kamwendo; L. Kalilani-Phiri; Hensbroek van M. B

2010-01-01

277

[Closed-loop blood transfusion management system based on PDA].  

PubMed

A closed-loop transfusion management system is constructed that covers blood preservation, transportation, transfer, distribution of blood, distribution, clinical blood specimen collection and blood transfusion process, which can monitor the implementation of doctor's advice, view the transport process of blood and blood samples, and record blood transfusion and adverse reaction information. These measurements can play a good effect in reduction of manual records and handover links in blood transfusion management, enhance the blood bank management, guarantee safely using blood, and realize the goal of real-time monitoring and closed-loop management. PMID:24409802

Chen, Yiyi; Chen, Canda; Luo, Luo; Yin, Zhou; Zhou, Min; Xie, Qiong; Xu, Min; Zhang, Qiutao

2013-09-01

278

Leukocyte Antigen and Antibody Detection Assays: Tools for Assessing and Preventing Pulmonary Transfusion Reactions  

PubMed Central

Antibodies to neutrophil and HLA antigens can cause pulmonary transfusion reactions and in some cases acute lung injury. When evaluating cases of pulmonary transfusion reactions it is often necessary to test donors for neutrophil and HLA antibodies and also type the recipient for neutrophil and HLA antigens. A variety of ELISA and flow cytometry based solid phase assays are available to test for HLA class I and class II antibodies, but not neutrophil antibodies. Screening for neutrophil antibodies requires the preparation of panels of fresh neutrophils and testing in agglutination, immunofluorescence, or flow cytometry assays. Genotyping of HLA class I and II antigens is performed with a variety of sequence specific primers, sequenced specific oligonucleotide probe and sequence based typing assays. Neutrophil specific antigens HNA-1a, -1b, -1c, -4a and -5a can be genotyped, but not HNA-2a or -3a. Phenotyping of HNA-2a can be preformed with CD177 monoclonal antibodies, but the gene encoding HNA-3a has not been identified and the genomic basis for the HNA-2a-negative phenotype in not known. In conclusion, patients and donors involved with pulmonary transfusion reactions can be quickly typed for HLA antigens and tested for HLA antibodies but testing for neutrophil antibodies and antigens requires the use of a reference laboratory. PMID:17900489

Stroncek, David F.; Fadeyi, Emmanuel; Adams, Sharon

2007-01-01

279

Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in non-bleeding ICU patients -TOPIC TRIAL: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective therapy to correct for a deficiency of multiple coagulation factors during bleeding. In past years, use of FFP has increased, in particular in patients on the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and has expanded to include prophylactic use in patients with a coagulopathy prior to undergoing an invasive procedure. Retrospective studies suggest that prophylactic use of FFP does not prevent bleeding, but carries the risk of transfusion-related morbidity. However, up to 50% of FFP is administered to non-bleeding ICU patients. With the aim to investigate whether prophylactic FFP transfusions to critically ill patients can be safely omitted, a multi-center randomized clinical trial is conducted in ICU patients with a coagulopathy undergoing an invasive procedure. Methods A non-inferiority, prospective, multicenter randomized open-label, blinded end point evaluation (PROBE) trial. In the intervention group, a prophylactic transfusion of FFP prior to an invasive procedure is omitted compared to transfusion of a fixed dose of 12 ml/kg in the control group. Primary outcome measure is relevant bleeding. Secondary outcome measures are minor bleeding, correction of International Normalized Ratio, onset of acute lung injury, length of ventilation days and length of Intensive Care Unit stay. Discussion The Transfusion of Fresh Frozen Plasma in non-bleeding ICU patients (TOPIC) trial is the first multi-center randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether it is safe to withhold FFP transfusion to coagulopathic critically ill patients undergoing an invasive procedure. Trial Registration Trial registration: Dutch Trial Register NTR2262 and ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01143909 PMID:22196464

2011-01-01

280

Method for analysis of nanoparticle hemolytic properties in vitro.  

PubMed

Hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells) in vivo can lead to anemia, jaundice, and other pathological conditions; therefore the hemolytic potential of all intravenously administered pharmaceuticals must be evaluated. Nanotechnology-derived devices and drug carriers are emerging as alternatives to conventional small-molecule drugs, and in vitro evaluation of their biocompatibility with blood components is a necessary part of early preclinical development. The small size and unique physicochemical properties of nanoparticles may cause their interactions with erythrocytes to differ from those observed for conventional pharmaceuticals and may also cause interference with standardized in vitro tests. Separating true hemolytic responses from the false-positive or false-negative results caused by particle interference is important for correct interpretation of these tests. Here we describe validation of an in vitro assay for the analysis of nanoparticle hemolytic properties and discuss observed nanointerferences with the assay. We propose alternative methods to avoid misleading results from nanoparticles and discuss the potential relevance of nanoparticle in vitro hemolytic properties to in vivo systems. PMID:18605701

Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Clogston, Jeffrey D; Neun, Barry W; Hall, Jennifer B; Patri, Anil K; McNeil, Scott E

2008-08-01

281

A hemolytic factor from Haemonchus contortus alters erythrocyte morphology.  

PubMed

A hemolytic factor from adult Haemonchus contortus caused distinct morphological changes in the surface of sheep red blood cells (RBCs). After a 15 min exposure to the hemolytic factor, hemolysis was not detected in incubation media, but RBCs were spherical in shape with numerous surface projections compared to control cells that were smooth-surfaced biconcave disks. After 30 min, a time at which significant hemolysis occurred, echinocytes were formed, and after 90 min, cells were severely disrupted with many visible holes in membranes. No RBC ghosts were observed. RBCs from four other mammalian species were lysed by the H. contortus hemolytic factor. However, the rate of hemolysis varied with a relative order of sheep approximately rabbit>goat>pig>calf. The morphology of RBCs from all four species was significantly altered after 30 min incubation with the degree of morphological changes related to the degree of hemolysis. These results support the hypothesis that the hemolytic factor acts as a pore-forming agent, although a phospholipase or other enzyme might play a role in solubilization of cell membranes. PMID:9877069

Fetterer, R H; Rhoads, M L

1998-12-15

282

Hemolytic activity of dermatophytes species isolated from clinical specimens.  

PubMed

Hemolytic activity was recently reported for several pathogenic fungal species, such as Aspergillus, Candida, Trichophyton, Penicillium and Fusarium. Based on a number of mechanistic and characterization studies, several fungal hemolysins have been proposed as virulence factors. Hemolysins lyse red blood cells resulting in the release of iron, an important growth factor for microbes especially during infection. The requirement of iron in fungal growth is necessary for metabolic processes and as a catalyst for various biochemical processes. Expression of a hemolytic protein with capabilities to lyse red blood cells has also been suggested to provide a survival strategy for fungi during opportunistic infections. The aims of this study were to investigate the hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Hair, skin and nail samples of patients were examined with direct microscopy using potassium hydroxide and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. To determine hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species, they were subcultured on Columbia Agar with 5% sheep blood and incubated for 7-14 days at 25°C in aerobic conditions. Media which displayed hemolysis were further incubated for 1-5 days at 37°C to increase hemolytic activity. In this study, 66 dermatophytes strains were isolated from clinical specimens and were identified by six different species: 43 (65.1%) Trichophyton rubrum, 7 (10.7%) Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 5 (7.6%) Microsporum canis, 5 (7.6%) Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 (6.0%) Epidermophyton floccosum and 2 (3.0%) Trichophyton violaceum. Twenty-one T. rubrum strains showed incomplete (alpha) hemolysis and nine T. rubrum strains showed complete (beta) hemolysis, whereas hemolysis was absent in 13 T. rubrum strains. Four T. mentagrophytes strains showed complete hemolysis and three T. tonsurans strains showed incomplete hemolysis. However, M. canis, E. floccosum and T. violaceum species had no hemolytic activity. Hemolytic activity is pronounced in dermatophytes and may play an important role as a virulence factor. Hemolysins produced may play an important role in the balance between the host's cellular immunity and the ability of the fungus to diminish the immune response. PMID:25467819

Aktas, E; Y?g?t, N

2015-03-01

283

An association of ABO non-identical platelet and cryoprecipitate transfusions with altered red cell transfusion needs in surgical patients  

PubMed Central

Background Transfusion of ABO non-identical plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate is routine practice even though adverse effects can occur. Methods and Materials Our hospital changed transfusion practice in 2005 and adopted a policy of providing ABO identical blood components to all patients when feasible. We retrospectively compared the transfusion requirements, length of stay, and in-hospital mortality in relation to ABO blood group in surgical patients who received platelet transfusions before and after this change to determine if it resulted in any benefit. Results Prior to the change in practice both group B and AB patients received more ABO non-identical platelet transfusion (p = 0.0004), required significantly greater numbers of red cell transfusions (p = 0.04), and had 50% longer hospital stays (p = 0.039) than group O and A patients. Following the policy change, there was a trend for fewer red cell transfusions (p = 0.17) and length of stay in group B and AB patients than group O or A patients. Overall, the mortality rate per red cell transfusion decreased from 15.2 per 1000 to 11.0 per 1000 (p = 0.013). Conclusions These results, in the context of previous findings, suggest that providing ABO identical platelets and cryoprecipitate might be associated with reduction in transfusion requirements and improve outcomes in surgical patients. PMID:21414009

Refaai, Majed A.; Fialkow, Lawrence B.; Heal, Joanna M.; Henrichs, Kelly F.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Phipps, Richard P.; Masel, Edward; Smith, Brian H.; Corsetti, James P.; Francis, Charles W.; Bankey, Paul E.; Blumberg, Neil

2010-01-01

284

Hemolytic anemias due to erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies.  

PubMed

Red blood cells can only fulfil their functions over the normal period of approximately 120 days with 1.7 x 10(5) circulatory cycles efficiently if they withstand external and internal loads. This requires ATP and redox equivalents, which have to be permanently regenerated by the energy and redox metabolism. These pathways are necessary to maintain the biconcave shape of the cells, their specific intracellular cation concentrations, the reduced state of hemoglobin with a divalent iron and the sulfhydryl groups of enzymes, glutathione and membrane components. If an enzyme deficiency of one of these metabolic pathways limits the ATP and/or NADPH production, distinct membrane alterations result causing a removal of the damaged cells by the monocyte-macrophage system. Most metabolic needs of erythrocytes are covered by glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), the glutathione cycle, nucleotide metabolism and MetHb reductase. Hereditary enzyme deficiencies of all these pathways have been identified; those that cause non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia are listed in Table 4. Their frequencies differ markedly both with respect to the affected enzyme and geographic distribution. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzymopathies (G6PD) are with more than 400 million cases by far the most common deficiency. The highest gene frequency has been found with 0.7 among Kurdish Jews. G6PD deficiencies are furthermore prevalent with frequencies of about 0.1 among Africans, Black Americans, and populations of Mediterranean countries and South East Asia. In Middle and Northern Europe the frequency of G6PD is much lower, and with approximately 0.0005, comparable with the frequency of pyruvate kinase (PK) enzymopathies, the most frequent enzyme deficiency in glycolysis in this area (Luzzatto, 1987; Beutler and Kuhl, 1990). The relationship between the degree of enzyme deficiency and the extent of metabolic dysfunction in red blood cells and other tissues depend on several factors: on the importance of the affected enzyme; its expression rate; the stability of the mutant enzyme against proteolytic degradation and functional abnormalities; the possibility to compensate the deficiency by an overexpression of the corresponding isoenzyme or by the use of an alternative metabolic pathway. Difficulties in estimating the quantitative degree of disorder in severe cases are due to the fact that these populations contain many reticulocytes, which generally have higher enzyme activities and concentrations of intermediates than erythrocytes. An alternative approach to predict metabolic changes is the analysis by mathematical modeling. Mathematical modeling of the main metabolic pathways of human erythrocytes has reached an advanced level (Rapoport et al., 1976; Holzhütter et al., 1985; Schuster et al., 1988). Models have been successfully employed to describe stationary and time-dependent metabolic states of the cell under normal conditions as well as in the presence of enzyme deficiencies. Figure 5 shows computational results of erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies. This analysis is based on the comprehensive mathematical model of the energy and redox metabolism for human erythrocyte presented in Fig. 6. Stationary states of the cell metabolism have been calculated by varying the activity of each of the participating enzymes by several orders of magnitude. To predict consequences of enzyme deficiencies a performance function has been introduced (Schuster and Holzhütter, 1995). It takes into account the homeostasis of three essential metabolic variables: the energetic state (ATP), the reductive capacity (reduced glutathione) and the osmotic state. From the data given in Fig. 5 one can conclude that generally the metabolic impairment resulting in deficiencies occurs earlier for enzymes with high control coefficients than for those catalyzing equilibrium reactions. On the other hand the flux curves of latter enzymes decrease more steeply below a critica PMID:8813716

Jacobasch, G; Rapoport, S M

1996-04-01

285

Internet-based transfusion audit system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project is aimed at developing a cost-effective working environment for the transfusion medicine specialists of American Red Cross (ARC). In this project we are developing a multimedia-based consultation environment that uses Internet and teleconferencing to increase the quality of services and to replace currently used 800 telephone lines. Through the use of Internet/LAN/ISDN the physicians can share information and references while they discuss patient cases. A multimedia interface allows the physician to access data from the office and from the house. This paper discusses the approach, current status of the project and future plans to extend the approach to other areas of medicine.

Maitan, Jacek; Haley, Rebecca

1995-03-01

286

Impairment of Bone Health in Pediatric Patients with Hemolytic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia result in impaired bone health in both adults and youths. Children with other types of chronic hemolytic anemia may also display impaired bone health. Study Design To assess bone health in pediatric patients with chronic hemolytic anemia, a cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 patients with different forms of hemolytic anemia (i.e., 17 homozygous sickle cell disease and 14 hereditary spherocytosis patients). Biochemical, radiographic and anamnestic parameters of bone health were assessed. Results Vitamin D deficiency with 25 OH-vitamin D serum levels below 20 ng/ml was a common finding (80.5%) in this cohort. Bone pain was present in 31% of patients. Analysis of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin levels indicated an alteration in bone modeling with significantly elevated RANKL/OPG ratios (control: 0.08+0.07; patients: 0.26+0.2, P?=?0.0007). Osteocalcin levels were found to be lower in patients compared with healthy controls (68.5+39.0 ng/ml vs. 118.0+36.6 ng/ml, P?=?0.0001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant (P<0.025) influence of LDH (partial r2?=?0.29), diagnosis of hemolytic anemia (partial r2?=?0.05) and age (partial r2?=?0.03) on osteocalcin levels. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were more frequently and more severely affected by impaired bone health than patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Conclusion Bone health is impaired in pediatric patients with hemolytic anemia. In addition to endocrine alterations, an imbalance in the RANKL/OPG system and low levels of osteocalcin may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25299063

Schündeln, Michael M.; Goretzki, Sarah C.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Wieland, Regina; Bauer, Jens; Baeder, Lena; Eggert, Angelika; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

2014-01-01

287

Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia  

PubMed Central

Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias. PMID:24379786

Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; van Wijk, Richard

2013-01-01

288

Pure red cell aplasia accompanied by autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with type A viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

A rare case of acute hepatitis A associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is reported. A 55-year-old woman consulted a doctor because of common cold-like symptoms and she was referred to our hospital in January 2007. Laboratory findings showed a marked elevation of serum transaminase and total bilirubin levels (AST 9,605 IU/l, ALT 5,546 IU/l and T-bil 4.14 mg/dl), and prolonged prothrombin time, findings which suggested the risk of progression to fulminant hepatitis, and she was treated with plasmapheresis and hemodialysis filtration on the first and second hospital days. She was diagnosed with severe acute hepatitis A based on the elevation of serum IgM anti-hepatitis A virus. On the 20th hospital day, her hemoglobin level began to decrease in spite of improving transaminase levels without any signs of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bilirubin and LDH elevation, haptoglobin decline and a positive direct Coombs test were detected and these findings indicated AIHA complication; however, the reticulocyte count decreased and bone marrow showed marked erythroid hypoplasia so the co-existence of PRCA was diagnosed. After oral prednisolone administration (1 mg/kg/day), her hemolytic anemia rapidly improved. PMID:19483404

Koiso, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Satsuki; Ueki, Kazue; Hamada, Tetsuya; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Murakami, Hirokazu; Nojima, Yoshihisa

2009-05-01

289

Increased bacterial infections after transfusion of leukoreduced non-irradiated blood products in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants after reduced-intensity conditioning.  

PubMed

Blood components transfused to hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are irradiated to prevent transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). The effect of transfusing non-irradiated blood products in HSCT outcome, including incidence of transplant complications, bacterial infections, acute and chronic GVHD presentation, and characteristics, has not been documented. Clinical records as well as blood bank and electronic databases of HSCT patients grafted after reduced-intensity conditioning who received irradiated versus non-irradiated blood products, after blood irradiation became unavailable at our center, were scrutinized for transplant outcome, clinical evolution, engraftment characteristics including days to neutrophil and platelet recovery, acute and chronic GVHD, rate and type of infections, and additional transplant-related comorbidities. All transfused blood products were leukoreduced. A total of 156 HSCT recipients was studied, 73 received irradiated and 83 non-irradiated blood components. Bacterial infections were significantly more frequent in patients transfused with non-irradiated blood products, P = .04. Clinically relevant increased rates of fever and neutropenia and mucositis were also documented in these patients. No cases of TA-GVHD occurred. Classical GVHD developed in 37 patients (50.7%) who received irradiated blood products and 36 (43.9%) who received non-irradiated blood products, P = .42. Acute GVHD developed in 28 patients (38.4%) in the blood-irradiated and 33 patients (39.8%) in the non-irradiation group, P = .87. The 2-year GVHD-free survival rate was 40% in the irradiated versus 40.6% in the non-irradiation group, P = .071. Increased bacterial infections were found in HSCT recipients transfused with non-irradiated blood products, which ideally must always be irradiated. PMID:25498924

Jaime-Pérez, José C; Villarreal-Villarreal, César D; Salazar-Riojas, Rosario; Méndez-Ramírez, Nereida; Vázquez-Garza, Eduardo; Gómez-Almaguer, David

2015-03-01

290

French Haemovigilance Data on Platelet Transfusion  

PubMed Central

Summary The Agence Française de Securite Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (Afssaps; French Health Products Safety Agency) is responsible, through its hemovigilance unit, for the organization and the functioning of the national hemovigilance network. In accordance with the French law, it receives all data on adverse transfusion reactions regardless of their severity. With the aim of evaluating the tolerance of two kinds of labile blood products (LBP), pooled platelet concentrates (PP) and apheresis platelet concentrates (APC), we screened the French national database from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2006. We observed that the number of transfusion incident reports is more than twice as high with APC (8.61:1,000 LBP) than with PP (4.21:1,000 LBP). The difference between these two ratios is statistically significant as shown by chi-square test (e = 21.00 with ? = 5%). The risk to suffer adverse reactions of any type, except for alloimmunization, is higher with APC, and the major type of diagnosis related to APC is allergic reaction (1:200 APC issued) even if those allergic reactions are rarely serious. The new French National Hemovigilance Commission should impel a working group evaluating this topic and above all the impact of additive solutions which have been used since 2005 to put forward preventives measures. PMID:21512639

Willaert, Béatrice; Vo Mai, Mai-Phuong; Caldani, Cyril

2008-01-01

291

Improved traceability and transfusion safety with a new portable computerised system in a hospital with intermediate transfusion activity  

PubMed Central

Background. A retrospective study carried out on medical records of transfused patients in our hospital in 2002 revealed that manual identification procedures were insufficient to offer satisfactory traceability. The aim of this study was to assess adequacy of transfusion traceability and compliance with proper identification procedures after introducing an electronic identification system (EIS) for transfusion safety. Materials and methods. The chosen EIS (Gricode®) was set up. Traceability was calculated as the percentage of empty blood units used returned to the Transfusion Service, compared to the number of supplied units. Compliance in the Transfusion Service was calculated as the percentage of electronic controls from dispatch of blood components/transfusion request performed, compared to the total number of transfused units. Compliance in the ward was calculated as the percentage of electronic controls from sample collection/transfusion performed, compared to the total number of samples collected. Results. This retrospective study showed that only 48.0% of the medical records were free of inaccuracies. After the implementation of the EIS (2005–2008), traceability was always above 99%. Percentage of monthly compliance from 2006 to 2008 was always above 93%, showing a significant trend to increase (p<0.05). The mean compliance in this period was higher in the Transfusion Service (97.8±0.7 SD) than in the ward (94.9±2.4 SD; p<0.001). Compliance in the ward was lowest when the system was first implemented (87.9% in April 2006) after which it progressively increased. No errors in ABO transfusions were registered. Conclusion. After implementation of the EIS, traceability and compliance reached very high levels, linked to an improvement in transfusion safety. PMID:21251464

Uríz, María Jose; Antelo, Maria Luisa; Zalba, Saioa; Ugalde, Nazaret; Pena, Esther; Corcoz, Andrea

2011-01-01

292

Comprehensive Multimodality Blood Conservation: 100 Consecutive CABG Operations Without Transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Despite the recent introduction of a number of technical and pharmacologic blood conservation measures, bleeding and allogeneic transfusion remain persistent problems in open heart surgical procedures. We hypothesized that a comprehensive multimodality blood conservation program applied algorithmically on the basis of bleeding and transfusion risk would provide a maximum, cost-effective, and safe reduction in postoperative bleeding and allogeneic blood

Robert E Helm; Todd K Rosengart; Maureen Gomez; John D Klemperer; William J DeBois; Ferdinand Velasco; Jeffrey P Gold; Nasser K Altorki; Samuel Lang; Stephen Thomas; O. Wayne Isom; Karl H Krieger

1998-01-01

293

Research Article Improved survival in red blood cell transfusion  

E-print Network

Research Article Improved survival in red blood cell transfusion dependent patients with primary@ providencehematology.com Abstract Many patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) become red blood cell (RBC) transfusion dependent (TD), risking iron overload (IOL). Iron chelation therapy (ICT) may decrease the risk

Strynadka, Natalie

294

[Teaching transfusion medicine research in the francophone world].  

PubMed

A two-week, French language, clinical research course in transfusion medicine has recently been created at the Pasteur Institute in Paris under the joint leadership of faculty members from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), the Blood Systems Research Institute (BSRI) and the National Institute of Transfusion of Paris. The goal is to train transfusion professionals from the developing world to conduct clinical research that will contribute to improving the quality of care and safety in transfusion practices in their respective countries. The course provides training on clinical and epidemiological research methods and their potential applications in transfusion medicine. As part of the course, each student develops a study protocol that can be implemented in his/her blood center of hospital. PMID:19640755

Lefrère, J-J; Shiboski, C; Fontanet, A; Murphy, E L

2009-01-01

295

A study in scarlet: restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy.  

PubMed

Anemia due to various etiologies occurs in critically ill patients requiring blood transfusion. Traditional transfusion goals guide our transfusion to achieve a hemoglobin goal of at least 10 g/dL. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that a restrictive transfusion goal of 7 g/dL may improve survival outcome, reduce infection, and reduce health care expenditure. Moreover, this strategy has been proven to be effective in a variety of patient population, including those who are critically ill, septic patients, those with a history of cardiac disease, those with gastrointestinal bleed, or those who suffered traumatic injury. This article reviews some of the evidence supporting the restrictive transfusion strategy. PMID:25741963

Chen, Leon

2015-01-01

296

[Occurrence and drug-resistance of beta-hemolytic streptococci].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the analysis of drug-resistance and frequency appearance of beta-hemolytic streptococci strains which were isolated in 2003-2005 in the University Hospital at the L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz University of Nicolaus Copernicus in Toru?. Among investigeted beta-hemolytic streptococci the most frequency isolated species was S. agalactiae. All isolates examined in our study were susceptible to penicillin, the higest rate of resistance was found for tetracycline. The rates of resistence to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (phenotyp MLS(B)) were as follows: S. agalactiae (18.7%), S. pyogenes (10.1%), group G streptococci (10.6%) and group C streptococci (8.0%). In our study we presented also a special case patient from which in investigeted period S. agalactiae was isolated twenty eight times. For ten chromosomal DNA isolated from this patient three different PFGE profiles were obtained. PMID:18416122

Miko?ajczyk, Dorota; Budzy?ska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Gospodarek, Eugenia

2007-01-01

297

Idiopathic immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in a calf.  

PubMed

Severe anemia was found in a 4-month-old heifer, which was admitted with a 1-day history of anorexia, signs of depression, and recumbency. A diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IHA) was made on the basis of a Coomb's titer of 1:128 and decreased resistance to osmotic stress, as determined by an RBC fragility test. Anaplasmosis and leptospirosis were ruled out as possible causes of the IHA. Other causes of hemolytic anemia, including intoxication by copper, water, Brassica spp, or drugs were ruled out. Therefore the IHA was considered idiopathic. Treatment consisted of supportive therapy, oxytetracycline, and dexamethasone. After 60 days of treatment, CBC, Coomb's test result, and RBC fragility were within normal limits. PMID:1644656

Fenger, C K; Hoffsis, G F; Kociba, G J

1992-07-01

298

A multivariate analysis to assess the effect of packed red cell transfusion and the unit age of transfused red cells on postoperative complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background: Transfusion of blood components and age of transfused packed red cells (PRCs) are independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgeries. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively examined data of patients undergoing cardiac surgery at our institute from January 1, 2012 to September 30, 2012. Details of transfusion (autologous and allogenic), postoperative length of stay (PLOS), postoperative complications were recorded along with other relevant details. The analysis was done in two stages, in the first both transfused and nontransfused individuals and in the second only transfused individuals were considered. Age of transfused red cells as a cause of morbidity was analyzed only in the second stage. Results: Of the 762 patients included in the study, 613 (80.4%) were males and 149 (19.6%) were females. Multivariate analysis revealed that factors like the number and age of transfused PRCs and age of the patient had significant bearing upon the morbidity. Morbidity was significantly higher in the patients transfused with allogenic PRCs when compared with the patients not receiving any transfusion irrespective of the age of transfused PRCs. Transfusion of PRC of over 21 days was associated with higher postoperative complications, but not with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, allogenic blood transfusion increases morbidity. The age of PRCs transfused has a significant bearing on morbidity, but not on in-hospital mortality. Blood transfusion services will therefore have to weigh the risks and benefits of providing blood older than 21 days in cardiac surgeries. PMID:25722566

Makroo, Raj Nath; Hegde, Vikas; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Arora, Bhavna; Rosamma, N.L; Thakur, Uday Kumar

2015-01-01

299

Towards the identification of autologous blood transfusions through capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The use of autologous blood transfusions by endurance athletes has remained one of the most difficult doping practices to detect. The implementation of the Athlete's Biological Passport by some sporting bodies has proved to be effective; however, the analysis relies on the long-term monitoring of numerous biological markers, looking for abnormal variations in a number of biological markers to indicate doping. This work introduces an approach to identify autologous blood transfusions by examining the red blood cells (RBCs) directly. By using high-speed capillary electrophoretic separations, the relative distribution of the sizes of the RBCs in a sample can be established in under 3 min, following the preparation of the cells. As RBCs that have been stored for transfusions undergo vesiculation, the relative size of the transfused cells differs from the native cells. The capillary electrophoretic separation allows for a rapid examination of this distribution and the changes that are seen when transfused RBCs are mixed with native cells. In this work, the effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in the identification of simulated (in vitro) autologous blood transfusions performed with blood samples from three highly trained cyclists; it was possible to rapidly identify when as little as 5 % of the RBCs in the sample were from a simulated autologous transfusion. PMID:24281324

Harrison, Christopher R; Fang, Jack Chuan-Yu; Walthall, Kimberly J; Green, Chelsea C; Porobic, Vukica

2014-01-01

300

A simple microassay for computing the hemolytic potency of drugs.  

PubMed

A simple microassay and computer program are described for determining the erythrocyte hemolytic potency of drugs in vitro. This microassay is sensitive for both micro as well as macro ranges of hemoglobin concentration. An ELISA reader has been adapted to read erythrocyte lysis (hemolysis), which reduces the number and culture of replicates. A computer program was developed that calculates parameters such as C50 (concentration of drug causing 50% hemolysis), C100 (concentration of drug causing 100% hemolysis) and beta (slope of the curve) and graphically expresses the hemolytic patterns of various drugs simultaneously. The program can obtain optical densities directly from a 96-well plate ELISA reader by interfacing the microplate reader to the computer or by using a keyboard. This method is useful for screening a large number of hemolytic drugs and requires lower amounts of test compounds. It may also be applicable to quantitative functional assays, such as complement-mediated hemolysis and enumeration of antibody-secreting cells. The program can be obtained from the authors on request. PMID:7873185

Raghava, G P; Goel, A; Singh, A M; Varshney, G C

1994-12-01

301

Hemolytic venoms from marine cnidarian jellyfish – an overview  

PubMed Central

Cnidarian jellyfish are viewed as an emergent problem in several coastal zones throughout the world. Recurrent outbreaks pose a serious threat to tourists and bathers, as well as to sea-workers, involving health and economical aspects. As a rule, cnidarian stinging as a consequence of nematocyst firing induces merely local symptoms but cardiovascular or neurological complications can also occur. Hemolysis is a frequent effect of cnidarian stinging; this dangerous condition is known to be caused by several venoms and can sometimes be lethal. At present, the bulk of data concerning hemolytic cnidarian venoms comes from the study of benthic species, such as sea anemones and soft corals, but hemolytic factors were found in venoms of several siphonophore, cubozoan and scyphozoan jellyfish, which are mainly involved in the envenomation of bathers and sea-workers. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the scientific literature concerning the hemolytic venoms from cnidarian jellyfish taking into consideration their importance in human pathology as well as health implications and possible therapeutic measures. PMID:25386336

Mariottini, Gian Luigi

2014-01-01

302

Neonatal thrombocytopenia and platelet transfusion - a UK perspective.  

PubMed

Five percent of newborn infants admitted to UK neonatal units during a recent study developed a platelet count <60 × 10(9)/l, and 60% of these were transfused platelets. This review summarises the common causes and mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in the newborn. Relevant evidence relating the platelet count to the risk of haemorrhage is reviewed, and current UK guidance on transfusion thresholds outlined. The UK policy for the provision of platelets for transfusion to neonates is described, including the particular requirements for neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia. Finally, we look towards the future and prospects for reducing the need to expose newborns to donor-derived platelets. PMID:25301082

Carr, Robert; Kelly, Anne M; Williamson, Lorna M

2015-01-01

303

Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease  

SciTech Connect

The clinical pathologic syndrome of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is usually a sequela of bone marrow transplantation. This disorder occurs as a result of recognition by engrafted donor-derived lymphocytes of foreign recipient transplantation antigens. GVHD may also result from engraftment of lymphocytes from other sources, including (1) transfusion of lymphocytes containing blood components, (2) transplacental maternal fetal transfusion, and (3) passive transfer of lymphocytes in solid organ transplantation. The recipients are usually severely immunodeficient and thus incapable of rejecting the transfused lymphocytes. This syndrome may, however, also develop in immunologically competent patients receiving blood products from individuals with histocompatibility antigens not recognized as foreign. 58 refs.

Rappeport, J.M. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-09-01

304

Massive transfusion and coagulopathy: pathophysiology and implications for clinical management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a Purpose  To review the pathophysiology of coagulopathy in massively transfused, adult and previously hemostatically competent patients\\u000a in both elective surgical and trauma settings, and to recommend the most appropriate treatment strategies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Medline was searched for articles on “massive transfusion,” “transfusion,” “trauma,” “surgery,” “coagulopathy” and “hemostatic\\u000a defects.” A group of experts reviewed the findings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Principal findings  Coagulopathy will result from hemodilution, hypothermia,

Jean-François Hardy; Philippe de Moerloose; Charles Marc Samama

2006-01-01

305

Group G Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Bacteremia Characterized by 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the relative importance of the four species of Lancefield group G beta-hemolytic streptococci in causing bacteremia and the factors that determine the outcome for patients with group G beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia. From 1997 to 2000, 75 group G beta-hemolytic streptococcal strains were isolated from the blood cultures of 66 patients. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes

PATRICK C. Y. WOO; AMI M. Y. FUNG; SUSANNA K. P. LAU; SAMSON S. Y. WONG; KWOK-YUNG YUEN

2001-01-01

306

Abstract. Objective and Design: Post transfusion infectious complications associated with allogeneic blood components  

E-print Network

-40 accumulation during storage of erythrocyte compo- nents. Key words: Blood transfusion ­ YKL-40 to blood transfusion are still not known in details, but transfusion-induced impaired immune competence morbidity and mortality in relation to blood transfusion may be related to storage time of the trans- fused

Price, Paul A.

307

Randomized trial comparing packed red cell blood transfusion with and without leukocyte depletion for gastrointestinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic transfusion is associated with postoperative infections that significantly prolong hospital stays and increase costs. Recent studies suggest that filtering leukocytes from blood prior to transfusion reduces the risk of postoperative infection associated with blood transfusion. We compared the incidence of postoperative infections, hospital stays, and hospital charges of gastrointestinal surgery patients transfused with packed red cells or leukocyte-depleted

Paul Ian Tartter; Kala Mohandas; Penny Azar; Jill Endres; Jess Kaplan; Morton Spivack

1998-01-01

308

Process Programming to Support Medical Safety: A Case Study on Blood Transfusion  

E-print Network

Process Programming to Support Medical Safety: A Case Study on Blood Transfusion Lori A. Clarke1 transfusion process. In-patient blood transfusion plays a vital process in modern health systems. Although in-patient blood transfusion errors are rare, when they do oc- cur, they can result in death and are among the most

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

309

Compatible Transfusion Therapy for Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are case histories of two children, ages 2 and 4 years, with paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH, a syndrome characterized by acute intravascular hemoglobin dissolution and hemoglobin in the urine). (Author/CL)

Rausen, Aaron R.; And Others

1975-01-01

310

Geographical variations in current clinical practice on transfusions and iron chelation therapy across various transfusion-dependent anaemias  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Many patients with chronic anaemia require blood transfusions as part of their treatment regimen. As a result, iron overload will inevitably develop if not adequately managed by iron chelation therapy. There are many guidelines relating to transfusion and chelation practices for patients with transfusion-dependent anaemia; however, there is a lack of information on how treatment practices differ around the world. The objective of this manuscript is to highlight key features of current transfusion and chelation management, including similarities and differences across various anaemias and between geographical regions worldwide. Materials and methods Data collected at study entry to the multicentre Evaluation of Patients’ Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC) study, which recruited 1,744 patients with a variety of transfusion-dependent anaemias across 23 countries from three geographic regions, were assessed. These analyses compared transfusion and chelation treatment prior to the start of study treatment, together with iron burden assessed at study entry by serum ferritin, liver iron concentration and labile plasma iron levels. Results and conclusions Data show that transfusion and iron chelation practices differ between anaemias and between geographical regions; this may be linked to availability and accessibility of transfusion and chelation therapy, patients’ compliance, physicians’ attitudes, costs and use of treatment guidelines. Approximately 60% of these transfusion-dependent patients were severely iron overloaded with a serum ferritin level over 2,500 ng/mL, indicating that the risks of iron burden may have been underestimated and current iron chelation therapy, if considered, may not have been adequate to control iron burden. PMID:22871821

Viprakasit, Vip; Gattermann, Norbert; Lee, Jong Wook; Porter, John B.; Taher, Ali T.; Habr, Dany; Martin, Nicolas; Domokos, Gabor; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

2013-01-01

311

Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?  

PubMed Central

Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx) on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH) and testosterone (T) levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) on top-up transfusion (TTx) and those on exchange transfusion (ETx) regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner's stage 5), and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins’ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM) from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM) progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01). Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated with significant acute enhancement of sperm parameters and with increased concentrations of serum T, LH, and FSH. Improvement of sperm parameters were significantly better in the ETx group verses the TTx group. These “acute” effects on spermiogenesis are reached with an unknown mechanism/s and suggest a number of pathways that need further human and/or experimental studies. PMID:24381868

Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; Abdelrahman, Mohamed O.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

312

Blood Transfusions During Heart Surgery May Up Pneumonia Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... transfusion during heart bypass surgery may raise a patient's risk of pneumonia, researchers report. "The ability to store ... it has been shown to significantly increase a patient's risk of illness and death, study leader Donald Likosky, ...

313

Bone marrow transfusions in previously irradiated, hematologically normal syngeneic mice  

SciTech Connect

Transfusion of syngeneic marrow into normal, nonirradiated recipients results only in minimal proliferation of donor cells. However, irradiated recipients, restored to hematologic normalcy by an initial marrow transfusion, subsequently sustain proliferation which replaces approximately 10% of endogenous marrow after a single transfusion of 4 x 10/sup 7/ marrow cells of the same strain as the host. Cells from histoincompatible donors proliferate only rarely or minimally in the marrows of these irradiated, but hematologically normal recipients without reirradiation. Syngeneic male donor cells proliferate in irradiated and restored female mice, while female donor cells fail to proliferate in the marrow of syngeneic male recipients. A possible explanation is that transfused female cells respond immunologically to the abundant H-Y antigen in the male environment and are eliminated as a result.

Brecher, G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Lawce, H.; Tjio, J.H.

1981-03-01

314

Blood Transfusion During Flight to Trauma Center Boosts Survival  

MedlinePLUS

... Study But blood needs to be refrigerated on helicopters, researcher noted (*this news item will not be ... Receiving a blood transfusion while being flown via helicopter to a trauma center raises a patient's chances ...

315

Quiescent complement in nonhuman primates during E coli Shiga toxin-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic microangiopathy  

PubMed Central

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) produce ribosome-inactivating Shiga toxins (Stx1, Stx2) responsible for development of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Some patients show complement activation during EHEC infection, raising the possibility of therapeutic targeting of complement for relief. Our juvenile nonhuman primate (Papio baboons) models of endotoxin-free Stx challenge exhibit full spectrum HUS, including thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and AKI with glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy. There were no significant increases in soluble terminal complement complex (C5b-9) levels after challenge with lethal Stx1 (n = 6) or Stx2 (n = 5) in plasma samples from T0 to euthanasia at 49.5 to 128 hours post-challenge. d-dimer and cell injury markers (HMGB1, histones) confirmed coagulopathy and cell injury. Thus, complement activation is not required for the development of thrombotic microangiopathy and HUS induced by EHEC Shiga toxins in these preclinical models, and benefits or risks of complement inhibition should be studied further for this infection. PMID:23733336

Lee, Benjamin C.; Mayer, Chad L.; Leibowitz, Caitlin S.

2013-01-01

316

Cell salvage for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

Background Concerns regarding the safety of transfused blood have prompted reconsideration of the use of allogeneic (from an unrelated donor) red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and a range of techniques to minimise transfusion requirements. Objectives To examine the evidence for the efficacy of cell salvage in reducing allogeneic blood transfusion and the evidence for any effect on clinical outcomes. Search methods We identified studies by searching CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2009), EMBASE (1980 to June 2009), the internet (to August 2009) and bibliographies of published articles. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with a concurrent control group in which adult patients, scheduled for non-urgent surgery, were randomised to cell salvage (autotransfusion) or to a control group who did not receive the intervention. Data collection and analysis Data were independently extracted and the risk of bias assessed. Relative risks (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. The primary outcomes were the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red cell transfusion and the amount of blood transfused. Other clinical outcomes are detailed in the review. Main results A total of 75 trials were included. Overall, the use of cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 38% (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.55 to 0.70). The absolute reduction in risk (ARR) of receiving an allogeneic RBC transfusion was 21% (95% CI 15% to 26%). In orthopaedic procedures the RR of exposure to RBC transfusion was 0.46 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.57) compared to 0.77 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.86) for cardiac procedures. The use of cell salvage resulted in an average saving of 0.68 units of allogeneic RBC per patient (WMD ?0.68; 95% CI ?0.88 to ?0.49). Cell salvage did not appear to impact adversely on clinical outcomes. Authors’ conclusions The results suggest cell salvage is efficacious in reducing the need for allogeneic red cell transfusion in adult elective cardiac and orthopaedic surgery. The use of cell salvage did not appear to impact adversely on clinical outcomes. However, the methodological quality of trials was poor. As the trials were unblinded and lacked adequate concealment of treatment allocation, transfusion practices may have been influenced by knowledge of the patients’ treatment status potentially biasing the results in favour of cell salvage. PMID:20393932

Carless, Paul A; Henry, David A; Moxey, Annette J; O’Connell, Dianne; Brown, Tamara; Fergusson, Dean A

2014-01-01

317

Allogeneic Transfusion after Predonation of Blood for Elective Spine Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature suggests preoperative autologous blood donation in total joint arthroplasty is associated with increased overall\\u000a transfusion rates compared with nondonation and is not cost-effective for all patients. We asked whether the amount of intraoperative\\u000a blood loss and blood replacement differs between autologous donors and nondonors in elective spine surgery and whether the\\u000a rates of allogeneic blood transfusions differ between

Kathleen F. Brookfield; Mark D. Brown; Steven M. Henriques; Frank A. Buttacavoli; Alison P. Seitz

2008-01-01

318

Trans-fused Iridoid GlycosidEs from Penstemon Mucronatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new trans-fused iridoid glycosides (5?H)-6?-8-epidihydrocornin and (5?H)-6?-8-hydroxy-8-epiloganin, were isolated from Penstemon mucronatus, along with cornin, penstemoside and three hastatosides. The trans-fused iridoids are only the second and third known among over 900 described cis-fused iridoid glycosides. Two pairs of iridoids, identical except for the stereochemistry at C-8, were found. Structures were determined by spectroscopic methods.

Robert E. Krull; Frank R. Stermitz

1998-01-01

319

Trans-fused iridoid glycosides from Penstemon mucronatus.  

PubMed

Two new trans-fused iridoid glycosides (5 alpha H)-6 alpha-8-epidihydrocornin and (5 alpha H)-6 alpha-8-hydroxy-8-epiloganin, were isolated from Penstemon mucronatus, along with cornin, penstemoside and three hastatosides. The trans-fused iridoids are only the second and third known among over 900 described cis-fused iridoid glycosides. Two pairs of iridoids, identical except for the stereochemistry at C-8, were found. Structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. PMID:9887533

Krull, R E; Stermitz, F R

1998-12-01

320

Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis  

SciTech Connect

To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions.

Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.

1984-11-01

321

Hydroxyurea Treatment in Transfusion-Dependent ?-Thalassemia Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: ?-Thalassemia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder caused by defective synthesis of ß-globin chains. Hemoglobin (Hb) F induction is a possible therapeutic approach which can partially compensate for ? and non-? globin chains imbalance. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of Hydroxyurea (HU) in diminishing transfusion requirements of patients with ?-thalassemia major in Southern Iran. Patients and Methods: In this single-arm clinical trial, all transfusion-dependent ?-thalassemia patients older than two years old (n = 97) who had inclusion criteria of the study and had been registered for at least six months in Dastgheib thalassemia outpatient clinic (a referral center affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences) were evaluated from October 2010 to December 2011. The patients were treated with HU with a mean dose of 10.5 mg/kg for a mean duration of 8 months (range 3-14 months). Transfusion needs and Hb levels were compared before and after HU treatment. Results: The mean volume of blood transfusion decreased significantly following HU treatment (0.71 mL/kg/day vs. 0.43 mL/kg/day, P < 0.001). Two-thirds of the patients showed good and partial response. No serious adverse reaction was observed except persistent neutropenia in two patients. Conclusions: Hydroxyurea can be safely used in some transfusion-dependent ?-thalassemia patients to decrease their transfusion needs. PMID:25068055

Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Silavizadeh, Samir; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Kamfiroozi, Roza; Bardestani, Marzieh; Karimi, Mehran

2014-01-01

322

Corpora cavernosa as an alternative route for transfusion.  

PubMed

Routine intravenous blood transfusion is difficult when the blood pressure falls significantly or veins are inaccessible or are sclerotic due to multiple transfusions. Here, we describe the use of penile corpora cavernosa (CC), as an alternative route for blood transfusion and fluid replacement. The study was conducted in 15 men, 7 with massive burns, 6 with sclerotic veins from repeated injections, and 2 with extensive limb trauma. After the conventional methods of blood and fluid infusions were exhausted, a needle was inserted into CC for blood and fluid administration. During blood or saline infusions, penile shaft became elongated but returned to a normal length after termination of the infusion. There were no difficulties during needle insertion into CC, in varying the different transfusion rates, or in repetition of transfusion during the same or the subsequent days. Complications were rare with the exception of a subcutaneous penile hematoma in 2 patients which disappeared spontaneously. Erection was not disturbed in five patients who were followed for a mean of 10.4+/-1.8 months. These findings show that corpora cavernosa can be used for blood transfusion or for administration of fluids as a simple, easy, rapid, and safe vascular access in conditions in which conventional routes are inaccessible. PMID:16720331

Shafik, Ahmed; El Sibai, Olfat; Shafik, Ismail A; Shafik, Ali A

2006-01-01

323

The regulatory pendulum in transfusion medicine.  

PubMed

Blood banking and the manufacture of blood products have been relatively outside the influence of regulatory authorities. Several developments contributed to a revision of this environment. The transmission of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by blood products changed the perception of blood product safety and also spawned litigation and governmental inquiries. The blood banking industry has embraced, with varying degrees of enthusiasm, the principles of systematic quality management and good manufacturing practice, which has created a substantial subindustry and has contributed to a disproportionate focus on product quality. Conventional market forces have also gradually penetrated the traditional blood economies. The public and political focus has resulted in regulatory and policy efforts being concentrated on inappropriate areas. Several of the safety efforts can be arguably described as cost-ineffective while diverting attention and resources from more important issues. An improved integration into mainstream public health policy and incorporation of objectively measured risks into regulatory policy would do much to enhance the quality of the transfusion system. This can be achieved if regulators themselves are overseen through a process that ensures performance and accountability against objective and predefined standards. A further beneficial outcome from this approach could be the harmonization of blood safety and policy measures, the need for which is being felt increasingly worldwide. PMID:12415513

Farrugia, Albert

2002-10-01

324

Study on effectiveness of transfusion program in thalassemia major patients receiving multiple blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India  

PubMed Central

Background: Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major require repeated blood transfusions which may be associated with dangers like iron overload and contraction of infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBsAg which ultimately curtail their life span. On the other hand, inadequate transfusions lead to severe anemia and general fatigue and debility. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 142 beta-thalassemia major patients aged 3 years or more receiving regular blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India from 1 April 2009 to 30 June 2009. The clinical data and laboratory results were subsequently analyzed. Results: Of the 142 patients, 76 (53.5%) were undertransfused (mean Hb <10 gm%). 96 (67%) of the patients were taking some form of chelation therapy but out of them only 2 (2%) were adequately chelated (S. ferritin <1000 ng/ml). 5 (3.5%) of the patients were known diabetics on insulin therapy. 103 (72%) of the patients were retarded in terms of growth. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) such as HCV, HIV, and HBsAg was respectively 45%, 2%, and 2%, with the prevalence of HCV being significantly more than the general population. The HCV prevalence showed positive correlation with the age of the patients and with the total no of blood transfusions received. As many as 15% (6 out of 40) children who were born on or after 2002 were HCV positive despite the blood they received being subjected to screening for HCV. Conclusions: The study suggests the need to step up the transfusions to achieve hemoglobin goal of 10 gm% (as per the moderate transfusion regimen) and also to institute urgent and effective chelation measures with the aim of keeping serum ferritin levels below 1000 ng/ml to avoid the systemic effects of iron overload. In addition, strict monitoring of the children for endocrinopathy and other systemic effects of iron overload should be done. Rigid implementation of quality control measures for the ELISA kits used to detect HCV in donor blood needs to be done urgently. Alternately, more sensitive and specific measures (like NAT testing) should be employed for detection of HCV. In the absence of a definitive cure accessible and available to all patients, strict implementation of the above suggested measures will go a long way in improving the quality (and quantity) of life in patients of beta-thalassemia major. PMID:20859507

Shah, Neeraj; Mishra, Anupa; Chauhan, Dhaval; Vora, C.; Shah, N. R.

2010-01-01

325

Monitoring compliance with transfusion guidelines in hospital departments by electronic data capture  

PubMed Central

Background The practice of transfusing red blood cells is still liberal in some centres suggesting a lack of compliance with guidelines recommending transfusion of red blood cells at haemoglobin levels of 6–8 g/dL in the non-bleeding patient. Few databases provide ongoing feedback of data on pre-transfusion haemoglobin levels at the departmental level. In a tertiary care hospital, no such data were produced before this study. Our aim was to establish a Patient Blood Management database based on electronic data capture in order to monitor compliance with transfusion guidelines at departmental and hospital levels. Materials and methods Hospital data on admissions, diagnoses and surgical procedures were used to define the populations of patients. Data on haemoglobin measurements and red blood cell transfusions were used to calculate pre-transfusion haemoglobin, percentage of transfused patients and transfusion volumes. Results The model dataset include 33,587 admissions, of which 10% had received at least one unit of red blood cells. Haemoglobin measurements preceded 96.7% of the units transfused. The median pre-transfusion haemoglobin was 8.9 g/dL (interquartile range 8.2–9.7) at the hospital level. In only 6.5% of the cases, transfusion was initiated at 7.3 g/dL or lower as recommended by the Danish national transfusion guideline. In 27% of the cases, transfusion was initiated when the haemoglobin level was 9.3 g/dL or higher, which is not recommended. A median of two units was transfused per transfusion episode and per hospital admission. Transfusion practice was more liberal in surgical and intensive care units than in medical departments. Discussion We described pre-transfusion haemoglobin levels, transfusion rates and volumes at hospital and departmental levels, and in surgical subpopulations. Initial data revealed an extensive liberal practice and low compliance with national transfusion guidelines, and identified wards in need of intervention. PMID:24960656

Norgaard, Astrid; de Lichtenberg, Trine Honnens; Nielsen, Jens; Johansson, Pär I.

2014-01-01

326

Blood transfusion in Europe: basic principles for initial and continuous training in transfusion medicine: an approach to an European harmonisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few decades, transfusion medicine and haemotherapy have evolved into complex medical disciplines comprising a broad field of subspecialties such as immunohaematology, blood component production, haemapheresis and haemostaseology. Transfusion medicine is thus an important qualification at the interfaces of analytical laboratory medicine, pharmaceutical production and clinical disciplines such as internal medicine, anaesthesiology or surgery. Physicians specialising in transfusion

M. M. Mueller; E. Seifried

2006-01-01

327

[Mechanisms of congenital erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies associated with hemolytic anemia].  

PubMed

The search for a mechanism for red cell enzyme deficiency associated with congenital hemolytic anemia, requires one to determine the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the enzyme reaction and study the physico-chemical and immunological characteristics of the protein which supports enzyme activity. The technique of iso-electric focalisation and the use of specific anti-enzyme antibodies, is the reason for recent progress in the understanding of the mechanism of these deficiencies. Examples of application of these techniques are given in relation to glucose-6-dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, glucose phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase and phosphoglycerate kinase of deficiencies showing the multiplicity of the molecular mechanisms. PMID:135522

Boivin, P; Kahn, A

1976-01-01

328

Hemolytic anemia in wild seaducks caused by marine oil pollution.  

PubMed

Clinico-pathological examinations were conducted on wild white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) contaminated with fuel oil (Bunker C oil) from a capsized cargo ship in February 1993 in Japan. The erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value in the oiled seaducks all were decreased and numerous immature erythrocytes were observed in blood smears. In addition, hemosiderosis was observed in the liver, kidney, and lung of some birds. We propose that the sea-ducks suffered from hemolytic anemia induced by ingestion of oil, which occurs when the birds preen their oiled plumage. PMID:8722285

Yamato, O; Goto, I; Maede, Y

1996-04-01

329

Enzymatic and hemolytic properties of Propionibacterium acnes and related bacteria.  

PubMed

The production of chondroitin sulfatase, hyaluronidase, deoxyribonuclease, gelatinase, phosphatase, lecithinase, and hemolysins was examined in 95 strains of Propionibacterium acnes and four related species of anaerobic, respectively, microaerophilic coryneform bacteria (P. avidum, P. lymphophilum, P. granulosum, and Corynebacterium minutissimum). All enzymes could be demonstrated in at least one representative of the species tested. Those Propionibacterium species most frequently found in acne vulgaris lesions, i.e., P. acnes and P. granulosum, proved to be the most active organisms concerning the production of the enzymes tested. P. avidum, on the other hand, showed the highest rate of hemolytic activity. PMID:201661

Hoeffler, U

1977-12-01

330

Pleural solitary fibrous tumor complicated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

We herein report a 74-year-old woman who presented with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) associated with pleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Her AIHA was initially treated with 1 mg/kg daily of oral prednisolone (PSL) for 2 months, which had a limited effect. However, after surgical tumor resection, the patient showed remarkable improvement of AIHA with normalizations of serum lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin levels, and we were able to rapidly reduce the PSL dosage. This is the first description of a case of AIHA caused by SFT. PMID:25030571

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Harada-Shirado, Kayo; Furukawa, Miki; Sukegawa, Masumi; Shichishima-Nakamura, Akiko; Noji, Hideyoshi; Wakamatsu, Saho; Tasaki, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Kazuei; Takeishi, Yasuchika

2014-01-01

331

Etiopathogenesis of hemolytic reactions in total artificial heart recipients.  

PubMed

Hemolysis in total artificial heart (TAH) recipients was analyzed. From a total of 66 long-term experiments lasting from 30-314 days performed in the Brno Research Center, in 53 animals, the total red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit, total hemoglobin, and free plasma hemoglobin were investigated. We could essentially divide the whole group of calves in 2 subgroups. The first subgroup was calves with hemolytic reactions, and the second subgroup was calves without any hemolytic reaction at all. In the first subgroup, hemolysis occurred in 47% of the overall number of animals during extracorporeal circulation (ECC), in 15% during ECC and later periodically during the experiment, in 8% during ECC and then continuously during the experiment, and finally in 10% not during ECC but repeatedly during the experiment. In 20% of the animals from the overall number, hemolysis did not occur at all (second subgroup). These results testify to the great individual differences within 1 breed (Bohemian with a substantial component of Holstein). These differences are further modified by exogenous and endogenous factors. First, the inborn resistance of the RBC membrane and also thrombi formation and the mineralization of the driving diaphragm are very important. The extreme situation of decreased RBC membrane resistance was proved using a calf from another breed, the slow growing Scottish Highland breed, which did not survive 22 days of pumping due to intractable lethal hemolysis. These factors are also indicated by the hemolytic action of some drugs (e.g., Dopegyt) used during the experiment for another reason. Also important are the mechanical forces of pumping, surface moieties of the biomaterial, mineralization of the driving diaphragms, thrombi formation, infection, etc. Essentially, the hemolytic reaction in the TAH recipient has a multifactorial character. Hemolysis is undoubtedly an important factor, which can have a profound impact on the length of survival. The experimental and clinical experiences must be continuously integrated, and conclusions valid for human TAH application must be considered as very important for further TAH experimental and clinical research. PMID:9423978

Vask?, J; Urbánek, P

1997-12-01

332

Hemolytic activity of venom from crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci spines  

PubMed Central

Background The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci is a venomous species from Taiwan whose venom provokes strong hemolytic activity. To understand the hemolytic properties of A. planci venom, samples were collected from A. planci spines in the Penghu Islands, dialyzed with distilled water, and lyophilized into A. planci spine venom (ASV) powder. Results Both crude venom and ASV cause 50% hemolysis at a concentration of 20 ?g/mL. The highest hemolytic activity of ASV was measured at pH 7.0-7.4; ASV-dependent hemolysis was sharply reduced when the pH was lower than 3 or greater than 8. There was almost no hemolytic activity when the Cu2+ concentration was increased to 10 mM. Furthermore, incubation at 100°C for 30 to 60 minutes sharply decreased the hemolytic activity of ASV. After treatment with the protease ?-chymotrypsin, the glycoside hydrolase cellulase, and the membrane component cholesterin, the hemolytic activity of ASV was significantly inhibited. Conclusions The results of this study provide fundamental information about A. planci spine venom. The hemolytic activity was affected by pH, temperature, metal ions, EDTA, cholesterin, proteases, and glycoside hydrolases. ASV hemolysis was inhibited by Cu2+, cholesterin, ?-chymotrypsin, and cellulose, factors that might prevent the hemolytic activity of venom and provide the medical treatment for sting. PMID:24063308

2013-01-01

333

Transfusion transmitted infections – A retrospective analysis from the National Blood Transfusion Service in Eritrea  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. Methods The study population included all donors who donated blood from January 2006 to November 2009. The data was collected from the National Blood Transfusion Services (NTBS) of Eritrea and includes category of donor and result for TTI markers. Results A total of 29,501 units of blood were collected from 23,385(79%) voluntary blood donors and the rest 6,116(21%) units were collected from family replacement donors. The over all prevalence of TTI's were 3.8% with 3.5% in voluntary blood donors and 5.1% in family replacement donors. The sero-prevalence for TTI markers were 0.18% HIV, 2.58% HBV, 0.57% HCV and 0.49% Syphilis. Conclusion In conclusion, even if the TTI prevalence rate among Eritrean blood donors is low, ensuring blood safety has a long way to go. PMID:22145069

Fessehaye, Nahom; Naik, Durgadas; Fessehaye, Tesfay

2011-01-01

334

[Responsibility for prescribing and monitoring an act transfusion and safety blood transfusion].  

PubMed

The act to transfuse is a prescription following basic rules similar to drug prescriptions. If harm happens, potentially linked with this prescription, the harm's responsibility is borne by the physician, the paramedics, the care organization but by the supplier laboratory too. The setting of good practice rules consistent with science data at the time when the act is performed, the respect of the patient's rights and the quality of supplied products will be assessed during the expertise. Under restorative responsibility, it is necessary to previously establish a direct and certain causation between the litigious act and the harm to enforce the vicarious liability. Nowadays, legal precedents grant a larger protection to more and more numerous victims, enhancing the field of the fault with the appeal to assumption of fault. At the same time, the lawmaker himself promulgated objective conditions of compensation for many categories of victims of medical risk from which transfused people are part. The law of March the 4th of 2002 went one step closer devoting a new foundation of compensation: national solidarity. PMID:25282487

Piercecchi-Marti, M D; Tuchtan-Torrents, L; Lassale, B; Leonetti, G; Bartoli, C

2014-11-01

335

Reversal of liver function without exchange transfusion in sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis (SCIC) is a rare but fatal complication of sickle cell disease. It is found mainly in homozygous sickle cell disease. To date, there are no standard diagnostic criteria or well-established therapeutic approaches to this condition. Herein, we report this case of a 48-year-old man with sickle cell anemia and a total bilirubin of 78.5 mg/dL without evidence of extrahepatic biliary obstruction or viral hepatitis. The patient had a hemoglobin S level of 87.9%, acute renal failure, and mild coagulopathy. Despite the disease severity, he refused exchange transfusion (ET) with packed red blood cells. He was transfused with 2 units of blood and treated mainly with supportive measures. His total bilirubin levels trended down to normal days after discharge. Multiple studies have shown a significant decrease in the mortality rate in SCIC after ET. To date, only two reported adult cases have survived SCIC without aggressive treatment. Our case is the third case that demonstrates recovery of severe SCIC without ET. PMID:25484513

Rassameehiran, Supannee; Argueta, Erwin; Tijani, Lukman

2014-01-01

336

Peritoneal EMH in a dog with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is the process by which normal blood cells are produced outside the bone marrow. In humans, EMH effusions are rare and are characterized by the presence of megakaryocytes, immature erythrocytes, immature leukocytes, or combinations of those cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report to describe a case of peritoneal EMH effusion in a dog. A 5 yr old castrated male shorthaired dachshund presented with a 2 day history of pigmenturia and inappetence. A complete blood count revealed regenerative anemia with marked agglutination, spherocytosis, and an acute inflammatory leukogram characterized by a neutrophilia, regenerative left shift, and monocytosis. Ultrasound-guided aspiration of peritoneal effusion yielded a sample of high nucleated cellularity predominantly composed of mature and immature neutrophils and erythroid precursor cells. The patient was diagnosed with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia with concurrent EMH peritoneal effusion. The following case description and discussion explore the clinical findings associated with the unusual effusion and outline the possible pathogenesis by which the EMH effusion may have arisen in the dog. PMID:23690489

Brenner, Karen; Pohlman, Lisa; Muldowney, Ian; Petersen, Don; Schermerhorn, Thomas

2013-01-01

337

A Comprehensive Assessment of Transfusion in Elective Pancreatectomy: Risk Factors and Complications  

PubMed Central

Background Specific data are needed regarding the impact of transfusion on operative complications in pancreatectomy. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for transfusion and to evaluate the potential association between transfusion and operative complications in elective pancreatectomy procedures. Study Design We reviewed our institution’s pancreatectomy and ACS-NSQIP databases. Multivariate analysis was used to determine clinicopathologic risk factors predictive of transfusion, and then a transfusion propensity score was developed to evaluate the impact of transfusion on post-pancreatectomy complications. Results Of the 173 patients who were treated from September 2007 to September 2011, 78 patients (45 %) were transfused?1 unit of blood (median, 3.0 units; range, 1–55). Risk factors for transfusion included increasing Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking, increasing mortality risk score, preoperative anemia, intraoperative blood loss, and benign pathology. After controlling for these risk factors using a transfusion propensity score, transfusion was an independent predictor of increased complications, infectious complications, and hospital costs. Conclusions Multiple factors are predictive of transfusion in pancreatectomy, including increasing BMI and smoking. When controlling for transfusion propensity based on these risk factors, RBC transfusion is associated with worse operative outcomes including infectious complications. Development of protocols and strategies to minimize unnecessary transfusion in pancreatectomy are justified. PMID:23423430

Sun, Raphael C.; Button, Anna M.; Smith, Brian J.; Leblond, Richard F.; Howe, James R.; Mezhir, James J.

2015-01-01

338

Anemia and red blood cell transfusion in neurocritical care  

PubMed Central

Introduction Anemia is one of the most common medical complications to be encountered in critically ill patients. Based on the results of clinical trials, transfusion practices across the world have generally become more restrictive. However, because reduced oxygen delivery contributes to 'secondary' cerebral injury, anemia may not be as well tolerated among neurocritical care patients. Methods The first portion of this paper is a narrative review of the physiologic implications of anemia, hemodilution, and transfusion in the setting of brain-injury and stroke. The second portion is a systematic review to identify studies assessing the association between anemia or the use of red blood cell transfusions and relevant clinical outcomes in various neurocritical care populations. Results There have been no randomized controlled trials that have adequately assessed optimal transfusion thresholds specifically among brain-injured patients. The importance of ischemia and the implications of anemia are not necessarily the same for all neurocritical care conditions. Nevertheless, there exists an extensive body of experimental work, as well as human observational and physiologic studies, which have advanced knowledge in this area and provide some guidance to clinicians. Lower hemoglobin concentrations are consistently associated with worse physiologic parameters and clinical outcomes; however, this relationship may not be altered by more aggressive use of red blood cell transfusions. Conclusions Although hemoglobin concentrations as low as 7 g/dl are well tolerated in most critical care patients, such a severe degree of anemia could be harmful in brain-injured patients. Randomized controlled trials of different transfusion thresholds, specifically in neurocritical care settings, are required. The impact of the duration of blood storage on the neurologic implications of transfusion also requires further investigation. PMID:19519893

Kramer, Andreas H; Zygun, David A

2009-01-01

339

[Situation and perspectives of blood transfusion in Togo].  

PubMed

We report the successive stages of the reorganization of the blood transfusion sector in Togo. The starting point was the elaboration of the national policy of blood transfusion, then the adoption of a decree organizing the sector as well the various decree of application, particularly that related to transfusion good practices. The current policy recommends two poles of qualification of the blood ant its components and the creation of six stations of collection and distribution attached to these poles. The reorganization started with the rehabilitation of the National Blood Transfusion Centre (CNTS) in Lomé. If the problem of human resources is alarming, especially the availability of hemobiologists, the rehabilitation allowed the increase of the blood collection passing from 5272 donations in December 2003 to 18 164 in December 2008. However, the requirement of blood products is satisfied in 50% in all the country. In 2003, 24% of the blood products were rejected for positive viral markers against 8.37% in 2008 in relation with the improvement of blood safety. Efforts must be continued to reinforce it in the CNTS and to make a better selection of the donors at the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre (CRTS) de Sokodé. The analysis of the weak points of the sector (human resource insufficiency, shortage of the blood products, blood safety) made it possible to indicate solutions to improve the sector of blood transfusion sector. Future outcome is funded in the blood transfusion safety development project in Togo financed by the Agence française de développement (AFD, French development agency). PMID:19896405

Ségbéna, A Y; Fétéké, L; Bikandou, B; Awitala, E J; Koura, A G

2009-01-01

340

Stroke With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (SWiTCH)  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a devastating complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA) with high recurrence if untreated. Chronic transfusions reduce recurrent strokes but have associated morbidities including iron overload. Stroke With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (SWiTCH) was a multicenter phase 3 randomized trial comparing standard treatment (transfusions/chelation) to alternative treatment (hydroxyurea/phlebotomy) for children with SCA, stroke, and iron overload. SWiTCH was a noninferiority trial with a composite primary end point, allowing an increased stroke risk but requiring superiority for removing iron. Subjects on standard treatment received monthly transfusions plus daily deferasirox iron chelation. Subjects on alternative treatment received hydroxyurea plus overlap transfusions during dose escalation to maximum tolerated dose (MTD), followed by monthly phlebotomy. Subjects on standard treatment (N = 66) maintained 30% sickle hemoglobin (HbS) and tolerated deferasirox at 28.2 ± 6.0 mg/kg/d. Subjects on alternative treatment (N = 67) initiated hydroxyurea and 60 (90%) reached MTD at 26.2 ± 4.9 mg/kg/d with 29.1% ± 6.7% fetal hemoglobin (HbF). Adjudication documented no strokes on transfusions/chelation but 7 (10%) on hydroxyurea/phlebotomy, still within the noninferiority stroke margin. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute closed SWiTCH after interim analysis revealed equivalent liver iron content, indicating futility for the composite primary end point. Transfusions and chelation remain a better way to manage children with SCA, stroke, and iron overload. This clinical trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122980. PMID:22318199

Helms, Ronald W.

2012-01-01

341

Transfusion-transmitted infections in haemophilia patients.  

PubMed

One of the largest therapeutic problem during the continuous treatment of the patients with Hemophilia A and B, are viral infections as Hepatitis B and C, and HIV, and the other infective diseases, which can be transmitted by the transfusion of blood products. The aim of this study is to analyze the complications of the hemophiliacs in Kosovo which have been treated with fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate and concentrated products of FVIII and FIX. We have tested 75 patients with hemophilia A or B and there were used enzyme immunoassay test-Elisa method for the following: anti-HCV, HBsAg, HIV and TPHA.The serological data showed that HCV infection was positive in 29 cases or 38,7%, whereas infection with HBV and HIV were present in a smaller percentage of the patients (2,7% HBV and 1,4% for HIV). HCV infection was present only in 9,5% of the cases of the age group under 18 years. Infected hemophiliacs with one or two infective agents were found in 34,7%, respectively 4%. Infection with T. pallidum was present at none of the examined patients with hemophilia. HCV infection was higher in severe forms of hemophilia B (44,4%), compared with severe form of hemophilia A (30%).Based on our results, despite the infrequent application of FVIII and FIX concentrates, and other anti hemophilic preparations used in treating hemophilia patients, the number of infected hemophiliacs with blood-transmittable infectious agents was substantially high, especially with hepatitis C virus. PMID:20001991

Zhubi, Bukurije; Mekaj, Ymer; Baruti, Zana; Bunjaku, Ilirijane; Belegu, Mazllum

2009-11-01

342

Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTS) results from an unbalanced blood supply through placental anastomoses in monochorionic twins. It induces growth restriction, renal tubular dysgenesis, and oliguria in the donor and visceromegaly and polyuria in the recipient. A better understanding of its pathophysiology could contribute to improving the management of TTS, which still carries a high perinatal mortality in both twins. As well as several other candidates, the renin-angiotensin system might be involved in TTS. To evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, we studied the kidneys of 21 twin pairs who died from TTS at 19 to 30 weeks, compared with 39 individuals in a control group, using light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. The overexpression of the renin protein and transcript with frequent evidence of renin synthesis by mesangial cells was observed in the donor kidneys, presumably as a consequence of chronic renal hypoperfusion. This upregulation of renin synthesis might be beneficial to restore euvolemia. In severe cases of TTS, however, angiotensin-II-induced vasoconstriction acts as an additional deleterious factor by further reducing the renal blood flow in donors. In recipients, renin expression was virtually absent, possibly because it was down-regulated by hypervolemia. However, in addition to congestion and hemorrhagic infarction, there were severe glomerular and arterial lesions resembling those observed in polycythemia- or hypertension-induced microangiopathy. We speculate that fetal hypertension in the recipient might be partly mediated by the transfer of circulating renin produced by the donor, through the placental vascular shunts. PMID:10666392

Mahieu-Caputo, Dominique; Dommergues, Marc; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Lacoste, Mireille; Cai, Yi; Narcy, Françoise; Jolly, Dominique; Gonzales, Marie; Dumez, Yves; Gubler, Marie-Claire

2000-01-01

343

Method for analysis of nanoparticle hemolytic properties in vitro.  

PubMed

Hemolysis is damage to red blood cells (RBCs), which results in the release of the iron-containing protein hemoglobin into plasma. Here we describe an in vitro assay specifically developed for the analysis of nanoparticle hemolytic properties (see Fig. 1). In this assay, analyte nanoparticles are incubated in blood, and hemoglobin is released by damaged cells and converted to red-colored cyanmethemoglobin by reagents. The nanoparticles and undamaged RBCs are then removed by centrifugation, and the amount of cyanmethemoglobin in the supernatant is measured by spectrophotometry. This measured absorbance is compared to a standard curve to determine the concentration of hemoglobin in the supernatant. This hemoglobin concentration is then compared to that in the supernatant of a blood sample treated with a negative control to obtain the percentage of nanoparticle-induced hemolysis. Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of the steps in this in vitro assay to evaluate nanoparticle hemolytic properties. PFH is plasma-free hemoglobin. CMH is cyanmethemoglobin. TBH is total blood hemoglobin. PMID:21116971

Neun, Barry W; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

2011-01-01

344

Listeria monocytogenes and hemolytic Listeria innocua in poultry.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, saprophytic, Gram-positive bacterium and occasional food-borne pathogen, often associated with ready-to-eat meat products. Because of the increased consumer interest in organic, all natural, and free range poultry products, it is important to understand L. monocytogenes in the context of such systems. Pasture-reared poultry were surveyed over the course of two 8-wk rearing periods. Cecal, soil, and grass samples were collected for Listeria isolation and characterization. Seven of 399 cecal samples (or 1.75%) were Listeria-positive. All positive cecal samples were obtained from broilers sampled at 2 wk of age. Grass and soil samples were collected from the pasture both before and after introduction of the poultry. Environmental samples collected after introduction of poultry were significantly more likely to contain Listeria (P < 0.001). The results of analytical profile index Listeria, sigB allelic typing, and hlyA PCR tests found that both L. monocytogenes and L. innocua, including hemolytic L. innocua, were recovered from the cecal and environmental (grass/soil) samples. The sigB allelic typing also revealed that (1) positive samples could be composed of 2 or more allelic types; (2) allelic types found in cecal samples could also be found in the environment; and (3) allelic types could persist through the 2 rearing periods. Our data indicate that both pasture-reared poultry and their environment can be contaminated with L. monocytogenes and hemolytic L. innocua. PMID:22912449

Milillo, S R; Stout, J C; Hanning, I B; Clement, A; Fortes, E D; den Bakker, H C; Wiedmann, M; Ricke, S C

2012-09-01

345

Molecular aspects of erythroenzymopathies associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and of pyruvate kinase deficiencies, erythroenzymopathies associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia have been extensively investigated. Kinetic and electrophoretic studies have shown that most, if not all, erythroenzymopathies are caused by the production of a mutant enzyme. Except for a few enzymes that are abundant in blood and tissues, it is difficult to obtain enough sample to study the functional and structural abnormalities of mutant enzymes associated with genetic disorders in man. The primary structures of only two normal red cell enzymes which can cause hereditary hemolytic anemia, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and adenylate kinase, have been determined. Single amino acid substitutions of PGK variants have been found, and the identification of the exact molecular abnormalities of such variants has helped us to understand the accompanying functional abnormality. Gene cloning makes possible the identification of the DNA sequence that codes for enzyme proteins. Recently, human complementary DNA (cDNA) for aldolase, PGK, G6PD, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) have been isolated, and the nucleotide sequences for PGK and ADA determined. In the near future, human cDNA sequencing should permit identification of the gene alteration that gives rise to the mutant enzymes. PMID:2990202

Miwa, S; Fujii, H

1985-07-01

346

FURTHER STUDIES WITH TOXIC SERUM EXTRACTS OF HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI.  

PubMed

1. The same Streptococcus hemolyticus organisms may be subjected to extraction six times in 2 days with untreated inactivated serum with no loss in potency of the later extracts when the organisms are kept frozen solid during the night between the extractions. 2. The serum extract toxins of hemolytic streptococci can be preserved without deterioration for at least 6 months if kept frozen solid. 3. No toxins stronger than those containing 10 units per cc. for mice have been prepared. Reasons for thinking that this is due to the saturation of the serum with the toxin at this point are given. 4. Half saturation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitates out practically all of the hemotoxin in a preparation. 5. Serum extracts were made from strains of hemolytic streptococci other than the Gay strain and attempts were made to correlate the virulence and toxin production from each strain. No such correlation could be established. 6. The principal pathologic finding in mice inoculated with the streptococcus serum extract toxin is a marked degeneration of the tubular epithelium of the kidney. PMID:19870372

Weld, J T

1935-03-31

347

Current approaches for the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an infrequent group of diseases defined by autoantibody mediated red blood cell destruction. Correct diagnosis and classification of this condition are essential to provide appropriate treatment. AIHA is divided into warm and cold types according to the characteristics of the autoantibody involved and by the presence of an underlying or associated disorder into primary and secondary AIHA. Due to its low frequency, treatment for AIHA is largely based on small prospective trials, case series, and empirical observations. This review describes in detail the different treatment approaches for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Warm antibody type AIHA should be treated with steroids, to which most patients respond, although relapse can occur and maintenance doses are frequently required. Splenectomy is an effective second line treatment and can provide long-term remission without medication. Rituximab is a useful alternative for steroid refractory patients, those requiring high maintenance doses and unfavorable candidates for surgery. Promising therapeutic modifications with this monoclonal antibody are emerging including drug combinations, lower doses, and long-term use. Primary cold agglutinin disease has been recognized as having a lymphoproliferative monoclonal origin. It is unresponsive to both steroids and splenectomy. Rituximab is currently the best therapeutic alternative for this condition, and several treatment regimens are available with variable responses. PMID:23689532

Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marisol; Gómez-de-León, Andrés; Tarín-Arzaga, Luz; Gómez-Almaguer, David

2013-10-01

348

A High FFP:PRBC Transfusion Ratio Decreases Mortality in All Massively Transfused Trauma Patients Regardless of Admission INR  

PubMed Central

Background Coagulopathy is present in 25-38% of trauma patients upon arrival to the hospital and these patients are four times more likely to die than trauma patients without coagulopathy. Recently, a high ratio of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to packed red blood cells (PRBCs) has been shown to decrease mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that patients with elevated INR on arrival to the hospital may benefit more from transfusion with a high ratio of FFP:PRBC than those with a lower INR. Methods Retrospective multicenter cohort study of 437 massively transfused trauma patients. To determine if the effect of the ratio of FFP:PRBC on death at 24 hours is modified by a patient’s admission INR on arrival to the hospital we used contingency tables and logistic regression. Results Trauma patients who arrived to the hospital with an elevated INR had a greater risk of death than those with a lower INR. However, as the ratio of FFP:PRBC transfused increased, mortality decreased similarly between the INR quartiles. Conclusions The mortality benefit from a high FFP:PRBC ratio is similar for all massively transfused trauma patients. This is contrary to the current belief that only coagulopathic trauma patients benefit from a high FFP:PRBC ratio. Furthermore, it is unnecessary to determine whether INR is elevated before transfusing a high FFP:PRBC ratio. Future studies are needed to determine the mechanism by which a high FFP:PRBC ratio decreases mortality in all massively transfused trauma patients. PMID:21814104

Brown, Lisa M.; Aro, Seppo O.; Cohen, Mitchell J.

2011-01-01

349

Decreasing Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infection in Indian Scenario  

PubMed Central

Transfusion transmitted infections are major problem associated with blood transfusion. Accurate estimates of risk of TTIs are essential for monitoring the safety of blood supply and evaluating the efficacy of currently employed screening procedures. The present study was carried out to assess the percentage of voluntary donors and replacement donors and to find out prevalence and changing trends of various TTIs blood donors in recent years. A study was carried out on blood units of voluntary and replacement donors which were collected from January 2008 to December 2012. On screening of 180,371 replacement units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in replacement donors was 0.15% in HIV, 1.67% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.49% in hepatitis C virus, 0.01% in VDRL, and 0.009% in malaria. Of 11,977 voluntary units, seropositivity of transfusion transmitted disease in voluntary donors was 0.08% in HIV, 0.24% in hepatitis B surface antigen, 0.001% in hepatitis C virus, 0.008% in VDRL (sexually transmitted disease), and 0.01% in malaria. From results it has been concluded that prevalence of transfusion transmitted infection (HIV, HBV, HCV, VDRL, and malaria) was more in replacement donors in comparison to voluntary donors. Extensive donor selection and screening procedures will help in improving the blood safety. PMID:24616614

Rizvi, S. Nishat Fatima; Agarwal, Devisha

2014-01-01

350

Toward a patient-based paradigm for blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

The current “manufacturing paradigm” of transfusion practice has detached transfusion from the clinical environment. As an example, fresh whole blood in large-volume hemorrhage may be superior to whole blood reconstituted from multiple components. Multicomponent apheresis can overcome logistical difficulties in matching patient needs with fresh component availability and can deliver the benefits of fresh whole blood. Because of the different transfusion needs of patients in emerging economies and the vulnerability of these blood systems to emerging infections, fresh whole blood and multicomponent apheresis can better meet patient needs when compared with transplants of the “manufacturing paradigm”. We propose that patient blood management, along with panels of repeat, paid, accredited apheresis and fresh whole-blood donors can be used in emerging economies to support decentralized blood services. This alternative transfusion–medicine paradigm could eventually also be adopted by established economies to focus transfusion medicine on local patient needs and to alleviate the problem of the aging volunteer donor base. PMID:24520208

Farrugia, Albert; Vamvakas, Eleftherios

2014-01-01

351

[Acute pulmonary infiltrates in hematologic malignancies in aplasia (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Extensive pneumonias are usually implicated as the sole cause for acute respiratory failure complicating severe neutropenia in hematologic malignancies and are often fatal. We report study of 11 patients investigated and treated in intensive care unit, using transtracheal aspiration, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) via face mask and granulocyte transfusions Two groups of patients emerged from this study. The first group with immediately diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, positive blood cultures, negative tracheal cultures, marked improvement in hypoxemia during CPAP, benefits from granulocyte transfusion without impairment in ventilatory status and may be considered as non-hemodynamic pulmonary oedema. The second group with localized pulmonary infiltrates, negative blood cultures and positive tracheal culture, slight improvement in hypoxemia during CPAP, gets no benefit from granulocyte transfusion, with additional impairment in ventilatory status and may be considered as acute extensive pneumonias. PMID:7049038

Schlemmer, B; Dhainaut, J F; Bons, J; Mathiot, C; Varet, B; Sylvestre, R; Monsallier, J F

1982-01-01

352

Change in transfusion practice in massively bleeding patients.  

PubMed

This retrospective study evaluates changes in transfusion practice and modified blood product utilisation that occurred over the course of eleven years in patients receiving massive transfusion. The mean number of fresh frozen plasma units transfused increased from 9.0 ± 7.9 in 1998 to 11.3 ± 6.7 in 2008 (p=0.03). The mean number of platelet units increased from 1.9 ± 1.3 in 1998 to 2.6 ± 1.7 in 2008 (p=0.02). The proportion of cryoprecipitate increased from 0.03 ± 0.19 in 1998 to 1.3 ± 1.6 in 2008 (p=0.001). Along with these changes was a trend toward decreased mortality (p=0.05). PMID:21872529

Sinha, Romi; Roxby, David

2011-10-01

353

[Blood transfusion - the value of Research and Development programs].  

PubMed

Transfusion is a mixed discipline which includes the production of blood components, applied biology aiming in particular at establishing the highest compatibility for immunological characteristics between blood components to be delivered to patients and recipients, and, finally translational medicine to evaluate the effectiveness of the transfused products and to proactively avoid hazards, at least those that are preventible and can be anticipated. The whole chain takes place with the concern of continuous improvement of quality and safety. These two principles (quality/safety) have been and still are concerns of constant progress applicable to all the transfusion chain steps; they benefit from programs of Research and Development (R&D). Fundamental research, basic but also applied and clinical research, accompanies, in a constantly joint manner, scientific and medical progresses by providing new solutions to dampen the current problems and to prepare the future. PMID:25578552

Garraud, Olivier; Morel, Pascal; Coste, Joliette; Tiberghien, Pierre; Fournier-Wirth, Chantal

2015-02-01

354

Desmopressin use for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

Background Public concerns regarding the safety of blood have prompted reconsideration of the use of allogeneic blood (blood from an unrelated donor) transfusion and a range of techniques designed to minimise transfusion requirements. Objectives To examine the efficacy of desmopressin acetate (1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin) in reducing peri-operative blood loss and the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in patients who do not have congenital bleeding disorders. Search methods We identified studies by searching CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008), the Internet (to May 2008), and bibliographies of published articles. Selection criteria Controlled parallel-group trials in which adult patients scheduled for non-urgent surgery were randomised to desmopressin (DDAVP) or to a control group that did not receive DDAVP treatment. Trials were eligible for inclusion if they reported data on the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red cell transfusion or the volume of blood transfused. Data collection and analysis Primary outcomes were: the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and the amount of blood transfused. Other outcomes measured were: blood loss, re-operation for bleeding, post-operative complications (thrombosis, myocardial infarction, stroke), mortality, and length of hospital stay. Treatment effects were pooled using a random-effects model. Main results Nineteen trials that included a total of 1387 patients reported data on the number of patients exposed to allogeneic RBC transfusion. DDAVP did not significantly reduce the risk of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion (relative risk (RR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 1.06). However, the use of DDAVP significantly reduced total blood loss (weighted mean difference (WMD) ?241.78 ml, 95% CI ?387.55 to ?96.01 ml). Although DDAVP appeared to reduce the overall volume of allogeneic blood transfused during the peri-operative period the result would not be considered clinically significant (WMD ?0.3 units, 95% CI ?0.60 to ?0.01 units). Risk of re-operation due to bleeding was not reduced (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.83). DDAVP treatment was not associated with an increased risk of death or myocardial infarction (RR 1.72, 95% CI 0.68 to 4.33; RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.50, respectively). Authors’ conclusions There is no convincing evidence that desmopressin (DDAVP) minimises peri-operative allogeneic RBC transfusion in patients who do not have congenital bleeding disorders. Although the data suggest that there is some benefit of using DDAVP as a means of reducing peri-operative blood loss the observed reductions were small and generally not clinically important. Based on the currently available evidence, the use of DDAVP to reduce peri-operative blood loss or allogeneic RBC transfusion cannot be supported. PMID:14973974

Carless, Paul A; Stokes, Barrie J; Moxey, Annette J; Henry, David A

2014-01-01

355

Resuscitation and transfusion principles for traumatic hemorrhagic shock.  

PubMed

The transfusion approach to massive hemorrhage has continually evolved since it began in the early 1900s. It started with fresh whole blood and currently consists of virtually exclusive use of component and crystalloid therapy. Recent US military experience has reinvigorated the debate on what the most optimal transfusion strategy is for patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock. In this review we discuss recently described mechanisms that contribute to traumatic coagulopathy, which include increased anti-coagulation factors and hyperfibrinolysis. We also describe the concept of damage control resuscitation (DCR), an early and aggressive prevention and treatment of hemorrhagic shock for patients with severe life-threatening traumatic injuries. The central tenants of DCR include hypotensive resuscitation, rapid surgical control, prevention and treatment of acidosis, hypothermia, and hypocalcemia, avoidance of hemodilution, and hemostatic resuscitation with transfusion of red blood cells, plasma, and platelets in a 1:1:1 unit ratio and the appropriate use of coagulation factors such as rFVIIa and fibrinogen-containing products (fibrinogen concentrates, cryoprecipitate). Fresh whole blood is also part of DCR in locations where it is available. Additional concepts to DCR since its original description that can be considered are the preferential use of "fresh" RBCs, and when available thromboelastography to direct blood product and hemostatic adjunct (anti-fibrinolytics and coagulation factor) administration. Lastly we discuss the importance of an established massive transfusion protocol to rapidly employ DCR and hemostatic resuscitation principles. While the majority of recent trauma transfusion papers are supportive of these general concepts, there is no Level 1 or 2 data available. Taken together, the preponderance of data suggests that these concepts may significantly decrease mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. PMID:19695750

Spinella, Philip C; Holcomb, John B

2009-11-01

356

Assessment of the Red Cell Proteome of Young Patients with Unexplained Hemolytic Anemia by Two-Dimensional Differential In-Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE)  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte cytosolic protein expression profiles of children with unexplained hemolytic anemia were compared with profiles of close relatives and controls by two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The severity of anemia in the patients varied from compensated (i.e., no medical intervention required) to chronic transfusion dependence. Common characteristics of all patients included chronic elevation of reticulocyte count and a negative workup for anemia focusing on hemoglobinopathies, morphologic abnormalities that would suggest a membrane defect, immune-mediated red cell destruction, and evaluation of the most common red cell enzyme defects, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase deficiency. Based upon this initial workup and presentation during infancy or early childhood, four patients classified as hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (HNSHA) of unknown etiology were selected for proteomic analysis. DIGE analysis of red cell cytosolic proteins clearly discriminated each anemic patient from both familial and unrelated controls, revealing both patient-specific and shared patterns of differential protein expression. Changes in expression pattern shared among the four patients were identified in several protein classes including chaperons, cytoskeletal and proteasome proteins. Elevated expression in patient samples of some proteins correlated with high reticulocyte count, likely identifying a subset of proteins that are normally lost during erythroid maturation, including proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolism and protein synthesis. Proteins identified with patient-specific decreased expression included components of the glutathione synthetic pathway, antioxidant pathways, and proteins involved in signal transduction and nucleotide metabolism. Among the more than 200 proteins identified in this study are 21 proteins not previously described as part of the erythrocyte proteome. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying a global proteomic approach to aid characterization of red cells from patients with hereditary anemia of unknown cause, including the identification of differentially expressed proteins as potential candidates with a role in disease pathogenesis. PMID:22509282

von Löhneysen, Katharina; Scott, Thomas M.; Soldau, Katrin; Xu, Xiuling; Friedman, Jeffrey S.

2012-01-01

357

A toxicogenomic approach revealed hepatic gene expression changes mechanistically linked to drug-induced hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

A variety of pharmaceutical compounds causes hemolytic anemia as a significant adverse effect and this toxicity restricts the clinical utility of these drugs. In this study, we applied microarray technology to investigate hepatic gene expression changes associated with drug-induced hemolytic anemia and to identify potential biomarker genes for this hematotoxicity. We treated female Sprague-Dawley rats with two hemolytic anemia-inducing compounds: phenylhydrazine and phenacetin. Hepatic gene expression profiles were obtained using a whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray with pooled RNA samples from individual rats within each dose group and analyzed in comparison with hepatic histopathology, hematology, and blood chemistry data. We identified a small subset of genes that were commonly deregulated in all the severe hemolytic conditions, some of which were considered to be involved in hepatic events characteristic of hemolytic anemia, such as hemoglobin biosynthesis, heme metabolism, and phagocytosis. Among them, we selected six upregulated genes as putative biomarkers, and their expression changes from microarray measurements were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR using RNAs from individual animals. They were Alas2, beta-glo, Eraf, Hmox1, Lgals3, and Rhced. Expression patterns of all these genes showed high negative and positive correlation against erythrocyte counts and total bilirubin levels in circulation, respectively, suggesting that these genes may be the potential biomarkers for hemolytic anemia. These findings indicate that drug-induced hemolytic anemia may be detected based on hepatic changes in the expression of a subset of genes that are mechanistically linked to the hematotoxicity. PMID:17082564

Rokushima, Masatomo; Omi, Kazuo; Araki, Akiko; Kyokawa, Yoshimasa; Furukawa, Naoko; Itoh, Fumio; Imura, Kae; Takeuchi, Kumiko; Okada, Manabu; Kato, Ikuo; Ishizaki, Jun

2007-02-01

358

Factors influencing hemolytic activity of venom from the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye.  

PubMed

In this study, hemolytic activity of venom from the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye and some factors affecting it were assayed. The HU(50) of R. esculentum full venom (RFV) against chicken erythrocytes was 3.40 microg/ml and a Hill coefficient value was 1.73 suggesting at least two molecules participated in hemolytic activity. The hemolytic activity of RFV was affected by some chemical and physical factors such as divalent cations, EDTA, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), pH and temperature. In the presence of Mg(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+) (>or=2 mM), Mn(2+) ((>or=1 mM), EDTA ((>or=2 mM) and (NH(4))(2)SO(4), the hemolytic activity of RFV was reduced. RFV had strong hemolytic activity at the pH 6-10 and the hemolytic ratios were 0.95-1.19. Hemolytic activity was temperature-sensitive and when RFV was pre-incubated at temperatures over 40 degrees C, it was sharply reduced. PMID:17306433

Yu, Huahua; Li, Cuiping; Li, Ronggui; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

2007-07-01

359

Red blood cell transfusion practices amongst Canadian anesthesiologists: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a Purpose  To assess red blood cell transfusion practices among Canadian anesthesiologists.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A survey depicting three realistic clinical scenarios of elective surgical procedures with different risks of bleeding was\\u000a administered to all Canadian practicing members (n = 2,100) of the Canadian Anesthesiologists’ Society. Respondents were requested\\u000a to choose hemoglobin thresholds for which they would transfuse red blood cells under various conditions

Alexis F. Turgeon; Dean A. Fergusson; Steve Doucette; Madhu Priya Khanna; Alan Tinmouth; Ashique Aziz; Paul C. Hébert

2006-01-01

360

Pathology Case Study: Drop in Hemoglobin Following Platelet Transfusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 55-year-old man experienced a drop in hemoglobin four months after a allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Visitors are given the patient history, transfusion reaction workup, and the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in pathology and transfusion medicine.

Arida, Muammar

361

Does hemolytic uremic syndrome differ from thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura?  

PubMed

Both hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) are characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), affecting mainly the kidney and brain, respectively. Diagnosis of HUS or TTP has been complicated by the fact that these disorders share several clinical characteristics, and by the dearth of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of TMA. Advances in the identification of pathogenic features--deficiency of the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 in TTP and association of mutated complement proteins with atypical HUS--have gone some way towards improving clinicians' ability to distinguish between the two diseases. Here, we pose the following question: is it important to patient management that HUS be distinguished from TTP? By discussing what is known about the pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment of these two conditions we address this question, and propose a new nomenclature for TMA. PMID:18033227

Fakhouri, Fadi; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique

2007-12-01

362

Recurrent ocular involvement in pediatric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.  

PubMed

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a subtype of thrombotic microangiopathy associated with complement alternative pathway dysregulation. It is clinically characterized by a relapsing course and a poor prognosis. Multiple organ systems are commonly affected by thrombotic microangiopathy in pediatric atypical HUS; however, ocular involvement is rarely reported. The case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed as having atypical HUS who presented with bilateral central retinal vein occlusions with macular subhyaloid hemorrhage during her initial onset and ophthalmoplegia, diplopia, and optic disc edema during her relapsing episode 1 year later is described. All ocular manifestations occurred in the convalescence phase of atypical HUS. No other extrarenal complications were found and full recovery was achieved following typical treatment for atypical HUS (ie, plasma infusion, steroid, and supportive therapy). This is thought to be the first reported case of recurrent ocular involvement in pediatric atypical HUS. PMID:25347082

Zheng, Xiaoyu; Gorovoy, Ian R; Mao, Jianhua; Jin, Ji; Chen, Xi; Cui, Qi N

2014-01-01

363

Recurrent ocular involvement in pediatric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.  

PubMed

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a subtype of thrombotic microangiopathy associated with complement alternative pathway dysregulation. It is clinically characterized by a relapsing course and a poor prognosis. Multiple organ systems are commonly affected by thrombotic microangiopathy in pediatric atypical HUS; however, ocular involvement is rarely reported. The case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed as having atypical HUS who presented with bilateral central retinal vein occlusions with macular subhyaloid hemorrhage during her initial onset and ophthalmoplegia, diplopia, and optic disc edema during her relapsing episode 1 year later is described. All ocular manifestations occurred in the convalescence phase of atypical HUS. No other extrarenal complications were found and full recovery was achieved following typical treatment for atypical HUS (ie, plasma infusion, steroid, and supportive therapy). This is thought to be the first reported case of recurrent ocular involvement in pediatric atypical HUS. PMID:25608228

Zheng, Xiaoyu; Gorovoy, Ian R; Mao, Jianhua; Jin, Ji; Chen, Xi; Cui, Qi N

2014-01-01

364

Molecular Basis for Group B ? -hemolytic Streptococcal Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Group B ? -hemolytic Streptococcus (GBS) is a major pathogen affecting newborns. We have investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the respiratory distress induced in sheep after intravenous injection of a toxin produced by this organism. The pathophysiological response is characterized by pulmonary hypertension, followed by granulocytopenia and increased pulmonary vascular permeability to protein. 31P NMR studies of GBS toxin and model components before and after reductive alkaline hydrolysis demonstrated that phosphodiester residues are an integral part of the GBS toxin. Reductive alkaline treatment cleaves phosphate esters from secondary and primary alcohols and renders GBS toxin nontoxic in the sheep model and inactive as a mediator of elastase release in vitro from isolated human granulocytes. We propose that the interaction of cellular receptors with mannosyl phosphodiester groups plays an essential role in the pathophysiological response to GBS toxin.

Hellerqvist, Carl G.; Sundell, Hakan; Gettins, Peter

1987-01-01

365

Cryptococcal meningitis in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

To summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) patients and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of AIHA complicated with CM, we evaluated five cases of CM in patients with AIHA treated in our hospital from 2003 to 2013 and eight related foreign cases. All of the clinical isolates were Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and grouped into the VNI genotype and serotype A. The clinical features exhibit significant features. Headache, nausea, and fever are common symptoms of AIHA complicated with CM. The early clinical manifestations lack specificity, which may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Long-term use of prednisone (?15 mg day(-1)), poor control of anemia, and splenectomy are risk factors for AIHA complicated with cryptococcal infection. The combination of intravenous amphotericin B and oral 5-fluorocytosine remains the preferred treatment for AIHA complicated with CM. PMID:24952011

Yang, YaLi; Sang, Junjun; Pan, Weihua; Du, Lin; Liao, Wanqing; Chen, Jianghan; Zhu, Yuanjie

2014-08-01

366

A Fetal Hemolytic Anemia in a Child with Cytomegalovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a hematologic disorder that is rarely observed in infants and young children. Most of the cases are associated with viral or bacterial infections. In some cases, AIHA can be characterized by a chronic course and an unsatisfactory control of hemolysis, thus requiring prolonged immunosuppressive therapy. Case report Especially in children younger than 2 years of age, the clinical course of the disease may show either resistance to steroids or dependence on high-dose steroids. We report here an infant fatal autoimmune Conclusion This case suggests that investigation for the presence of CMV infection in infantile AIHA should be considered. Severe hemolysis is rare but could be a potentially life-threatening complication of CMV infection described mostly in immune compromised adults and children. PMID:25002930

Hosseeini, S; Ansari, Sh; Kalantar, E; Sabzechian, M; Alibeik, A; Dorgalaleh, A

2014-01-01

367

Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN). There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitiy Sains Malaysia over one year period from January to December 2009. A total of 5163 Malay pregnant women who attended labor room for delivery were collected and analyzed prospectively. The blood samples were subjected to the standard immunohematological procedure for RBC antibody screening and identification using reagents of Diamed-ID Gel microtyping system. All the newborns with RBC alloantibody were investigated for the evidence of HDFN. Results: Thirty (0.58%) women were found to have clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Most of the alloantibodies belonged to Rhesus (Rh) system (56.7%) where anti-E (33.3%) was the most common followed by anti-D (10.0%). Rh antibodies were the main cause of HDFN in fourteen (0.27%) neonates. Anti-D and anti-c were identified to cause moderate to very severe HDFN. Conclusions: With the low prevalence of clinically significant RBC alloantibodies and HDFN, routine antenatal antibody screening practice may not be advised as a routine practice at present, preferably reserved for those women of RhD negative or with history of HDFN, significantly of those attributed to anti-c. PMID:25161351

Hassan, Mohd Nazri; Mohd Noor, Noor Haslina; Johan Noor, Shah Reza; Sukri, Salamah Ahmad; Mustafa, Rapiaah; Luc Aster, Hans Van Rostenberghe

2014-01-01

368

Red Blood Cell Transfusion Safety: Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Cost\\/ Benefits of Risk Reduction Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

While transfusion safety, particularly with respect to transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases, has improved dramatically\\u000a over the past several decades, progress in other clinical processes of blood product transfusion continue with highly variable\\u000a practices and human errors that contribute to adverse outcomes. In this paper, we study the adverse outcome risk in red blood\\u000a cell (RBC) transfusion in the United States using

Anthony D. Slonim; Ebru K. Bish; Ryan S. Xie

369

Angioarchitecture of monochorionic placentas in relation to the twin-twin transfusion syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Twin-twin transfusion syndrome in the midtrimester is associated with a perinatal mortality rate exceeding 80%. Although attributed to intertwin transfusion along vascular anastomoses, these occur in all monochorial placentas, not just the 10% with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. We compared fetoplacental angioarchitecture in monochorionic twin placentas with and without twin-twin transfusion syndrome.STUDY DESIGN: The fetoplacental circulations of both twins in

Rekha Bajoria; Jonathan Wigglesworth; Nicholas M. Fisk

1995-01-01

370

[Experience of mismatched blood transfusion for an rh negative patient and reconsideration of emergency blood transfusion manual in the hospital].  

PubMed

We report a B Rh negative patient undergoing total pelvic exenteration, who received both ABO and Rh incompatible packed red blood cells in an emergency situation. After this experience, we revised the manual of emergency blood transfusion. We defined level of severity to share information with surgeon, nurses, anesthesiologists and the member of the blood center. We changed anesthesia information management system for showing blood type including Duffy blood group system and checking out whether we can transfuse Rh positive blood to Rh negative patient in an emergency situation at the timeout of surgery. PMID:23984584

Yoshimatsu, Aya; Hoshi, Takuo; Nishikawa, Masashi; Aya, Daisuke; Ueda, Hiroshi; Yokouchi, Takako; Tanaka, Makoto

2013-08-01

371

Ventilator associated pneumonia and transfusion, is there really an association? (the NAVTRA study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anemic syndrome is a frequent problem in intensive care units. The most probable etiology is the suppression of the erythropoietin response due to the direct effects of cytokines, as well as frequent blood sampling. Transfusions are not free of complications, therefore transfusion reactions are estimated to occur in 2% of the total packed red blood cells (pRBCs) transfused. In

David Yepes; Bladimir Gil; Olga Hernandez; Rodrigo Murillo; Marco Gonzalez; Juan Pablo Velasquez

2006-01-01

372

Les structures de soins dans les établissements de transfusion sanguine, pourquoi faire ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In France for several years, many patients have been treated in Blood Transfusion Centers belonging to the EFS. This partnership between public hospitals and EFS is appreciated by the patients who find a competent staff in transfusion and apheresis process, in a more pleasant environment than in hospital. There is a total of 93 Health Care Units in Blood Transfusion

B. Herault; S. Assari; P. Colombat; C. Binet; F. Courtois; F. Roubinet

2007-01-01

373

FIELD EVALUATION OF AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM FOR TEACHING PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS IN TRANSFUSION MEDICINE  

E-print Network

, the identification of alloantibodies in a patient's blood for the purpose of finding compatible blood for transfusion in transfusion services laboratories is determining what antibodies are in a patient's blood. Antibody IN TRANSFUSION MEDICINE Jodi Heinz Obradovich*, Philip 3. Smith*, Stephanie A. Cuerlain**, Sally Rudman*, Jack W

Virginia, University of

374

Effect of Blood Transfusion on Long-Term Survival After Cardiac Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Blood transfusions have been linked to increased morbidity and mortality. Bleeding during and after cardiac operations and the hemodilution effects of cardiopulmonary bypass commonly result in blood transfusions. Because we could not find any studies evaluating the effects of transfusion on long-term sur- vival after cardiac operation, we sought to determine these effects. Methods. We studied 1,915 patients who

Milo C. Engoren; Robert H. Habib; Anoar Zacharias; Thomas A. Schwann; Christopher J. Riordan; Samuel J. Durham

2010-01-01

375

Ultrasound-guided fetal intravenous transfusion for severe rhesus haemolytic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrauterine, intraperitoneal transfusion is associated with a poor survival rate in fetuses with hydrops and low gestational age. A method of direct fetal intravenous transfusion was used in two fetuses. One fetus with severe rhesus haemolytic disease was given transfusions in the 29th and 30th weeks of gestation, using an ultrasound-guided needle through the hepatic part of the umbilical vein

JENS BANG; JOHANNES E. BOCK; DYRE TROLLE

1982-01-01

376

Antibodies to Leptospira among blood donors in higher-risk areas of Australia: possible implications for transfusion safety  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is one of the most common bacterial zoonoses worldwide, and clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infection to acute febrile illness, multi-organ failure and death. Asymptomatic, acute bacteraemia in a blood donor provides a potential for transfusion-transmission, although only a single such case from India has been recorded. Human leptospirosis is uncommon in developed countries; however, the state of Queensland in Australia has one of the highest rates among developed countries, especially after increased rainfall. This study examined the prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira spp. in blood donors residing in higher-risk areas of Australia, to evaluate the appropriateness of current blood safety guidelines. Materials and methods Plasma samples collected from blood donors residing in higher-risk areas of Australia during 2009 and 2011 were included in the study. All samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to 22 leptospiral serovars using the microscopic agglutination test. Result No sample had antibody titres suggestive of a current or recent infection, however, seven samples (1.44%, 95% CI: 0.38–2.50%) had titres suggestive of a past infection. Discussion This study provides data that may support the appropriateness of current relevant donor selection policies in Australia. Given that the risk profile for leptospirosis is expanding and that the infection is likely to become more prevalent with climate change, this disease may become more of a concern for transfusion safety in the future. PMID:24960651

Faddy, Helen; Seed, Clive; Lau, Colleen; Racloz, Vanessa; Flower, Robert; Smythe, Lee; Burns, Mary-Anne; Dohnt, Michael; Craig, Scott; Harley, Robert; Weinstein, Philip

2015-01-01

377

Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a relatively rare and interesting entity. Despite a range of pathophysiological and therapeutic approaches, it has a high mortality. It is possible to prevent the disease by prophylaxis only. It is possible to miss the entity in routine clinical practice and reach a different diagnosis due to its non-specific signs and symptoms. Four patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of TA-GVHD were evaluated and the literature reviewed. The transfusion history was of great importance, as was the exclusion of other conditions that may present with similar signs and symptoms (fever, skin rash, diarrhea, pancytopenia, icterus and renal failure). Confirmation of TA-GVHD was by skin biopsy. TA-GVHD must be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients who present with fever, pancytopenia, diarrhea, skin rash and icterus, and the transfusion history must be questioned. Mortality is very high despite various therapeutic approaches. This makes prophylaxis essential. TA-GVHD can be prevented by irradiation of blood products and by avoiding the use of blood transfusions from family donors. PMID:16618445

Oto, Ozgur Akin; Paydas, Semra; Baslamisli, Fikri; Tuncer, Ilhan; Ergin, Melek; Kalakoc, Emre; Disel, Umut; Yavuz, Sinan; Köse, Fatih; Tasova, Yesim

2006-05-01

378

Exchange transfusion in complicated pediatric malaria: A critical appraisal  

PubMed Central

Complicated falciparum malaria is a killer disease resulting in high mortality in spite of appropriate treatment. Some workers have reported improved survival when adjunct exchange blood transfusion is included in the treatment modality while others opine against it. This review is an effort to address and critically appraise current evidence for the treatment mode for severe malaria. The literature was searched with a specified search strategy to identify reports of children who underwent exchange transfusion for severe malaria. Total 23 children who underwent exchange transfusion for severe falciparum malaria published by 9 authors were identified. Age ranged from 5 months to 16 years with a mean age of 6.4 years. The average preprocedure parasite index (PI) was 41.4% (95confidence interval [CI]; 31.2-51.4). The average blood volume exchanged was 118.6% (95% CI; 94.7-143) of the circulating blood volume. The average postexchange reduction in PI was 34.1% (95% CI; 25.4-42.8). Three out of 23 children encountered some complications. All the children survivedKeywords: Exchange blood transfusion, parasite index, pediatric Intensive Care Unit, red cell exchange, severe falciparum malaria.

Barman, Himesh

2015-01-01

379

Effect of red cell transfusions on future kidney transplantation.  

PubMed

Red cell transfusions, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), and intravenous iron therapy all have a place in the treatment of anemia associated with CKD. Their relative merits and uses are subject to many clinical and nonclinical factors. New concerns associated with the use of ESA therapy make it likely that the use of blood transfusions will increase, refueling previous debates about their associated risks. Data on whether red cell transfusions increase sensitization to HLA antigens, rendering subsequent transplantation more problematic, are mainly derived from older literature. Older data suggested that women were more at risk of HLA sensitization than men, particularly those with previous multiple pregnancies, although recent U.S. Renal Data System data have challenged this. HLA sensitization prolongs the waiting time for transplantation and reduces graft survival. Leukocyte depletion of red cells does not appear to reduce the risk of HLA sensitization. This review summarizes much of the data on these issues, as well as highlighting the need for further research on the potential risks for blood transfusion in patients with CKD. PMID:23085723

Obrador, Gregorio T; Macdougall, Iain C

2013-05-01

380

An electronic barrier system to improve blood transfusion safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In blood transfusion procedures, it is necessary to guarantee that each patient actually receives the blood unit which has been assigned to him, so that mistransfusions are avoided. For this reason, before starting the administration, a cross-check involving the patient and the trasfusion unit codes must be carried out at bedside. To perform these tests in a safe and fast

F. Baronti; A. Lazzeri; R. Roncella; M. Rubertelliy; A. Tomasi

2008-01-01

381

Effects of a CME Program on Physicians' Transfusion Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hospital charts of 44 patients who were autologous blood donors undergoing elective orthopedic surgery and a matched group of 44 patients who were not autologous blood donors were analyzed to determine their physicians' transfusion practices. A continuing medical education program was developed. (Author/MLW)

Hull, Alan L.; And Others

1989-01-01

382

The first report of cabergoline-induced immune hemolytic anemia in an adolescent with prolactinoma.  

PubMed

Prolactinomas are common pituitary tumors that can cause gonadal dysfunction and infertility related to hyperprolactinemia. Dopamine agonists are the first-line treatment in these patients. Cabergoline leads to significant reduction in serum prolactin levels and tumor size in patients with prolactinoma. Dopamine agonists have been associated with adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting and psychosis. We report here a case with cabergoline-induced immune hemolytic anemia. The patient had cabergoline treatment history for prolactinoma and presented with weakness, fatigue, nausea, and paleness. Laboratory findings revealed severe anemia-related immune hemolysis. There were no causes identified to explain hemolytic anemia except cabergoline. Therefore, cabergoline therapy was stopped and subsequently hemolytic anemia resolved and did not occur again. This is the first reported pediatric case with prolactinoma and cabergoline-induced hemolytic anemia. Clinicians should be watchful for this rare side effect induced by cabergoline. PMID:23945126

Gürbüz, Fatih; Ya?c?-Küpeli, Begül; Kör, Y?lmaz; Yüksel, Bilgin; Zorludemir, Suzan; Gürbüz, Berrak Bilginer; Küpeli, Serhan

2014-01-01

383

Drag reducing polymers as simple indicators of hemolytic potential in biomechanical devices  

E-print Network

An experimental study was carried out to determine if drag reducing polymers can be simple indicators of hemolytic potential in biomechanical devices. Specifically, three different blood pumps, known as a left ventricle ...

Shieh, Sarah

2009-01-01

384

Sigma E Regulators Control Hemolytic Activity and Virulence in a Shrimp Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi  

E-print Network

Members of the genus Vibrio are important marine and aquaculture pathogens. Hemolytic activity has been identified as a virulence factor in many pathogenic vibrios including V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, ...

Rattanama, Pimonsri

385

[Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a cause of febrile hemolytic anemia in travelers].  

PubMed

Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause varied hematologic manifestations that are frequently associated with lower respiratory tract infections. Acute febrile hemolysis without respiratory symptoms is quite rare. We describe the case of a 25-year-old man, admitted for acute fever with hemolysis, after returning from Djibouti. M. pneumoniae infection was proved by serological testing. A favorable outcome followed macrolide treatment. PMID:23352983

Ficko, C; Andriamanantena, D; Flateau, F; Mangouka, L; Soler, C; Carmoi, T; Rapp, C

2012-01-01

386

Aortic valve replacement for a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate deyhdrogenase (G6PD) result in severe hemolysis with different mechanisms. In patients with both pathologies, the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on red blood cells and thrombocytes demand special care before and after open heart surgery. We evaluated the preoperative management and postoperative care of a patient with severe aortic insufficiency associated with G6PD deficiency and autoimmune hemolytic anemia who underwent aortic valve replacement. PMID:15985145

Tas, Serpil; Donmez, Arzu Antal; Kirali, Kaan; Alp, Mete H; Yakut, Cevat

2005-01-01

387

The evolution of hemolytic saponin content in wild and cultivated Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa , Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemolytic saponin content was determined of the leaves of 1213 plants of different variants ofMedicago sativa s.l. (including wild and cultivated alfalfa), and a close ally,M. papillosa. The latter species had a much higher content than any of the groups ofM. sativa. Medicago sativa ssp. caerulea, the most important ancestor of alfalfa, had a very low content of hemolytic saponins.

Ernest Small; Marian Jurzysta; Constance Nozzolillo

1990-01-01

388

Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Update on the Complement System and What Is New  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and predominant renal impairment. It is characterized by the absence of Shiga toxin-producing bacteria as a triggering factor. During the last decade, aHUS has been demonstrated to be a disorder of the complement alternative pathway dysregulation, as there is a growing list of mutations and polymorphisms

Patricia Hirt-Minkowski; Michael Dickenmann; Jürg A. Schifferli

2010-01-01

389

[Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-like defect: report of one case].  

PubMed

Both autoimmune hemolytic anemia and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria are common hemolytic diseases. The former causes hemolysis because of immune disorder, and the latter is an acquired clonal hematologic disorder of stem cells. The two entities are often separate diseases, but can also occur concomitantly or secondary to each other. paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria-like defect-like defect is a special type of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and should be distinguished from typical paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria-like defect. PMID:24369265

Tong, Juxian; Kou, Wei; Chen, Qi; Xiao, Duan

2013-12-01

390

Hemolytic-Anemia-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension: Sickle-Cell-Disease- and Thalassemia-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is now recognized as a complication of both chronic and acquired hemolytic anemias. The process\\u000a of hemolysis appears to be central to disease pathogenesis. Sickle cell disease (SCD), a congenital hemoglobinopathy affecting\\u000a as many as 30 million individuals worldwide, is the best characterized hemolytic anemia associated with PH. Multiple clinical\\u000a studies have demonstrated a 10–30% prevalence of

Elizabeth S. Klings; Mark T. Gladwin

391

Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Erythroderma Syndrome: A Clinical and Pathogenic Analysis  

PubMed Central

The syndrome of erythroderma due to beta-hemolytic streptococci is rarely seen and should be distinguished from cellulitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. We describe a novel syndrome of non-group A, beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection truncal erythroderma. The characteristics of this syndrome suggest that local factors were likely operative in the cutaneous manifestations of an exotoxin-associated erythroderma. PMID:21841465

Tyner, Harmony L; Schlievert, M; Baddour

2011-01-01

392

Fulminant transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease in a premature infant  

SciTech Connect

A fatal case of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease developed in a premature infant after receiving several blood products, including nonirradiated white blood cells. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease can be prevented. Irradiation of blood products is the least controversial and most effective method. Treatment was unsuccessful in most reported cases of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. Therefore irradiation of blood products before transfusing to patients susceptible to transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease is strongly recommended.

Berger, R.S.; Dixon, S.L.

1989-05-01

393

Clinical heterogeneity and predictors of outcome in primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a GIMEMA study of 308 patients.  

PubMed

The clinical outcome, response to treatment, and occurrence of acute complications were retrospectively investigated in 308 primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) cases and correlated with serological characteristics and severity of anemia at onset. Patients had been followed up for a median of 33 months (range 12-372); 60% were warm AIHA, 27% cold hemagglutinin disease, 8% mixed, and 5% atypical (mostly direct antiglobulin test negative). The latter 2 categories more frequently showed a severe onset (hemoglobin [Hb] levels ?6 g/dL) along with reticulocytopenia. The majority of warm AIHA patients received first-line steroid therapy only, whereas patients with mixed and atypical forms were more frequently treated with 2 or more therapy lines, including splenectomy, immunosuppressants, and rituximab. The cumulative incidence of relapse was increased in more severe cases (hazard ratio 3.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-6.57 for Hb ?6 g/dL; P < .001). Thrombotic events were associated with Hb levels ?6 g/dL at onset, intravascular hemolysis, and previous splenectomy. Predictors of a fatal outcome were severe infections, particularly in splenectomized cases, acute renal failure, Evans syndrome, and multitreatment (4 or more lines). The identification of severe and potentially fatal AIHA in a largely heterogeneous disease requires particular experienced attention by clinicians. PMID:25232059

Barcellini, Wilma; Fattizzo, Bruno; Zaninoni, Anna; Radice, Tommaso; Nichele, Ilaria; Di Bona, Eros; Lunghi, Monia; Tassinari, Cristina; Alfinito, Fiorella; Ferrari, Antonella; Leporace, Anna Paola; Niscola, Pasquale; Carpenedo, Monica; Boschetti, Carla; Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Consonni, Dario; Scaramucci, Laura; De Fabritiis, Paolo; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Gaidano, Gianluca; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Zanella, Alberto

2014-11-01

394

Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Post-Kidney Transplantation: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disorder characterized by over-activation and dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. Its estimated prevalence is 1–2 per million. The disease is characterized by thrombotic microangiopathy, which causes anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. aHUS has more severe course compared to typical (infection-induced) HUS and is frequently characterized by relapses that leads to end stage renal disease. For a long time, kidney transplantation for these patients was contraindicated because of high rate of recurrence and subsequent renal graft loss. The post-kidney transplantation recurrence rate largely depends on the pathogenetic mechanisms involved. However, over the past several years, advancements in the understanding and therapeutics of aHUS have allowed successful kidney transplantation in these patients. Eculizumab, which is a complement C5 antibody that inhibits complement factor 5a and subsequent formation of the membrane-attack complex, has been used in prevention and treatment of post-transplant aHUS recurrence. In this paper, we present two new cases of aHUS patients who underwent successful kidney transplantation in our center with the use of prophylactic and maintenance eculizumab therapy that have not been published before. The purpose of reporting these two cases is to emphasize the importance of using eculizumab as a prophylactic therapy to prevent aHUS recurrence post-transplant in high-risk patients. We will also review the current understanding of the genetics of aHUS, the pathogenesis of its recurrence after kidney transplantation, and strategies for prevention and treatment of post-transplant aHUS recurrence. PMID:25593925

Alasfar, Sami; Alachkar, Nada

2014-01-01

395

The effect of intravenous iron on postoperative transfusion requirements in hip fracture patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anaemia following hip fracture is common. Approximately 30 to 45% of patients have haemoglobin concentrations below population norms on admission, and around 10% are severely anaemic. Anaemia on admission, and in the postoperative period, is associated with poor outcomes with regard to mobility, postoperative mortality and readmission. There is currently no clear consensus on the optimal method of managing perioperative anaemia in this group of frail patients with frequent comorbidity. Liberal red cell transfusion in the postoperative period does not appear to improve outcome, whereas tranexamic acid appears to reduce transfusion rate at the expense of increased cardiovascular morbidity. There are encouraging results from one centre with the use of agents to stimulate red cell production, including intravenous iron and erythropoietin. UK practice differs significantly from these patients and these studies, and it is not clear whether these promising results will translate to the UK population. Methods/Design This is a single-centre randomized controlled parallel group trial, in a British university hospital.Randomization is achieved using a website and computer-generated concealed tables. Participants are 80 patients 70 years or over with acute hip fracture undergoing operative repair. The intervention group receive three daily infusions of 200 mg iron sucrose, starting within 24 hours of admission. The control group receive standard hospital care at the discretion of the clinical team. Red cell transfusions for each group are given in accordance with standard clinical triggers. The primary outcome is an increase in mean reticulocyte count in the intervention group at day 7. Secondary outcome measures include haemoglobin concentrations, early and late transfusion rates, infectious and cardiovascular complications, mobility and 30-day mortality. Discussion This is a pilot study to demonstrate haematopoietic efficacy of intravenous iron in this setting. Hence, we have chosen to measure change in reticulocyte count rather than the more clinically relevant differences in haemoglobin concentration or transfusion rate. If our results are positive, the study will provide the necessary information for development of a full-scale trial of intravenous iron. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76424792; UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Authority (EuDRACT: 2011-003233-34). PMID:24015990

2013-01-01

396

Deletions affecting hemolytic and toxin activities of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase.  

PubMed Central

The Bordetella pertussis cyaA gene encodes a virulence factor which is a bifunctional protein exhibiting calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase and hemolytic activities (P. Glaser, H. Sakamoto, J. Bellahov, A. Ullmann, and A. Danchin, EMBO J. 7:3997-4004, 1988). We characterized the hemolytic and toxin activities of the 200-kilodalton (kDa) bifunctional (CyaA) protein and showed that, whether cell associated or secreted, the 200-kDa CyaA protein carries hemolytic and toxin functions. The catalytically active 45-kDa form of adenylate cyclase released by proteolytic digestion of the 200-kDa CyaA protein displayed neither hemolytic nor toxin activities. We constructed in-phase deletions in the 3' region of the cyaA gene, which presumably carries the hemolytic determinant, and showed that the resulting proteins exhibited wild-type adenylate cyclase activity and were secreted without processing into culture supernatants. The hemolytic activities of these mutant CyaA proteins were severely reduced, and their toxin activities were abolished. These results suggest that the structural integrity of the 200-kDa CyaA protein is necessary for toxin activity and that distinct structural determinants within the CyaA protein are involved in secretion, pore formation, and entry into target cells. Images PMID:2401563

Bellalou, J; Sakamoto, H; Ladant, D; Geoffroy, C; Ullmann, A

1990-01-01

397

Hemolytic and antimicrobial activities differ among saponin-rich extracts from guar, quillaja, yucca, and soybean.  

PubMed

Hemolytic and antibacterial activities of eight serial concentrations ranged from 5-666 microg/mL of saponin-rich extracts from guar meal (GM), quillaja, yucca, and soybean were tested in 96-well plates and read by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plate-well as 650 nm. Hemolytic assay used a 1% suspension of chicken red blood cells with water and phosphate buffered saline as positive and negative controls, respectively. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were evaluated using ampicillin and bacteria without saponin-rich extract as positive and negative controls, respectively. The 100% MeOH GM and commercial quillaja saponin-rich extracts were significantly the highest in both hemolytic and antibacterial activities against all bacteria at the same concentration tested. Soybean saponin-rich extract had no antibacterial activity against any of the bacteria at the concentrations tested while yucca saponin-rich extract had no antibacterial activity against the gram-negative bacteria at the concentrations tested. GM and quillaja saponin-rich extracts were hemolytic, while yucca and soybean saponin-rich extracts were not hemolytic at the concentrations tested. No saponin-rich extract source had antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium or E. coli at the concentrations tested. Both GM and quillaja saponin-rich extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus. Saponin-rich extracts from different plant sources have different hemolytic and antibacterial activities. PMID:19915999

Hassan, Sherif M; Byrd, James A; Cartwright, Aubry L; Bailey, Chris A

2010-10-01

398

The effect of body mass index on posttraumatic transfusion after pelvic trauma.  

PubMed

The impact of body mass index (BMI) on posttraumatic blood transfusion after pelvic trauma is not well known. We conducted a retrospective review of trauma registry data over a 5-year period. Patients were stratified by BMI as normal: less than 25 kg/m(2), overweight: 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2), obese: 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), and morbidly obese: 40 kg/m(2) or greater. Fractures were identified as "likely to receive transfusion" based on literature. Multivariable logistic regression modeling evaluated the relationship between BMI and initial posttraumatic transfusion. A second regression model was created to test the effect of BMI after adjusting for fractures "less likely to receive transfusion." Sixty-six of 244 patients (27.3%) received transfusion (mean: 1.1 ± 2.3 units). Morbid obesity was associated with transfusion (less than 55.6 vs 24.8%; P < 0.05) and units of total blood transfused (2.2 ± 2.9 vs 1.0 ± 2.2 mL; P < 0.05). The average age of patients who received a blood transfusion was significantly older compared with patients who did not receive a transfusion (45.4 ± 18.8 vs 36.1 ± 16.1 years; P < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, morbid obesity was a significant risk factor for transfusion (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 12.0). Adjusting by age and fracture patterns "less likely to receive transfusion," morbid obesity remained a risk factor for transfusion (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 12.9). Morbid obesity represented a significant risk factor for posttraumatic transfusion in isolated pelvic trauma, even for fracture patterns "less likely to receive transfusion." PMID:25760198

Richards, Justin E; Morris, Brent J; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Sweeney, Kyle R; Tressler, Marc A; Obremskey, William T; Kregor, Philip J

2015-03-01

399

Intractable intraoperative bleeding requiring platelet transfusion during emergent cholecystectomy in a patient with dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting coronary stent implantation (with video)  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 76-year-old man, receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticlopidine for the past 6?years after implantation of drug-eluting coronary stent, developed a severe hypochondriac pain. After diagnosing severe acute cholecystitis by an enhanced CT, emergent laparotomy under continuation of DAPT was attempted. During the operation, intractable bleeding from the adhesiolysed liver surface was encountered, which required platelet transfusion. Subtotal cholecystectomy with abdominal drainage was performed, and the patient recovered without any postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic complications. Like the present case, the final decision should be made to perform platelet transfusion when life-threatening DAPT-induced intraoperative bleeding occurs during an emergent surgery, despite the elevated risk of stent thrombosis. PMID:23536626

Fujikawa, Takahisa; Noda, Tomohiro; Tada, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Akira

2013-01-01

400

Graves' Disease Causing Pancytopenia and Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia at Different Time Intervals: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Graves' disease (GD) is associated with various hematologic abnormalities but pancytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are reported very rarely. Herein, we report a patient with GD who had both of these rare complications at different time intervals, along with a review of the related literature. The patient was a 70-year-old man who, during a hospitalization, was also noted to have pancytopenia and elevated thyroid hormone levels. Complete hematologic workup was unremarkable and his pancytopenia was attributed to hyperthyroidism. He was started on methimazole but unfortunately did not return for followup and stopped methimazole after a few weeks. A year later, he presented with fatigue and weight loss. Labs showed hyperthyroidism and isolated anemia (hemoglobin 7?g/dL). He had positive direct Coombs test and elevated reticulocyte index. He was diagnosed with AIHA and started on glucocorticoids. GD was confirmed with elevated levels of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins and thyroid uptake and scan. He was treated with methimazole and radioactive iodine ablation. His hemoglobin improved to 10.7?g/dL at discharge without blood transfusion. Graves' disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hematologic abnormalities. These abnormalities in the setting of GD generally respond well to antithyroid treatment. PMID:24319463

Kumar, Geetika; Dewani, Shabana; Diedrich, William A.; Gupta, Ankur

2013-01-01

401

Partial ADAMTS13 deficiency in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.  

PubMed

Complement dysregulation leads to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), while ADAMTS13 deficiency causes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. We investigated whether genetic variations in the ADAMTS13 gene partially explain the reduced activity known to occur in some patients with aHUS. We measured complement activity and ADAMTS13 function, and completed mutation screening of multiple complement genes and ADAMTS13 in a large cohort of aHUS patients. In over 50% of patients we identified complement gene mutations. Surprisingly, 80% of patients also carried at least 1 nonsynonymous change in ADAMTS13, and in 38% of patients, multiple ADAMTS13 variations were found. Six of the 9 amino acid substitutions in ADAMTS13 were common single nucleotide polymorphisms; however, 3 variants-A747V, V832M, and R1096H- were rare, with minor allele frequencies of 0.0094%, 0.5%, and 0.32%, respectively. Reduced complement and ADAMTS13 activity (<60% of normal activity) were found in over 60% and 50% of patients, respectively. We concluded that partial ADAMTS13 deficiency is a common finding in aHUS patients and that genetic screening and functional tests of ADAMTS13 should be considered in these patients. PMID:23847193

Feng, Shuju; Eyler, Stephen J; Zhang, Yuzhou; Maga, Tara; Nester, Carla M; Kroll, Michael H; Smith, Richard J; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid

2013-08-22

402

Cholesterol-dependent hemolytic activity of Passiflora quadrangularis leaves.  

PubMed

Plants used in traditional medicine are rich sources of hemolysins and cytolysins, which are potential bactericidal and anticancer drugs. The present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of a hemolysin in the leaves of Passiflora quadrangularis L. This hemolysin is heat stable, resistant to trypsin treatment, has the capacity to froth, and acts very rapidly. The hemolysin activity is dose-dependent, with a slope greater than 1 in a double-logarithmic plot. Polyethylene glycols of high molecular weight were able to reduce the rate of hemolysis, while liposomes containing cholesterol completely inhibited it. In contrast, liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine were ineffective. The Passiflora hemolysin markedly increased the conductance of planar lipid bilayers containing cholesterol but was ineffective in cholesterol-free bilayers. Successive extraction of the crude hemolysin with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol resulted in a 10-fold purification, with the hemolytic activity being recovered in the n-butanol fraction. The data suggest that membrane cholesterol is the primary target for this hemolysin and that several hemolysin molecules form a large transmembrane water pore. The properties of the Passiflora hemolysin, such as its frothing ability, positive color reaction with vanillin, selective extraction with n-butanol, HPLC profile, cholesterol-dependent membrane susceptibility, formation of a stable complex with cholesterol, and rapid erythrocyte lysis kinetics indicate that it is probably a saponin. PMID:16007277

Yuldasheva, L N; Carvalho, E B; Catanho, M-T J A; Krasilnikov, O V

2005-07-01

403

Partial ADAMTS13 deficiency in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Complement dysregulation leads to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), while ADAMTS13 deficiency causes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. We investigated whether genetic variations in the ADAMTS13 gene partially explain the reduced activity known to occur in some patients with aHUS. We measured complement activity and ADAMTS13 function, and completed mutation screening of multiple complement genes and ADAMTS13 in a large cohort of aHUS patients. In over 50% of patients we identified complement gene mutations. Surprisingly, 80% of patients also carried at least 1 nonsynonymous change in ADAMTS13, and in 38% of patients, multiple ADAMTS13 variations were found. Six of the 9 amino acid substitutions in ADAMTS13 were common single nucleotide polymorphisms; however, 3 variants—A747V, V832M, and R1096H— were rare, with minor allele frequencies of 0.0094%, 0.5%, and 0.32%, respectively. Reduced complement and ADAMTS13 activity (<60% of normal activity) were found in over 60% and 50% of patients, respectively. We concluded that partial ADAMTS13 deficiency is a common finding in aHUS patients and that genetic screening and functional tests of ADAMTS13 should be considered in these patients. PMID:23847193

Feng, Shuju; Eyler, Stephen J.; Zhang, Yuzhou; Maga, Tara; Nester, Carla M.; Kroll, Michael H.

2013-01-01

404

N-terminal amphipathic helix as a trigger of hemolytic activity in antimicrobial peptides: a case study in latarcins.  

PubMed

In silico structural analyses of sets of alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are performed. Differences between hemolytic and non-hemolytic AMPs are revealed in organization of their N-terminal region. A parameter related to hydrophobicity of the N-terminal part is proposed as a measure of the peptide propensity to exhibit hemolytic and other unwanted cytotoxic activities. Based on the information acquired, a rational approach for selective removal of these properties in AMPs is suggested. A proof of concept is gained through engineering specific mutations that resulted in elimination of the hemolytic activity of AMPs (latarcins) while leaving the beneficial antimicrobial effect intact. PMID:19563807

Polyansky, Anton A; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Volynsky, Pavel E; Vorontsova, Olga V; Samsonova, Olga V; Egorova, Natalya S; Krylov, Nicolay A; Feofanov, Alexei V; Arseniev, Alexander S; Grishin, Eugene V; Efremov, Roman G

2009-07-21

405

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions  

SciTech Connect

A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

1983-11-01

406

Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a relatively rare and interesting entity. Despite a range of pathophysiological and therapeutic approaches, it has a high mortality. It is possible to prevent the disease by prophylaxis only. It is possible to miss the entity in routine clinical practice and reach a different diagnosis due to its non-specific signs and symptoms. Four patients with

Ozgur Akin Oto; Semra Paydas; Fikri Baslamisli; Ilhan Tuncer; Melek Ergin; Emre Kalakoc; Umut Disel; Sinan Yavuz; Fatih Köse; Yesim Tasova

2006-01-01

407

Bone density in transfusion dependent thalassemia patients in Urmia, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with thalassemia major and intermedia are susceptible to osteopenia and osteoporosis. The mechanism of osteoporosis in these patients is multifactorial. Transfusion related iron overload in endocrine organs leads to impaired growth hormone secretion, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, lack of sex steroids and vitamin D deficiency that contribute to impairment in achieving an adequate bone mass .The aim of this study was assessment of frequency of bone loss in patients with thalassemia major and intermedia in Urmia City of West Azerbaijan, Iran Materials and Methods In this cross sectional descriptive study,10 patients (lower than 18 y/o)with transfusion dependent thalassemia attending to Motahari and Emam Khomeini hospitals in Urmia city of Iran were enrolled and scanned for Bone Mineral Density (BMD) starting at around 10 years old. Results Tenatients (6 male and 4 female) with transfusion dependent thalassemia (?-thalassemia major and intermedia) aged 13to 17 years in Urmia city of Iran were enrolled. Mean age of patients was 15.1±.37year old. Among them, 8 patients (80%)had low BMD and2 of them (20%) had normal BMD in lumbar spine. Only 30% of patients had low BMD in the neck of femur. Conclusion We should perform annual BMD in patients with thalassemia major and intermedia and hemoglobin H disease in age of higher than 8 year old and treat low BMD with administration of bisphosphonate, calcium and vitamin D supplements. Medical consultation with a rheumatologist and /or an endocrinologist should be performed in these patients. Changing lifestyle with mild daily exercise, adequate calcium containing foods, avoiding heavy activities, stop smoking, iron chelation therapy in adequate dosage, early diagnosis and treatment of endocrine insufficiency and regular blood transfusions can help to achieve an optimal bone density in these patients. PMID:25002928

Valizadeh, N; Farrokhi, F; Alinejad, V; Said Mardani, SM; Valizadeh, N; Hejazi, S; Noroozi, M

2014-01-01

408

Red Blood Cell Transfusion Risks in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease  

PubMed Central

Prior to the introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), red blood cell (RBC) transfusions were frequently required when iron and anabolic steroids failed to improve the clinical symptoms of anemia associated with hemoglobin (Hb) levels that were commonly less than 7 g/dL. After the approval of EPO in the US in 1989, the Hb levels of patients on hemodialysis dramatically improved and the need for RBC transfusions decreased significantly. The need for RBC transfusion remains for patients who require an immediate increase in their RBC mass due to symptomatic anemia and is likely to increase due to changes in the management of anemia in dialysis patients resulting from clinical trials data, regulatory changes, and new reimbursement policies for EPO. The safety of the blood supply has greatly improved over the last few decades and the risk of transfusion-transmitted diseases has now been dramatically reduced. Non-infectious complications of transfusion currently cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the US. Transfusion also brings a risk of alloimmunization, a particular concern for dialysis patients waiting for kidney transplantation. Knowledge of the risks of RBC transfusions will help clinicians better assess the risks and benefits of transfusing patients with ESRD. This article reviews the modern day infectious and non-infectious risks of allogeneic RBC transfusions. PMID:22686519

Tanhehco, Yvette C.; Berns, Jeffrey S.

2013-01-01

409

Teaching transfusion medicine: current situation and proposals for proper medical training  

PubMed Central

The current curricula in medical schools and hospital residence worldwide lack exposure to blood transfusion medicine, and require the reformulation of academic programs. In many countries, training in blood transfusion is not currently offered to medical students or during residency. Clinical evidence indicates that blood transfusions occur more frequently than recommended, contributing to increased risk due to this procedure. Therefore, the rational use of blood and its components is essential, due to the frequent undesirable reactions, to the increasing demand of blood products and the cost of the process. Significant improvements in knowledge of and skills in transfusion medicine are needed by both students and residents. Improvements are needed in both background knowledge and the practical application of this knowledge to improve safety. Studies prove that hemovigilance has an impact on transfusion safety and helps to prevent the occurrence of transfusion-related adverse effects. To ensure that all these aspects of blood transfusion are being properly addressed, many countries have instituted hospital transfusion committees. From this perspective, the interventions performed during the formation of medical students and residents, even the simplest, have proven effective in the acquisition of knowledge and medical training, thereby leading to a reduction in inappropriate use of blood. Therefore, we would like to emphasize the importance of the exposure of medical students and residents to blood services and transfusion medicine in order for them to acquire adequate medical training, as well as to discuss some changes in the current medical curricula regarding transfusion medicine that we judge critical. PMID:25638770

Flausino, Gustavo de Freitas; Nunes, Flávio Ferreira; Cioffi, Júnia Guimarães Mourão; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro

2014-01-01

410

[Test of activated plasma clotting time to assess efficacy of platelet transfusion].  

PubMed

The study was aimed to investigate the value of activated plasma clotting time (APCT) for estimating the efficacy of platelet transfusion therapy. There were twenty patients with hematological diseases, who received transfusion of platelet, involved in the test. APCT was determined before and after transfusion of these patients, then APCT was contrasted with corresponding CCI and PPR. The results showed that 1 hour and 24 hour APCTs were shortened obviously. APCT before transfusion was (103.7 +/- 11.3) seconds, but the 1 hour and 24 hour APCTs were shortened to (60.0 +/- 9.7) seconds and (68.5 +/- 9.8) seconds respectively (P < 0.01). According to the judging criteria of CCI and PPR (CCI and PPR values at 1 and 24 hours after transfusion are < 7500, < 5000 and < 30%, < 20% respectively, the transfusion is invalid), two patients received invalid transfusion. Their 1 and 24 hour CCIs were 7415, 2966 and 6913, 4988 respectively. Their 1 and 24 hour PPRs were 28.0%, 11.2% and 25.2%, 14.1% respectively. One patient's PPR reached the standard of invalid transfusion, but his CCI showed a valid transfusion he received. Two patients' PPR reached the standard of invalid transfusion, but their 1 hour CCI reached the standard of valid transfusion, and their 24 hour CCI reached the standard of invalid transfusion. It is concluded that APCT reflects the variations of quantity and quality of platelet simultaneously, and can evaluate precisely the efficacy of platelet transfusion. PMID:17490533

Li, Jin-Jin; Chen, Bao-An; Huang, Cheng-Yin; Li, Cui-Ping; Shi, Guang-Yao; Xiao, Jian-Yu; Ding, Jia-Hua; Gao, Chong; Sun, Yun-Yu; Wan, Jun; Cheng, Jian; Zhao, Gang; Song, Hui-Hui; Zhong, Yue-Jiao

2007-02-01

411

Occult hepatitis B virus infection and blood transfusion.  

PubMed

Transfusion-transmitted infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been a major concern in transfusion medicine. Implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) has revealed occult HBV infection (OBI) in blood donors. In the mid-1980s, hepatitis B core antibody (HBc) testing was introduced to screen blood donors in HBV non-endemic countries to prevent transmission of non-A and non-B hepatitis. That test remains in use for preventing of potential transmission of HBV from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative blood donors, even though anti-hepatitis C virus tests have been introduced. Studies of anti-HBc-positive donors have revealed an HBV DNA positivity rate of 0%-15%. As of 2012, 30 countries have implemented HBV NAT. The prevalence of OBI in blood donors was estimated to be 8.55 per 1 million donations, according to a 2008 international survey. OBI is transmissible by blood transfusion. The clinical outcome of occult HBV transmission primarily depends on recipient immune status and the number of HBV DNA copies present in the blood products. The presence of donor anti-HBs reduces the risk of HBV infection by approximately five-fold. The risk of HBV transmission may be lower in endemic areas than in non-endemic areas, because most recipients have already been exposed to HBV. Blood safety for HBV, including OBI, has substantially improved, but the possibility for OBI transmission remains. PMID:25848484

Seo, Dong Hee; Whang, Dong Hee; Song, Eun Young; Han, Kyou Sup

2015-03-27

412

Development of blood transfusion service in Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Background: Sultanate of Oman is geographically situated in south-west of Asia, having common borders on western side by the land with United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen and with the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the east and the north respectively. The country enjoys one of the best health care facilities including blood transfusion services in the region. Study design: Information was collected through informal personal interviews, digging out the past records, and the report presentations at various forums. Results: A modest start by providing blood units through import, the country is now self-reliant on procuring blood units from voluntary non-remunerate blood donors within the sultanate. A steady growth of blood banks is witnessed in every aspect of blood banking including blood collection, blood processing and supply. Various modalities are adapted in promoting voluntary blood donation programme. Conclusion: Sultanate of Oman has created one of the best blood transfusion services in the region in providing safe blood for transfusion through voluntary donation, a use of blood components and irradiating blood products. PMID:20376265

Joshi, Sanmukh R.; Shah Al-Bulushi, Shahnaz N.; Ashraf, Thamina

2010-01-01

413

Proteomics applied to transfusion plasma: the beginning of the story.  

PubMed

'Safe blood' is and has always been the major concern in transfusion medicine. Plasma can undergo virus inactivation treatments based on physicochemical, photochemical or thermal methodologies for pathogen inactivation. The validation of these treatments is essentially based on clottability assays and clotting factors' titration; however, their impact on plasma proteins at the molecular level has not yet been evaluated. Proteomics appears as particularly adapted to identify, to localize and, consequently, to correlate these modifications to the biological activity change. At the crossroads of biology and analytical sciences, proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins in tissues, physiological fluids or cells at a given moment and in a precise environment. The proteomic strategy is based on a set of methodologies involving separative techniques like mono- and bidimensional gel electrophoresis and chromatography, analytical techniques, especially mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics. Even if plasma has been extensively studied since the very beginning of proteomics, its application to transfusion medicine has just begun. In the first part of this review, we present the principles of proteomics analysis. Then, we propose a state of the art of proteomics applied to plasma analysis. Finally, the use of proteomics for the evaluation of the impact of storage conditions and pathogen inactivation treatments applied to transfusion plasma and for the evaluation of therapeutic protein fractionated is discussed. PMID:23438183

Ortiz, A; Richa, L; Defer, C; Dernis, D; Huart, J-J; Tokarski, C; Rolando, C

2013-05-01

414

Occult hepatitis B virus infection and blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

Transfusion-transmitted infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been a major concern in transfusion medicine. Implementation of HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) has revealed occult HBV infection (OBI) in blood donors. In the mid-1980s, hepatitis B core antibody (HBc) testing was introduced to screen blood donors in HBV non-endemic countries to prevent transmission of non-A and non-B hepatitis. That test remains in use for preventing of potential transmission of HBV from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative blood donors, even though anti-hepatitis C virus tests have been introduced. Studies of anti-HBc-positive donors have revealed an HBV DNA positivity rate of 0%-15%. As of 2012, 30 countries have implemented HBV NAT. The prevalence of OBI in blood donors was estimated to be 8.55 per 1 million donations, according to a 2008 international survey. OBI is transmissible by blood transfusion. The clinical outcome of occult HBV transmission primarily depends on recipient immune status and the number of HBV DNA copies present in the blood products. The presence of donor anti-HBs reduces the risk of HBV infection by approximately five-fold. The risk of HBV transmission may be lower in endemic areas than in non-endemic areas, because most recipients have already been exposed to HBV. Blood safety for HBV, including OBI, has substantially improved, but the possibility for OBI transmission remains.

Seo, Dong Hee; Whang, Dong Hee; Song, Eun Young; Han, Kyou Sup

2015-01-01

415

Osteonecrosis in a chemically induced rat model of human hemolytic disorders associated with thrombosis--a new model for avascular necrosis of bone.  

PubMed

Bone injury occurs in human hemolytic disorders associated with thrombosis, such as beta-thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Exposure of rats to 2-butoxyethanol (BE) has been associated with hemolytic anemia, disseminated thrombosis, and infarction in multiple organs including bone. This rat model apparently mimics acute hemolysis and thrombosis in humans. To elucidate the extent of bone injury, male and female Fischer F344 rats were given 4 daily doses of 250 mg BE/5 ml water/kg of body weight. Tail vertebrae were studied by histopathology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thrombosis and infarction were seen in both sexes, but females were more severely affected. Lesions were characterized by extensive medullary fat necrosis, granulomatous inflammation, fibroplasia, growth plate degeneration, and new woven bone formation adjacent to necrotic bone trabeculae. MRI mean and standard deviation tissue-density data for both sexes indicated a significant (P < or = 0.05) decrease following 4-days treatment and a significant increase (P < or = 0.05) following an additional 24 days without treatment. Thus, MRI was useful in revealing BE-induced bone injury, which was predominantly necrotic initially and subsequently regenerative with proliferation of connective tissue and bone following postischemia recovery. PMID:14517720

Shabat, S; Nyska, A; Long, P H; Goelman, G; Abramovitch, R; Ezov, N; Levin-Harrus, T; Peddada, S; Redlich, M; Yedgar, S; Nyska, M

2004-03-01

416

Distinct Renal Pathology and a Chemotactic Phenotype after Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Shiga Toxins in Non-Human Primate Models of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli cause approximately 1.5 million infections globally with 176,000 cases occurring in the United States annually from ingesting contaminated food, most frequently E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef or fresh produce. In severe cases, the painful prodromal hemorrhagic colitis is complicated by potentially lethal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), particularly in children. Bacterial Shiga-like toxins (Stx1, Stx2) are primarily responsible for HUS and the kidney and neurologic damage that ensue. Small animal models are hampered by the inability to reproduce HUS with thrombotic microangiopathy, hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney injury. Earlier, we showed that nonhuman primates (Papio) recapitulated clinical HUS after Stx challenge and that novel therapeutic intervention rescued the animals. Here, we present detailed light and electron microscopic pathology examination of the kidneys from these Stx studies. Stx1 challenge resulted in more severe glomerular endothelial injury, whereas the glomerular injury after Stx2 also included prominent mesangiolysis and an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltration. Both toxins induced glomerular platelet-rich thrombi, interstitial hemorrhage, and tubular injury. Analysis of kidney and other organs for inflammation biomarkers showed a striking chemotactic profile, with extremely high mRNA levels for IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1? and elevated urine chemokines at 48 hours after challenge. These observations give unique insight into the pathologic consequences of each toxin in a near human setting and present potential pathways for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23402998

Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Oh, Sun-Young; Cherla, Rama P.; Lee, Moo-Seung; Tesh, Vernon L.; Papin, James; Henderson, Joel; Kurosawa, Shinichiro

2014-01-01

417

Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention, dramatically improve prognosis. PMID:25666852

Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

2015-01-01

418

Characteristics of hemolytic activity induced by skin secretions of the frog Kaloula pulchra hainana  

PubMed Central

Background The hemolytic activity of skin secretions obtained by stimulating the frog Kaloula pulchra hainana with diethyl ether was tested using human, cattle, rabbit, and chicken erythrocytes. The skin secretions had a significant concentration-dependent hemolytic effect on erythrocytes. The hemolytic activity of the skin secretions was studied in the presence of osmotic protectants (polyethylene glycols and carbohydrates), cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, and K+), or antioxidants (ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, and cysteine). Results Depending on their molecular mass, osmotic protectants effectively inhibited hemolysis. The inhibition of skin hemolysis was observed after treatment with polyethylene glycols (1000, 3400, and 6000 Da). Among divalent cations, only 1 mM Cu2+ markedly inhibited hemolytic activity. Antioxidant compounds slightly reduced the hemolytic activity. Conclusions The results suggested that skin secretions of K. pulchra hainana induce a pore-forming mechanism to form pores with a diameter of 1.36-2.0 nm rather than causing oxidative damage to the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:24499077

2013-01-01

419

Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion: systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. Design Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. Data sources Cochrane central register of controlled trials, SilverPlatter Medline (1950 to date), SilverPlatter Embase (1980 to date), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to present). Reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews were assessed, and authors and experts in transfusion were contacted to identify additional trials. Trial selection Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy in adults or children, irrespective of language, blinding procedure, publication status, or sample size. Data extraction Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts of trials identified, and relevant trials were evaluated in full text for eligibility. Two reviewers then independently extracted data on methods, interventions, outcomes, and risk of bias from included trials. random effects models were used to estimate risk ratios and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Results 31 trials totalling 9813 randomised patients were included. The proportion of patients receiving red blood cells (relative risk 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.63, 8923 patients, 24 trials) and the number of red blood cell units transfused (mean difference ?1.43, 95% confidence interval ?2.01 to ?0.86) were lower with the restrictive compared with liberal transfusion strategies. Restrictive compared with liberal transfusion strategies were not associated with risk of death (0.86, 0.74 to 1.01, 5707 patients, nine lower risk of bias trials), overall morbidity (0.98, 0.85 to 1.12, 4517 patients, six lower risk of bias trials), or fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction (1.28, 0.66 to 2.49, 4730 patients, seven lower risk of bias trials). Results were not affected by the inclusion of trials with unclear or high risk of bias. Using trial sequential analyses on mortality and myocardial infarction, the required information size was not reached, but a 15% relative risk reduction or increase in overall morbidity with restrictive transfusion strategies could be excluded. Conclusions Compared with liberal strategies, restrictive transfusion strategies were associated with a reduction in the number of red blood cell units transfused and number of patients being transfused, but mortality, overall morbidity, and myocardial infarction seemed to be unaltered. Restrictive transfusion strategies are safe in most clinical settings. Liberal transfusion strategies have not been shown to convey any benefit to patients. Trial registration PROSPERO CRD42013004272. PMID:25805204

Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn

2015-01-01

420

EFFECT OF TRANSFUSION THERAPY ON TRANSCRANIAL DOPPLER ULTRASONOGRAPHY VELOCITIES IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Background Children with sickle cell disease and abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography have a high risk of stroke, but this risk is greatly reduced when chronic transfusion therapy is administered. The change in TCD velocities during chronic transfusion<