Sample records for acute lung disease

  1. Manipulation of acute inflammatory lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E L Wissinger; J Saldana; A Didierlaurent; T Hussell

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory lung disease to innocuous antigens or infectious pathogens is a common occurrence and in some cases, life threatening. Often, the inflammatory infiltrate that accompanies these events contributes to pathology by deleterious effects on otherwise healthy tissue and by compromising lung function by consolidating (blocking) the airspaces. A fine balance, therefore, exists between a lung immune response and immune-mediated damage,

  2. Proteomic Biomarkers for Acute Interstitial Lung Disease in Gefitinib-Treated Japanese Lung Cancer Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Nyberg; Atsushi Ogiwara; Chris G. Harbron; Takao Kawakami; Keiko Nagasaka; Sachiko Takami; Kazuya Wada; Hsiao-Kun Tu; Makiko Otsuji; Yutaka Kyono; Tae Dobashi; Yasuhiko Komatsu; Makoto Kihara; Shingo Akimoto; Ian S. Peers; Marie C. South; Tim Higenbottam; Masahiro Fukuoka; Koichiro Nakata; Yuichiro Ohe; Shoji Kudoh; Ib Groth Clausen; Toshihide Nishimura; György Marko-Varga; Harubumi Kato

    2011-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) events have been reported in Japanese non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We investigated proteomic biomarkers for mechanistic insights and improved prediction of ILD. Blood plasma was collected from 43 gefitinib-treated NSCLC patients developing acute ILD (confirmed by blinded diagnostic review) and 123 randomly selected controls in a nested case-control study within

  3. Lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  4. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS. PMID:25466727

  5. HRCT of fibrosing lung disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Joseph; Hansell, David M

    2015-08-01

    The use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has brought increased diagnostic discrimination to the evaluation of lung disease, particularly fibrosing lung diseases. Once the presence of a predominantly fibrosing lung disease has been established on evaluation of a HRCT, a stepwise approach is proposed that can refine the potential HRCT diagnoses from a list of over 100 different interstitial lung diseases to one of only five fibrosing lung diseases. Within the category of the fibrosing lung diseases, the recognition of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is key. IPF is the most prevalent idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and has a mortality greater than any of the other diffuse lung diseases. Several diagnostic dilemmas are explored including challenges with the recent IPF diagnosis and management guidelines (2011), as well as with the 'difficult to characterize' fibrosing diseases such as smoking-related lung fibrosis, unclassifiable disease and acute exacerbations of fibrosing lung disease. PMID:25900734

  6. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2?) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2? levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  7. Diffuse disease of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Thurlbeck, W.M. (Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancover (CA)); Miller, R.R.; Muller, N.L.; Ostrow, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical areas of diffuse diseases of the lung is given a review in this book. Emphasizing diagnostic pathology and radiographic interpretation, this volume acquaints the reader with the techniques, limitations, and indications of diagnosis. Biopsy is also reviewed with comparative views of normal and abnormal histologic views. This interdisciplinary approach includes chronic infiltrative lung, acute lung disease, collagen vascular disease, and much more. Clinical cases demonstrate the application of diagnostic techniques.

  8. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association - www.lungusa.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  9. Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lungs Warning Signs of Lung Disease Top Stories Lung HelpLine Questions about your lung health? Need help ... Warning Signs of Lung Disease Warning Signs of Lung Disease WARNING SIGNS If you have any of ...

  10. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and quantify our preliminary picture of the pathogenesis of lung disease by particles, but a useful start has been made. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6376114

  11. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  12. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. ... your bronchial tubes ( bronchitis ) or deep in your lungs ( pneumonia ). These infections cause a buildup of mucus ...

  13. Lymphatics in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Chemaly, Souheil; Levine, Stewart J.; Moss, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphatic circulation appears to be a vital component in lung biology in health and in disease. Animal models have established the role of the lymphatic circulation in neoplastic and inflammatory diseases of the lung, such as asthma and cancer, and allowed for the understanding of the molecular controls of lymphangiogenesis in normal lung development. Understanding the role of lymphatics in human lung disease appears likely to contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and the development of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:18519971

  14. Acute Pericardial Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gorazd Voga

    Acute pericardial diseases include acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. Both conditions can be associated with acute\\u000a hemodynamic instability or cardiac failure and require immediate diagnostic workup and treatment.

  15. Role of endothelin-1 in lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Karen A; McMurtry, Ivan F; Rodman, David M

    2001-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a 21 amino acid peptide with diverse biological activity that has been implicated in numerous diseases. ET-1 is a potent mitogen regulator of smooth muscle tone, and inflammatory mediator that may play a key role in diseases of the airways, pulmonary circulation, and inflammatory lung diseases, both acute and chronic. This review will focus on the biology of ET-1 and its role in lung disease. PMID:11686871

  16. Diffuse cystic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jay H; Tian, Xinlun; Baqir, Misbah; Xu, Kaifeng

    2013-09-01

    Diffuse cystic lung diseases are uncommon but can present a diagnostic challenge because increasing number of diseases have been associated with this presentation. Cyst in the lung is defined as a round parenchymal lucency with a well-defined thin wall (< 2 mm thickness). Focal or multifocal cystic lesions include blebs, bullae, pneumatoceles, congenital cystic lesions, traumatic lesions, and several infectious processes such as coccidioidomycosis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, and hydatid disease. "Diffuse" distribution in the lung implies involvement of all lobes. Diffuse lung involvement with cystic lesions can be seen in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, amyloidosis, light chain deposition disease, honeycomb lung associated with advanced fibrosis, and several other rare causes including metastatic disease. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps define morphologic features of the lung lesions as well as their distribution and associated features such as intrathoracic lymphadenopathy. Correlating the tempo of the disease process and clinical context with chest imaging findings serve as important clues to defining the underlying nature of the cystic lung disease and guide diagnostic evaluation as well as management. PMID:23666611

  17. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... forms, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (noo-mo-NI-tis), immunodeficiency-associated lung disease, and bronchiolitis (brong-ke-o-LI-tis) obliterans. However, research shows that the course and ...

  18. [New potentials for assessing the efficacy of extracorporeal blood correction methods in treating patients with acute suppurative destructive diseases of the lungs and pleura].

    PubMed

    Bel'skikh, A N; Kostiuchenko, A L; Zhiburt, E B; Sizov, D N

    1996-01-01

    Integral mathematical analysis of changes in the peripheral blood formula was used in multiple-modality treatment of 19 patients with acute infectious destructions of the lungs and pleura. Extracorporeal methods of hemocorrection were used in the treatment. The leukocytic formula entropy, number of tension signs, degree of adaptation reaction, and leukocytic index of intoxication were assessed. Changes in the analyzed parameters were found to depend on the initial severity of patient's status, type of extracorporeal perfusion, and disease outcome. The authors came to a conclusion about the informative value of mathematical integral parameters which permit outlining the approaches to prediction of the disease outcome and plan individual treatment. PMID:8775791

  19. Indium Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-long; Harley, Russell A.; Roggli, Victor L.; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J.; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Day, Gregory A.; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L.; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. Methods: To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Results: Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:22207675

  20. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Memphis 37 Causes Acute Respiratory Disease in Perinatal Lamb Lung

    PubMed Central

    van Geelen, Albert; Gallup, Jack M.; Kienzle, Thomas; Shelly, Daniel A.; Cihlar, Tomas; King, Robert R.; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to lack of a relevant animal model of perinatal RSV infection that mimics moderate to severe disease in infants. We and others have shown mild disease in perinatal lambs with either a bovine or a human A2 strain of RSV. The Memphis 37 clinical strain of human RSV has been used to produce mild to moderate upper respiratory disease in healthy adult volunteers. We hypothesized that the Memphis 37 strain of RSV would infect perinatal lambs and produce clinical disease similar to that in human infants. Perinatal (3- to 5-day-old) lambs were inoculated intranasally with 2?mL/nostril of 1×105 focus-forming units (FFU)/mL (n=2) or 2.1×108 FFU/mL (n=3) of RSV Memphis 37. Clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, and immune and inflammatory responses were assessed. Memphis 37 caused moderate to severe gross and histologic lesions along with increased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein. Clinically, four of the five infected lambs had a mild to severe increase in expiratory effort. Intranasally administered RSV strain Memphis 37 infects neonatal lambs with gross, histologic, and immune responses similar to those observed in human infants. PMID:24804166

  1. Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Todd M.; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular dysfunction arises in chronic lung disease when chronic hypoxemia and disruption of pulmonary vascular beds contribute to increase ventricular afterload, and is generally defined by hypertrophy with preserved myocardial contractility and cardiac output. Although the exact prevalence is unknown, right ventricular hypertrophy appears to be a common complication of chronic lung disease, and more frequently complicates advanced lung disease. Right ventricular failure is rare, except during acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease or when multiple co-morbidities are present. Treatment is targeted at correcting hypoxia and improving pulmonary gas exchange and mechanics. There are presently no convincing data to support the use of pulmonary hypertension-specific therapies in patients with right ventricular dysfunction secondary to chronic lung disease. PMID:22548815

  2. Mitochondria in Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aravamudan, Bharathi; Thompson, Michael A.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria are autonomous cellular organelles that oversee a variety of functions such as metabolism, energy production, calcium buffering, and cell fate determination. Regulation of their morphology and diverse activities beyond energy production are being recognized as playing major roles in cellular health and dysfunction. This review is aimed at summarizing what is known regarding mitochondrial contributions to pathogenesis of lung diseases. Emphasis is given to understanding the importance of structural and functional aspects of mitochondria in both normal cellular function (based on knowledge from other cell types) and in development and modulation of lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Emerging techniques that allow examination of mitochondria, and potential strategies to target mitochondria in the treatment of lung diseases are also discussed. PMID:23978003

  3. Preventive azithromycin treatment reduces noninfectious lung injury and acute graft-versus-host disease in a murine model of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Sabarinath Venniyil; Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Mueller, Gunnar; Miklos, Sandra; Hager, Max; Spacenko, Elena; Karlsson, Fridrik J; Huber, Elisabeth; Kittan, Nicolai A; Hildebrandt, Gerhard C

    2015-01-01

    Noninfectious lung injury and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Azithromycin is widely used in allogeneic HCT recipients for pulmonary chronic GVHD, although current data appear controversial. We induced GVHD and noninfectious lung injury in lethally irradiated B6D2F1 mice by transplanting bone marrow and splenic T cells from allogeneic C57BL/6 mice. Experimental groups were treated with oral azithromycin starting on day 14 until the end of week 6 or week 14 after transplantation. Azithromycin treatment resulted in improved survival and decreased lung injury; the latter characterized by improved pulmonary function, reduced peribronchial and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltrates along with diminished collagen deposition, and a decrease in lung cytokine and chemokine expression. Azithromycin also improved intestinal GVHD but did not affect liver GVHD at week 6 early after transplantation. At week 14, azithromycin decreased liver GVHD but had no effect on intestinal GVHD. In vitro, allogeneic antigen-presenting cell (APC)- dependent T cell proliferation and cytokine production were suppressed by azithromycin and inversely correlated with relative regulatory T cell (Treg) expansion, whereas no effect was seen when T cell proliferation occurred APC independently through CD3/CD28-stimulation. Further, azithromycin reduced alloreactive T cell expansion but increased Treg expansion in vivo with corresponding downregulation of MHC II on CD11c(+) dendritic cells. These results demonstrate that preventive administration of azithromycin can reduce the severity of acute GVHD and noninfectious lung injury after allo-HCT, supporting further investigation in clinical trials. PMID:25445642

  4. Immunologic lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-07-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references.

  5. Animal Models of Fibrotic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, William E.; Oury, Tim D.; Sisson, Thomas H.; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung fibrosis can develop as a consequence of occupational or medical exposure, as a result of genetic defects, and after trauma or acute lung injury leading to fibroproliferative acute respiratory distress syndrome, or it can develop in an idiopathic manner. The pathogenesis of each form of lung fibrosis remains poorly understood. They each result in a progressive loss of lung function with increasing dyspnea, and most forms ultimately result in mortality. To better understand the pathogenesis of lung fibrotic disorders, multiple animal models have been developed. This review summarizes the common and emerging models of lung fibrosis to highlight their usefulness in understanding the cell–cell and soluble mediator interactions that drive fibrotic responses. Recent advances have allowed for the development of models to study targeted injuries of Type II alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblastic autonomous effects, and targeted genetic defects. Repetitive dosing in some models has more closely mimicked the pathology of human fibrotic lung disease. We also have a much better understanding of the fact that the aged lung has increased susceptibility to fibrosis. Each of the models reviewed in this report offers a powerful tool for studying some aspect of fibrotic lung disease. PMID:23526222

  6. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links

    PubMed Central

    Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  7. Lung pathology of fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M Nicholls; Leo L M Poon; Kam C Lee; Wai F Ng; Sik T Lai; Chung Y Leung; Chung M Chu; Pak K Hui; Kong L Mak; Wilina Lim; Kin W Yan; Kwok H Chan; Ngai C Tsang; Yi Guan; Kwok Y Yuen; J S Malik Peiris

    2003-01-01

    1 Summary Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a novel infectious disease with global impact. A virus from the family Coronaviridae has been identified as the cause, but the pathogenesis is still unclear. Methods Post-mortem tissue samples from six patients who died from SARS in February and March, 2003, and an open lung biopsy from one of these patients

  8. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  9. Risk of acute urinary retention associated with inhaled anticholinergics in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled anticholinergics (ipratropium bromide and tiotropium bromide) are widely used as maintenance treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Previous studies have reported on their cardiovascular effects but relatively little is known about their effects on the bladder. Acute urinary retention is a medical emergency which can be associated with serious complications. Our objective was to evaluate the existing literature regarding the effects of inhaled anticholinergics on urinary retention among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We searched PubMed and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) adverse events database for case reports, observational studies, randomized controlled trials (or meta-analyses of such trials) that reported on the outcome of urinary retention with inhaled anticholinergics (ipratropium or tiotropium). We checked 27 published articles and identified relevant papers including two case reports, three pooled analyses, two observational studies and one randomized controlled trial. Two of the observational studies and a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials reported a significant increase in the risk of acute urinary retention with inhaled anticholinergics. Older patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia seem to be at the highest risk of this adverse effect which tends to occur soon after treatment initiation. Although all the links in the chain have yet to be fully elucidated, the preponderance of evidence suggests the possibility of a causal relationship between inhaled anticholinergics and urinary retention. Clinicians should carefully balance these and other adverse effects of inhaled anticholinergics against their known symptomatic benefits on exacerbations, after eliciting patient preferences for various outcomes in a shared decision-making context. PMID:25083248

  10. [Occupational interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Paul; Dalphin, Jean-Charles

    2007-12-31

    Pneumoconioses are induced by the inhalation of mineral or metallic dust. The incidence has decreased in the industrialized countries, but these diseases still exist. Diseases diagnosed nowadays may result from exposures that date back several decades. Besides, industry continuously creates new types of exposure and produces novel materials and alloys. Unusual exposures, sometimes in small workshops or in independent workers, may still cause severe diseases. In case of exposure to some metals, like beryllium, diseases may occur in susceptible subjects even at low levels of exposure. Medical and social consequences of misdiagnosis may be important. The diagnostic contribution of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan is very important, as this technique is sensitive and specific. Pathological, mineralogical, and immunological techniques are useful in the differential diagnosis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a granulomatous interstitial disease of the lungs due to immune reactions following chronic inhalation of antigens, to which the subject has been previously sensitised. Diagnosis is based on associated clinical and paraclinical signs which are not specific. Clinical approach is essential. It allows to suspect the diagnosis in view of respiratory symptoms, inspiratory crackles and the identification of a hazardous environment. Serological tests, bronchoalveolar lavage and HRCT scan are required to confirm diagnosis. Early removal of exposure prevents the occurrence of chronic respiratory failure. Corticosteroids can be used in severe forms during few weeks. PMID:18320747

  11. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact CDC-INFO Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & Injuries Flavorings-Related Lung Disease Exposures to Flavoring Chemicals Exposure Control Current NIOSH Research Additional Resources Contact ...

  12. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are ... as the peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location ...

  13. Cigarette smoking and diffuse lung disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh R; Ryu, Jay H; Vassallo, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoke, a toxic collection of more than 4000 chemicals generated from combustion of tobacco plant leaves, is known to cause several respiratory ailments, including chronic bronchitis, emphysema and lung cancer, and is associated with an increase in respiratory infections. In addition, cigarette smoking is considered a principal aetiological factor responsible for the development of certain diffuse interstitial and bronchiolar lung diseases, namely respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and adult pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (PLCH). Although not exclusively seen in cigarette smokers, substantial clinical and epidemiological data support a central role for smoking as the primary causative agent of most RB-ILD, DIP and PLCH. Additional evidence in support of cigarette smoke as a primary aetiological agent in RB-ILD, DIP and PLCH is the observation that smoking cessation may lead to disease improvement, while recurrence of these disorders has been observed to occur in the transplanted lung upon re-exposure to tobacco smoke. Furthermore, histopathological changes of respiratory bronchiolitis, DIP and PLCH (with or without co-existent emphysema) may be found on lung biopsy in the same individual, implicating smoking as a common inciting agent of these diverse lesions. Recent studies also suggest a role for cigarette smoking as a potential co-factor in the development of acute eosinophilic pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia and rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease. In the current review, we propose a novel classification that takes into account the complex relationship between cigarette smoking and diffuse lung diseases. Investigation on the role of smoking as a potential causative factor or modifier of these diverse diffuse lung diseases is important, as smoking cessation utilizing state-of-the-art tobacco cessation efforts should be a central part of therapy, while pharmacotherapy with corticosteroids or other immune modifying agents should be reserved for selected patients. PMID:18627208

  14. Contribution of Neutrophils to Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Grommes, Jochen; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neutrophils are regarded to play a key role in progression of ALI/ARDS. Neutrophils are the first cells to be recruited to the site of inflammation and have a potent antimicrobial armour that includes oxidants, proteinases and cationic peptides. Under pathological circumstances, however, unregulated release of these microbicidal compounds into the extracellular space paradoxically can damage host tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment into the lung and on the contribution of neutrophils to tissue damage in ALI. PMID:21046059

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER. Additional research and clinical trials are needed to determine the role of GER in various lung disorders and identify which interventions are most efficacious in preventing the respiratory consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, measuring biomarkers that indicate that gastric refluxate has been aspirated into the lower respiratory tract (e.g., pepsin and bile acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) may prove helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision making. PMID:26104973

  16. Bleb point: mimicker of pneumothorax in bullous lung disease.

    PubMed

    Gelabert, Christopher; Nelson, Mathew

    2015-05-01

    In patients presenting with severe dyspnea, several diagnostic challenges arise in distinguishing the diagnosis of pneumothorax versus several other pulmonary etiologies like bullous lung disease, pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Distinguishing between large pulmonary bullae and pneumothorax is of the utmost importance, as the acute management is very different. While multiple imaging modalities are available, plain radiographs may be inadequate to make the diagnosis and other advanced imaging may be difficult to obtain. Ultrasound has a very high specificity for pneumothorax. We present a case where a large pulmonary bleb mimics the lung point and therefore inaccurately suggests pneumothorax. PMID:25987927

  17. Association between ?-blocker therapy and outcomes in patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease with underlying ischaemic heart disease, heart failure or hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Mihaela S; Rothberg, Michael B; Priya, Aruna; Pekow, Penelope S; Au, David H; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    Background ?-Blocker therapy has been shown to improve survival among patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) and is underused among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Evidence regarding the optimal use of ?-blocker therapy during an acute exacerbation of COPD is particularly weak. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients aged ?40 years with IHD, CHF or hypertension who were hospitalised for an acute exacerbation of COPD from 1 January 2006 to 1 December 2007 at 404 acute care hospitals throughout the USA. We examined the association between ?-blocker therapy and in-hospital mortality, initiation of mechanical ventilation after day 2 of hospitalisation, 30-day all-cause readmission and length of stay. Results Of 35 082 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 29% were treated with ? blockers in the first two hospital days, including 22% with ?1-selective and 7% with non-selective ? blockers. In a propensity-matched analysis, there was no association between ?-blocker therapy and in-hospital mortality (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.09), 30-day readmission (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.03) or late mechanical ventilation (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.24). However, when compared with ?1 selective ? blockers, receipt of non-selective ? blockers was associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.44). Conclusions Among patients with IHD, CHF or hypertension, continuing ?1-selective ? blockers during hospitalisation for COPD appears to be safe. Until additional evidence becomes available, ?1-selective ? blockers may be superior to treatment with a non-selective ? blocker. PMID:22941975

  18. High-Frequency Ventilation for Acute Lung Injury and ARDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry A. Krishnan; Roy G. Brower

    2000-01-01

    In patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS, conventional mechanical ventilation (CV) may cause additional lung injury from overdistention of the lung during inspiration, repeated opening and closing of small bronchioles and alveoli, or from excessive stress at the margins between aerated and atelectatic lung regions. Increasing evidence suggests that smaller tidal volumes (VTs) and higher end-expiratory lung volumes

  19. Genomics of Acute Lung Injury and Vascular Barrier Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto F. Machado; Joe G. N. Garcia

    \\u000a Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating ­syndrome of diffuse alveolar damage that develops via a variety of local and systemic\\u000a insults such as sepsis, trauma, ­pneumonia, and aspiration. It is interestingly to note that only a subset of individuals\\u000a exposed to potential ALI-inciting insults develop the disorder and the severity of the disease varies from complete resolution\\u000a to death.

  20. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  1. Genetics and Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can run in families, such as cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in your lungs) and alpha- ... explain this information. For example, if you have pulmonary hypertension (PH), some forms are caused by gene changes ...

  2. Does lung biopsy help patients with interstitial lung disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rizwan A Qureshi; Tanveer A Ahmed; Antony D Grayson; Ajaib S Soorae; M. John Drakeley; Richard D Page

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The decision to perform lung biopsy in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is based on the probability that this examination will yield a specific diagnosis, leading to a change in treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence the diagnostic yield of lung biopsy for ILD. Methods: One hundred patients underwent lung biopsy

  3. Videothoracoscopic lung biopsy in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ottavio Rena; Caterina Casadio; Francesco Leo; Roberto Giobbe; Roberto Cianci; Sergio Baldi; Marco Rapellino; Giuliano Maggi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) require lung biopsy for the diagnosis in more than 30% of patients. Open lung biopsy (OLB) was generally considered the most reliable method of biopsy and tissue diagnosis. This study tests the diagnostic accuracy and safety of the videothoracoscopic lung biopsy (VTLB) in the diagnosis of ILD. Methods: During the last 5 years, 58 patients

  4. CXCR2 in Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, F. M.; Reutershan, J.

    2012-01-01

    In pulmonary inflammation, recruitment of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes is essential for host defense and initiates the following specific immune response. One pathological hallmark of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome is the uncontrolled transmigration of neutrophils into the lung interstitium and alveolar space. Thereby, the extravasation of leukocytes from the vascular system into the tissue is induced by chemokines that are released from the site of inflammation. The most relevant chemokine receptors of neutrophils are CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR) 1 and CXCR2. CXCR2 is of particular interest since several studies implicate a pivotal role of this receptor in development and promotion of numerous inflammatory disorders. CXCR2 gets activated by ELR+ chemokines, including MIP-2, KC (rodents) and IL-8 (human). Since multiple ELR+ CXC chemokines act on both receptors—CXCR1 and CXCR2—a pharmacologic agent blocking both receptors seems to be advantageous. So far, several CXCR1/2 antagonists have been developed and have been tested successfully in experimental studies. A newly designed CXCR1 and CXCR2 antagonist can be orally administered and was for the first time found efficient in humans. This review highlights the role of CXCR2 in acute lung injury and discusses its potential as a therapeutic target. PMID:22719179

  5. Diagnostic Invasive Procedures in Diffuse Infiltrative Lung Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venerino Poletti; Marco Chilosi; Dario Olivieri

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of infiltrative diffuse lung disease may require invasive procedures after all noninvasive tools have failed. The clinical context in which these diseases develop and the radiological patterns are crucial for defining the timing and the methods to be used. Immunocompromised hosts are usually acutely ill with fever, cough, shortness of breath, and often with progressive hypoxemia. In this

  6. The inflammation–coagulation axis as an important intermediate pathway in acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Levi; Marcus Schultz

    2008-01-01

    Markers of inflammation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis predict an adverse outcome in patients with sepsis. These markers also seem predictive of an adverse outcome in patients with localized infection and inflammation, such as in acute lung injury. Whether this is entirely related to the disease or is also due to ventilation strategies that may be harmful for the lungs, however, is

  7. Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Human Lung Transplantation A Noninvasive Marker of Acute Rejection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. SILKOFF; M. CARAMORI; L. TREMBLAY; P. M C CLEAN; C. CHAPARRO; S. KESTEN; M. HUTCHEON; A. S. SLUTSKY; N. ZAMEL; S. KESHAVJEE

    Acute allograft rejection in animals and humans has been associated with increased nitric oxide pro- duction in the graft. Exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) measurement is a noninvasive method of assessing inflammation in airway diseases, e.g., asthma, which might be applicable to lung transplant recipi- ents. Over 12 months, ENO of lower respiratory origin was measured in 108 lung transplant recipi-

  8. Cannabidiol improves lung function and inflammation in mice submitted to LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A; Almeida, V I; Costola-de-Souza, C; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Vitoretti, L B; Gimenes-Junior, J A; Akamine, A T; Crippa, J A; Tavares-de-Lima, W; Palermo-Neto, J

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that the prophylactic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) reduces inflammation in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). In this work we analyzed the effects of the therapeutic treatment with CBD in mice subjected to the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI on pulmonary mechanics and inflammation. CBD (20 and 80?mg/kg) was administered (i.p.) to mice 6?h after LPS-induced lung inflammation. One day (24?h) after the induction of inflammation the assessment of pulmonary mechanics and inflammation were analyzed. The results show that CBD decreased total lung resistance and elastance, leukocyte migration into the lungs, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, protein concentration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant. Thus, we conclude that CBD administered therapeutically, i.e. during an ongoing inflammatory process, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect and also improves the lung function in mice submitted to LPS-induced ALI. Therefore the present and previous data suggest that in the future cannabidiol might become a useful therapeutic tool for the attenuation and treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:25356537

  9. Evidence for in vivo peroxynitrite production in human acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kooy, N W; Royall, J A; Ye, Y Z; Kelly, D R; Beckman, J S

    1995-04-01

    Oxidant-mediated toxicity resulting from acute pulmonary inflammation has been demonstrated in acute lung injury. A potent biological oxidant, peroxynitrite, is formed by the near diffusion-limited reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide. In addition to having hydroxyl radical-like oxidative reactivity, peroxynitrite is capable of nitrating phenolic rings, including protein-associated tyrosine residues. Nitric oxide does not directly nitrate tyrosine residues, therefore, demonstration of tissue nitrotyrosine residues infers the action of peroxynitrite or related nitrogen-centered oxidants. Lung tissue was obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded autopsy specimens, and specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to nitrotyrosine were visualized by diaminobenzidene-peroxidase staining. Acute lung injury resulted in intense staining throughout the lung, including lung interstitium, alveolar epithelium, proteinaceous alveolar exudate, and inflammatory cells. In addition, staining of the vascular endothelium and subendothelial tissues was present in those patients with sepsis-induced acute lung injury. Antibody binding was blocked by coincubation with nitrotyrosine or nitrated bovine serum albumin but not by aminotyrosine, phosphotyrosine, or bovine serum albumin. Reduction of tissue nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine by sodium hydrosulfite also blocked antibody binding. In control specimens with no overt pulmonary disease, there was only slight staining of the alveolar septum. These results demonstrate that nitrogen-derived oxidants are formed in human acute lung injury and suggest that peroxynitrite may be an important oxidant in inflammatory lung disease. PMID:7697261

  10. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)].

    PubMed

    Schweisfurth, H; Sopivnik, I; Moog, R

    2014-09-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is primarily caused by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma or platelet concentrates and occurs by definition within 6 hours after transfusion with acute shortness of breath, hypoxemia and radiographically detectable bilateral infiltrates of the lung. Mostly leucocyte antibodies in the plasma of the blood donor (immunogenic TRALI) are responsible. Apart from antibodies, other substances such as biologically active lipids, mainly arising from the storage of platelet and red blood cell concentrates, can activate neutrophilic granulocytes and trigger a non-immunogenic TRALI. Pathophysiologically, granulocytes in the capillaries of the lung vessels release oxygen radicals and enzymes which damage the endothelial cells and cause pulmonary edema. Therapeutically, nasal oxygen administration may be sufficient. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation, invasive hemodynamic monitoring and fluid intake are required. Diuretics should be avoided. The administration of glucocorticoids is controversial. Antibody-related TRALI reactions occurred mainly after transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, which had been obtained from womenimmunized during pregnancy against leukocyte antigens. Therefore, in Germany, since 2009 only plasma from female donors without a history of prior or current pregnancy or negative testing for antibodies against HLA I, II or HNA has been used with the result that since then no TRALI-related death has been registered. PMID:25046684

  11. Mechanisms of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gralinski, Lisa E.; Bankhead, Armand; Jeng, Sophia; Menachery, Vineet D.; Proll, Sean; Belisle, Sarah E.; Matzke, Melissa; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Luna, Maria L.; Shukla, Anil K.; Ferris, Martin T.; Bolles, Meagan; Chang, Jean; Aicher, Lauri; Waters, Katrina M.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Law, G. Lynn; Katze, Michael G.; McWeeney, Shannon; Baric, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Systems biology offers considerable promise in uncovering novel pathways by which viruses and other microbial pathogens interact with host signaling and expression networks to mediate disease severity. In this study, we have developed an unbiased modeling approach to identify new pathways and network connections mediating acute lung injury, using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) as a model pathogen. We utilized a time course of matched virologic, pathological, and transcriptomic data within a novel methodological framework that can detect pathway enrichment among key highly connected network genes. This unbiased approach produced a high-priority list of 4 genes in one pathway out of over 3,500 genes that were differentially expressed following SARS-CoV infection. With these data, we predicted that the urokinase and other wound repair pathways would regulate lethal versus sublethal disease following SARS-CoV infection in mice. We validated the importance of the urokinase pathway for SARS-CoV disease severity using genetically defined knockout mice, proteomic correlates of pathway activation, and pathological disease severity. The results of these studies demonstrate that a fine balance exists between host coagulation and fibrinolysin pathways regulating pathological disease outcomes, including diffuse alveolar damage and acute lung injury, following infection with highly pathogenic respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV. PMID:23919993

  12. [Drug-induced lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Medici, T C; Fontana, A

    1977-02-12

    Adverse drug reactions involving different organs, including the lung, are numerous; much more numerous, however, are the offending drugs. According to the results of the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, adverse reactions occur in about 6% of all drug exposures and 28% of all patients. Drug-induced lung diseases may present as bronchial reactions (e.g. bronchial asthma), diseases of the parenchyma (e.g. pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia, diffuse fibrosing alveolitis), of the pulmonary vasculature (vasculitis) and of the pleura (e.g. pleurisy or pleural fibrosis). Pathogenetically the two most pertinent types of reaction are hypersensitivity or toxic reactions, and less often biologic reactions such as opportunistic infections after cytotoxic and immunosuppressive therapy. Many drug-induced respiratory diseases are reversible upon withdrawal of the offending agent; others may be irreversibly or even progress. PMID:13491

  13. Mechanisms of nitric oxide synthase uncoupling in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury: Role of asymmetric dimethylarginine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shruti Sharma; Anita Smith; Sanjiv Kumar; Saurabh Aggarwal; Imran Rehmani; Connie Snead; Cynthia Harmon; Jeffery Fineman; David Fulton; John D. Catravas; Stephen M. Black

    2010-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with severe alterations in lung structure and function and is characterized by hypoxemia, pulmonary edema, low lung compliance and widespread capillary leakage. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a known cardiovascular risk factor, has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of a number of cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of ADMA in the pathogenesis of

  14. Pulmonary Glutathione Levels in Acute Episodes of Farmer's Lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JÜRGEN BEHR; BARBARA DEGENKOLB; THOMAS BEINERT; FRITZ KROMBACH; CLAUS VOGELMEIER

    2000-01-01

    Acute episodes of farmer's lung (FL) are associated with activation and migration of neutrophils into the lungs, causing oxidative stress. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of episodes of FL on antioxidant defense of the lung by glutathione (GSH). A to- tal of 15 patients with symptomatic FL (one female and 14 males, age 42 6 1 yr

  15. Interstitial lung disease in patients with small cell lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunihiko Miyazaki; Hiroaki Satoh; Koichi Kurishima; Ryota Nakamura; Hiroichi Ishikawa; Katsunori Kagohashi; Nobuyuki Hizawa

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) and lung cancer are two of the most common respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was\\u000a to demonstrate the prognostic significance of the presence of ILD in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). All the\\u000a patients with SCLC who were admitted to our hospitals over a 23-year period up to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed.

  16. Rapamune Approved for Rare Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a rare, progressive lung disease that mostly affects women of childbearing age. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterized by the unusual growth of smooth-muscle cells among lung tissue. This can block normal ...

  17. Restrictive lung disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    King, T E

    1992-12-01

    Restrictive ventilatory defects characterized by a reduction in lung volumes and an increase in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity occur when lung expansion is limited because of alterations in the lung parenchyma or because of abnormalities in the pleura, chest wall, or neuromuscular apparatus. Few studies have examined pregnant women with carefully defined restrictive lung disorders. The majority of pulmonary diseases have their onset after the childbearing years. When present, most do not alter fertility. Further, these disorders are only a relative contraindication to pregnancy because both the fetus and mother are able to survive without a high risk of increased morbidity or mortality. The clinical course of sarcoidosis is generally not altered by pregnancy. Factors indicative of a poor prognosis in sarcoidosis and pregnancy include parenchymal lesions on chest radiography, advanced roentgenologic staging, advanced maternal age, low inflammatory activity, requirement for drugs other than corticosteroids, and the presence of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. Pregnancy seldom has a significant effect on the course of the connective tissue diseases. In PSS with significant renal involvement, pregnancy has the potential for poor fetal prognosis and the risk of maternal death due to a lethal progression of renal failure. Worsening of SLE is uncommon in pregnancy, and prophylactic therapy is generally not necessary. Most women with LAM are advised to avoid pregnancy or the use of estrogens because of the concern that it will lead to worsening of their disease. The incidence of kyphoscoliosis in pregnancy is relatively high. Premature birth rates are higher than that in the normal population. The risk of progression of the abnormal curve in a scoliotic patient appears low. However, women with unstable scolioses at the time of pregnancy can demonstrate progression of the curve with the pregnancy. Respiratory complications during pregnancy in patients with kyphoscoliosis have been reported but in general are not serious if appropriately managed. As a rule, patients with severe restrictive lung disease (i.e., vital capacity < 1 L) should be advised to avoid pregnancy or consider therapeutic abortion. If such a patient decides to continue the pregnancy she should be provided with optimal medical management of her underlying disease and should consider delivery by cesarean section. PMID:1478021

  18. Interstitial lung disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Christin S.; Young, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been tremendous progress in the approach to childhood interstitial lung diseases (ILD), with particular recognition that ILD in infants is often distinct from forms that occur in older children and adults. Diagnosis is challenging due to the rarity of ILD and the fact that presenting symptoms of ILD often overlap those of common respiratory disorders. This review summarizes newly published recommendations for diagnosis and management and highlights recent scientific advances in several specific forms of childhood ILD. Recent findings Clinical practice guidelines emphasize the role for chest CT, genetic testing, and lung biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected ILD. Recent studies have better defined the characteristics and molecular understanding of several different forms of ILD, including Neuroendocrine cell Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI) and ILD due to mutations in genes affecting surfactant production and metabolism. Despite significant progress, definitive therapies are often lacking. Summary Childhood ILD encompasses a collection of rare, diffuse lung diseases. Timely recognition of children with suspected ILD and initiation of appropriate diagnostic evaluations will facilitate medical management. Systematic approaches to clinical care and further study are needed to improve the outcomes of children with these rare disorders. PMID:24752172

  19. Apoptosis in Lung Injury and Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan W. Ryter; Hong Pyo Kim; Augustine M. K. Choi

    Pulmonary cell death may contribute significantly to acute and chronic lung injuries caused by various adverse environmental\\u000a agents. Pulmonary cells may die by necrosis, apoptosis, and other forms of regulated cell death. Apoptosis exerts a homeostatic\\u000a function in lung defense and development, through the removal of dysfunctional cells and by regulating cellular proliferation.\\u000a Lung cell apoptosis can occur as a

  20. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury].

    PubMed

    Tank, S; Sputtek, A; Kiefmann, R

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) developed into the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality after the first description by Popovsky et al. approximately three decades ago. It was the most frequent reason for transfusion-related fatalities worldwide before implementation of risk minimization strategies by donor selection. Plasma-rich blood products, such as fresh frozen plasma and apheresis platelets seem to be the leading triggers of TRALI. Hypoxemia and development of pulmonary edema within 6 h of transfusion are the diagnostic criteria for TRALI. The differentiation between cardiac failure and other transfusion-related lung injuries, such astransfusion-associated circulatory overload ( TACO) is difficult and causal treatment is not available. Therapy is based on supportive measures, such as oxygen insufflationor mechanical ventilation. The exactly pathogenesis is still unknown but the most propagated hypothesis is the two-event-model. Neutrophils are primed by the underlying condition, e.g. sepsis or trauma during the first event and these primed neutrophils are activated by transfused leukoagglutinating antibodies (immunogen) or bioreactive mediators (non-immunogen) during the second-event. Transfusion of leukoagglutinating antibodies from female donors with one or more previous pregnancies is the most frequent reason. No more TRALI fatalities were reported after implementation of the donor selection in Germany in 2009. PMID:23558721

  1. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  2. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part I.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishant; Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-06-15

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a group of pathophysiologically heterogenous processes that are characterized by the presence of multiple spherical or irregularly shaped, thin-walled, air-filled spaces within the pulmonary parenchyma. Although the mechanisms of cyst formation remain incompletely defined for all DCLDs, in most cases lung remodeling associated with inflammatory or infiltrative processes results in displacement, destruction, or replacement of alveolar septa, distal airways, and small vessels within the secondary lobules of the lung. The DCLDs can be broadly classified according to underlying etiology as those caused by low-grade or high-grade metastasizing neoplasms, polyclonal or monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorders, infections, interstitial lung diseases, smoking, and congenital or developmental defects. In the first of a two-part series, we present an overview of the cystic lung diseases caused by neoplasms, infections, smoking-related diseases, and interstitial lung diseases, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:25906089

  3. New perspectives on basic mechanisms in lung disease. 6. Proteinase imbalance: its role in lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tetley, T D

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis, some 30 years ago, that NE was the sole proteolytic agent responsible for the development of emphysema seems naive in retrospect. The availability of technology to measure NE facilitated the early research into the relationship between NE and lung disease. Despite an abundance of information on the activity of NE in the lung, it will probably require prospective studies in man with specific NE inhibitors or control at the gene level to establish a causal relationship between NE and lung disease. Parallel research has resulted in the isolation and characterisation of NE inhibitors other than PI and, indeed, alternative proteolytic enzymes that might contribute to lung disease. It is perhaps impossible now to think that a single proteinase, however omnipotent it may be, causes lung diseases as diverse as emphysema and fibrosis. An important aspect that is emerging is the interrelationship between proteolytic enzymes produced by different, or sometimes the same, cells that could potentiate tissue proteolysis. The evidence suggests that there is likely to be coordinated action between neutrophils, macrophages, and possibly mesenchymal proteinases which can activate or inactivate each other. In addition, one class of proteinases often appears able to proteolytically inactivate inhibitors of the opposite class, which presumably could amplify proteolysis if it occurred in vivo. Although the work on this aspect of proteinase activity is in its infancy, one suspects that part of the normal regulation of proteinase activity might include compartmentalisation. For example, the neutrophil stores proteinases before appropriate release and can inactivate PI to enable proteolytic action pericellularly, whereas degradation of extracellular matrix by macrophages requires interaction between the cell and matrix which is facilitated by cell receptor bound uPA. Disintegration of these "compartments" due to oedema, proteolysis, or for mechanical reasons could, firstly, expose further extracellular matrix substrates to inflammatory and damaged cell proteinases but, secondly, might enhance proteinase potential by the cooperative action of these enzymes. It seems increasingly likely that, where proteinases play a part, there is a cocktail of proteinases that is characteristic of the injury that develops (fig). What remains unclear is why only a proportion of those susceptible, such as smokers or those with acute lung injury, develop irreversible lung disease. This suggests that there are other factors acquired or inherited that need to be considered. Images PMID:8322246

  4. Non-invasive markers of inflammation in cystic fibrosis lung disease 

    E-print Network

    MacGregor, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by early airways infection and inflammation, chronic suppuration, frequent infective exacerbations and an increased influx of acute, and chronic inflammatory cells. The ...

  5. Metal-induced diffuse lung disease.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Andrew P; Amicosante, Massimo

    2008-12-01

    The number of metals that are associated with the development of diffuse parenchymal lung disease continues to expand. In addition to lung fibrosis, inhalation of metal particulates can induce a wide range of lung pathology, including reactive airways disease and cancer. This article focuses on diffuse parenchymal diseases resulting from the inhalation of beryllium and cobalt. More is known regarding the immunopathogenesis of beryllium-induced disease than is known for disease induced by any other metal. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder caused by beryllium exposure in the workplace and is characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4 (+) T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Genetic susceptibility markers associated with increased risk have been identified for both CBD and hard metal lung disease. The mechanism for the genetic susceptibility of CBD lies in the ability of certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP molecules to bind and present beryllium to pathogenic CD4 (+) T cells. Whether the same is true for hard metal lung disease is unknown. In contrast, no HLA allelic association has been identified in nickel allergic subjects. The study of metal-induced lung disease allows the investigation of the relationship between environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. These studies will enhance our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of metal-induced disease and how exposure to these metals results in irreversible lung fibrosis. PMID:19221964

  6. A Case of IgG4-Related Lung Disease Presenting as Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jee Hwan; Hong, Sun In; Cho, Dong Hui; Chae, Eun Jin; Song, Joon Seon

    2014-01-01

    Intrathoracic involvement of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease has recently been reported. However, a subset of the disease presenting as interstitial lung disease is rare. Here, we report a case of a 35-year-old man with IgG4-related lung disease with manifestations similar to those of interstitial lung disease. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities and rapidly progressive pleural and subpleural fibrosis in both upper lobes. Histological findings showed diffuse interstitial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 were also increased. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-related lung disease, treated with anti-inflammatory agents, and showed improvement. Lung involvement of IgG4-related disease can present as interstitial lung disease and, therefore, should be differentiated when evaluating interstitial lung disease. PMID:25237380

  7. Hypoxia-induced inflammation in the lung: a potential therapeutic target in acute lung injury?

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Stephen; Boylan, John; McLoughlin, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe form of hypoxic lung disease responsible for a large number of deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in supportive care, no reduction in mortality has been evident since the introduction of a standard consensus definition almost two decades ago. New strategies are urgently required to help design effective therapies for this condition. A key pathological feature of ALI involves regional alveolar hypoxia. Because alveolar hypoxia in isolation, such as that encountered at high altitude, causes an inflammatory pulmonary phenotype in the absence of any other pathogenic stimuli, these regions may not be passive bystanders but may actually contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of lung injury. Unique transcriptional responses to hypoxia in the lung apparently allow it to express an inflammatory phenotype at levels of hypoxia that would not produce such a response in other organs. We will review recent advances in our understanding of these unique transcriptional responses to moderate levels of alveolar hypoxia, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of ALI. PMID:23087053

  8. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: a rare interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    English, John C; Mayo, John R; Levy, Robert; Yee, John; Leslie, Kevin O

    2015-06-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a newly described form of interstitial lung disease that originates in the upper lung zones and typically progresses to involve the entire lung. The disease may be idiopathic but is often associated with other pre- or coexisting conditions. Pneumothorax is a common complication and can occur at presentation or at other times during the course of the disease. Pathologically, interstitial fibrosis takes the form of a dense consolidation with some preservation of alveolar septal outlines and demonstrates a distinctly abrupt interface with residual normal lung. Unrecognized cases of PPFE may be incorrectly diagnosed as sarcoidosis, atypical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or other unclassifiable interstitial pneumonias. PMID:26090119

  9. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: a rare interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    English, John C; Mayo, John R; Levy, Robert; Yee, John; Leslie, Kevin O

    2015-01-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a newly described form of interstitial lung disease that originates in the upper lung zones and typically progresses to involve the entire lung. The disease may be idiopathic but is often associated with other pre- or coexisting conditions. Pneumothorax is a common complication and can occur at presentation or at other times during the course of the disease. Pathologically, interstitial fibrosis takes the form of a dense consolidation with some preservation of alveolar septal outlines and demonstrates a distinctly abrupt interface with residual normal lung. Unrecognized cases of PPFE may be incorrectly diagnosed as sarcoidosis, atypical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or other unclassifiable interstitial pneumonias. PMID:26090119

  10. A Reconsideration of Acute Beryllium Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Virji, M. Abbas; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Context Although chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clearly an immune-mediated granulomatous reaction to beryllium, acute beryllium disease (ABD) is commonly considered an irritative chemical phenomenon related to high exposures. Given reported new cases of ABD and projected increased demand for beryllium, we aimed to reevaluate the patho physiologic associations between ABD and CBD using two cases identified from a survey of beryllium production facility workers. Case Presentation Within weeks after exposure to beryllium fluoride began, two workers had systemic illness characterized by dermal and respiratory symptoms and precipitous declines in pulmonary function. Symptoms and pulmonary function abnormalities improved with cessation of exposure and, in one worker, recurred with repeat exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses and blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and cellular immune recognition of beryllium. None of the measured air samples exceeded 100 ?g/m3, and most were < 10 ?g/m3, lower than usually described. In both cases, lung biopsy about 18 months after acute illness revealed noncaseating granulomas. Years after first exposure, the workers left employment because of CBD. Discussion Contrary to common understanding, these cases suggest that ABD and CBD represent a continuum of disease, and both involve hypersensitivity reactions to beryllium. Differences in disease presentation and progression are likely influenced by the solubility of the beryllium compound involved. Relevance to Practice ABD may occur after exposures lower than the high concentrations commonly described. Prudence dictates limitation of further beryllium exposure in both ABD and CBD. PMID:19672405

  11. Histopathology of lung disease in the connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Vivero, Marina; Padera, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    The pathologic correlates of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to connective tissue disease (CTD) comprise a diverse group of histologic patterns. Lung biopsies in patients with CTD-associated ILD tend to demonstrate simultaneous involvement of multiple anatomic compartments of the lung. Certain histologic patterns tend to predominate in each defined CTD, and it is possible in many cases to confirm connective tissue-associated lung disease and guide patient management using surgical lung biopsy. This article will cover the pulmonary pathologies seen in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, myositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, and mixed CTD. PMID:25836637

  12. Long pentraxin PTX3 deficiency worsens LPS-induced acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Han; Jack J. Haitsma; Yu Zhang; Xiaohui Bai; Matthew Rubacha; Shaf Keshavjee; Haibo Zhang; Mingyao Liu

    2011-01-01

    Objective  Long pentraxin PTX3 is an inflammatory mediator and a component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PTX3 expression is\\u000a increased in animals with acute lung injury (ALI) and in patients with sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome and is\\u000a considered to be a potential biomarker for these diseases. However, the role of PTX3 in the pathogenesis of ALI is

  13. Neurotrophins in lung health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, YS; Thompson, Michael A; Meuchel, Lucas; Pabelick, Christina M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Zaidi, Syed; Martin, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) are a family of growth factors that are well-known in the nervous system. There is increasing recognition that NTs (nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and NT3) and their receptors (high-affinity TrkA, TrkB and TrkC, and low-affinity p75NTR) are expressed in lung components including the nasal and bronchial epithelium, smooth muscle, nerves and immune cells. NT signaling may be important in normal lung development, developmental lung disease, allergy and inflammation (e.g., rhinitis, asthma), lung fibrosis and even lung cancer. In this review, we describe the current status of our understanding of NT signaling in the lung, with hopes of using aspects of the NT signaling pathway in the diagnosis and therapy of lung diseases. PMID:20524922

  14. Pulmonary function in sickle cell disease with or without acute chest syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Santoli; F. Zerah; N. Vasile; D. Bachir; F. Galacteros; G. Atlan

    1998-01-01

    Recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS) has been suggested as a risk fac- tor for chronic lung dysfunction in sickle cell disease. To investigate this hypothesis, lung function tests were performed in 49 sickle cell disease outpatients whose condition was stable, including 23 patients with a history of two to four episodes of ACS (ACS+) and 26 with no history of

  15. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Ryu, Jay H

    2012-03-01

    Cigarette smoke, a toxic collection of thousands of chemicals generated from combustion of tobacco, is recognized as the primary causative agent of certain diffuse interstitial and bronchiolar lung diseases. Most patients afflicted with these disorders are cigarette smokers, and smoking cessation has been shown to be capable of inducing disease remission and should occupy a pivotal role in the management of all smokers with these diffuse lung diseases. The role of pharmacotherapy with corticosteroids or other immunomodulating agents is not well established but may be considered in patients with progressive forms of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. PMID:22365253

  16. Imaging of occupational and environmental lung diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Akira, M. [Kinki Cuo Chest Medical Center, Osaka (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    The chest radiograph is the basic tool for identifying occupational and environmental lung diseases; however, its sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of occupational and environmental lung diseases are low. High-resolution CT is the optimal method of recognizing parenchymal abnormalities in occupational and environmental disease. With the exception of pleural plaques, the CT findings of occupational and environmental lung diseases are nonspecific. Therefore, correlation of imaging features with history of exposure, other clinical features, and sometimes pathology is needed for the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis.

  17. [Pro-resolving lipid mediators in inflammatory lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Eickmeier, O; Hilberath, J N; Zielen, S; Haworth, O

    2011-03-01

    Uncontrolled inflammation of the lung contributes to the major medical and economic burden on healthcare, and the need for therapeutics to dampen pathological inflammation is largely unmet. Recently, a new genus of anti-inflammatory/ pro-resolving lipid mediators has been identified: Lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. These compounds are enzymatically derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that have long been known to have beneficial health properties. These mediators have potent anti-inflammatory effects IN VITRO and IN VIVO in murine models of lung inflammation. Therefore, this group of compounds carries considerable therapeutic potential for the treatment of many inflammatory lung diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis and acute lung injury. PMID:21117020

  18. Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease. Part II.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishant; Vassallo, Robert; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-07-01

    The diffuse cystic lung diseases have a broad differential diagnosis. A wide variety of pathophysiological processes spanning the spectrum from airway obstruction to lung remodeling can lead to multifocal cyst development in the lung. Although lymphangioleiomyomatosis and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis are perhaps more frequently seen in the clinic, disorders such as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, follicular bronchiolitis, and light-chain deposition disease are increasingly being recognized. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and management approaches are highly disease dependent. Unique imaging features, genetic tests, serum studies, and clinical features provide invaluable clues that help clinicians distinguish among the various etiologies, but biopsy is often required for definitive diagnosis. In part II of this review, we present an overview of the diffuse cystic lung diseases caused by lymphoproliferative disorders, genetic mutations, or aberrant lung development and provide an approach to aid in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25906201

  19. Imaging of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aphorism that children are not little adults certainly applies for the imaging of interstitial lung disease. Acquiring motion-free images of fine pulmonary structures at desired lung volumes is much more difficult in children than in adults. Several forms of interstitial lung disease are unique to children, and some forms of interstitial lung disease encountered in adults rarely, if ever, occur in children. Meticulous attention to imaging technique and specialized knowledge are required to properly perform and interpret chest imaging studies obtained for the evaluation of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). This review will address technique recommendations for imaging chILD, the salient imaging findings in various forms of chILD, and the efficacy of imaging in the diagnosis and management of chILD. PMID:22332031

  20. Emerging Roles for Cholesterol and Lipoproteins in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gowdy, Kymberly M.; Fessler, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, the condition of elevated serum triglycerides, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and/or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is a public health problem of growing concern. Dyslipidemia clusters with other disorders of the metabolic syndrome that together influence, and may derive from, chronic inflammation. While best recognized as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, lipid dysregulation has recently been shown to influence a variety of disease processes in several organ systems. This review highlights our current understanding of the role of cholesterol and its homeostatic trafficking in pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology. Gene-targeted mice deficient in regulatory proteins that govern reverse cholesterol transport (e.g., ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1, apolipoprotein E) have recently been shown to have abnormal lung physiology, including dysregulated pulmonary innate and adaptive immune responses to the environment. It has also recently been shown that diet-induced dyslipidemia alters trafficking of immune cells to the lung in a manner that may have important implications for the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, asthma, pneumonia, and other lung disorders. Conversely, cholesterol-targeting pharmacologic agents, such as statins, apolipoprotein mimetic peptides, and Liver X Receptor agonists, have shown early promise in the treatment of several lung disorders. An improved understanding of the precise molecular mechanisms by which cholesterol and its trafficking modify pulmonary immunity will be required before the full implications of dyslipidemia as a lung disease modifier, and the full potential of lipid-targeting agents as pulmonary therapeutics, can be realized. PMID:22706330

  1. Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Marten; David M. Hansell

    2005-01-01

    Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann–Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage

  2. NMDA Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yong; Peng, XiangPing; Liu, Wei; Zhao, FeiYan; Feng, DanDan; Han, JianZhong; Huang, YanHong; Luo, SiWei; Li, Lian; Yue, Shao Jie; Cheng, QingMei; Huang, XiaoTing; Luo, ZiQiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Large amount of glutamate can overstimulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), causing neuronal injury and death. Recently, NMDAR has been reported to be found in the lungs. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of memantine, a NMDAR channel blocker, on bleomycin-induced lung injury mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally injected with bleomycin (BLM) to induce lung injury. Mice were randomized to receive saline, memantine (Me), BLM, BLM plus Me. Lungs and BALF were harvested on day 3 or 7 for further evaluation. Results BLM caused leukocyte infiltration, pulmonary edema and increase in cytokines, and imposed significant oxidative stress (MDA as a marker) in lungs. Memantine significantly mitigated the oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury caused by BLM. Moreover, activation of NMDAR enhances CD11b expression on neutrophils. Conclusions Memantine mitigates oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury in BLM challenged mice. PMID:25942563

  3. Interstitial lung disease: progress and problems

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, S J

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease involves all areas of medicine as it often occurs in patients with comorbidities or as a consequence of systemic diseases and their treatment. Typically the physician is faced with a breathless patient, a diffusely abnormal chest radiograph, and a wide differential diagnosis. Progress has been made in using high resolution computed tomography as the key investigation in characterising the pattern and extent of the disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage is particularly important in excluding infection as a cause of diffuse lung infiltrates. Surgical lung biopsies have led to a new classification system for the range of histopathological patterns of disease that were previously known by the collective term cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Problems persist in deciding when a surgical lung biopsy is clinically justified, in understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases, and in finding more effective treatments. PMID:16891438

  4. Glutamine Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acid Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Chin-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate ventilator settings may cause overwhelming inflammatory responses associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we examined potential benefits of glutamine (GLN) on a two-hit model for VILI after acid aspiration-induced lung injury in rats. Rats were intratracheally challenged with hydrochloric acid as a first hit to induce lung inflammation, then randomly received intravenous GLN or lactated Ringer’s solution (vehicle control) thirty min before different ventilator strategies. Rats were then randomized to receive mechanical ventilation as a second hit with a high tidal volume (TV) of 15 mL/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or a low TV of 6 mL/kg with PEEP of 5 cm H2O. We evaluated lung oxygenation, inflammation, mechanics, and histology. After ventilator use for 4 h, high TV resulted in greater lung injury physiologic and biologic indices. Compared with vehicle treated rats, GLN administration attenuated lung injury, with improved oxygenation and static compliance, and decreased respiratory elastance, lung edema, extended lung destruction (lung injury scores and lung histology), neutrophil recruitment in the lung, and cytokine production. Thus, GLN administration improved the physiologic and biologic profiles of this experimental model of VILI based on the two-hit theory. PMID:25100435

  5. Lung disease in mice with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kent, G; Iles, R; Bear, C E; Huan, L J; Griesenbach, U; McKerlie, C; Frndova, H; Ackerley, C; Gosselin, D; Radzioch, D; O'Brodovich, H; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Tanswell, A K

    1997-01-01

    The leading cause of mortality and morbidity in humans with cystic fibrosis is lung disease. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the lung disease of cystic fibrosis, as well as development of innovative therapeutic interventions, have been compromised by the lack of a natural animal model. The utility of the CFTR-knockout mouse in studying the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis has been limited because of their failure, despite the presence of severe intestinal disease, to develop lung disease. Herein, we describe the phenotype of an inbred congenic strain of CFTR-knockout mouse that develops spontaneous and progressive lung disease of early onset. The major features of the lung disease include failure of effective mucociliary transport, postbronchiolar over inflation of alveoli and parenchymal interstitial thickening, with evidence of fibrosis and inflammatory cell recruitment. We speculate that the basis for development of lung disease in the congenic CFTR-knockout mice is their observed lack of a non-CFTR chloride channel normally found in CFTR-knockout mice of mixed genetic background. PMID:9399953

  6. [Acute peripheral arterial occlusive disease].

    PubMed

    Schumann, Romy; Rieger, Johannes; Ludwig, Malte

    2007-06-15

    Acute lower limb ischemia is not infrequently associated with limb loss 10-30%) or death of the affected patient (15-30%). Thus, acute lower limb ischemia is an emergency. There are two categories of acute arterial occlusion: embolism (70-80%) and thrombosis (20-30%). Early diagnosis is a prerequisite for optimal management. Initial clinical examination is the crucial point: it makes the diagnosis of acute ischemia, localizes the level of occlusion, collects etiologic information and allows for assessing the local and general impact of ischemia on the patient. If sensation and motor function are present, viability of the limb is not threatened (incomplete limb ischemia), and good results can be obtained by utilizing anticoagulation and delayed elective revascularization, if the latter is indicated. If the patient, however, presents symptoms of a complete limb ischemia (paralysis or anesthesia is present), then ultimate limb loss is likely. Most patients present with subtle findings and lack classic symptoms, which makes the diagnosis difficult. The standard office-based tests to determine the presence of acute peripheral vascular disease are calculation of the ankle-brachial index and color duplex sonography. Up to now, digital subtraction angiography is used as standard of reference for definitive localization of the occlusion before revascularization. Magnetic resonance arteriography may be helpful when symptoms or findings do not correlate with the noninvasive ultrasound methods. Therapeutic choices are high-dose heparin therapy, surgical removal of the clot, mechanical interventional thrombectomy, and/or catheter-directed thrombolysis - the ultimate choice being dependent on the particular status of the patient. Patients with severe ischemia require immediate surgical intervention. In patients with contraindications to surgical management or incomplete ischemia, interventional revascularization is the therapy of primary choice. Successful outcome is dependent on careful clinical assessment and a prompt multidisciplinary approach to revascularization. PMID:17571221

  7. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or genetic profile, currently do not exist. Genetic markers have the potential to be implemented as screening tools to identify subjects at risk. This approach may significantly enhance treatment outcome through the early detection and treatment of affected subjects, as well as using future approaches based on gene therapy. At present, the treatment of this disease is directed toward elimination of the subgingival bacterial load and other local risk factors. Adjunctive use of appropriate systemic antibiotics is recommended and may contribute to a longer suppression of the microbial infection. Other aggressive forms of periodontal diseases occur in patients who are affected with certain systemic diseases, including the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome and Down syndrome. Management of the periodontal component of these diseases is very challenging. Acute gingival and periodontal lesions include a group of disorders that range from nondestructive to destructive forms, and these lesions are usually associated with pain and are a common reason for emergency dental consultations. Some of these lesions may cause a rapid and severe destruction of the periodontal tissues and loss of teeth. Oral infections, particularly acute infections, can spread to extra-oral sites and cause serious medical complications, and even death. Hence, prompt diagnosis and treatment are paramount. PMID:24738583

  8. Molecular Imaging of Folate Receptor ?-Positive Macrophages during Acute Lung Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Yull, Fiona E; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Gleaves, Linda A; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Young, Lisa R; Peterson, Todd E; Manning, H Charles; Prince, Lawrence S; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2015-07-01

    Characterization of markers that identify activated macrophages could advance understanding of inflammatory lung diseases and facilitate development of novel methodologies for monitoring disease activity. We investigated whether folate receptor ? (FR?) expression could be used to identify and quantify activated macrophages in the lungs during acute inflammation induced by Escherichia coli LPS. We found that FR? expression was markedly increased in lung macrophages at 48 hours after intratracheal LPS. In vivo molecular imaging with a fluorescent probe (cyanine 5 polyethylene glycol folate) showed that the fluorescence signal over the chest peaked at 48 hours after intratracheal LPS and was markedly attenuated after depletion of macrophages. Using flow cytometry, we identified the cells responsible for uptake of cyanine 5-conjugated folate as FR?(+) interstitial macrophages and pulmonary monocytes, which coexpressed markers associated with an M1 proinflammatory macrophage phenotype. These findings were confirmed using a second model of acute lung inflammation generated by inducible transgenic expression of an NF-?B activator in airway epithelium. Using CC chemokine receptor 2-deficient mice, we found that FR?(+) macrophage/monocyte recruitment was dependent on the monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC chemokine receptor 2 pathway. Together, our results demonstrate that folate-based molecular imaging can be used as a noninvasive approach to detect classically activated monocytes/macrophages recruited to the lungs during acute inflammation. PMID:25375039

  9. A randomized, controlled trial comparing thoracoscopy and limited thoracotomy for lung biopsy in interstitial lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D Miller; John D Urschel; Gerard Cox; Jemi Olak; James Edward M Young; John Michael Kay; Ellen McDonald

    2000-01-01

    Background. Lung biopsies are frequently needed to diagnose diffuse interstitial lung diseases. A prospective randomized, controlled trial comparing limited thoracotomy (open lung biopsy) and thoracoscopy for lung biopsy was done.Methods. Ambulatory patients with a clinical diagnosis of diffuse interstitial lung disease were randomized to thoracoscopy or limited thoracotomy. Data on postoperative pain, narcotic requirements, operating room time, adequacy of biopsy,

  10. Autotaxin and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Nikos; Katsifa, Aggeliki; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Kaffe, Eleanna; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a life-threatening, diffuse heterogeneous lung injury characterized by acute onset, pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common cause of both direct and indirect lung injury and when administered to a mouse induces a lung phenotype exhibiting some of the clinical characteristics of human ALI. Here, we report that LPS inhalation in mice results in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2), a lysophospholipase D largely responsible for the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in biological fluids and chronically inflamed sites. In agreement, gradual increases were also detected in BALF LPA levels, following inflammation and pulmonary edema. However, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of ATX had minor effects in ALI severity, suggesting no major involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute inflammation. Moreover, systemic, chronic exposure to increased ATX/LPA levels was shown to predispose to and/or to promote acute inflammation and ALI unlike chronic inflammatory pathophysiological situations, further suggesting a differential involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute versus chronic pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26196781

  11. Analytic Review: The Pathogenetic and Prognostic Value of Biologic Markers in Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Levitt; Michael K. Gould; Loraine B. Ware; Michael A. Matthay

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, measurement of biomarkers in both the airspaces and plasma early in the course of acute lung injury has provided new insights into the mechanisms of lung injury. In addition, biologic markers of cell-specific injury, acute inflammation, and altered coagulation correlate with mortality from acute lung injury in several single center studies as well as in

  12. Cell Death and Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Martin; N. Hagimoto; G. Matute-Bello

    The concept that apoptosis pathways are involved in the onset and long-term consequences of lung injury is important, but\\u000a significant questions remain. More information is needed about the factors that control the balance between tissue injury\\u000a and tissue repair in the lungs. For example, we need to know more about what determines when the Fas pathway leads to tissue\\u000a injury

  13. Noninvasive assessment for acute allograft rejection in a rat lung transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ayuko; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Zhao, Xiangdong; Chen, Fengshi; Fujinaga, Takuji; Shoji, Tsuyoshi; Bando, Toru; Wada, Hiromi; Date, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract After lung transplantation, early detection of acute allograft rejection is important not only for timely and optimal treatment, but also for the prediction of chronic rejection which is a major cause of late death. Many biological and immunological approaches have been developed to detect acute rejection; however, it is not well known whether lung mechanics correlate with disease severity, especially with pathological rejection grade. In this study, we examined the relationship between lung mechanics and rejection grade development in a rat acute rejection model using the forced oscillation technique, which provides noninvasive assessment of lung function. To this end, we assessed lung resistance and elastance (RL and EL) from implanted left lung of these animals. The perivascular/interstitial component of rejection severity grade (A?grade) was also quantified from histological images using tissue fraction (TF; tissue + cell infiltration area/total area). We found that TF, RL, and EL increased according to A?grade. There was a strong positive correlation between EL at the lowest frequency (Elow; EL at 0.5 Hz) and TF (r2 = 0.930). Furthermore, the absolute difference between maximum value of EL (Emax) and Elow (Ehet; Emax ? Elow) showed the strong relationship with standard deviation of TF (r2 = 0.709), and A?grade (Spearman's correlation coefficients; rs = 0.964, P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that the dynamic elastance as well as its frequency dependence have the ability to predict A?grade. These indexes should prove useful for noninvasive detection and monitoring the progression of disease in acute rejection. PMID:25524280

  14. Mechanisms of acute inflammatory lung injury induced by abdominal sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Neumann; Niko Zantl; Andreas Veihelmann; Klaus Emmanuilidis; Klaus Pfeffer; Claus-Dieter Heidecke; Bernhard Holzmann

    1999-01-01

    Sequestration of neutrophils and release of histotoxic mediators are considered important for the development of pathologic alterations of the lung defined as adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms of inflammatory lung injury caused by abdominal sepsis were investigated using the colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) model that closely mimics the human disease. In the CASP model, a continuous leakage of intraluminal

  15. Biological markers of lung injury before and after the institution of positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda Cepkova; Sandra Brady; Anil Sapru; Michael A Matthay; Gwynne Church

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several biological markers of lung injury are predictors of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). The low tidal volume lung-protective ventilation strategy is associated with a significant decrease in plasma biomarker levels compared to the high tidal volume ventilation strategy. The primary objective of this study was to test whether the institution of lung-protective positive

  16. Alveolar Fluid Clearance Is Impaired in the Majority of Patients with Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LORRAINE B. WARE; MICHAEL A. MATTHAY

    2001-01-01

    Because experimental studies have shown that intact alveolar epi- thelial fluid transport function is critical for resolution of pulmo- nary edema and acute lung injury, we measured net alveolar fluid clearance in 79 patients with acute lung injury or the acute respi- ratory distress syndrome. Pulmonary edema fluid and plasma were sampled serially in the first 4 hours after intubation.

  17. HIV-associated Obstructive Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gingo, Matthew R.; Morris, Alison; Crothers, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    In the era of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), epidemiologic studies have found that HIV-infected persons have a higher prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than HIV-uninfected persons. Recently, pulmonary function studies in HIV-infected persons have shown a high prevalence of airway obstruction, bronchodilator reversibility, and impaired diffusing capacity. In comparison to HIV-uninfected persons and those with well-controlled HIV disease, HIV-infected persons with poor viral control or lower CD4 cell count have more airflow obstruction, a greater decline in lung function, and possibly more severe diffusing impairment. This chapter will review the evidence linking HIV infection to obstructive lung disease and discuss management issues related to the treatment of obstructive lung disease in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23702176

  18. Metabolic lung disease: imaging and histopathologic findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung Jin Chung; Kyung Soo Lee; Tomás Franquet; Nestor L. Müller; Joungho Han; O Jung Kwon

    2005-01-01

    Metabolic lung disease includes pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), pulmonary amyloidosis, metastatic pulmonary calcification, dendritic pulmonary ossification, pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, and storage diseases. In pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, CT demonstrates air-space consolidation with thickened interlobular septa, producing the so-called “crazy paving” appearance. Pulmonary amyloidosis can appear as parenchymal nodules (nodular parenchymal form), diffuse interstitial deposit (diffuse interstitial form), or submucosal deposits in

  19. Electronic Nose for Identification of Lung Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnik, V.; Kleperis, J.; Taivans, I.; Jurka, N.; Bukovskis, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, the authors analyze the preliminary results of testing a classical gas sensing instrument - the electronic nose (a metal oxide transistor sensor of chemical substances) in a hospital where patients with different lung diseases are treated. To reveal the correlation between the amplitudes of the sensor's responses and the patients' diagnoses, different statistical analysis methods have been used. It is shown that the lung cancer can easily be discriminated from other lung diseases if short breath sampling and analysis time (less than 1 min) is used in the test. Volatiles obtained from a breath sample of a patient with lung cancer give the major contribution to the responses of different e-nose sensors, so in these cases highly precise identification could be achieved.

  20. NADPH Oxidases in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Hecker, Louise; Luckhardt, Tracy R.; Cheng, Guangjie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The evolution of the lungs and circulatory systems in vertebrates ensured the availability of molecular oxygen (O2; dioxygen) for aerobic cellular metabolism of internal organs in large animals. O2 serves as the physiologic terminal acceptor of mitochondrial electron transfer and of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of oxidoreductases to generate primarily water and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Recent advances: The purposeful generation of ROS by Nox family enzymes suggests important roles in normal physiology and adaptation, most notably in host defense against invading pathogens and in cellular signaling. Critical issues: However, there is emerging evidence that, in the context of chronic stress and/or aging, Nox enzymes contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Future Directions: Here, we review evolving functions of Nox enzymes in normal lung physiology and emerging pathophysiologic roles in lung disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2838–2853. PMID:24093231

  1. Focus on acute diarrhoeal disease

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Fabio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Nardone, Gerardo; Pilotto, Alberto; Zamparo, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    Diarrhoea is an alteration of normal bowel movement characterized by an increase in the water content, volume, or frequency of stools. Diarrhoea needs to be classified according to the trends over time (acute or chronic) and to the characteristics of the stools (watery, fatty, inflammatory). Secretory diarrhoeas, mostly acute and of viral aetiology in more than 70% of cases, are by far the most important subtype of diarrhoeas in terms of frequency, incidence and mortality (over 2.5 million deaths/year in developing countries). Natural and synthetic opiates such as morphine, codeine, and loperamide which react with endogenous opiates (enkephalins, beta-endorphins, dynorphins) mainly act on intestinal motility and slow down transit. An antidiarrhoeal drug developed in recent years, racecadotril, acts as an enkephalinase inhibitor. Clinical studies have shown that it is just as effective as loperamide in resolving acute diarrhoea but with greater reduction in pain and abdominal distension. Some studies have explored the prevalence of diarrhoea in old age. An epidemiological study carried out in Italy by 133 General Practitioners on 5515 elderly outpatients reported a prevalence of diarrhoea, defined according to the Rome criteria, of 9.1%. Infectious diseases (19%) and drug use (16%) were the most common causes of diarrhoea in old age. Regardless of the cause, the treatment of elderly patients with diarrhoea must include rehydration and nutritional support. Every year, more than 50 million tourists travel from industrialized countries to places where hygiene levels are poor. At least 75% of those travelling for short periods mention health problems, and in particular traveller’s diarrhoea. PMID:19610134

  2. Treatment of Lung Carcinoid by Type and Extent of Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your doctor about lung carcinoid tumors? Treatment of lung carcinoid, by type and extent of disease The ... those that can’t be removed completely Resectable lung carcinoid tumors Resectable carcinoid tumors haven’t spread ...

  3. Common lung conditions: environmental pollutants and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can have short- and long-term effects on lung health. Sources of air pollution include gases (eg, carbon monoxide, ozone) and particulate matter (eg, soot, dust). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollution. Elevated ozone concentrations are associated with increases in lung-related hospitalizations and mortality. Elevated particulate matter pollution increases the risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. Occupations with high exposures to pollutants (eg, heavy construction work, truck driving, auto mechanics) pose higher risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. Some industrial settings (eg, agriculture, sawmills, meat packing plants) also are associated with higher risks from pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency issues an air quality index for cities and regions in the United States. The upper levels on the index are associated with increases in asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Damp and moldy housing might make asthma symptoms worse; individuals from lower socioeconomic groups who live in lower quality housing are particularly at risk. Other household exposures that can have negative effects on lung health include radon, nanoparticles, and biomass fuels. PMID:23767420

  4. Lung Postmortem Autopsy Revealing Extramedullary Involvement in Multiple Myeloma Causing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Aurélie; Perbet, Sébastien; Guièze, Romain; Guérin, Renaud; Gayraud, Guillaume; Aliane, Jugurtha; Tremblay, Aymeric; Pascal, Julien; Ledoux, Albane; Chaleteix, Carine; Dechelotte, Pierre; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement with multiple myeloma is rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old man with past medical history of chronic respiratory failure with emphysema, and a known multiple myeloma (Durie and Salmon stage III B and t(4;14) translocation). Six months after diagnosis and first line of treatment, he presented acute dyspnea with interstitial lung disease. Computed tomography showed severe bullous emphysema and diffuse, patchy, multifocal infiltrations bilaterally with nodular character, small bilateral pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and a known lytic lesion of the 12th vertebra. He was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, oseltamivir, and methylprednisolone. Finally, outcome was unfavourable. Postmortem analysis revealed diffuse and nodular infracentimetric infiltration of the lung parenchyma by neoplastic plasma cells. Physicians should be aware that acute respiratory distress syndrome not responding to treatment of common causes could be a manifestation of the disease, even with negative BAL or biopsy and could be promptly treated with salvage therapy. PMID:25165587

  5. Previous Lung Diseases and Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis From the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Darren R.; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J.; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; McCormack, Valerie; Muscat, Joshua E.; Yang, Ping; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Brueske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Schwartz, Ann G.; Cote, Michele L.; Tjønneland, Anne; Friis, Søren; Le Marchand, Loic; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Zaridze, David; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Bencko, Vladimir; Schejbalova, Miriam; Brennan, Paul; Mates, Ioan N.; Lazarus, Philip; Field, John K.; Raji, Olaide; McLaughlin, John R.; Liu, Geoffrey; Wiencke, John; Neri, Monica; Ugolini, Donatella; Andrew, Angeline S.; Lan, Qing; Hu, Wei; Orlow, Irene; Park, Bernard J.; Hung, Rayjean J.

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the role of previous lung diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis) in the development of lung cancer, the authors conducted a pooled analysis of studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Seventeen studies including 24,607 cases and 81,829 controls (noncases), mainly conducted in Europe and North America, were included (1984–2011). Using self-reported data on previous diagnoses of lung diseases, the authors derived study-specific effect estimates by means of logistic regression models or Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and cumulative tobacco smoking. Estimates were pooled using random-effects models. Analyses stratified by smoking status and histology were also conducted. A history of emphysema conferred a 2.44-fold increased risk of lung cancer (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64, 3.62 (16 studies)). A history of chronic bronchitis conferred a relative risk of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.29, 1.68 (13 studies)). Tuberculosis (relative risk = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87 (16 studies)) and pneumonia (relative risk = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.01 (12 studies)) were also associated with lung cancer risk. Among never smokers, elevated risks were observed for emphysema, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. These results suggest that previous lung diseases influence lung cancer risk independently of tobacco use and that these diseases are important for assessing individual risk. PMID:22986146

  6. Nitric Oxide and Nitrotyrosine in the Lungs of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHANCHAI SITTIPUNT; KENNETH P. STEINBERG; JOHN T. RUZINSKI; CARPANTATO MYLES; SHA ZHU; RICHARD B. GOODMAN; LEONARD D. HUDSON; SADIS MATALON; THOMAS R. MARTIN

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) end-products (nitrate and nitrite) are present in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with inflammatory lung diseases. Reactive oxygen-nitrogen intermediates damage macro- molecules by oxidation or nitration of critical residues in proteins. The goal of this study was to measure NO end-products (nitrate 1 nitrite), in BAL fluid before and after the onset of acute respiratory distress

  7. Epigenetic contributions to the developmental origins of adult lung disease.

    PubMed

    Joss-Moore, Lisa A; Lane, Robert H; Albertine, Kurt H

    2015-04-01

    Perinatal insults, including intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, maternal exposure to toxins, or dietary deficiencies produce deviations in the epigenome of lung cells. Occurrence of perinatal insults often coincides with the final stages of lung development. The result of epigenome disruptions in response to perinatal insults during lung development may be long-term structural and functional impairment of the lung and development of lung disease. Understanding the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to life-long lung disease following perinatal insults is the focus of the developmental origins of adult lung disease field. DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNA changes are all observed in various forms of lung disease. However, the perinatal contribution to such epigenetic mechanisms is poorly understood. Here we discuss the developmental origins of adult lung disease, the interplay between perinatal events, lung development and disease, and the role that epigenetic mechanisms play in connecting these events. PMID:25493710

  8. Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula as an adjuvant treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of the syndrome type phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat AECOPD as adjunctive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the TCM formula Xuan Bai Cheng Qi as an adjuvant therapy for AECOPD patients with the syndrome type of phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs. Methods A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. A total of 244 patients were divided into the intervention group (n?=?122, treated with conventional medicine and Xuan Bai Cheng Qi) and the control group (n?=?122, treated with conventional medicine and placebo). Total symptom scores (cough, phlegm, wheezing, chest congestion) before treatment and at 3, 5, 7, 10 days post-treatment were recorded. Lung function, arterial blood gas, serum inflammatory cytokines, oxidation/anti-oxidation index were observed before treatment and at the end of the 10-day treatment. Results A total of 242 patients completed the study. The full analysis set (FAS) population was 244 and the per-protocol analysis set (PPS) population was 229. After the 10-day treatment, symptom scores of the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group were significantly lower over time compared with the control group (FAS: mean difference -1.84, 95% CI -2.66 to -1.03, P?lungs syndrome type. PMID:25014996

  9. Effect of Airflow Limitation on Acute Exacerbations in Patients with Destroyed Lungs by Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo

    2015-01-01

    History of treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for obstructive lung disease. However, it has been unclear whether the clinical characteristics of patients with destroyed lung by TB differ according to the presence or absence of airflow limitation. The objective of the study was to evaluate differences in acute exacerbations and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decline in patients with destroyed lung by TB according to the presence or absence of airflow limitation. We performed a retrospective cohort study and enrolled patients with destroyed lung by TB. The presence of airflow limitation was defined as FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were enrolled, and 128 (80.5%) had airflow limitation. The proportion of patients who experienced acute exacerbation was higher in patients with airflow limitation compared to those without (89.1 vs. 67.7%, respectively; P = 0.009). The rate of acute exacerbation was higher in patients with airflow limitation (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.11-1.27). Low body mass index (X vs. X + 1; HR, 0.944; 95% CI, 0.895-0.996) in addition to airflow limitation (HR, 1.634; 95% CI, 1.012-2.638), was an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation. The annual decline of FEV1 was 2 mL in patients with airflow limitation and 36 mL in those without (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of airflow limitation is an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation in patients with the destroyed lung by TB. PMID:26028926

  10. Acute Lung Function Response to Dust in Street Sweepers

    PubMed Central

    Johncy S., Smilee; G., Dhanyakumar; Samuel T., Vivian; K.T., Ajay; Bondade, Suresh Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweepers are chronically exposed to dust raised during sweeping. Dust is regarded as the most influential agent and it is perceived as a frequent cause of respiratory system illness and may cause acute and chronic lung function impairment. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the acute lung function changes in sweepers exposed to dust generated from street sweeping. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in central Karnataka, India, on 25 female sweepers and 25 healthy female control subjects who were comparable in age, height and weight. The pulmonary function test was performed in controls, sweepers before and after sweeping, by using RMS medspiror and results were compared by Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test. Results: The results showed a significant reduction in percent predicted values and mean values of FVC, FEV1, PEFR, FEF25-75% and FEF 200-1200 between sweepers and their matched controls. Pulmonary function after sweeping also showed a significant decrease. Conclusions: On comparing the pulmonary functions of sweepers before and after sweeping, it was concluded that inhalation of dust acutely affected the lung function of sweepers in India and that sweepers were at a risk of developing occupation related lung function impairment. We recommend that the workers should use protective face masks and do wet sweeping instead of dry sweeping during sweeping activity. PMID:24298455

  11. Diabetes, insulin, and development of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Honiden, Shyoko; Gong, Michelle N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Recently, many studies have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of insulin and glucose control in critical illness. This review examines evidence regarding the relationship between diabetes and the development of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), reviews studies of lung injury related to glycemic and nonglycemic metabolic features of diabetes, and examines the effect of diabetic therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection A MEDLINE/PubMed search from inception to August 1, 2008, was conducted using the search terms acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, insulin, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, including combinations of these terms. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were manually reviewed. Data Extraction and Synthesis Available studies were critically reviewed, and data were extracted with special attention to the human and animal studies that explored a) diabetes and ALI; b) hyperglycemia and ALI; c) metabolic nonhyperglycemic features of diabetes and ALI; and d) diabetic therapies and ALI. Conclusions Clinical and experimental data indicate that diabetes is protective against the development of ALI/ARDS. The pathways involved are complex and likely include effects of hyperglycemia on the inflammatory response, metabolic abnormalities in diabetes, and the interactions of therapeutic agents given to diabetic patients. Multidisciplinary, multifaceted studies, involving both animal models and clinical and molecular epidemiology techniques, are essential. PMID:19531947

  12. Autophagy in lung disease pathogenesis and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy, a cellular pathway for the degradation of damaged organelles and proteins, has gained increasing importance in human pulmonary diseases, both as a modulator of pathogenesis and as a potential therapeutic target. In this pathway, cytosolic cargos are sequestered into autophagosomes, which are delivered to the lysosomes where they are enzymatically degraded and then recycled as metabolic precursors. Autophagy exerts an important effector function in the regulation of inflammation, and immune system functions. Selective pathways for autophagic degradation of cargoes may have variable significance in disease pathogenesis. Among these, the autophagic clearance of bacteria (xenophagy) may represent a crucial host defense mechanism in the pathogenesis of sepsis and inflammatory diseases. Our recent studies indicate that the autophagic clearance of mitochondria, a potentially protective program, may aggravate the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by activating cell death programs. We report similar findings with respect to the autophagic clearance of cilia components, which can contribute to airways dysfunction in chronic lung disease. In certain diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, autophagy may confer protection by modulating proliferation and cell death. In other disorders, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cystic fibrosis, impaired autophagy may contribute to pathogenesis. In lung cancer, autophagy has multiple consequences by limiting carcinogenesis, modulating therapeutic effectiveness, and promoting tumor cell survival. In this review we highlight the multiple functions of autophagy and its selective autophagy subtypes that may be of significance to the pathogenesis of human disease, with an emphasis on lung disease and therapeutics. PMID:25617802

  13. Quantitative Stratification of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Maldonado, Fabien; Peikert, Tobias; Moua, Teng; Ryu, Jay H.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes) and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients. PMID:24676019

  14. Quantitative stratification of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Peikert, Tobias; Moua, Teng; Ryu, Jay H; Bartholmai, Brian J; Robb, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes) and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients. PMID:24676019

  15. NOS-2 Inhibition in Phosgene-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Filipczak, Piotr T; Senft, Albert P; Seagrave, JeanClare; Weber, Waylon; Kuehl, Philip J; Fredenburgh, Laura E; McDonald, Jacob D; Baron, Rebecca M

    2015-07-01

    Phosgene exposure via an industrial or warfare release produces severe acute lung injury (ALI) with high mortality, characterized by massive pulmonary edema, disruption of epithelial tight junctions, surfactant dysfunction, and oxidative stress. There are no targeted treatments for phosgene-induced ALI. Previous studies demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) is upregulated in the lungs after phosgene exposure; however, the role of NOS-2 in the pathogenesis of phosgene-induced ALI remains unknown. We previously demonstrated that NOS-2 expression in lung epithelium exacerbates inhaled endotoxin-induced ALI in mice, mediated partially through downregulation of surfactant protein B (SP-B) expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that a selective NOS-2 inhibitor delivered to the lung epithelium by inhalation would mitigate phosgene-induced ALI. Inhaled phosgene produced increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein, histologic lung injury, and lung NOS-2 expression at 24?h. Administration of the selective NOS-2 inhibitor 1400?W via inhalation, but not via systemic delivery, significantly attenuated phosgene-induced ALI and preserved epithelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, aerosolized 1400?W augmented expression of SP-B and prevented downregulation of tight junction protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), both critical for maintenance of normal lung physiology and barrier integrity. We also demonstrate for the first time that NOS-2-derived nitric oxide downregulates the ZO-1 expression at the transcriptional level in human lung epithelial cells, providing a novel target for ameliorating vascular leak in ALI. Our data demonstrate that lung NOS-2 plays a critical role in the development of phosgene-induced ALI and suggest that aerosolized NOS-2 inhibitors offer a novel therapeutic strategy for its treatment. PMID:25870319

  16. Characterization of Lung's Emphysema Distribution: Numerical Assessment of Disease Development

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Characterization of Lung's Emphysema Distribution: Numerical Assessment of Disease Development M that block airflow and make it increasingly difficult for you to breathe. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis bronchitis. Pulmonary emphysema is defined as a lung disease characterized by "abnormal enlargement

  17. Treatment of interstitial lung disease in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Dinwiddie

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of interstitial lung disease in children depends on the nature of the underlying pathology. In approximately 50% of cases a specific aetiology can be found such as: chronic viral infection, an auto-immune process, sarcoidosis or alveolar proteinosis. In the remainder, the process is idiopathic and the pathological findings are based on the descriptive morphological features seen in the

  18. Mucin overproduction in chronic inflammatory lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Hauber, Hans-Peter; Foley, Susan C; Hamid, Qutayba

    2006-01-01

    Mucus overproduction and hypersecretion are commonly observed in chronic inflammatory lung disease. Mucins are gel-forming glycoproteins that can be stimulated by a variety of mediators. The present review addresses the mechanisms involved in the upregulation of secreted mucins. Mucin induction by neutrophil elastase, bacteria, cytokines, growth factors, smoke and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator malfunction are also discussed. PMID:16983448

  19. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Disease Different Syndromes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUCIANO GATTINONI; PAOLO PELOSI; PETER M. SUTER; ALESSIA PEDOTO; PAOLA VERCESI; ALFREDO LISSONI

    To assess the possible differences in respiratory mechanics between the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) originating from pulmonary disease (ARDS p ) and that originating from extrapul- monary disease (ARDS exp ) we measured the total respiratory system (Est,rs), chest wall (Est,w) and lung (Est,L) elastance, the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) at 0, 5, 10,

  20. Transfusion-related acute lung injury; clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmin

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was introduced in 1983 to describe a clinical syndrome seen within 6 h of a plasma-containing blood products transfusion. TRALI is a rare transfusion complication; however, the FDA has suggested that TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis of TRALI will facilitate adopting preventive strategies, such as deferring high plasma volume female product donors. This review outlines the clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of TRALI. PMID:25844126

  1. Life-threatening acute lung injury after gamma butyrolactone ingestion.

    PubMed

    van Gerwen, M; Scheper, H; Touw, D J; van Nieuwkoop, C

    2015-03-01

    We describe a case of a 44-year-old woman with a borderline personality disorder and chronic gamma- butyrolactone (GBL) use who presented with progressive dyspnoea and an altered mental status. A high anion gap metabolic acidosis and acute lung injury was diagnosed. We hypothesise this was caused by GBL. In this case report we describe the diagnostic process and possible pathophysiological mechanisms that may have led to this life-threatening condition. PMID:25852114

  2. [Sodium dichloroisocyanurate-induced acute lung injury in a child].

    PubMed

    Wiel, E; Sicot, J; Leteurtre, S; Binoche, A; Nisse, P; Assez, N

    2013-04-01

    Intoxication, by cyanurate and its chlorated derivatives in children, is increasingly reported in the literature due to accidental ingestion compared to accidental inhalation. We report a case in a 5-year-old child who presented with acute lung injury due to accidental inhalation of gas formed after a reaction of sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets with water. Prevention remains the best way to reduce the risk of children being intoxicated by inhalation of the gas formed after contact of tablets with water. PMID:23433843

  3. Processing of CT images for analysis of diffuse lung disease in the lung tissue research consortium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald A. Karwoski; Brian Bartholmai; Vanessa A. Zavaletta; David Holmes; Richard A. Robb

    2008-01-01

    The goal of Lung Tissue Resource Consortium (LTRC) is to improve the management of diffuse lung diseases through a better understanding of the biology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) including Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). Participants are subjected to a battery of tests including tissue biopsies, physiologic testing, clinical history reporting, and CT scanning

  4. [Acute lung injury as a consequence of blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Moyado, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) has been recognized as a consequence of blood transfusion (BT) since 1978; the Food and Drug Administration, has classified it as the third BT mortality issue, in 2004, and in first place related with ALI. It can be mainly detected as: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). The clinical onset is: severe dyspnea, bilateral lung infiltration and low oxygen saturation. In USA, ARDS has an incidence of three to 22.4 cases/100 000 inhabitants, with 58.3 % mortality. TACO and TRALI are less frequent; they have been reported according to the number of transfusions: one in 1275 to 6000 for TRALI and one in 356 transfusions for TACO. Mortality is reported from two to 20 % in TRALI and 20 % in TACO. Antileukocyte antibodies in blood donors plasma, caused TRALI in 89 % of cases; also it has been found antigen specificity against leukocyte blood receptor in 59 %. The UCI patients who received a BT have ALI as a complication in 40 % of cases. The capillary pulmonary endothelia is the target of leukocyte antibodies and also plasma biologic modifiers of the stored plasma, most probable like a Sanarelli-Shwar-tzman phenomenon. PMID:21838994

  5. Large dose ketamine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yang; W. Li; M. Duan; Z. Zhou; N. Lin; Z. Wang; J. Sun; J. Xu

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is associated with the highest risk of progression to acute lung injury or the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ketamine has been advocated for anesthesia in endotoxemic and other severely ill patients because it is a cardiovascular stimulant. Our study was designed to investigate the effect of ketamine on the endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in vivo.

  6. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over to get them. Use a cart with wheels to move things around the house and kitchen. ... disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: chap ...

  7. RNAi Therapeutic Platforms for Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yu; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is rapidly becoming an important method for analyzing gene functions in many eukaryotes and holds promise for the development of therapeutic gene silencing. The induction of RNAi relies on small silencing RNAs, which affect specific messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation. Two types of small RNA molecules, i.e. small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), are central to RNAi. Drug discovery studies and novel treatments of siRNAs are currently targeting a wide range of diseases, including various viral infections and cancers. Lung diseases in general are attractive targets for siRNA therapeutics because of their lethality and prevalence. In addition, the lung is anatomically accessible to therapeutic agents via the intrapulmonary route. Recently, increasing evidence indicates that miRNAs play an important role in lung abnormalities, such as inflammation and oncogenesis. Therefore, miRNAs are being targeted for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we present strategies for RNAi delivery and discuss the current state-of-the-art RNAi-based therapeutics for various lung diseases. PMID:24275949

  8. Chemokine receptors and their therapeutic opportunities in diseased lung: far beyond leukocyte trafficking.

    PubMed

    Tomankova, Tereza; Kriegova, Eva; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-04-01

    Chemokine receptors and their chemokine ligands, key mediators of inflammatory and immune cell trafficking, are involved in the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes in the lung. The discovery that chemokine receptors/chemokines, typically expressed by inflammatory and immune cells, are also expressed in structural lung tissue cells suggests their role in mediating the restoration of lung tissue structure and functions. Thus, chemokine receptors/chemokines contribute not only to inflammatory and immune responses in the lung but also play a critical role in the regulation of lung tissue repair, regeneration, and remodeling. This review aims to summarize current state-of-the-art on chemokine receptors and their ligands in lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma/allergy, pulmonary fibrosis, acute lung injury, and lung infection. Furthermore, the therapeutic opportunities of chemokine receptors in aforementioned lung diseases are discussed. The review also aims to delineate the potential contribution of chemokine receptors to the processes leading to repair/regeneration of the lung tissue. PMID:25637606

  9. Honokiol attenuates the severity of acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury via acceleration of acinar cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Te I; Wu, Hsiao Yi; Chen, Bo Lin; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2012-05-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis remains a life-threatening disease with a high mortality rate among a defined proportion of those affected. Apoptosis has been hypothesized to be a beneficial form of cell death in acute pancreatitis. Honokiol, a low-molecular-weight natural product, possesses the ability of anti-inflammation and apoptosis induction. Here, we investigate whether honokiol can ameliorate severe acute pancreatitis and the associated acute lung injury in a mouse model. Mice received six injections of cerulein at 1-h intervals, then given one intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide for the induction of severe acute pancreatitis. Moreover, mice were intraperitoneally given vehicle or honokiol 10 min after the first cerulein injection. Honokiol protected against the severity of acute pancreatitis in terms of increased serum amylase and lipase levels, pancreas pathological injury, and associated acute lung injury. Honokiol significantly reduced the increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin 1, and nitric oxide levels 3 h and serum high-mobility group box 1 24 h after acute pancreatitis induction. Honokiol also significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activities in the pancreas and the lungs. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-related molecules eIF2? (phosphorylated) and CHOP protein expressions, apoptosis, and caspase-3 activity were increased in the pancreas of mice with severe acute pancreatitis, which was unexpectedly enhanced by honokiol treatment. These results suggest that honokiol protects against acute pancreatitis and limits the spread of inflammatory damage to the lung in a severe acute pancreatitis mouse model. The acceleration of pancreatic cell apoptosis by honokiol may play a pivotal role. PMID:22258232

  10. Translational models of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Paul F; Abbott-Banner, Katharine; Adcock, Ian M; Knowles, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    The 2nd Cross Company Respiratory Symposium (CCRS), held in Horsham, U.K. in 2012, brought together representatives from across the pharmaceutical industry with expert academics, in the common interest of improving the design and translational predictiveness of in vivo models of respiratory disease. Organized by the respiratory representatives of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Federations (EFPIA) group of companies involved in the EU-funded project (U-BIOPRED), the aim of the symposium was to identify state-of-the-art improvements in the utility and design of models of respiratory disease, with a view to improving their translational potential and reducing wasteful animal usage. The respiratory research and development community is responding to the challenge of improving translation in several ways: greater collaboration and open sharing of data, careful selection of the species, complexity and chronicity of the models, improved practices in preclinical research, continued refinement in models of respiratory diseases and their sub-types, greater understanding of the biology underlying human respiratory diseases and their sub-types, and finally greater use of human (and especially disease-relevant) cells, tissues and explants. The present review highlights these initiatives, combining lessons from the symposium and papers published in Clinical Science arising from the symposium, with critiques of the models currently used in the settings of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. The ultimate hope is that this will contribute to a more rational, efficient and sustainable development of a range of new treatments for respiratory diseases that continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality across the world. PMID:25328010

  11. Classification algorithm of lung lobe for lung disease cases based on multislice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Mishima, M.; Ohmatsu, H.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2011-03-01

    With the development of multi-slice CT technology, to obtain an accurate 3D image of lung field in a short time is possible. To support that, a lot of image processing methods need to be developed. In clinical setting for diagnosis of lung cancer, it is important to study and analyse lung structure. Therefore, classification of lung lobe provides useful information for lung cancer analysis. In this report, we describe algorithm which classify lungs into lung lobes for lung disease cases from multi-slice CT images. The classification algorithm of lung lobes is efficiently carried out using information of lung blood vessel, bronchus, and interlobar fissure. Applying the classification algorithms to multi-slice CT images of 20 normal cases and 5 lung disease cases, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed algorithms.

  12. Gene therapy for acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Brigham; A. A. Stecenko

    2000-01-01

    The remarkable transition of biological science into the age of molecular biology held great promise for development of new therapies for treatment of human disease. The fact that the technology exists for analyzing genetic material in exquisite detail and constructing DNA in virtually any desired form was the basis for promising rapid translation into clinical medicine and the final cure

  13. Noninvasive ventilation and obstructive lung diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cuvelier; J. F. Muir

    2001-01-01

    The key role of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is well documented in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) since it may avoid endotrachal intubation in w50% of cases when used as the initial treatment. However, currently only minimal data is available to assess usefulness of NPPV in COPD patients on a long-term basis. Even

  14. Does aluminum smelting cause lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, M.J.; Wlodarczyk, J.H.; Saunders, N.A.; Hensley, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    The evidence concerning a relationship between work in the aluminum industry and lung disease has been reviewed using epidemiologic criteria. Adequate data on environmental exposure are rarely presented. Case series on aluminum potroom workers over the past 50 years have identified an asthmalike syndrome that appears to be due to an irritant rather than an allergic mechanism. These studies have been supported by evidence of within shift variability of measures of lung function. However, to date, there is inadequate evidence to resolve the question of whether potroom exposure initiates asthma or merely precipitates asthmalike symptoms in a predisposed individual. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated evidence of reduced lung function, consistent with chronic airflow limitation. In exposed aluminum smelter workers compared to unexposed control subjects. Cigarette smoking, the major potential confounding variable, has been measured and accounted for in multivariate analyses. To date, evidence is lacking from longitudinal studies about the development of disabling chronic obstructive lung disease. Exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles in the production and consumption of anodes has biologic plausibility for an association of lung cancer with work in an aluminum smelter. Although retrospective mortality studies have failed to account for the probable high prevalence of smoking in blue collar workers, the relative risk of lung cancer is very low if present at all. Pulmonary fibrosis has not been shown to be a significant problem in aluminum smelter workers. Future research in the aluminum industry needs to concentrate on longitudinal studies, preferably with an inception cohort for the investigation of potroom asthma. 92 references.

  15. Thaliporphine derivative improves acute lung injury after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gunng-Shinng; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Chien-Chu; Wang, Jia-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) occurs frequently in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Aquaporins (AQPs), particularly AQP1 and AQP4, maintain water balances between the epithelial and microvascular domains of the lung. Since pulmonary edema (PE) usually occurs in the TBI-induced ALI patients, we investigated the effects of a thaliporphine derivative, TM-1, on the expression of AQPs and histological outcomes in the lung following TBI in rats. TM-1 administered (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) at 3 or 4 h after TBI significantly reduced the elevated mRNA expression and protein levels of AQP1 and AQP4 and diminished the wet/dry weight ratio, which reflects PE, in the lung at 8 and 24 h after TBI. Postinjury TM-1 administration also improved histopathological changes at 8 and 24 h after TBI. PE was accompanied with tissue pathological changes because a positive correlation between the lung injury score and the wet/dry weight ratio in the same animal was observed. Postinjury administration of TM-1 improved ALI and reduced PE at 8 and 24 h following TBI. The pulmonary-protective effect of TM-1 may be attributed to, at least in part, downregulation of AQP1 and AQP4 expression after TBI. PMID:25705683

  16. Thaliporphine Derivative Improves Acute Lung Injury after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gunng-Shinng; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Chien-Chu; Wang, Jia-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) occurs frequently in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Aquaporins (AQPs), particularly AQP1 and AQP4, maintain water balances between the epithelial and microvascular domains of the lung. Since pulmonary edema (PE) usually occurs in the TBI-induced ALI patients, we investigated the effects of a thaliporphine derivative, TM-1, on the expression of AQPs and histological outcomes in the lung following TBI in rats. TM-1 administered (10?mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) at 3 or 4?h after TBI significantly reduced the elevated mRNA expression and protein levels of AQP1 and AQP4 and diminished the wet/dry weight ratio, which reflects PE, in the lung at 8 and 24?h after TBI. Postinjury TM-1 administration also improved histopathological changes at 8 and 24?h after TBI. PE was accompanied with tissue pathological changes because a positive correlation between the lung injury score and the wet/dry weight ratio in the same animal was observed. Postinjury administration of TM-1 improved ALI and reduced PE at 8 and 24?h following TBI. The pulmonary-protective effect of TM-1 may be attributed to, at least in part, downregulation of AQP1 and AQP4 expression after TBI. PMID:25705683

  17. Lung parenchyma-derived IL-6 promotes IL-17A-dependent acute lung injury after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Varelias, Antiopi; Gartlan, Kate H; Kreijveld, Ellen; Olver, Stuart D; Lor, Mary; Kuns, Rachel D; Lineburg, Katie E; Teal, Bianca E; Raffelt, Neil C; Cheong, Melody; Alexander, Kylie A; Koyama, Motoko; Markey, Kate A; Sturgeon, Elise; Leach, Justine; Reddy, Pavan; Kennedy, Glen A; Yanik, Gregory A; Blazar, Bruce R; Tey, Siok-Keen; Clouston, Andrew D; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Cooke, Kenneth R; Hill, Geoffrey R

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a relatively common, frequently fatal clinical entity, characterized by noninfectious acute lung inflammation following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), the mechanisms of which are unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that immune suppression with cyclosporin after SCT limits T-helper cell (Th) 1 differentiation and interferon-? secretion by donor T cells, which is critical for inhibiting interleukin (IL)-6 generation from lung parenchyma during an alloimmune response. Thereafter, local IL-6 secretion induces donor alloantigen-specific Th17 cells to preferentially expand within the lung, and blockade of IL-17A or transplantation of grafts lacking the IL-17 receptor prevents disease. Studies using IL-6(-/-) recipients or IL-6 blockade demonstrate that IL-6 is the critical driver of donor Th17 differentiation within the lung. Importantly, IL-6 is also dysregulated in patients undergoing clinical SCT and is present at very high levels in the plasma of patients with IPS compared with SCT recipients without complications. Furthermore, at the time of diagnosis, plasma IL-6 levels were higher in a subset of IPS patients who were nonresponsive to steroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. In sum, pulmonary-derived IL-6 promotes IPS via the induction of Th17 differentiation, and strategies that target these cytokines represent logical therapeutic approaches for IPS. PMID:25673640

  18. Quantitative CT Imaging of Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bartholmai, Brian J; Raghunath, Sushravya; Karwoski, Ronald A; Moua, Teng; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Maldonado, Fabien; Decker, Paul A; Robb, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose High-Resolution chest CT (HRCT) is essential in the characterization of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The HRCT features of some diseases can be diagnostic. Longitudinal monitoring with HRCT can assess progression of ILD; however, subtle changes in the volume and character of abnormalities can be difficult to assess. Accuracy of diagnosis can be dependent on expertise and experience of the radiologist, pathologist or clinician. Quantitative analysis of thoracic HRCT has the potential to determine the extent of disease reproducibly, classify the types of abnormalities and automate the diagnostic process. Materials and Methods Novel software that utilizes histogram signatures to characterize pulmonary parenchyma was used to interrogate chest HRCT data, including retrospective processing of clinical CT scans and research data from the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC). Additional information including physiologic, pathologic and semi-quantitative radiologist assessment was available to allowcomparison of quantitative results with visual estimates of disease, physiologic parameters and measures of disease outcome. Results Quantitative analysis results were provided in regional volumetric quantities for statistical analysis as well as a graphical representation. Analysis suggests that quantitative HRCT analysis can serve as a biomarker with physiologic, pathologic and prognostic significance. Conclusion It is likely that quantitative analysis of HRCT can be used in clinical practice as a means to aid in identifying probable diagnosis, stratifying prognosis in early disease, and consistently determining progression of disease or response to therapy. Further optimization of quantitative techniques and longitudinal analysis of well-characterized subjects would be helpful to validate these methods. PMID:23966094

  19. OXIDANTS AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF LUNG DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Ciencewicki, Jonathan; Trivedi, Shweta; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing number of population-based and epidemiological associations between oxidant pollutant exposures and cardiopulmonary disease exacerbation, decrements in pulmonary function, and mortality underscores the important detrimental effects of oxidants on public health. Because inhaled oxidants initiate a number of pathologic processes, including inflammation of the airways which may contribute to the pathogenesis and/or exacerbation of airways disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms through which exogenous and endogenous oxidants interact with molecules in the cells, tissues, and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lung. Furthermore, it is clear that inter-individual variation in response to a given exposure also exists across an individual lifetime. Because of the potential impact that oxidant exposures may have on reproductive outcomes and infant, child, and adult health, identification of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that may influence susceptibility to oxidants remains an important issue. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of oxidant stress in the lung, the role of oxidants in lung disease pathogenesis and exacerbation (e.g. asthma, COPD, and ARDS), and the potential risk factors (e.g. age, genetics) for enhanced susceptibility to oxidant-induced disease. PMID:18774381

  20. Metabolic lung disease: imaging and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Franquet, Tomás; Müller, Nestor L; Han, Joungho; Kwon, O Jung

    2005-05-01

    Metabolic lung disease includes pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), pulmonary amyloidosis, metastatic pulmonary calcification, dendritic pulmonary ossification, pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, and storage diseases. In pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, CT demonstrates air-space consolidation with thickened interlobular septa, producing the so-called "crazy paving" appearance. Pulmonary amyloidosis can appear as parenchymal nodules (nodular parenchymal form), diffuse interstitial deposit (diffuse interstitial form), or submucosal deposits in the airways (tracheobronchial form). Metastatic pulmonary calcification may appear on high-resolution CT as numerous 3- to 10-mm diameter calcified nodules or, more commonly as fluffy and poorly defined nodular opacities. In pulmonary microlithiasis, high-resolution CT demonstrates diffuse punctuate micronodules showing slight perilobular predominance resulting in apparent calcification of interlobular septa. Niemann-Pick disease appears as ground-glass attenuation in the upper lung zone and thickening of the interlobular septa in the lower lung zone. Radiologic study including high-resolution CT will be helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of these diseases. PMID:15837404

  1. Trauma-associated lung injury differs clinically and biologically from acute lung injury due to other clinical disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Carolyn S.; Eisner, Mark D.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Parsons, Polly E.; Wheeler, Arthur P.; Korpak, Anna; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Patients with trauma-associated acute lung injury have better outcomes than patients with other clinical risks for lung injury, but the mechanisms behind these improved outcomes are unclear. We sought to compare the clinical and biological features of patients with trauma-associated lung injury with those of patients with other risks for lung injury and to determine whether the improved outcomes of trauma patients reflect their baseline health status or less severe lung injury, or both. Design, Setting, and Patients Analysis of clinical and biological data from 1,451 patients enrolled in two large randomized, controlled trials of ventilator management in acute lung injury. Measurements and Main Results Compared with patients with other clinical risks for lung injury, trauma patients were younger and generally less acutely and chronically ill. Even after adjusting for these baseline differences, trauma patients had significantly lower plasma levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor antigen, surfactant protein-D, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, which are biomarkers of lung epithelial and endothelial injury previously found to be prognostic in acute lung injury. In contrast, markers of acute inflammation, except for interleukin-6, and disordered coagulation were similar in trauma and nontrauma patients. Trauma-associated lung injury patients had a significantly lower odds of death at 90 days, even after adjusting for baseline clinical factors including age, gender, ethnicity, comorbidities, and severity of illness (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.24 – 0.82; p = .01). Conclusions Patients with trauma-associated lung injury are less acutely and chronically ill than other lung injury patients; however, these baseline clinical differences do not adequately explain their improved outcomes. Instead, the better outcomes of the trauma population may be explained, in part, by less severe lung epithelial and endothelial injury. PMID:17944012

  2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mediates influenza H7N9 virus-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Penghui; Gu, Hongjing; Zhao, Zhongpeng; Wang, Wei; Cao, Bin; Lai, Chengcai; Yang, Xiaolan; Zhang, LiangYan; Duan, Yueqiang; Zhang, Shaogeng; Chen, Weiwen; Zhen, Wenbo; Cai, Maosheng; Penninger, Josef M.; Jiang, Chengyu; Wang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, the emergence of an avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus has raised concern in China. Although most infections resulted in respiratory illness, some severe cases resulted in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI) that further contributes to morbidity. To date, no effective drugs that improve the clinical outcome of influenza A (H7N9) virus-infected patients have been identified. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 are involved in several pathologies such as cardiovascular functions, renal disease, and acute lung injury. In the current study, we report that ACE2 could mediate the severe acute lung injury induced by influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in an experimental mouse model. Moreover, ACE2 deficiency worsened the disease pathogenesis markedly, mainly by targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1). The current findings demonstrate that ACE2 plays a critical role in influenza A (H7N9) virus-induced acute lung injury, and suggest that might be a useful potential therapeutic target for future influenza A (H7N9) outbreaks. PMID:25391767

  3. Identification and examination of a novel 9-bp insert/deletion polymorphism on porcine SFTPA1 exon 2 associated with acute lung injury using an oleic acid-acute lung injury model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuebo; Zhang, Longchao; Wang, Ligang; Qiao, Lijuan; Liang, Jing; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Lixian

    2015-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant-associated protein (SFTPA1, SP-A) gene has been studied as a candidate gene for lung disease resistance in humans and livestock. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms of the porcine SFTPA1 gene coding region and its association with acute lung injury (ALI). Through DNA sequencing and the PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism method, a novel 9-bp nucleotide insertion (+) or deletion (-) was detected on exon 2 of SFTPA1, which causes a change in three amino acids, namely, alanine (Ala), glycine (Gly) and proline (Pro). Individuals of three genotypes (-/-, +/- and +/+) were divided into equal groups from 60 Rongchang pigs that were genotyped. These pigs were selected for participation in the oleic acid (OA)-ALI model by 1-h and 3-h injections of OA, and there were equal numbers of pigs in the control and injection groups. The lung water content, a marker for acute lung injury, was measured in this study; there is a significant correlation between high lung water content and the presence of the 9-bp indel polymorphism (P?lung water content of the OA injection group was markedly higher than that of the control group and lung water content for the +/+ genotype was significantly higher than that of the others in the 1-h group (P?lung water content than the +/+ genotype pigs, which suggests that polymorphism could be a potential marker for lung disease-resistant pig breeding and that pig can be a potential animal model for human lung disease resistance in future studies. PMID:25442010

  4. Ventilator-induced lung injury and the evolution of lung-protective strategies in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gillette, M A; Hess, D R

    2001-02-01

    Traditional ventilator management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), emphasizing normalization of blood gases, promoted high rates of conventional barotrauma. Research revealed a broader range of ventilator-induced lung injury, physiologically and histopathologically indistinguishable from ARDS itself. It is now known that overdistention and cyclic inflation of injured lung can exacerbate lung injury and probably promote systemic inflammation, effects minimized by low tidal volumes/plateau pressures and by application of positive end-expiratory pressure. No compelling data suggest a safe interval for nonprotective ventilation in humans; historically defined "low" tidal volumes may remain excessive for certain patients. Protective ventilation, however, entails carbon dioxide accumulation ("permissive hypercapnia"). Despite extensive study, debate remains, even over whether consequent respiratory acidosis is harmful, tolerable with physiologic adaptation, or intrinsically adaptive. Its gross systemic effects seem generally tolerated by critically ill patients; however, subsets, including those with ischemic heart disease, left or right heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or cranial injury, may be at higher risk. In controlled trials demonstrating mortality benefit from lung-protective ventilation, acidosis was more tightly controlled than in negative studies. Decreased acidosis-associated dyspnea probably explains reduced use of sedatives and paralytics noted in those trials. There may thus be disparate goals in ARDS management: rapid institution of a restrictive ventilatory strategy, and avoidance of significant acidosis. We review data pertaining to ARDS physiology, ventilator-induced lung injury, lung-protective ventilatory strategies, and the physiology of respiratory acidosis. Tracheal gas insufflation is considered as a means to reconcile the clinical goals of ventilatory reduction and control of acidosis. PMID:11175242

  5. Asbestos-induced lung diseases: an update

    PubMed Central

    KAMP, DAVID W.

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos causes asbestosis (pulmonary fibrosis caused by asbestos inhalation) and malignancies (bronchogenic carcinoma and mesothelioma) by mechanisms that are not fully elucidated. Despite a dramatic reduction in asbestos use worldwide, asbestos-induced lung diseases remain a substantial health concern primarily because of the vast amounts of fibers that have been mined, processed, and used during the 20th century combined with the long latency period of up to 40 years between exposure and disease presentation. This review summarizes the important new epidemiologic and pathogenic information that has emerged over the past several years. Whereas the development of asbestosis is directly associated with the magnitude and duration of asbestos exposure, the development of a malignant clone of cells can occur in the setting of low-level asbestos exposure. Emphasis is placed on the recent epidemiologic investigations that explore the malignancy risk that occurs from nonoccupational, environmental asbestos exposure. Accumulating studies are shedding light on novel mechanistic pathways by which asbestos damages the lung. Attention is focused on the importance of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury and repair, the role of iron-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis by the p53- and mitochondria-regulated death pathways. Furthermore, recent evidence underscores crucial roles for specific cellular signaling pathways that regulate the production of cytokines and growth factors. An evolving role for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is also reviewed. The translational significance of these studies is evident in providing the molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies for asbestos-related lung diseases and, importantly, other pulmonary diseases, such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. PMID:19304273

  6. Adult Stem Cells for Acute Lung Injury: Remaining Questions & Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying-gang; Hao, Qi; Monsel, Antoine; Feng, Xiao-mei

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The pathophysiology of ALI involves complex interactions between the inciting event, such as pneumonia, sepsis or aspiration, and the host immune response resulting in lung protein permeability, impaired resolution of pulmonary edema, an intense inflammatory response in the injured alveolus and hypoxemia. In multiple pre-clinical studies, adult stem cells have been shown to be therapeutic due to both the ability to mitigate injury and inflammation through paracrine mechanisms and perhaps to regenerate tissue by virtue of their multi-potency. These characteristics have stimulated intensive research efforts to explore the possibility of using stem or progenitor cells for the treatment of lung injury. A variety of stem or progenitor cells have been isolated, characterized, and tested experimentally in pre-clinical animal models of ALI. However, questions remain concerning the optimal dose, route and the adult stem or progenitor cell to use. Here, we review current mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of stem cells in ALI as well as the questions that will arise as clinical trials for ALI are planned. PMID:23578018

  7. The Epithelial Cell and Lung Cancer: The Link between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Rooney; Tariq Sethi

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer currently form the basis for an enormous disease burden in the developed world. As a result of changing smoking trends and tobacco use, regrettably, a similar picture is arising rapidly within the developing world. COPD is a recognised risk factor for lung cancer, and a significant proportion of patients diagnosed with lung

  8. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Acute Lung Injury through Promoting Gastrointestinal Motility in Rats with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui; Zhu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Zhao, Xian-Lin; Wan, Mei-Hua; Tang, Wen-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Gastrointestinal disfunction and acute lung injury (ALI) were common in acute pancreatitis (AP). The effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on gastrointestinal motility and ALI in rats with AP was investigated to verify the theory of “lung and large intestine are interior exteriorly related” in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, and EA group. AP model was established by three injections of 20% L-arginine at 1?h intervals. EA were applied to bilateral ST-25 and ST-36 for 30 minutes twice a day after modeling for 3 days. Arterial blood, pancreas, lung, and intestinal tissues were collected for detecting the inflammatory factors and histopathology. Intestinal propulsion rate (IPR) was also measured at 72?h. Results. EA treatment improved IPR and increased CCK-8 level compared with model group (P < 0.05). It lowered the serum levels of TNF-? and IL-6 and increased the level of IL-4 with no effect on IL-10. EA treatment reduced serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level in the lung and the pathologic scores of pancreas, lung and intestine were decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion. EA treatment could promote gastrointestinal motility through inhibiting VIP, and promoting CCK expression and regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators to ameliorate ALI in AP. PMID:24876883

  9. Management of connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Chartrand, Sandra; Fischer, Aryeh

    2015-05-01

    A thorough, often multidisciplinary assessment to determine extrathoracic versus intrathoracic disease activity and degrees of impairment is needed to optimize the management of connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Pharmacologic intervention with immunosuppression is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of CTD-ILD, but should be reserved for those that show clinically significant and/or progressive disease. The management of CTD-ILD is not yet evidence based and there is a need for controlled trials across the spectrum of CTD-ILD. Nonpharmacologic management strategies and addressing comorbidities or aggravating factors should be included in the comprehensive treatment plan for CTD-ILD. PMID:25836643

  10. Acute inflammatory bowel disease in childbood: a new disease?

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, P D; Kilby, A; Candy, D; Walker-Smith, J A; Harries, J T

    1978-01-01

    Three children aged between 7 and 11 years, after an acute onset of diarrhoea and vomiting, developed protracted diarrhoea and severe loss of weight. None had been abroad. No significant aetiological agent was found. There was evidence of acute inflammatory disease on proximal small intestinal biopsy, and some evidence of more widespread gut involvement--of the rectum in Cases 1 and 2, and the terminal ileum in Cases 2 and 3. The disease resolved spontaneously and without relapse. PMID:708099

  11. [Compensatory changes of lung tissues in acute total deep supercooling].

    PubMed

    Chudakov, A Iu

    1999-01-01

    The study was performed in corpses of people who died from the cold trauma and in animals subjected to acute total deep immersion cooling at water temperature 1 degree C and sub-acute total deep cooling by the air at temperature of the air -10 degrees C during 10 days. Microscopic study of lungs has revealed: spasm of bronchioles preventing the flow of the cooled air and causing plethora in bronchial and bronchiolar vessels thus promoting the warming of the air; accumulation of mucous secrete in secretory cells preventing the cooling of bronchiolar and bronchiolar mucosa associated with vaporization; vascular emphysema; angiospasm; blood circulation disturbance at microcirculatory level; "calorific" effect of capillarization of the walls of bronchi, terminal and respiratory bronchioles. These signs indicate the compensatory and adaptive potentialities of the organism aimed to maintain temperature homeostasis and to specify peculiarities of patho- and thanatogenesis. PMID:10451839

  12. Rare lung diseases II: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Juvet, Stephen C; Hwang, David; Waddell, Thomas K; Downey, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    The present article is the second in a series on rare lung diseases. It focuses on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates in the alveolar space. PAP was first described in 1958, and for many years the nature of the material accumulating in the lungs was unknown. Major insights into PAP have been made in the past decade, and these have led to the notion that PAP is an autoimmume disorder in which autoantibodies interfere with signalling through the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, leading to macrophage and neutrophil dysfunction. This has spurred new therapeutic approaches to this disorder. The discussion of PAP will begin with a case report, then will highlight the classification of PAP and review recent insights into the pathogenesis of PAP. The approach to therapy and the prognosis of PAP will also be discussed. PMID:18551202

  13. Family history of cancer and non-malignant lung diseases as risk factors for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Consonni, Dario; Pesatori, Angela C.; Wacholder, Sholom; Tucker, Margaret A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Goldin, Lynn; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Family history (FH) of lung cancer is an established risk factor for lung cancer, but the modifying effect of smoking in relatives has been rarely examined. Also, the role of FH of non-malignant lung diseases on lung cancer risk is not well known. We examined the role of FH of cancer and FH of non-malignant lung diseases in lung cancer risk, overall, and by personal smoking, FH of smoking, and histology in 1,946 cases and 2,116 population-based controls within the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI from logistic regression were calculated adjusting for age, gender, residence, education, and cigarette smoking. FH of lung cancer in any family member was associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.25–1.98). The odds associated with fathers’, mothers’ and siblings’ history of lung cancer were 1.41, 2.14, and 1.53, respectively. The associations were generally stronger in never smokers, younger subjects, and for the adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma subtypes. FH of chronic bronchitis and pneumonia were associated with increased (OR =1.49, 95% CI = 1.23–1.80) and decreased (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61–0.87) lung cancer risk, respectively. FH of lung cancer and FH of non-malignant lung diseases affected lung cancer risk independently, and did not appear to be modified by FH of smoking. PMID:19350630

  14. Lung Stem and Progenitor Cells in Tissue Homeostasis and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Carla F.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian lung is a complex organ containing numerous putative stem/progenitor cell populations that contribute to region-specific tissue homeostasis and repair. In this review, we discuss recent advances in identifying and studying these cell populations in the context of lung homeostasis and disease. Genetically engineered mice now allow for lineage tracing of several lung stem and progenitor cell populations in vivo during different types of lung injury repair. Using specific sets of cell surface markers, these cells can also be isolated from murine and human lung and tested in 3D culture systems and in vivo transplant assays. The pathology of devastating lung diseases, including lung cancers, is likely in part due to dysregulation and dysfunction of lung stem cells. More precise characterization of stem cells with identification of new, unique markers; improvement in isolation and transplant techniques; and further development of functional assays will ultimately lead to new therapies for a host of human lung diseases. In particular, lung cancer biology may be greatly informed by findings in normal lung stem cell biology as evidence suggests that lung cancer is a disease that begins in, and may be driven by, neoplastic lung stem cells. PMID:24439808

  15. Clinical review: The implications of experimental and clinical studies of recruitment maneuvers in acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Piacentini; Ana Villagrá; Josefina López-Aguilar; Lluis Blanch

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation can cause and perpetuate lung injury if alveolar overdistension, cyclic collapse, and reopening of alveolar units occur. The use of low tidal volume and limited airway pressure has improved survival in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The use of recruitment maneuvers has been proposed as an adjunct to mechanical ventilation to re-expand collapsed

  16. Increased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Are Associated with Survival in Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen L. Burnham; W. Robert Taylor; Arshed A. Quyyumi; Mauricio Rojas; Kenneth L. Brigham; Marc Moss

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Repair of damaged endothelium is important in recovery from acute lung injury. In animal models, bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells differentiate into mature endothelium and assist in repairing damaged vasculature. Objectives: The quantity of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with acute lung injury is unknown. We hypothesize that increased numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells will be associ- ated

  17. KL6 in acute lung injury: will it leave its mark?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murali Shyamsundar; Danny F McAuley

    2008-01-01

    Studies have indicated that measuring biochemical measures of epithelial injury in plasma and alveolar fluid may be useful in predicting outcome in acute lung injury. The present commentary briefly reviews the evidence supporting the use of these biochemical biomarkers of epithelial injury in acute lung injury, and in particular KL-6, as well as their limitations. The article additionally proposes the

  18. Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis predict mortality in acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana McClintock; Hanjing Zhuo; Nancy Wickersham; Michael A Matthay; Lorraine B Ware

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure with high mortality despite lung-protective ventilation. Prior work has shown disordered inflammation and coagulation in ALI, with strong correlations between biomarker abnormalities and worse clinical outcomes. We measured plasma markers of inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis simultaneously to assess whether these markers remain predictive in the era of

  19. The genetics of acute lung injury: looking back and pointing the way forward

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ednan K Bajwa

    2009-01-01

    Individual genetic factors have long been suspected of playing a major role in susceptibility to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Flores and colleagues evaluate the quality of published studies testing the relationships between variation in candidate genes and susceptibility to lung injury syndromes or worsened outcome in patients with these conditions. Their results demonstrate that while important

  20. Chronic obstructive lung disease: perioperative management.

    PubMed

    Maddali, Madan Mohan

    2008-10-01

    Inflammatory mediators play a major role in pulmonary and extra pulmonary manifestations of COPD. In the preoperative risk evaluation, composite scoring systems like ASA physical status are more efficacious than any single risk factor. Intraoperative ventilator graphics help in managing respiratory mechanics and reducing dynamic hyperinflation. Preoperative optimization of respiratory status and use of postoperative lung expansion maneuvers are effective measures for prevention of PPCs. Lastly, anesthesiologists need to evolve strategies based on the pathophysiology of the disease to ensure that their patients receive optimal perioperative care. PMID:18942241

  1. Lung Reperfusion Injury after Chronic or Acute Unilateral Pulmonary Artery Occlusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIE FADEL; GUY-MICHEL MAZMANIAN; ALAIN CHAPELIER; BRUNO BAUDET; HÉLÈNE DETRUIT; JEAN-MARIE LIBERT; MYRIAM WARTSKI; PHILIPPE HERVE; PHILIPPE DARTEVELLE

    Because the lungs receive their blood supply from both the pulmonary and bronchial systems, chronic pulmonary artery obstruction does not necessarily result in severe ischemia. Ischemia-reper- fusion (IR) lung injury may therefore be attenuated after long-term pulmonary artery obstruction. To test this hypothesis, isolated left lungs of pigs were reperfused two days (acute IR group) or 5 wk (chronic IR

  2. Efficacy and safety of videothoracoscopic lung biopsy in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Mouroux; Claude Clary-Meinesz; Bernard Padovani; Christophe Perrin; Christine Rotomondo; Jean-Michel Chavaillon; Bruno Blaive; Henri Richelme

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of videothoracoscopic lung biopsy (VTLB) in the diagnosis of infiltrative lung disease (ILD) and compare the results of VTLB with the results previously obtained in patients with open lung biopsy at the same institution. Methods: Forty-one patients undergoing VTLB between May 1991 and December 1994 were retrospectively

  3. Genes and Environment in Common Neonatal Lung Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko Hallman; Riitta Marttila; Riccardo Pertile; Marja Ojaniemi; Ritva Haataja

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are common, serious lung diseases in preterm infants. Polymorphism of the genes involved in basic lung function and alveolar stability, lung differentiation and pulmonary host defense may influence the risk. Natural selection has refined the genes responsible for cardiopulmonary adaptation and resistance against pneumonia in term and near-term infants. Before the era

  4. Acute Heart Failure and Systemic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Cohen; Nadia Benyounes-Iglesias; Nadia Belmatoug; Ariel A. Cohen

    Acute heart failure in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may result from myocarditis, endocarditis, systemic hypertension,\\u000a coronary artery disease, and left ventricular dysfunction secondary to drug toxicity. Pericarditis is an early and common\\u000a cardiac manifestation of active lupus. Moderate to severe pericardial disease is infrequent (1), and constrictive pericarditis is rare. Pericardial fluid is usually exudative (1), and may contain anti-DNA

  5. Acute exacerbations and respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Neil; Huang, Yuh Chin

    2008-05-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) describe the phenomenon of sudden worsening in airway function and respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD. These exacerbations can range from self-limited diseases to episodes of florid respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. The average patient with COPD experiences two such episodes annually, and they account for significant consumption of health care resources. Although bacterial infections are the most common causes of AECOPD, viral infections and environmental stresses are also implicated. AECOPD episodes can be triggered or complicated by other comorbidities, such as heart disease, other lung diseases (e.g., pulmonary emboli, aspiration, pneumothorax), or systemic processes. Pharmacologic management includes bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and antibiotics in most patients. Oxygen, physical therapy, mucolytics, and airway clearance devices may be useful in selected patients. In hypercapneic respiratory failure, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation may allow time for other therapies to work and thus avoid endotracheal intubation. If the patient requires invasive mechanical ventilation, the focus should be on avoiding ventilator-induced lung injury and minimizing intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure. These may require limiting ventilation and "permissive hypercapnia." Although mild episodes of AECOPD are generally reversible, more severe forms of respiratory failure are associated with a substantial mortality and a prolonged period of disability in survivors. PMID:18453367

  6. Traditional Chinese medicine, Qing Ying Tang, ameliorates the severity of acute lung injury induced by severe acute pancreatitis in rats via the upregulation of aquaporin-1

    PubMed Central

    GAO, ZHENMING; XU, JUNFENG; SUN, DEGUANG; ZHANG, RIXIN; LIANG, RUI; WANG, LIMING; FAN, RONG

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) is expressed in lung endothelial cells and regulates water transport; thus, AQP-1 plays an important role in a number of edema-associated lung diseases. Qing Yin Tang (QYT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to effectively reduce the mortality rate of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The current study aimed to investigate the detailed mechanisms underlying the effects of QYT on ALI induced by SAP, particularly the effects on the expression levels of AQP-1 in the lung tissue. ALI was established in Wister rats who were subsequently divided into four groups: SHAM, ALI, dexamethasone (DEX) and QYT groups (n=8 per group). In the QYT group, 20 ml/kg QYT was administered by gavage immediately following the induction of SAP. Blood and lung tissues were collected 8 h following the induction of pancreatitis. The lung wet/dry ratio, as well as the levels of blood gases, serum amylase and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), were measured at 4, 8 and 12 h following SAP-associated ALI induction surgery. The expression levels of AQP-1 in the lung tissue were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. No statistically significant differences were observed with regard to the levels of serum amylase, wet/dry ratio, partial pressure of oxygen, serum TNF-? and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissue between the QYT and DEX groups; however, a statistically significant difference was observed when compared with the ALI group. The expression levels of AQP-1 significantly increased (P<0.05) and lung edema was alleviated in the QYT and DEX groups, when compared with ALI group. Therefore, the expression level of AQP-1 is associated with pulmonary edema. QYT protects the lungs from injury induced by SAP via the upregulation of AQP-1, which suppresses TNF-? expression. PMID:25371738

  7. Pathogenetic and prognostic significance of altered coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Lorraine B.; Matthay, Michael A.; Parsons, Polly E.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Januzzi, James L.; Eisner, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The coagulation and inflammatory cascades may be linked in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, direct evidence for the contribution of abnormalities in coagulation and fibrinolysis proteins to outcomes in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome is lacking. Design Retrospective measurement of plasma levels of protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in plasma samples that were collected prospectively as part of a large multicenter clinical trial. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. To evaluate the potential additive value of abnormalities of these biomarkers, the excess relative risk of death was calculated for each combination of quartiles of protein-C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Setting Ten university medical centers. Patients The study included 779 patients from a multicenter clinical trial of a protective ventilatory strategy in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome and 99 patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, as well as ten normal controls. Measurements and Main Results Compared with plasma from controls and patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, baseline protein-C levels were low and baseline plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were elevated in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. By multivariate analysis, lower protein C and higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were strong independent predictors of mortality, and ventilator-free and organ-failure-free days. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and protein C had a synergistic interaction for the risk of death. Conclusions Early acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by decreased plasma levels of protein C and increased plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 that are independent risk factors for mortality and adverse clinical outcomes. Measurement of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and protein-C levels may be useful to identify those at highest risk of adverse clinical outcomes for the development of new therapies. PMID:17667242

  8. The role of C5a in acute lung injury induced by highly pathogenic viral infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renxi; Xiao, He; Guo, Renfeng; Li, Yan; Shen, Beifen

    2015-05-01

    The complement system, an important part of innate immunity, plays a critical role in pathogen clearance. Unregulated complement activation is likely to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by highly pathogenic virus including influenza A viruses H5N1, H7N9, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. In highly pathogenic virus-induced acute lung diseases, high levels of chemotactic and anaphylatoxic C5a were produced as a result of excessive complement activaiton. Overproduced C5a displays powerful biological activities in activation of phagocytic cells, generation of oxidants, and inflammatory sequelae named "cytokine storm", and so on. Blockade of C5a signaling have been implicated in the treatment of ALI induced by highly pathogenic virus. Herein, we review the literature that links C5a and ALI, and review our understanding of the mechanisms by which C5a affects ALI during highly pathogenic viral infection. In particular, we discuss the potential of the blockade of C5a signaling to treat ALI induced by highly pathogenic viruses. PMID:26060601

  9. The role of C5a in acute lung injury induced by highly pathogenic viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Renxi; Xiao, He; Guo, Renfeng; Li, Yan; Shen, Beifen

    2015-01-01

    The complement system, an important part of innate immunity, plays a critical role in pathogen clearance. Unregulated complement activation is likely to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by highly pathogenic virus including influenza A viruses H5N1, H7N9, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus. In highly pathogenic virus-induced acute lung diseases, high levels of chemotactic and anaphylatoxic C5a were produced as a result of excessive complement activaiton. Overproduced C5a displays powerful biological activities in activation of phagocytic cells, generation of oxidants, and inflammatory sequelae named “cytokine storm”, and so on. Blockade of C5a signaling have been implicated in the treatment of ALI induced by highly pathogenic virus. Herein, we review the literature that links C5a and ALI, and review our understanding of the mechanisms by which C5a affects ALI during highly pathogenic viral infection. In particular, we discuss the potential of the blockade of C5a signaling to treat ALI induced by highly pathogenic viruses.

  10. Higher urine desmosine levels are associated with mortality in patients with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Dana E.; Starcher, Barry; Eisner, Mark D.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Hayden, Doug L.; Church, Gwynne D.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Desmosine is a stable breakdown product of elastin that can be reliably measured in urine samples. We tested the hypothesis that higher baseline urine desmosine would be associated with higher mortality in 579 of 861 patients included in the recent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (1). We also correlated urine desmosine levels with indexes of disease severity. Finally, we assessed whether urine desmosine was lower in patients who received lower tidal volumes. Desmosine was measured by radioimmunoassay in urine samples from days 0, 1, and 3 of the study. The data were expressed as a ratio of urine desmosine to urine creatinine to control for renal dilution. The results show that higher baseline (day 0) urine desmosine-to-creatinine concentration was associated with a higher risk of death on adjusted analysis (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.82, P = 0.03). Urine desmosine increased in both ventilator groups from day 0 to day 3, but the average rise was higher in the 12-ml/kg predicted body weight group compared with the 6-ml/kg predicted body weight group (P = 0.053, repeated-measures model). In conclusion, patients with acute lung injury ventilated with lower tidal volumes have lower urine desmosine levels, a finding that may reflect reduced extracellular matrix breakdown. These results illustrate the value of evaluating urinary biological markers that may have prognostic and pathogenetic significance in acute lung injury. PMID:16698854

  11. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury in Children with Hematological Malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel S. Bercovitz; J. Bradley Ball; Marguerite R. Kelher; Christopher C. Silliman

    \\u000a Although uncommon, acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are serious\\u000a life-threatening complications that may occur during the routine treatment of children with hematological malignancies. ALI\\u000a may be the results of both the treatment of the malignancy or an adverse event related to supportive care, especially transfusion.\\u000a Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)

  12. Successful EGFR-TKI rechallenge of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis after gefitinib-induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Shinji; Kubota, Kaoru; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Kanda, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Tamura, Tomohide

    2013-04-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old non-smoking Japanese woman with backache and difficulty in walking. She was diagnosed as having advanced lung adenocarcinoma, and an epithelial growth factor receptor mutation (in-frame deletions in exon 19) was found. After radiation therapy of bone metastases with spinal cord compression and brain metastases, gefitinib was administered. On day 2, she developed acute interstitial lung disease. Gefitinib therapy was discontinued and treatment with high-dose steroid therapy improved the interstitial lung disease. Cisplatin plus pemetrexed was initiated as second-line chemotherapy, but she was hospitalized again for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Considering the poor prognosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, we decided that erlotinib was our only choice of treatment. As a third-line treatment, erlotinib was administered after informing the patient about the high risk of interstitial lung disease. Neurological symptoms were improved within a week and interstitial lung disease did not recur. The patient has received erlotinib successfully for 18 months without the recurrence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. Erlotinib rechallenge after gefitinib-induced interstitial lung disease must be carefully chosen based on the balance of a patient's risk and benefit. PMID:23410901

  13. Acute otitis media disease management.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, M E; Casey, J R

    2003-10-01

    A first step in management decisions regarding otitis media must focus on accurate diagnosis to distinguish normal from acute otitis media (AOM) from otitis media with effusion (OME) or a retracted tympanic membrane without middle ear effusion. There are several classification schemes for AOM that may impact management decisions: patients with acute, persistent, recurrent, or chronic AOM may have a different distribution of bacterial pathogens and a different likelihood of success from antimicrobial therapy. Patient age, prior treatment history and daycare attendance are other important variables. The natural history of AOM without antibiotic treatment is generally favorable; however, from the few studies available, this is difficult to quantitate because the diagnosis was infrequently confirmed by tympanocentesis leaving the possibility that many patients entered into these trials may not have had bacterial AOM. Antibiotic choices should reflect pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data and clinical trial results demonstrating effectiveness in eradication of the most likely pathogens based on tympanocentesis sampling and antibiotic sensitivity testing. Thereafter, compliance factors such as formulation, dosing schedule and duration of treatment and accessibility factors such as availability and cost should be taken into account. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among AOM pathogens and the changing susceptibility profiles of these bacteria should be considered in antibiotic selection. Current best practice recommends amoxicillin for uncomplicated AOM; continuing or switching to an alternative antibiotic based on clinical response after 48 hours of therapy; and selection of second line antibiotics as first line choices when the patient has already been on an antibiotic within the previous month or is otitis prone. Preferred second-line agents frequently noted in various guidelines include amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, and cefuroxime. Three injections of ceftriaxone or gatifloxacin (when approved) or diagnostic/therapeutic tympanocentisis (when approved) become a third-line treatment option. No single antibiotic or management strategy is ideal for all patients. PMID:14608265

  14. Videothoracoscopic lung biopsy in diffuse infiltrative lung diseases: a 5-year surgical experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachid Zegdi; Jacques Azorin; Bruno Tremblay; Marie Dominique Destable; Paul S Lajos; Dominique Valeyre

    1998-01-01

    Background. To establish an accurate diagnosis of diffuse infiltrative lung disease, a surgical lung biopsy may be required. We report our experience with videothoracoscopic lung biopsy over a period of 5 years.Methods. From March 1992 through December 1996, videothoracoscopic lung biopsy was performed in 64 patients (17 were women [26.5%]; age, 50.5 ± 13 years) with a diagnosis of diffuse

  15. Acute effects of volcanic ash from Mount Saint Helens on lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Buist, A S; Johnson, L R; Vollmer, W M; Sexton, G J; Kanarek, P H

    1983-06-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens on the lung function of children, we studied 101 children 8 to 13 yr of age who were attending a 2-wk summer camp for children with diabetes mellitus in an area where about 1.2 cm of ash had fallen after the June 12, 1980, eruption. The outcome variables used were forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, their ratio and mean transit time. Total and respirable dust levels were measured using personal sampling pumps. The children were tested on arrival and twice (early morning [A.M.] and late afternoon [P.M.]) every second or third day during the session. A within-day effect was measured by the P.M./A.M. ratio for the lung function variables; a between-day effect was measured by the change in the P.M. measurements over the 2 wk of camp. We found no strong evidence of either a within-day or a between-day effect on lung function, even in a subgroup of children who had preexisting lung disease or symptoms, despite daytime dust/ash levels that usually exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's significant harm level for particulate matter. PMID:6859654

  16. Endothelial Semaphorin 7A Promotes Inflammation in Seawater Aspiration-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minlong; Wang, Li; Dong, Mingqing; Li, Zhichao; Jin, Faguang

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Although several studies have shown that Semaphorin 7A (SEMA7A) promotes inflammation, there are limited reports regarding immunological function of SEMA7A in seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Therefore, we investigated the role of SEMA7A during seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were underwent seawater instillation. Then, lung samples were collected at an indicated time for analysis. In addition, rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVECs) were cultured and then stimulated with 25% seawater for indicated time point. After these treatments, cells samples were collected for analysis. In vivo, seawater instillation induced lung histopathologic changes, pro-inflammation cytokines release and increased expression of SEMA7A. In vitro, seawater stimulation led to pro-inflammation cytokine release, cytoskeleton remodeling and increased monolayer permeability in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? inhibited the seawater induced increase expression of SEMA7A. Meanwhile, knockdown of SEMA7A by specific siRNA inhibited the seawater induced aberrant inflammation, endothelial cytoskeleton remodeling and endothelial permeability. These results suggest that SEMA7A is critical in the development of lung inflammation and pulmonary edema in seawater aspiration-induced ALI, and may be a therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:25353180

  17. Overview of the Pathology of Three Widely Used Animal Models of Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Wang; M. Bodenstein; K. Markstaller

    2008-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are syndromes of acute diffuse damage to the pulmonary parenchyma by a variety of local or systemic insults. Increased alveolar capillary membrane permeability was recognized as the common end organ injury and a central feature in all forms of ALI\\/ARDS. Although great strides have been made in understanding the pathogenesis

  18. Elevation of rat plasma P-selectin in acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayumi Hirose; Toshiyuki Murai; Hiroto Kawashima

    2007-01-01

    Acute lung injury in the rat caused by intravenous (i.v.) infusion of cobra venom factor (CVF) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is mediated by P-selectin-dependent neutrophil infiltration into the lung. In these lung injury models, P-selectin expression is induced on lung vascular endothelial cells after the CVF or LPS infusion, suggesting soluble P-selectin derived from inflamed sites might also be elevated. Here

  19. Acute Lung Injury and Fibrosis in a Baboon Model of Escherichia coli Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Keshari, Ravi S.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Zhu, Hua; Popescu, Narcis I.; Peer, Glenn; Chaaban, Hala; Lambris, John D.; Polf, Holly; Lupu, Cristina; Kinasewitz, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis-induced inflammation of the lung leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which may trigger persistent fibrosis. The pathology of ARDS is complex and poorly understood, and the therapeutic approaches are limited. We used a baboon model of Escherichia coli sepsis that mimics the complexity of human disease to study the pathophysiology of ARDS. We performed extensive biochemical, histological, and functional analyses to characterize the disease progression and the long-term effects of sepsis on the lung structure and function. Similar to humans, sepsis-induced ARDS in baboons displays an early inflammatory exudative phase, with extensive necrosis. This is followed by a regenerative phase dominated by proliferation of type 2 epithelial cells, expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers, myofibroblast migration and proliferation, and collagen synthesis. Baboons that survived sepsis showed persistent inflammation and collagen deposition 6–27 months after the acute episodes. Long-term survivors had almost double the amount of collagen in the lung as compared with age-matched control animals. Immunostaining for procollagens showed persistent active collagen synthesis within the fibroblastic foci and interalveolar septa. Fibroblasts expressed markers of transforming growth factor-? and platelet-derived growth factor signaling, suggesting their potential role as mediators of myofibroblast migration and proliferation, and collagen deposition. In parallel, up-regulation of the inhibitors of extracellular proteases supports a deregulated matrix remodeling that may contribute to fibrosis. The primate model of sepsis-induced ARDS mimics the disease progression in humans, including chronic inflammation and long-lasting fibrosis. This model helps our understanding of the pathophysiology of fibrosis and the testing of new therapies. PMID:24066737

  20. Upregulation of PIAS1 protects against sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis associated with acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Chen; Liya Huang; Yunwei Sun; Yaozong Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The regulator of cytokine signaling known as protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (PIAS1) is increasingly understood to have diverse regulatory functions for inflammation, but its effect in inflammatory conditions such as severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has not previously been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upregulation of PIAS1 on SAP associated with acute lung

  1. Inhaled nitric oxide aggravates phosgene model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Li; Hai, Chun-Xu; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    The principal acute mode of action of inhaled phosgene gas is related to an increase alveolar fluid exudation under pathologic conditions. This paper considers some aspects in modeling phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in an acute rat bioassay and whether edema formation can be modulated by inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Protein analysis in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is amongst the most sensitive method to quantify the phosgene-induced non-cardiogenic, pulmonary high-permeability edema following acute inhalation exposure. Maximum concentrations in BAL-protein occur within one day postexposure, typically within a latency period up to about 15 h as a consequence of an increasingly exhausted lymphatic drainage. An almost similar sensitivity was given by the functional endpoint 'enhanced pause (Penh)' when measured by non-invasive whole-body barometric plethysmography over a time period of 20 h. The magnitude of edema formation follows a concentration x time (C¹xt) relationship, although animal model-specific deviations may occur at very short exposure durations (1-20 min) due to a rodent-specific, reflexively induced transient decreased ventilation. This has to be accounted for when simulating accidental exposure scenarios to study the mechanisms involved in pharmacological modulation of fluid transport in this type of ALI. Therefore, a special focus has to be given to the dosimetry of inhaled phosgene, otherwise any change in effect magnitude, as a result of under-dosing of phosgene, may be misconceived as promising therapy. This study demonstrates that accidental exposures can be modeled best in rats by exposure durations of at least 20-30?min. Lung function measurements (Penh) show that pathophysiological effects appear to occur concomitant with the exposure to phosgene; however, its full clinical manifestation requires a gross imbalance of pulmonary fluid clearance. When applying this concept, post-phosgene exposure iNO at 1.5?ppm?×?6?h or 15 pm?×?20 h led to an aggravation of edema formation while L-NAME, a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, led to attenuation. Ethyl pyruvate, given either prophylactically or therapeutically, was ineffective. PMID:22035124

  2. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Wessolossky, Mireya; Welch, Verna L; Sen, Ajanta; Babu, Tara M; Luke, David R

    2013-01-01

    Background Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients. Methods The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis. Results Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61%) and asthma (18%), and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27%) and bone marrow transplants (14%). A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03). The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14); 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75). Conclusion Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the more traditional immunocompromised population. PMID:23761976

  3. Upregulation of PIAS1 protects against sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis associated with acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Huang, Liya; Sun, Yunwei; Yuan, Yaozong

    2011-06-01

    The regulator of cytokine signaling known as protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (PIAS1) is increasingly understood to have diverse regulatory functions for inflammation, but its effect in inflammatory conditions such as severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has not previously been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upregulation of PIAS1 on SAP associated with acute lung injury (ALI), and its subsequent effect on disease severity. Sprague-Dawley rats were given an IV injection of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)/F35-PIAS1, Ad5/F35-vector or saline before induction of SAP. The control group received only a sham operation. Lung and pancreas samples were harvested 16h after induction. The protein levels of PIAS1 in tissue were investigated. The severity of pancreatic injury was determined by a histological score of pancreatic injury, serum amylase, and pancreatic water content. The lung injury was evaluated by measurement of pulmonary microvascular permeability, lung myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde levels. The survival rates of rats were also analyzed. The results found that in Ad5/F35-PIAS1 treated rats, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels were decreased but showed no influence on the levels of IL-10, and the severity of pancreatic tissue injury was less compared with either untreated SAP or Ad5/F35-vector treated rats (P<0.01). The administration of Ad5/F35-PIAS1 in SAP-induced rats downregulated the activity of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) pathway and the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 protein in lung. Thus, compared with the untreated SAP rats, the inflammatory response and the severity of ALI decreased, and the survival rates increased (P<0.01). These findings suggest that PIAS1 could augment anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting STAT1, thus attenuating the severity of SAP associated with ALI. PMID:21419645

  4. Current view of epidemiologic study designs for occupational and environmental lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Tager, I B

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies long have played a role in the understanding of the effects of the general environment and various occupational exposures on the occurrence of acute and chronic diseases of the lung. This article is an overview of epidemiologic study designs that have particular relevance to studies of environmental and occupational lung disease. The application of times-series designs in the context of epidemiologic studies is discussed, as such designs have become widely used in studies of health effects ambient air pollution. The article emphasizes recent developments in the application of case-control study designs, many of which have had particular applications in epidemiologic studies related to environmental and occupational lung disease. These case-control designs offer efficient and valid alternatives for studies that in the past might have been conducted as more costly and time-consuming cohort studies. PMID:10931780

  5. Lung Disease Caused by Mycobacterium malmoense in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Min Kyung; Yoon, Jung A; Kim, Junhwan; Yi, Sangyoung; Sung, Heungsup; Shim, Tae Sun

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium malmoense is a very rare cause of lung disease in South Korea. We reported the first case of lung disease caused by M. malmoense in an immunocompetent patient. The patient was successfully treated with a 14-month course of antibiotics. PMID:26175789

  6. Blue journal conference. Aging and susceptibility to lung disease.

    PubMed

    Thannickal, Victor J; Murthy, Mahadev; Balch, William E; Chandel, Navdeep S; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Selman, Moisés; Pardo, Annie; White, Eric S; Levy, Bruce D; Busse, Paula J; Tuder, Rubin M; Antony, Veena B; Sznajder, Jacob I; Budinger, G R Scott

    2015-02-01

    The aging of the population in the United States and throughout the developed world has increased morbidity and mortality attributable to lung disease, while the morbidity and mortality from other prevalent diseases has declined or remained stable. Recognizing the importance of aging in the development of lung disease, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) highlighted this topic as a core theme for the 2014 annual meeting. The relationship between aging and lung disease was discussed in several oral symposiums and poster sessions at the annual ATS meeting. In this article, we used the input gathered at the conference to develop a broad framework and perspective to stimulate basic, clinical, and translational research to understand how the aging process contributes to the onset and/or progression of lung diseases. A consistent theme that emerged from the conference was the need to apply novel, systems-based approaches to integrate a growing body of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data and elucidate the relationship between biologic hallmarks of aging, altered lung function, and increased susceptibility to lung diseases in the older population. The challenge remains to causally link the molecular and cellular changes of aging with age-related changes in lung physiology and disease susceptibility. The purpose of this review is to stimulate further research to identify new strategies to prevent or treat age-related lung disease. PMID:25590812

  7. Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography imaging of diseased rat lung using Gaussian shaped super continuum sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, N.; Ishida, S.; Kitatsuji, M.; Ohshima, H.; Hasegawa, Y.; Matsushima, M.; Kawabe, T.

    2012-02-01

    We have been investigating ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) imaging of lung tissues using fiber super continuum sources. The high power, low-noise, Gaussian shaped supercontinuum generated with ultrashort pulses and optical fibers at several wavelengths were used as the broadband light sources for UHR-OCT. For the 800 nm wavelength region, the axial resolution was 3.0 um in air and 2.0 um in tissue. Since the lung consists of tiny alveoli which are separated by thin wall, the UHR-OCT is supposed to be effective for lung imaging. The clear images of alveoli of rat were observed with and without index matching effects by saline. In this work, we investigated the UHR-OCT imaging of lung disease model. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury / acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) model of rat was prepared as the sample with disease and the UHR-OCT imaging of the disease part was demonstrated. The increment of signal intensity by pleural thickening was observed. The accumulation of exudative fluid in alveoli was also observed for two samples. By the comparison with normal lung images, we can obviously show the difference in the ALI/ARDS models. Since the lung consists of alveolar surrounded by capillary vessels, the effect of red-blood cells (RBC) is considered to be important. In this work, ex-vivo UHR-OCT imaging of RBC was demonstrated. Each RBC was able to be observed individually using UHR-OCT. The effect of RBC was estimated with the rat lung perfused with PBS.

  8. Gene Expression Profiling in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I-Ming Wang; Sergey Stepaniants; Yves Boie; James R. Mortimer; Brian Kennedy; Mark Elliott; Shizu Hayashi; Leanna Loy; Silvija Coulter; Sandra Cervino; Jennifer Harris; Michele Thornton; Richard Raubertas; Chris Roberts; Jim C. Hogg; Michael Crackower; Gary O'Neill; Peter D. Pare

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is a common and disabling lung disease for which there are few therapeutic options. Objectives: We reasoned that gene expression profiling of COPD lungs could reveal previously unidentified disease pathways. Methods: Forty-eight human lung samples were obtained from tis- sue resected from five nonsmokers, 21 GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stage

  9. Simkania negevensis and acute cellular rejection in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Alainna J; Resende, Mariangela R; Prochnow, Taisa; McGilvray, Ian; Pilewski, Joseph M; Crespo, Maria M; Singer, Lianne G; McCurry, Kenneth R; Kolls, Jay K; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liles, W Conrad; Husain, Shahid

    2015-08-01

    Simkania negevensis infection has been hypothesized to play a role in lung transplant rejection. The incidence of S. negevensis infection and its association with acute cellular rejection (ACR) were determined in a prospective cohort study of 78 lung transplant recipients (LTRs) in Toronto, Canada, and Pittsburgh, USA, from July 2007 to January 2010. Simkania negevensis testing was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The relationship between S. negevensis and ACR was examined using Cox proportional hazards models and generalized linear and latent mixed models. Cumulative incidence estimates for time-to-ACR in S. negevensis PCR-positive vs. PCR-negative LTRs were 52.7% vs. 31.1% at six months and 68.9% vs. 44.6% at one yr, respectively. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward a higher risk of ACR among S. negevensis PCR-positive vs. PCR-negative LTRs in all statistical models. PMID:26009941

  10. PTX3 as a potential biomarker of acute lung injury: supporting evidence from animal experimentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolin He; Bing Han; Xiaohui Bai; Yu Zhang; Marcelo Cypel; Marco Mura; Shaf Keshavjee; Mingyao Liu

    2010-01-01

    Objective  Increased expression of long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has been found in patients with sepsis or acute respiratory distress syndrome.\\u000a Tissue factor (TF) activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. The present study sought to\\u000a determine the relationship between PTX3 expression and TF activation in acute lung injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of

  11. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  12. Making genomics functional: deciphering the genetics of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Ryan; Sun, Xiaoguang; Garcia, Joe G N

    2008-04-15

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common and frequently devastating illness characterized by acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, profound inflammation, and flooding of the alveoli. Despite recent advances in ALI care, the morbidity and mortality of ALI continues to be unacceptably high. ALI-inciting events (e.g., sepsis, trauma, aspiration, pneumonia) are quite common, yet only a fraction of patients develop the syndrome. This heterogeneity of patients presenting with ALI has sparked interest in identifying the role of genetic factors that contribute to ALI susceptibility and prognosis. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and expression technologies now provide the tools to perform large-scale genomic analyses in complex disorders such as ALI; gene expression profiling and pathway analysis provide further insight into previously described molecular pathways involved in the syndrome. In this article, we describe the use of genomewide association studies, ortholog in silico techniques, utility of consomic rat methods, and candidate gene approaches using expression profiling and pathway analyses. These methods have confirmed suspected ALI candidate genes (e.g., IL-6 and MIF), but more impressively have identified novel genes (e.g., GADD45alpha and PBEF) not previously suspected in ALI. The analysis of the molecular pathways (e.g., the cytoskeleton in vascular barrier regulation) has identified additional genes contributing to the development and severity of ALI (e.g., MLCK), thereby providing therapeutic targets in this devastating illness. PMID:18403332

  13. Clinical approach to interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Scholand, Mary Beth

    2002-08-01

    The term interstitial lung disease (ILD) encompasses a large variety of entities. The clinical diagnosis is often difficult and is a multidisciplinary process. Achieving the correct diagnosis often involves 3 elements: a clinical impression, radiologic evaluation, and a pathologic opinion. All 3 components play a critical role. Frequently, the goal is differentiating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) from more treatable entities. This article provides an overview of the input provided by the 3 specialties cited earlier, as well as the interrelationship among these specialties in the diagnosis of ILD. Additional consideration is given to the decision-making process involved in determining when to obtain a biopsy specimen from a patient with ILD, and a review of current treatment strategies. PMID:12465684

  14. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 is protective in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lin; Bi, Jing; Zhu, Xiaodan; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Jie; Rong, Linyi; Wang, Qin; Xu, Nuo; Zhong, Ming; Zhu, Duming; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2014-09-15

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) plays a key role in lung development, but its role in acute lung injury has not been well characterized. Lipopolysaccharide instillation caused acute lung injury, which significantly elevated lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, protein and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibited surfactant protein A and C expression in lung tissue, and increased pathological injury. Pretreatment with KGF-2 improved the above lung injury parameters, partially restored surfactant protein A and C expression, and KGF-2 given 2-3 days before LPS challenge showed maximum lung injury improvement. Pretreatment with KGF-2 also markedly reduced the levels of TNF-?, MIP-2, IL-1? and IL-6 in BALF and the levels of IL-1? and IL-6 in lung tissue. Histological analysis showed there was increased proliferation of alveolar type II epithelial cells in lung parenchyma, which reached maximal 2 days after KGF-2 instillation. Intratracheal administration of KGF-2 attenuates lung injury induced by LPS, suggesting KGF-2 may be potent in the intervention of acute lung injury. PMID:24973472

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated obstructive lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Gingo, Matthew R; Morris, Alison; Crothers, Kristina

    2013-06-01

    In the era of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), epidemiologic studies have found that persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than HIV-uninfected persons. In comparison with HIV-uninfected persons and those with well-controlled HIV disease, HIV-infected persons with poor viral control or lower CD4 cell count have more airflow obstruction, a greater decline in lung function, and possibly more severe diffusing impairment. This article reviews the evidence linking HIV infection to obstructive lung disease, and discusses management issues related to the treatment of obstructive lung disease in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23702176

  16. Effect of camptocormia on lung volumes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Paolo; Colosimo, Carlo; Ferrazza, Alessandro Maria; Di Stasio, Flavio; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Palange, Paolo; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2013-06-15

    Camptocormia is defined as an abnormal flexion of the thoracolumbar spine of 45°, or more, that typically increases during walking or standing and completely disappears in the supine position. Camptocormia may occur in patients with Parkinson's disease; when it does, it is usually associated with greater disease severity. Respiratory complications, which may be secondary to abnormal chest function, are one of the most frequent causes of death in patients with Parkinson's disease. No data on lung volumes are available for Parkinson's disease patients with camptocormia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of camptocormia on lung function. Eleven patients with Parkinson's disease and camptocormia and ten age-matched healthy subjects underwent lung spirometry (in the standing position, inclining the trunk forward at approx. 45° and supine) measurement of arterial oxygen-hemoglobin saturation and heart rate. We found that Parkinson's disease with camptocormia is not associated with major clinical changes in lung volumes. PMID:23570958

  17. Sirtinol inhibits neutrophil elastase activity and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-mediated acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yung-Fong; Yu, Huang-Ping; Chang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Fu-Chao; Huang, Zhen-Cheng; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced activity of neutrophil elastase leads to a protease-antiprotease imbalance, and plays an essential pathogenic role in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We assayed the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of the action of sirtinol in human neutrophils, and in neutrophil elastase (HNE)-induced paw edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated ALI in mice. Sirtinol significantly inhibited the activity of HNE from human neutrophils in response to various stimulators. The inhibitory effects on HNE activity were not mediated through protein kinase A, calcium, extracellular-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, or Src family kinases. Analysis of enzymatic activities showed that sirtinol inhibited HNE activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that sirtinol does not affect neutrophil function and is an HNE inhibitor. In addition, administration of sirtinol significantly inhibited HNE-induced paw edema, and attenuated the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced pulmonary wet/dry weight ratio in the LPS-induced ALI mouse model. Our study indicates that sirtinol has anti-inflammatory effects through direct inhibition of HNE activity and attenuates HNE-induced and LPS-mediated tissue or organ injury in vivo. Sirtinol is a novel HNE inhibitor and may have the potential for clinical application in the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:25666548

  18. Wnt signalling in lung development and diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judit E Pongracz; Robert A Stockley

    2006-01-01

    There are several signalling pathways involved in lung organogenesis including Notch, TGF? \\/BMP, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), FGF, EGF, and Wnt. Despite the widely acknowledged significance of Wnt signalling in embryonic lung development, the role of different Wnt pathways in lung pathologies has been slow to emerge. In this review, we will present a synopsis of current Wnt research with particular

  19. Oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Simon E; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2014-01-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important events in the history of this debilitating lung condition. Associated health care utilization and morbidity are high, and many patients require supplemental oxygen or ventilatory support. The last 2 decades have seen a substantial increase in our understanding of the best way to manage the respiratory failure suffered by many patients during this high-risk period. This review article examines the evidence underlying supplemental oxygen therapy during exacerbations of COPD. We first discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of respiratory failure in COPD during exacerbations. The rationale and evidence underlying oxygen therapy, including the risks when administered inappropriately, are then discussed, along with further strategies for ventilatory support. We also review current recommendations for best practice, including methods for improving oxygen provision in the future. PMID:25404854

  20. Validation of an electronic surveillance system for acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Herasevich, Vitaly; Yilmaz, Murat; Khan, Hasrat; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Gajic, Ognjen

    2009-01-01

    Objective Early detection of acute lung injury (ALI) is essential for timely implementation of evidence-based therapies and enrollment into clinical trials. We aimed to determine the accuracy of computerized syndrome surveillance for detection of ALI in hospitalized patients and compare it with routine clinical assessment. Design Using a near-real time copy of the electronic medical records we developed and validated a custom ALI electronic alert (ALI “sniffer”) based on the European-American Consensus Conference Definition and compared its performance against provider derived documentation. Patients and setting Consecutive 3795 critically ill patients admitted to 9 multidisciplinary intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care teaching institution. Measurements and main results ALI developed in 325 patients and was recognized by bedside clinicians in only 86 (26.5%). Under-recognition of ALI was associated with not implementing protective mechanical ventilation (median tidal volumes of 9.2 vs 8.0 mL/kg predicted body weight, p<0.001). ALI “sniffer” demonstrated excellent sensitivity, 96% (95% CI 94 to 98) and moderate specificity, 89% (95% CI 88 to 90) with a positive predictive value ranging from 24% (95% CI 13 to 40) in the heart-lung transplant ICU to 64% (95% CI 55 to 71) in the medical ICU. Conclusions Computerized surveillance system accurately identifies critically ill patients who develop ALI syndrome. Since the lack of ALI recognition is a barrier to the timely implementation of best practices and enrollment into research studies, computerized syndrome surveillance could be a useful tool to enhance patient safety and clinical research. PMID:19280175

  1. Clinical potentials of human pluripotent stem cells in lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lung possesses very limited regenerative capacity. Failure to maintain homeostasis of lung epithelial cell populations has been implicated in the development of many life-threatening pulmonary diseases leading to substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, and currently there is no known cure for these end-stage pulmonary diseases. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and somatic cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) possess unlimited self-renewal capacity and great potential to differentiate to various cell types of three embryonic germ layers (ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal). Therapeutic use of human ESC/iPSC-derived lung progenitor cells for regeneration of injured or diseased lungs will have an enormous clinical impact. This article provides an overview of recent advances in research on pluripotent stem cells in lung tissue regeneration and discusses technical challenges that must be overcome for their clinical applications in the future. PMID:24995122

  2. Increased elastin production in experimental granulomatous lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, T. J.; Crouch, E.; Roby, J. D.; Starcher, B.; Pierce, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    In the normal, healthy lung, elastin production is restricted to periods of development and growth. However, elastin expression in the adult lung has been observed in some forms of pulmonary injury, including pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we report that elastin production is significantly increased within precise interstitial compartments of the lung in an experimental model of granulomatous lung disease. An increase in the number and volume of elastic fibers within the alveolar walls was apparent on histological examination of Verhoeff-van Gieson-stained sections of silicotic rat lungs. Quantitation of mature elastin cross-links indicated that silicosis was accompanied by a 17-fold increase in lung elastin content when compared with values from saline-treated controls. In situ hybridization for tropoelastin mRNA revealed that elastin production was absent from granulomatous lesions yet was prominent at nonfibrotic alveolar septal tips, where a high density of elastic fibers is seen in the normal lung. Immunohistochemistry indicated tropoelastin was being expressed by alpha-smooth muscle actin-containing cells. Transforming growth factor-beta was immunolocalized to granulomatous regions of the silicotic lung but was absent from regions showing increased tropoelastin expression. These data indicate that the reinitiation of tropoelastin gene expression is associated with granulomatous lung disease, and this expression leads to the aberrant accumulation of mature elastin in the lung. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7573374

  3. Lung Transcriptomics during Protective Ventilatory Support in Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Lorenzo-Diaz, Fabian; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Corrales, Almudena; Valladares, Francisco; Klassert, Tilman E; Valladares, Basilio; Slevogt, Hortense; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Villar, Jesus; Flores, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe inflammatory process of the lung. The only proven life-saving support is mechanical ventilation (MV) using low tidal volumes (LVT) plus moderate to high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, it is currently unknown how they exert the protective effects. To identify the molecular mechanisms modulated by protective MV, this study reports transcriptomic analyses based on microarray and microRNA sequencing in lung tissues from a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis-induced ALI. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. At 24 hours post-CLP, septic animals were randomized to three ventilatory strategies: spontaneous breathing, LVT (6 ml/kg) plus 10 cmH2O PEEP and high tidal volume (HVT, 20 ml/kg) plus 2 cmH2O PEEP. Healthy, non-septic, non-ventilated animals served as controls. After 4 hours of ventilation, lung samples were obtained for histological examination and gene expression analysis using microarray and microRNA sequencing. Validations were assessed using parallel analyses on existing publicly available genome-wide association study findings and transcriptomic human data. The catalogue of deregulated processes differed among experimental groups. The 'response to microorganisms' was the most prominent biological process in septic, non-ventilated and in HVT animals. Unexpectedly, the 'neuron projection morphogenesis' process was one of the most significantly deregulated in LVT. Further support for the key role of the latter process was obtained by microRNA studies, as four species targeting many of its genes (Mir-27a, Mir-103, Mir-17-5p and Mir-130a) were found deregulated. Additional analyses revealed 'VEGF signaling' as a central underlying response mechanism to all the septic groups (spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated). Based on this data, we conclude that a co-deregulation of 'VEGF signaling' along with 'neuron projection morphogenesis', which have been never anticipated in ALI pathogenesis, promotes lung-protective effects of LVT with high levels of PEEP. PMID:26147972

  4. Lung Transcriptomics during Protective Ventilatory Support in Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Lorenzo-Diaz, Fabian; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Corrales, Almudena; Valladares, Francisco; Klassert, Tilman E.; Valladares, Basilio; Slevogt, Hortense; Ma, Shwu-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe inflammatory process of the lung. The only proven life-saving support is mechanical ventilation (MV) using low tidal volumes (LVT) plus moderate to high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, it is currently unknown how they exert the protective effects. To identify the molecular mechanisms modulated by protective MV, this study reports transcriptomic analyses based on microarray and microRNA sequencing in lung tissues from a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis-induced ALI. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. At 24 hours post-CLP, septic animals were randomized to three ventilatory strategies: spontaneous breathing, LVT (6 ml/kg) plus 10 cmH2O PEEP and high tidal volume (HVT, 20 ml/kg) plus 2 cmH2O PEEP. Healthy, non-septic, non-ventilated animals served as controls. After 4 hours of ventilation, lung samples were obtained for histological examination and gene expression analysis using microarray and microRNA sequencing. Validations were assessed using parallel analyses on existing publicly available genome-wide association study findings and transcriptomic human data. The catalogue of deregulated processes differed among experimental groups. The ‘response to microorganisms’ was the most prominent biological process in septic, non-ventilated and in HVT animals. Unexpectedly, the ‘neuron projection morphogenesis’ process was one of the most significantly deregulated in LVT. Further support for the key role of the latter process was obtained by microRNA studies, as four species targeting many of its genes (Mir-27a, Mir-103, Mir-17-5p and Mir-130a) were found deregulated. Additional analyses revealed 'VEGF signaling' as a central underlying response mechanism to all the septic groups (spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated). Based on this data, we conclude that a co-deregulation of 'VEGF signaling' along with 'neuron projection morphogenesis', which have been never anticipated in ALI pathogenesis, promotes lung-protective effects of LVT with high levels of PEEP. PMID:26147972

  5. Effects of salbutamol on exhaled breath condensate biomarkers in acute lung injury: prospective analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oriol Roca; Susana Gómez-Ollés; Maria-Jesús Cruz; Xavier Muñoz; Mark J. D. Griffiths; Joan R. Masclans

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The benefits of ?-adrenergic stimulation have been described in acute lung injury (ALI), but there is still no evidence of its anti-inflammatory effect in these patients. Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were used to study the effects of salbutamol on lung inflammation in mechanically ventilated patients with ALI. METHODS: EBC was collected before and 30 minutes after administration

  6. Lung Perfusion Scans and Hemodynamics in Acute and Chronic Pulmonary Embolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myriam Wartski; Marie-Anne Collignon; Florence Parent

    To assess the relationship between pulmonary vascular obstruction and hemodynamic status in acute pulmonary embolism (APE)and in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH),perfu sion lung scan and hemodynamic measurements were obtained in 31 consecutive patients with APE and in 45 with CTEPH. Methods: Lung scans were scored independently by two experienced observ ers who determined the percentage of vascular obstruction (PVOs).

  7. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with oral erlotinib therapy for lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demosthenes Makris; Arnaud Scherpereel; Marie Christine Copin; Guillaume Colin; Luc Brun; Jean Jacques Lafitte; Charles Hugo Marquette

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Erlotinib is a Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Type 1\\/tyrosine kinase (EGFR) inhibitor which is used for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment. Despite that erlotinib is considered to have a favorable safety profile, adverse events such as interstitial lung disease (ILD) were reported in pivotal studies. The authors report the first histologically confirmed case of fatal ILD associated with erlotinib

  8. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Cancer: New Molecular Insights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Adcock; Gaetano Caramori; Peter J. Barnes

    2011-01-01

    Both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are major causes of death worldwide. In most cases this reflects cigarette smoke exposure which is able to induce an inflammatory response in the airways of smokers. Indeed, COPD is characterized by lower airway inflammation, and importantly, the presence of COPD is by far the greatest risk factor for lung cancer

  9. CXCR4 receptor overexpression in mesenchymal stem cells facilitates treatment of acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Xian; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Han-Wei; Gao, Peng; Yang, Qing-Ping; Wen, Qing-Ping

    2015-01-23

    Novel therapeutic regimens for tissue renewal incorporate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as they differentiate into a variety of cell types and are a stem cell type that is easy to harvest and to expand in vitro. However, surface chemokine receptors, such as CXCR4, which are involved in the mobilization of MSCs, are expressed only on the surface of a small proportion of MSCs, and the lack of CXCR4 expression may underlie the low efficiency of homing of MSCs toward tissue damage, which results in a poor curative effect. Here, a rat CXCR4 expressing lentiviral vector was constructed and introduced into MSCs freshly prepared from rat bone marrow. The influence of CXCR4 expression on migration, proliferation, differentiation, and paracrine effects of MSCs was examined in vitro. The in vivo properties of CXCR4-MSCs were also investigated in a model of acute lung injury in rats induced by lipopolysaccharide. Expression of CXCR4 in MSCs significantly enhanced the chemotactic and paracrine characteristics of the cells in vitro but did not affect self-renewal or differentiation into alveolar and vascular endothelial cells. In vivo, CXCR4 improved MSC homing and colonization of damaged lung tissue, and furthermore, the transplanted CXCR4-MSCs suppressed the development of acute lung injury in part by modulating levels of inflammatory molecules and the neutrophil count. These results indicated that efficient mobilization of MSCs to sites of tissue injury may be due to CXCR4, and therefore, increased expression of CXCR4 may improve their therapeutic potential in the treatment of diseases where tissue damage develops. PMID:25492872

  10. Diagnostic Pathology of Diffuse Lung Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The pathologic classification of diffuse lung disease in children and adolescents has undergone revision in recent years in response to rapid developments and new discoveries in the field. A number of important advancements have been made in the last 10 years including the description of new genetic mutations causing severe lung disease in infants and children, as well as the description of new pathologic entities in infants. These recently described entities, including ABCA3 surfactant disorders, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, are being recognized with increasing frequency. This review will include brief discussion of the etiology and pathogenesis of the major groups of diffuse lung disease in children. Histopathologic features are discussed for each of the major categories of diffuse lung disease in children, beginning with the genetic, developmental, and alveolar growth disorders common in infancy, followed by brief discussion of airway diseases, immunologic diseases, and pulmonary vascular diseases seen more commonly in older children. A protocol for handling pediatric wedge lung biopsies is also discussed, which optimizes the diagnostic yield of lung biopsies in this population. PMID:22332032

  11. Small airway remodeling in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a study in autopsy lung tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maina MB Morales; Ruy C Pires-Neto; Nicole Inforsato; Tatiana Lanças; Luiz FF da Silva; Paulo HN Saldiva; Thais Mauad; Carlos RR Carvalho; Marcelo BP Amato; Marisa Dolhnikoff

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Airway dysfunction in patients with the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is evidenced by expiratory flow limitation and dynamic hyperinflation. These functional alterations have been attributed to closure\\/obstruction of small airways. Airway morphological changes have been reported in experimental models of acute lung injury, characterized by epithelial necrosis and denudation in distal airways. To date, however, no study has

  12. Expression of neutral endopeptidase activity during clinical and experimental acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soshi Hashimoto; Fumimasa Amaya; Kentaro Oh-hashi; Kazutoshi Kiuchi; Satoru Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neutral endopeptidase (NEP), an enzyme that cleaves inflammatory bioactive peptides, may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, its low extracellular activity hinders the precise measurement of changes that take place during ALI\\/ARDS. The main objective of this study was to clarify the regulation of NEP activity

  13. Matrix metalloproteinases and protein tyrosine kinases: potential novel targets in acute lung injury and ARDS.

    PubMed

    Aschner, Yael; Zemans, Rachel L; Yamashita, Cory M; Downey, Gregory P

    2014-10-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and ARDS fall within a spectrum of pulmonary disease that is characterized by hypoxemia, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and dysregulated and excessive inflammation. While mortality rates have improved with the advent of specialized ICUs and lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies, few other therapies have proven effective in the management of ARDS, which remains a significant clinical problem. Further development of biomarkers of disease severity, response to therapy, and prognosis is urgently needed. Several novel pathways have been identified and studied with respect to the pathogenesis of ALI and ARDS that show promise in bridging some of these gaps. This review will focus on the roles of matrix metalloproteinases and protein tyrosine kinases in the pathobiology of ALI in humans, and in animal models and in vitro studies. These molecules can act independently, as well as coordinately, in a feed-forward manner via activation of tyrosine kinase-regulated pathways that are pivotal in the development of ARDS. Specific signaling events involving proteolytic processing by matrix metalloproteinases that contribute to ALI, including cytokine and chemokine activation and release, neutrophil recruitment, transmigration and activation, and disruption of the intact alveolar-capillary barrier, will be explored in the context of these novel molecular pathways. PMID:25287998

  14. Current definitions of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome do not reflect their true severity and outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesus Villar; L. Pérez-Méndez; R. M. Kacmarek

    1999-01-01

    Background: Despite intensive research, there are no universally accepted clinical definitions for acute lung injury (ALI) or the acute\\u000a respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A recent joint American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS formally defined the difference\\u000a between ALI and ARDS based on the degree of oxygenation impairment. However, this definition may not reflect the true prevalence,\\u000a severity and prognosis of these

  15. Dosimetric correlations of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Ken [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Sendai Medical Center, Sendai (Japan)]. E-mail: takedak41@yahoo.co.jp; Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Saito, Haruo [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Sendai Medical Center, Sendai (Japan); Ogawa, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Takai, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Yamada, Shogo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the factors associated with acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with thoracic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We examined 35 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 27, 77%) and small-cell lung cancer (n = 8, 23%) treated with thoracic radiotherapy between February 2003 and November 2004. The median patient age was 70 years (range, 50-83 years). The disease stage was Stage I in 2 patients (6%), Stage II in 1 (3%), Stage IIIa in 10 (28%), Stage IIIb in 9 (26%), and Stage IV in 9 (26%); 4 patients (11%) had recurrent disease after surgery. A median dose of 60 Gy (range, 50-67 Gy) was given to the isocenter and delivered in single daily fractions of 1.8 or 2 Gy. With heterogeneity corrections, the median given dose to the isocenter was 60.3 Gy (range, 49.9-67.2 Gy). Of the 35 patients, 30 (86%) received concurrent chemotherapy consisting of a platinum agent, cisplatin or carboplatin, combined with paclitaxel in 18 patients (52%), irinotecan hydrochloride in 7 (20%), vincristine sulfate and etoposide in 2 (5%), vinorelbine ditartrate in 1 (3%), etoposide in 1 (3%), and docetaxel in 1 patient (3%). Three of these patients underwent induction therapy with cisplatin and irinotecan hydrochloride, administered before thoracic radiotherapy, and concurrent chemotherapy. Esophageal toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The following factors were analyzed with respect to their association with Grade 1 or worse esophagitis by univariate and multivariate analyses: age, gender, concurrent chemotherapy, chemotherapeutic agents, maximal esophageal dose, mean esophageal dose, and percentage of esophageal volume receiving >10 to >65 Gy in 5-Gy increments. Results: Of the 35 patients, 25 (71%) developed acute esophagitis, with Grade 1 in 20 (57%) and Grade 2 in 5 (14%). None of the patients had Grade 3 or worse toxicity. The most significant correlation was between esophagitis and percentage of esophageal volume receiving >35 Gy on univariate (p = 0.002) and multivariate (p = 0.018) analyses. Conclusion: The percentage of esophageal volume receiving >35 Gy was the most statistically significant factor associated with mild acute esophagitis.

  16. Asbestos-related lung disease: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Norbet, Christopher; Joseph, Amanda; Rossi, Santiago S; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Gutierrez, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos exposure can lead to a variety of adverse effects in the thorax. Although currently in the western world, levels of exposure are kept in check by strict regulations, history of previous asbestos exposure continues to have an effect on many, owing to the latent nature of the pathophysiological response of the body to the inhaled fibers. The adverse effects of asbestos generally fall under 3 categories: pleural disease, lung parenchymal disease, and neoplastic disease. Effects on the pleura include pleural effusions, plaques, and diffuse pleural thickening. In the parenchyma, rounded atelectasis, fibrotic bands, and asbestosis are observed. Differentiating asbestosis from other forms of interstitial lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, usual interstitial pneumonia, smoking-related lung disease, and mixed interstitial lung diseases, is important because the prognosis, course of disease, and management of the patient should be tailored based on the specific etiology of the disease. In this review, imaging findings specific to asbestosis are discussed. Finally, exposure to asbestos can lead to neoplastic disease such as pleural mesothelioma, peritoneal mesothelioma, and bronchogenic carcinoma. The purpose of this article is to review the effects of asbestos exposure in the thorax, pathophysiology of these responses, and disease course. Particular emphasis is placed on the radiographic appearance of the disease, discussion of various imaging modalities and their utility, and the role of imaging in the management of patients with previous asbestos exposure and asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:25444537

  17. Quercetin protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats through suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Risheng; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute lung injury (ALI) is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by excess production of inflammatory factors in lung tissue. Quercetin, a herbal flavonoid, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. This study was performed to assess the effects of quercetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Material and methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group (saline alone), the LPS group challenged with LPS (Escherichia coli 026:B6; 100 µg/kg), and the quercetin group pretreated with quercetin (50 mg/kg, by gavage) 1 h before LPS challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples and lung tissues were collected 6 h after LPS administration. Histopathological and biochemical parameters were measured. Results The LPS treatment led to increased alveolar wall thickening and cellular infiltration in the lung, which was markedly prevented by quercetin pretreatment. Moreover, quercetin significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the increase in the BALF protein level and neutrophil count and lung wet/dry weight ratio and myeloperoxidase activity in LPS-challenged rats. The LPS exposure evoked a 4- to 5-fold rise in BALF levels of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, which was significantly (p < 0.05) counteracted by quercetin pretreatment. Additionally, quercetin significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed the malondialdehyde level and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the lung of LPS-treated rats. Conclusions Quercetin pretreatment effectively ameliorates LPS-induced ALI, largely through suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress, and may thus have therapeutic potential in the prevention of this disease. PMID:25995762

  18. CATIONIC SHELL CROSSLINKED NANOPARTICLES AS INTRACELLULAR DELIVERY VEHICLES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY 

    E-print Network

    Florez, Stephanie

    2011-08-08

    on the development of polymer nanomaterials known as shell crosslinked knedel-like (SCK) nanoparticles to serve as intracellular carriers of genetic material and specifically target injured cells in the lung for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). SCK...

  19. CATIONIC SHELL CROSSLINKED NANOPARTICLES AS INTRACELLULAR DELIVERY VEHICLES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY

    E-print Network

    Florez, Stephanie

    2011-08-08

    on the development of polymer nanomaterials known as shell crosslinked knedel-like (SCK) nanoparticles to serve as intracellular carriers of genetic material and specifically target injured cells in the lung for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). SCK...

  20. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of paralleled Aza resveratrol-chalcone compounds as potential anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Ge, Xiangting; Xu, Fengli; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Zhiguo; Pan, Jialing; Song, Jiao; Dai, Yuanrong; Zhou, Jianmin; Feng, Jianpeng; Liang, Guang

    2015-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure in critically-ill patients. It has been reported that both resveratrol and chalcone derivatives could ameliorate lung injury induced by inflammation. A series of paralleled Aza resveratrol-chalcone compounds (5a-5m, 6a-6i) were designed, synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. A majority showed potent inhibition on the IL-6 and TNF-? expression-stimulated by LPS in macrophages, of which compound 6b is the most potent analog by inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, 6b exhibited protection against LPS-induced acute lung injury in vivo. These results offer further insight into the use of Aza resveratrol-chalcone compounds for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, and the use of compound 6b as a lead compound for the development of anti-ALI agents. PMID:26048788

  1. [Acute infectious diseases in occupied Japan].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Sugita, Satoru; Moriyama, Takako; Marui, Eiji

    2007-06-01

    Japan's health statistics system, considered among the best in the world today, continually complies and organizes information about various infectious diseases. However, systematic surveillance was not conducted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare between World War II and the postwar period, creating a gap in health data. In contrast, the GHQ/SCAP/PHW. which was closely involved in health and medical reform during the Occupation, thoroughly investigated the health conditions of the Japanese people during this period. This article describes the trends in acute infectious diseases in Occupied Japan by using statistical records listed in the appendices of the "Weekly Bulletin", an official document of the GHQ/SCAP that is currently kept in the National Diet Library Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room. PMID:18175437

  2. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  3. Inflammation in cystic fibrosis lung disease: Pathogenesis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Cantin, André M; Hartl, Dominik; Konstan, Michael W; Chmiel, James F

    2015-07-01

    Lung disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Although CF lung disease is primarily an infectious disorder, the associated inflammation is both intense and ineffective at clearing pathogens. Persistent high-intensity inflammation leads to permanent structural damage of the CF airways and impaired lung function that eventually results in respiratory failure and death. Several defective inflammatory responses have been linked to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) deficiency including innate and acquired immunity dysregulation, cell membrane lipid abnormalities, various transcription factor signaling defects, as well as altered kinase and toll-like receptor responses. The inflammation of the CF lung is dominated by neutrophils that release oxidants and proteases, particularly elastase. Neutrophil elastase in the CF airway secretions precedes the appearance of bronchiectasis, and correlates with lung function deterioration and respiratory exacerbations. Anti-inflammatory therapies are therefore of particular interest for CF lung disease but must be carefully studied to avoid suppressing critical elements of the inflammatory response and thus worsening infection. This review examines the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease, summarizes the results of past clinical trials and explores promising new anti-inflammatory options. PMID:25814049

  4. Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hourigan, Christopher S.; Karp, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in the laboratory have lead to substantial improvements in clinical decision-making by the use of pre-treatment prognostic risk stratification factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Unfortunately similar progress has not been made in treatment response criteria, with the definition of “complete remission” in AML largely unchanged for over half a century. Several recent clinical trials have demonstrated that higher sensitivity measurements of residual disease burden during or after treatment can be performed, that results are predictive for clinical outcome and can be used to improve outcomes by guiding additional therapeutic intervention to patients in clinical complete remission but at increased relapse risk. We review here these recent trials, the characteristics and challenges of the modalities currently used to detect minimal residual disease (MRD), and outline opportunities to both refine detection and better clinically utilize MRD measurements. MRD measurement is already the standard of care in other myeloid malignancies such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It is our belief that response criteria for non-APL AML should be updated to include assessment for molecular complete remission (mCR) and that recommendations for post-consolidation surveillance should include regular monitoring for molecular relapse as a standard of care. PMID:23799371

  5. Alcohol Worsens Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting Alveolar Sodium Transport through the Adenosine A1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Urich, Daniela; Soberanes, Saul; Manghi, Tomas S.; Chiarella, Sergio E.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Mutlu, Gökhan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Alcohol intake increases the risk of acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is associated with poor outcomes in patients who develop these syndromes. No specific therapies are currently available to treat or decrease the risk of ARDS in patients with alcoholism. We have recently shown increased levels of lung adenosine inhibit alveolar fluid clearance, an important predictor of outcome in patients with ARDS. We hypothesized that alcohol might worsen lung injury by increasing lung adenosine levels, resulting in impaired active Na+ transport in the lung. Methods We treated wild-type mice with alcohol administered i.p. to achieve blood alcohol levels associated with moderate to severe intoxication and measured the rate of alveolar fluid clearance and Na,K-ATPase expression in peripheral lung tissue and assessed the effect of alcohol on survival during exposure to hyperoxia. We used primary rat alveolar type II cells to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol regulates alveolar Na+ transport. Results Exposure to alcohol reduced alveolar fluid clearance, downregulated Na,K-ATPase in the lung tissue and worsened hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Alcohol caused an increase in BAL fluid adenosine levels. A similar increase in lung adenosine levels was observed after exposure to hyperoxia. In primary rat alveolar type II cells alcohol and adenosine decreased the abundance of the Na,K-ATPase at the basolateral membrane via a mechanism that required activation of the AMPK. Conclusions Alcohol decreases alveolar fluid clearance and impairs survival from acute lung injury. Alcohol induced increases in lung adenosine levels may be responsible for reduction in alveolar fluid clearance and associated worsening of lung injury. PMID:22272351

  6. Use of risk reclassification with multiple biomarkers improves mortality prediction in acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Carolyn S.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Glidden, David V.; Eisner, Mark D.; Parsons, Polly E.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Matthay, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Multiple single biomarkers have been associated with poor outcomes in acute lung injury; however, no single biomarker has sufficient discriminating power to clearly indicate prognosis. Using both derivation and replication cohorts, we tested novel risk reclassification methods to determine whether measurement of multiple plasma biomarkers at the time of acute lung injury diagnosis would improve mortality prediction in acute lung injury. Design Analysis of plasma biomarker levels and prospectively collected clinical data from patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials of ventilator therapy for acute lung injury. Setting Intensive care units of university hospitals participating in the National Institutes of Health Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Patients Subjects enrolled in a trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (derivation cohort) and subjects enrolled in a trial of higher vs. lower positive end-expiratory pressure (replication cohort). Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results The plasma biomarkers were intercellular adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor, interleukin-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, and surfactant protein-D. In the derivation cohort (n = 547), adding data on these biomarkers to clinical predictors (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score) at the time of study enrollment improved the accuracy of risk prediction, as reflected by a net reclassification improvement of 22% (95% confidence interval 13% to 32%; p < .001). In the replication cohort (n = 500), the net reclassification improvement was 17% (95% confidence interval 7% to 26%; p < .001). A reduced set of three biomarkers (interleukin-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, and surfactant protein-D) had nearly equivalent prognostic value in both cohorts. Conclusions When combined with clinical data, plasma biomarkers measured at the onset of acute lung injury can improve the accuracy of risk prediction. Combining three or more biomarkers may be useful for selecting a high-risk acute lung injury population for enrollment in clinical trials of novel therapies. PMID:21283009

  7. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-producing lung cancer and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, Ryota; Manabe, Haruki; Ohta, Fumihito; Nakamura, Kensuke; Nakajima, Susumu; Yahagi, Naoki

    2015-04-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing lung cancers are known to cause extreme leukocytosis. However, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by G-CSF-producing lung cancer is extremely rare. We present a case of G-CSF-producing lung cancer with marked leukocytosis, which rapidly led to severe ARDS after the patient developed pneumonia. The present case suggests that extreme leukocytosis may easily lead to ARDS, triggered by infection. Thus, G-CSF-producing lung cancer with marked leukocytosis should be carefully monitored before surgery and during treatment. PMID:24460739

  8. Role of asymmetric dimethylarginine in rat acute lung injury induced by acute ischemic kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a rat model of acute ischemic kidney injury by continually occluding the bilateral renal artery and renal veins, as well as to examine the role of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by acute kidney injury (AKI). In total, 45 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control, AKI and AKI + SB203580 groups. The enzyme?linked immuno-sorbent assay method was used to assess the plasma levels of ADMA in each group. The activation of p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) was detected using western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence analyses of filamentous actin (F?actin) and globular actin (G?actin) were performed. The levels of plasma ADMA and the permeability index in the AKI group were significantly higher than those in the control and AKI + SB203580 groups. The expression of phosphorylated p38 (p?p38) and p?HSP27 was significantly higher in the AKI and AKI + SB203580 groups compared with the control group. The AKI group also demonstrated a higher expression of p?p38 and p?HSP27 than the AKI + SB203580 group. The expression of F?actin was more marked in the AKI group than in the control and AKI + SB203580 groups. The F?/G?actin ratio in the AKI group was also higher compared with that in the control and AKI + SB203580 groups. The results from the present study indicated that plasma ADMA levels may be a good biomarker for AKI?induced ALI. In addition, the p38 MAPK/HSP27 pathway is important in modulating the levels of ADMA. PMID:25892442

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  10. Heritability of Lung Disease Severity in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Vanscoy, Lori L.; Blackman, Scott M.; Collaco, Joseph M.; Bowers, Amanda; Lai, Teresa; Naughton, Kathleen; Algire, Marilyn; McWilliams, Rita; Beck, Suzanne; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Hamosh, Ada; Cutler, Dave; Cutting, Garry R.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Obstructive lung disease, the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF), is poorly correlated with mutations in the disease-causing gene, indicating that other factors determine severity of lung disease. Objectives: To quantify the contribution of modifier genes to variation in CF lung disease severity. Methods: Pulmonary function data from patients with CF living with their affected twin or sibling were converted into reference values based on both healthy and CF populations. The best measure of FEV1 within the last year was used for cross-sectional analysis. FEV1 measures collected over at least 4 years were used for longitudinal analysis. Genetic contribution to disease variation (i.e., heritability) was estimated in two ways: by comparing similarity of lung function in monozygous (MZ) twins (? 100% gene sharing) with that of dizygous (DZ) twins/siblings (? 50% gene sharing), and by comparing similarity of lung function measures for related siblings to similarity for all study subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Forty-seven MZ twin pairs, 10 DZ twin pairs, and 231 sibling pairs (of a total of 526 patients) with CF were studied. Correlations for all measures of lung function for MZ twins (0.82–0.91, p < 0.0001) were higher than for DZ twins and siblings (0.50–0.64, p < 0.001). Heritability estimates from both methods were consistent for each measure of lung function and ranged from 0.54 to 1.0. Heritability estimates generally increased after adjustment for differences in nutritional status (measured as body mass index z-score). Conclusions: Our heritability estimates indicate substantial genetic control of variation in CF lung disease severity, independent of CFTR genotype. PMID:17332481

  11. CD47 Deficiency Protects Mice from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Escherichia coli Pneumonia1

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiao; Johansen, Mette; Looney, Mark R.; Brown, Eric J.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    CD47 modulates neutrophil transmigration toward the sites of infection or injury. Mice lacking CD47 are susceptible to Escherichia coli (E. coli) peritonitis. However, less is known concerning the role of CD47 in the development of acute lung inflammation and injury. In this study, we show that mice lacking CD47 are protected from LPS-induced acute lung injury and E. coli pneumonia with a significant reduction in pulmonary edema, lung vascular permeability, and bacteremia. Reconstitution of CD47+/? mice with CD47?/? neutrophils significantly reduced lung edema and neutrophil infiltration, thus demonstrating that CD47+ neutrophils are required for the development of lung injury from E. coli pneumonia. Importantly, CD47-deficient mice with E. coli pneumonia had an improved survival rate. Taken together, deficiency of CD47 protects mice from LPS-induced acute lung injury and E. coli pneumonia. Targeting CD47 may be a novel pathway for treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:18453616

  12. Airbag lung: an unusual case of sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease after a rollover motor vehicle accident.

    PubMed

    Waring, Thomas P; Hegde, Poornima; Foley, Raymond J

    2014-05-01

    Sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease (SLGLD) is a condition associated with the formation of noncaseating, nonnecrotizing granulomas. The final by-product of airbag deployment is alkaline silicates or glass. Silicates trapped and sequestered in the lung parenchyma are a potential mediator for immune system activation and development of sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. PMID:24974560

  13. The Role of Open Lung Biopsy in the Management and Outcome of Patients With Diffuse Lung Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mordechai R Kramer; Neville Berkman; Bella Mintz; Simon Godfrey; Milton Saute; Gail Amir

    1998-01-01

    Background. Open lung biopsy (OLB) has long been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of parenchymal lung disease. With recent advances in computed tomographic imaging and diagnostic techniques (eg, bronchoscopy), we thought it necessary to reevaluate the role of OLB in the management of patients with interstitial lung disease.Methods. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 103 OLBs performed

  14. The Role of the Bacterial Microbiome in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P.; Erb-Downward, John R.; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    Novel culture-independent techniques have recently demonstrated that the lower respiratory tract, historically considered sterile in health, contains diverse communities of microbes: the lung microbiome. A growing literature has demonstrated that a distinct microbiota of the lower respiratory tract is present both in health and in various respiratory diseases, though the biological and clinical significance of these findings remains undetermined. In this article, we review and synthesize published reports of the lung microbiota of healthy and diseased subjects, discuss trends of microbial diversity and constitution across disease states, and look to the extra-pulmonary microbiome for hypotheses and future directions for study. PMID:23734647

  15. Acute Lung Injury Complicating Blood Transfusion in Post-Partum Hemorrhage: Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A.; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Background We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH). Methods We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (PLT). Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. According to the 2004 consensus definition, cases of new-onset hypoxemia, within 6 hours after transfusion, with bilateral pulmonary changes, in the absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema were identified as TRALI. If an alternative risk factor for acute lung injury was present, possible TRALI was diagnosed. Results Thirteen cases of TRALI and 1 case of possible TRALI were identified (overall incidence 19.7%). At univariate analysis, patients with TRALI received higher number of RBC, PLT and FFP units and had a longer postpartum hospitalization. Among the diseases occurring in pregnancy- and various pre-existing comorbidities, only gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, significantly increased the risk to develop TRALI (p = 0.006). At multivariate analysis including both transfusion- and patient-related risk factors, pregnancy-related, hypertensive disorders were confirmed to be the only predictors for TRALI, with an odds ratio of 27.7 ( 95% CI 1.27–604.3, p=0.034). Conclusions Patients suffering from PPH represent a high-risk population for TRALI. The patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, not receiving anti-hypertensive therapy, have the highest risk. Therefore, a careful monitoring of these patients after transfusions is recommended. PMID:25408855

  16. Physical Therapy for Children with Chronic Lung Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN STEPHEN TECKLIN

    Chronic lung disease is a major health problem among children. Estimates suggest that one child in six has a chronic respiratory condition. This article reviews three common chronic respiratory conditions occurring in childhood for which physical therapy is usually recommended. The cause, pathophysiology, and medical treatment are explained for asthma, respiratory complications of chronic neuromuscular disease, and cystic fibrosis. The

  17. WORK-RELATED LUNG DISEASES (WORLD) SURVEILLANCE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Work-Related Lung Disease (WoRLD) Surveillance Report is the fifth in a series of occupational respiratory disease surveillance reports (see page iv) produced by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). It presents summary tables and figures of occu...

  18. Association of Soluble HLA-G with Acute Rejection Episodes and Early Development of Bronchiolitis Obliterans in Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven R.; Floreth, Timothy; Liao, Chuanhong; Bhorade, Sangeeta M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung transplantation has evolved into a life-saving therapy for select patients with end-stage lung diseases. However, long-term survival remains limited because of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Soluble HLA-G, a mediator of adaptive immunity that modulates regulatory T cells and certain classes of effector T cells, may be a useful marker of survival free of BOS. We conducted a retrospective, single-center, pilot review of 38 lung transplant recipients who underwent collection of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 3, 6 and 12 months after transplantation, and compared soluble HLA-G concentrations in each to the presence of type A rejection and lymphocytic bronchiolitis in the first 12 months and to the presence of BOS at 24 months after transplantation. Lung soluble HLA-G concentrations were directly related to the presence of type A rejection but not to lymphocytic bronchiolitis. Our data demonstrate that soluble HLA-G concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage but not in serum correlates with the number of acute rejection episodes in the first 12 months after lung transplantation, and thus may be a reactive marker of rejection. PMID:25068264

  19. Mortality patterns from lung cancer and nonneoplastic respiratory disease among white males in the Beryllium Case Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Infante, P.F. (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC); Wagoner, J.K.; Sprince, N.L.

    1980-02-01

    Study was undertaken of mortality patterns among white males entered into the Beryllium Case Registry (BCR) while alive with a diagnosis of beryllium-related nonneoplastic respiratory symptoms or disease. Analyses demonstrate an excessive risk of lung cancer among those subjects in the BCR who had been previously diagnosed with acute chemical pneumonitis or bronchitis secondary to short-term beryllium exposure. In the evaluation of the excessive lung cancer risk in this population, consideration should be given to the competing effects from the high case fatality rate of nonneoplastic respiratory disease. This excessive risk of lung cancer could not be explained on the basis of cigarette smoking per se. The findings of the present study utilizing subjects in the BCR are consistent with results of animal studies that over 30 years ago first demonstrated beryllium to be a carcinogen and with numerous epidemiologic studies demonstrating an increased risk of lung cancer among workers occupationally exposed to beryllium and its compounds.

  20. Dual Oxidase 2 in Lung Epithelia Is Essential for Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Ryu, Jae-Chan; Kwon, Younghee; Lee, Suhee; Bae, Yun Soo; Yoon, Joo-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Acute lung injury (ALI) induced by excessive hyperoxia has been employed as a model of oxidative stress imitating acute respiratory distress syndrome. Under hyperoxic conditions, overloading quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in both lung epithelial and endothelial cells, leading to ALI. Some NADPH oxidase (NOX) family enzymes are responsible for hyperoxia-induced ROS generation in lung epithelial and endothelial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of ROS production in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and ALI induced by hyperoxia are poorly understood. Results: In this study, we show that dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) is a key NOX enzyme that affects hyperoxia-induced ROS production, particularly in type II AECs, leading to lung injury. In DUOX2 mutant mice (DUOX2thyd/thyd) or mice in which DUOX2 expression is knocked down in the lungs, hyperoxia-induced ALI was significantly lower than in wild-type (WT) mice. DUOX2 was mainly expressed in type II AECs, but not endothelial cells, and hyperoxia-induced ROS production was markedly reduced in primary type II AECs isolated from DUOX2thyd/thyd mice. Furthermore, DUOX2-generated ROS are responsible for caspase-mediated cell death, inducing ERK and JNK phophorylation in type II AECs. Innovation: To date, no role for DUOX2 has been defined in hyperoxia-mediated ALI despite it being a NOX homologue and major ROS source in lung epithelium. Conclusion: Here, we present the novel finding that DUOX2-generated ROS induce AEC death, leading to hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1803–1818. PMID:24766345

  1. Soluble Fas Ligand Induces Epithelial Cell Apoptosis in Humans with Acute Lung Injury (ARDS)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Matute-Bello; W. Conrad Liles; Kenneth P. Steinberg; Peter A. Kiener; Stephen Mongovin; Emil Y. Chi; Mechthild Jonas; Thomas R. Martin

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine whether the Fas-dependent apoptosis pathway is active in the lungs of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and whether this pathway can contribute to lung epithelial injury. We found that soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) is present in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients before and after the onset of ARDS.

  2. PARP inhibitor, olaparib ameliorates acute lung and kidney injury upon intratracheal administration of LPS in mice.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Kunal; Singla, Esha; Sahu, Bijayani; Naura, Amarjit S

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that PARP-1 inhibition provides protection against lung inflammation in the context of asthma and acute lung injury. Olaparib is a potent new generation PARP inhibitor that has been approved for human testing. The present work was designed to evaluate its beneficial potential against LPS-induced acute lung injury and acute kidney injury upon intratracheal administration of the endotoxin in mice. Administration of olaparib at different doses, 30 min after LPS treatment showed that single intraperitoneal injection of the drug at 5 mg/kg b.wt. reduced the total number of inflammatory cells particularly neutrophils in the lungs. This was associated with reduced pulmonary edema as the total protein content in the bronchoalveolar fluid was found to be decreased substantially. Olaparib provided strong protection against LPS-mediated secondary kidney injury as reflected by restoration of serum levels of urea, creatinine, and uric acid toward normal. The drug restored the LPS-mediated redox imbalance toward normal in lung and kidney tissues as assessed by measuring malondialdehyde and GSH levels. Finally, RT-PCR data revealed that olaparib downregulates the LPS-induced expression of NF-?B-dependent genes namely TNF-?, IL-1?, and VCAM-1 in the lungs without altering the expression of total p65NF-?B. Overall, the data suggest that olaparib has a strong potential to protect against LPS-induced lung injury and associated dysfunctioning of kidney in mice. Given the fact that olaparib is approved by FDA for human testing, our findings can pave the way for testing of the drug on humans inflicted with acute lung injury. PMID:25404465

  3. The immunomodulation of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury by hesperidin in vivo and in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Chou Yeh; Shang-Jyh Kao; Chih-Che Lin; Shulhn-Der Wang; Ching-Ju Liu; Shung-Te Kao

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the modulation of lung local immune responses of hesperidin (HES) on the acute lung inflammation induced by LPS in vivo. Mice were challenged with intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (100 ?g) 30 min before with treatment hesperidin (200 mg\\/kg oral administration) or vehicle. After 4 and 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained to measure proinflammatory (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6), anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-12) cytokines, chemokines

  4. Assessment of early acute lung injury in rodents exposed to phosgene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred M. Sciuto

    1998-01-01

    Phosgene is a highly reactive oxidant gas used in the chemical industry. Phosgene can cause life-threatening pulmonary edema\\u000a by reacting with peripheral lung compartment tissue components. Clinical evidence of edema is not usually apparent until well\\u000a after the initial exposure. This study was designed to investigate early signs of acute lung injury in rodents within 45–60?min\\u000a after the start of

  5. Metastatic Small Cell Carcinoma of Lung To Pancreas Mimicking As Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Lakshmi; Choudhary, Pradeep; Vashist, Neelu; Rai, Naresh N.

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of lung is a highly malignant tumour and is notorious for early and widespread metastasis at the time of presentation. However, metastasis to pancreas occurs uncommonly. Metastatic lesions comprise of 3% of all pancreatic malignancies. We hereby present a rare case report where patient presented with symptoms of acute pancreatitis & diagnosed with SCC of lung, retrospectively. This case emphasize that acute pancreatitis can be a manifestation of malignancy and fine needle aspiration cytology can play a diagnostic role in such cases.

  6. Divers' lung function: small airways disease?

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, E; Segadal, K; Kambestad, B; Gulsvik, A

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary function was measured in 152 professional saturation divers and in a matched control group of 106 subjects. Static lung volumes, dynamic lung volumes and flows, transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1CO), transfer volume per unit alveolar volume (KCO), delta-N2, and closing volume (CV) were measured and compared with reference values from recent Scandinavian studies, British submariners, and the European Community for Coal and Steel (ECCS) recommended reference values. Diving exposure was assessed as years of diving experience, total number of days in saturation and depth, and as the product of days in saturation and mean depth. Divers had significantly lower values for forced expired volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, FEF25-75%, FEF75-85%, FEF50%, FEF75%, T1CO, and KCO compared with the controls and a significantly higher CV. There was a positive correlation between diving exposure and CV, whereas the other variables had negative correlations with diving exposure. Values for the control group were not different from the predictive values of Scandinavian reference studies or British submariners, although the ECCS standard predicted significantly lower values for the lung function variables both in divers and the control group. The pattern of the differences in lung function variables between the divers and controls is consistent with small airways dysfunction and with the transient changes in lung function found immediately after a single saturation dive. The association between reduced pulmonary function and previous diving exposure further indicates the presence of cumulative long term effects of diving on pulmonary function. PMID:2393630

  7. An exposure-response threshold for lung diseases and lung cancer caused by crystalline silica.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2011-10-01

    Whether crystalline silica (CS) exposure increases risk of lung cancer in humans without silicosis, and, if so, whether the exposure-response relation has a threshold, have been much debated. Epidemiological evidence is ambiguous and conflicting. Experimental data show that high levels of CS cause lung cancer in rats, although not in other species, including mice, guinea pigs, or hamsters; but the relevance of such animal data to humans has been uncertain. This article applies recent insights into the toxicology of lung diseases caused by poorly soluble particles (PSPs), and by CS in particular, to model the exposure-response relation between CS and risk of lung pathologies such as chronic inflammation, silicosis, fibrosis, and lung cancer. An inflammatory mode of action is described, having substantial empirical support, in which exposure increases alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in the alveolar epithelium, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, and eventual damage to lung tissue and epithelial hyperplasia, resulting in fibrosis and increased lung cancer risk among silicotics. This mode of action involves several positive feedback loops. Exposures that increase the gain factors around such loops can create a disease state with elevated levels of ROS, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils. This mechanism implies a "tipping point" threshold for the exposure-response relation. Applying this new model to epidemiological data, we conclude that current permissible exposure levels, on the order of 0.1 mg/m³, are probably below the threshold for triggering lung diseases in humans. PMID:21477084

  8. Comparative Effectiveness Research in Lung Diseases and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lieu, Tracy A.; Au, David; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Moss, Marc; Selker, Harry; Harabin, Andrea; Connors, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) held a workshop to develop recommendations on topics, methodologies, and resources for comparative effectiveness research (CER) that will guide clinical decision making about available treatment options for lung diseases and sleep disorders. A multidisciplinary group of experts with experience in efficacy, effectiveness, implementation, and economic research identified (a) what types of studies the domain of CER in lung diseases and sleep disorders should include, (b) the criteria and process for setting priorities, and (c) current resources for and barriers to CER in lung diseases. Key recommendations were to (1) increase efforts to engage stakeholders in developing CER questions and study designs; (2) invest in further development of databases and other infrastructure, including efficient methods for data sharing; (3) make full use of a broad range of study designs; (4) increase the appropriate use of observational designs and the support of methodologic research; (5) ensure that committees that review CER grant applications include persons with appropriate perspective and expertise; and (6) further develop the workforce for CER by supporting training opportunities that focus on the methodologic and practical skills needed. PMID:21965016

  9. Therapeutic Effect of Intravenous Infusion of Perfluorocarbon Emulsion on LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qi; Yin, Xiaofeng; Song, Jianqi; Landén, Ning Xu; Fan, Haojun

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are the leading causes of death in critical care. Despite extensive efforts in research and clinical medicine, mortality remains high in these diseases. Perfluorocarbon (PFC), a chemical compound known as liquid ventilation medium, is capable of dissolving large amounts of physiologically important gases (mainly oxygen and carbon dioxide). In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of intravenous infusion of PFC emulsion on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ALI in rats and elucidate its mechanism of action. Forty two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: 6 rats were treated with saline solution by intratracheal instillation (control group), 18 rats were treated with LPS by intratracheal instillation (LPS group) and the other 18 rats received PFC through femoral vein prior to LPS instillation (LPS+PFC group). The rats in the control group were sacrificed 6 hours later after saline instillation. At 2, 4 and 6 hours of exposure to LPS, 6 rats in the LPS group and 6 rats in LPS+PFC group were sacrificed at each time point. By analyzing pulmonary pathology, partial pressure of oxygen in the blood (PaO2) and lung wet-dry weight ratio (W/D) of each rat, we found that intravenous infusion of PFC significantly alleviated acute lung injury induced by LPS. Moreover, we showed that the expression of pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) of endothelial cells and CD11b of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) induced by LPS were significantly decreased by PFC treatment in vivo. Our results indicate that intravenous infusion of PFC inhibits the infiltration of PMNs into lung tissue, which has been shown as the core pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. Thus, our study provides a theoretical foundation for using intravenous infusion of PFC to prevent and treat ALI/ARDS in clinical practice. PMID:24489970

  10. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  11. Effects of prone position on alveolar recruitment and oxygenation in acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Guerin; M. Badet; S. Rosselli; L. Heyer; J.-M. Sab; B. Langevin; F. Philit; G. Fournier; D. Robert

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of prone position (PP) on alveolar recruitment and oxygenation in acute respiratory failure.¶Design: Prospective physiologic study.¶Setting: Medical ICU two in a university hospital.¶Patients: Twelve adult patients intubated and mechanically ventilated with medical primary acute lung injury\\/adult respiratory distress\\u000a syndrome (ALI\\/ARDS) in whom PP was indicated.¶Measurements and results: We constructed the static inflation volume-pressure curves (V-P)

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning protects lung against hyperoxic acute lung injury in rats via heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ying; Zhang, Zinan; Li, Qiang; Li, Weihao; Xu, Jing; Cao, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) is a clinical syndrome as a result of prolonged supplement of high concentrations of oxygen. Previous studies have shown hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) had a protective effect on oxidative injury. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HBO-PC on HALI in rats. The results demonstrated that HBO-PC ameliorated the lung biochemical and histological alterations induced by hyperoxia, decreased oxidative products but increased antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, HBO-PC up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA and activity in lung tissues. The administration of HO-1 inhibitor, Zinc protoporphyrin IX, abolished its protective effects. The data showed that HBO-PC could protect rats against HALI and the anti-oxidative effect may be related to the up-regulation of HO-1. PMID:25264201

  13. Hydatid disease of the lungs. Study of 386 cases.

    PubMed

    Jerray, M; Benzarti, M; Garrouche, A; Klabi, N; Hayouni, A

    1992-07-01

    During a 10-yr period, 386 patients with hydatid disease of the lung were treated at our hospital. There were 165 male and 221 female patients with a mean age of 30.15 + 16.9 yr. There were 286 solitary, 20 multiple, and 21 bilateral cysts. In 59 patients, the cysts included the lung and other organs; in 54, the lung and the liver; in four, the lung and the kidney; in one, the lung and the peritoneum. Diagnosis was made using clinical criteria, serologic findings, and imaging techniques; 373 patients were treated surgically. Surgical procedures consisted of cystectomy in 93 patients, pericystectomy in 166 patients, and lung resection in 114 patients. Mebendazole and flubendazole were used in three patients. Postoperative complications occurred in 44 patients (15.8%). There were two operative deaths (mortality rate, 0.53%). Patients have been followed yearly, with a median follow-up of 6 yr. Active hydatid disease has been found in two patients. PMID:1626801

  14. Ventilator graphics and respiratory mechanics in the patient with obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Rajiv

    2005-02-01

    Obstruction of the large and small airways occurs in several diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and bronchiolitis. This article discusses the role of ventilator waveforms in the context of factors that contribute to the development of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress in patients with obstructive lung disease. Displays of pressure, flow, and volume, flow-volume loops, and pressure-volume loops are available on most modern ventilators. In mechanically ventilated patients with airway obstruction, ventilator graphics aid in recognizing abnormalities in function, in optimizing ventilator settings to promote patient-ventilator interaction, and in diagnosing complications before overt clinical signs develop. Ventilator waveforms are employed to detect the presence of dynamic hyperinflation and to measure lung mechanics. Various forms of patient-ventilator asynchrony (eg, auto-triggering and delayed or ineffective triggering) can also be detected by waveform analysis. Presence of flow limitation during expiration and excessive airway secretions can be determined from flow-volume loops. Abnormalities in pressure-volume loops occur when the trigger sensitivity is inadequate, with alterations in respiratory compliance, or during patient-ventilator asynchrony. Thus, ventilator waveforms play an important role in management of mechanically-ventilated patients with obstructive lung disease. PMID:15691394

  15. Perinatal Factors in Neonatal and Pediatric Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Rodney D.; Faksh, Arij; Vogel, Elizabeth; Martin, Richard J.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    Wheezing and asthma are significant clinical problems for infants and young children, particularly following premature birth. Recurrent wheezing in infants can progress to persistent asthma. As in adults, altered airway structure (remodeling) and function (increased bronchoconstriction) are also important in neonatal and pediatric airway diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that airway disease in children is influenced by perinatal factors including perturbations in normal fetal lung development, postnatal interventions in the intensive care unit, and environmental and other insults in the neonatal period. Here, in addition to genetics, maternal health, environmental processes, innate immunity, and impaired lung development/function can all influence pathogenesis of airway disease in children. We summarize current understanding of how prenatal and postnatal factors can contribute to development of airway diseases in neonates and children. Understanding these mechanisms will help identify and develop novel therapies for childhood airway diseases. PMID:24090092

  16. Acute lung injury following exposure to nitric acid

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, T. K.; Shah, Samir; Lobo, Ivona; Uppe, Abhay; Mehta, Ankur

    2009-01-01

    We present a series of three cases of survival following inhalation of nitric acid fumes, which resulted in acute respiratory distress. Inhalation of nitric acid fumes and its decomposition gases such as nitrogen dioxide results in delayed onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive respiratory management, ventilatory support, and steroids can help in survival. PMID:20532002

  17. Lung microbiota across age and disease stage in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Bryan; Wang, Pauline W.; Diaz Caballero, Julio; Clark, Shawn T.; Brahma, Vijaya; Donaldson, Sylva; Zhang, Yu; Surendra, Anu; Gong, Yunchen; Elizabeth Tullis, D.; Yau, Yvonne C. W.; Waters, Valerie J.; Hwang, David M.; Guttman, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the significance of bacterial species that colonize and persist in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways requires a detailed examination of bacterial community structure across a broad range of age and disease stage. We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the lung microbiota in 269 CF patients spanning a 60 year age range, including 76 pediatric samples from patients of age 4–17, and a broad cross-section of disease status to identify features of bacterial community structure and their relationship to disease stage and age. The CF lung microbiota shows significant inter-individual variability in community structure, composition and diversity. The core microbiota consists of five genera - Streptococcus, Prevotella, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. CF-associated pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter are less prevalent than core genera, but have a strong tendency to dominate the bacterial community when present. Community diversity and lung function are greatest in patients less than 10 years of age and lower in older age groups, plateauing at approximately age 25. Lower community diversity correlates with worse lung function in a multivariate regression model. Infection by Pseudomonas correlates with age-associated trends in community diversity and lung function. PMID:25974282

  18. Glucose Transporter-1 Distribution in Fibrotic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Malide, Daniela; Yao, Jianhua; Nathan, Steven D.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Gahl, William A.; Moss, Joel; Gochuico, Bernadette R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scan uptake is increased in areas of fibrosis and honeycombing in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) is known to be the main transporter for FDG. There is a paucity of data regarding the distribution of Glut-1 and the cells responsible for FDG binding in fibrotic lung diseases. Methods: We applied immunofluorescence to localize Glut-1 in normal, IPF, and Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) pulmonary fibrosis lung tissue specimens as well as an array of 19 different lung neoplasms. In addition, we investigated Glut-1 expression in inflammatory cells from BAL fluid (BALF) from healthy volunteers, subjects with IPF, and subjects with HPS pulmonary fibrosis. Results: In normal lung tissue, Glut-1 immunoreactivity was seen on the surface of erythrocytes. In tissue sections from fibrotic lung diseases (IPF and HPS pulmonary fibrosis), Glut-1 immunoreactivity was present on the surface of erythrocytes and inflammatory cells. BALF inflammatory cells from healthy control subjects showed no immunoreactivity; BALF cells from subjects with IPF and HPS pulmonary fibrosis showed Glut-1 immunoreactivity associated with neutrophils and alveolar macrophages. Conclusions: Glut-1 transporter expression in normal lung is limited to erythrocytes. In fibrotic lung, erythrocytes and inflammatory cells express Glut-1. Together, these data suggest that FDG-PET scan uptake in IPF could be explained by enhanced inflammatory and erythrocytes uptake due to neovascularization seen in IPF and not an upregulation of metabolic rate in pneumocytes. Thus, FDG-PET scan may detect inflammation and neovascularization in lung fibrosis. PMID:23699745

  19. Metastasis-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Successfully Treated with Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okutur, Kerem; Bozkurt, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Taner; Karaaslan, Ercan; Guner, Levent; Goksel, Suha; Demir, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Although involvement of pancreas is a common finding in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis (MIAP) is very rare. A 50-year-old female with SCLC who had limited disease and achieved full response after treatment presented with acute pancreatitis during her follow-up. The radiologic studies revealed a small area causing obliteration of the pancreatic duct without mass in the pancreatic neck, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) confirmed the metastasis of SCLC. The patient was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy delivered to pancreatic field. In SCLC, cases of MIAP can be encountered with conventional computed tomography with no mass image, and positron emission tomography and EUS-FNA can be useful for diagnosis of such cases. Aggressive systemic and local treatment can prolong survival, especially in patients with good performance status.

  20. Caveolin-1 Regulates Leukocyte Behaviour in Fibrotic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tourkina, Elena; Richard, Mathieu; Oates, James; Hofbauer, Ann; Bonner, Michael; Gööz, Pal; Visconti, Richard; Zhang, Jing; Znoyko, Sergei; Hatfield, Corey M.; Silver, Richard M.; Hoffman, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Reduced caveolin-1 levels in scleroderma lung fibroblasts and the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice promote collagen overexpression and lung fibrosis. We now evaluate whether caveolin-1 is deficient in leucocytes from bleomycin-treated mice and scleroderma patients and examine the consequences of this deficiency and its reversal. Methods Mice or cells received the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) peptide to reverse the pathological effects of reduced caveolin-1 expression. In bleomycin-treated mice, we examined caveolin-1 levels in leucocytes and the effect of CSD peptide on leucocyte accumulation in lung tissue. To validate our results in human disease and identify caveolin-1-regulated molecular mechanisms, we isolated monocytes and neutrophils from scleroderma patients and control subjects and evaluated caveolin-1, ERK, JNK, p38, CXCR4, and MMP-9 expression/activation. We also studied these parameters in monocytes treated with cytokines or CSD peptide. Results Leucocyte caveolin-1 is important in lung fibrosis. In bleomycin-treated mice, caveolin-1 expression is diminished in monocytes and CSD peptide inhibits leucocyte recruitment into the lungs. These observations are relevant to human disease. Scleroderma monocytes and neutrophils contain less caveolin-1 and more activated ERK, JNK, and p38 than their normal counterparts. CSD peptide treatment reverses ERK, JNK, and p38 hyperactivation. Scleroderma monocytes also overexpress CXCR4 and MMP-9. The overexpression of CXCR4 and MMP-9 is inhibited by the CSD peptide. Cytokine treatment of normal monocytes causes adoption of the scleroderma phenotype: low caveolin-1, high CXCR4 and MMP-9, and signaling molecule hyperactivation. Conclusions Caveolin-1 downregulation in leucocytes contributes to fibrotic lung disease, highlighting caveolin-1 as a promising therapeutic target in scleroderma. PMID:20410070

  1. Microbiology specimens obtained at the time of surgical lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease: clinical yield and cost analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan J. Fibla; Alessandro Brunelli; Mark S. Allen; Dennis Wigle; Robert Shen; Francis Nichols; Claude Deschamps; Stephen D. Cassivi

    Objectives: In efforts to obtain complete results, current practice in surgical lung biopsy (LB) for interstitial lung disease (ILD) recommends sending lung tissue samples for bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, and viral cultures. This study assesses the value of this practice by evaluating the microbiology findings obtained from LB for ILD and their associated costs. Methods: A total of 296 consecutive patients

  2. Overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase reduces acute radiation induced lung toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahid N Rabbani; Mitchell S Anscher; Rodney J Folz; Emerald Archer; Hong Huang; Liguang Chen; Maria L Golson; Thaddeus S Samulski; Mark W Dewhirst; Zeljko Vujaskovic

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute RT-induced damage to the lung is characterized by inflammatory changes, which proceed to the development of fibrotic lesions in the late phase of injury. Ultimately, complete structural ablation will ensue, if the source of inflammatory \\/ fibrogenic mediators and oxidative stress is not removed or attenuated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine whether overexpression of

  3. MATRILYSIN PARTICIPATES IN THE ACUTE LUNG INJURY INDUCED BY OIL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ROLE OF MATRILYSIN IN THE ACUTE LUNG INJURY INDUCED BY OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLES. K L Dreher1, WY Su2 and C L Wilson3. 1US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2Duke University, Durham, NC;3Washington University, St. Louis, MO. Mechanisms by ...

  4. Gene Expression Profiles Characterize Inflammation Stages in the Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Lesur; Julien Textoris; Béatrice Loriod; Cécile Courbon; Stéphane Garcia; Marc Leone; Catherine Nguyen; Carol Feghali-Bostwick

    2010-01-01

    Acute Lung Injury (ALI) carries about 50 percent mortality and is frequently associated with an infection (sepsis). Life-support treatment with mechanical ventilation rescues many patients, although superimposed infection or multiple organ failure can result in death. The outcome of a patient developing sepsis depends on two factors: the infection and the pre-existing inflammation. In this study, we described each stage

  5. Functional Genomic Insights into Acute Lung Injury: Role of Ventilators and Mechanical Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie A. Nonas; James H. Finigan; Li Gao; Joe G. N. Garcia

    2005-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a complex and devastating illness, often occurring in the setting of sepsis and trauma. Despite recent ad- vances in the understanding and treatment of ALI, pathogenic mechanisms and genetic modifiers in ALI remain incompletely un- derstood. Furthermore, there has been increasing interest in the identificationofgeneticvariationsthatcontributetoALIsusceptibil- ity and severity in order to gain unique insights into

  6. ROLE OF CELL SIGNALING IN PROTECTION FROM DIESEL AND LPS INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously demonstrated in CD-1 mice that pre-administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor (SB203580) reduces acute lung injury and inflammation following pulmonary exposures to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here ...

  7. Fitness to fly in patients with lung disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Trevor T; Sznajder, Jacob I

    2014-12-01

    Patients with chronic lung disease may have mild hypoxemia at sea level. Some of these cases may go unrecognized, and even among those who are known to be hypoxemic, some do not use supplemental oxygen. During air travel in a hypobaric hypoxic environment, compensatory pulmonary mechanisms may be inadequate in patients with lung disease despite normal sea-level oxygen requirements. In addition, compensatory cardiovascular mechanisms may be less effective in some patients who are unable to increase cardiac output. Air travel also presents an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Patients with cystic lung disease may also be at increased risk of pneumothorax. Although overall this risk appears to be relatively low, should a pneumothorax occur, it could present a significant challenge to the patient with chronic lung disease, particularly if hypoxemia is already present. As such, a thorough assessment of patients with chronic lung disease and cardiac disease who are contemplating air travel should be performed. The duration of the planned flight, the anticipated levels of activity, comorbid illnesses, and the presence of risk factors for venous thromboembolism are important considerations. Hypobaric hypoxic challenge testing reproduces an environment most similar to that encountered during actual air travel; however, it is not widely available. Assessment for hypoxia is otherwise best performed using a normobaric hypoxic challenge test. Patients in need of supplemental oxygen need to contact the airline and request this accommodation during flight. They should also be advised on arranging portable oxygen concentrators before air travel, and a discussion of the potential risks of travel should take place. PMID:25393882

  8. Occupational lung diseases and the mining industry in Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Lkhasuren, O.; Takahashi, K.; Dash-Onolt, L. [Health Science University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2007-04-15

    Mining production has accounted for around 50% of the gross industrial product in Mongolia since 1998. Dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis currently account for the largest relative share (67.8%) of occupational diseases in Mongolia, and cases are increasing annually. In 1967-2004, medically diagnosed cases of occupational diseases in Mongolia numbered 7,600. Of these, 5,154 were confirmed cases of dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis. Lung diseases and other mining-sector health risks pose major challenges for Mongolia. Gold and coal mines, both formal and informal, contribute significantly to economic growth, but the prevalence of occupational lung diseases is high and access to health care is limited. Rapid implementation of an effective national program of silicosis elimination and pneumoconiosis reduction is critical to ensure the health and safety of workers in this important sector of the Mongolian economy.

  9. Rare Infiltrative Lung Diseases: A Challenge for Clinicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venerino Poletti; Ulrich Costabel; Gian Luca Casoni; Caterina Bigliazzi; Marjolein Drent; Dario Olivieri

    2004-01-01

    Rare diffuse infiltrative lung diseases are a challenge for clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists for at least three reasons: (a) their low incidence and prevalence hamper the acquisition of expertise and frequently the diagnosis is delayed; (b) therapeutic actions are mainly empirical and based on steroid use, and (c) pathogenetic events are difficult to explain and only recently new therapeutic measures

  10. The radiology of chronic lung disease in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U G Rossi; C M Owens

    2005-01-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) in children represents a heterogeneous group of many distinct clinicopathological entities. The prevalence of CLD has increased in the past decade because of the more advanced and intensive respiratory support provided for compromised children and additionally the overall improved survival of preterm babies. The disorders which constitute CLD generally have a slow tempo of progression over

  11. Acute Lung Injury Results from Innate Sensing of Viruses by an ER Stress Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hrincius, Eike R; Liedmann, Swantje; Finkelstein, David; Vogel, Peter; Gansebom, Shane; Samarasinghe, Amali E; You, Dahui; Cormier, Stephania A; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2015-06-16

    Incursions of new pathogenic viruses into humans from animal reservoirs are occurring with alarming frequency. The molecular underpinnings of immune recognition, host responses, and pathogenesis in this setting are poorly understood. We studied pandemic influenza viruses to determine the mechanism by which increasing glycosylation during evolution of surface proteins facilitates diminished pathogenicity in adapted viruses. ER stress during infection with poorly glycosylated pandemic strains activated the unfolded protein response, leading to inflammation, acute lung injury, and mortality. Seasonal strains or viruses engineered to mimic adapted viruses displaying excess glycans on the hemagglutinin did not cause ER stress, allowing preservation of the lungs and survival. We propose that ER stress resulting from recognition of non-adapted viruses is utilized to discriminate "non-self" at the level of protein processing and to activate immune responses, with unintended consequences on pathogenesis. Understanding this mechanism should improve strategies for treating acute lung injury from zoonotic viral infections. PMID:26051937

  12. Interstitial Lung Disease: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Ivan O.; Dellaripa, Paul F.; Lederer, David J.; Khanna, Dinesh; Young, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based, longitudinal studies spanning decades linking risk factors in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood to incident clinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) events in late adulthood have not been performed. In addition, no observational or randomized clinical trials have been conducted; therefore, there is presently no evidence to support the notion that reduction of risk factor levels in early life prevents ILD events in adult life. Primary prevention strategies are host-directed interventions designed to modify adverse risk factors (i.e., smoking) with the goal of preventing the development of ILD, whereas primordial prevention for ILD can be defined as the elimination of external risk factors (i.e., environmental pollutants). As no ILD primary prevention studies have been previously conducted, we propose that research studies that promote implementation of primary prevention strategies could, over time, make a subset of ILD preventable. Herein, we provide a number of initial steps required for the future implementation of prevention strategies; this statement discusses the rationale and available evidence that support potential opportunities for primordial and primary prevention, as well as fertile areas for future research of preventive intervention in ILD. PMID:24754826

  13. Dimethylthiourea decreases acute lung edema in phorbol myristate acetate-treated rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.H.; White, C.W.; McMurtry, I.F.; Berger, E.M.; Repine, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    Treatment with dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a potent O/sub 2/ metabolite scavenger, prevented neutrophil-mediated acute edema in lungs of rabbits given phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and in isolated rabbit lungs perfused with neutrophils and PMA. DMTU-treated rabbits given PMA did not increase their lung weight-to-total body weight ratios (5.0 +/- 0.3) or lung lavage albumin concentrations (14 +/- 4.6 mg/dl) in comparison to untreated rabbits given PMA (6.6 +/- 0.5 and 60 +/- 10 mg/dl, respectively). Similarly, DMTU-treated isolated rabbit lungs perfused with neutrophils and PMA did not gain weight (0 g) or increase their lavage albumin concentrations (82 +/- 17 mg/dl) in comparison to untreated lungs perfused with neutrophils and PMA (71 +/- 3.1 g and 1299 +/- 47 mg/dl, respectively). DMTU did not appear to decrease edema by preventing increases in pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP). First, treatment with DMTU did not decrease initial PAP increases in rabbits given PMA. Second, even though addition of DMTU attenuated PAP increased in isolated lungs perfused with neutrophils and PMA, DMTU-treated isolated lungs did not develop acute edema when subjected to mechanical increases in venous outflow pressures. The mechanism by which DMTU decreases lung edema is unclear by may involve scavenging of toxic O/sub 2/ metabolites, since DMTU also decrease hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) and hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in in vitro mixtures containing neutrophils and PMA.

  14. The Role of Progenitor Cells in Lung Disease Prognosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen L. Burnham; Susan Majka; Marc Moss

    \\u000a The number of investigations related to the role of stem and progenitor cells in lung repair has grown exponentially in recent\\u000a years. Bone-marrow-derived cells, including stem cells and progenitors, have emerged as candidate markers to prognosticate\\u000a outcomes during pulmonary disease. The relationship of these cells to prognosis has provided clues regarding the pathophysiologic\\u000a characteristics of pulmonary disease, and direction for

  15. Severe right heart failure in a patient with chronic obstructive lung disease: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Meysman, M; Pipeleers-Marichal, M; Geers, C; Ilsen, B; Vincken, W

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of severe dyspnoea and hypoxaemia. Physical examination upon admission showed elevated jugular venous pressure and an accentuated second heart sound. Chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly with increased bibasilar markings. Arterial blood gas analysis while breathing room air showed marked hypoxaemia. High resolution computed tomography angiography of the chest showed modestly enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes with discrete diffuse ground-glass attenuation especially at the lower lung zones. Positron emission tomography using 18F labelled 2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) demonstrated the mediastinal lymph nodes were FDG-avid. Transthoracic echocardiography showed dilated hypokinetic right heart chambers with bulging of the interventricular septum to the left, compatible with acute cor-pulmonale. From the tricuspid regurgitation jet measurement a systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of 48 mmHg was estimated. Patent foramen ovale was suspected on bubble test. Right heart catheterisation confirmed pulmonary arterial hypertension: mPAP 47 mmHg, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure 5 mmHg, cardiac index 1.1 L/min/m2, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) 959 dyne.sec.cm(-5). Pulmonary function tests showed a marked diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) decrease of 32% predicted but no obstructive lung deficit. Before an open lung biopsy could be scheduled the patient developed acute cardiogenic shock. At autopsy pulmonary veno-occlusive disease with marked pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed. PMID:24380224

  16. Protective effects of intranasal curcumin on paraquot induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Namitosh; Kumari, Asha; Dash, D; Singh, Rashmi

    2014-11-01

    Paraquot (PQ) is widely and commonly used as herbicide and has been reported to be hazardous as it causes lung injury. However, molecular mechanism underlying lung toxicity caused by PQ has not been elucidated. Curcumin, a known anti-inflammatory molecule derived from rhizomes of Curcuma longa has variety of pharmacological activities including free-radical scavenging properties but the protective effects of curcumin on PQ-induced acute lung injury (ALI) have not been studied. In this study, we aimed to study the effects of curcumin on ALI caused by PQ in male parke's strain mice which were challenged acutely by PQ (50mg/kg, i.p.) with or without curcumin an hour before (5mg/kg, i.n.) PQ intoxication. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were isolated for pathological and biochemical analysis after 48h of PQ exposure. Curcumin administration has significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities. Lung wet/dry weight ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content, total cell number and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in BALF as well as neutrophil infiltration were attenuated by curcumin. Pathological studies also revealed that intranasal curcumin alleviate PQ-induced pulmonary damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels like tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and nitric oxide (NO). These results suggest that intranasal curcumin may directly target lungs and curcumin inhalers may prove to be effective in PQ-induced ALI treatment in near future. PMID:25461551

  17. [Clinical study on development of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease].

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Atsuyuki

    2004-12-01

    DEVELOPEMENT OF MAC LUNG DISEASE: An increase of nodular bronchiectatic type of MAC lung disease becomes a problem among respiratory physician today. The reason is still unknown, but it seems to be globally recognized that this type of MAC disease is developing particularly in middle-aged woman. Some papers mentioned the existence of such type of MAC lung disease already early in the 70s, in Japan. Yamamoto described that 17 cases of middle lobe type lung disease out of 154 non-photochoromogen cases, and 76.5% were female, in 1970. Shimoide also pointed such type of 39 cases out of 240 MAC lung disease and 84.6% were female, in 1980. Prince reported MAC lung disease seen in old and middle age female of 21 cases including lethality example of 4 cases without a precedent disease in 1989. After his report, the international consensus of this peculiar type of MAC lung disease seems to be spread. In 1989, we compared 72 cases of nodular bronchiectatic type of MAC lung disease and 56 cases of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) that was a most typical chronic airway disease at that time in Japan. The average age of disease onset of DPB group was 37.0 +/- 16.3 years old and that of MAC group was 54.5 +/- 16.3 years old. The percentage of female was 32% in DPB group and 87.5% in MAC group. It was highly possible that two groups belong different parent population. We could grasp that nodular bronchiectatic type of MAC lung disease patients is a unique group. We observed the serial films of 21 cases of nodular bronchiectatic MAC lung disease, and divide the progression of the disease to sequential 7 steps as Fig. 1. Small nodules progress to cavities in mean about 10 years. However, why is MAC which is opportunistic pathogen with weak virulence, able to form a lesion at unimpaired lung parenchyma? Is there really normal site? Why dose it start from lingula? Why is MAC seen a lot in woman? While it is extremely pathognomonic clinical picture, and, is an extremely interesting problem, most are still unidentified. STUDY OF MAC LUNG DISEASE TREATMENT: It was known that Mycobacterium kansasii lung disease is healed with a chemotherapy like analog of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, already in those days. However, the results of MAC lung disease chemotherapy were extremely poor. We tried to express a physicians experience quantitatively as follows, in 1987. The results of 8 weeks sputum culture on Ogawa egg medium were converted semi-quantitatively to CFU numbers based on "Japanese standard guideline of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inspection". We exhibit the ratio of post-treatment consecutive 6 months culture yield to pre-treatment culture yield as response rate, about 110 pulmonary MAC cases. Through this study, we clarify the followings. The results of chemotherapy do not correlate susceptibility test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multidrug regimen is more useful. Small extent of lesion is more responsive. Combination with aminoglycoside chemotherapy is more effective. These conclusions were almost same as the ATS guideline of 1990. New drugs such as, new macrolides and new quinolones appeared for pulmonary MAC treatment through the feedback from systemic MAC complicated AIDS treatments from the latter half of 90's. We measured the sensitive strain ratio at 2 mcg/ml of OFLX, CPFX, LVFX about 990 clinical isolates and could expect availability for M. kansasii or M. fortuitum, but these new quinolones are not enough effective for MAC. Also we examined MIC for various antimycobacterial agent by 50 MAC clinical isolates, and we could expect a certain availability of SPFX, GFLX, CPFX, CAM for MAC. The availability of clarithromycin (CAM) has been established through many randomized clinical trials for disseminated MAC complicated AIDS, but for pulmonary MAC, complete cure is still difficult if we use CAM including regimen. We performed surgical treatment for relatively young patients with localized lesions. We carry out the adaptation reference such as Table, now. The localization of the lesions become a problem at surgical resection

  18. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Occupational lung diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The document summarizes what actions need to be taken to prevent occupational lung diseases. The United States Public Health Service has established the following national objectives for the prevention of occupational lung diseases: 'By 1990, among workers newly exposed after 1985, there should be virtually no new cases of four preventable occupational lung diseases--asbestosis, byssinosis, silicosis, and coal workers' pneumoconiosis.' These four chronic lung diseases will be used as examples in the prevention strategy. To the extent that they are typical of most occupational lung diseases, potential prevention methods available for their control are not unique.

  19. BPIFB1 IS A LUNG-SPECIFIC AUTOANTIGEN ASSOCIATED WITH INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE**

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Anthony K.; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Tan, Catherine L.; Cheng, Mickie H.; Metzger, Todd C.; Law, Christopher S.; Lwin, Wint; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Carel, Jean Claude; Husebye, Eystein S.; De Luca, Filippo; Janson, Christer; Sargur, Ravishankar; Dubois, Noémie; Kajosaari, Merja; Wolters, Paul J.; Chapman, Harold A.; Kämpe, Olle; Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder that is often associated with autoimmune syndromes (1). Despite the connection between ILD and autoimmunity, it remains unclear whether ILD can develop from an autoimmune response that specifically targets the lung parenchyma. Here, we utilized a severe form of autoimmune disease, Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1 (APS1), to establish a strong link between an autoimmune response to the lung-specific protein BPIFB1 and clinical ILD. Screening of a large cohort of APS1 patients revealed autoantibodies to BPIFB1 in 9.6% of APS1 subjects overall and in 100% of APS1 subjects with ILD. Further investigation of ILD outside the APS1 disorder revealed BPIFB1 autoantibodies specifically present in 14.6% of patients with connective tissue disease-associated ILD and in 12.0% of patients with idiopathic ILD. Utilizing the animal model for APS1 to examine the mechanism of ILD pathogenesis, we found that Aire?/? mice harbor autoantibodies to a similar lung antigen named BPIFB9 that are a marker for ILD, and determined that a defect in thymic tolerance is responsible for the production of BPIFB9 autoantibodies and the development of ILD. Importantly, we also found that immunoreactivity targeting BPIFB1 independent of a defect in Aire also leads to ILD, consistent with our discovery of BPIFB1 autoantibodies in non-APS1 patients. Overall, our results demonstrate that autoimmunity targeting the lung-specific antigen BPIFB1 may be important to the pathogenesis of ILD in patients with APS1 and in subsets of patients with non-APS1 ILD, demonstrating the role of lung-specific autoimmunity in the genesis of ILD. PMID:24107778

  20. A Scanographic Assessment of Pulmonary Morphology in Acute Lung Injury Significance of the Lower Inflection Point Detected on the Lung Pressure-Volume Curve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SILVIA R. R. VIEIRA; LOUIS PUYBASSET; QIN LU; JACK RICHECOEUR; PHILIPPE CLUZEL; PIERRE CORIAT; JEAN-JACQUES ROUBY

    The goal of this study was to assess lung morphology in patients with acute lung injury according to the presence or the absence of a lower inflection point (LIP) on the lung pressure-volume (P-V) curve and to compare the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Eight patients with and six without an LIP underwent a spiral thoracic CT scan performed

  1. IL1B Polymorphisms Modulate Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Hara; Murphy, Amy; Zou, Fei; Gerard, Craig; Klanderman, Barbara; Schuemann, Brooke; Lazarus, Ross; García, K. Christopher; Celedón, Juan C.; Drumm, Mitch; Dahmer, Mary; Quasney, Michael; Schneck, Kaitlyn; Reske, Melissa; Knowles, Michael R.; Pier, Gerald B.; Lange, Christoph; Weiss, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rationale: Variability in pulmonary disease severity is found in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who have identical mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. We hypothesized that one factor accounting for heterogeneity in pulmonary disease severity is variation in the family of genes affecting the biology of interleukin-1 (IL-1), which impacts acquisition and maintenance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in animal models of chronic infection. Methods: We genotyped 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1 gene cluster in 808 CF subjects from the University of North Carolina and Case Western Reserve University (UNC/CWRU) joint cohort. All were homozygous for ?F508, and categories of “severe” (cases) or “mild” (control subjects) lung disease were defined by the lowest or highest quartile of forced expired volume (FEV1) for age in the CF population. After adjustment for age and gender, genotypic data were tested for association with lung disease severity. Odds ratios (ORs) comparing severe versus mild CF were also calculated for each genotype (with the homozygote major allele as the reference group) for all 58 SNPs. From these analyses, nine SNPs with a moderate effect size, OR ? 0.5or > 1.5, were selected for further testing. To replicate the case-control study results, we genotyped the same nine SNPs in a second population of CF parent-offspring trios (recruited from Children’s Hospital Boston), in which the offspring had similar pulmonary phenotypes. For the trio analysis, both family-based and population-based associations were performed. Results: SNPs rs1143634 and rs1143639 in the IL1B gene demonstrated a consistent association with lung disease severity categories (P < 0.10) and longitudinal analysis of lung disease severity (P < 0.10) in CF in both the case-control and family-based studies. In females, there was a consistent association (false discovery rate adjusted joint P-value < 0.06 for both SNPs) in both the analysis of lung disease severity in the UNC/CWRU cohort and the family-based analysis of affection status. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that IL1? is a clinically relevant modulator of CF lung disease. PMID:19431193

  2. ChemR23 Dampens Lung Inflammation and Enhances Anti-viral Immunity in a Mouse Model of Acute Viral Pneumonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Bondue; Olivier Vosters; Patricia de Nadai; Stéphanie Glineur; Olivier De Henau; Souphalone Luangsay; Frédéric Van Gool; David Communi; Paul De Vuyst; Daniel Desmecht; Marc Parmentier

    2011-01-01

    Viral diseases of the respiratory tract, which include influenza pandemic, children acute bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia of the elderly, represent major health problems. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play an important role in anti-viral immunity, and these cells were recently shown to express ChemR23, the receptor for the chemoattractant protein chemerin, which is expressed by epithelial cells in the lung. Our aim

  3. Clinical risk conditions for acute lung injury in the intensive care unit and hospital ward: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Niall D; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Esteban, Andrés; Gordo, Federico; Honrubia, Teresa; Peñuelas, Oscar; Algora, Alejandro; García, Gema; Bustos, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Inmaculada

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the development of acute lung injury outside the intensive care unit. We set out to document the following: the association between predefined clinical conditions and the development of acute lung injury by using the American–European consensus definition; the frequency of lung injury development outside the intensive care unit; and the temporal relationship between antecedent clinical risk conditions, intensive care admission, and diagnosis of lung injury. Methods We conducted a 4-month prospective observational study in three Spanish teaching hospitals, enrolling consecutive patients who developed clinical conditions previously linked to lung injury, both inside and outside the intensive care unit. Patients were followed prospectively for outcomes, including the diagnosis of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Results A total 815 patients were identified with at least one clinical insult; the most common were sepsis, pneumonia, and pancreatitis. Pulmonary risk conditions were observed in 30% of cases. Fifty-three patients (6.5%) developed acute lung injury; 33 of these (4.0%) met criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lung injury occurred most commonly in the setting of sepsis (46/53; 86.7%), but shock (21/59; 36%) and pneumonia (20/211; 9.5%) portended the highest proportional risk; this risk was higher in patients with increasing numbers of clinical risk conditions (2.2%, 14%, and 21% (P < 0.001) in patients with one, two, and three conditions, respectively). Median days (interquartile range) from risk condition to diagnosis of lung injury was shorter with pulmonary (0 (0 to 2)) versus extrapulmonary (3 (1 to 5)) (P = 0.029) risk conditions. Admission to the intensive care unit was provided to 9/20 (45%) patients with acute lung injury and to 29/33 (88%) of those with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lung injury patients had higher mortality than others (acute lung injury 25.0%; acute respiratory distress syndrome 45.5%; others 10.3%; P < 0.001). Conclusion The time course from clinical insult to diagnosis of lung injury was rapid, but may be longer for extrapulmonary cases. Some patients with lung injury receive care and die outside the intensive care unit; this observation needs further study. PMID:17784960

  4. Phospholipase A2 mediates nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophages and acute lung injury in pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Y; Morisaki, T; Horita, Y; Torisu, M; Tanaka, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reportedly, nitric oxide (NO) derived from alveolar macrophages (AMs) and increased serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity are associated with the pathogenesis of lung injury in acute pancreatitis. The authors examined the possibility that PLA2 causes, in part, the induction of NO production by AMs in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by selective pancreatic duct ligation (SPL). AMs were stimulated with PLA2 or SPL rat serum, with or without administration of the PLA2 inhibitor quinacrine. Then NO production from the AMs was measured by the Griess method, inducible NO synthase mRNA expression of AMs was analyzed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and cytotoxic effects of AMs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by a 51Cr release assay. In vivo, the effect of quinacrine on lung injury was determined by measuring the arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2), lung weight, and lung permeability using Evans blue dye concentration of SPL rat. RESULTS: In vitro, the serum with high PLA2 activity induced NO production by rat AMs. PLA2 (50 ng/ml) induced significant amounts of NO production, inducible NO synthase mRNA expression, and cytotoxicity toward the human umbilical vein endothelial cells in normal rat AMs, and these activities were significantly inhibited by quinacrine. In vivo, rats with pancreatitis that were given quinacrine showed decreased concentrations of NO2- and NO3- in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the PaO2, lung edema, and lung permeability were improved significantly. CONCLUSION: PLA2 induces AMs to release NO, which contributes to lung injury in acute pancreatitis. This lung injury was prevented by the administration of the PLA2 inhibitor quinacrine. Images Figure 4. PMID:10077051

  5. Transfusion of Human Platelets Treated with Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology Does Not Induce Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Caudrillier, Axelle; Mallavia, Beñat; Rouse, Lindsay; Marschner, Susanne; Looney, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen reduction technology (PRT) has been developed in an effort to make the blood supply safer, but there is controversy as to whether it may induce structural or functional changes to platelets that could lead to acute lung injury after transfusion. In this study, we used a commercial PRT system to treat human platelets that were then transfused into immunodeficient mice, and the development of acute lung injury was determined. P-selectin expression was higher in the Mirasol PRT-treated platelets compared to control platelets on storage day 5, but not storage day 1. Transfusion of control vs. Mirasol PRT-treated platelets (day 5 of storage, 109 platelets per mouse) into NOD/SCID mice did not result in lung injury, however transfusion of storage day 5 platelets treated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide increased both extravascular lung water and lung vascular permeability. Transfusion of day 1 platelets did not produce lung injury in any group, and LPS priming 24 hours before transfusion had no effect on lung injury. In a model of transfusion-related acute lung injury, NOD/SCID mice were susceptible to acute lung injury when challenged with H-2Kd monoclonal antibody vs. isotype control antibody. Using lung intravital microscopy, we did not detect a difference in the dynamic retention of platelets in the lung circulation in control vs. Mirasol PRT-treated groups. In conclusion, Mirasol PRT produced an increase in P-selectin expression that is storage-dependent, but transfusion of human platelets treated with Mirasol PRT into immunodeficient mice did not result in greater platelet retention in the lungs or the development of acute lung injury. PMID:26176623

  6. PPAR?: A Novel Molecular Target in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hart, C. Michael; Roman, Jesse; Reddy, Raju; Sime, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) has steadily increased over the past 15 years. The recognition that subclasses of this receptor played critical roles in regulation of metabolism led to the development of synthetic ligands and their widespread application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. At the same time, emerging evidence demonstrated that the influence of PPARs extends well beyond metabolism and diabetes. A salient example of this can be seen in studies that explore the role of PPARs in lung cell biology. In fact, current literature suggests that PPAR receptors may well represent exciting new targets for treatment in a variety of lung disorders. In an attempt to keep the scientific and medical communities abreast of these developments, a symposium sponsored by the American Federation for Medical Research entitled “PPAR?: A Novel Molecular Target in Lung Disease” was convened on April 29, 2007, at the Experimental Biology Meeting in Washington, DC. During that symposium, 4 speakers reviewed the latest developments in basic and translational research as they relate to specific lung diseases. Jesse Roman, MD, professor and director of the Emory University Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, reviewed the role of PPAR? in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and its implications for therapy. Raju Reddy, MD, assistant professor of Medicine at the University of Michigan, presented data regarding the immunomodula-tory role of PPAR? in alveolar macrophages. Patricia J. Sime, MD, associate professor of Medicine, Environmental Medicine, and Oncology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine, discussed the antifibrogenic potential of PPAR? ligands in pulmonary fibrosis. Finally, C. Michael Hart, MD, professor of Medicine at Emory University and chief of the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center Pulmonary Section, reviewed the role of PPAR? in pulmonary vascular disease. This brief introduction to the symposium will provide background information about PPARs to facilitate the general reader's appreciation of the more in-depth and disease-specific discussions that follow. PMID:18317433

  7. Clinical significance of respiratory bronchiolitis on open lung biopsy and its relationship to smoking related interstitial lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M du Bois; T. V Colby; D. M Hansell; A. G Nicholson

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDRespiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RBILD) is a rare form of interstitial lung disease which may present in similar fashion to other types of chronic interstitial pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to undertake a clinicopathological review of 10 patients with RBILD and to examine the clinical and imaging data related to its histopathological pattern, in particular the relationship

  8. The role of oxygen free radicals in occupational and environmental lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Vallyathan, V; Shi, X

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals and their metabolites, collectively described as reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The pulmonary system is particularly vulnerable to ROS-induced injury because of its continuous exposure to toxic pollutants from a wide variety of sources in the ambient air. Additionally, lungs are exposed systemically to ROS generated from xenobiotic compounds and endogenous sources. This review describes the sources of endogenous and exogenous ROS generation in the lung. Special emphasis is given to major sources of ROS in occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos, crystalline silica, coal, chromium, herbicides, bleomycin, and cigarette smoke. ROS-induced lung injury at different target levels may contribute to similar patterns of cell injury and alterations at the molecular level by initiation, propagation, and autocatalytic chain reactions. Intracellular signalling, activation and inactivation of enzymes, stimulation, secretion, and release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nuclear factor activation and alterations are also common events. Understanding the interactions of these intricate mechanistic events is important in the prevention and amelioration of lung injury that results from acute and chronic exposures to toxins in ambient air. PMID:9114285

  9. Probiotics in the management of lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M; Folkerts, Gert; Barnes, Peter J; Paul Vos, Arjan; Garssen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are closely related. This similarity between the two organs may underlie why dysfunction in one organ may induce illness in the other. For example, smoking is a major risk factor for COPD and IBD and increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease. Probiotics have been defined as "live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits on the host." In model systems probiotics regulate innate and inflammatory immune responses. Commonly used probiotics include lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces, and these are often used as dietary supplements to provide a health benefit in gastrointestinal diseases including infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer. In this respect, probiotics probably act as immunomodulatory agents and activators of host defence pathways which suggest that they could influence disease severity and incidence at sites distal to the gut. There is increasing evidence that orally delivered probiotics are able to regulate immune responses in the respiratory system. This review provides an overview of the possible role of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases. PMID:23737654

  10. A Model of Hemorrhagic Shock and Acute Lung Injury in Landrace–Large White Swine

    PubMed Central

    Xanthos, Theodoros T; Balkamou, Xanthippi A; Stroumpoulis, Kostantinos I; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis N; Rokas, Georgios I; Agrogiannis, Georgios D; Troupis, Georgios T; Demestiha, Theano D; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic injury is a leading cause of death worldwide for people between 5 and 44 y of age, and it accounts for 10% of all deaths. The incidence of acute lung injury, a life-threatening complication in severely injured trauma patients remains between 30% and 50%. This study describes an experimental protocol of volume-controlled hemorrhage in Landrace–Large White swine. The experimental approach simulated the clinical situation associated with hemorrhagic shock in the trauma patient while providing controlled conditions to maximize reproducibility. The duration of the protocol was 8 h and was divided into 5 distinct phases—stabilization, hemorrhage, maintenance, resuscitation, and observation—after which the swine were euthanized. Lung tissue samples were analyzed histologically. All swine survived the protocol. The hemodynamic responses accurately reflected those seen in humans, and the development of acute lung injury was consistent among all swine. This experimental protocol of hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation in Landrace–Large White swine may be useful for future study of hemorrhagic shock and acute lung injury. PMID:21535927

  11. Activation of PPAR? by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Seong Ho, E-mail: yoosh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A. [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Song, Byoung-Joon, E-mail: bj.song@nih.gov [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Activation of PPAR? attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-? and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPAR? activation. •PPAR? agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPAR? activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPAR? by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPAR? might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.

  12. Classification of interstitial lung disease patterns with topological texture features

    E-print Network

    Huber, Markus B; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A; Wismüller, Axel; 10.1117/12.844318

    2010-01-01

    Topological texture features were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honey-combing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. A set of 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and three Minkowski Functionals (MFs, e.g. MF.euler). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characteriza...

  13. [Gender-Specific Differences in Obstructive Lung Diseases].

    PubMed

    Koper, I

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is a common disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. Sex differences in asthma vary with age. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in females appears to be increasing.There is increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of obstructive lung disease. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in epidemiology, symptom profiles, and management. This provides valuable information which could aid the management of asthma and COPD. There is still a high amount of research in gender medicine to do. PMID:25822009

  14. Hypertransaminasemia and fatal lung disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glycogenosis type II (Pompe disease) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme acid ?-glucosidase. The classic form is characterized by severe cardiac involvement, generalized hypotonia and exitus early in life. Presenting symptoms and signs of the disease may be neglected or underestimated, thus delaying the diagnosis. Respiratory manifestations mainly occur because of respiratory muscle weakness. However, additional mechanisms can favor the development of pulmonary complications that result in fatal respiratory failure. We herein describe a case of an infant with glycogenosis type II presenting with hepatomegaly and hypertransaminasemia, who rapidly developed fatal lung disease. PMID:23391190

  15. Effects of fiber characteristics on lung deposition, retention, and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, M

    1990-01-01

    There is abundant epidemiologic evidence that asbestos fibers can cause lung fibrosis (asbestosis), bronchial cancer, and mesothelioma in humans, as well as limited evidence for such effects in workers exposed to slag and rockwool fibers. Epidemiological evidence for human disease from inhalation exposures to conventional fibrous glass is negative. While health concerns based on the morphological and toxicological similarities between man-made fibers and asbestos are warranted, it is important to note that most of the toxicological evidence for glass fiber toxicity in laboratory animals is based on nonphysiological exposures such as intratracheal instillation or intraperitoneal injection of fiber suspensions. Man-made fibers have produced lung fibrosis and mesotheliomas in such tests, albeit at much lower yields than asbestos. For all durable mineral fibers, critical length limits must be exceeded to warrant concern about chronic toxicity; i.e., 2 microns for asbestosis, 5 microns for mesothelioma, and 10 microns for lung cancer. Fiber width must be less than 0.1 microns for mesothelioma, and larger than this limit for asbestosis and lung cancer. The human health risks for most fibrous glass products are either low or negligible for a variety of reasons. First, most commercial fibrous glass products have mean fiber diameters of approximately 7.5 microns, which results in mean aero-dynamic diameters approximately 22 microns. Thus, most glass fibers, even if dispersed into the air, do not penetrate into the lung to any great extent. Second, the small fraction of smaller diameter fibers that do penetrate into the lungs are not persistent within the lungs for most fibrous glass products due to mechanical breakage into shorter lengths and overall dissolution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2272328

  16. Translational toxicological research: investigating and preventing acute lung injury in organophosphorus insecticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Elspeth J; Clutton, R E; Drummond, G; Eddleston, M

    2014-06-01

    Poisoning through ingestion of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide is a leading cause of suicide globally. Severe poisoning with OP compounds creates an unconscious, paralysed patient with respiratory failure. These symptoms make pulmonary aspiration of stomach contents highly likely, potentially causing an acute lung injury. To explore this hypothesis, we created a Gottingen minipig pulmonary aspiration model (n=26) to investigate the mechanism and severity of lung injury created through pulmonary instillation of 0.5?mL/kg mixtures of porcine gastric juice (GJ), OP and/or its solvent. Early results show that aspiration of OP and GJ causes pulmonary neutrophil sequestration, alveolar haemorrhage and interstitial oedema, with disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane. Further measurements will include quantitative CT imaging, histopathology scoring, acute lung injury biomarkers and respiratory function. In order to test the validity of the minipig model, a pilot study in Sri Lanka has been devised to observe signs of lung injury in human patients who have ingested OP insecticide with or without clinical evidence of pulmonary aspiration. Lung injury will be assessed with PaO2/FIO2 ratios and physiological dead space measurement. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage and urine will be taken at 24 and 48?h after poisoning and at 3-4?h in surgical control patients to measure acute lung injury biomarkers. An unpublished toxicology study from Sri Lanka, 2011-2012, showed that over 40% of unconscious poisoned patients with a GCS <9 were not intubated for ambulance transfer between rural and district hospitals. Delay in intubation leads to aspiration pneumonitis and pneumonia in 38%-45% of unconscious poisoned patients. We hypothesise that non-drug assisted placement of supraglottic airways may be a good tool for use in unconscious poisoned patients requiring transfer from small rural hospitals in Asia. They could confer better airway protection than no airway intervention and reduce both morbidity and mortality. PMID:24351316

  17. Mechanisms of Indirect Acute Lung Injury: A Novel Role for the Co-Inhibitory Receptor, Programmed Death-1 (PD-1)

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Sean F.; Thakkar, Rajan K.; Heffernan, Daithi S.; Huang, Xin; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Lomas-Neira, Joanne; Cioffi, William G.; Ayala, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the contribution of PD-1 in the morbidity and mortality associated with the development of indirect-acute lung injury Summary Background Data The immune cell interaction(s) leading to indirect-acute lung injury are not completely understood. In this respect, while we have recently shown that the murine cell surface co-inhibitory receptor, Programmed Cell death receptor (PD)-1, has a role in septic morbidity/mortality that is mediated in part through the effects on the innate immune arm. However, it is not know if PD-1 has a role in the development of indirect-acute lung injury and how this may be mediated at a cellular level. Methods PD-1 ?/? mice were used in a murine model of indirect-acute lung injury (hemorrhagic shock followed 24 h after with cecal ligation & puncture-septic challenge) and compared to wild type controls. Groups were initially compared for survival and subsequently for markers of pulmonary inflammation, influx of lymphocytes and neutrophils, and expression of PD-1 and its ligand, PD-L1. In addition, peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with indirect-acute lung injury were examined to assess changes in cellular PD-1 expression relative to mortality. Results PD-1 ?/? mice showed improved survival compared to wild type controls. In the mouse lung, CD4+, CD11c+ and Gr-1+ cells showed increased PD-1 expression in response to indirect-acute lung injury. However, while the rise in BAL fluid protein concentrations, lung IL-6, and lung MCP-1 were similar between PD-1 ?/? and wild type animals subjected to indirect acute lung injury, the PD-1 ?/? animals that were subjected to shock/septic challenge had reduced CD4:CD8 ratios, TNF-? levels, MPO activity, and caspase 3 levels in the lung. Comparatively, we observed that humans, who survived their acute lung injury, had significantly lower expression of PD-1 on T cells. Conclusions PD-1 expression contributes to mortality following the induction of indirect-acute lung injury and this appears to be associated with modifications in the cellular and cytokine profiles in the lung. PMID:21997806

  18. Relationship between occupations and asbestosfibre content of the lungs in patients with pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and other diseases

    PubMed Central

    Whitwell, F.; Scott, Jean; Grimshaw, Myra

    1977-01-01

    Whitwell, F., Scott, Jean, and Grimshaw, Myra (1977).Thorax, 32, 377-386. Relationship between occupations and asbestos-fibre content of the lungs in patients with pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and other diseases. The light-visible asbestos-fibre content of 300 lung specimens has been measured using a potash-digestion and phase-contrast microscopy technique, and the results have been correlated with the occupations of the patients. Among 100 pleural mesothelioma specimens were 88 where the patients had been exposed to asbestos, and in 73 of these (83%) the lung tissue contained over 100 000 asbestos fibres per gram of dried lung, and only one specimen showed less than 20 000 fibres per gram. When asbestosis was present, the lungs nearly always showed over 3 million fibres per gram. In 100 control lungs (those without industrial disease or lung cancer) there were less than 20 000 fibres per gram of dried lung in 71% of specimens. Lungs from 100 patients with lung cancer but no industrial disease contained less than 20 000 fibres per gram of dried lung in 80% of cases. Patients with parietal pleural plaques nearly all had over 20 000 fibres per gram in their lungs. The number of asbestos fibres found in the lungs was closely related to the occupations of the patients but not to their home environment. Patients who had lived near likely sources of atmospheric asbestos pollution did not have higher asbestos fibre counts than the rest of the patients. It is concluded that there is a definite dose relationship between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma formation but that' `sub-asbestosis' levels of asbestos exposure do not contribute to the formation of lung cancer in those not subjected to industrial asbestos exposure. Images PMID:929482

  19. Effect of volume reduction on lung transplant timing and selection for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Bavaria; Alberto Pochettino; Robert M. Kotloff; Bruce R. Rosengard; Peter M. Wahl; J. Roberts; Harold I. Palevsky; Larry R. Kaiser

    1998-01-01

    Background: End-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has traditionally been treated with lung transplantation. For 2 years, our lung transplantation program has placed patients with appropriate criteria for lung transplantation and volume reduction into a prospective management algorithm. These patients are offered the lung volume reduction option as a “bridge” to “extend” the eventual time to transplantation. We examine the results

  20. Monitoring of Nonsteroidal Immunosuppressive Drugs in Patients With Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Keith C; Nathanson, Ian; Angel, Luis; Bhorade, Sangeeta M; Chan, Kevin M; Culver, Daniel; Harrod, Christopher G; Hayney, Mary S; Highland, Kristen B; Limper, Andrew H; Patrick, Herbert; Strange, Charlie; Whelan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Immunosuppressive pharmacologic agents prescribed to patients with diffuse interstitial and inflammatory lung disease and lung transplant recipients are associated with potential risks for adverse reactions. Strategies for minimizing such risks include administering these drugs according to established, safe protocols; monitoring to detect manifestations of toxicity; and patient education. Hence, an evidence-based guideline for physicians can improve safety and optimize the likelihood of a successful outcome. To maximize the likelihood that these agents will be used safely, the American College of Chest Physicians established a committee to examine the clinical evidence for the administration and monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs (with the exception of corticosteroids) to identify associated toxicities associated with each drug and appropriate protocols for monitoring these agents. Methods: Committee members developed and refined a series of questions about toxicities of immunosuppressives and current approaches to administration and monitoring. A systematic review was carried out by the American College of Chest Physicians. Committee members were supplied with this information and created this evidence-based guideline. Conclusions: It is hoped that these guidelines will improve patient safety when immunosuppressive drugs are given to lung transplant recipients and to patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease. PMID:23131960

  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Patients with Acute Lyme Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-10-05

    Acute Lyme disease results from transmission of and infection by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi following a tick bite. During acute infection, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of Lyme meningitis. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for a deep view into the proteome for a cohort of patients with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation leading to the identification of proteins that reflect host responses, which are distinct for subjects with acute Lyme disease. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified changes in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. The measured changes in protein abundances reflect the impact of acute Lyme disease on the CNS as presented in CSF. We have identified 89 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease. A number of the differentially abundant proteins have been found to be localized to brain synapse and thus constitute important leads for better understanding of the neurological consequence of disseminated Lyme disease.

  2. From Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema to Fat Embolism Syndrome: A Brief Review of Experimental and Clinical Investigations of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsing I Chen

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most devastating form of acute lung injury (ALI) or pulmonary edema (PE). We presented the experimental studies and clinical investigations of two serious forms of ALI. Drastic and severe PE could be induced by intracranial hypertension or cerebral compression (CC). The CC-induced PE was attributed to overactivation of the medullary sympathetic mechanism. Sympathetic

  3. Acute infectious bursal disease in poultry: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry P. Van Den Berg

    2000-01-01

    This review is focused on the acute form of infectious bursal disease (IBD) caused by very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV). First described in Europe about 10 years ago, this new form of the disease has rapidly spread all over the world, causing dramatic losses; after a decade, it still represents a considerable threat to the poultry industry. Emergence of the

  4. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced microRNA-155 targets SOCS1 to promote acute inflammatory lung injury.

    PubMed

    Rao, Roshni; Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) causes food poisoning in humans. It is considered a biological weapon, and inhalation can trigger lung injury and sometimes respiratory failure. Being a superantigen, SEB initiates an exaggerated inflammatory response. While the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in immune cell activation is getting increasing recognition, their role in the regulation of inflammatory disease induced by SEB has not been studied. In this investigation, we demonstrate that exposure to SEB by inhalation results in acute inflammatory lung injury accompanied by an altered miRNA expression profile in lung-infiltrating cells. Among the miRNAs that were significantly elevated, miR-155 was the most overexpressed. Interestingly, miR-155(-/-) mice were protected from SEB-mediated inflammation and lung injury. Further studies revealed a functional link between SEB-induced miR-155 and proinflammatory cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-?). Through the use of bioinformatics tools, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), a negative regulator of IFN-?, was identified as a potential target of miR-155. While miR-155(-/-) mice displayed increased expression of Socs1, the overexpression of miR-155 led to its suppression, thereby enhancing IFN-? levels. Additionally, the inhibition of miR-155 resulted in restored Socs1expression. Together, our data demonstrate an important role for miR-155 in promoting SEB-mediated inflammation in the lungs through Socs1 suppression and suggest that miR-155 may be an important target in preventing SEB-mediated inflammation and tissue injury. PMID:24778118

  5. An integrated approach in the diagnosis of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Caminati, Antonella; Cavazza, Alberto; Sverzellati, Nicola; Harari, Sergio

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette smoke consists of several chemical compounds with a variety of effects in many organs. In the lung, apart being the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, carcinoma and idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax, tobacco smoke is associated with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), including respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD (RB-ILD), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (PLCH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, ILD in rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary haemorrhage in Goodpasture syndrome. This review will focus on the diseases with a stronger epidemiological association with tobacco smoke, namely RB-ILD, DIP and PLCH. Although the exact pathogenetic evidence linking smoking with these disorders is still not completely understood, there is growing evidence that tobacco smoke targets the terminal or respiratory bronchioles in these diseases, and the differences are reflective of the degree of severity of small airway and parenchymal reaction to the smoke exposure. Despite considerable clinical, radiological and histological overlap between RB-ILD, DIP and PLCH, it is useful to retain the separate classifications for prognostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:22941885

  6. Corticosteroids found ineffective for phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sa; Pauluhn, Jürgen; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen

    2014-08-17

    Various therapeutic regimes have been proposed with limited success for treatment of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (P-ALI). Corticoids were shown to be efficacious against chlorine-induced lung injury but there is still controversy whether this applies also to P-ALI. This study investigates whether different regimen of curatively administered budesonide (BUD, 10 mg/kg bw, i.p. bid; 100 mg/m(3)×30 min, nose-only inhalation), mometasone (MOM, 3 mg/kg bw, i.p. bid) and dexamethasone (DEX, 10, 30 mg/kg bw, i.p. bid), show efficacy to alleviate P-ALI. Efficacy of drugs was judged by nitric oxide (eNO) and carbon dioxide (eCO2) in exhaled air and whether these non-invasive biomarkers are suitable to assess the degree of airway injury (chlorine) relative to alveolar injury (phosgene). P-ALI related analyses included lung function (enhanced pause, Penh), morbidity, increased lung weights, and protein in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) one day postexposure. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of P-ALI was indicated by increased Penh lasting for approximately 20 h postexposure. Following the administration of BUD, this increase could be suppressed; however, without significant improvement in survival and lung edema (increased lung weights and BALF-protein). Collectively, protocols shown to be efficacious for chlorine (Chen et al., 2013) were ineffective and even increased adversity in the P-ALI model. This outcome warrants further study to seek for early biomarkers suitable to differentiate chlorine- and phosgene-induced acute lung injury at yet asymptomatic stage. The patterns of eNO and eCO2 observed following exposure to chlorine and phosgene may be suitable to guide the specialized clinical interventions required for each type of ALI. PMID:24910984

  7. Inhibitory effects of rosiglitazone on paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-ning; Zhao, Min; Zheng, Qiang; Zhao, Hong-yu; Hou, Wei-jian; Bai, Shu-ling

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of the PPAR-? agonist rosiglitazone on acute lung injury induced by the herbicide paraquat (PQ) and the underlying mechanisms of action. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with PQ (20 mg/kg, ip). Rosiglitazone (3 or 10 mg/kg, ip) was administered 1 h before PQ exposure. Peripheral blood was collected at 4, 8, 24 and 72 h after PQ exposure for measuring the levels of MDA, TNF-? and IL-1?, and the SOD activity. Lung tissues were collected at 72 h after PQ exposure to determine the wet-to-dry (W/D) ratios and lung injury scores, as well as the protein levels of NF-?Bp65, PPAR-?, Nrf2, I?B? and pI?B?. Results: At 72 h after PQ exposure, the untreated rats showed a 100% cumulative mortality, whereas no death was observed in rosiglitazone-pretreated rats. Moreover, rosiglitazone pretreatment dose-dependently attenuated PQ-induced lung edema and lung histopathological changes. The pretreatment significantly reduced the levels of TNF-?, IL-1? and MDA, increased SOD activity in the peripheral blood of PQ-treated rats. The pretreatment also efficiently activated PPAR-?, induced Nrf2 expression and inhibited NF-?B activation in the lung tissues of PQ-treated rats. Furthermore, the pretreatment dose-dependently inhibited I?B-? degradation and phosphorylation, thus inhibiting NF-?B activation. Conclusion: Pretreatment with rosiglitazone protects rats against PQ-induced acute lung injury by activating PPAR-?, inducing Nrf2 expression and inhibiting NF-?B activation. PMID:23933652

  8. Ulinastatin reduces pathogenesis of phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Gan, Zhengyi; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming; Xu, Guoxiong

    2014-10-01

    Phosgene (CG) is an industrial chemical used to make plastics, rubbers, dyestuff, and pesticides. Although the inhalation of CG is relatively uncommon, its accidental exposure can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). Ulinastatin, a urinary trypsin inhibitor, has been emerged to use for the treatment of acute inflammatory state of a number of organs including the lung. In this study, we examined the pathogenic changes in the lungs after the inhalation of CG gas and also examined the effect of ulinastatin treatment in reversing these changes in rats. We found that the rats exposed to CG gas at a dose of 5.0 g/m(3) for 5 min led to ALI after 6 h. The signs of lung injury include pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and cellular infiltration in pulmonary alveoli. In addition, interleukin-15 (IL-15) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were significantly increased in CG-inhaled animals. Ulinastatin administration at 1 h postexposure significantly reduced the intensity of all the pathological changes in the lungs of these CG-exposed animals. Ulinastatin at a dose of 400 U/g was shown to decrease the total number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the levels of IL-15 and ICAM-1 in the serum. We also found that the structure of the lung was protected by ulinastatin treatment. Thus, our data suggest that ulinastatin can be used as an effective drug for the treatment of CG-induced ALI. The serum levels of IL-15 and ICAM-1 can be used as the markers of lung injury after exposure to CG and may also serve as useful therapeutic targets at an early stage. The effects of long-term treatment of ulinastatin and the mechanisms by which ulinastatin decreases the infiltration of blood cells and reduces cytokines need further investigation. PMID:23075575

  9. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ye-Ji [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Hae [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Young-So; Choi, Ji-Yeon [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Keung-Sub [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min-Sun [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jihee Lee, E-mail: jihee@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ?Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ?Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ?TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  10. Sodium Butyrate Protects against Severe Burn-Induced Remote Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Guo, Feng; Sun, Li; Wang, Yong-Jie; Sun, Ye-Xiang; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1) sham group, sham burn treatment; 2) burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA) with lactated Ringer’s solution for resuscitation; 3) burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer’s solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D) ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-? and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1 expression. PMID:23874764

  11. HIF2? signaling inhibits adherens junctional disruption in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haixia; Rehman, Jalees; Tang, Haiyang; Wary, Kishore; Mittal, Manish; Chaturvedi, Pallavi; Zhao, You Yang; Chatturvedi, Pallavi; Zhao, Youyang; Komarova, Yulia A; Komorova, Yulia A; Vogel, Stephen M; Malik, Asrar B

    2015-02-01

    Vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction underlies diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by edema and inflammatory cell infiltration. The transcription factor HIF2? is highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and may regulate endothelial barrier function. Here, we analyzed promoter sequences of genes encoding proteins that regulate adherens junction (AJ) integrity and determined that vascular endothelial protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) is a HIF2? target. HIF2?-induced VE-PTP expression enhanced dephosphorylation of VE-cadherin, which reduced VE-cadherin endocytosis and thereby augmented AJ integrity and endothelial barrier function. Mice harboring an EC-specific deletion of Hif2a exhibited decreased VE-PTP expression and increased VE-cadherin phosphorylation, resulting in defective AJs. Mice lacking HIF2? in ECs had increased lung vascular permeability and water content, both of which were further exacerbated by endotoxin-mediated injury. Treatment of these mice with Fg4497, a prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) inhibitor, activated HIF2?-mediated transcription in a hypoxia-independent manner. HIF2? activation increased VE-PTP expression, decreased VE-cadherin phosphorylation, promoted AJ integrity, and prevented the loss of endothelial barrier function. These findings demonstrate that HIF2? enhances endothelial barrier integrity, in part through VE-PTP expression and the resultant VE-cadherin dephosphorylation-mediated assembly of AJs. Moreover, activation of HIF2?/VE-PTP signaling via PHD2 inhibition has the potential to prevent the formation of leaky vessels and edema in inflammatory diseases such as ARDS. PMID:25574837

  12. Nanomedicine as an innovative therapeutic strategy for pediatric lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Chen, Jian; Zahtabi, Fatemeh; Keijzer, Richard; Xing, Malcolm

    2013-11-01

    Nanomedicine is a rapidly emerging technology and represents an innovative field for therapy. Nanomaterials have intrinsically defined features for biomedical applications due to the high specific surface area, the amazing diversity, versatility in structure and function and the possibility of surface charge. In particular, the functionalization of targeting or stimuli-responsive unit on the surface of these materials gives them specific targeted therapeutic properties. There are many pediatric lung diseases that could potentially benefit from nanomedicine. Herein, we aim to review various drug carrier systems and release systems specifically targeting pediatric lung diseases. The injection of nanomedicine into in vivo models and their elimination will also be discussed. Finally, the potential toxicity of nanomaterials will be addressed. PMID:23997035

  13. Neutrophils and their Fc? receptors are essential in a mouse model of transfusion-related acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Su, Xiao; Van Ziffle, Jessica A.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most common cause of transfusion-related mortality. To explore the pathogenesis of TRALI, we developed an in vivo mouse model based on the passive transfusion of an MHC class I (MHC I) mAb (H2Kd) to mice with the cognate antigen. Transfusion of the MHC I mAb to BALB/c mice produced acute lung injury with increased excess lung water, increased lung vascular and lung epithelial permeability to protein, and decreased alveolar fluid clearance. There was 50% mortality at a 2-hour time point after Ab administration. Pulmonary histology and immunohistochemistry revealed prominent neutrophil sequestration in the lung microvasculature that occurred concomitantly with acute peripheral blood neutropenia, all within 2 hours of administration of the mAb. Depletion of neutrophils by injection of anti-granulocyte mAb Gr-1 protected mice from lung injury following MHC I mAb challenge. FcR?–/– mice were resistant to MHC I mAb–induced lung injury, while adoptive transfer of wild-type neutrophils into the FcR?–/– animals restored lung injury following MHC I mAb challenge. In conclusion, in a clinically relevant in vivo mouse model of TRALI using an MHC I mAb, the mechanism of lung injury was dependent on neutrophils and their Fc? receptors. PMID:16710475

  14. Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on splanchnic perfusion in acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kiefer; S. Nunes; P. Kosonen; J. Takala

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute effects of an increased positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on splanchnic tissue perfusion.?Design: Clinical prospective study.?Setting: Intensive care unit in a university clinic.?Patients: Six patients with severe acute lung injury (ALI) requiring mechanical ventilation. All patients had bilateral infiltrates\\u000a in chest X-ray, PaO2\\/FiO2 Interventions: PEEP was increased by 5 cmH2O from a clinically selected PEEP level

  15. Update in diffuse parenchymal lung disease, 2013.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Ivan O; Kaminski, Naftali

    2015-02-01

    The period covered by this update can be considered as the most exciting period in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) research. It started with the identification of genetic variants that are associated with IPF in the majority of patients and continued with discovery of molecular and genetic biomarkers that predict distinct clinical presentations of patients with IPF and potential new biological mechanisms. More importantly, the period ends with the publication of two groundbreaking studies that confirmed that two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, slowed disease progression, leading to a historic approval by the FDA. In this update, we describe these key advances, their scientific and significant clinical implications, and future directions. PMID:25635490

  16. Determining respiratory impairment in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Deborah; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) can affect the lungs through diseases of the chest wall, pleura, vasculature, airways, and parenchyma. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of CTD associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This article describes the evaluation of respiratory impairment in patients with CTD and summarizes the evidence that guides diagnosis and management of CTD-ILD. Patients with CTD with suspected ILD should undergo clinical, physiologic, and radiologic studies to evaluate for the presence of ILD, and these results should be integrated in a multidisciplinary setting to guide diagnosis and management. Screening for ILD may also be appropriate in asymptomatic patients with high-risk features. PMID:25836638

  17. USE OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS TO ASSESS POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG CHANGES IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF CARDIOVASCULAR (CV) DISEASE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of coronary heart disease (e.g., hyperlipidemic rabbits) are being used to investigate epidemiologic associations between higher levels of air pollution and adverse CV consequences. Mechanisms by which pollutant-induced lung or systemic inflammation leads to acute C...

  18. Method Of Treating Silicosis And Other Occupational Lung Diseases

    Cancer.gov

    The inhalation of dust containing crystalline silica particles causes silicosis, an incurable lung disease that progresses even after dust exposure ceases. Over a million US workers are exposed to silica dust annually, and thousands worldwide die each year from silicosis. The pulmonary inflammation caused by silica inhalation is characterized by a cellular infiltrate and the accumulation of chemokines, cytokines, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

  19. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in a Patient with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Özkoç, Soykan; Özgen Alpayd?n, Aylin; Bayram Deliba?, Songül; Ergüden, Ceren; Akkoçlu, Atilla

    2015-03-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is an opportunistic pulmonary infection that occurs in immunocompromised patients. Here, a 49-year-old female patient who was admitted to our hospital with respiratuary distress and whose bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens had P. jirovecii and Aspegillus fumigatus was presented. She had been treated with corticosteroids because of interstisial lung disease and she was also diabetic. It is important to define the coinfection developed in the presence of immunosuppression. PMID:25917588

  20. Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Drugs and Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Camus; Annlyse Fanton; Philippe Bonniaud; Clio Camus; Pascal Foucher

    2004-01-01

    An ever-increasing number of drugs can reproduce variegated patterns of naturally occurring interstitial lung disease (ILD), including most forms of interstitial pneumonias, alveolar involvement and, rarely, vasculitis. Drugs in one therapeutic class may collectively produce the same pattern of involvement. A few drugs can produce more than one pattern of ILD. The diagnosis of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) essentially rests on

  1. Supportive and Palliative Care of Advanced Nonmalignant Lung Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kreuter; Felix J. F. Herth

    2011-01-01

    Supportive and palliative care is an interdisciplinary challenge with the aims of symptom relief and improvement of quality of life in end-stage patients. Main complaints of patients with advanced nonmalignant lung disease are depression and anxiety, dyspnea, pain, and coughing. The discomfort of many physicians, caregivers, and family members with discussions about end-of-life care is one obstacle for the timely

  2. Childhood Interstitial Lung Diseases: An 18-year Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jennifer J.; Deutsch, Gail H.; Moore, Paul E.; Fazili, Mohammad F.; Austin, Eric D.; Brown, Rebekah F.; Sokolow, Andrew G.; Hilmes, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Childhood interstitial lung diseases (ILD) occur in a variety of clinical contexts. Advances in the understanding of disease pathogenesis and use of standardized terminology have facilitated increased case ascertainment. However, as all studies have been performed at specialized referral centers, the applicability of these findings to general pulmonary practice has been uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the historical occurrence of childhood ILD to provide information reflecting general pediatric pulmonary practice patterns. METHODS: Childhood ILD cases seen at Vanderbilt Children’s Hospital from 1994 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to the current pediatric diffuse lung disease histopathologic classification system. RESULTS: A total of 93 cases were identified, of which 91.4% were classifiable. A total of 68.8% (64/93) of subjects underwent lung biopsy in their evaluations. The largest classification categories were disorders related to systemic disease processes (24.7%), disorders of the immunocompromised host (24.7%), and disorders more prevalent in infancy (22.6%). Eight cases of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) were identified, including 5 that were previously unrecognized before this review. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the general scope of childhood ILD and that these cases present within a variety of pediatric subspecialties. Retrospective review was valuable in recognizing more recently described forms of childhood ILD. As a significant portion of cases were classifiable based on clinical, genetic, and/or radiographic criteria, we urge greater consideration to noninvasive diagnostic approaches and suggest modification to the current childhood ILD classification scheme to accommodate the increasing number of cases diagnosed without lung biopsy. PMID:24081995

  3. Exercise but not methacholine differentiates asthma from chronic lung disease in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Godfrey; C. Springer; N. Noviski; C. Maayan; A. Avital

    1991-01-01

    Bronchial provocation challenges with exercise and methacholine were performed on the same day or within a short interval in 52 children with asthma, 22 with other types of chronic lung disease (including cystic fibrosis), and 19 control subjects with no evidence of chronic lung disease. There were no significant differences in the baseline lung function before the two types of

  4. Effects of GW274150, a novel and selective inhibitor of iNOS activity, in acute lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dugo, Laura; Marzocco, Stefania; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paola, Rosanna Di; Genovese, Tiziana; Caputi, Achille P; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GW274150, a novel, potent and selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in a model of lung injury induced by carrageenan administration in the rats. Injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity of rats elicited an acute inflammatory response characterized by: fluid accumulation in the pleural cavity which contained a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) as well as an infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and subsequent lipid peroxidation, and increased production of nitrite/nitrate (NOx), tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). All parameters of inflammation were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by GW274150 (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg?1 injected i.p. 5 min before carrageenan). Carrageenan induced an upregulation of the intracellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1), as well as nitrotyrosine and poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) as determined by immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. The degree of staining for the ICAM-1, nitrotyrosine and PAR was reduced by GW274150. These results clearly confirm that NO from iNOS plays a role in the development of the inflammatory response by altering key components of the inflammatory cascade. GW274150 may offer a novel therapeutic approach for the management of various inflammatory diseases where NO and related radicals have been postulated to play a role. PMID:14769784

  5. Pulmonary coagulopathy as a new target in therapeutic studies of acute lung injury or pneumonia - A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus J. Schultz; Jack J. Haitsma; Haibo Zhang; Arthur S. Slutsky

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. To review the involvement of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI)\\/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary infection, and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Data Source: Published articles on experimental and clinical studies of coagulation and fibrinolysis in ALI\\/ARDS, pneumonia, and mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: Alveolar fibrin deposition is an important feature of ALI\\/ARDS and pulmonary infection.

  6. Apoptosis is a major pathway responsible for the resolution of type II pneumocytes in acute lung injury.

    PubMed Central

    Bardales, R. H.; Xie, S. S.; Schaefer, R. F.; Hsu, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Proliferation of type II pneumocytes has been linked to a repair process during the early phase of acute lung injury, and it persists for a variable period. The mechanisms responsible for their dissolution and/or disappearance are not known, but we speculate that it may be partly due to apoptosis. Sections of lung tissue from patients with acute lung injury (n = 7) and chronic interstitial pneumonia (n = 14) were stained for detection of apoptotic cells via specific labeling of nuclear DNA fragmentation. Results were correlated with those of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining for cell proliferation. Marked apoptosis of CD68-negative type II pneumocytes (30 to 80%) was detected in four of the seven (57%) cases of acute lung injury. In these cases, representing the resolution phase of acute lung injury, PCNA positivity in pneumocytes was extremely rare. In the 3 other cases in the acute/proliferative phase, apoptotic type II pneumocytes were rare whereas PCNA expression was quite evident in these cells. In chronic interstitial pneumonia, only rare type II pneumocytes (< 5%) exhibited apoptosis, and they showed variable staining for PCNA (up to 70%). We conclude that proliferation of type II pneumocytes occurs during the early phase of acute lung injury and is of variable extent and duration. In the resolution phase of acute lung injury, extensive apoptosis of type II pneumocytes is largely responsible for the disappearance of these cells. The time frame within which the apoptotic response occurs is variable and is likely to be dependent upon the specific etiology and extent of the injury. In chronic interstitial pneumonia, type II pneumocytes proliferate continuously, although to a much lesser degree than in the early phase of acute lung injury, and are minimally apoptotic. Images Figure 1 PMID:8780388

  7. Protective effect of magnolol on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yun Feng; Jiang, Tao; Cheng, Qing Shu; Gu, Zhong Ping; Zhu, Yi Fang; Zhang, Zhi Pei; Wang, Jian; Yan, Xiao Long; Wang, Wu Ping; Ke, Chang Kang; Han, Yong; Li, Xiao Fei

    2012-12-01

    Magnolol, a tradition Chinese herb, displays an array of activities including antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant effects. To investigate the protective effect of magnolol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1 mg/kg). The mice received intratracheal instillation of magnolol (5 ?g/kg) 30 min before LPS administration. Pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin stain and lung wet/dry weight ratios were observed. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1?, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in lung tissues was determined by Western blot analysis. Magnolol pretreatment significantly attenuated the severity of lung injury and inhibited the production of TNF-? and IL-1? in mice with ALI. After LPS administration, the lung wet/dry weight ratios, as an index of lung edema, and MPO activity were also markedly reduced by magnolol pretreatment. The expression of COX-2 was significantly suppressed by magnolol pretreatment. Magnolol potently protected against LPS-induced ALI and the protective effects of magnolol may attribute partly to the suppression of COX-2 expression. PMID:23053725

  8. Toxic Inhalational Injury-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hyung Young; Yu, Jinho; Jhang, Won-Kyoung; Park, Seong-Jong; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Cho, Young Ah; Kim, Sun-A; Jang, Se Jin

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) is a group of disorders characterized by lung inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. In the past recent years, we noted an outbreak of child in Korea, which is possibly associated with inhalation toxicity. Here, we report a series of cases involving toxic inhalational injury-associated chILD with bronchiolitis obliterans pattern in Korean children. This study included 16 pediatric patients confirmed by lung biopsy and chest computed tomography, between February 2006 and May 2011 at Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital. The most common presenting symptoms were cough and dyspnea. The median age at presentation was 26 months (range: 12-47 months), with high mortality (44%). Histopathological analysis showed bronchiolar destruction and centrilobular distribution of alveolar destruction by inflammatory and fibroproliferative process with subpleural sparing. Chest computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities and consolidation in the early phase and diffuse centrilobular nodular opacity in the late phase. Air leak with severe respiratory difficulty was associated with poor prognosis. Although respiratory chemicals such as humidifier disinfectants were strongly considered as a cause of this disease, further studies are needed to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease to improve the prognosis and allow early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23772158

  9. Acute lung injury after platelet transfusion in a patient with dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Karoli, Ritu; Bhat, Sanjay; Fatima, Jalees; Verma, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious clinical syndrome associated with the transfusion of plasmacontaining blood components. Recently, TRALI has come to be recognized as the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. This complication typically presents as shortness of breath, hypoxemia, hypotension, fever, and non cardiogenic pulmonary edema, occurring within 6 h after transfusion. Although the mechanism of TRALI has not been exactly known, it has been associated with human leukocyte antigen antibodies and with biologically active mediators in stored cellular blood components. We, hereby, present a case of a patient with dengue fever who developed acute lung injury (ALI), presumably TRALI, after transfusion of platelet concentrates. He was treated with supportive measures and mechanical ventilation. Greater knowledge and increased awareness especially amongst the clinicians regarding TRALI is needed for prevention and treatment of this potentially severe complication of blood/component transfusion. PMID:25161356

  10. Campylobacter colitis: differentiation from acute inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mee, A S; Shield, M; Burke, M

    1985-01-01

    We describe 10 patients with campylobacter colitis who gave a characteristic history of an acute diarrhoeal illness, rectal bleeding and colicky abdominal pain. For the majority of patients the clinical and sigmoidoscopic features differentiated campylobacter colitis from acute inflammatory bowel disease. Where doubt remained, evidence of a specific antibody response to campylobacter enabled a presumptive clinical diagnosis to be confirmed. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B PMID:3973886

  11. Applying Biotechnology and Bioengineering to Pediatric Lung Disease: Emerging Paradigms and Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Kelley L.; Yeager, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric lung diseases remain a costly worldwide health burden. For many children with end-stage lung disease, lung transplantation remains the only therapeutic option. Due to the limited number of lungs available for transplantation, alternatives to lung transplant are desperately needed. Recently, major improvements in tissue engineering have resulted in newer technology and methodology to develop viable bioengineered lungs. These include critical advances in lung cell biology, stem cell biology, lung extracellular matrix, microfabrication techniques, and orthotopic transplantation of bioartificial lungs. The goal of this short review is to engage the reader’s interest with regard to these emerging concepts and to stimulate their interest to learn more. We review the existing state of the art of lung tissue engineering, and point to emerging paradigms and platforms in the field. Finally, we summarize the challenges and unmet needs that remain to be overcome.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, butyrate, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Feng Ni; Jian Wang; Xiao-Long Yan; Feng Tian; Jin-Bo Zhao; Yun-Jie Wang; Tao Jiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, developed as promising anti-tumor drugs, exhibit their anti-inflammatory properties due to their effects on reduction of inflammatory cytokines. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. METHODS: ALI was induced in Balb\\/c mice by intratracheally instillation of LPS (1 mg\\/kg). Before 1 hour

  13. Elevated PAI-1 is associated with poor clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Sapru; Martha A. Q. Curley; Sandra Brady; Michael A. Matthay; Heidi Flori

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Deposition of fibrin in the alveolar space is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)\\u000a is an antifibrinolytic agent that is activated during inflammation. Increased plasma and pulmonary edema fluid levels of PAI-1\\u000a are associated with increased mortality in adults with ALI. This relationship has not been examined in children. The objective\\u000a of this study was

  14. Novel Polymorphisms in the Myosin Light Chain Kinase Gene Confer Risk for Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Gao; Audrey Grant; Indrani Halder; Roy Brower; Jonathan Sevransky; James P. Maloney; Marc Moss; Carl Shanholtz; Charles R. Yates; Umberto Meduri; Mark D. Shriver; Roxann Ingersoll; Alan F. Scott; Terri H. Beaty; Jaideep Moitra; Shwu Fan Ma; Shui Q. Ye; Kathleen C. Barnes; Joe G. N. Garcia

    The genetic basis of acute lung injury (ALI) is poorly understood. The myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) gene encodes the nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase isoform, a multifunctional protein in- volved in the inflammatory response (apoptosis, vascular perme- ability,leukocytediapedesis).Toexamine MYLKasanovelcandidate gene in sepsis-associated ALI, we sequenced exons, exon-intron boundaries, and 2 kb of 5 UTR of the MYLK, which revealed

  15. Early-Age-Related Changes in Proteostasis Augment Immunopathogenesis of Sepsis and Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Bodas; Taehong Min; Neeraj Vij; Amit Gaggar

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe decline of proteasomal activity is known to be associated with the age-related disorders but the early events involved in this process are not apparent. To address this, we investigated the early-age-related (pediatric vs. adult) mechanisms that augment immunopathogenesis of sepsis and acute lung injury.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe 3-weeks (pediatric) and 6-months (adult) old C57BL\\/6 mice were selected as the study groups.

  16. Acute Lung Injury in Patients with Severe Brain Injury: A Double Hit Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Mascia

    2009-01-01

    The presence of pulmonary dysfunction after brain injury is well recognized. Acute lung injury (ALI) occurs in 20% of patients\\u000a with isolated brain injury and is associated with a poor outcome. The “blast injury” theory, which proposes combined “hydrostatic”\\u000a and “high permeability” mechanisms for the formation of neurogenic pulmonary edema, has been challenged recently by the observation\\u000a that a systemic

  17. Acute lung injury fibroblast migration and invasion of a fibrin matrix is mediated by CD44.

    PubMed Central

    Svee, K; White, J; Vaillant, P; Jessurun, J; Roongta, U; Krumwiede, M; Johnson, D; Henke, C

    1996-01-01

    Fibrosis results when myofibroblasts invade the wound fibrin provisional matrix. Extracellular matrix receptors on the cell surface mediate cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Recent work with transformed cells indicates that these cells use the cell surface matrix receptor CD44 for migration and invasion. In this study, we examine whether lung fibroblasts, isolated from patients dying with acute alveolar fibrosis, use CD44 to invade a fibrin matrix. Consistent with a role for CD44 in mediating fibroblast invasion and subsequent tissue fibrosis, immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissue from patients who died from acute alveolar fibrosis after lung injury reveals CD44-expressing mesenchymal cells throughout newly formed fibrotic tissue. PCR, Western, and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrate that the 85-kD CD44 isoform is expressed by acute lung injury fibroblasts. Consistent with a role in mediating matrix adhesion and migration ultrastructurally, CD44 was found uniformly over the cell surface and was found densely labeling filopodia and lamellipodia, highly motile structures involved in cell migration. To determine if lung injury fibroblasts use CD44 to invade fibrin, a fibrin gel model of fibrosis was used. By blocking the function of CD44 with monoclonal antibodies, fibroblast invasion into a fibrin matrix was inhibited. To examine the mechanism by which CD44 mediates fibroblast invasion, the role of CD44 in fibroblast migration and adhesion was evaluated. Anti-CD44 antibody blocked fibroblast migration on the provisional matrix proteins fibronectin, fibrinogen, and hyaluronic acid. Additionally, fibroblast CD44 mediated adhesion to the provisional matrix proteins fibronectin, fibrin, and hyaluronic acid, but not to laminin, a component of the basement membrane. These findings support the hypothesis that fibroblast CD44 functions as an adhesion receptor for provisional matrix proteins and is capable of mediating fibroblast migration and invasion of the wound provisional matrix resulting in the formation of fibrotic tissue. PMID:8878421

  18. Effect of acute cold exposure on lung perfusion and tracheal smooth muscle contraction in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Khadadah, Mousa; Mustafa, Seham; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid

    2011-01-01

    Acute exposure to cold temperature can affect the respiratory system of those exposed to extreme weather and induces asthma in asthmatic patients. However, the effect on lung perfusion and the pulmonary circulation was not addressed in any previous study. The present study investigates the effects of acute cold exposure on tracheal smooth muscle and lung perfusion. New Zealand White rabbits were used in these experiments. For in vitro experiments, isolated tracheal segments were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs' solution for isometric tension recording. Tissue response to cooling from 37 to 4°C was examined. For in vivo experiments, the rabbits were kept in a cold room (4°C) for 1 h. Lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed at the end of this period. Each rabbit was injected with 74 MBq (2 mCi) technetium-99m macroaggregated ((99m)Tc MAA). Perfusion studies were done by using Gamma camera equipped with a low-energy, high-resolution, parallel-hole collimator interfaced with a computer. Static images were acquired 5 min after administration of the radiotracer. Cooling induced a rapid and reproducible contraction in the tracheal smooth muscle. Rabbits exposed to cold temperature had lesser lung perfusion than controls using radionuclide perfusion study. Our results highlight the response of tracheal muscle and pulmonary circulation to cold exposure. These results indicate that cooling induced contraction of the trachea and decreased pulmonary circulation and lung perfusion. This summation of acute cooling for tracheal smooth muscle and pulmonary circulation seems to be the reason for the severe cooling-induced contraction. PMID:20812017

  19. Acute lung injury following the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Kudlak, Kristina; Demuro, Jonas P; Hanna, Adel F; Brem, Harold

    2013-10-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor with immunostimulatory effects that include the activation and priming of neutrophils. Neutrophils are an important part of the human immune system, yet they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). GM-CSF has been found to increase the amount of activated neutrophils recruited to the lung tissue as well as to increase the life span of neutrophils leading to substantial lung tissue injury and the development of ALI. While, there have been few cases reported of ALI following GM-CSF, the experience reported here is the first of ALI subsequent to local administration of GM-CSF in a patient with significant pulmonary comorbidities. PMID:24459628

  20. Acute lung injury following the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    PubMed Central

    Kudlak, Kristina; DeMuro, Jonas P; Hanna, Adel F; Brem, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor with immunostimulatory effects that include the activation and priming of neutrophils. Neutrophils are an important part of the human immune system, yet they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). GM-CSF has been found to increase the amount of activated neutrophils recruited to the lung tissue as well as to increase the life span of neutrophils leading to substantial lung tissue injury and the development of ALI. While, there have been few cases reported of ALI following GM-CSF, the experience reported here is the first of ALI subsequent to local administration of GM-CSF in a patient with significant pulmonary comorbidities. PMID:24459628

  1. A case of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia during early postoperative period after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alici, I O; Yekeler, E; Yazicioglu, A; Turan, S; Tezer-Tekce, Y; Demirag, F; Karaoglanoglu, N

    2015-04-01

    Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is a distinct histologic pattern usually classified under the term chronic lung allograft dysfunction. We present a 48-year-old female patient who experienced AFOP during the 2nd week of double lung transplantation for pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and secondary pulmonary hypertension. During the 8th day after transplantation, fever and neutrophilia developed together with bilateral consolidation. Infection markers were elevated. Despite coverage of a full antimicrobial spectrum, the situation progressed. The patient was diagnosed with AFOP with transbronchial biopsy. The infiltration resolved and the patient improved dramatically with the initiation of pulse corticosteroid treatment. AFOP should be suspected when there is a pulmonary consolidation after lung transplantation, even in the very early post-transplantation period. Several causes, such as alveolar damage and drug reactions, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:25891742

  2. Management of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Barberà, Joan Albert; Blanco, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic pulmonary diseases, especially in advanced disease, and is associated with greater mortality and worse clinical course. Patients with symptoms that exceed those expected by their pulmonary disease should be further evaluated by echocardiography. Confirmatory right heart catheterization is indicated in those conditions where the results of the hemodynamic assessment will determine treatment options. The treatment of choice for patients who are hypoxemic and have pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung disease is long-term oxygen therapy. Conventional vasodilators or drugs approved for pulmonary arterial hypertension are not recommended in patients with mild-to-moderate PH because they may impair gas exchange and because there is a lack of evidence supporting their efficacy. Patients with severe PH should be considered for referral to a center with expertise in PH and lung diseases. Ideally, these patients should be included in randomized controlled trials to determine which patients are more likely to derive benefit and which therapies are most likely to be successful. PMID:26115628

  3. Citral inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by activating PPAR-?.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yongbin; Sun, Zhanfeng; Guo, Xiaotong

    2015-01-15

    Citral, a component of lemongrass oil, has been reported to have many pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of citral on acute lung injury (ALI) and the molecular mechanisms have not been reported. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of citral on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and investigate the molecular mechanisms. LPS-induced acute lung injury model was used to detect the anti-inflammatory effect of citral in vivo. The alveolar macrophages were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of citral in vitro. The results showed that pretreatment with citral remarkably attenuated pulmonary edema, histological severities, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? production in LPS-induced ALI in vivo. In vitro, citral inhibited LPS-induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? production in alveolar macrophages. LPS-induced NF-?B activation was also inhibited by citral. Furthermore, we found that citral activated PPAR-? and the anti-inflammatory effects of citral can be reversed by PPAR-? antagonist GW9662. In conclusion, this is the first to demonstrate that citral protects LPS-induced ALI in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral is associated with activating PPAR-?, thereby inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response. PMID:25281205

  4. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on dead space and its partitions in acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Beydon; L. Uttman; R. Rawal; B. Jonson

    2002-01-01

    Objective. A large tidal volume (VT) and lung collapse and re-expansion may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in acute lung injury (ALI). A low VT and a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can prevent VILI, but the more VT is reduced, the more dead space (VD) compromises gas exchange. We investigated how physiological, airway and alveolar VD varied with PEEP and

  5. MONITORING LUNG DISEASE USING ELECTRONIC STETHOSCOPE ARRAYS Kyle Mulligan, Andy Adler, and Rafik Goubran

    E-print Network

    Adler, Andy

    transfer function, setMONITORING LUNG DISEASE USING ELECTRONIC STETHOSCOPE ARRAYS Kyle Mulligan, Andy Adler, and Rafik health by reducing ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) 1 . To protect against VILI, many novel modes

  6. Therapeutic effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on acute lung injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an early characteristic of multiple organ dysfunction, responsible for high mortality and poor prognosis in patients. The present study aims to evaluate therapeutic effects and mechanisms of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on ALI. Methods Alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, lung tissue edema and compromise, NF-?B activation in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN), and systemic levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in rabbits induced by the intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with PDTC. Production of TNFa and IL-8, activation of Cathepsin G, and PMNs adhesion were also measured. Results The intravenous administration of PDTC had partial therapeutic effects on endotoxemia-induced lung tissue edema and damage, neutrophil influx to the lung, alveolar-capillary barrier dysfunction, and high systemic levels of TNFa and ICAM-1 as well as over-activation of NF-?B. PDTC could directly and partially inhibit LPS-induced TNFa hyper-production and over-activities of Cathepsin G. Such inhibitory effects of PDTC were related to the various stimuli and enhanced through combination with PI3K inhibitor. Conclusion NF-?B signal pathway could be one of targeting molecules and the combination with other signal pathway inhibitors may be an alternative of therapeutic strategies for ALI/ARDS. PMID:21569464

  7. Suppression of Acute Lung Inflammation by Intracellular Peptide Delivery of a Nuclear Import Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Danya; Zienkiewicz, Jozef; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hawiger, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    Acute lung inflammation is a potentially life-threatening complication of infections due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), a worldwide emerging pathogen, which causes necrotizing pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MRSA virulence factors encompass immunotoxins termed superantigens that contribute to lung inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced lung inflammation is attenuated by a cell-penetrating peptide nuclear import inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-?B and other stress-responsive transcription factors (SRTFs). This inhibitor suppressed production of a wide spectrum of cytokines and chemokines induced by direct SEB airway exposure. Consequently, trafficking of neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and lymphocytes to the bronchoalveolar space was significantly reduced while vascular injury, manifested by increased permeability and protein leakage, was attenuated. Moreover, induction of systemic proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to direct SEB airway exposure was reduced. Thus, intracellular delivery of a nuclear import inhibitory peptide suppresses respiratory and systemic expression of key mediators of lung inflammation evoked by SEB. PMID:19259070

  8. Tanshinone IIA therapeutically reduces LPS-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Cao, Fa-le; Zhang, Yu-fei; Shan, Liang; Jiang, Xiao-ling; An, Xiao-jing; Xu, Wei; Liu, Xiu-zhi; Wang, Xiao-yan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Mice were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, ip), then treated with TIIA (10 mg/kg, ip). Seven hours after LPS injection, the lungs were collected for histological study. Protein, LDH, TNF-? and IL-1? levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lungs were measured. Cell apoptosis and Bcl-2, caspase-3, NF-?B and HIF-1? expression in lungs were assayed. Results: LPS caused marked histological changes in lungs, accompanied by significantly increased lung W/D ratio, protein content and LDH level in BALF, and Evans blue leakage. LPS markedly increased neutrophil infiltration in lungs and inflammatory cytokines in BALF. Furthermore, LPS induced cell apoptosis in lungs, as evidenced by increased TUNEL-positive cells, decreased Bcl-2 content and increased cleaved caspase-3 content. Moreover, LPS significantly increased the expression of NF-?B and HIF-1? in lungs. Treatment of LPS-injected mice with TIIA significantly alleviated these pathological changes in lungs. Conclusion: TIIA alleviates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by suppressing inflammatory responses and apoptosis, which is mediated via inhibition of the NF-?B and HIF-1? pathways. PMID:25544360

  9. Inhibition of extracellular HMGB1 attenuates hyperoxia-induced inflammatory acute lung injury???

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, Maria; Javdan, Mohammad; Antoine, Daniel J.; Morrow, Dympna M.P.; Sitapara, Ravikumar A.; Patel, Vivek; Wang, Mao; Sharma, Lokesh; Gorasiya, Samir; Zur, Michelle; Wu, Wenjun; Li, JianHua; Yang, Huan; Ashby, Charles R.; Thomas, Douglas; Wang, Haichao; Mantell, Lin L.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia results in acute lung injury (ALI), accompanied by a significant elevation in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in the lungs. However, the mechanisms underlying hyperoxia-induced proinflammatory ALI remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the proinflammatory cytokine high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) in hyperoxic inflammatory lung injury, using an adult mouse model. The exposure of C57BL/6 mice to ?99% O2 (hyperoxia) significantly increased the accumulation of HMGB1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) prior to the onset of severe inflammatory lung injury. In the airways of hyperoxic mice, HMGB1 was hyperacetylated and existed in various redox forms. Intratracheal administration of recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1) caused a significant increase in leukocyte infiltration into the lungs compared to animal treated with a non-specific peptide. Neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibodies, administrated before hyperoxia significantly attenuated pulmonary edema and inflammatory responses, as indicated by decreased total protein content, wet/dry weight ratio, and numbers of leukocytes in the airways. This protection was also observed when HMGB1 inhibitors were administered after the onset of the hyperoxic exposure. The aliphatic antioxidant, ethyl pyruvate (EP), inhibited HMGB1 secretion from hyperoxic macrophages and attenuated hyperoxic lung injury. Overall, our data suggest that HMGB1 plays a critical role in mediating hyperoxic ALI through the recruitment of leukocytes into the lungs. If these results can be translated to humans, they suggest that HMGB1 inhibitors provide treatment regimens for oxidative inflammatory lung injury in patients receiving hyperoxia through mechanical ventilation. PMID:24563849

  10. Integrative Assessment of Chlorine-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pope-Varsalona, Hannah; Concel, Vincent J.; Liu, Pengyuan; Bein, Kiflai; Berndt, Annerose; Martin, Timothy M.; Ganguly, Koustav; Jang, An Soo; Brant, Kelly A.; Dopico, Richard A.; Upadhyay, Swapna; Di, Y. P. Peter; Hu, Zhen; Vuga, Louis J.; Medvedovic, Mario; Kaminski, Naftali; You, Ming; Alexander, Danny C.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Prows, Daniel R.; Knoell, Daren L.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis for the underlying individual susceptibility to chlorine-induced acute lung injury is unknown. To uncover the genetic basis and pathophysiological processes that could provide additional homeostatic capacities during lung injury, 40 inbred murine strains were exposed to chlorine, and haplotype association mapping was performed. The identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were evaluated through transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. Using ? 10% allelic frequency and ? 10% phenotype explained as threshold criteria, promoter SNPs that could eliminate putative transcriptional factor recognition sites in candidate genes were assessed by determining transcript levels through microarray and reverse real-time PCR during chlorine exposure. The mean survival time varied by approximately 5-fold among strains, and SNP associations were identified for 13 candidate genes on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 9, and 15. Microarrays revealed several differentially enriched pathways, including protein transport (decreased more in the sensitive C57BLKS/J lung) and protein catabolic process (increased more in the resistant C57BL/10J lung). Lung metabolomic profiling revealed 95 of the 280 metabolites measured were altered by chlorine exposure, and included alanine, which decreased more in the C57BLKS/J than in the C57BL/10J strain, and glutamine, which increased more in the C57BL/10J than in the C57BLKS/J strain. Genetic associations from haplotype mapping were strengthened by an integrated assessment using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. The leading candidate genes associated with increased susceptibility to acute lung injury in mice included Klf4, Sema7a, Tns1, Aacs, and a gene that encodes an amino acid carrier, Slc38a4. PMID:22447970

  11. Genome-wide association mapping of acute lung injury in neonatal inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Jennifer L.; Gladwell, Wesley; Verhein, Kirsten C.; Cho, Hye-Youn; Wess, Jürgen; Suzuki, Oscar; Wiltshire, Tim; Kleeberger, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a respiratory condition that affects preterm infants. However, the mechanisms of susceptibility to oxidant stress in neonatal lungs are not completely understood. We evaluated the role of genetic background in response to oxidant stress in the neonatal lung by exposing mice from 36 inbred strains to hyperoxia (95% O2) for 72 h after birth. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury was evaluated by using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis and pathology. Statistically significant interstrain variation was found for BALF inflammatory cells and protein (heritability estimates range: 33.6–55.7%). Genome-wide association mapping using injury phenotypes identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7. Comparative mapping of the chromosome 6 QTLs identified Chrm2 (cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, cardiac) as a candidate susceptibility gene, and mouse strains with a nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Chrm2 that causes an amino acid substitution (P265L) had significantly reduced hyperoxia-induced inflammation compared to strains without the SNP. Further, hyperoxia-induced lung injury was significantly reduced in neonatal mice with targeted deletion of Chrm2, relative to wild-type controls. This study has important implications for understanding the mechanisms of oxidative lung injury in neonates.—Nichols, J. L., Gladwell, W., Verhein, K. C., Cho, H.-Y., Wess, J., Suzuki, O., Wiltshire, T., Kleeberger, S. R. Genome-wide association mapping of acute lung injury in neonatal inbred mice. PMID:24571919

  12. Women and Lung Disease. Sex Differences and Global Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Pinkerton, Kent E; Harbaugh, Mary; Han, MeiLan K; Jourdan Le Saux, Claude; Van Winkle, Laura S; Martin, William J; Kosgei, Rose J; Carter, E Jane; Sitkin, Nicole; Smiley-Jewell, Suzette M; George, Maureen

    2015-07-01

    There is growing evidence that a number of pulmonary diseases affect women differently and with a greater degree of severity than men. The causes for such sex disparity is the focus of this Blue Conference Perspective review, which explores basic cellular and molecular mechanisms, life stages, and clinical outcomes based on environmental, sociocultural, occupational, and infectious scenarios, as well as medical health beliefs. Owing to the breadth of issues related to women and lung disease, we present examples of both basic and clinical concepts that may be the cause for pulmonary disease disparity in women. These examples include those diseases that predominantly affect women, as well as the rising incidence among women for diseases traditionally occurring in men, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Sociocultural implications of pulmonary disease attributable to biomass burning and infectious diseases among women in low- to middle-income countries are reviewed, as are disparities in respiratory health among sexual minority women in high-income countries. The implications of the use of complementary and alternative medicine by women to influence respiratory disease are examined, and future directions for research on women and respiratory health are provided. PMID:25945507

  13. Phenotypic, immunologic, and clinical characteristics of patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to elucidate the phenotypic, immunologic, and clinical characteristics of Korean patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease and compare them with non-NTM bronchiectasis (BE) patients. Methods We prospectively recruited patients between 20 and 80 years of age who had nodular BE type NTM lung disease. Phenotypic, immunologic, and clinical characteristics were evaluated through physical examination, laboratory tests, pulmonary function tests, and radiographic examinations. Questionnaires were also answered. The results of the evaluations were compared with the results of non-NTM BE patients. Results A total of 84 patients with NTM lung disease and 47 non-NTM BE patients participated in the study. Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease and M. abscessus lung disease were most common. Patients with NTM lung disease had lower body mass index than non-NTM BE patients. Scoliosis was observed more frequently in patients with NTM lung disease than in non-NTM BE patients. Conclusions Significant similarities were seen between Korean patients with NTM lung disease and patients from other countries. Differences in phenotypic and clinical characteristics between NTM lung disease and non-NTM BE patients suggest differences in the immunopathogenesis of NTM lung disease and non-NTM BE. Trial registration information ClinicalTrials.gov Registration number; NCT01616745 PMID:24274658

  14. Cytochrome b5 and Cytokeratin 17 Are Biomarkers in Bronchoalveolar Fluid Signifying Onset of Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Ménoret; Sanjeev Kumar; Anthony T. Vella

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by pulmonary edema and acute inflammation leading to pulmonary dysfunction and potentially death. Early medical intervention may ameliorate the severity of ALI, but unfortunately, there are no reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis. We screened for biomarkers in a mouse model of ALI. In this model, inhalation of S. aureus enterotoxin A causes increased capillary

  15. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in lung cancer and benign lung diseases: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Passamonte, P.M.; Seger, R.M.; Holmes, R.A.; Hurst, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (Tc-GHA) uptake was prospectively studied in 58 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and in 20 patients with pulmonary inflammatory disease or metastatic carcinoma. Fifty-three (91%) primary tumors accumulated Tc-GHA: squamous cell 20/22, adenocarcinoma 7/7, large cell 10/11, and small cell 16/18. Intensity of tumor uptake was greatest in small-cell cancer. Supraclavicular metastases were detected in two patients. Fourteen patients with mediastinal evaluation by Tc-GHA imaging and trispiral tomography underwent mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. Five of ten patients with negative mediastinum by tomography and Tc-GHA imaging showed metastases by biopsy (false- negative Tc-GHA). Less intense accumulation of Tc-GHA was observed in 18/20 cases of pulmonary inflammatory disease or pulmonary metastases. Although Tc-GHA accumulates by an unknown mechanism in primary lung cancer, we cannot recommend its use in detecting mediastinal spread of lung cancer due to its unacceptably high false-negative rate.

  16. Molecular Basis of Asbestos-Induced Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Asbestos causes asbestosis and malignancies by molecular mechanisms that are not fully understood. The modes of action underlying asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma appear to differ depending on the fiber type, lung clearance, and genetics. After reviewing the key pathologic changes following asbestos exposure, we examine recently identified pathogenic pathways, with a focus on oxidative stress. Alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis, which is an important early event in asbestosis, is mediated by mitochondria- and p53-regulated death pathways and may be modulated by the endoplasmic reticulum. We review mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-damage and -repair mechanisms, focusing on 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase, as well as cross talk between reactive oxygen species production, mtDNA damage, p53, OGG1, and mitochondrial aconitase. These new insights into the molecular basis of asbestos-induced lung diseases may foster the development of novel therapeutic targets for managing degenerative diseases (e.g., asbestosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), tumors, and aging, for which effective management is lacking. PMID:23347351

  17. Treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer and limited-disease small-cell lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. El Sharouni

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns the treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and limited disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We described a systematic review on the clinical results of radiotherapy, combined or not with chemotherapy, for inoperable NSCLC stage III with the aim to define the best sequence of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We concluded that concurrent chemoradiotherapy demonstrated increased

  18. Oxygen, Gastrin-Releasing Peptide, and Pediatric Lung Disease: Life in the Balance

    PubMed Central

    Sunday, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive oxygen (O2) can cause tissue injury, scarring, aging, and even death. Our laboratory is studying O2-sensing pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) and the PNEC-derived product gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from exposure to hyperoxia, ozone, or ionizing radiation (RT) can induce PNEC degranulation and GRP secretion. PNEC degranulation is also induced by hypoxia, and effects of hypoxia are mediated by free radicals. We have determined that excessive GRP leads to lung injury with acute and chronic inflammation, leading to pulmonary fibrosis (PF), triggered via ROS exposure or by directly treating mice with exogenous GRP. In animal models, GRP-blockade abrogates lung injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. The optimal time frame for GRP-blockade and the key target cell types remain to be determined. The concept of GRP as a mediator of ROS-induced tissue damage represents a paradigm shift about how O2 can cause injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. The host PNEC response in vivo may depend on individual ROS sensing mechanisms and subsequent GRP secretion. Ongoing scientific and clinical investigations promise to further clarify the molecular pathways and clinical relevance of GRP in the pathogenesis of diverse pediatric lung diseases. PMID:25101250

  19. Pathologic Review of Cystic and Cavitary Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions caused by diverse etiologies are commonly encountered in chest imaging. The terms "cyst" and "cavity" are used to describe air-filled regions in the center of a nodule or consolidation of the lung. To date, only radiologic aspects of these lesions have been addressed. The morphologies of pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions exhibit a broad spectrum, ranging from benign to malignant pulmonary diseases of acquired or congenital origin, including variable infectious diseases. In this review, we summarized the differential diagnosis of pathological entities to provide pathologists and radiologists with an overview of the diseases most commonly associated with pulmonary cystic and cavitary lesions in adults and children. The results showed slightly different patterns in the distribution of the diseases in the two groups. The most common causes of cavitary lesions include malignancy and infection in adults, and congenital malformation in children. Therefore, identification of pathologic entities correlating with the radiologic findings, clinical course, and location of the lesion is important in the evaluation of cystic and cavitary lung lesions in order to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures or delayed treatment. PMID:23136566

  20. Depression in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sameer; Cardenas-Garcia, Jose; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Talwar, Arunabh

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lung diseases such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are chronic diseases that cause significantly high morbidity and mortality. As a result, patients can undergo some psychological changes leading to a poor quality of life and depression. Diagnosis of depression is often obscured because fatigue and apathy, two common symptoms of depression, frequently overlap with PAH and ILD. Healthcare providers are sometimes reluctant to ask or mistakenly believe that these symptoms are part of the ongoing disease process, rather than a serious condition like depression. Screening tools are available for physicians to be well positioned in recognizing clinical depression in PAH and ILD. A MedLine/PubMED search was performed identifying all relevant articles with “PAH”, “ILD”, “screening tools” and/or “Depression” in the title. The aim of this review is to provide a brief description of some of the instruments used to screen patients and classes of psychotropic medications accessible to physicians. While pulmonary rehabilitation programs can have a positive impact on patients, physicians should also utilize cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as part of regular care. PMID:25006558

  1. Genetics of Interstitial Lung Disease: Vol de Nuit (Night Flight)

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Shomi; Shimada, Kota; Tsuchiya, Naoyuki; Tohma, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a chronic, progressive fibrotic lung disease with a dismal prognosis. ILD of unknown etiology is referred to as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), which is sporadic in the majority of cases. ILD is frequently accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and other autoimmune diseases, and is referred to as collagen vascular disease-associated ILD (CVD-ILD). Susceptibility to ILD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent advances in radiographic imaging techniques such as high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning as well as high-throughput genomic analyses have provided insights into the genetics of ILD. These studies have repeatedly revealed an association between IIP (sporadic and familial) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of the mucin 5B (MUC5B). HLA-DRB1*11 alleles have been reported to correlate with ILD in European patients with SSc, whereas in Japanese patients with RA, the HLA-DR2 serological group was identified. The aim of this review is to describe the genetic background of sporadic IIP, CVD-ILD, drug-induced-ILD (DI-ILD), pneumoconiosis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The genetics of ILD is still in progress. However, this information will enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis of ILD and aid the identification of novel therapeutic targets for personalized medicine in future.

  2. The Lung Tissue Microbiome in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Marc A.; Dimitriu, Pedro A.; Hayashi, Shizu; Elliott, W. Mark; McDonough, John E.; Gosselink, John V.; Cooper, Joel; Sin, Don D.; Mohn, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Based on surface brushings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Hilty and coworkers demonstrated microbiomes in the human lung characteristic of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which have now been confirmed by others. Objectives: To extend these findings to human lung tissue samples. Methods: DNA from lung tissue samples was obtained from nonsmokers (n = 8); smokers without COPD (n = 8); patients with very severe COPD (Global Initiative for COPD [GOLD] 4) (n = 8); and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 8). The latter served as a positive control, with sterile water as a negative control. All bacterial community analyses were based on polymerase chain reaction amplifying 16S rRNA gene fragments. Total bacterial populations were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and bacterial community composition was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and pyrotag sequencing. Measurement and Main Results: Total bacterial populations within lung tissue were small (20–1,252 bacterial cells per 1,000 human cells) but greater in all four sample groups versus the negative control group (P < 0.001). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing distinguished three distinct bacterial community compositions: one common to the nonsmoker and smoker groups, a second to the GOLD 4 group, and the third to the CF-positive control group. Pyrotag sequencing identified greater than 1,400 unique bacterial sequences and showed an increase in the Firmicutes phylum in GOLD 4 patients versus all other groups (P < 0.003) attributable to an increase in the Lactobacillus genus (P < 0.0007). Conclusions: There is a detectable bacterial community within human lung tissue that changes in patients with very severe COPD. PMID:22427533

  3. Current Status of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine in Lung Biology and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the 3rd leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed. A rapidly growing number of investigations of stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases as well as in ex vivo lung bioengineering have offered exciting new avenues for advancing knowledge of lung biology as well as providing novel potential therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. These initial observations have led to a growing exploration of endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells in clinical trials of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with other clinical investigations planned. Ex vivo bioengineering of the trachea, larynx, diaphragm, and the lung itself with both biosynthetic constructs as well as decellularized tissues have been utilized to explore engineering both airway and vascular systems of the lung. Lung is thus a ripe organ for a variety of cell therapy and regenerative medicine approaches. Current state-of-the-art progress for each of the above areas will be presented as will discussion of current considerations for cell therapy based clinical trials in lung diseases. PMID:23959715

  4. Acute Chagas Disease: New Global Challenges for an Old Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Daniela V.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. PMID:25077613

  5. Pleural mesothelial cells in pleural and lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Veena B.

    2015-01-01

    During development, the mesoderm maintains a complex relationship with the developing endoderm giving rise to the mature lung. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) derived from the mesoderm play a key role during the development of the lung. The pleural mesothelium differentiates to give rise to the endothelium and smooth muscle cells via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). An aberrant recapitulation of such developmental pathways can play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease processes such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The PMC is the central component of the immune responses of the pleura. When exposed to noxious stimuli, it demonstrates innate immune responses such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns as well as causes the release of several cytokines to activate adaptive immune responses. Development of pleural effusions occurs due to an imbalance in the dynamic interaction between junctional proteins, n-cadherin and ?-catenin, and phosphorylation of adherens junctions between PMCs, which is caused in part by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released by PMCs. PMCs play an important role in defense mechanisms against bacterial and mycobacterial pleural infections, and in pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion, asbestos related pleural disease and malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMCs also play a key role in the resolution of inflammation, which can occur with or without fibrosis. Fibrosis occurs as a result of disordered fibrin turnover and due to the effects of cytokines such as transforming growth factor-?, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor; which are released by PMCs. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for PMCs in the pathogenesis of IPF suggesting their potential as a cellular biomarker of disease activity and as a possible therapeutic target. Pleural-based therapies targeting PMCs for treatment of IPF and other lung diseases need further exploration.

  6. Effect of ulinastatin on HMGB1 expression in rats with acute lung injury induced by sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Li, Z J; Wang, X; Li, W F; Lin, Z F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ulinastatin (UTI) on high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interleukin (IL)-6 expression in acute lung injury (ALI) rats with sepsis caused by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery, as well as to examine the underlying biological mechanism. Thirty rats were randomly and evenly divided into sham (control), CLP, and CLP + UTI groups. Thirty minutes after the surgery, the rats in the CLP + UTI group received UTI via the caudal vein, while normal saline was administered to rats in the other groups. Blood, lung tissues, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected at different time points (6, 12, 24, and 48 h) after surgery for determination of related indicators. Compared with the CLP group, rats in the CLP + UTI group exhibited higher seven day survival rates, less lung injury, and decreased HMGB1 expression in the lung tissue, serum, and BALF. In addition, the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 at 24 h in the CLP + UTI group were markedly lower than those in the CLP group. These results suggest that by deregulation, UTI might decrease the lung injury and increase the survival time of ALI rats by downregulating HMGB1 expression as well as by inhibiting TNF-? and IL-6 levels in serum and BALF. PMID:25966207

  7. A canine model of beryllium-induced granulomatous lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, P.J.; Finch, G.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Harmsen, A.G.; Hahn, F.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Bice, D.E. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Groups of beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to attain either low or high initial lung burdens (ILB) of BeO calcined at 500 degrees or 1000 degrees C. Dogs were killed at 8, 32, 64, 180, and 365 days after exposure for evaluation of beryllium tissue burdens and histopathologic examination. Histologic lesions were characterized by perivascular and peribronchiolar infiltrates of lymphocytes and macrophages 8 days after exposure. These lesions progressed to distinct microgranulomas accompanied by patchy granulomatous pneumonia. Lesions were more severe in dogs exposed to 500 degrees C BeO. Additional dogs were sampled by bronchoalveolar lavage at 3, 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, and 22 months after exposure for characterization of lung cytology and lung immune responses. Lymphocyte percentages and numbers were increased in lavage samples 3 months after exposure in dogs with both the high and low ILB of 500 degrees C. Values for both parameters decreased rapidly thereafter. Dogs with either low or high ILB of 1000 degrees C-treated BeO displayed negligible to low and variable changes in both lymphocyte percentages and numbers. In vitro lymphocyte stimulation by beryllium was increased 180 and 210 days after exposure in dogs with the high ILB 500 degrees C BeO only. A marked degree of individual variation in both histologic lesions and lymphocyte responses among dogs was noted. Less soluble 1000 degrees C-treated BeO was retained in the lung longer than the more soluble 500 degrees C-treated material that was cleared almost entirely by 1 year after exposure. Because these changes are similar to those reported in humans with chronic beryllium disease, these data suggest that the beagle represents a good model to study histologic and immunologic aspects of this disease syndrome.

  8. Acute ozone-induced lung injury in rats: Structural-functional relationships of developing alveolar edema

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.F.; Hammond, M.D.; Montgomery, M.R.; Sharp, J.T.; Farrier, S.E.; Balis, J.U. (James A. Haley Veterans Hospital Research Service, Tampa, FL (United States))

    1992-11-01

    As part of a study on the effects of acute ozone stress on the lung surfactant system, we correlated morphometric, biochemical, and functional indices of lung injury using male rats exposed to 3 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 4, and 8 hr. Evaluation of lung mechanics, using the Pulmonary Evaluation and Diagnostic Laboratory System, revealed a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance (ml/cmH[sub 2]O/kg) from a control value of 0.84 [plus minus] 0.02 (SEM) to 0.72 [plus minus] 0.04 and 0.57 [plus minus] 0.06 at 4 and 8 hr, respectively. At 2 hr there was a transient increase in PaO[sub 2] to 116 torr (control = 92 torr) followed by a decrease at 4 hr (65 torr) and 8 hr (55 torr). Morphometry of lung tissue, fixed by perfusion of fixative via the pulmonary artery at 12 cm H[sub 2]O airway distending pressure, demonstrated an increase in the area of the intravascular compartment at 8 hr, in association with a 65 and 39% replacement of the alveolar area by fluid in ventral and dorsal lung regions, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.966) between alveolar edema and transudated proteins in lavage fluid. A stepwise multiple regression model, with edema as the dependent variable, suggested that pulmonary vasodilatation, hypoxemia, and depletion of surfactant tubular myelin in lavage fluid were indices for predicting alveolar edema. In a second model, with lavage protein concentration as the dependent variable, decreasing dynamic compliance and hypoxemia were predictors of progressive, intraalveolar transudation of plasma proteins. The above structural-functional relationships support the concept that ozone-induced high-protein alveolar edema is pathogenetically linked to pulmonary hyperemia, deficiency of surfactant tubular myelin, and associated lung dysfunctions.

  9. Enhanced Hsp70 Expression Protects against Acute Lung Injury by Modulating Apoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Nichelle; Deutschman, Clifford S.; Weiss, Yoram G.

    2011-01-01

    The Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a highly lethal inflammatory lung disorder. Apoptosis plays a key role in its pathogenesis. We showed that an adenovirus expressing the 70 kDa heat shock protein Hsp70 (AdHSP) protected against sepsis-induced lung injury. In this study we tested the hypothesis that AdHSP attenuates apoptosis in sepsis-induced lung injury. Sepsis was induced in rats via cecal ligation and double puncture (2CLP). At the time of 2CLP PBS, AdHSP or AdGFP (an adenoviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein) were injected into the tracheas of septic rats. 48 hours later, lungs were isolated. One lung was fixed for TUNEL staining and immunohistochemistry. The other was homogenized to isolate cytosolic and nuclear protein. Immunoblotting, gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation were performed in these extracts. In separate experiments MLE-12 cells were incubated with medium, AdHSP or AdGFP. Cells were stimulated with TNF?. Cytosolic and nuclear proteins were isolated. These were subjected to immunoblotting, co- immunoprecipitation and a caspase-3 activity assay. TUNEL assay demonstrated that AdHSP reduced alveolar cell apoptosis. This was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of caspase 3 abundance. In lung isolated from septic animals, immunoblotting, co-immunoprecipitation and gel filtration studies revealed an increase in cytoplasmic complexes containing caspases 3, 8 and 9. AdHSP disrupted these complexes. We propose that Hsp70 impairs apoptotic cellular pathways via interactions with caspases. Disruption of large complexes resulted in stabilization of lower molecular weight complexes, thereby, reducing nuclear caspase-3. Prevention of apoptosis in lung injury may preserve alveolar cells and aid in recovery. PMID:22132083

  10. Pentoxifylline attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced acute lung injury, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Vasanthi R; Vayas, Kinal N; Cervelli, Jessica A; Malaviya, Rama; Hall, LeRoy; Massa, Christopher B; Gow, Andrew J; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic alkylating agent that causes damage to the respiratory tract. Evidence suggests that macrophages and inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? contribute to pulmonary injury. Pentoxifylline is a TNF? inhibitor known to suppress inflammation. In these studies, we analyzed the ability of pentoxifylline to mitigate NM-induced lung injury and inflammation. Exposure of male Wistar rats (150-174 g; 8-10 weeks) to NM (0.125 mg/kg, i.t.) resulted in severe histopathological changes in the lung within 3d of exposure, along with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number and protein, indicating inflammation and alveolar-epithelial barrier dysfunction. This was associated with increases in oxidative stress proteins including lipocalin (Lcn)2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in the lung, along with pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic (COX-2(+) and MMP-9(+)), and anti-inflammatory/wound repair (CD163+ and Gal-3(+)) macrophages. Treatment of rats with pentoxifylline (46.7 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 3d beginning 15 min after NM significantly reduced NM-induced lung injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress, as measured histologically and by decreases in BAL cell and protein content, and levels of HO-1 and Lcn2. Macrophages expressing COX-2 and MMP-9 also decreased after pentoxifylline, while CD163+ and Gal-3(+) macrophages increased. This was correlated with persistent upregulation of markers of wound repair including pro-surfactant protein-C and proliferating nuclear cell antigen by Type II cells. NM-induced lung injury and inflammation were associated with alterations in the elastic properties of the lung, however these were largely unaltered by pentoxifylline. These data suggest that pentoxifylline may be useful in treating acute lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress induced by vesicants. PMID:24886962

  11. [Pulsed hypoxia in the treatment of obstructive lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Sil'vestrov, V P; Kovalenko, E A; Krysin, Iu S

    1993-01-01

    A new approach to the treatment of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases is proposed: helium-oxygen therapy combined with repeated interrupted hypoxic stimuli. Helium inclusion into hypoxic gas mixture leads to reduced air density. Gas mixture containing 10-15% of oxygen is more effective at the level of alveolocapillary membrane. When conducted in normal atmospheric pressure, the method involved no complications and produced positive responses in coronary heart disease, hypertension, alimentary diseases. The mixture of helium with oxygen (85-90% of helium, 10-15% oxygen) in combination with impulse normobaric hypoxia has been tried in 25 chronics with obstructive bronchitis and bronchial asthma. The results were indicative of the treatment efficacy: bronchial permeability improved in 67% of the cases, forced vital capacity of the lungs increased, inspiratory reserve volume grew, dyspnea and cough diminished, sputum discharge improved, general tonicity and performance status changed positively. Six-month follow-up evidenced positive shifts too. PMID:8059397

  12. Work-related lung-disease surveillance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Surveillance data for various occupational respiratory diseases were summarized. Some data originated from programs administered by the Division of Respiratory Disease Studies from NIOSH such as the Coal Workers' X-Ray Surveillance Program and the National Coal Workers' Autopsy Study. Other data was taken from publications, reports, and tapes provided by the National Center for Health Statistics, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Mine Safety and Health Administration, OSHA, the Health Care Financing Administration and the Social Security Administration. The report had two sections. The first section contained 21 figures displaying data from tables and the second section contained 59 tables. Subjects covered in the data include coal workers' pneumoconioses, asbestosis, silicosis, exposure to cotton dust, pneumopathy due to inhalation of other dust, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, toxic agents, dust diseases of the lung, and compensation.

  13. A NOVEL WEARABLE PUMP-LUNG DEVICE: IN-VITRO AND ACUTE IN-VIVO STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xufeng; Bianchi, Giacomo; Wong, Philip M.; Biancucci, Brian; Griffith, Bartley P.; Wu, Zhongjun J.

    2011-01-01

    Background To provide long-term ambulatory cardiopulmonary and respiratory support for adult patients, a novel wearable artificial pump-lung device has been developed. The design features, in-vitro and acute in-vivo performance of this device are reported in this paper. Methods This device features a uniquely designed hollow fiber membrane bundle integrated with a magnetically levitated impeller together to form one ultra-compact pump-lung device, which can be placed like current paracorporeal ventricular assist devices to allow ambulatory support. The device is 117 mm in length and 89 mm in diameter and has a priming volume of 115 ml. In-vitro hydrodynamic, gas transfer and biocompatibility experiments were carried out in mock flow loops using ovine blood. Acute in-vivo characterization was conducted in ovine by surgically implanting the device between right atrium and pulmonary artery. Results The in-vitro results showed that the device with a membrane surface area of 0.8 m2 was capable of pumping blood from 1 to 4 L/min against a wide range of pressures and transferring oxygen at a rate of up to 180 ml/min at a blood flow of 3.5 L/min. Standard hemolysis tests demonstrated low hemolysis at the targeted operating condition. The acute in-vivo results also confirmed that the device can provide sufficient oxygen transfer with excellent biocompatibility. Conclusions Base on the in-vitro and acute in-vivo study, this highly integrated wearable pump-lung device can provide efficient respiratory support with good biocompatibility and it is ready for long-term evaluation. PMID:22014451

  14. VNI cures acute and chronic experimental Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Fernando; Dobish, Mark C; Nde, Pius N; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y; Hargrove, Tatiana Y; Johnson, Candice A; Waterman, Michael R; Johnston, Jeffrey N; Lepesheva, Galina I

    2013-08-01

    Chagas disease is a deadly infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Afflicting approximately 8 million people in Latin America, Chagas disease is now becoming a serious global health problem proliferating beyond the traditional geographical borders, mainly because of human and vector migration. Because the disease is endemic in low-resource areas, industrial drug development has been lethargic. The chronic form remains incurable, there are no vaccines, and 2 existing drugs for the acute form are toxic and have low efficacy. Here we report the efficacy of a small molecule, VNI, including evidence of its effectiveness against chronic Chagas disease. VNI is a potent experimental inhibitor of T. cruzi sterol 14?-demethylase. Nontoxic and highly selective, VNI displays promising pharmacokinetics and administered orally to mice at 25 mg/kg for 30 days cures, with 100% cure rate and 100% survival, the acute and chronic T. cruzi infection. PMID:23372180

  15. Application of tracheal gas insufflation to acute unilateral lung injury in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Blanch, L; Van der Kloot, T E; Youngblood, A M; Murias, G; Naveira, A; Adams, A B; Romero, P V; Nahum, A

    2001-08-15

    In unilateral lung injury, application of global positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may cause overdistension of normal alveoli and redistribution of blood flow to diseased lung areas, thereby worsening oxygenation. We hypothesized that selective application of tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) will recruit the injured lung without causing overdistension of the normal lung. In eight anesthetized dogs, left lung saline lavage was performed until Pa(O(2))/FI(O(2)) fell below 100 mm Hg. Then, the dogs were reintubated with a Univent single lumen endotracheal tube that incorporates an internal catheter to provide TGI. After injury, increasing PEEP from 3 to 10 cm H(2)O did not change gas exchange, hemodynamics, or lung compliance. Selective TGI, while keeping end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) constant, improved Pa(O(2))/FI(O(2)) from 212 +/- 43 to 301 +/- 38 mm Hg (p < 0.01) while Pa(CO(2)) and airway pressures decreased (p < 0.01). During selective TGI, reducing tidal volume to 5.2 ml/kg while keeping EELV constant, normalized Pa(CO(2)), did not affect Pa(O(2))/FI(O(2)), and decreased end-inspiratory plateau pressure from 16.6 +/- 1.0 to 11.9 +/- 0.5 cm H(2)O (p < 0.01). In unilateral lung injury, we conclude that selective TGI (1) improves oxygenation at a lower pressure cost as compared with conventional mechanical ventilation, (2) allows reduction in tidal volume without a change in alveolar ventilation, and (3) may be a useful adjunct to limit ventilator-associated lung injury. PMID:11520730

  16. Exaggerated Acute Lung Injury and Impaired Antibacterial Defenses During Staphylococcus aureus Infection in Rats with the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaomei; Maze, Mervyn; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Hellman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Rats with Metabolic Syndrome (MetaS) have a dysregulated immune response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. We hypothesized that rats with MetaS would have dysregulated inflammation, increased lung injury, and less effective antibacterial defenses during Staphylococcus (S.) aureus sepsis as compared to rats without MetaS. Low capacity runner (LCR; a model of MetaS) and high capacity runner (HCR) rats were challenged intravenously with S. aureus bacteria. After 48 h, inflammatory mediators and bacteria were quantified in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung homogenates. Lungs were analyzed histologically. BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios were quantified to assess for vascular leak. Endpoints were compared in infected LCR vs HCR rats. LCR rats had higher blood and lung S. aureus counts, as well as higher levels of IL-6 in plasma, lungs and BALF, MIP-2 in plasma and lung, and IL-17A in lungs. Conversely, LCR rats had lower levels of IL-10 in plasma and lungs. Although lactate levels, and liver and renal function tests were similar between groups, LCR rats had higher BALF protein and lung wet-dry ratios, and more pronounced acute lung injury histologically. During S. aureus bacteremia, as compared with HCR rats, LCR (MetaS) rats have heightened pro-inflammatory responses, accompanied by increased acute lung injury and vascular leak. Notably, despite an augmented pro-inflammatory phenotype, LCR rats have higher bacterial levels in their blood and lungs. The MetaS state may exacerbate lung injury and vascular leak by attenuating the inflammation-resolving response, and by weakening antimicrobial defenses. PMID:25978669

  17. Gene expression profiles characterize inflammation stages in the acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lesur, Isabelle; Textoris, Julien; Loriod, Béatrice; Courbon, Cécile; Garcia, Stéphane; Leone, Marc; Nguyen, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Acute Lung Injury (ALI) carries about 50 percent mortality and is frequently associated with an infection (sepsis). Life-support treatment with mechanical ventilation rescues many patients, although superimposed infection or multiple organ failure can result in death. The outcome of a patient developing sepsis depends on two factors: the infection and the pre-existing inflammation. In this study, we described each stage of the inflammation process using a transcriptional approach and an animal model. Female C57BL6/J mice received an intravenous oleic acid injection to induce an acute lung injury (ALI). Lung expression patterns were analyzed using a 9900 cDNA mouse microarray (MUSV29K). Our gene-expression analysis revealed marked changes in the immune and inflammatory response metabolic pathways, notably lipid metabolism and transcription. The early stage (1 hour-1.5 hours) is characterized by a pro-inflammatory immune response. Later (3 hours-4 hours), the immune cells migrate into inflamed tissues through interaction with vascular endothelial cells. Finally, at late stages of lung inflammation (18 hours-24 hours), metabolism is deeply disturbed. Highly expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines activate transcription of many genes and lipid metabolism. In this study, we described a global overview of critical events occurring during lung inflammation which is essential to understand infectious pathologies such as sepsis where inflammation and infection are intertwined. Based on these data, it becomes possible to isolate the impact of a pathogen at the transcriptional level from the global gene expression modifications resulting from the infection associated with the inflammation. PMID:20628605

  18. Gene Expression Profiles Characterize Inflammation Stages in the Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lesur, Isabelle; Textoris, Julien; Loriod, Béatrice; Courbon, Cécile; Garcia, Stéphane; Leone, Marc; Nguyen, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Acute Lung Injury (ALI) carries about 50 percent mortality and is frequently associated with an infection (sepsis). Life-support treatment with mechanical ventilation rescues many patients, although superimposed infection or multiple organ failure can result in death. The outcome of a patient developing sepsis depends on two factors: the infection and the pre-existing inflammation. In this study, we described each stage of the inflammation process using a transcriptional approach and an animal model. Female C57BL6/J mice received an intravenous oleic acid injection to induce an acute lung injury (ALI). Lung expression patterns were analyzed using a 9900 cDNA mouse microarray (MUSV29K). Our gene-expression analysis revealed marked changes in the immune and inflammatory response metabolic pathways, notably lipid metabolism and transcription. The early stage (1 hour–1.5 hours) is characterized by a pro-inflammatory immune response. Later (3 hours–4 hours), the immune cells migrate into inflamed tissues through interaction with vascular endothelial cells. Finally, at late stages of lung inflammation (18 hours–24 hours), metabolism is deeply disturbed. Highly expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines activate transcription of many genes and lipid metabolism. In this study, we described a global overview of critical events occurring during lung inflammation which is essential to understand infectious pathologies such as sepsis where inflammation and infection are intertwined. Based on these data, it becomes possible to isolate the impact of a pathogen at the transcriptional level from the global gene expression modifications resulting from the infection associated with the inflammation. PMID:20628605

  19. Protective effect of taraxasterol on acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice.

    PubMed

    San, Zhihao; Fu, Yunhe; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Yimeng; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Zhengkai; Yao, Minjun; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-04-01

    Taraxasterol, a pentacyclic-triterpene isolated from Taraxacum officinale, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of taraxasterol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice acute lung injury has not been investigated. The aims of this study were to investigate whether taraxasterol could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced acute lung injury and to clarify the possible mechanism. Male BALB/c mice were pretreated with taraxasterol 1h before intranasal instillation of LPS. 7h after LPS administration, the myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissues, lung wet/dry ratio and inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in the BALF were measured by ELISA. The extent of phosphorylation of I?B-?, p65 NF-?B, p46-p54 JNK, p42-p44 ERK, and p38 were determined by western blotting. The results showed that taraxasterol attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), lung wet/dry ratio, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, western blotting results showed that taraxasterol inhibited the phosphorylation of I?B-?, p65 NF-?B, p46-p54 JNK, p42-p44 ERK, and p38 caused by LPS. Our data suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of taraxasterol against the LPS-induced ALI may be due to its ability of inhibition of the NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:24548765

  20. Acute inhalation exposure to vaporized methamphetamine causes lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sandra M; Buford, Mary C; Braseth, Sarah N; Hutchison, James D; Holian, Andrij

    2008-07-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is currently the most widespread illegally used stimulant in the United States. Use of MA by smoking is the fastest growing mode of administration, which increases concerns about potential pulmonary and other medical complications. A murine exposure system was developed to study the pulmonary affects of inhaled MA. Mice were exposed to 25-100 mg vaporized MA and assessments were made 3 h following initiation of exposure to model acute lung injury. Inhalation of MA vapor resulted in dose-dependent increases in MA plasma levels that were in the range of those experienced by MA users. At the highest MA dose, histological changes were observed in the lung and small but significant increases in lung wet weight to body weight ratios (5.656 +/- 0.176 mg/g for the controls vs. 6.706+/- 0.135 mg/g for the 100 mg MA-exposed mice) were found. In addition, there was 53% increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, greater than 20% increase in albumin levels in the BAL fluid, greater than 2.5-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase levels in the BAL fluid, and reduced total BAL cell numbers (approximately 77% of controls). Levels of the early response cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 were dose-dependently increased in BAL fluid of MA-exposed mice. Exposure to 100 mg MA significantly increased free radical generation in the BAL cells to 107-146% of controls and to approximately 135% of the controls in lung tissue in situ. Together, these data show that acute inhalation exposure to relevant doses of volatilized MA is associated with elevated free radical formation and significant lung injury. PMID:18645723

  1. Staging small cell lung cancer: Veterans Administration Lung Study Group versus International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer—what limits limited disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Micke; Andreas Faldum; Tsegay Metz; Kai-Michael Beeh; Fernando Bittinger; Jan-Georg Hengstler; Roland Buhl

    2002-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is usually classified into a two-stage system, limited (LD) and extensive disease (ED). However, the criteria for these two categories remain controversial. The widely used Veterans Administration Lung Study Group (VALG) definition of LD includes patients with primary tumor and nodal involvement limited to one hemithorax. In contrast, the International Association for the Study of

  2. CD11c+ alveolar macrophages are a source of IL-23 during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Bosmann, Markus; Grailer, Jamison J; Russkamp, Norman F; Ruemmler, Robert; Zetoune, Firas S; Sarma, J Vidya; Ward, Peter A

    2013-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe pulmonary disease causing high numbers of fatalities worldwide. Innate immune responses are an integral part of the pathophysiologic events during ALI. Interleukin 23 (IL-23) is a proinflammatory mediator known to direct the inflammatory responses in various settings of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. Interleukin 23 has been associated with proliferation and effector functions in T(H)17 cells. Surprisingly, little is known about production of IL-23 during ALI. In this study, we found expression of mRNA for IL-23p19 to be 10-fold elevated in lung homogenates of C57BL/6 mice after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Likewise, concentrations of IL-23 significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Experiments with IL-23-deficient mice showed that endogenous IL-23 was required for production of IL-17A during LPS-ALI. CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice were used to selectively deplete CD11c cells, the data suggesting that IL-23 production is dependent at least in part on CD11c cells during ALI. No alterations of IL-23 levels were observed in Rag-1-deficient mice as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice following ALI. The mouse alveolar macrophage cell line, MH-S, as well as primary alveolar macrophages displayed abundant surface expression of CD11c. Activation of these macrophages by LPS resulted in release of IL-23 in vitro. Our findings identify CD11c macrophages in the lung are likely an important source of IL-23 during ALI, which may be helpful for better understanding of this disease. PMID:23481504

  3. CD11c+ Alveolar Macrophages are a Source of IL-23 during LPS-induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bosmann, Markus; Grailer, Jamison J.; Russkamp, Norman F.; Ruemmler, Robert; Zetoune, Firas S.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Ward, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe pulmonary disease causing high numbers of fatalities worldwide. Innate immune responses are an integral part of the pathophysiologic events during ALI. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a proinflammatory mediator known to direct the inflammatory responses in various settings of infection, autoimmunity and cancer. IL-23 has been associated with proliferation and effector functions in Th17 cells. Surprisingly, little is known about production of IL-23 during ALI. In this study we found expression of mRNA for IL-23p19 to be 10-fold elevated in lung homogenates of C57BL/6 mice after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Likewise, concentrations of IL-23, protein significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Experiments with IL-23 deficient mice showed that endogenous IL-23 was required for production of IL-17A during LPS-ALI. CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor transgenic mice were used to selectively deplete CD11c+ cells, the data suggesting that IL-23 production is dependent at least in part on CD11c+ cells during ALI. No alterations of IL-23 levels were observed in Rag-1 deficient mice as compared to wild type C57BL/6 mice following ALI. The mouse alveolar macrophage cell line, MH-S, as well as primary alveolar macrophages displayed abundant surface expression of CD11c. Activation of these macrophages by LPS resulted in release of IL-23 in vitro. Our findings identify CD11c+ macrophages in the lung are likely an important source of IL-23 during ALI, which may be helpful for better understanding of this disease. PMID:23481504

  4. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lol, Pechin; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan compared with intensities in the deformed baseline image indicate local loss of lung tissue that is associated with progression of emphysema. To account for differences in lung intensity owing to differences in the inspiration level in the two scans rather than disease progression, we propose to adjust the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans and may result in a more sensitive measure of disease progression than standard quantitative CT measures. PMID:18982686

  5. Elucidating Nature’s Solutions to Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases and Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Hannah V.; Martin, Sandra L.; Horwitz, Barbara A.; Yan, Lin; Bailey, Shannon M.; Podrabsky, Jason; Storz, Jay F.; Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wong, Renee P.; Lathrop, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Evolution has provided a number of animal species with extraordinary phenotypes. Several of these phenotypes allow species to survive and thrive in environmental conditions that mimic disease states in humans. The study of evolved mechanisms that responsible for these phenotypes may provide insights into the basis of human disease and guide the design of new therapeutic approaches. Examples include species that tolerate acute or chronic hypoxemia like deep-diving mammals and high-altitude inhabitants, as well as those that hibernate and interrupt their development when exposed to adverse environments. The evolved traits exhibited by these animal species involve modifications of common biological pathways that affect metabolic regulation, organ function, antioxidant defenses, and oxygen transport. In 2006, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) released a funding opportunity announcement to support studies that were designed to elucidate the natural molecular and cellular mechanisms of adaptation in species that tolerate extreme environmental conditions. The rationale for this funding opportunity is detailed in this Special Article, and the specific evolved mechanisms examined in the supported research are described. Also highlighted are past medical advances achieved through the study of animal species that have evolved extraordinary phenotypes as well as the expectations for new understanding of nature’s solutions to heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders through future research in this area. PMID:22461362

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Adrenomedullin on Acute Lung Injury Induced by Carrageenan in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Elena, Talero; Rosanna, Di Paola; Emanuela, Mazzon; Esposito, Emanuela; Virginia, Motilva; Salvatore, Cuzzocrea

    2012-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52 amino acid peptide that has shown predominant anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we evaluated the possible therapeutic effect of this peptide in an experimental model of acute inflammation, the carrageenan- (CAR-) induced pleurisy. Pleurisy was induced by injection of CAR into the pleural cavity of mice. AM (200?ng/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal route 1?h after CAR, and the animals were sacrificed 4?h after that. AM treatment attenuated the recruitment of leucocytes in the lung tissue and the generation and/or the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the intercellular cell adhesion molecules. Moreover, AM inhibited the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thereby abating the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and prevented the oxidative and nitroxidative lung tissue injury, as shown by the reduction of nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) levels. Finally, we demonstrated that these anti-inflammatory effects of AM were associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation. All these parameters were markedly increased by intrapleural CAR in the absence of any treatment. We report that treatment with AM significantly reduces the development of acute lung injury by downregulating a broad spectrum of inflammatory factors. PMID:22685374

  7. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and lung injury: Pathogenetic mechanism and therapeutic implication

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chain-Fa; Kao, Shang Jyh; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-01-01

    To review possible mechanisms and therapeutics for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ALI/ARDS causes high mortality. The risk factors include head injury, intracranial disorders, sepsis, infections and others. Investigations have indicated the detrimental role of nitric oxide (NO) through the inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The possible therapeutic regimen includes extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, prone position, fluid and hemodynamic management and permissive hypercapnic acidosis etc. Other pharmacological treatments are anti-inflammatory and/or antimicrobial agents, inhalation of NO, glucocorticoids, surfactant therapy and agents facilitating lung water resolution and ion transports. ?-adrenergic agonists are able to accelerate lung fluid and ion removal and to stimulate surfactant secretion. In conscious rats, regular exercise training alleviates the endotoxin-induced ALI. Propofol and N-acetylcysteine exert protective effect on the ALI induced by endotoxin. Insulin possesses anti-inflammatory effect. Pentobarbital is capable of reducing the endotoxin-induced ALI. In addition, nicotinamide or niacinamide abrogates the ALI caused by ischemia/reperfusion or endotoxemia. This review includes historical retrospective of ALI/ARDS, the neurogenic pulmonary edema due to head injury, the detrimental role of NO, the risk factors, and the possible pathogenetic mechanisms as well as therapeutic regimen for ALI/ARDS. PMID:24701402

  8. Nogo-B protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wujian; Zhu, Ying; Ning, Yunye; Dong, Yuchao; Huang, Haidong; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinying; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Nogo-B, a member of the reticulon 4 protein family, plays a critical role in tissue repair and acute inflammation. Its role in acute lung injury (ALI) remains unclear. Here, we assessed the function of Nogo-B during tissue injury in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mouse model. We found that pulmonary Nogo-B was significantly repressed after LPS instillation in C57BL/6 mice. Over-expression of pulmonary Nogo-B using an adenovirus vector carrying the Nogo-B-RFP-3flag gene (Ad-Nogo-B) significantly prolonged the survival of mice challenged with a lethal dose of LPS. The Ad-Nogo-B-treated mice also had less severe lung injury, less alveolar protein exudation, and a higher number of macrophages but less neutrophil infiltration compared with Ad-RFP-treated mice. Interestingly, microarray analysis showed that the Ad-Nogo-B-treated mice had different gene expression profiles compared with the controls and the prominent expression of genes related to wound healing and the humoral immune response after LPS induction. Of the 49 differently expressed genes, we found that the expression of PTX3 was significantly up-regulated following Nogo-B over-expression as observed in lung tissues and RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, Nogo-B plays a protective role against LPS-induced ALI, and this effect might be exerted through the modulation of alveolar macrophage recruitment and PTX3 production. PMID:26174362

  9. EMT and Interstitial Lung Disease: A Mysterious Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Kage, Hidenori; Borok, Zea

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Pathogenesis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) has largely been investigated in the context of the most frequent ILD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We review studies of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and discuss its potential contribution to collagen-producing (myo)fibroblasts in IPF. Recent findings Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to epithelial apoptosis has been reported as a potential etiologic factor in fibrosis. Recent studies further suggest EMT as a link between ER stress and fibrosis. Combinatorial interactions among Smad3, ?-catenin and other transcriptional co-activators at the ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) promoter provide direct evidence for crosstalk between transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) and ?-catenin pathways during EMT. Lineage tracing yielded conflicting results, with two recent studies supporting and one opposing a role for EMT in lung fibrosis. Summary Advances have been made in elucidating causes and mechanisms of EMT, potentially leading to new treatment options, although contributions of EMT to lung fibrosis in vivo remain controversial. In addition to EMT providing a direct source of (myo)fibroblasts, expression of mesenchymal markers may reflect epithelial injury, in which case inhibition of EMT might be deleterious. EMT-derived cells may also contribute to aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk that promotes fibrogenesis. PMID:22854509

  10. Lung clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in patients with acute lung injury and pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.; O'Brodovich, H.; Dolovich, M.

    1988-07-01

    Several acute and chronic conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary epithelium increased the rate of absorption or clearance into the circulation of small solutes deposited in the alveoli. Technetium 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid can be deposited in the lungs as a submicronic aerosol and its rate of clearance measured with a gamma camera or simple probe. This clearance technique is currently being used to evaluate patients who have developed pulmonary edema and also to detect those patients from a high risk group who are likely to develop adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Its role in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary edema is still under active investigation. It is clear that a single measurement in patients who smoke is not useful, but repeated measurements may provide important information. The lung clearance measurement is very sensitive to changes in epithelial integrity but is not specific for ARDS. It may be most useful in combination with other predictive tests or when the clearance rate is normal. 54 references.

  11. Circulating biomarkers of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lota, Harpreet K; Renzoni, Elisabetta A

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although a large proportion of SSc patients have only limited interstitial involvement with an indolent course, in a significant minority ILD is progressive, requiring prompt treatment and careful monitoring. One of the main challenges for the clinician treating this highly variable disease is the early identification of patients at risk of progressive ILD, while avoiding potentially toxic treatments in those whose disease is inherently stable. Easily available and repeatable biomarkers that allow estimation of the risk of ILD progression and early response to treatment are highly desirable. In this paper, we review the evidence for circulating biomarkers with potential roles in diagnosis, monitoring of disease activity, or determining prognosis. Peripheral blood biomarkers offer the advantages of being readily obtained, non-invasive, and serially monitored. Several possible candidates have emerged from studies performed so far, including SP-D, KL-6, and CCL18. Presently however, there are few prospective studies evaluating the predictive ability of prospective biomarkers after adjustment for disease severity. Future carefully designed, prospective studies of well characterised patients with ILD, with optimal definition of disease severity and outcome measures are needed. PMID:22988462

  12. Circulating Biomarkers of Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lota, Harpreet K.; Renzoni, Elisabetta A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although a large proportion of SSc patients have only limited interstitial involvement with an indolent course, in a significant minority ILD is progressive, requiring prompt treatment and careful monitoring. One of the main challenges for the clinician treating this highly variable disease is the early identification of patients at risk of progressive ILD, while avoiding potentially toxic treatments in those whose disease is inherently stable. Easily available and repeatable biomarkers that allow estimation of the risk of ILD progression and early response to treatment are highly desirable. In this paper, we review the evidence for circulating biomarkers with potential roles in diagnosis, monitoring of disease activity, or determining prognosis. Peripheral blood biomarkers offer the advantages of being readily obtained, non-invasive, and serially monitored. Several possible candidates have emerged from studies performed so far, including SP-D, KL-6, and CCL18. Presently however, there are few prospective studies evaluating the predictive ability of prospective biomarkers after adjustment for disease severity. Future carefully designed, prospective studies of well characterised patients with ILD, with optimal definition of disease severity and outcome measures are needed. PMID:22988462

  13. The Role of Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ye; Cheng, Qiao; Wu, Depei; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem that plays an important role in host immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that alterations in intestinal microbiota composition are linked to multiple inflammatory diseases in humans, including acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). aGVHD is one of the major obstacles in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), characterized by tissue damage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, lung, and skin. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of intestinal microbiota in the control of immune responses during aGVHD. Additionally, the possibility of using probiotic strains for potential treatment or prevention of aGVHD will be discussed. PMID:26090477

  14. Antecedents of chronic lung disease following three patterns of early respiratory disease in preterm infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Laughon; Carl Bose; Elizabeth N Allred; T Michael OShea; Richard A Ehrenkranz; Linda J Van Marter; Alan Leviton

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionThe incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) varies among groups defined by their early pattern of respiratory disease.MethodsThe study examined data collected prospectively on 1204 of the 1506 infants born in 2002–2004 at 23–27 weeks gestation who survived to 36 weeks post-menstrual age. Based on their initial respiratory presentation and need for supplemental oxygen during the first 2 weeks, infants

  15. Human Mesenchymal Stem (Stromal) Cells Promote the Resolution of Acute Lung Injury in Part through Lipoxin A4.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaohui; Abbott, Jason; Cheng, Linda; Colby, Jennifer K; Lee, Jae Woo; Levy, Bruce D; Matthay, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) reduce the severity of acute lung injury in animal models and in an ex vivo perfused human lung model. However, the mechanisms by which MSCs reduce lung injury are not well understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that human MSCs promote the resolution of acute lung injury in part through the effects of a specialized proresolving mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Human alveolar epithelial type II cells and MSCs expressed biosynthetic enzymes and receptors for LXA4. Coculture of human MSCs with alveolar epithelial type II cells in the presence of cytomix significantly increased the production of LXA4 by 117%. The adoptive transfer of MSCs after the onset of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice led to improved survival (48 h), and blocking the LXA4 receptor with WRW4, a LXA4 receptor antagonist, significantly reversed the protective effect of MSCs on both survival and the accumulation of pulmonary edema. LXA4 alone improved survival in mice, and it also significantly decreased the production of TNF-? and MIP-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In summary, these experiments demonstrated two novel findings: human MSCs promote the resolution of lung injury in mice in part through the proresolving lipid mediator LXA4, and LXA4 itself should be considered as a therapeutic for acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:26116507

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid proteome of patients with acute Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Angel, Thomas E; Jacobs, Jon M; Smith, Robert P; Pasternack, Mark S; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A; Shukla, Anil; Gilmore, Edward C; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D; Warren, H Shaw

    2012-10-01

    During acute Lyme disease, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS), leading to the development of meningitis and other neurologic symptoms. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing a deep view into the proteome for patients diagnosed with early disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified differences in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based methods. We identified 108 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease from controls. Comparison between infected patients and control subjects revealed differences in proteins in the CSF associated with cell death localized to brain synapses and others that likely originate from brain parenchyma. PMID:22900834

  17. [A case of docetaxel-induced acute lung injury refractory to treatment].

    PubMed

    Komaki, Chihito; Niwa, Takashi; Tatsuoka, Hiroki; Inoue, Yousuke

    2012-01-01

    A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with squamous cell cancer of the upper lobe of the left lung 11 months before his current admission. The clinical stage was T2N3M1(Stage IV). We started chemotherapy(carboplatin/gemcitabine), which was administered for 7 courses and discontinued 5 months before admission, but he subsequently showed a local relapse. Therefore, we restarted second-line chemotherapy(docetaxel)on admission. Only a single dose of docetaxel was administered, but the patient was diagnosed with respiratory failure 18 days afterwards. The chest roentgenogram and computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities. Bronchoalveolar lavage and blood test data showed no evidence of infection. We diagnosed the patient with acute lung injury induced by docetaxel. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, and therapy with steroids and sivelestat was initiated. In addition, artificial respiration, direct hemoperfusion with a polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column, etc., were performed. However, this intensive care regimen was unsuccessful, and the patient died 31 days after docetaxel administration. Docetaxel is generally used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. However, the present case showed that its use might lead to fatal drug-induced lung injury. PMID:22241361

  18. Could erlotinib treatment lead to acute cardiovascular events in patients with lung adenocarcinoma after chemotherapy failure?

    PubMed Central

    Kus, Tulay; Aktas, Gokmen; Sevinc, Alper; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Camci, Celaletdin

    2015-01-01

    Erlotinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor and tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a targeted drug that was approved for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancers and pancreatic cancers. Targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors are known to have cardiotoxic effects. However, erlotinib does not have a statistically proven effect of increasing acute cardiovascular event (ACE) risk. Preclinical studies showed that beta agonist stimulation among rats that were administered erlotinib led to cardiovascular damage. Thus, there would be an aggregate effect of erlotinib on ACE, although it is not thought to be a cardiotoxic drug itself. In this paper, we present two non-small-cell lung cancer cases that developed ACE under erlotinib treatment.

  19. Rutin decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via inhibition of oxidative stress and the MAPK-NF-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Yang, Ming-Ling; Li, Yi-Ching; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2014-04-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious disease with unacceptably high mortality and morbidity rates. Up to now, no effective therapeutic strategy for ALI has been established. Rutin, quercetin-3-rhamnosyl glucoside, expresses a wide range of biological activities and pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, anticarcinogenic, vasoprotective, and cardioprotective activities. Pretreatment with rutin inhibited not only histopathological changes in lung tissues but also infiltration of polymorphonuclear granulocytes into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. In addition, LPS-induced inflammatory responses, including increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation, were inhibited by rutin in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, rutin suppressed phosphorylation of NF-?B and MAPK and degradation of I?B, an NF-?B inhibitor. Decreased activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and heme oxygenase-1 caused by LPS were reversed by rutin. At the same time, we found that ALI amelioration by chelation of extracellular metal ions with rutin is more efficacious than with deferoxamine. These results indicate that the protective mechanism of rutin is through inhibition of MAPK-NF-?B activation and upregulation of antioxidative enzymes. PMID:24486341

  20. Host Platelets and, in Part, Neutrophils Mediate Lung Accumulation of Transfused UVB-Irradiated Human Platelets in a Mouse Model of Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xuan; Zhi, Li; Gelderman, Monique P.; Vostal, Jaroslav G.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that ultraviolet light B (UVB)-treated human platelets (hPLTs) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) in a two-event SCID mouse model in which the predisposing event was Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection and the second event was infusion of UVB-treated hPLTs. To delineate contributions of host mouse platelets (mPLTs) and neutrophils in the pathogenesis of ALI in this mouse model, we depleted mPLTs or neutrophils and measured hPLT accumulation in the lung. We also assessed lung injury by protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). LPS injection followed by infusion of UVB-treated hPLTs resulted in sequestration of both mPLTs and hPLTs in the lungs of SCID mice, although the numbers of neutrophils in the lung were not significantly different from the control group. Depletion of mouse neutrophils caused only a mild reduction in UVB-hPLTs accumulation in the lungs and a mild reduction in protein content in BALF. In comparison, depletion of mPLTs almost completely abolished hPLTs accumulation in the lung and significantly reduced protein content in BALF. UVB-treated hPLTs bound to host mPLTs, but did not bind to neutrophils in the lung. Aspirin treatment of hPLTs in vitro abolished hPLT accumulation in the lung and protected mice from lung injury. Our data indicate that host mPLTs accumulated in the lungs in response to an inflammatory challenge and subsequently mediated the attachment of transfused UVB-hPLTs. Neutrophils also recruited a small percentage of platelets to the lung. These findings may help develop therapeutic strategies for ALI which could potentially result from transfusion of UV illuminated platelets. PMID:23028636

  1. Surfactant Lipidomics in Healthy Children and Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, Gerhard; Rauch, Daniela; Stückler, Ferdinand; Schmitz, Gerd; Zarbock, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipids account for the majority of pulmonary surfactant, which is essential for normal breathing. We asked if interstitial lung diseases (ILD) in children may disrupt alveolar surfactant and give clues for disease categorization. Methods Comprehensive lipidomics profiles of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were generated in 115 children by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Two reference populations were compared to a broad range of children with ILD. Results Class and species composition in healthy children did not differ from that in children with ILD related to diffuse developmental disorders, chronic tachypnoe of infancy, ILD related to lung vessels and the heart, and ILD related to reactive lymphoid lesions. As groups, ILDs related to the alveolar surfactant region, ILD related to unclear respiratory distress syndrome in the mature neonate, or in part ILD related to growth abnormalities reflecting deficient alveolarisation, had significant alterations of some surfactant specific phospholipids. Additionally, lipids derived from inflammatory processes were identified and differentiated. In children with ABCA3-deficiency from two ILD causing mutations saturated and monounsaturated phosphatidylcholine species with 30 and 32 carbons and almost all phosphatidylglycerol species were severely reduced. In other alveolar disorders lipidomic profiles may be of less diagnostic value, but nevertheless may substantiate lack of significant involvement of mechanisms related to surfactant lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipidomic profiling may identify specific forms of ILD in children with surfactant alterations and characterized the molecular species pattern likely to be transported by ABCA3 in vivo. PMID:25692779

  2. MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Lung, Liver and Kidney Diseases to Infectious Disease, Sickle Cell Disease and Endometrium Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring small non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies provided clear evidence that microRNAs are abundant in the lung, liver and kidney and modulate a diverse spectrum of their functions. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and endometrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections. Particularly, emerging evidence indicates that viruses use their own miRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression. Furthermore, viral infection can exert a profound impact on the host cellular miRNA expression profile, and several RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. PMID:22346770

  3. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and clinical outcomes in patients with acute lung injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn S. Calfee; Mark D. Eisner; Polly E. Parsons; B. Taylor Thompson; Edward R. Conner Jr; Michael A. Matthay; Lorraine B. Ware

    2009-01-01

    Objective  To determine if levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), a marker of alveolar epithelial and endothelial\\u000a injury, differ in patients with hydrostatic pulmonary edema and acute lung injury (ALI) and are associated with clinical outcomes\\u000a in patients with ALI.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design, setting, and participants  Measurement of sICAM-1 levels in (1) plasma and edema fluid from 67 patients with either hydrostatic pulmonary

  4. The Role of Neutrophils in the Pathogenesis of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Y.L.; Silliman, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the major cause of transfusion related morbidity and mortality, world wide. Efforts to reduce or eliminate this serious complication of blood transfusion are hampered by an incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. Currently, TRALI is thought to be mediated by donor alloantibodies directed against host leukocytes or the result of two distinct clinical events. For both proposed mechanisms the neutrophil (PMN) is the key effector cell. This paper reviews TRALI pathophysiology, explores the role of the PMN, details practical information for appropriate diagnosis, and promotes further studies into the pathogenesis of TRALI. PMID:19765516

  5. Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in ovine model of acute lung injury*

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Connelly, Rhykka; Wang, Jianpu; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Horvath, Eszter; Szabo, Csaba; Jaroch, Stefan; Hölscher, Peter; Hillmann, Margrit; Traber, Lillian D.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury is a serious complication of burn patients with concomitant smoke inhalation injury. Nitric oxide has been shown to play a major role in pulmonary dysfunction from thermal damage. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase could ameliorate the severity of acute lung injury using our well-established ovine model of cutaneous burn and smoke inhalation. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental animals study. Setting Investigational intensive care unit at university hospital. Subjects Adult female sheep Interventions Female sheep (n = 16) were surgically prepared for the study. Seven days after surgery, all sheep were randomly allocated into three study groups: sham (noninjured, nontreated, n = 6); control (injured, treated with saline, n = 6); and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (injured, treated with specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, ZK 234238 (n = 4). Control and neuronal nitric oxide synthase groups were given a cutaneous burn (40% of total body surface, third degree) and insufflated with cotton smoke (48 breaths, <40°C) under halothane anesthesia. Animals in sham group received fake injury also under halothane anesthesia. After injury or fake injury procedure, all sheep were placed on ventilators and resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase group was administered with continuous infusion of ZK 234238 started 1 hr postinjury with a dose of 100 ?g/kg/hr. Sham and control groups received same amount of saline. Measurements and Main Results Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics monitored during the 24-hr experimental time period was stable in the sham group. Control sheep developed multiple signs of acute lung injury. This pathophysiology included decreased pulmonary gas exchange and lung compliance, increased pulmonary edema, and inflammatory indices, such as interleukin-8. Treatment of injured sheep with neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor attenuated all the observed pulmonary pathophysiology. Conclusions The results provide definitive evidence that inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-derived excessive nitric oxide may be a novel and beneficial treatment strategy for pulmonary pathology in burn victims with smoke inhalation injury. PMID:19050603

  6. Cytoskeletal mechanisms regulating vascular endothelial barrier function in response to acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kása, Anita; Csortos, Csilla; Verin, Alexander D

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) form a semi-permeable barrier between the interior space of blood vessels and the underlying tissues. In acute lung injury (ALI) the EC barrier is weakened leading to increased vascular permeability. It is widely accepted that EC barrier integrity is critically dependent upon intact cytoskeletal structure and cell junctions. Edemagenic agonists, like thrombin or endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, and EC contractile responses leading to disruption of intercellular contacts and EC permeability increase. The highly clinically-relevant cytoskeletal mechanisms of EC barrier dysfunction are currently under intense investigation and will be described and discussed in the current review. PMID:25838980

  7. Prognostic value of extravascular lung water index in critically ill children with acute respiratory failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Lubrano; Corrado Cecchetti; Marco Elli; Caterina Tomasello; Giuliana Guido; Matteo Di Nardo; Raffaele Masciangelo; Elisabetta Pasotti; Maria Antonietta Barbieri; Elena Bellelli; Nicola Pirozzi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  In critically ill adults, a reduction in the extravascular lung water index (EVLWi) decreases time on mechanical ventilation\\u000a and improves survival. The purpose of this study is to assess the prognostic value of EVLWi in critically ill children with\\u000a acute respiratory failure and investigate its relationships with PaO2, PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, A-aDO2, oxygenation index (OI), mean airway pressure, cardiac index, pulmonary

  8. Transfusion-related acute lung injury following intravenous anti-D administration in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Berger-Achituv, Sivan; Ellis, Martin H; Curtis, Brian R; Wolach, Baruch

    2008-08-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is associated with administration of all plasma containing blood products. We present a 14-year-old adolescent diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who developed acute respiratory insufficiency compatible with TRALI within 5 hr following intravenous anti-D. Full blown noncardiogenic pulmonary edema was noted after 9 hr. Mechanical ventilation was not required and the patient made a full recovery after 36 hr. Analysis of the anti-D preparation revealed reactivity against the neutrophil FcgammaRIIIb. A postinfusion serum sample contained antibodies against class I human HLA-A11 antigen. Clinicians should consider TRALI in patients developing unexplained dyspnea after receiving intravenous anti-D. PMID:18383320

  9. Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, J.A.; Gregory, R.E.; Cole, D.J.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.

    1987-04-01

    Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a /sup 14/C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O/sub 3/ at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/ resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O/sub 3/ exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema.

  10. Isolation of a mesogenic newcastle disease virus from an acute disease in Indonesian ducks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Kingston; R. Dharsana; E. R. Chavez

    1978-01-01

    An outbreak with mortality and acute nervous signs in ducks is reported. A haemagglutinating virus was recovered from dead and sick ducks that was neutralised by Newcastle disease antiserum. The virus was a thermostable paramyxovirus that was classified as a mesogenic Newcastle disease virus. The virus induced the infection in young ducklings following intramuscular inoculation.

  11. The Burden of Exposure–Related Diffuse Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldyn, Sheryl R.; Condos, Rany; Rom, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the burden of exposure-related diffuse lung disease in terms of health effects and economic burden remains challenging. Labor statistics are inadequate to define the scope of the problem, and few studies have analyzed the prevalence of exposure-related illnesses and the subsequent health care cost. Well-defined exposures, such as those associated with coal mines, asbestos mines, and stonecutting, have led to more accurate assessment of prevalence and cost. As governmental regulation of workplace exposure has increased, the prevalence of diseases such as silicosis and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis has diminished. However, the health and economic effects of diseases with long latency periods, such as asbestosis and mesothelioma, continue to increase in the short term. Newer exposures, such as those related to air pollution, nylon flock, and the World Trade Center collapse, have added to these costs. As a result, estimates of cost for occupational diseases, including respiratory illnesses, exceed $26 billion annually, and the true economic burden is likely much higher. PMID:19221957

  12. Pulmonary Endothelial Protein Kinase C-Delta (PKC?) Regulates Neutrophil Migration in Acute Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Mondrinos, Mark J.; Zhang, Ting; Sun, Shuang; Kennedy, Paul A.; King, Devon J.; Wolfson, Marla R.; Knight, Linda C.; Scalia, Rosario; Kilpatrick, Laurie E.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive neutrophil migration across the pulmonary endothelium into the lung and release of oxidants and proteases are key elements in pathogenesis of acute lung injury. Previously, we identified protein kinase C-delta (PKC?) as an important regulator of proinflammatory signaling in human neutrophils and demonstrated that intratracheal instillation of a TAT-conjugated PKC? inhibitory peptide (PKC?-TAT) is lung protective in a rat model of sepsis-induced indirect pulmonary injury (cecal ligation and puncture). In the present study, intratracheal instillation of this PKC? inhibitor resulted in peptide distribution throughout the lung parenchyma and pulmonary endothelium and decreased neutrophil influx, with concomitant attenuation of sepsis-induced endothelial ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in this model. To further delineate the role of PKC? in regulating neutrophil migration, we used an in vitro transmigration model with human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). Consistent with in vivo findings, inhibition of PMVEC PKC? decreased IL-1?–mediated neutrophil transmigration. PKC? regulation was stimulus-dependent; PKC? was required for transmigration mediated by IL-1? and fMLP (integrin-dependent), but not IL-8 (integrin-independent). PKC? was essential for IL-1?–mediated neutrophil adherence and NF-?B–dependent expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. In PMVECs, IL-1?–mediated production of ROS and activation of redox-sensitive NF-?B were PKC? dependent, suggesting an upstream signaling role. Thus, PKC? has an important role in regulating neutrophil–endothelial cell interactions and recruitment to the inflamed lung. PMID:24211111

  13. Complement C5a exacerbates acute lung injury induced through autophagy-mediated alveolar macrophage apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, R; Chen, Z-F; Yan, J; Li, Q-F; Huang, Y; Xu, H; Zhang, X; Jiang, H

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia has a high mortality and often causes acute lung injury (ALI), which is a serious complication, and is accompanied by high mortality up to 40%. An intense local and systemic inflammation occurs during intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced lung injury resulting from activation of immune responses. It has been reported that one component of complement, C5a, is indispensable for the full development of IR-induced lung injury, whereas the detailed molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that intestinal IR induced ALI-like symptoms, and C5a receptor (C5aR) expression was upregulated in alveolar macrophages, which are resident macrophages in lung tissue and are important in pulmonary homeostasis. C5a produced during lung injury binds to C5aR in alveolar macrophages, initiates downstream signaling that promotes autophagy, leading to apoptosis of alveolar macrophages. Using M?-ATG5(-/-) mice, in which the atg5 is deficient specifically in macrophages and autophagy is inhibited, we confirmed that in vivo C5a interacting with C5aR induced autophagy in alveolar macrophages, which promoted alveolar macrophage apoptosis. Further study indicated that autophagy was induced through C5aR-mediated degradation of bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that C5aR-mediated autophagy induced apoptosis in alveolar macrophages, disrupting pulmonary homeostasis and contributing to the development of ALI. This novel mechanism suggests new therapeutic potential of autophagy regulation in ALI. PMID:25032853

  14. Complement C5a exacerbates acute lung injury induced through autophagy-mediated alveolar macrophage apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, R; Chen, Z-F; Yan, J; Li, Q-F; Huang, Y; Xu, H; Zhang, X; Jiang, H

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia has a high mortality and often causes acute lung injury (ALI), which is a serious complication, and is accompanied by high mortality up to 40%. An intense local and systemic inflammation occurs during intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced lung injury resulting from activation of immune responses. It has been reported that one component of complement, C5a, is indispensable for the full development of IR-induced lung injury, whereas the detailed molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that intestinal IR induced ALI-like symptoms, and C5a receptor (C5aR) expression was upregulated in alveolar macrophages, which are resident macrophages in lung tissue and are important in pulmonary homeostasis. C5a produced during lung injury binds to C5aR in alveolar macrophages, initiates downstream signaling that promotes autophagy, leading to apoptosis of alveolar macrophages. Using M?-ATG5?/? mice, in which the atg5 is deficient specifically in macrophages and autophagy is inhibited, we confirmed that in vivo C5a interacting with C5aR induced autophagy in alveolar macrophages, which promoted alveolar macrophage apoptosis. Further study indicated that autophagy was induced through C5aR-mediated degradation of bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that C5aR-mediated autophagy induced apoptosis in alveolar macrophages, disrupting pulmonary homeostasis and contributing to the development of ALI. This novel mechanism suggests new therapeutic potential of autophagy regulation in ALI. PMID:25032853

  15. CD166(pos) subpopulation from differentiated human ES and iPS cells support repair of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Soh, Boon Seng; Zheng, Dahai; Li Yeo, Julie Su; Yang, Henry He; Ng, Shi Yan; Wong, Lan Hiong; Zhang, Wencai; Li, Pin; Nichane, Massimo; Asmat, Atasha; Wong, Poo Sing; Wong, Peng Cheang; Su, Lin Lin; Mantalaris, Sakis A; Lu, Jia; Xian, Wa; McKeon, Frank; Chen, Jianzhu; Lim, Elaine Hsuen; Lim, Bing

    2012-12-01

    Previous efforts to derive lung progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES) cells using embryoid body formation or stromal feeder cocultures had been limited by low efficiencies. Here, we report a step-wise differentiation method to drive both hES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells toward the lung lineage. Our data demonstrated a 30% efficiency in generating lung epithelial cells (LECs) that expresses various distal lung markers. Further enrichment of lung progenitor cells using a stem cell marker, CD166 before transplantation into bleomycin-injured NOD/SCID mice resulted in enhanced survivability of mice and improved lung pulmonary functions. Immunohistochemistry of lung sections from surviving mice further confirmed the specific engraftment of transplanted cells in the damaged lung. These cells were shown to express surfactant protein C, a specific marker for distal lung progenitor in the alveoli. Our study has therefore demonstrated the proof-of-concept of using iPS cells for the repair of acute lung injury, demonstrating the potential usefulness of using patient's own iPS cells to prevent immune rejection which arise from allogenic transplantation. PMID:22968480

  16. Virtual respiratory system in investigation of CPAP influence on optimal breathing frequency in obstructive lungs disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Golczewski; Marek Darowski

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is a commonly accepted method of spontaneous breathing support in obstructive lung disease. Previous work suggested that the cause of the CPAP efficacy in the obstructive lung disease localized in bronchi of middle order (OLDMO) is not as obvious as, for example, in the obstructive sleep apnea. Since CPAP reduces obstruction and the optimal

  17. Identification of Neutrophil Activation Markers as Novel Surrogate Markers of CF Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Lisa; Kügler, Marion; Menendez, Katrin; Naehrlich, Lutz; Schulz, Richard; Roderfeld, Martin; Roeb, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by progressively declining lung function and represents a major factor contributing to the high morbidity and mortality associated with CF. However, apart from spirometry, respiratory disease surrogate markers reliably indicating CF lung disease and the occurrence of pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) are still lacking. Within this study, we aimed to identify new experimental biomarkers for the detection of CF lung disease. Methods 54 adult and 26 pediatric CF patients were included in the study and serum concentrations of MMP-1, -2, -8, -9, -13, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, YKL-40, hyaluronic acid, procollagen III peptide were quantified by ELISA. CF lung disease was diagnosed by lung function test, PEx was defined based on a clinical scoring established by Rosenfeld in 2001. Results Adults and children with moderate to severe CF lung disease exhibited significantly increased serum expression of MMP-8, MMP-9, YKL-40 and TIMP-1. Further, MMP-8, MMP-9 and YKL-40 were significantly increased in adult CF patients suffering from PEx compared to those without clinical signs of respiratory exacerbation. MMP-8, MMP-9, YKL-40, and TIMP-1 serum levels were unaffected by the presence or absence of CF liver disease or pancreatic insufficiency. Conclusions MMP-8, MMP-9, and YKL-40 might serve as novel non-invasive biomarkers of CF lung disease and PEx. PMID:25545245

  18. Measuring and improving respiratory outcomes in cystic fibrosis lung disease: Opportunities and challenges to therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith T. Zemanick; J. Kirk Harris; Steven Conway; Michael W. Konstan; Bruce Marshall; Alexandra L. Quittner; George Retsch-Bogart; Lisa Saiman; Frank J. Accurso

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening disease with significant morbidity. Despite overall improvements in survival, patients with CF experience frequent pulmonary exacerbations and declining lung function, which often accelerates during adolescence. New treatments target steps in the pathogenesis of lung disease, such as the basic defect in CF (CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator [CFTR]), pulmonary infections, inflammation, and mucociliary clearance. These

  19. Pre-B-Cell Colony-enhancing Factor as a Potential Novel Biomarker in Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shui Q. Ye; Brett A. Simon; James P. Maloney; April Zambelli-Weiner; Audrey Grant; R. Blaine Easley; Bryan J. McVerry; Rubin M. Tuder; Theodore Standiford; Roy G. Brower; Kathleen C. Barnes; Joe G. N. Garcia

    Although the pathogenic and genetic basis of acute lung injury (ALI) remains incompletely understood, the identification of novel ALI biomarkers holds promise for unique insights. Expression profil- ing in animal models of ALI (canine and murine) and human ALI detected significant expression of pre-B-cell colony-enhancing fac- tor (PBEF), a gene not previously associated with lung pathophysiol- ogy. These results were

  20. Predictors of end stage lung disease in a cohort of patients with scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, C; Knight, C; Lunt, M; Black, C; Silman, A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the incidence of severe lung disease in patients with scleroderma and identify the combination(s) of features present at first assessment which would be useful to predict future risk of severe lung disease. Methods: Data were analysed on 561 patients with disease onset occurring on or after 1 January 1982 and disease duration of less than five years before the first assessment. Detailed clinical and laboratory assessments were undertaken at the initial visit. End stage lung disease was defined as pulmonary hypertension requiring continuous ambulatory iloprost, or pulmonary fibrosis requiring continuous oxygen, or death from a scleroderma related lung disease. Patient status was determined at 31 December 1997. The best subset of predictors was identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In all, 24 patients reached end stage lung disease. The cumulative incidences were 4%, 6%, and 12% at five, seven, and 14 years respectively. As expected, the lung function tests at baseline, including being in the lowest third of either diffusing lung capacity (hazard ratio (HR) = 18.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5 to 93.8) or of forced vital capacity (HR=4.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 15.2), were highly significant predictors of end stage lung disease. Interestingly, apart from the presence of proteinuria, none of the other baseline variables, including the extent of skin disease and serological markers, were predictive of severe lung disease. Conclusion: End stage lung disease was infrequent in this large cohort, but the cumulative incidence increased importantly with time. The risk can be predicted from baseline assessment of pulmonary function. In particular, those with normal pulmonary function at baseline are at very low risk. PMID:12525384

  1. The Role of Microvesicles Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Li, Chonghui; Chen, Liangan

    2015-01-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane vesicles that are released by many types of cells and have recently been considered important mediators of cell-to-cell communication. MVs serve as a vehicle to transfer proteins and messenger RNA and microRNA (miRNA) to distant cells, which alters the gene expression, proliferation, and differentiation of the recipient cells. Several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity to reverse acute and chronic lung injury in different experimental models through paracrine mechanisms. This paracrine action may be partially accounted for by MVs that are derived from MSCs. MSC-derived MVs may confer a stem cell-like phenotype to injured cells with the consequent activation of self-regenerative programmers. In this review, we summarize the characteristics and biological activities of MSC-derived MVs, and we describe their potential in novel therapeutic approaches in regenerative medicine to repair damaged tissues. Additionally, we provide an overview of studies that have assessed the role of MSC-derived MVs in lung diseases, including the mechanisms that may account for their therapeutic potential. Finally, we discuss the clinical use of MSC-derived MVs with several suggestions for enhancing their therapeutic efficiency.

  2. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: onset after treatment for Hodgkin's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maurizi Enrici; A. P. Anselmo; M. F. Osti; M. Santoro; S. Sbarbati; V. Tombolini; F. Mandelli; E. D'Arcangelo; C. Biagini

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the influence of various factors on the occurrence of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia\\u000a (ANLL) in a group of long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease (HD). From 1972 to 1992, 1045 patients with HD were assessed\\u000a and treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, the Institute of Radiology, and the Department of Human Biopathology,\\u000a Hematology Section, University

  3. Immunobiology of acute graft-versus-host disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavan Reddy; James L. M Ferrara

    2003-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has been the primary limitation to the wider application of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The immunobiology of acute GVHD is complex and can be conceptualized to be a three-step process. In step 1, the conditioning regimen (irradiation and\\/or chemotherapy) leads to the damage and activation of host tissues and induces the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-?

  4. Asthma and acute chest in sickle-cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica H. Boyd; Asif Moinuddin; Robert C. Strunk; Michael R. DeBaun

    2004-01-01

    Summary. Our objective was to determine if physician-diagnosed asthma increases the risk of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in children with sickle-cell disease (SCD) hospitalized for pain. Our study design was a retrospective case-control study of all SCD patients, aged 2-21 years, hospitalized for pain during the interval 1999-2000. Medical records of first admissions during the interval were reviewed to determine

  5. Lung endothelial ADAM17 regulates the acute inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Dreymueller, Daniela; Martin, Christian; Kogel, Tanja; Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Hess, Franz M; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Uhlig, Stefan; Ludwig, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with increased vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and pro-inflammatory mediator release. We investigated the role of the metalloproteinase ADAM17 in endotoxin-induced ALI with focus on endothelial ADAM17. In vitro, endotoxin-mediated induction of endothelial permeability and IL-8-induced transmigration of neutrophils through human microvascular endothelial cells required ADAM17 as shown by inhibition with GW280264X or shRNA-mediated knockdown. In vivo, ALI was induced by intranasal endotoxin-challenge combined with GW280264X treatment or endothelial adam17-knockout. Endotoxin-triggered upregulation of ADAM17 mRNA in the lung was abrogated in knockout mice and associated with reduced ectodomain shedding of the junctional adhesion molecule JAM-A and the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1. Induced vascular permeability, oedema formation, release of TNF-? and IL-6 and pulmonary leukocyte recruitment were all markedly reduced by GW280264X or endothelial adam17-knockout. Intranasal application of TNF-? could not restore leukocyte recruitment and oedema formation in endothelial adam17-knockout animals. Thus, activation of endothelial ADAM17 promotes acute pulmonary inflammation in response to endotoxin by multiple endothelial shedding events most likely independently of endothelial TNF-? release leading to enhanced vascular permeability and leukocyte recruitment. PMID:22367719

  6. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO)].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to respiratory complications of transfusion. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as an acute lung injury that is temporally associated with blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although the etiology of TRALI is not fully understood, one of its main causes is thought to be anti-leukocyte antibodies, such as HLA antibody or HNA antibody. A precautionary male-predominant plasma strategy has been implemented in many developed countries, which has resulted in considerable achievements in reducing the incidence of TRALI. Meanwhile, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) has emerged as a major differential diagnosis of TRALI. TACO is a well-known complication of transfusion, which has been considered not as a side effect of transfusion but a result of erroneous medical practice. It has long been an under-reported complication of transfusion and has not been investigated scientifically. Recent data on transfusion mortality from the Food and Drug Administration revealed that TACO was the second highest cause of death in the United States. Our data also suggested a steep increase in the reported cases of TACO in Japan. Precautionary measures should also be implemented for this emerging complication. PMID:23947178

  7. Bag-of-features approach for improvement of lung tissue classification in diffuse lung disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Noriji; Fukui, Motofumi; Isozaki, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Many automated techniques have been proposed to classify diffuse lung disease patterns. Most of the techniques utilize texture analysis approaches with second and higher order statistics, and show successful classification result among various lung tissue patterns. However, the approaches do not work well for the patterns with inhomogeneous texture distribution within a region of interest (ROI), such as reticular and honeycombing patterns, because the statistics can only capture averaged feature over the ROI. In this work, we have introduced the bag-of-features approach to overcome this difficulty. In the approach, texture images are represented as histograms or distributions of a few basic primitives, which are obtained by clustering local image features. The intensity descriptor and the Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) descriptor are utilized to extract the local features, which have significant discriminatory power due to their specificity to a particular image class. In contrast, the drawback of the local features is lack of invariance under translation and rotation. We improved the invariance by sampling many local regions so that the distribution of the local features is unchanged. We evaluated the performance of our system in the classification task with 5 image classes (ground glass, reticular, honeycombing, emphysema, and normal) using 1109 ROIs from 211 patients. Our system achieved high classification accuracy of 92.8%, which is superior to that of the conventional system with the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature especially for inhomogeneous texture patterns.

  8. [National Survey on Acute Diarrheal Disease and Acute Respiratory Infections, 1987].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 4 administrative regions of the Dominican Republic to determine the prevalence and incidence of acute diarrheal disease and acute respiratory infections and to increase knowledge of their epidemiological features and responses of the family to the conditions. An objective was to establish programs to reduce their occurrence. The study consisted of a retrospective survey of morbidity over the past 2 weeks or mortality over the past year from acute diarrhea or acute respiratory infection in a representative sample of children 5 years old. A cluster sampling method was used. 7322 children 5 were included. 59% had been sick in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. 94% of their illnesses corresponded to acute diarrheal disease or respiratory infection, with few regional differences. 27% of the children had had acute diarrheal disease in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, with a slightly higher frequency (30%) in urban areas. The incidence, or percentage of children with diarrhea on the survey date was 13%, ranging from 6% to 19% in different regions and with a greater prevalence in urban areas. The average duration of diarrheal episodes was 5 days, and the proportion of prolonged episodes lasting 15 or more days was 8%. 89% of the mothers had breast fed their children. 59% of urban and 51% of rural children were given less to eat during their diarrhea. Some form of oral rehydration was administered in 51% of cases. The use of iv feeding ranged from 3% to 12% in different regions and averaged 7% overall. Antidiarrheals or antibiotics were administered in 24% of cases. 65% of families sought medical assistance for the diarrhea. 5% of the children with diarrhea were hospitalized. Diarrhea mortality projected over the 1987 population age 0-4 suggested that around 6000 deaths associated with diarrhea occurred, of which about 5000 were in infants 1 year. 43% of all deaths were associated with diarrhea. The frequency of acute respiratory infection was 40%, ranging from 36% to 45% in different regions. The average duration was 7 days, with little regional or rural-urban variation. The calculated annual frequency of acute respiratory infection was 10 episodes/child, again with little geographic variation. Feeding of the child was decreased in 45% of cases. 49% of cases required medical attention and 58% received some form of treatment. 3% of cases required hospitalization. 26% of deaths in children 1 and 15% in those 1-4 were associated with acute respiratory infection. The annual projection of 50 days morbidity due to acute respiratory infection and 30 days due to diarrhea totals about 80 days of illness/child/year. Considering that feeding was reduced in 45% of children with acute respiratory infections and 55% with acute diarrhea, the potential effect on nutritional status is obvious. PMID:12285289

  9. Initial Trophic vs Full Enteral Feeding in Patients With Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context The amount of enteral nutrition patients with acute lung injury need is unknown. Objective To determine if initial lower-volume trophic enteral feeding would increase ventilator-free days and decrease gastrointestinal intolerances compared with initial full enteral feeding. Design, Setting, and Participants The EDEN study, a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through April 12, 2011. Participants were 1000 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. Interventions Participants were randomized to receive either trophic or full enteral feeding for the first 6 days. After day 6, the care of all patients who were still receiving mechanical ventilation was managed according to the full feeding protocol. Main Outcome Measures Ventilator-free days to study day 28. Results Baseline characteristics were similar between the trophic-feeding (n=508) and full-feeding (n=492) groups. The full-feeding group received more enteral calories for the first 6 days, about 1300 kcal/d compared with 400 kcal/d (P<.001). Initial trophic feeding did not increase the number of ventilator-free days (14.9 [95% CI, 13.9 to 15.8] vs 15.0 [95% CI, 14.1 to 15.9]; difference, ?0.1 [95% CI, ?1.4 to 1.2]; P=.89) or reduce 60-day mortality (23.2% [95% CI, 19.6% to 26.9%] vs 22.2% [95% CI, 18.5% to 25.8%]; difference, 1.0% [95% CI, ?4.1% to 6.3%]; P=77) compared with full feeding. There were no differences in infectious complications between the groups. Despite receiving more prokinetic agents, the full-feeding group experienced more vomiting (2.2% vs 1.7% of patient feeding days; P=.05), elevated gastric residual volumes (4.9% vs 2.2% of feeding days; P<.001), and constipation (3.1% vs 2.1% of feeding days; P=.003). Mean plasma glucose values and average hourly insulin administration were both higher in the full-feeding group over the first 6 days. Conclusion In patients with acute lung injury, compared with full enteral feeding, a strategy of initial trophic enteral feeding for up to 6 days did not improve ventilator-free days, 60-day mortality, or infectious complications but was associated with less gastrointestinal intolerance. PMID:22307571

  10. Effects of Different Tidal Volume Ventilation on Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chao; Wang, Jinzhu; Li, Li; Li, Haina; Li, Lu; Su, Qianqian; Che, Lu; Liu, Lanping; Di, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different tidal volume (VT) ventilation on paraquat-induced acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) in piglets. Material/Methods We developed ALI/ARDS models in piglets by intraperitoneal injection of paraquat (PQ). The piglets were randomly divided into three groups: small VT group (VT=6 ml/kg, n=6), middle VT group (VT=10 ml/kg, n=6), and large VT group (VT=15 ml/kg, n=6), with the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) set as 10 cmH2O. The hemodynamics were monitored by pulse-indicated continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) and the airway pressure changes and blood gas analysis indexes were recorded at different time points. The pathological changes were observed by lung puncture. Results The piglets showed ALI/ARDS in 4.5±0.8 hours after PQ intraperitoneal injection. PH, PaO2 and oxygenation indexes in the three groups all decreased after modeling success compared with baseline, and PaCO2 increased significantly. PH in the small VT group decreased most obviously after ventilation for 6 hours. PaO2 and oxygenation indexes in the small VT group showed the most obvious increase after ventilation for 2 hours and were much higher than the other two groups after ventilation for 6 hours. PaCO2 increased gradually after mechanical ventilation and the small VT group showed most obvious increase. The ELWI increased obviously after ventilation for 2 hours and then the small VT group clearly decreased. PIP and plateau pressure (Pplat) in the small VT group decreased gradually and in the middle and large VT group they increased after ventilation. The lung histopathology showed that the large VT group had the most severe damage and the small VT group had only minimal damage. Conclusions Small tidal volume ventilation combined with PEEP could alleviate the acute lung injury induced by paraquat and improve oxygenation. PMID:25671690

  11. Single high-dose dexamethasone and sodium salicylate failed to attenuate phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Pauluhn, Jürgen; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Life-threatening acute lung injury potentially occurs following high-level accidental exposures to phosgene gas. This situation was mirrored in rats exposed nose-only at 900-1000 mg phosgene/m(3)min. At this exposure level, previous studies on rats demonstrated sustained reflexively induced cardiopulmonary dysfunction and evidence of vascular fluid redistribution. These findings challenge the currently applied treatment strategies to mitigate the presumed non-cardiogenic lung edema by steroidal or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study investigates whether high doses of curatively administered dexamethasone (DX; 100 mg/kg bw, ip) and sodium salicylate (SS; 200 mg/kg bw, ip), alone or in combination, show efficacy to mitigate the phosgene-induced lung edema. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), animal morbidity and mortality, and increased lung weights one day postexposure served as endpoints of lung injury and drug efficacy. When applying this dosing regimen, SS showed minimal (if any) efficacy while DX, alone or in combination with SS, substantially aggravated the emerging lung edema (lung weights) with 40% mortality. The degree of acute lung injury (ALI) was mirrored by increased eNO. Its direct relationship to ALI-severity was evidenced by decreased eNO following NO-synthetase inhibitor administration (aminoguanidine-aerosol) and associated mitigation of ALI. All non-treated phosgene-exposed as well as treated but non-phosgene-exposed rats survived. This experimental evidence suggests that high-dose corticoid treatments may aggravate the pulmonary toxicity of phosgene. Similarly, this outcome supports the supposition that non-inflammatory, cardiogenic and/or neurogenic factors play a role in this type of acute lung injury. PMID:24280380

  12. Platycodin D attenuates acute lung injury by suppressing apoptosis and inflammation in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiwei; Su, Qiang; Wang, Hanqin; Guo, Shen; Chen, Yanyan; Duan, Jinao; Wang, Shumin

    2015-07-01

    Platycodin D (PLD) is the major triterpene saponin in the root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) with various pharmacological activities. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects and possible mechanisms of PLD on acute lung injury (ALI) both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, we used two ALI models, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and bleomycin (BLE)-induced ALI to evaluate the protective effects and possible mechanisms of PLD. Female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the following groups: control group, LPS group, LPS plus pre-treatment with dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, LPS plus pre-treatment with PLD groups (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg), LPS plus post-treatment with dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, LPS plus post-treatment with PLD groups (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg), BLE group, BLE plus pre-treatment with dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, BLE plus pre-treatment with PLD groups (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg), BLE plus post-treatment with dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, and BLE plus post-treatment with PLD groups (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg). PLD was orally administered before or after LPS or BLE challenge with mice. Mice were sacrificed, and lung tissues and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) were prepared for further analysis. Our results showed that PLD significantly decreased lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (lung W/D weight ratio), total leukocyte number and neutrophil percentage in the BALF, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of lung in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor neurosis factor (TNF)-? were also found significantly inhibited in BALF. Furthermore, PLD effectively inhibited the expressions of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), Caspase-3 and Bax in the lung tissues, as well as restored the expression of Bcl-2 in the lungs and improved the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in BALF. In vitro, we used LPS-challenged cell model to evaluate the protective effects and possible mechanisms of PLD. MLE-12 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and absence of PLD. The levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and the expressions of NF-?B, Caspase-3, and Bax were remarkably down-regulated, while the expression of bcl-2 was significantly up-regulated in PLD treatment groups in MLE-12 cells. These results showed that the administration of PLD improved ALI both in vivo and in vitro, possibly through suppressing apoptosis and inflammation. PMID:25981110

  13. Centers for Disease Control: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to this Web site from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) will find a current and reliable source of information about Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The FAQs section offers a general overview of the disease and recent outbreak -- a good starting point for finding the facts behind the headline news. The site also offers recent CDC guidelines and recommendations geared toward medical professionals, travel advisories and related concerns, and links to World Health Organization and other international resources (WHO is coordinating the international investigation of the SARS outbreak).

  14. NHLBI viewpoint: Lung health and disease prevention research starting in childhood.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, Carol J; Weinmann, Gail G

    2015-06-01

    Lung health begins in utero when the complex structure of the airway, alveolar, and vascular structures are formed. To really impact the United States and global burden of chronic lung diseases in both adults and children, we must understand normal and abnormal development, the outcomes of disrupted development, and the effects of in utero and postnatal exposures on lung health. With increasing recognition of early life origins of adult diseases,(1) it is important to know what early events and interventions can alter the trajectory of lung development, growth, and decline to help promote lung health and reduce chronic lung disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015; 50:604-606. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25857257

  15. Derecruitment Test and Surfactant Therapy in Patients with Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smetkin, Alexey A.; Kuzkov, Vsevolod V.; Gaidukov, Konstantin M.; Bjertnaes, Lars J.; Kirov, Mikhail Y.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. A recruitment maneuver (RM) may improve gas exchange in acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of our study was to assess the predictive value of a derecruitment test in relation to RM and to evaluate the efficacy of RM combined with surfactant instillation in patients with ALI. Materials and Methods. Thirteen adult mechanically ventilated patients with ALI were enrolled into a prospective pilot study. The patients received protective ventilation and underwent RM followed by a derecruitment test. After a repeat RM, bovine surfactant (surfactant group, n = 6) or vehicle only (conventional therapy group, n = 7) was instilled endobronchially. We registered respiratory and hemodynamic parameters, including extravascular lung water index (EVLWI). Results. The derecruitment test decreased the oxygenation in 62% of the patients. We found no significant correlation between the responses to the RM and to the derecruitment tests. The baseline EVLWI correlated with changes in SpO2 following the derecruitment test. The surfactant did not affect gas exchange and lung mechanics but increased EVLWI at 24 and 32 hrs. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated no predictive value of the derecruitment test regarding the effects of RM. Surfactant instillation was not superior to conventional therapy and might even promote pulmonary edema in ALI. PMID:22928094

  16. Pulmonary clearance of radiotracers after positive end-expiratory pressure or acute lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Barrowcliffe, M.P.; Zanelli, G.D.; Jones, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    In anesthetized rabbits we measured clearance from lung to blood of eight aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled compounds: diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA); cytochrome c; myoglobin; a myoglobin polymer; albumin; and anionic, cationic, and neutral dextrans of equivalent molecular size. We investigated the effect of applying positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and, on a subsequent occasion, of injecting oleic acid intravenously to produce acute lung injury on the pulmonary clearance rate. Base-line clearance rates were monoexponential and varied with the molecular weights of the radiotracers. For each tracer the rate of clearance was increased a similar degree by either PEEP or oleic acid. However, with PEEP, clearance remained monoexponential, whereas after oleic acid, smaller molecular-weight radiotracers had multiexponential clearance curves. This suggests that after oleic acid the alveolar epithelium breaks down in a nonuniform fashion. We conclude that differentiation of the effect of PEEP from that of severe lung injury caused by oleic acid is not readily accomplished by either increasing the size of the tracer molecule or by varying the molecular charge.

  17. Testosterone is protective in the sexually dimorphic development of arthritis and lung disease in SKG mice

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Rebecca C.; Sokolove, Jeremy; Edelman, Benjamin L.; Lahey, Lauren; Redente, Elizabeth F.; Holers, V. Michael; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Robinson, William H.; Riches, David W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis is a sexually dimorphic inflammatory autoimmune disease with both articular and extra-articular disease manifestations including rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Low levels of testosterone have been linked to disease severity in men with rheumatoid arthritis and supplemental testosterone has been shown to improve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in both postmenopausal women and men with low testosterone. The mechanisms by which sex and sex steroids affect the immune system and autoimmunity are poorly understood. In this study we examined the protective effect of testicular-derived sex hormones on both joint and lung disease development in an autoimmune mouse model. Methods Arthritis prevalence and severity were assessed in female, orchiectomized, sham orchiectomized, and intact male SKG mice over a 12 week period after intraperitoneal injection of zymosan. Lung tissues were evaluated by quantifying: cellular accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage, collagen levels, and histology. An antigen microarray was used to evaluate autoantibody generation in each condition. Results Female SKG mice developed arthritis and lung disease with increased prevalence and severity when compared to intact male mice. The absence of testosterone after orchiectomy led to increased arthritis, lung disease and autoantibody generation in orchiectomized male mice compared to intact male mice. Conclusions SKG mice represent an authentic sexually dimorphic mouse model of both the joint and lung disease seen in rheumatoid arthritis. Testosterone protects against the development of joint and lung disease in male SKG mice. PMID:23529475

  18. Work-related lung disease surveillance report supplement 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The report supplements the 1991 Work Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report and contains figures and tables which expand the information provided in the 1991 document. Updated data were included for many of the figures and tables contained in the original report. Data on sex, race, geographic distribution, industry, and occupation extracted from the multiple cause of death data were presented for deaths with mention of asbestosis, malignant neoplasms of the pleura, malignant neoplasms of the peritoneum, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, byssinosis, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Additionally, data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey on the number of discharges with silicosis or asbestosis, and data from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks program on reports of occupational asthma and silicosis were also included.

  19. Synergistic interaction of nitrogen dioxide and ozone on rat lungs: acute responses

    SciTech Connect

    Gelzleichter, T.R.; Witschi, H.; Last, J.A. (Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, Davis (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Rats were exposed for 6 hr per day to either ozone alone (0.2-0.8 ppm), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) alone (3.6-14.4 ppm), or to combinations of these two oxidant air pollutants. Their response was quantified by changes in the total protein content of lung lavage supernatants or by changes in the content of specific cell types in the lung lavage pellets. A concentration-dependent synergistic response was observed when rats were exposed to the combination of ozone and NO2. Apparent threshold concentrations for the observation of synergistic interaction between ozone and NO2 were assay specific, with epithelial cell content of lung lavage fluid being the most sensitive parameter evaluated, showing positive interaction (greater than additive response) at the lowest concentrations tested. Concurrent exposure to ozone and NO2 was necessary to elicit greater than additive responses; no such interactions were seen upon sequential exposure to ozone or NO2 in either order of presentation. Based upon apparent disappearance rates of ozone in the chambers during exposure of rats to ozone and NO2, we modelled the predicted outcomes based upon the assumption that the two oxidant gases were reacting to form nitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) in the chambers. Agreement between predicted concentrations of ozone and NO2 and those actually observed was excellent. Based upon such modelling estimates and our acute toxicological data, we conclude that synergistic toxicologic interactions between ozone and NO2 are found only at concentrations very much higher than would be encountered in environmental or occupational settings. It remains to be determined whether there are any chronic toxicological responses to exposure to combinations of ozone and NO2 at concentrations below the thresholds for observing acute responses.

  20. Role of Claudin-5 in the Attenuation of Murine Acute Lung Injury by Simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiguo; Sharma, Rajesh; Rizzo, Alicia N.; Siegler, Jessica H.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2014-01-01

    The statins are now recognized to have pleiotropic properties, including augmentation of endothelial barrier function. To explore the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on endothelial cell (EC) tight junctions. Western blotting of human pulmonary artery ECs treated with simvastatin (5 ?M) confirmed a significant time-dependent increase (16–48 h) in claudin-5 protein expression compared with controls, without detectable alterations in zonula occludens-1 or occludin. These effects were associated with membrane translocation of VE-cadherin, whereas translocation of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin; silencing RNA) inhibited simvastatin-induced claudin-5 up-regulation. Moreover, simvastatin treatment of ECs induced increased phosphorylation of both FoxO1 and ?-catenin, transcriptional regulators of claudin-5 expression mediated by VE-cadherin. Subsequently, we found no effect of claudin-5 silencing on EC barrier protection by simvastatin in response to thrombin stimulation, as measured by either transendothelial electrical resistance or by EC monolayer flux of FITC-dextran (2,000 kD). However, silencing of claudin-5 did significantly attenuate simvastatin-mediated EC barrier protection in response to thrombin, as measured by monolayer flux of sodium fluorescein (376 Da). Finally, employing a murine model of LPS-induced acute lung injury, there was no effect of claudin-5 silencing in vivo (intratracheal injection) on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein or cell counts, but LPS-induced lung tissue extravasation of the small molecular weight markers, sodium fluorescein and Hochst stain (562 Da), were significantly increased in claudin-5–silenced animals compared with simvastatin-treated control animals. These findings implicate a distinct mechanism underlying size-selective endothelial barrier–protective properties of statins, and may ultimately lead to new novel therapeutic targets for patients with acute lung injury. PMID:24028293

  1. The Multifaceted Aspects of Interstitial Lung Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Vittorio; Scorletti, Eva; Crepaldi, Gloria; Caporali, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a relevant extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may occur either in early stages or as a complication of long-standing disease. RA related ILD (RA-ILD) significantly influences the quoad vitam prognosis of these patients. Several histopathological patterns of RA-ILD have been described: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most frequent one, followed by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP); other patterns are less commonly observed. Several factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA-ILD. The genetic background plays a fundamental but not sufficient role; smoking is an independent predictor of ILD, and a correlation with the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies has also been reported. Moreover, both exnovo occurrence and progression of ILD have been related to drug therapies that are commonly prescribed in RA, such as methotrexate, leflunomide, anti-TNF alpha agents, and rituximab. A greater understanding of the disease process is necessary in order to improve the therapeutic approach to ILD and RA itself and to reduce the burden of this severe extra-articular manifestation. PMID:24205507

  2. Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use, chronic lung diseases and lung cancer in Harbin, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Galeone, Carlotta; Pelucchi, Claudio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Bosetti, Cristina; Hu, Jinfu

    2008-10-01

    In some areas of China, indoor air pollution (IAP) originating principally from the combustion of solid fuels has a relevant role in lung cancer. Most previous studies focused on the female population and only a few on both the sexes. We analyzed the relationship between IAP from solid fuel use and selected chronic lung diseases and lung cancer risk in Harbin, Northeast China, an area with a very high base line risk of lung cancer for both the sexes. We used data from a case-control study conducted between 1987 and 1990, including 218 patients with incident, histologically confirmed lung cancer and 436 controls admitted to the same hospitals as cases. We calculated an index of IAP from solid fuel use exposure using data on heating type, cooking fuel used, and house measurements. Cases reported more frequently than controls an exposure to coal fuel for house heating and/or cooking, and the odds ratio (OR) for ever versus never exposed was 2.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.46]. The ORs of lung cancer according to subsequent tertiles of IAP exposure index were 1.82 (95% CI: 1.14-2.89) and 1.99 (95% CI: 1.26-3.15) as compared with the lowest tertile. The ORs of lung cancer for participants with a history of chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis were 3.79 (95% CI: 2.38-6.02) and 3.82 (95% CI: 1.97-7.41), respectively. This study gives further support and quantification of the positive association between IAP, history of selected nonmalignant lung diseases, and lung cancer risk for both the sexes. PMID:18714191

  3. Pulmonary microvascular hyperpermeability and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in smoke inhalation- and pneumonia-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Traber, Daniel L.; Connelly, Rhykka; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Herndon, David N.; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis are major contributors to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. The current study was designed further evaluate the mechanism of pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability in sheep with these injuries. Methods: Sheep were randomized to a sham-injured control group (n=6) or ALI/Sepsis group (n=7). The sheep in the ALI/Sepsis group received inhalation injury followed by instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the lungs. These groups were monitored for 24 hours. Additional sheep (n=16) received the injury and lung tissue was harvested at different time points to measure lung wet/dry weight ratio, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression as well as 3-nitrotyrosine protein expression in lung homogenates. Results: The injury induced severe deterioration in pulmonary gas exchange, increases in lung lymph flow and protein content, and lung water content (p<0.015 each). These alterations were associated with elevated lung and plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations, increased tracheal blood flow, and enhanced VEGF mRNA and protein expression in lung tissue as well as enhanced 3-nitrotyrosine protein expression (p<0.05 each). Conclusions: This study describes the time course of pulmonary microvascular hyperpermeability in a clinical relevant large animal model and may improve the experimental design of future studies. PMID:22647495

  4. Acute coronary disease Athero-Inflammation: Therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Raul

    2003-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is the cornerstone of the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, but there is now evidence which indicates that by blocking inflammation, thrombosis and thus, acute coronary events, could be lowered. The concept of athero-inflammation emerges as the meeting point of different morbidities; dyslipemia, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, immunity, infection, hyperhomocyteinemia, smoking, etc. usual named as risk factors. Thus, beside specific drugs, earliest treatment, in the stage of inflammation, using anti-inflammatory drugs, should be considered since in patients with increased risk of acute coronary process are likely to have many point of origen throughout the coronary arteries. There are a body of evidences for supporting the potential of anti-inflammatory therapy to the prevention of inflammation and atherosclerosis. COX-2 inhibition may decrease endothelial inflammation reducing monocytes infiltration improving vascular cells function, plaque stability and probably resulting in a decrease of coronary atherothrombotic events. Trials including large numbers of patients in prospective double-blind randomized studies worthwhile to confirm the efficacy of NSAID, mainly, COX-2 inhibitors, together with aspirin in the prevention of coronary events in patients with acute coronary disease. PMID:12904261

  5. Hesperidin ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by inhibiting HMGB1 release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-xin; Yu, Dan-dan; Chen, Mao-jian; Sun, Ting; Li, Gang; Huang, Wen-jian; Nie, Hao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yan-xiang; Gong, Quan; Ren, Bo-xu

    2015-04-01

    Hesperidin (HDN), a flavanone glycoside, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and has been suggested to be able to modulate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) serves as an inflammatory cytokine when released extracellularly and is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory disorders. The current study aimed to investigate the involvement of HMGB1 in HDN-induced immunoregulation of ALI. ALI in male BALB/c mice was induced by intranasal administration of LPS (0.5mg/kg). HDN (500mg/kg) was administered intragastrically 10days prior to LPS exposure. HDN significantly protected animals from LPS-induced ALI as evidenced by decreased elevation of the lung wet to dry weight ratio, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, associated with reduced lung histological damage. In the meantime, HDN pretreatment markedly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Furthermore, HDN pretreatment dramatically inhibited the infiltration of macrophages and suppressed the expression and release of HMGB1 in vivo and in vitro. In addition, intranasal application of exogenous HMGB1 could result in lung injury which was also alleviated by HDN administration. These results suggest that HDN pretreatment protects mice from LPS-induced ALI via inhibiting the production of TNF-? and IL-6. Moreover, we found that HDN could inhibit the expression and release of HMGB1 via suppressing the infiltration of macrophages and production of MCP-1. PMID:25724384

  6. The immunomodulation of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury by hesperidin in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia-Chou; Kao, Shang-Jyh; Lin, Chih-Che; Wang, Shulhn-Der; Liu, Ching-Ju; Kao, Shung-Te

    2007-04-24

    To investigate the modulation of lung local immune responses of hesperidin (HES) on the acute lung inflammation induced by LPS in vivo. Mice were challenged with intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (100 microg) 30 min before with treatment hesperidin (200 mg/kg oral administration) or vehicle. After 4 and 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained to measure proinflammatory (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6), anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-12) cytokines, chemokines (KC, MCP-1 and MIP-2), total cell counts, nitric oxide production, and proteins. Lung histology was performed in inflated-fixed lungs. Hesperidin downregulate the LPS-induced expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, KC, MIP-2, MCP-1, and IL-12. It also enhanced the production of IL-4, IL-10. Total leukocyte counts; nitric oxide production, iNOS expression, and proteins were significantly decreased by hesperidin. In vitro, HES suppressed the expression of IL-8 on A549 cells and THP-1 cells, the expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 on THP-1 cells, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on A549 cells which effect cell adhesion function. The suppression of those molecules is controlled by NF-kappaB and AP-1, which are activated by I kappa B and MAPK pathways. HES inhibits those pathways, thereby suppressing the expression of IL-8, TNFalpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-12, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. This study indicates that HES had a markedly immunomodulatory effect in a clinically relevant model of ARDS. Nevertheless, further investigations are required to determine the potential clinical usefulness of HES in the adjunctive therapy of ARDS. PMID:17400256

  7. Targeting EGFR signalling in chronic lung disease: therapeutic challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Vallath, Sabari; Hynds, Robert E.; Succony, Laura; Janes, Sam M.; Giangreco, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer, are the second leading cause of death among Europeans. Despite this, there have been only a few therapeutic advances in these conditions over the past 20 years. In this review we provide evidence that targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway may represent a novel therapeutic panacea for treating chronic lung disease. Using evidence from human patient samples, transgenic animal models, and cell and molecular biology studies we highlight the roles of this signalling pathway in lung development, homeostasis, repair, and disease ontogeny. We identify mechanisms underlying lung EGFR pathway regulation and suggest how targeting these mechanisms using new and existing therapies has the potential to improve future lung cancer, COPD and pulmonary fibrosis patient outcomes. PMID:24435005

  8. Automated Lung Segmentation of Diseased and Artifact-Corrupted MR Sections

    PubMed Central

    Sensakovic, William F.; Armato, Samuel G.; Starkey, Adam; Caligiuri, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of the lungs within magnetic resonance (MR) scans is a necessary step in the computer-based analysis of thoracic MR images. This process is often confounded by image acquisition artifacts and disease-induced morphological deformation. We have developed an automated method for lung segmentation that is insensitive to these complications. The automated method was applied to 23 thoracic MR scans (413 sections) obtained from 10 patients. Two radiologists manually outlined the lung regions in a random sample of 101 sections (n=202 lungs), and the extent to which disease or artifact confounded lung border visualization was evaluated. Accuracy of lung regions extracted by the automated segmentation method was quantified by comparison with the radiologist-defined lung regions using an area overlap measure (AOM) that ranged from 0 (disjoint lung regions) to 1 (complete overlap). The AOM between each observer and the automated method was 0.82 when averaged over all lungs. The average AOM in the lung bases, where lung segmentation is most difficult, was 0.73. PMID:17022200

  9. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hall, LeRoy [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States)] [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)] [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ? Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ? Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ? Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury induced by NM.

  10. Ulinastatin for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yu-Xin; Yang, Shu-Guang; Song, Ya-Han; Zhu, Xi; Yao, Gai-Qi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of ulinastatin for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and those with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ulinastatin for ALI/ARDS was conducted. Oxygenation index, mortality rate [intensive care unit (ICU) mortality rate, 28-d mortality rate] and length of ICU stay were compared between ulinastatin group and conventional therapy group. Meta-analysis was performed by using Rev Man 5.1. RESULTS: Twenty-nine RCTs with 1726 participants were totally included, the basic conditions of which were similar. No studies discussed adverse effect. Oxygenation index was reported in twenty-six studies (1552 patients). Ulinastatin had a significant effect in improving oxygenation [standard mean difference (SMD) = 1.85, 95%CI: 1.42-2.29, P < 0.00001, I2 = 92%]. ICU mortality and 28-d mortality were respectively reported in eighteen studies (987 patients) and three studies (196 patients). We found that ulinastatin significantly decreased the ICU mortality [I2 = 0%, RR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.38-0.59, number needed to treat (NNT) = 5.06, P < 0.00001], while the 28-d mortality was not significantly affected (I2 = 0%, RR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.51-1.19, NNT = 12.66, P = 0.24). The length of ICU stay (six studies, 364 patients) in the ulinastatin group was significantly lower than that in the control group (SMD = -0.97, 95%CI: -1.20--0.75, P < 0.00001, I2 = 86%). CONCLUSION: Ulinastatin seems to be effective for ALI and ARDS though most trials included were of poor quality and no information on safety was provided. PMID:24834400

  11. Lung cancer in never smokers — a different disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Sun; Joan H. Schiller; Adi F. Gazdar

    2007-01-01

    Although most lung cancers are a result of smoking, approximately 25% of lung cancer cases worldwide are not attributable to tobacco use, accounting for over 300,000 deaths each year. Striking differences in the epidemiological, clinical and molecular characteristics of lung cancers arising in never smokers versus smokers have been identified, suggesting that they are separate entities. This Review summarizes our

  12. Growth factors in lung development and disease: friends or foe?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tushar J Desai; Wellington V Cardoso

    2002-01-01

    Growth factors mediate tissue interactions and regulate a variety of cellular functions that are critical for normal lung development and homeostasis. Besides their involvement in lung pattern formation, growth and cell differentiation during organogenesis, these factors have been also implicated in modulating injury-repair responses of the adult lung. Altered expression of growth factors, such as transforming growth factor ?1, vascular

  13. Sputum Inflammatory Cell-Based Classification of Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Zhang, Jie; He, Xiaoyan; Hao, Yuqiu; Wang, Ke; Gibson, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly suffer from acute exacerbations (AECOPD) and display varying disease severity. However, there is no available biomarker for the classification of AECOPD. This study is aimed at investigating the sputum cellular profiles to classify patients with AECOPD. Methods A total of 83 patients with AECOPD and 26 healthy controls were recruited. Their demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded, and their lung function was examined. The phenotypes of sputum inflammatory cells were characterised, and the concentrations of sputum and serum amyloid-A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured. Based on the sputum inflammatory cell profiles, individual patients were categorized into one of the four subgroups with inflammatory eosinophilic, neutrophilic, paucigranulocytic, and mixed granulocytic AECOPD. Most AECOPD patients were reevaluated within 12–14 months after discharge. Results There were 10 (12%) eosinophilic, 36 (43%) neutrophilic, 5 (6%) mixed granulocytic, and 32 (39%) paucigranulocytic AECOPD patients. The patients with mixed granulocytic or neutrophilic AECOPD had a higher BODE score, more sputum inflammatory cells, lower lung function, and longer hospital stay, accompanied by higher concentrations of sputum MMP-9, IL-6 and CRP, and serum SAA, IL-6 and CRP. Notably, 83% of patients with neutrophilic AECOPD displayed evidence of bacterial infection and many of them responded poorly to standard therapies. In addition, patients with mixed granulocytic or neutrophilic stable COPD remained at lower lung functions and higher levels of inflammation. Conclusion Patients with AECOPD display heterogeneous inflammation, and the profiles of sputum inflammatory cells may be used as valuable biomarkers for the classification of AECOPD patients. PMID:23741289

  14. Acute?phase reactants and plasma trace element concentrations in non?small cell lung cancer patients and controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naveed Sattar; Hazel R. Scott; Donald C. McMillan; Dinesh Talwar; Denis S. J. OReilly; Gordon S. Fell

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the effect of an acute?phase response on plasma trace element concentrations of non?small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In normal subjects (n = 13) and NSCLC patients (n = 22), fasting concentrations of albumin, C?reactive protein, the trace elements iron, zinc, copper, and selenium, and their associated proteins transferrin, albumin, ceruloplasmin, and glutathione peroxidase were measured. The

  15. DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT THE SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY? M. C. Schladweiler, BS 1, P. S. Gilmour, PhD 2, D. L. Andrews, BS 1, D. L. Costa, ScD 1, A. D. Ledbetter, BS 1, K. E. Pinkerton, PhD 3 and U. P. Kodavanti, ...

  16. Effect of Intensive Care Unit Organizational Model and Structure on Outcomes in Patients with Acute Lung Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam M. Treggiari; Diane P. Martin; N. David Yanez; Ellen Caldwell; Leonard D. Hudson; Gordon D. Rubenfeld

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Prior studies supported an association between intensive care unit (ICU) organizational model or staffing patterns and out- come in critically ill patients. Objectives: To examine the association of closed versus open models with patient mortality across adult ICUs in King County (WA). Methods: Cohort study of patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Measurements and Main Results: ICU structure, organization,

  17. Recombinant human activated protein C attenuates cardiovascular and microcirculatory dysfunction in acute lung injury and septic shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc O Maybauer; Dirk M Maybauer; John F Fraser; Csaba Szabo; Martin Westphal; Levente Kiss; Eszter M Horvath; Yoshimitsu Nakano; David N Herndon; Lillian D Traber; Daniel L Traber

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental animal study looks at the effects of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) on global hemodynamics and microcirculation in ovine acute lung injury (ALI) and septic shock, resulting from smoke inhalation injury. METHODS: Twenty-one sheep (37 ± 2 kg) were operatively prepared for chronic study and randomly allocated to either the sham, control, or

  18. Postpartum Acute Pulmonary Oedema with Sub clinical Rheumatic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gande, Sri Krishna Padma Challa Rao.

    2015-01-01

    Acute dyspnea with pulmonary oedema in postpartum is uncommon but life-threatening event. Contributing factors for pulmonary oedema include, administration of tocolytics, underlying cardiac disease, iatrogenic fluid overload and preeclampsia acounting 0.08% of pregnancies. Pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, pneumonia, aspiration and pulmonary oedema are some of the potentially devastating conditions that should be considered by the attending physician. Here, we report a case of postpartum acute pulmonary oedema referred to causality after an emergency caesarean section in a private hospital. No matter what the underlying pathology, prompt administration and appropriate resuscitation is always the first priority. Only after the patient has been stabilized attention must be turned to diagnosis and specific treatment. A diagnosis of severe Mitral Stenosis, probably of rheumatic origin was made after stabilizing the patient. PMID:25859501

  19. Pemetrexed for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) need to be approached carefully given the high incidence of pulmonary toxicity. Pemetrexed (PEM) is the key drug for the treatment of NSCLC. However, its safety, especially with respect to the exacerbation of ILD, and efficacy in NSCLC patients with ILD have yet to be established. Method We investigated the safety and efficacy of PEM monotherapy in NSCLC patients with or without idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIPs). The medical charts of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results Twenty-five patients diagnosed as having IIPs (IIPs group) and 88 patients without ILD (non-ILD group) were treated with PEM monotherapy at Juntendo University Hospital between 2009 and 2013. In the IIPs group, 12 patients were found to have usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) on chest computed tomography (CT) (UIP group) and the other 13 patients showed a non-UIP pattern on chest CT (non-UIP IIPs group). Three patients in the IIPs group (2 in the UIP group and 1 in the non-UIP IIPs group) and 1 in the non-ILD group developed pulmonary toxicity during treatment (3.5% overall, 12.0% in the IIPs group versus 1.1% in the non-ILD group). Moreover, all 3 patients in the IIPs group died of pulmonary toxicity. Overall survival tended to be longer in the non-ILD group than in the IIPs group (p?=?0.08). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that IIPs was the only significant independent risk factor for PEM-related pulmonary toxicity. Conclusion We found that the incidence of PEM-related pulmonary toxicity was significantly higher amongst NSCLC patients with IIPs than among those without IIPs. Particular care must be taken when administering PEM to treat NSCLC patients with IIPs. PMID:25012241

  20. Interleukin 6 Mediates the Therapeutic Effects of Adipose-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shijia; Danchuk, Svitlana D.; Bonvillain, Ryan W.; Xu, Beibei; Scruggs, Brittni A.; Strong, Amy L.; Semon, Julie A.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Betancourt, Aline M.; Sullivan, Deborah E.; Bunnell, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) have anti-inflammatory as well as immunosuppressive activities and are currently the focus of clinical trials for a number of inflammatory diseases. Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory condition of the lung for which standard treatment is mainly supportive due to lack of effective therapies. Our recent studies have demonstrated the ability of both human ASCs (hASCs) and mouse ASCs (mASCs) to attenuate lung damage and inflammation in a rodent model of lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI, suggesting that ASCs may also be beneficial in treating ALI. To better understand how ASCs may act in ALI and to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in ASC modulation of lung inflammation, gene expression analysis was performed in ASC-treated (hASCs or mASCs) and control sham-treated lungs. The results revealed a dramatic difference between the expression of anti-inflammatory molecules by hASCs and mASCs. These data show that the beneficial effects of hASCs and mASCs in ALI may result from the production of different paracrine factors. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression in the mASC-treated lungs was significantly elevated as compared to sham-treated controls 20 hours after delivery of the cells by oropharyngeal aspiration. Knockdown of IL-6 expression in mASCs by RNA interference abrogated most of their therapeutic effects, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory properties of mASCs in ALI are explained, at least in part, by activation of IL-6 secretion. PMID:24449042

  1. Radiologic manifestations of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Grabenhorst, Matthias; Schmidt, Bernd; Liebers, Uta; Oestmann, Jörg-Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction promises to become an effective treatment option in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several techniques are currently being investigated, including implantation of devices into the lung and instillation of hot water vapor or polymer. This article reviews the spectrum of radiologic manifestations on chest radiography and CT that occur after the intervention. CONCLUSION. Familiarity with the intended effects and adverse events will aid the radiologist in supporting bronchoscopic lung volume reduction. PMID:25714276

  2. Directional Multi-scale Modeling of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Lung Images for Diffuse Lung Disease Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Kiet T.; Sowmya, Arcot

    A directional multi-scale modeling scheme based on wavelet and contourlet transforms is employed to describe HRCT lung image textures for classifying four diffuse lung disease patterns: normal, emphysema, ground glass opacity (GGO) and honey-combing. Generalized Gaussian density parameters are used to represent the detail sub-band features obtained by wavelet and contourlet transforms. In addition, support vector machines (SVMs) with excellent performance in a variety of pattern classification problems are used as classifier. The method is tested on a collection of 89 slices from 38 patients, each slice of size 512x512, 16 bits/pixel in DICOM format. The dataset contains 70,000 ROIs of those slices marked by experienced radiologists. We employ this technique at different wavelet and contourlet transform scales for diffuse lung disease classification. The technique presented here has best overall sensitivity 93.40% and specificity 98.40%.

  3. Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca; Reese, Charles; Bonner, Michael; Tourkina, Elena; Hajdu, Zoltan; Riemer, Ellen C.; Silver, Richard M.; Visconti, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The interstitial lung diseases (ILD) include a large number of chronic, progressive, irreversible respiratory disorders involving pulmonary fibrosis, the most common of which are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and scleroderma lung disease (SSc ILD). Because bleomycin causes lung fibrosis when used in cancer chemotherapy, it is used to model human ILD in rodents. In most studies, bleomycin has been delivered directly into the lung by intratracheal or intraoral administration. Here we have compared the effects in mice of bleomycin delivered directly into the lungs (direct model) or systemically using osmotic minipumps (pump model) to determine which more closely resembles human ILD. The pump model is more similar to human SSc ILD in that: 1) lung injury/fibrosis is limited to the subpleural portion of the lung in the pump model and in SSc ILD, whereas the entire lung is affected in the direct model; 2) conversely, there is massive inflammation throughout the lung in the direct model, whereas inflammation is limited in the pump model and in SSc ILD; 3) hypertrophic type II alveolar epithelial cells are present at high levels in SSc ILD and in the pump model but not in the direct model; and 4) lung fibrosis is accompanied by dermal fibrosis. The pump model is also move convenient and humane than the direct model because there is less weight loss and mortality. PMID:24583879

  4. Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca; Reese, Charles; Bonner, Michael; Tourkina, Elena; Hajdu, Zoltan; Riemer, Ellen C; Silver, Richard M; Visconti, Richard P; Hoffman, Stanley

    2014-04-15

    The interstitial lung diseases (ILD) include a large number of chronic, progressive, irreversible respiratory disorders involving pulmonary fibrosis, the most common of which are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and scleroderma lung disease (SSc ILD). Because bleomycin causes lung fibrosis when used in cancer chemotherapy, it is used to model human ILD in rodents. In most studies, bleomycin has been delivered directly into the lung by intratracheal or intraoral administration. Here we have compared the effects in mice of bleomycin delivered directly into the lungs (direct model) or systemically using osmotic minipumps (pump model) to determine which more closely resembles human ILD. The pump model is more similar to human SSc ILD in that: 1) lung injury/fibrosis is limited to the subpleural portion of the lung in the pump model and in SSc ILD, whereas the entire lung is affected in the direct model; 2) conversely, there is massive inflammation throughout the lung in the direct model, whereas inflammation is limited in the pump model and in SSc ILD; 3) hypertrophic type II alveolar epithelial cells are present at high levels in SSc ILD and in the pump model but not in the direct model; and 4) lung fibrosis is accompanied by dermal fibrosis. The pump model is also move convenient and humane than the direct model because there is less weight loss and mortality. PMID:24583879

  5. Non–Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Isoform Is a Viable Molecular Target in Acute Inflammatory Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mirzapoiazova, Tamara; Moitra, Jaideep; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Sammani, Saad; Turner, Jerry R.; Chiang, Eddie T.; Evenoski, Carrie; Wang, Ting; Singleton, Patrick A.; Huang, Yong; Lussier, Yves A.; Watterson, D. Martin; Dudek, Steven M.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and mechanical ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), major causes of acute respiratory failure with elevated morbidity and mortality, are characterized by significant pulmonary inflammation and alveolar/vascular barrier dysfunction. Previous studies highlighted the role of the non–muscle myosin light chain kinase isoform (nmMLCK) as an essential element of the inflammatory response, with variants in the MYLK gene that contribute to ALI susceptibility. To define nmMLCK involvement further in acute inflammatory syndromes, we used two murine models of inflammatory lung injury, induced by either an intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS model) or mechanical ventilation with increased tidal volumes (the VILI model). Intravenous delivery of the membrane-permeant MLC kinase peptide inhibitor, PIK, produced a dose-dependent attenuation of both LPS-induced lung inflammation and VILI (?50% reductions in alveolar/vascular permeability and leukocyte influx). Intravenous injections of nmMLCK silencing RNA, either directly or as cargo within angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) antibody–conjugated liposomes (to target the pulmonary vasculature selectively), decreased nmMLCK lung expression (?70% reduction) and significantly attenuated LPS-induced and VILI-induced lung inflammation (?40% reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage protein). Compared with wild-type mice, nmMLCK knockout mice were significantly protected from VILI, with significant reductions in VILI-induced gene expression in biological pathways such as nrf2-mediated oxidative stress, coagulation, p53-signaling, leukocyte extravasation, and IL-6–signaling. These studies validate nmMLCK as an attractive target for ameliorating the adverse effects of dysregulated lung inflammation. PMID:20139351

  6. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - need for surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Emi; de Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara; de Ramírez, Marta Alicia Hernández; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Nakagawa, Jun; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole. PMID:24676660

  7. Prevalence of obstructive lung diseases and respiratory symptoms in southern Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Montnémery; E. Adelroth; K. Heuman; A. Johannisson; S.-Å. Johansson; L.-H. Lindholm; B. Lundbäck; C.-G. Löfdahl

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of obstructive lung diseases is increasing in Scandinavia and worldwide. The reasons for this are not known. The prevalence varies between countries but also between different areas within the same country. In northern Europe a north-south gradient and also an east-west gradient have been proposed. To our knowledge this is the first comprehensive epidemiological study concerning obstructive lung

  8. Effect of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Wanke; M Merkle; D Formanek; U Zifko; G Wieselthaler; H Zwick; W Klepetko; O C Burghuber

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--To date there are no data on the effects of lung transplantation on diaphragmatic function in patients with end stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is not known whether the relation between the transdiaphragmatic pressure (PDI) and lung volume is altered in recipients after transplantation as a result of changes in diaphragmatic structure caused by chronic hyperinflation. The effect

  9. Measurement of Symptoms, Lung Hyperinflation, and Endurance during Exercise in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MIU LAM; KATHERINE A. WEBB

    1998-01-01

    Changes in lung hyperinflation, dyspnea, and exercise endurance are important outcomes in assess- ing therapeutic responses in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of Borg dyspnea ratings, inspiratory capacity (IC; to monitor lung hyperinflation), and endurance time during constant-load symptom-limited cycle exercise in 29 patients with COPD (FEV 1 5 40 6 2% predicted; mean 6

  10. Comparison of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid sialic acid levels between malignant and benign lung diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Turgut Isitmangil; Gulbu Isitmangil; Yasemin Budak; Recep Aydilek; Mehmet Kutlu Celenk

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that tissue and serum sialic acid levels may be altered by malignant transformation. In this study, sialic acid levels were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and serum in two groups of patients with lung cancer and non-malignant diseases of the lung. METHODS: Colorimetric methods were used for determination sialic acid in serum and in BAL

  11. Pulmonary hypertension grading in the neonate: Pediatric autopsy series compared with etiology of lung disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Safiye Aktas; Gülden Diniz; Ragip Ortaç; Ekin Özgür Aktas

    Backgrounds and aim: Deciding the main diseases and the cause of death in pediatric autopsies is very important and sometimes difficult. Cardiopulmonary system is very carefully observed in a utopsies. Besides exploration of the lung parenchyma, vasculature of the lungs must be observed as well. In this study we searched for the relation of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) grading score and

  12. Optimization of Targeted Cell Replacement Therapy: A New Approach for Lung Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Duchesneau; Amy P Wong; Thomas K Waddell

    2010-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy is a promising approach for treatment of lung disease such as cystic fibrosis, although rates of engraftment need to be improved. We previously showed improved cell retention in the lung using transtracheal delivery compared to intravenous injection. Here, we optimized other parameters of cell delivery using 7-day cultured bone marrow cells (BMCs). Retention of BMC in the

  13. Cholinergic Hyperresponsiveness of Peripheral Lung Parenchyma in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Lanças; David Itiro Kasahara; Jefferson Luiz Gross; Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto; Daniel Deheinzelin; Thais Mauad; Elnara Márcia Negri; Marisa Dolhnikoff

    2011-01-01

    Background: Up to 60% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients can present airway hyperresponsiveness. However, it is not known whether the peripheral lung tissue also shows an exaggerated response to agonists in COPD. Objectives: To investigate the in vitro mechanical behavior and the structural and inflammatory changes of peripheral lung tissue in COPD patients and compare to nonsmoking controls.

  14. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nai-yu; Li, Xian-lun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Zhi-tao; Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Dao-feng

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara (RJFs) in acute lung injury (ALI) mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6?mg/kg) per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3) in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?), and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals. PMID:25013450

  15. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chun-Jun; Xu, Nai-Yu; Li, Xian-Lun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara (RJFs) in acute lung injury (ALI) mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6?mg/kg) per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3) in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-1 ? ), and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals. PMID:25013450

  16. Therapeutic inhibition of CXCR2 by Reparixin attenuates acute lung injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zarbock, A; Allegretti, M; Ley, K

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Acute lung injury (ALI) remains a major challenge in critical care medicine. Both neutrophils and chemokines have been proposed as key components in the development of ALI. The main chemokine receptor on neutrophils is CXCR2, which regulates neutrophil recruitment and vascular permeability, but no small molecule CXCR2 inhibitor has been demonstrated to be effective in ALI or animal models of ALI. To investigate the functional relevance of the CXCR2 inhibitor Reparixin in vivo, we determined its effects in two models of ALI, induced by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation or acid instillation. Experimental approach: In two ALI models in mice, we measured vascular permeability by Evans blue and evaluated neutrophil recruitment into the lung vasculature, interstitium and airspace by flow cytometry. Key results: Pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 by Reparixin reduced CXCL1-induced leukocyte arrest in the microcirculation of the cremaster muscle, but did not influence arrest in response to leukotriene B4 (LTB4) demonstrating specificity. Reparixin (15??g?g?1) reduced neutrophil recruitment in the lung by approximately 50% in a model of LPS-induced ALI. A higher dose did not provide additional reduction of neutrophil recruitment. This dose also reduced accumulation of neutrophils in the interstitial compartment and vascular permeability in LPS-induced ALI. Furthermore, both prophylactic and therapeutic application of Reparixin improved gas exchange, and reduced neutrophil recruitment and vascular permeability in a clinically relevant model of acid-induced ALI. Conclusions and implications: Reparixin, a non-competitive allosteric CXCR2 inhibitor attenuates ALI by reducing neutrophil recruitment and vascular permeability. PMID:18587419

  17. Shuang-huang-lian attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice involving anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lei; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Fen; Hou, Rui; Cai, Run-Lan; Qi, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a common traditional Chinese preparation extracted from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, and Fructus Forsythiae. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of SHL on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. SHL reduced the lung wet/dry weight ratio, lowered the number of total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissues 6?h after LPS treatment. It also inhibited the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that SHL attenuated LPS-induced interstitial edema, hemorrhage, and the infiltration of neutrophils into the lung tissue. Moreover, SHL could also enhance the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, increase the reduced glutathione content, and decrease the malondialdehyde content. The present results suggest that SHL possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties that may protect mice against LPS-induced ALI. PMID:25945107

  18. Breath analysis system for early detection of lung diseases based on multi-sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Yu, Joon-Boo; Shin, Jeong-Suk; Byun, Hyung-Gi; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Expiratory breath contains various VOCs(Volatile Organic Compounds) produced from the human. When a certain disease exists, the exhalation has specific VOCs which may be generated from diseases. Many researchers have been actively working to find different types of biomarkers which are characteristic for particular diseases. Research regarding the identification of specific diseases from exhalation is still in progress. The aim of this research is to implement early detection of lung disease such as lung cancer and COPD(Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), which was nominated on the 6th of domestic death rate in 2010, based on multi-sensor array system. The system has been used to acquire sampled expiratory gases data and PCA(Principle Component Analysis) technique was applied to analyze signals from multi-sensor array. Throughout the experimental trials, a clearly distinguishable difference between lung disease patients and healthy controls was found from the measurement and analysis of their respective expiratory gases.

  19. Light-dark oscillations in the lung transcriptome: implications for lung homeostasis, repair, metabolism, disease, and drug action

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Siddharth; Jusko, William J.; DuBois, Debra C.

    2011-01-01

    Diurnal-nocturnal, or circadian-like, rhythms are 24-h variations in biological processes, evolved for the efficient functioning of living organisms. Such oscillations and their regulation in many peripheral tissues are still unclear. In this study, we used Affymetrix gene chips in a rich time-series experiment involving 54 animals killed at 18 time points within the 24-h cycle to examine light-dark cycle patterns of gene expression in rat lungs. Data mining identified 646 genes (represented by 1,006 probe sets) showing robust oscillations in expression in lung that were parsed into 8 distinct temporal clusters. Surprisingly, more than two-thirds of the probe sets showing cyclic expression peaked during the animal's light/inactive period. Six core clock genes and nine clock-related genes showed rhythmic oscillations in their expression in lung. Many of the genes that peaked during the inactive period included genes related to extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, and protein processing and trafficking, which appear to be mainly involved in the repair and remodeling of the organ. Genes coding for growth factor ligands and their receptors, which play important roles in maintaining normal lung function, also showed rhythmic expression. In addition, genes involved in the metabolism and transport of endogenous compounds, xenobiotics, and therapeutic drugs, along with genes that are biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets for many lung diseases, also exhibited 24-h cyclic oscillations, suggesting an important role for such rhythms in regulating various aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of lung. PMID:21436464

  20. Light-dark oscillations in the lung transcriptome: implications for lung homeostasis, repair, metabolism, disease, and drug action.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Siddharth; Jusko, William J; Dubois, Debra C; Almon, Richard R

    2011-06-01

    Diurnal-nocturnal, or circadian-like, rhythms are 24-h variations in biological processes, evolved for the efficient functioning of living organisms. Such oscillations and their regulation in many peripheral tissues are still unclear. In this study, we used Affymetrix gene chips in a rich time-series experiment involving 54 animals killed at 18 time points within the 24-h cycle to examine light-dark cycle patterns of gene expression in rat lungs. Data mining identified 646 genes (represented by 1,006 probe sets) showing robust oscillations in expression in lung that were parsed into 8 distinct temporal clusters. Surprisingly, more than two-thirds of the probe sets showing cyclic expression peaked during the animal's light/inactive period. Six core clock genes and nine clock-related genes showed rhythmic oscillations in their expression in lung. Many of the genes that peaked during the inactive period included genes related to extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, and protein processing and trafficking, which appear to be mainly involved in the repair and remodeling of the organ. Genes coding for growth factor ligands and their receptors, which play important roles in maintaining normal lung function, also showed rhythmic expression. In addition, genes involved in the metabolism and transport of endogenous compounds, xenobiotics, and therapeutic drugs, along with genes that are biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets for many lung diseases, also exhibited 24-h cyclic oscillations, suggesting an important role for such rhythms in regulating various aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of lung. PMID:21436464

  1. Does urinary trypsin inhibitor have a role in acute lung injury induced by pulmonary contusion: a basic research in a model of rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohua; Wang, Jin; Chen, Xi; Ruan, Zheng; Zheng, Jin; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) on inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxemia, and diseased lesion in a rat model of acute lung injury induced by blunt trauma. Rats were allocated to 4 groups. One group served as normal control. The other 3 groups had a moderate pulmonary contusion. Except for 1 sham group administrated saline, 1 group was administrated low-dose UTI (20,000 U/kg), and another group was administrated high-dose UTI (50,000 U/kg). Twelve hours after contusion, neutrophil counting in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed and tumor necrosis factor ? level and albumin level in BALF was tested. Lung tissue malondialdehyde levels, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity was investigated, and blood gas analysis and contusion volume quantification using 3-dimensional computed tomography were performed. High-dose UTI significantly decreased neutrophil count and tumor necrosis factor ? level in BALF (P<0.05) and decreased albumin level in BALF but without significance. Lung tissue malondialdehyde levels was significantly reduced, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were elevated by UTI with significance (P<0.05) especially high-dose UTI. No statistical significance was seen in the change in arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and contusion volume by UTI (P>0.05). UTI has a dose-dependent trend to ameliorate inflammatory and oxygen stress in pulmonary contusion-induced acute lung injury. However, the effect on hypoxemia and contusion lesion and the best administration regime should be investigated in future study. PMID:23782766

  2. Metabolomics provide new insights on lung cancer staging and discrimination from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Deja, Stanislaw; Porebska, Irena; Kowal, Aneta; Zabek, Adam; Barg, Wojciech; Pawelczyk, Konrad; Stanimirova, Ivana; Daszykowski, Michal; Korzeniewska, Anna; Jankowska, Renata; Mlynarz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are widespread lung diseases. Cigarette smoking is a high risk factor for both the diseases. COPD may increase the risk of developing lung cancer. Thus, it is crucial to be able to distinguish between these two pathological states, especially considering the early stages of lung cancer. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools are required to properly determine lung cancer progression because this information directly impacts the type of the treatment prescribed. In this study, serum samples collected from 22 COPD and 77 lung cancer (TNM stages I, II, III, and IV) patients were analyzed. Then, a collection of NMR metabolic fingerprints was modeled using discriminant orthogonal partial least squares regression (OPLS-DA) and further interpreted by univariate statistics. The constructed discriminant models helped to successfully distinguish between the metabolic fingerprints of COPD and lung cancer patients (AUC training=0.972, AUC test=0.993), COPD and early lung cancer patients (AUC training=1.000, AUC test=1.000), and COPD and advanced lung cancer patients (AUC training=0.983, AUC test=1.000). Decreased acetate, citrate, and methanol levels together with the increased N-acetylated glycoproteins, leucine, lysine, mannose, choline, and lipid (CH3-(CH2)n-) levels were observed in all lung cancer patients compared with the COPD group. The evaluation of lung cancer progression was also successful using OPLS-DA (AUC training=0.811, AUC test=0.904). Based on the results, the following metabolite biomarkers may prove useful in distinguishing lung cancer states: isoleucine, acetoacetate, and creatine as well as the two NMR signals of N-acetylated glycoproteins and glycerol. PMID:25213261

  3. Dent's disease complicated by an acute Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed

    Platt, Caroline; Jadresic, Lyda; Dudley, Jan; Hartley, Jane L

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young boy with Dent's disease, identified as having a mutation in the kidney-specific chloride-proton antitransporter CLCN5 during investigation for nephrotic-range proteinuria. He went on to develop growth hormone deficiency and was treated with recombinant growth hormone. He later presented acutely with hepatorenal failure and thrombotic occlusion of the middle and right hepatic veins consistent with a diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome, which required a prolonged period of intensive care. The diagnosis of Dent's disease should be considered early in boys with nephrotic-range proteinuria in the absence of clinical oedema and hypoalbuminaemia to allow for the timely introduction of strategies, such as a high-citrate diet, to preserve renal function. The measurement of urinary ?-2 microglobulin has been shown by this case to be a more reliable and specific marker of tubular dysfunction than the urinary retinol-binding protein. PMID:24398869

  4. Nanoparticle diffusion in respiratory mucus from humans without lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Benjamin S.; Suk, Jung Soo; Woodworth, Graeme F.; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    A major role of respiratory mucus is to trap inhaled particles, including pathogens and environmental particulates, to limit body exposure. Despite the tremendous health implications, how particle size and surface chemistry affect mobility in respiratory mucus from humans without lung disease is not known. We prepared polymeric nanoparticles densely coated with low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) to minimize muco-adhesion, and compared their transport to that of uncoated particles in human respiratory mucus, which we collected from the endotracheal tubes of surgical patients with no respiratory comorbidities. We found that 100 and 200 nm diameter PEG-coated particles rapidly penetrated respiratory mucus, at rates exceeding their uncoated counterparts by approximately 15- and 35-fold, respectively. In contrast, PEG-coated particles ? 500 nm in diameter were sterically immobilized by the mucus mesh. Thus, even though respiratory mucus is a viscoelastic solid at the macroscopic level (as measured using a bulk rheometer), nanoparticles that are sufficiently small and muco-inert can penetrate the mucus as if it were primarily a viscous liquid. These findings help elucidate the barrier properties of respiratory mucus and provide design criteria for therapeutic nanoparticles capable of penetrating mucus to approach the underlying airway epithelium. PMID:23384790

  5. Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency in Serbian Adults with Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Marija; Divac-Rankov, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Stanojevic, Natasa; Mitic-Milikic, Marija; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the main inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, and severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is a genetic risk factor for early-onset emphysema. Despite the relatively high prevalence of A1ATD, this condition is frequently underdiagnosed. Our aim was to determine the distribution of the A1ATD phenotypes/alleles in patients with lung diseases as well as in the Serbian population. Methods: The study included the adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=348), asthma (n=71), and bronchiectasis (n=35); the control was 1435 healthy blood donors. The A1ATD variants were identified by isoelectric focusing or polymerase chain reaction-mediated site-directed mutagenesis. Results: PiMZ heterozygotes, PiZZ homozygotes, and Z allele carriers are associated with significantly higher risk of developing COPD than healthy individuals (odds ratios 3.43, 42.42, and 5.49 respectively). The calculated prevalence of PiZZ, PiMZ, and PiSZ was higher in patients with COPD (1:202, 1:8, and 1:1243) than in the Serbian population (1:5519, 1:38, and 1:5519). Conclusion: The high prevalence of A1ATD phenotypes/allele in our population has confirmed the necessity of screening for A1ATD in patients with COPD. On the other hand, on the basis of the estimated number of those with A1ATD among the COPD patients, it is possible to assess the diagnostic efficiency of A1ATD in the Serbian population. PMID:22971141

  6. Implementation and results of a new ECMO program for lung transplantation and acute respiratory distress

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Eduardo San; Venuti, María Sofía; Ciarrocchi, Nicolás Marcelo; Ceballos, Ignacio Fernández; Gogniat, Emiliano; Villarroel, Sonia; Carini, Federico Carlos; Giannasi, Sergio Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The development of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in Latin America represents a challenge in this specialty field. The objective of this article was to describe the results of a new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation program in an intensive care unit. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 22 patients who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and were treated from January 2011 to June 2014. The baseline characteristics, indications, duration of the condition, days on mechanical ventilation, days in the intensive care unit, complications, and hospital mortality were evaluated. Results Fifteen patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after lung transplantation, and seven patients required oxygenation due to acute respiratory distress. All transplanted patients were weaned from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a median duration of 3 days (Interquartile range - IQR: 2 - 5), were on mechanical ventilation for a median of 15.5 days (IQR: 3 - 25), and had an intensive care unit stay of 31.5 days (IQR: 19 - 53) and a median hospital stay of 60 days (IQR: 36 - 89) with 20% mortality. Patients with acute respiratory distress had a median oxygenation membrane duration of 9 days (IQR: 3 - 14), median mechanical ventilation time of 25 days (IQR: 13 - 37), a 31 day stay in therapy (IQR: 11 - 38), a 32 day stay in the hospital (IQR: 11 - 41), and 57% mortality. The main complications were infections (80%), acute kidney failure (43%), bleeding at the surgical site and at the site of cannula placement (22%), plateletopenia (60%), and coagulopathy (30%). Conclusion In spite of the steep learning curve, we considered this experience to be satisfactory, with results and complications comparable to those reported in the literature.

  7. A coin-like peripheral small cell lung carcinoma associated with acute paraneoplastic axonal guillain-barre-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Balasa, Rodica; Motataianu, Anca; Contac, Anca Otilia; Halmaciu, Ioana; Popescu, Septimiu; Simu, Iunius

    2015-06-01

    A 65-year-old previously healthy male heavy smoker was hospitalized with a 2-week history of progressive muscle weakness in the lower and upper extremities. After 10 days of hospitalization, urinary sphincter incompetence and fecal incontinence were added and tetraparesis was established. The computer-tomography scan examination revealed a massive right hydrothorax and multifocal solid acinar structures with peripheral localization in the left lung, which suggested pulmonary cancer. Bone marrow metastases were also suspected. Based on the examination results, the final diagnosis was acute paraneoplastic axonal Guillain-Barre-like syndrome. The patient died 3 weeks after hospitalization. At autopsy, bronchopneumonia and a right hydrothorax were confirmed. Several 4 to 5-mm-sized round peripherally located white nodules were identified in the left lung, without any central tumor mass. Under microscope, a coin-shaped peripheral/subpleural small cell carcinoma was diagnosed, with generalized bone metastases. A huge thrombus in the abdominal aorta and acute pancreatitis was also seen at autopsy. This case highlights the difficulty of diagnosis of lung carcinomas and the necessity of a complex differential diagnosis of severe progressive ascending neuropathies. This is the 6th reported case of small cell lung cancer-associated acute Guillain-Barre-like syndrome and the first report about an association with a coin-like peripheral pattern. PMID:26039124

  8. VDR attenuates acute lung injury by blocking Ang-2-Tie-2 pathway and renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Kong, Juan; Zhu, Xiangdong; Shi, Yongyan; Liu, Tianjing; Chen, Yunzi; Bhan, Ishir; Zhao, Qun; Thadhani, Ravi; Li, Yan Chun

    2013-12-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a hallmark of systemic inflammation associated with high mortality. Although the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in the lung, its role in lung physiology remains unclear. We investigated the effect of VDR deletion on ALI using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model. After LPS challenge VDR-null mice exhibited more severe ALI and higher mortality compared with wild-type (WT) counterparts, manifested by increased pulmonary vascular leakiness, pulmonary edema, apoptosis, neutrophil infiltration, and pulmonary inflammation, which was accompanied by excessive induction of angiopoietin (Ang)-2 and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in the lung. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D blocked LPS-induced Ang-2 expression by blocking nuclear factor-?B activation in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. The severity of lung injury seen in VDR-null mice was ameliorated by pretreatment with L1-10, an antagonist of Ang-2, suggesting that VDR signaling protects the pulmonary vascular barrier by targeting the Ang-2-Tie-2-MLC kinase cascade. Severe ALI in VDR-null mice was also accompanied by an increase in pulmonary renin and angiotensin II levels, and pretreatment of VDR-null mice with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan partially ameliorated the severity of LPS-induced lung injury. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that the vitamin D-VDR signaling prevents lung injury by blocking the Ang-2-Tie-2-MLC kinase cascade and the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:24196349

  9. Oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Janine; Weatherall, Mark; Perrin, Kyle; Beasley, Richard

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, there have been major advances in knowledge of the effects of oxygen therapy in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This includes a randomised controlled trial of oxygen therapy in the pre-hospital setting, which showed that high concentration oxygen therapy leads to a 2.4-fold increased risk of mortality compared with titrated oxygen therapy to maintain oxygen saturations (SpO2) within a target range of 88-92%. Professional guidelines now recommend the use of supplementary oxygen in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease only if the SpO2 is less than 88%, with titration to achieve an SpO2 of 88-92%, and the delivery of bronchodilators by air-driven nebulisation or metered dose inhaler with a spacer. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the evidence base that underpins these recommendations. We suggest that their implementation will require important changes to current clinical practice in which there is an entrenched culture of the use of high concentration oxygen therapy. PMID:25979080

  10. Green Herring Syndrome: Bacterial Infection in Patients With Mucormycosis Cavitary Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Driele; Hammond, Sarah P.; Issa, Nicolas C.; Madan, Rachna; Gill, Ritu R.; Milner, Danny A.; Colson, Yolonda L.; Koo, Sophia; Baden, Lindsey R.; Marty, Francisco M.

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal disease in patients with hematological malignancies. The diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis is particularly challenging. We describe 3 mucormycosis cases with an uncommon presentation in patients whose cavitary lung disease was attributed to well documented bacterial infection, although evolution and reassessment established mucormycosis as the underlying disease. PMID:25734087

  11. The prevalence of obstructive lung disease in a general population sample: The NICECOPD study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eoin Murtagh; Liam Heaney; Jenny Gingles; Richard Shepherd; Frank Kee; Chris Patterson; Joe MacMahon

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are little data available on the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the United Kingdom. The Northern Ireland Cost and Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (NICECOPD) study is a two-stage survey to examine the prevalence of obstructive lung disease in a general population sample in the Greater Belfast area. Methods: In stage one 4000 subjects

  12. MRI of diffuse liver disease: characteristics of acute and chronic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chundru, Surya; Kalb, Bobby; Arif-Tiwari, Hina; Sharma, Puneet; Costello, James; Martin, Diego R.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse liver disease, including chronic liver disease, affects tens of millions of people worldwide, and there is a growing need for diagnostic evaluation as treatments become more readily available, particularly for viral liver diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides unique capabilities for noninvasive characterization of the liver tissue that rival or surpass the diagnostic utility of liver biopsies. There has been incremental improvement in the use of standardized MRI sequences, acquired before and after administration of a contrast agent, for the evaluation of diffuse liver disease and the study of the liver parenchyma and blood supply. More recent developments have led to methods for quantifying important liver metabolites, including lipids and iron, and liver fibrosis, the hallmark of chronic liver disease. Here, we review the MRI techniques and diagnostic features associated with acute and chronic liver disease. PMID:24808418

  13. Cyanidin-3-O-?-glucoside ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by reducing TLR4 recruitment into lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Zhou, Ershun; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Wei; Wang, Tiancheng; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-07-15

    Cyanidin-3-O-?-glucoside (C3G), a typical anthocyanin pigment that exists in the human diet, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of C3G on LPS-induced acute lung injury and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal administration of LPS in mice. Alveolar macrophages from mice were stimulated with LPS and were treated with C3G. Our results showed that C3G attenuated lung histopathologic changes, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 production in LPS-induced acute lung injury model. In vitro, C3G dose-dependently inhibited TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-? production, as