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Sample records for acute lung disease

  1. Impact of Preexisting Interstitial Lung Disease on Acute, Extensive Radiation Pneumonitis: Retrospective Analysis of Patients with Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Yuichi; Abe, Takefumi; Omae, Minako; Matsui, Takashi; Kato, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirotsugu; Enomoto, Yasunori; Ishihara, Takeaki; Inui, Naoki; Yamada, Kazunari; Yokomura, Koshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for developing acute extended radiation pneumonitis with a focus on the presence and radiological characteristics of preexisting interstitial lung disease. Methods Of 1429 irradiations for lung cancer from May 2006 to August 2013, we reviewed 651 irradiations involving the lung field. The presence, compatibility with usual interstitial pneumonia, and occupying area of preexisting interstitial lung disease were retrospectively evaluated by pretreatment computed tomography. Cases of non-infectious, non-cardiogenic, acute respiratory failure with an extended bilateral shadow developing within 30 days after the last irradiation were defined as acute extended radiation pneumonitis. Results Nine (1.4%) patients developed acute extended radiation pneumonitis a mean of 6.7 days after the last irradiation. Although preexisting interstitial lung disease was found in 13% of patients (84 patients), 78% of patients (7 patients) with acute extended radiation pneumonitis cases had preexisting interstitial lung disease, which resulted in incidences of acute extended radiation pneumonitis of 0.35 and 8.3% in patients without and with preexisting interstitial lung disease, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the presence of preexisting interstitial lung disease (odds ratio = 22.6; 95% confidence interval = 5.29–155; p < 0.001) and performance status (?2; odds ratio = 4.22; 95% confidence interval = 1.06–20.8; p = 0.049) were significant predictive factors. Further analysis of the 84 patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease revealed that involvement of more than 10% of the lung field was the only independent predictive factor associated with the risk of acute extended radiation pneumonitis (odds ratio = 6.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.0–37.4); p = 0.038). Conclusions Pretreatment computed tomography evaluations of the presence of and area size occupied by preexisting interstitial lung disease should be assessed for safer irradiation of areas involving the lung field. PMID:26460792

  2. Acute Lung Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mac Sweeney, Rob; McAuley, Daniel F.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Lung failure is the most common organ failure seen in the intensive care unit. The pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure (ARF) can be classified as (1) neuromuscular in origin, (2) secondary to acute and chronic obstructive airway diseases, (3) alveolar processes such as cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and pneumonia, and (4) vascular diseases such as acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. This article reviews the more common causes of ARF from each group, including the pathological mechanisms and the principles of critical care management, focusing on the supportive, specific, and adjunctive therapies for each condition. PMID:21989697

  3. Lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the lungs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. People with this type of lung disorder often ... the lungs to take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. These diseases may also affect heart function. An ...

  4. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  5. Histochemical evaluation of lung collagen content in acute and chronic interstitial diseases.

    PubMed

    Saldiva, P H; Delmonte, V C; de Carvalho, C R; Kairalla, R A; Auler Júnior, J O

    1989-05-01

    The collagen content and its aggregational state was histochemically measured in interstitial lung diseases. Open chest biopsies of ten patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, seven patients with sarcoidosis, and nine patients with fibrosis associated with connective tissue diseases and with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF/CTD) were compared with eight samples of normal lungs. The collagen content of diseased lungs was significantly increased when compared to control lungs, but no difference was observed among the pathologic groups. The analysis of collagen aggregational state showed maximal aggregation in IPF/CTD, followed by sarcoidosis, ARDS, and control lungs, in decreasing order. The results suggest that measurement of collagen aggregation coupled with collagen content could be used in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease and encourage the use of new techniques in order to better explain the dramatic histologic and functional alterations observed in many disease-associated lung processes. PMID:2468455

  6. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  7. Acute Respiratory Failure in Critically Ill Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zafrani, Lara; Lemiale, Virginie; Lapidus, Nathanael; Lorillon, Gwenael; Schlemmer, Benoît; Azoulay, Elie

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic known or unknown interstitial lung disease (ILD) may present with severe respiratory flares that require intensive management. Outcome data in these patients are scarce. Patients and Methods Clinical and radiological features were collected in 83 patients with ILD-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF). Determinants of hospital mortality and response to corticosteroid therapy were identified by logistic regression. Results Hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 41% and 54% respectively. Pulmonary hypertension, computed tomography (CT) fibrosis and acute kidney injury were independently associated with mortality (odds ratio (OR) 4.55; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) (1.20–17.33); OR, 7.68; (1.78–33.22) and OR 10.60; (2.25–49.97) respectively). Response to steroids was higher in patients with shorter time from hospital admission to corticosteroid therapy. Patients with fibrosis on CT had lower response to steroids (OR, 0.03; (0.005–0.21)). In mechanically ventilated patients, overdistension induced by high PEEP settings was associated with CT fibrosis and hospital mortality. Conclusion Mortality is high in ILD-associated ARF. CT and echocardiography are valuable prognostic tools. Prompt corticosteroid therapy may improve survival. PMID:25115557

  8. Lung disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - lung disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on lung disease : American Lung Association -- www.lung.org National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov ...

  9. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2?) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2? levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  10. Incidence and risk factors for acute lung injury after open thoracotomy for thoracic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shihua; Mao, Teng; Xu, Meiying; Chen, Wenhu

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after open thoracotomy. The purpose of the study was to identify the incidence and risk factors for ALI so as to prevent its occurrence and improve surgical results. Methods A prospective controlled study was carried out in 364 patients undergone open thoracotomy. Fifty-eight high risk elderly patients and 56 young patients as matched controls were prospectively entered into the study. The two groups were compared to identify the possible risk factors for ALI. Results ALI occurred exclusively in elderly patients, accounted for 2.7% of the whole series (10/364) and 7.9% of elderly patients (10/127). The mortality for patients with ALI was 30%, significantly higher than those without (1.0%, P=0.001). Upon univariate analysis, increased age, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), poor spirometry, and positive fluid balance on postoperative day 1 were associated with increased risk of developing ALI. Upon multivariate analysis, only poor spirometry and excessive positive fluid balance on postoperative day 1 were revealed as independent risk factors for ALI. Conclusions ALI after open thoracotomy has a high mortality. COPD and excessive positive fluid balance on the first postoperative day are significant predictors, suggesting stringent patient selection and timely conservative fluid management may be helpful in reducing this extremely devastating complication. PMID:23991302

  11. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD): Overview Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is ... they may make informed decisions Learn more. Interstitial Lung Disease Program As a center specializing in the ...

  12. Rheumatoid lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules ... Lung problems are common in rheumatoid arthritis. They often cause no symptoms. The causes of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis are unknown. Sometimes the medicines used to ...

  13. Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kallet, Richard H; Matthay, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged breathing of very high FIO2 (FIO2 ? 0.9) uniformly causes severe hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) and, without a reduction of FIO2, is usually fatal. The severity of HALI is directly proportional to PO2 (particularly above 450 mm Hg, or an FIO2 of 0.6) and exposure duration. Hyperoxia produces extraordinary amounts of reactive O2 species that overwhelms natural antioxidant defenses and destroys cellular structures through several pathways. Genetic predisposition has been shown to play an important role in HALI among animals, and some genetics-based epidemiologic research suggests that this may be true for humans as well. Clinically, the risk of HALI likely occurs when FIO2exceeds 0.7, and may become problematic when FIO2 exceeds 0.8 for an extended period of time. Both high-stretch mechanical ventilation and hyperoxia potentiate lung injury and may promote pulmonary infection. During the 1960s, confusion regarding the incidence and relevance of HALI largely reflected such issues as the primitive control of FIO2, the absence of PEEP, and the fact that at the time both ALI and ventilator-induced lung injury were unknown. The advent of PEEP and precise control over FIO2, as well as lung-protective ventilation, and other adjunctive therapies for severe hypoxemia, has greatly reduced the risk of HALI for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the 21st century. However, a subset of patients with very severe ARDS requiring hyperoxic therapy is at substantial risk for developing HALI, therefore justifying the use of such adjunctive therapies. PMID:23271823

  14. Interstitial lung disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  15. Biomarkers in Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Maneesh; Wendt, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) result in high permeability pulmonary edema causing hypoxic respiratory failure with high morbidity and mortality. As the population ages, the incidence of ALI is expected to rise. Over the last decade, several studies have identified biomarkers in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid providing important insights into the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of ALI. Several biomarkers have been validated in subjects from the large, multicenter ARDS clinical trials network. Despite these studies, no single or group of biomarkers has made it into routine clinical practice. New high throughput ‘omics’ techniques promise improved understanding of the biologic processes in the pathogenesis in ALI and possibly new biomarkers that predict disease and outcomes. In this article we review the current knowledge on biomarkers in ALI. PMID:22424425

  16. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and quantify our preliminary picture of the pathogenesis of lung disease by particles, but a useful start has been made. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6376114

  17. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Lung Disease and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Yuki; Eguchi, Kazuo; Kario, Kazuomi

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Airflow limitation is a predictor of future risks of hypertension and cardiovascular events. COPD is now understood as a systemic inflammatory disease, with the focus on inflammation of the lungs. An association between inflammation and sympathetic overactivity has also been reported. In this article, we review the association between chronic lung disease and the risks of hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, the underlying mechanisms, and the therapeutic approach to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in patients with lung diseases.

  19. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your Breathing Lung Diseases & Conditions Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchitis COPD How the Heart Works Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  20. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tubes (airways). Sometimes these diseases directly damage the air sacs and airways. The various types of chILD can decrease lung function, reduce blood oxygen levels, and disturb the breathing process. Overview Researchers have only begun to study, define, ...

  1. Ultrastructure of the lung in a murine model of malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms through which infection with Plasmodium spp. result in lung disease are largely unknown. Recently a number of mouse models have been developed to research malaria-associated lung injury but no detailed ultrastructure studies of the disease in its terminal stages in a murine model have yet been published. The goal was to perform an ultrastructural analysis of the lungs of mice that died with malaria-associated acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome to better determine the relevancy of the murine models and investigate the mechanism of disease. Methods DBA/2 mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei strain ANKA. Mice had their lungs removed immediately after death, processed using standard methods and viewed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results Infected red blood cell:endothelium contact, swollen endothelium with distended cytoplasmic extensions and thickening of endothelium basement membrane were observed. Septa were thick and filled with congested capillaries and leukocytes and the alveolar spaces contained blood cells, oedema and cell debris. Conclusion Results show that the lung ultrastructure of P. berghei ANKA-infected mice has similar features to what has been described in post-mortem TEM studies of lungs from individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum. These data support the use of murine models to study malaria-associated acute lung injury. PMID:24927627

  2. Intravascular laser therapy in different forms of lung diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, M. N.; Reshetnikov, V. A.; Kazhekin, O. A.; Shepelenko, A. F.

    1993-06-01

    The potentions of laser intravascular therapy in elimination of pyogenic and inflammatory intoxication in cases of acute pneumonia, pyo-destructive diseases (including posttraumatic diseases) of the lungs are studied clinically.

  3. Rapid evaluation by lung-cardiac-inferior vena cava (LCI) integrated ultrasound for differentiating heart failure from pulmonary disease as the cause of acute dyspnea in the emergency setting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid and accurate diagnosis and management can be lifesaving for patients with acute dyspnea. However, making a differential diagnosis and selecting early treatment for patients with acute dyspnea in the emergency setting is a clinical challenge that requires complex decision-making in order to achieve hemodynamic balance, improve functional capacity, and decrease mortality. In the present study, we examined the screening potential of rapid evaluation by lung-cardiac-inferior vena cava (LCI) integrated ultrasound for differentiating acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) from primary pulmonary disease in patients with acute dyspnea in the emergency setting. Methods Between March 2011 and March 2012, 90 consecutive patients (45 women, 78.1?±?9.9?years) admitted to the emergency room of our hospital for acute dyspnea were enrolled. Within 30?minutes of admission, all patients underwent conventional physical examination, rapid ultrasound (lung-cardiac-inferior vena cava [LCI] integrated ultrasound) examination with a hand-held device, routine laboratory tests, measurement of brain natriuretic peptide, and chest X-ray in the emergency room. Results The final diagnosis was acute dyspnea due to AHFS in 53 patients, acute dyspnea due to pulmonary disease despite a history of heart failure in 18 patients, and acute dyspnea due to pulmonary disease in 19 patients. Lung ultrasound alone showed a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 96.2, 54.0, 90.9, and 75.0%, respectively, for differentiating AHFS from pulmonary disease. On the other hand, LCI integrated ultrasound had a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 94.3, 91.9, 91.9, and 94.3%, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that rapid evaluation by LCI integrated ultrasound is extremely accurate for differentiating acute dyspnea due to AHFS from that caused by primary pulmonary disease in the emergency setting. PMID:23210515

  4. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links

    PubMed Central

    Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  5. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  6. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  7. Occupational and environmental lung disease.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Danielle M; Meyer, Cristopher A; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2015-06-01

    Occupational and environmental lung disease remains a major cause of respiratory impairment worldwide. Despite regulations, increasing rates of coal worker's pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are being reported in the United States. Dust exposures are occurring in new industries, for instance, silica in hydraulic fracking. Nonoccupational environmental lung disease contributes to major respiratory disease, asthma, and COPD. Knowledge of the imaging patterns of occupational and environmental lung disease is critical in diagnosing patients with occult exposures and managing patients with suspected or known exposures. PMID:26024603

  8. Surfactant for Pediatric Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Willson, Douglas F.; Chess, Patricia R.; Notter, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews exogenous surfactant therapy and its use in mitigating acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in infants, children, and adults. Biophysical and animal research documenting surfactant dysfunction in ALI/ARDS is described, and the scientific rationale for treatment with exogenous surfactant is discussed. Major emphasis is on reviewing clinical studies of surfactant therapy in pediatric and adult patients with ALI/ARDS. Particular advantages from surfactant therapy in direct pulmonary forms of these syndromes are described. Also discussed are additional factors affecting the efficacy of exogenous surfactants in ALI/ARDS, including the multifaceted pathology of inflammatory lung injury, the effectiveness of surfactant delivery in injured lungs, and composition-based activity differences among clinical exogenous surfactant preparations. PMID:18501754

  9. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Role of Oleic Acid-Triggered Lung Injury and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; Burth, Patrícia; Castro-Faria, Mauro Velho; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2015-01-01

    Lung injury especially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be triggered by diverse stimuli, including fatty acids and microbes. ARDS affects thousands of people worldwide each year, presenting high mortality rate and having an economic impact. One of the hallmarks of lung injury is edema formation with alveoli flooding. Animal models are used to study lung injury. Oleic acid-induced lung injury is a widely used model resembling the human disease. The oleic acid has been linked to metabolic and inflammatory diseases; here we focus on lung injury. Firstly, we briefly discuss ARDS and secondly we address the mechanisms by which oleic acid triggers lung injury and inflammation. PMID:26640323

  10. Gastroesophageal reflux and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER. Additional research and clinical trials are needed to determine the role of GER in various lung disorders and identify which interventions are most efficacious in preventing the respiratory consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, measuring biomarkers that indicate that gastric refluxate has been aspirated into the lower respiratory tract (e.g., pepsin and bile acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) may prove helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision making. PMID:26104973

  11. Agricultural lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed. PMID:10931789

  12. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  13. Acute Lung Injury: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Acute lung injury (ALI) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the critically ill patient population. Defined by a constellation of clinical criteria (acute onset of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates with hypoxemia without evidence of hydrostatic pulmonary edema), ALI has a high incidence (200,000 per year in the US) and overall mortality remains high. Pathogenesis of ALI is explained by injury to both the vascular endothelium and alveolar epithelium. Recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology have identified several biologic markers that are associated with worse clinical outcomes. Phase III clinical trials by the NHLBI ARDS Network have resulted in improvement in survival and a reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation with a lung-protective ventilation strategy and fluid conservative protocol. Potential areas of future treatments include nutritional strategies, statin therapy, and mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:20073554

  14. Acute Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity Following Lung Resection

    PubMed Central

    Fadahunsi, Opeyemi; Krol, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Amiodarone is one of the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmic agents. Despite its widespread use, it is associated with systemic side effects. Pulmonary toxicity, the most severe adverse effect of amiodarone, has usually been described in the context of chronic amiodarone use. We report a case of an 80-year-old male presenting acutely following right upper lung lobe resection for stage 1b adenocarcinoma. He developed atrial fibrillation on postoperative day four and received 12.5 g of amiodarone within a 12 day period. On presentation, he had new bilateral lung opacities and a 35% absolute decline in the predicted diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. Pulmonary embolism was ruled out on chest computed tomography. Amiodarone was discontinued and prednisone was initiated. Despite initial improvement, he suffered from multiple hypoxemic episodes until his death in the fourth month. In a subset of patients undergoing thoracic surgery who are intubated and require high levels of oxygen, the risk of amiodarone lung toxicity increases and patients may present acutely. PMID:25324704

  15. Role of myeloid Hif-1? in acute lung injury 

    E-print Network

    MacDuff, Andrew

    2011-07-05

    Acute Lung Injury, characterised clinically as the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a catastrophic response to a range of pulmonary and non-pulmonary insults. Despite much work the key mechanisms involved in generating the exaggerated immune...

  16. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury: The Work of DAMPs*

    PubMed Central

    Land, Walter G.

    2013-01-01

    Current notions in immunology hold that not only pathogen-mediated tissue injury but any injury activates the innate immune system. In principle, this evolutionarily highly conserved, rapid first-line defense system responds to pathogen-induced injury with the creation of infectious inflammation, and non-pathogen-induced tissue injury with ‘sterile’ tissue inflammation. In this review, evidence has been collected in support of the notion that the transfusion-related acute lung injury induces a ‘sterile’ inflammation in the lung of transfused patients in terms of an acute innate inflammatory disease. The inflammatory response is mediated by the patient's innate immune cells including lung-passing neutrophils and pulmonary endothelial cells, which are equipped with pattern recognition receptors. These receptors are able to sense injury-induced, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated during collection, processing, and storage of blood/blood components. The recognition process leads to activation of these innate cells. A critical role for a protein complex known as the NLRP3 inflammasome has been suggested to be at the center of such a scenario. This complex undergoes an initial ‘priming’ step mediated by 1 class of DAMPs and then an ‘activating’ step mediated by another class of DAMPs to activate interleukin-1beta and interleukin-18. These 2 cytokines then promote, via transactivation, the formation of lung inflammation. PMID:23637644

  17. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury: The Work of DAMPs.

    PubMed

    Land, Walter G

    2013-02-01

    Current notions in immunology hold that not only pathogen-mediated tissue injury but any injury activates the innate immune system. In principle, this evolutionarily highly conserved, rapid first-line defense system responds to pathogen-induced injury with the creation of infectious inflammation, and non-pathogen-induced tissue injury with 'sterile' tissue inflammation. In this review, evidence has been collected in support of the notion that the transfusion-related acute lung injury induces a 'sterile' inflammation in the lung of transfused patients in terms of an acute innate inflammatory disease. The inflammatory response is mediated by the patient's innate immune cells including lung-passing neutrophils and pulmonary endothelial cells, which are equipped with pattern recognition receptors. These receptors are able to sense injury-induced, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated during collection, processing, and storage of blood/blood components. The recognition process leads to activation of these innate cells. A critical role for a protein complex known as the NLRP3 inflammasome has been suggested to be at the center of such a scenario. This complex undergoes an initial 'priming' step mediated by 1 class of DAMPs and then an 'activating' step mediated by another class of DAMPs to activate interleukin-1beta and interleukin-18. These 2 cytokines then promote, via transactivation, the formation of lung inflammation. PMID:23637644

  18. Genetically manipulated mouse models of lung disease: potential and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Alexander J. S.; Owen, Caroline A.; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2012-01-01

    Gene targeting in mice (transgenic and knockout) has provided investigators with an unparalleled armamentarium in recent decades to dissect the cellular and molecular basis of critical pathophysiological states. Fruitful information has been derived from studies using these genetically engineered mice with significant impact on our understanding, not only of specific biological processes spanning cell proliferation to cell death, but also of critical molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of human disease. This review will focus on the use of gene-targeted mice to study various models of lung disease including airways diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, pneumonia, and acute lung injury. We will attempt to review the current technological approaches of generating gene-targeted mice and the enormous dataset derived from these studies, providing a template for lung investigators. PMID:22198907

  19. [Eosinophilic diseases of the lungs].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary eosinophilias belong to a heterogenous group of the diseases characterized by pulmonary shadows related to pulmonary tissue and/or peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although the inflammatory infiltrate consists of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils, a significant marker for the diagnosis and treatment is eosinophilia. By etiology eosinophilic diseases of the lungs fall into primary or idiopathic (common pulmonary eosinophilia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, hypereosinophilic syndrome), secondary or of known origin (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillesis, bronchocentric granulematosis, parasitic invasions, drug-induced reactions, fungal and mycobacterial infection, pulmonary diseases caused by radiation or toxins). Pulmonary eosinophilia can be also associated with systemic diseases (Churg-Strauss syndrome) and tumors. Clinicoroentgenological picture of different eosinophilic diseases of the lungs is almost the same. Verification of the diagnosis is based on the presence of bronchial asthma and extrapulmonary manifestations, the level of eosinophilia in the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage and total IgE, histological and chest CT findings. This article presents modern classification, clinicoroentgenological and histological characteristics of different, primarily idiopathic, eosinophilic diseases of the lungs. PMID:22708427

  20. Biomarker for Lung and Inflammatory Diseases

    E-print Network

    Heydari, Payam

    Biomarker for Lung and Inflammatory Diseases Tech ID: 23381 / UC Case 2012-660-0 BACKGROUND and clinical research. We describe herein a novel biomarker and method of detecting interstitial lung disease have discovered that patients with interstitial lung and intestinal inflammatory diseases, for example

  1. [Imaging findings in intersitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Brauner, Michel; Ben Romdhane, Habib; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Freynet, Olivia; Dion, Geneviève; Valeyre, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Subacute and chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in all stages of management: positive diagnosis, etiological diagnosis, evaluation of lesions, ongoing monitoring, screening for complications, and prognosis. The etiological diagnosis is based on the imaging and analysis of patterns or groups of basic lesions often characteristics of a disease. Assessment of the images, the patient history, and the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, functional and cytologic data generally make it possible to reach a diagnosis. A pulmonary biopsy is rarely necessary. Acute diffuse interstitial lung diseases In the absence of an obvious clinical direction, CT, electrocardiography, and echocardiography are the first-line examinations to identify or rule out cardiogenic edema. CT can be used to guide bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), widely used when the patient's respiratory condition permits. BAL can provide a diagnosis of diverse infections or help determine the cytologic type of alveolitis. CT also makes it possible to evaluate the lesions and plays a role in assessing severity. It makes it possible to choose the best sampling method and in principle directs sampling towards the most useful areas. It allows monitoring of disease course, screening of some complications, and precise localizing of tubes, drains, and catheters. Finally, it is used to assess the sequelae. PMID:19926247

  2. Cough in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Garner, Justin; George, Peter M; Renzoni, Elisabetta

    2015-12-01

    Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the underlying mechanisms remain speculative and further research is now required to elucidate the complex pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in ILD. This will hopefully pave the way for the identification of new therapeutic agents to alleviate this distressing and often intractable symptom. PMID:26545874

  3. Pharmacotherapy of Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cepkova, Magda; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome are common syndromes with a high mortality rate that affect both medical and surgical patients. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome and advances in supportive care and mechanical ventilation have led to improved clinical outcomes since the syndrome was first described in 1967. Although several promising pharmacological therapies, including surfactant, nitric oxide, glucocorticoids and lysofylline, have been studied in patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome, none of these pharmacological treatments reduced mortality. This article provides an overview of pharmacological therapies of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome tested in clinical trials and current recommendations for their use as well as a discussion of potential future pharmacological therapies including ?2- adrenergic agonist therapy, keratinocyte growth factor, and activated protein C. PMID:16672636

  4. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury].

    PubMed

    Tank, S; Sputtek, A; Kiefmann, R

    2013-04-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) developed into the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality after the first description by Popovsky et al. approximately three decades ago. It was the most frequent reason for transfusion-related fatalities worldwide before implementation of risk minimization strategies by donor selection. Plasma-rich blood products, such as fresh frozen plasma and apheresis platelets seem to be the leading triggers of TRALI. Hypoxemia and development of pulmonary edema within 6 h of transfusion are the diagnostic criteria for TRALI. The differentiation between cardiac failure and other transfusion-related lung injuries, such astransfusion-associated circulatory overload ( TACO) is difficult and causal treatment is not available. Therapy is based on supportive measures, such as oxygen insufflationor mechanical ventilation. The exactly pathogenesis is still unknown but the most propagated hypothesis is the two-event-model. Neutrophils are primed by the underlying condition, e.g. sepsis or trauma during the first event and these primed neutrophils are activated by transfused leukoagglutinating antibodies (immunogen) or bioreactive mediators (non-immunogen) during the second-event. Transfusion of leukoagglutinating antibodies from female donors with one or more previous pregnancies is the most frequent reason. No more TRALI fatalities were reported after implementation of the donor selection in Germany in 2009. PMID:23558721

  5. Interstitial lung disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Christin S.; Young, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been tremendous progress in the approach to childhood interstitial lung diseases (ILD), with particular recognition that ILD in infants is often distinct from forms that occur in older children and adults. Diagnosis is challenging due to the rarity of ILD and the fact that presenting symptoms of ILD often overlap those of common respiratory disorders. This review summarizes newly published recommendations for diagnosis and management and highlights recent scientific advances in several specific forms of childhood ILD. Recent findings Clinical practice guidelines emphasize the role for chest CT, genetic testing, and lung biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected ILD. Recent studies have better defined the characteristics and molecular understanding of several different forms of ILD, including Neuroendocrine cell Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI) and ILD due to mutations in genes affecting surfactant production and metabolism. Despite significant progress, definitive therapies are often lacking. Summary Childhood ILD encompasses a collection of rare, diffuse lung diseases. Timely recognition of children with suspected ILD and initiation of appropriate diagnostic evaluations will facilitate medical management. Systematic approaches to clinical care and further study are needed to improve the outcomes of children with these rare disorders. PMID:24752172

  6. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  7. VEGF promotes malaria-associated acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Epiphanio, Sabrina; Campos, Marta G; Pamplona, Ana; Carapau, Daniel; Pena, Ana C; Ataíde, Ricardo; Monteiro, Carla A A; Félix, Nuno; Costa-Silva, Artur; Marinho, Claudio R F; Dias, Sérgio; Mota, Maria M

    2010-05-01

    The spectrum of the clinical presentation and severity of malaria infections is broad, ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to severe forms of disease such as cerebral malaria (CM), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or severe anemia (SA). Rodent models that mimic human CM, PAM and SA syndromes have been established. Here, we show that DBA/2 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA constitute a new model for malaria-associated ALI. Up to 60% of the mice showed dyspnea, airway obstruction and hypoxemia and died between days 7 and 12 post-infection. The most common pathological findings were pleural effusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, consistent with increased lung vessel permeability, while the blood-brain barrier was intact. Malaria-associated ALI correlated with high levels of circulating VEGF, produced de novo in the spleen, and its blockage led to protection of mice from this syndrome. In addition, either splenectomization or administration of the anti-inflammatory molecule carbon monoxide led to a significant reduction in the levels of sera VEGF and to protection from ALI. The similarities between the physiopathological lesions described here and the ones occurring in humans, as well as the demonstration that VEGF is a critical host factor in the onset of malaria-associated ALI in mice, not only offers important mechanistic insights into the processes underlying the pathology related with malaria but may also pave the way for interventional studies. PMID:20502682

  8. VEGF Promotes Malaria-Associated Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carapau, Daniel; Pena, Ana C.; Ataíde, Ricardo; Monteiro, Carla A. A.; Félix, Nuno; Costa-Silva, Artur; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Dias, Sérgio; Mota, Maria M.

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of the clinical presentation and severity of malaria infections is broad, ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to severe forms of disease such as cerebral malaria (CM), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or severe anemia (SA). Rodent models that mimic human CM, PAM and SA syndromes have been established. Here, we show that DBA/2 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA constitute a new model for malaria-associated ALI. Up to 60% of the mice showed dyspnea, airway obstruction and hypoxemia and died between days 7 and 12 post-infection. The most common pathological findings were pleural effusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, consistent with increased lung vessel permeability, while the blood-brain barrier was intact. Malaria-associated ALI correlated with high levels of circulating VEGF, produced de novo in the spleen, and its blockage led to protection of mice from this syndrome. In addition, either splenectomization or administration of the anti-inflammatory molecule carbon monoxide led to a significant reduction in the levels of sera VEGF and to protection from ALI. The similarities between the physiopathological lesions described here and the ones occurring in humans, as well as the demonstration that VEGF is a critical host factor in the onset of malaria-associated ALI in mice, not only offers important mechanistic insights into the processes underlying the pathology related with malaria but may also pave the way for interventional studies. PMID:20502682

  9. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  10. Chronic exposure to ozone causes restrictive lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, E.C.; Costa, D.L.; Hatch, G.E.; Miller, F.J.; Graham, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A chronic study to determine the progression and/or reversibility of ozone-induced lung disease was conducted. Male rats were exposed to a diurnal pattern of ozone (O{sub 3}) for 1 week, 3 weeks, 3 months, 12 months, or 18 months. The occurrence of chronic lung disease was determined by structural and functional endpoints. Structurally, a biphasic response was observed with an initial acute inflammatory response after 1 week of exposure, a reduced acute response after 3 weeks of exposure, and an epithelial and interstitial response observed after 3 months which persisted or increased in intensity up to 18 months of exposure. Functional studies showed a persistence of decreased total lung capacity and residual volumes at 3, 12, and 18 months of exposure, a response indicative of restrictive lung disease. Biochemical changes in antioxidant metabolism were also observed after 12 and 18 months of exposure. Most significant changes were resolved after the clean-air recovery period. The study has shown that chronic exposure to O{sub 3} causes restrictive lung disease as characterized by the development of focal interstitial fibrosis.

  11. Krypton-81m ventilation scanning: acute respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.P.; Irving, H.; Armstrong, J.D. II

    1981-02-01

    From experience with 700 patients undergoing ventilation and perfusion lung scanning with krypton-81m/technetium-99m technique, 34 patients suffering from nonembolic acute respiratory disease were selected for review. In 16 patients with pneumonia, all had defects of ventilation corresponding to, or larger than, the radiologic consolidation. In 13 patients there was some preservation of perfusion in the consolidated region. In two of the three patients with matched defects, the pneumonia was of long standing. In seven patients with collapse or atelectasis and in 11 patients with acute reversible bronchial obstruction and normal volume lungs, a similar pattern or ventillation and perfusion was observed.

  12. Mechanisms and mediators of lung injury after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Faubel, Sarah; Edelstein, Charles L

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients, associated with >50% mortality in those in intensive care who require renal replacement therapy. Data suggest that AKI is a systemic disease that adversely affects the immune system and organ function, and in this way contributes to the high mortality observed in affected patients. Data from patients and animal models indicate that AKI adversely affects the lungs. Respiratory complications are common in patients with AKI and include pulmonary oedema, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, and prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. The development of respiratory failure in patients with AKI greatly increases the risk of death. Data from animal models support the notion that cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (from volume overload) and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (from endothelial injury due to inflammation and apoptosis) can occur in AKI. In this Review we discuss the clinical, epidemiologic, and animal data that provide insights into the mechanisms by which AKI can lead to lung injury and respiratory complications. Elucidation of the mechanisms of lung injury and respiratory complications after AKI is essential to develop effective therapies and reduce the high mortality associated with AKI and respiratory failure. PMID:26434402

  13. Non-invasive markers of inflammation in cystic fibrosis lung disease 

    E-print Network

    MacGregor, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by early airways infection and inflammation, chronic suppuration, frequent infective exacerbations and an increased influx of acute, and chronic inflammatory cells. The ...

  14. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  15. Life-threatening acute pneumonitis in mixed connective tissue disease: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rath, Eva; Zandieh, Shahin; Löckinger, Alexander; Hirschl, Mirko; Klaushofer, Klaus; Zwerina, Jochen

    2015-10-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare connective tissue disease frequently involving the lungs. The main characteristic is a systemic sclerosis-like picture of slowly progressing interstitial lung disease consistent with lung fibrosis, while pulmonary arterial hypertension is rare. Herein, we present a case of a newly diagnosed MCTD patient developing life-threatening acute pneumonitis similar to lupus pneumonitis. Previous literature on this exceptionally rare complication of MCTD is reviewed and differential diagnosis and management discussed. PMID:26142172

  16. Histopathology of lung disease in the connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Vivero, Marina; Padera, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    The pathologic correlates of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to connective tissue disease (CTD) comprise a diverse group of histologic patterns. Lung biopsies in patients with CTD-associated ILD tend to demonstrate simultaneous involvement of multiple anatomic compartments of the lung. Certain histologic patterns tend to predominate in each defined CTD, and it is possible in many cases to confirm connective tissue-associated lung disease and guide patient management using surgical lung biopsy. This article will cover the pulmonary pathologies seen in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, myositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, and mixed CTD. PMID:25836637

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in lung disorders: pathogenesis of lung diseases and mechanism of action of mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Inamdar, Ajinkya C; Inamdar, Arati A

    2013-10-01

    Lung disorders such as asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), and interstitial lung disease (ILD) show a few common threads of pathogenic mechanisms: inflammation, aberrant immune activity, infection, and fibrosis. Currently no modes of effective treatment are available for ILD or emphysema. Being anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and regenerative in nature, the administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has shown the capacity to control immune dysfunction and inflammation in the lung. The intravenous infusion of MSCs, the common mode of delivery, is followed by their entrapment in lung vasculature before MSCs reach to other organ systems thus indicating the feasible and promising approach of MSCs therapy for lung diseases. In this review, we discuss the mechanistic basis for MSCs therapy for asthma, ARDS, COPD, and ILD. PMID:23992090

  18. Oxidative stress and lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Maselli, R; Grembiale, R D; Pelaia, G; Cuda, G

    2002-01-01

    Several different lung diseases are characterized by an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, which is a major cause of cell damage. Oxidative stress activates a complex network of intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in the regulation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Within this context, a key role is played by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), which are highly expressed by pulmonary endothelial and airway epithelial cells. By exposing these cell lines to oxidant agents, our group has shown that oxidative stress leads to a significant MAPK activation, which can be effectively inhibited by corticosteroids. We believe that studies such as ours may contribute to further elucidate the molecular events underlying the therapeutic action of these drugs in many respiratory disorders caused by oxidative/proinflammatory pathogenic mechanisms. In addition, our findings may help to unveil new anti-oxidant treatments based on MAPK modulation. PMID:12619379

  19. NMDA Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yong; Peng, XiangPing; Liu, Wei; Zhao, FeiYan; Feng, DanDan; Han, JianZhong; Huang, YanHong; Luo, SiWei; Li, Lian; Yue, Shao Jie; Cheng, QingMei; Huang, XiaoTing; Luo, ZiQiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Large amount of glutamate can overstimulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), causing neuronal injury and death. Recently, NMDAR has been reported to be found in the lungs. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of memantine, a NMDAR channel blocker, on bleomycin-induced lung injury mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally injected with bleomycin (BLM) to induce lung injury. Mice were randomized to receive saline, memantine (Me), BLM, BLM plus Me. Lungs and BALF were harvested on day 3 or 7 for further evaluation. Results BLM caused leukocyte infiltration, pulmonary edema and increase in cytokines, and imposed significant oxidative stress (MDA as a marker) in lungs. Memantine significantly mitigated the oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury caused by BLM. Moreover, activation of NMDAR enhances CD11b expression on neutrophils. Conclusions Memantine mitigates oxidative stress, lung inflammatory response and acute lung injury in BLM challenged mice. PMID:25942563

  20. Role of IL-18 in acute lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jordan, J A; Guo, R F; Yun, E C; Sarma, V; Warner, R L; Crouch, L D; Senaldi, G; Ulich, T R; Ward, P A

    2001-12-15

    We have examined the role of IL-18 after acute lung inflammation in rats caused by intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes. Constitutive IL-18 mRNA and protein expression (precursor form, 26 kDa) were found in normal rat lung, whereas in inflamed lungs, IL-18 mRNA was up-regulated; in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluids, the 26-kDa protein form of IL-18 was increased at 2-4 h in inflamed lungs and remained elevated at 24 h, and the "mature" protein form of IL-18 (18 kDa) appeared in BAL fluids 1-8 h after onset of inflammation. ELISA studies confirmed induction of IL-18 in inflamed lungs (in lung homogenates and in BAL fluids). Prominent immunostaining for IL-18 was found in alveolar macrophages from inflamed lungs. When rat lung macrophages, fibroblasts, type II cells, and endothelial cells were cultured in vitro with LPS, only the first two produced IL-18. Intratracheal administration of rat recombinant IL-18 in the lung model caused significant increases in lung vascular permeability and in BAL content of neutrophils and in BAL content of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, whereas intratracheal instillation of anti-IL-18 greatly reduced these changes and prevented increases in BAL content of IFN-gamma. Intratracheal administration of the natural antagonist of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, resulted in suppressed lung vascular permeability and decreased BAL content of neutrophils, cytokines, and chemokines. These findings suggest that endogenous IL-18 functions as a proinflammatory cytokine in this model of acute lung inflammation, serving as an autocrine activator to bring about expression of other inflammatory mediators. PMID:11739527

  1. Postoperative Acute Exacerbation of IPF after Lung Resection for Primary Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi; Higami, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by slowly progressive respiratory dysfunction. Nevertheless, some IPF patients experience acute exacerbations generally characterized by suddenly worsening and fatal respiratory failure with new lung opacities and pathological lesions of diffuse alveolar damage. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AEIPF) is a fatal disorder defined by rapid deterioration of IPF. The condition sometimes occurs in patients who underwent lung resection for primary lung cancer in the acute and subacute postoperative phases. The exact etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown, but the condition is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage superimposed on a background of IPF that probably occurs as a result of a massive lung injury due to some unknown factors. This systematic review shows that the outcome, however, is poor, with postoperative mortality ranging from 33.3% to 100%. In this paper, the etiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, therapy, prognosis, and predictors of postoperative AEIPF are described. PMID:21637373

  2. Molecular imaging of folate receptor ?-positive macrophages during acute lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Yull, Fiona E; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Gleaves, Linda A; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Young, Lisa R; Peterson, Todd E; Manning, H Charles; Prince, Lawrence S; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2015-07-01

    Characterization of markers that identify activated macrophages could advance understanding of inflammatory lung diseases and facilitate development of novel methodologies for monitoring disease activity. We investigated whether folate receptor ? (FR?) expression could be used to identify and quantify activated macrophages in the lungs during acute inflammation induced by Escherichia coli LPS. We found that FR? expression was markedly increased in lung macrophages at 48 hours after intratracheal LPS. In vivo molecular imaging with a fluorescent probe (cyanine 5 polyethylene glycol folate) showed that the fluorescence signal over the chest peaked at 48 hours after intratracheal LPS and was markedly attenuated after depletion of macrophages. Using flow cytometry, we identified the cells responsible for uptake of cyanine 5-conjugated folate as FR?(+) interstitial macrophages and pulmonary monocytes, which coexpressed markers associated with an M1 proinflammatory macrophage phenotype. These findings were confirmed using a second model of acute lung inflammation generated by inducible transgenic expression of an NF-?B activator in airway epithelium. Using CC chemokine receptor 2-deficient mice, we found that FR?(+) macrophage/monocyte recruitment was dependent on the monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC chemokine receptor 2 pathway. Together, our results demonstrate that folate-based molecular imaging can be used as a noninvasive approach to detect classically activated monocytes/macrophages recruited to the lungs during acute inflammation. PMID:25375039

  3. Original Contribution Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality in Comparison with Lung and Bladder

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Original Contribution Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality in Comparison with Lung and Bladder) in comparison with the unexposed region V. Increased risks were found for acute myocardial infarction (AMI; Chile; lung neoplasms; mortality; myocardial infarction; urinary bladder neoplasms; water Abbreviations

  4. Autotaxin and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Nikos; Katsifa, Aggeliki; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Kaffe, Eleanna; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a life-threatening, diffuse heterogeneous lung injury characterized by acute onset, pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common cause of both direct and indirect lung injury and when administered to a mouse induces a lung phenotype exhibiting some of the clinical characteristics of human ALI. Here, we report that LPS inhalation in mice results in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2), a lysophospholipase D largely responsible for the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in biological fluids and chronically inflamed sites. In agreement, gradual increases were also detected in BALF LPA levels, following inflammation and pulmonary edema. However, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of ATX had minor effects in ALI severity, suggesting no major involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute inflammation. Moreover, systemic, chronic exposure to increased ATX/LPA levels was shown to predispose to and/or to promote acute inflammation and ALI unlike chronic inflammatory pathophysiological situations, further suggesting a differential involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute versus chronic pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26196781

  5. Sphingolipids as cell fate regulators in lung development and disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce; Yeganeh, Behzad; Ermini, Leonardo; Post, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Sphingolipids are a diverse class of signaling molecules implicated in many important aspects of cellular biology, including growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and autophagy. Autophagy and apoptosis are fundamental physiological processes essential for the maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis. There is great interest into the investigation of sphingolipids and their roles in regulating these key physiological processes as well as the manifestation of several disease states. With what is known to date, the entire scope of sphingolipid signaling is too broad, and a single review would hardly scratch the surface. Therefore, this review attempts to highlight the significance of sphingolipids in determining cell fate (e.g. apoptosis, autophagy, cell survival) in the context of the healthy lung, as well as various respiratory diseases including acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, and cystic fibrosis. We present an overview of the latest findings related to sphingolipids and their metabolites, provide a short introduction to autophagy and apoptosis, and then briefly highlight the regulatory roles of sphingolipid metabolites in switching between cell survival and cell death. Finally, we describe functions of sphingolipids in autophagy and apoptosis in lung homeostasis, especially in the context of the aforementioned diseases. PMID:25753687

  6. Kidney-lung cross-talk and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Basu, Rajit K; Wheeler, Derek S

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the role that acute kidney injury (AKI) plays in the propagation of critical illness. In children, AKI is not only an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality, but is also associated with especially negative outcomes when concurrent with acute lung injury (ALI). Experimental data provide evidence that kidney-lung crosstalk occurs and can be bidirectionally deleterious, although details of the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the AKI-ALI interaction remain incomplete. Clinically, ALI, and the subsequent clinical interventions used to stabilize gas exchange, carry consequences for the homeostasis of kidney function. Meanwhile, AKI negatively affects lung physiology significantly by altering the homeostasis of fluid balance, acid-base balance, and vascular tone. Experimental AKI research supports an "endocrine" role for the kidney, triggering a cascade of extra-renal inflammatory responses affecting lung homeostasis. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of kidney-lung crosstalk, the multiple pathways by which AKI affects kidney-lung homeostasis, and discuss how these phenomena may be unique in critically ill children. Understanding how AKI may affect a "balance of communication" that exists between the kidneys and the lungs is requisite when managing critically ill children, in whom imbalance is the norm. PMID:23334385

  7. DNaseI Protects against Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo; Yuzhen, Li; Yi, Chen; Xiaoxiang, Chen; Wei, Zhou; Changqing, Zhu; Shuang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Background. Paraquat (PQ) poisoning is a lethal toxicological challenge that served as a disease model of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanism is undetermined and no effective treatment has been discovered. Methods and Findings. We demonstrated that PQ injures mitochondria and leads to mtDNA release. The mtDNA mediated PBMC recruitment and stimulated the alveolar epithelial cell production of TGF-?1 in vitro. The levels of mtDNA in circulation and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were elevated in a mouse of PQ-induced lung injury. DNaseI could protect PQ-induced lung injury and significantly improved survival. Acute lung injury markers, such as TNF?, IL-1?, and IL-6, and marker of fibrosis, collagen I, were downregulated in parallel with the elimination of mtDNA by DNaseI. These data indicate a possible mechanism for PQ-induced, mtDNA-mediated lung injury, which may be shared by other causes of lung injury, as suggested by the same protective effect of DNaseI in bleomycin-induced lung injury model. Interestingly, increased mtDNA in the BALF of patients with amyopathic dermatomyositis-interstitial lung disease can be appreciated. Conclusions. DNaseI targeting mtDNA may be a promising approach for the treatment of PQ-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis that merits fast tracking through clinical trials. PMID:25759818

  8. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stay away from strong odors and fumes. Do breathing exercises. Take all the medicines that your doctor prescribed ... doctor A respiratory therapist who can teach you breathing exercises and how to use your oxygen Your lung ...

  9. Platelet-derived Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 is implicated in ICAM-1/VCAM-1-mediated neutrophilic acute lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yujie; Mishra, Amarjit; Howland, Emily; Zhao, Chunling; Shukla, Dhananjay; Weng, Tingting; Liu, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Neutrophil infiltration represents the early acute inflammatory response in acute lung injury. The recruitment of neutrophils from the peripheral blood across the endothelial-epithelial barrier into the alveolar airspace is highly regulated by the adhesion molecules on alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Wnt/?-catenin signaling is involved in the progression of inflammatory lung diseases including asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis. However, the function of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in acute lung inflammation is unknown. Here, we identified platelet-derived Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) as the major Wnt antagonist contributing to the suppression of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in AECs during acute lung inflammation. Intratracheal administration of Wnt3a or an antibody capable of neutralizing Dkk1 inhibited neutrophil influx into the alveolar airspace of injured lungs. Activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in AECs attenuated intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)/vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1)-mediated adhesion of both macrophages and neutrophils to AECs. Our results suggest a role for Wnt/?-catenin signaling in modulating the inflammatory response, and a functional communication between platelets and AECs during acute lung inflammation. Targeting Wnt/?-catenin signaling and the communication between platelets and AECs therefore represents potential therapeutic strategies to limit the damage of acute pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26351298

  10. Lung postmortem autopsy revealing extramedullary involvement in multiple myeloma causing acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ravinet, Aurélie; Perbet, Sébastien; Guièze, Romain; Lemal, Richard; Guérin, Renaud; Gayraud, Guillaume; Aliane, Jugurtha; Tremblay, Aymeric; Pascal, Julien; Ledoux, Albane; Chaleteix, Carine; Dechelotte, Pierre; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement with multiple myeloma is rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old man with past medical history of chronic respiratory failure with emphysema, and a known multiple myeloma (Durie and Salmon stage III B and t(4;14) translocation). Six months after diagnosis and first line of treatment, he presented acute dyspnea with interstitial lung disease. Computed tomography showed severe bullous emphysema and diffuse, patchy, multifocal infiltrations bilaterally with nodular character, small bilateral pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and a known lytic lesion of the 12th vertebra. He was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, oseltamivir, and methylprednisolone. Finally, outcome was unfavourable. Postmortem analysis revealed diffuse and nodular infracentimetric infiltration of the lung parenchyma by neoplastic plasma cells. Physicians should be aware that acute respiratory distress syndrome not responding to treatment of common causes could be a manifestation of the disease, even with negative BAL or biopsy and could be promptly treated with salvage therapy. PMID:25165587

  11. Lung Postmortem Autopsy Revealing Extramedullary Involvement in Multiple Myeloma Causing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Aurélie; Perbet, Sébastien; Guièze, Romain; Guérin, Renaud; Gayraud, Guillaume; Aliane, Jugurtha; Tremblay, Aymeric; Pascal, Julien; Ledoux, Albane; Chaleteix, Carine; Dechelotte, Pierre; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement with multiple myeloma is rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old man with past medical history of chronic respiratory failure with emphysema, and a known multiple myeloma (Durie and Salmon stage III B and t(4;14) translocation). Six months after diagnosis and first line of treatment, he presented acute dyspnea with interstitial lung disease. Computed tomography showed severe bullous emphysema and diffuse, patchy, multifocal infiltrations bilaterally with nodular character, small bilateral pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and a known lytic lesion of the 12th vertebra. He was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, oseltamivir, and methylprednisolone. Finally, outcome was unfavourable. Postmortem analysis revealed diffuse and nodular infracentimetric infiltration of the lung parenchyma by neoplastic plasma cells. Physicians should be aware that acute respiratory distress syndrome not responding to treatment of common causes could be a manifestation of the disease, even with negative BAL or biopsy and could be promptly treated with salvage therapy. PMID:25165587

  12. The bacterial microbiota in inflammatory lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Huffnagle, Gary B; Dickson, Robert P

    2015-08-01

    Numerous lines of evidence, ranging from recent studies back to those in the 1920s, have demonstrated that the lungs are NOT bacteria-free during health. We have recently proposed that the entire respiratory tract should be considered a single ecosystem extending from the nasal and oral cavities to the alveoli, which includes gradients and niches that modulate microbiome dispersion, retention, survival and proliferation. Bacterial exposure and colonization of the lungs during health is most likely constant and transient, respectively. Host microanatomy, cell biology and innate defenses are altered during chronic lung disease, which in turn, alters the dynamics of bacterial turnover in the lungs and can lead to longer term bacterial colonization, as well as blooms of well-recognized respiratory bacterial pathogens. A few new respiratory colonizers have been identified by culture-independent methods, such as Pseudomonas fluorescens; however, the role of these bacteria in respiratory disease remains to be determined. PMID:26122174

  13. [Acute lung injury caused by inhalation of waterproofing spray].

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Akihiro; Ikehara, Kunihiko; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Harumi; Miyazawa, Naoki; Hashiba, Tomonori; Suzuki, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2003-02-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of severe dyspnea 30 minutes after inhalation of waterproofing spray. He had used the spray outdoors and had then smoked a cigarette with spray-contaminated fingers. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) revealed diffuse ground glass opacities in both lungs. In pulmonary function tests, the lungs showed a moderately decreased diffusing capacity and there was slight hypoxemia. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens demonstrated extensive alveolitis and marked eosinophil migration. Without any specific treatment, the patient recovered clinically in 4 days. We speculated that acute lung injury in this patient may have been induced by not only direct inhalation of the waterproofing spray itself, but also by inhalation of spray by-products resulting from decomposition due to heat. When waterproofing spray is used, precautions should be taken to avoid both inhalation and heating of the fumes. PMID:12722332

  14. Chronic lung diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a need for innovation

    E-print Network

    Chronic lung diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a need for innovation Chronic lung diseases (CLDs), including chronic obstruc- tive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, lung cancer, neonatal chronic lung disease and pulmonary fibrosis, are the leading diseases worldwide with regard to mor- tality

  15. Common lung conditions: environmental pollutants and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Delzell, John E

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can have short- and long-term effects on lung health. Sources of air pollution include gases (eg, carbon monoxide, ozone) and particulate matter (eg, soot, dust). In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollution. Elevated ozone concentrations are associated with increases in lung-related hospitalizations and mortality. Elevated particulate matter pollution increases the risk of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. Occupations with high exposures to pollutants (eg, heavy construction work, truck driving, auto mechanics) pose higher risk of chronic obstructive lung disease. Some industrial settings (eg, agriculture, sawmills, meat packing plants) also are associated with higher risks from pollutants. The Environmental Protection Agency issues an air quality index for cities and regions in the United States. The upper levels on the index are associated with increases in asthma-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Damp and moldy housing might make asthma symptoms worse; individuals from lower socioeconomic groups who live in lower quality housing are particularly at risk. Other household exposures that can have negative effects on lung health include radon, nanoparticles, and biomass fuels. PMID:23767420

  16. How Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and prevent or delay complications. If you have lung cancer, treatments may help slow the progress of the disease. ... she will then draw out the excess fluid. Treatments for Lung Cancer and Mesothelioma If you have lung cancer or ...

  17. Metallothionein-induced zinc partitioning exacerbates hyperoxic acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Min; McLaughlin, Joseph N.; Frederick, Daniel R.; Zhu, Lin; Thambiayya, Kalidasan; Wasserloos, Karla J.; Kaminski, Iris; Pearce, Linda L.; Peterson, Jim; Li, Jin; Latoche, Joseph D.; Peck Palmer, Octavia M.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Fattman, Cheryl L.; Alcorn, John F.; Oury, Tim D.; Angus, Derek C.; Pitt, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypozincemia, with hepatic zinc accumulation at the expense of other organs, occurs in infection, inflammation, and aseptic lung injury. Mechanisms underlying zinc partitioning or its impact on extrahepatic organs are unclear. Here we show that the major zinc-binding protein, metallothionein (MT), is critical for zinc transmigration from lung to liver during hyperoxia and preservation of intrapulmonary zinc during hyperoxia is associated with an injury-resistant phenotype in MT-null mice. Particularly, lung-to-liver zinc ratios decreased in wild-type (WT) and increased significantly in MT-null mice breathing 95% oxygen for 72 h. Compared with female adult WT mice, MT-null mice were significantly protected against hyperoxic lung injury indicated by reduced inflammation and interstitial edema, fewer necrotic changes to distal airway epithelium, and sustained lung function at 72 h hyperoxia. Lungs of MT-null mice showed decreased levels of immunoreactive LC3, an autophagy marker, compared with WT mice. Analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the lungs revealed similar levels of manganese-SOD activity between strains under normoxia and hyperoxia. Lung extracellular SOD activity decreased significantly in both strains at 72 h of hyperoxia, although there was no difference between strains. Copper-zinc-SOD activity was ?4× higher under normoxic conditions in MT-null compared with WT mice but was not affected in either group by hyperoxia. Collectively the data suggest that genetic deletion of MT-I/II in mice is associated with compensatory increase in copper-zinc-SOD activity, prevention of hyperoxia-induced zinc transmigration from lung to liver, and hyperoxia-resistant phenotype strongly associated with differences in zinc homeostasis during hyperoxic acute lung injury. PMID:23275622

  18. Effect of airflow limitation on acute exacerbations in patients with destroyed lungs by tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jung; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-06-01

    History of treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for obstructive lung disease. However, it has been unclear whether the clinical characteristics of patients with destroyed lung by TB differ according to the presence or absence of airflow limitation. The objective of the study was to evaluate differences in acute exacerbations and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decline in patients with destroyed lung by TB according to the presence or absence of airflow limitation. We performed a retrospective cohort study and enrolled patients with destroyed lung by TB. The presence of airflow limitation was defined as FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were enrolled, and 128 (80.5%) had airflow limitation. The proportion of patients who experienced acute exacerbation was higher in patients with airflow limitation compared to those without (89.1 vs. 67.7%, respectively; P = 0.009). The rate of acute exacerbation was higher in patients with airflow limitation (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.11-1.27). Low body mass index (X vs. X + 1; HR, 0.944; 95% CI, 0.895-0.996) in addition to airflow limitation (HR, 1.634; 95% CI, 1.012-2.638), was an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation. The annual decline of FEV1 was 2 mL in patients with airflow limitation and 36 mL in those without (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of airflow limitation is an independent risk factor for acute exacerbation in patients with the destroyed lung by TB. PMID:26028926

  19. Diabetes, insulin, and development of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Honiden, Shyoko; Gong, Michelle N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Recently, many studies have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of insulin and glucose control in critical illness. This review examines evidence regarding the relationship between diabetes and the development of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), reviews studies of lung injury related to glycemic and nonglycemic metabolic features of diabetes, and examines the effect of diabetic therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection A MEDLINE/PubMed search from inception to August 1, 2008, was conducted using the search terms acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, insulin, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, including combinations of these terms. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were manually reviewed. Data Extraction and Synthesis Available studies were critically reviewed, and data were extracted with special attention to the human and animal studies that explored a) diabetes and ALI; b) hyperglycemia and ALI; c) metabolic nonhyperglycemic features of diabetes and ALI; and d) diabetic therapies and ALI. Conclusions Clinical and experimental data indicate that diabetes is protective against the development of ALI/ARDS. The pathways involved are complex and likely include effects of hyperglycemia on the inflammatory response, metabolic abnormalities in diabetes, and the interactions of therapeutic agents given to diabetic patients. Multidisciplinary, multifaceted studies, involving both animal models and clinical and molecular epidemiology techniques, are essential. PMID:19531947

  20. Xuan Bai Cheng Qi formula as an adjuvant treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of the syndrome type phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat AECOPD as adjunctive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the TCM formula Xuan Bai Cheng Qi as an adjuvant therapy for AECOPD patients with the syndrome type of phlegm-heat obstructing the lungs. Methods A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. A total of 244 patients were divided into the intervention group (n?=?122, treated with conventional medicine and Xuan Bai Cheng Qi) and the control group (n?=?122, treated with conventional medicine and placebo). Total symptom scores (cough, phlegm, wheezing, chest congestion) before treatment and at 3, 5, 7, 10 days post-treatment were recorded. Lung function, arterial blood gas, serum inflammatory cytokines, oxidation/anti-oxidation index were observed before treatment and at the end of the 10-day treatment. Results A total of 242 patients completed the study. The full analysis set (FAS) population was 244 and the per-protocol analysis set (PPS) population was 229. After the 10-day treatment, symptom scores of the Xuan Bai Cheng Qi group were significantly lower over time compared with the control group (FAS: mean difference -1.84, 95% CI -2.66 to -1.03, P?lungs syndrome type. PMID:25014996

  1. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... greasy or very bad smelling stools. Causes – Acute Diarrhea Most cases of acute, watery diarrhea are caused ... a common cause of traveler’s diarrhea. Causes – Chronic Diarrhea Chronic diarrhea is classified as fatty or malabsorption, ...

  2. ncRNA-regulated immune response and its role in inflammatory lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Xie, Na; Liu, Gang

    2015-11-15

    Despite the greatly expanded knowledge on the regulation of immune response by protein molecules, there is increasing understanding that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are also an integral component of this regulatory network. Abnormal immune response serves a central role in the initiation, progression, and exacerbation of inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury. Dysregulation of ncRNAs has been linked to various immunopathologies. In this review, we highlighted the role of ncRNAs in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity and summarized recent findings that ncRNAs participate in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases via their regulation of pulmonary immunity. We also discussed therapeutic potentials for targeting ncRNAs to treat these lung disorders. PMID:26432871

  3. Acute irreversible oxalate nephropathy in a lung transplant recipient treated successfully with a renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Dheda, Shyam; Swaminathan, Ramyasuda; Musk, Michael; Sinniah, Rajalingam; Lawrence, Sharon; Irish, Ashley

    2012-04-01

    We report a 29 year old male cystic fibrosis patient with end stage lung disease and normal renal function who underwent a sequential double lung transplant. Medical history included: an ileal resection and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction. The postoperative period was complicated with haemorrhage and repeat surgery, requiring multiple blood transfusions and extensive antibiotic cover. Pancreatic supplements were interrupted. Acute renal failure attributed to haemodynamically-mediated acute tubular necrosis was managed expectantly. He remained dialysis dependent 8 weeks post surgery and was maintained on triple immunosuppression with tacrolimus, mycophenolate and prednisolone. A DTPA study was consistent with ATN. Renal biopsy revealed features consistent with tubular injury due to acute oxalate nephropathy (AON). Further biochemical characterization excluded primary hyperoxaluria but confirmed increased 24 hour urinary oxalate. He was maintained on enhanced frequency HDF and subsequently received an uncomplicated live related renal transplant 10 months post lung transplant with only additional basiliximab. Calcium carbonate was continued to manage post transplant hyperoxaluria and an early renal biopsy excluded recurrent oxalate injury. Enteric hyperoxaluria due to malabsorption in patients with CF especially with ileal resection, in addition to loss of gut Oxalobacter formigenes due to prolonged antimicrobials, increases the risk of AON. Increased awareness of this condition and screening prior to lung transplant is recommended. PMID:22497648

  4. Experimental Models of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

    PubMed Central

    Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined clinically as acute lung injury occurring within six hours of the transfusion of any blood product. It is the leading cause of transfusion-related death in the United States, but under-recognition and diagnostic uncertainty have limited clinical research to smaller case control studies. In this review we will discuss the contribution of experimental models to the understanding of TRALI pathophysiology and potential therapeutic approaches. Experimental models suggest that TRALI occurs when a host, with a primed immune system, is exposed to an activating agent such as anti-leukocyte antibody or a biologic response modifier such as lysophosphatidylcholines. Recent work has suggested a critical role for platelets in antibody-based experimental models and identified potential therapeutic strategies for TRALI. PMID:21134622

  5. Transfusion-related acute lung injury; clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmin

    2015-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was introduced in 1983 to describe a clinical syndrome seen within 6 h of a plasma-containing blood products transfusion. TRALI is a rare transfusion complication; however, the FDA has suggested that TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. Understanding the pathogenesis of TRALI will facilitate adopting preventive strategies, such as deferring high plasma volume female product donors. This review outlines the clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of TRALI. PMID:25844126

  6. [Acute lung injury as a consequence of blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Moyado, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) has been recognized as a consequence of blood transfusion (BT) since 1978; the Food and Drug Administration, has classified it as the third BT mortality issue, in 2004, and in first place related with ALI. It can be mainly detected as: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) and transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI). The clinical onset is: severe dyspnea, bilateral lung infiltration and low oxygen saturation. In USA, ARDS has an incidence of three to 22.4 cases/100 000 inhabitants, with 58.3 % mortality. TACO and TRALI are less frequent; they have been reported according to the number of transfusions: one in 1275 to 6000 for TRALI and one in 356 transfusions for TACO. Mortality is reported from two to 20 % in TRALI and 20 % in TACO. Antileukocyte antibodies in blood donors plasma, caused TRALI in 89 % of cases; also it has been found antigen specificity against leukocyte blood receptor in 59 %. The UCI patients who received a BT have ALI as a complication in 40 % of cases. The capillary pulmonary endothelia is the target of leukocyte antibodies and also plasma biologic modifiers of the stored plasma, most probable like a Sanarelli-Shwar-tzman phenomenon. PMID:21838994

  7. Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases Long-term control medications are taken daily to control and prevent lung disease symptoms. These medicines should be taken every ...

  8. Serum biomarkers in interstitial lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Kouliatsis, George; Anevlavis, Stavros; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2005-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in medicine lies in their ability to detect disease and support diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. New research and novel understanding of the molecular basis of the disease reveals an abundance of exciting new biomarkers who present a promise for use in the everyday clinical practice. The past fifteen years have seen the emergence of numerous clinical applications of several new molecules as biologic markers in the research field relevant to interstitial lung diseases (translational research). The scope of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge about serum biomarkers in interstitial lung diseases and their potential value as prognostic and diagnostic tools and present some of the future perspectives and challenges. PMID:16042760

  9. Antioxidant vitamins and prevention of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, D.B. )

    1992-09-30

    Although the evidence for oxidative stress for air pollution in the human lung is fragmentary, the hypothesis that oxidative stress is an important, if not the sole, mechanism of toxicity of oxidizing air pollutants and tobacco smoke is compelling and growing. First, biochemical mechanisms have been worked out for oxidation of lung lipids by the gas phase of cigarette smoke, NO[sub 2] and O[sub 3]. The oxidation of lung lipids can be prevented by both vitamins C and E. Vitamin C is more effective in preventing oxidation by NO[sub 2], and vitamin E is more effective against O[sub 3]. Second, multiple species of experimental animals develop lung disease similar to human bronchitis and emphysema from exposure to NO[sub 2] and O[sub 3], respectively. The development of these diseases occurs over a near lifetime exposure when the levels of NO[sub 2] or O[sub 3] are at near ambient air pollution values. Third, isolated human cells are protected against oxidative damage from NO[sub 2] and O[sub 3] by both vitamins C and E. Fourth, the vitamin C level in the lung either declines on exposure to NO[sub 2] for short-term exposures or increases on chronic cigarette smoke exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on serum vitamin C is apparently complex and may be related to the daily intake of vitamin C as well as smoking. Serum vitamin C levels may be poor indicators of lung demands when daily vitamin C intakes are above 100 mg/day. Fifth, vitamin C supplementation protects against the effects of ambient levels of air pollution in adults as measured by histamine challenge. An augmented response to histamine challenge may represent increased lung permeability brought about by air pollution. In experimental animal and human experiments, the amount of vitamin C or E that afforded protection was in excess of the current recommended dietary allowance.

  10. The role of toll-like receptors in acute and chronic lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    By virtue of its direct contact with the environment, the lung is constantly challenged by infectious and non-infectious stimuli that necessitate a robust yet highly controlled host response coordinated by the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) function as crucial sentinels of microbial and non-infectious antigens throughout the respiratory tract and mediate host innate immunity. Selective induction of inflammatory responses to harmful environmental exposures and tolerance to innocuous antigens are required to maintain tissue homeostasis and integrity. Conversely, dysregulated innate immune responses manifest as sustained and self-perpetuating tissue damage rather than controlled tissue repair. In this article we review aspects of Toll-like receptor function that are relevant to the development of acute lung injury and chronic obstructive lung diseases as well as resistance to frequently associated microbial infections. PMID:21108806

  11. Acute renal failure in typical Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Bonany, Pablo J; Bilkis, Manuel D; Gallo, Guillermo; Lago, Néstor; Dennehy, María V; Sosa del Valle, Juan M; Vallejo, Graciela; Cánepa, Carlos

    2002-05-01

    Few cases of Kawasaki disease with acute renal failure have been described and only three articles report histological findings. We present an 8-year-old boy with typical Kawasaki disease and acute renal failure who did not require dialysis and had a complete recovery. Pathological findings in percutaneous biopsy included tubulointerstitial nephropathy with mild mesangial expansion, without vessel involvement or deposits in basal membrane. These findings were similar to those previously reported. We also detected apoptotic bodies in tubules. PMID:12042888

  12. [Acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia - an underestimated disease?].

    PubMed

    Wild, Wolfgang; Tajjiou, Morad; Ferschke, Melanie; Bormann, Fabian; Dörr, Pius; Schwarzbach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a rare, but since a long time well known etiology for acute pancreatitis. It could occure alone or coactive with other triggers like alcohlic excess. Nevertheless it found no approach to the current classifications and parameters of prognosis of the acute pancreatitis. We refer about two patients with hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis, whose initial disease was limited on the tail of the pancreas with just a circumscripted or - in the other case - no necrosis. However, in both cases and although a consequent treatment started immediately, a serious process developed including a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome in one case, which necessitated an extracorporal membrane oxygenation. PMID:26710203

  13. RNAi Therapeutic Platforms for Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yu; Takeshita, Fumitaka; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is rapidly becoming an important method for analyzing gene functions in many eukaryotes and holds promise for the development of therapeutic gene silencing. The induction of RNAi relies on small silencing RNAs, which affect specific messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation. Two types of small RNA molecules, i.e. small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), are central to RNAi. Drug discovery studies and novel treatments of siRNAs are currently targeting a wide range of diseases, including various viral infections and cancers. Lung diseases in general are attractive targets for siRNA therapeutics because of their lethality and prevalence. In addition, the lung is anatomically accessible to therapeutic agents via the intrapulmonary route. Recently, increasing evidence indicates that miRNAs play an important role in lung abnormalities, such as inflammation and oncogenesis. Therefore, miRNAs are being targeted for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we present strategies for RNAi delivery and discuss the current state-of-the-art RNAi-based therapeutics for various lung diseases. PMID:24275949

  14. Protective effects of Isofraxidin against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yu; Li, Weifeng; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani; Yao, Huan; Zhang, Hailin

    2015-02-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening disease characterized by serious lung inflammation and increased capillary permeability, which presents a high mortality worldwide. Isofraxidin (IF), a Coumarin compound isolated from the natural medicinal plants such as Sarcandra glabra and Acanthopanax senticosus, has been reported to have definite anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effects of IF against lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI have not been clarified. The aim of the present study is to explore the protective effects and potential mechanism of IF against LPS-induced ALI in mice. In this study, We found that pretreatment with IF significantly lowered LPS-induced mortality and lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We also found that total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in BALF, MPO activity in lung tissues were markedly decreased. Besides, IF obviously inhibited lung histopathological changes and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression. These results suggest that IF has a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI, and the protective effect of IF seems to result from the inhibition of COX-2 protein expression in the lung, which regulates the production of PGE2. PMID:25596039

  15. Clinical features of rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Zheng, Xing-Ju; Liang, Bin-Miao; Liang, Zong-An

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the lung. This study aimed to identify clinical features of RA-associated ILD (RA-ILD). Patients with RA were retrospectively enrolled and sub-classified as RA-ILD or RA without ILD based on high-resolution computed tomography imaging. Pulmonary function testing parameters and levels of RA-related biomarkers, tumour markers, and acute-phase proteins were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression model was used to assess the strength of association between RA-ILD and clinical features of interest. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess potential predictive value of clinical features for detecting RA-ILD. Comparison analysis indicated that the percentage of predicted value of total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were reduced in patients with RA-ILD. Tumour markers CA15–3 and CA125 were increased in patients with RA-ILD. Logistic regression analysis revealed that decreased DLCO was related to the increased likelihood of RA-ILD (OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?[0.91, 0.98]). The cut-off point at 52.95 percent of predicted value could sensitively discriminate RA patients with or without ILD. Our study suggested that DLCO value could be a useful tool for detecting ILD in patients with RA. PMID:26443305

  16. Trauma-associated lung injury differs clinically and biologically from acute lung injury due to other clinical disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Carolyn S.; Eisner, Mark D.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Parsons, Polly E.; Wheeler, Arthur P.; Korpak, Anna; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Patients with trauma-associated acute lung injury have better outcomes than patients with other clinical risks for lung injury, but the mechanisms behind these improved outcomes are unclear. We sought to compare the clinical and biological features of patients with trauma-associated lung injury with those of patients with other risks for lung injury and to determine whether the improved outcomes of trauma patients reflect their baseline health status or less severe lung injury, or both. Design, Setting, and Patients Analysis of clinical and biological data from 1,451 patients enrolled in two large randomized, controlled trials of ventilator management in acute lung injury. Measurements and Main Results Compared with patients with other clinical risks for lung injury, trauma patients were younger and generally less acutely and chronically ill. Even after adjusting for these baseline differences, trauma patients had significantly lower plasma levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor antigen, surfactant protein-D, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, which are biomarkers of lung epithelial and endothelial injury previously found to be prognostic in acute lung injury. In contrast, markers of acute inflammation, except for interleukin-6, and disordered coagulation were similar in trauma and nontrauma patients. Trauma-associated lung injury patients had a significantly lower odds of death at 90 days, even after adjusting for baseline clinical factors including age, gender, ethnicity, comorbidities, and severity of illness (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.24 – 0.82; p = .01). Conclusions Patients with trauma-associated lung injury are less acutely and chronically ill than other lung injury patients; however, these baseline clinical differences do not adequately explain their improved outcomes. Instead, the better outcomes of the trauma population may be explained, in part, by less severe lung epithelial and endothelial injury. PMID:17944012

  17. Translational models of lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Paul F; Abbott-Banner, Katharine; Adcock, Ian M; Knowles, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    The 2nd Cross Company Respiratory Symposium (CCRS), held in Horsham, U.K. in 2012, brought together representatives from across the pharmaceutical industry with expert academics, in the common interest of improving the design and translational predictiveness of in vivo models of respiratory disease. Organized by the respiratory representatives of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Federations (EFPIA) group of companies involved in the EU-funded project (U-BIOPRED), the aim of the symposium was to identify state-of-the-art improvements in the utility and design of models of respiratory disease, with a view to improving their translational potential and reducing wasteful animal usage. The respiratory research and development community is responding to the challenge of improving translation in several ways: greater collaboration and open sharing of data, careful selection of the species, complexity and chronicity of the models, improved practices in preclinical research, continued refinement in models of respiratory diseases and their sub-types, greater understanding of the biology underlying human respiratory diseases and their sub-types, and finally greater use of human (and especially disease-relevant) cells, tissues and explants. The present review highlights these initiatives, combining lessons from the symposium and papers published in Clinical Science arising from the symposium, with critiques of the models currently used in the settings of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. The ultimate hope is that this will contribute to a more rational, efficient and sustainable development of a range of new treatments for respiratory diseases that continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality across the world. PMID:25328010

  18. Does aluminum smelting cause lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, M.J.; Wlodarczyk, J.H.; Saunders, N.A.; Hensley, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    The evidence concerning a relationship between work in the aluminum industry and lung disease has been reviewed using epidemiologic criteria. Adequate data on environmental exposure are rarely presented. Case series on aluminum potroom workers over the past 50 years have identified an asthmalike syndrome that appears to be due to an irritant rather than an allergic mechanism. These studies have been supported by evidence of within shift variability of measures of lung function. However, to date, there is inadequate evidence to resolve the question of whether potroom exposure initiates asthma or merely precipitates asthmalike symptoms in a predisposed individual. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated evidence of reduced lung function, consistent with chronic airflow limitation. In exposed aluminum smelter workers compared to unexposed control subjects. Cigarette smoking, the major potential confounding variable, has been measured and accounted for in multivariate analyses. To date, evidence is lacking from longitudinal studies about the development of disabling chronic obstructive lung disease. Exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles in the production and consumption of anodes has biologic plausibility for an association of lung cancer with work in an aluminum smelter. Although retrospective mortality studies have failed to account for the probable high prevalence of smoking in blue collar workers, the relative risk of lung cancer is very low if present at all. Pulmonary fibrosis has not been shown to be a significant problem in aluminum smelter workers. Future research in the aluminum industry needs to concentrate on longitudinal studies, preferably with an inception cohort for the investigation of potroom asthma. 92 references.

  19. [Interstitial lung disease related to systemic connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Fiedorczyk, Ma?gorzata; Rojewska, Joanna; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia; Sierakowski, Stanis?aw

    2005-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is one of the most frequent and most serious complications of connective tissue diseases such as systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermato- and polymyositis, Sjogren's syndrome, or mixed connective tissue disease. Diagnosis of ILD is often delayed in patients with connective tissue diseases because of the systemic character of the primary condition, restricted physical activity of the patient and insufficient awareness of the physycian. The aim of the current review is to present the up-to-date information on ethiopathology, classification, diagnosis and treatment of ILD in patients with connective tissue diseases. PMID:16786776

  20. Nilotinib ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    El-Agamy, Dina S.

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the new tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nilotinib on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats and explore its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given nilotinib (10 mg/kg) by oral gavage twice daily for 1 week prior to exposure to aerosolized LPS. At 24 h after LPS exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples and lung tissue were collected. The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, protein level and the number of inflammatory cells in the BALF were determined. Optical microscopy was performed to examine the pathological changes in lungs. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities as well as nitrite/nitrate (NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -}) levels were measured in lung tissues. The expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), transforming growth factor-{beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined in lung tissues. Treatment with nilotinib prior to LPS exposure significantly attenuated the LPS-induced pulmonary edema, as it significantly decreased lung W/D ratio, protein concentration and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the BALF. This was supported by the histopathological examination which revealed marked attenuation of LPS-induced ALI in nilotinib treated rats. In addition, nilotinib significantly increased SOD and GSH activities with significant decrease in MDA content in the lung. Nilotinib also reduced LPS mediated overproduction of pulmonary NO{sub 2}{sup -}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} levels. Importantly, nilotinib caused down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-{alpha}, TGF-{beta}{sub 1} and iNOS levels in the lung. Taken together, these results demonstrate the protective effects of nilotinib against the LPS-induced ALI. This effect can be attributed to nilotinib ability to counteract the inflammatory cells infiltration and hence ROS generation and regulate cytokine effects. - Research highlights: > The protective effects of nilotinib against LPS-induced ALI in rats were studied. > Nilotinib showed potent anti-inflammatory activity as it attenuated PMN infiltration and hence ROS generation. > In addition, nilotinib caused down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine production.

  1. Apocynin ameliorates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdelmageed, Marwa E; El-Awady, Mohammed S; Suddek, Ghada M

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious clinical syndrome with a high rate of mortality. In this study, the effects of apocynin, a NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with apocynin (10mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1h before LPS injection (10mg/kg, i.p.). The results revealed that apocynin attenuated LPS-induced ALI as it decreased total protein content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), In addition, apocynin significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) activities with significant decrease in the lung malondialdehyde (MDA) content as compared to LPS group in lung tissue and decreased pulmonary artery contraction induced by LPS. It also upregulated mRNA expression of inhibitory protein kappaB-alpha (NF?Bia) and downregulated mRNA expression of Toll-Like receptor 4 (TLR4) and decreased inflammation observed in lung tissues. Collectively, these results demonstrate the protective effects of apocynin against the LPS-induced ALI in rats through its antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect that may be attributed to the decrease in mRNA expression of TLR4 and increasing that of NF?Bia. PMID:26687059

  2. [Peripheral artery disease and acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. When presented in the context of an acute coronary syndrome a differential diagnosis with aorta dissection should be made, because peripheral arterial disease may be asymptomatic despite the absence or asymmetry of femoral pulses. PMID:25795260

  3. Apios americana Medik Extract Alleviates Lung Inflammation in Influenza Virus H1N1- and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Sang-Yeon; Cui, Jun; Jang, Ho Hee; Kang, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kim, In-Kyoung; Lee, Deuk-Ki; Choi, Seulgi; Yoon, Il-Sub; Chung, Ji-Woo; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2015-12-28

    Apios americana Medik (hereinafter Apios) has been reported to treat diseases, including cancer, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. The therapeutic effect of Apios is likely to be associated with its anti-inflammatory activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Apios in animal models of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1). Mice were exposed to LPS or H1N1 for 2-4 days to induce acute lung injury. The treatment groups were administered Apios extracts via oral injection for 8 weeks before LPS treatment or H1N1 infection. To investigate the effects of Apios, we assessed the mice for in vivo effects of Apios on immune cell infiltration and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histopathological changes in the lung. After induction of acute lung injury, the numbers of neutrophils and total cells were lower in the Apios-treated groups than in the non-Apios-treated LPS and H1N1 groups. The Apios groups tended to have lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-6 in BAL fluid. In addition, the histopathological changes in the lungs were markedly reduced in the Apios-treated groups. These data suggest that Apios treatment reduces LPS- and H1N1-induced lung inflammation. These protective effects of Apios suggest that it may have therapeutic potential in acute lung injury. PMID:26323273

  4. Obstructive lung disease models: what is valid?

    PubMed

    Ferdinands, Jill M; Mannino, David M

    2008-12-01

    Use of disease simulation models has led to scrutiny of model methods and demand for evidence that models credibly simulate health outcomes. We sought to describe recent obstructive lung disease simulation models and their validation. Medline and EMBASE were used to identify obstructive lung disease simulation models published from January 2000 to June 2006. Publications were reviewed to assess model attributes and four types of validation: first-order (verification/debugging), second-order (comparison with studies used in model development), third-order (comparison with studies not used in model development), and predictive validity. Six asthma and seven chronic obstructive pulmonary disease models were identified. Seven (54%) models included second-order validation, typically by comparing observed outcomes to simulations of source study cohorts. Seven (54%) models included third-order validation, in which modeled outcomes were usually compared qualitatively for agreement with studies independent of the model. Validation endpoints included disease prevalence, exacerbation, and all-cause mortality. Validation was typically described as acceptable, despite near-universal absence of criteria for judging adequacy of validation. Although over half of recent obstructive lung disease simulation models report validation, inconsistencies in validation methods and lack of detailed reporting make assessing adequacy of validation difficult. For simulation modeling to be accepted as a tool for evaluating clinical and public health programs, models must be validated to credibly simulate health outcomes of interest. Defining the required level of validation and providing guidance for quantitative assessment and reporting of validation are important future steps in promoting simulation models as practical decision tools. PMID:19353353

  5. Neuraminidase reprograms lung tissue and potentiates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Zhang, Lei; Nguyen, Chinh; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Goldblum, Simeon E.; Blackwelder, William C.; Cross, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that removal of sialyl residues primed PBMCs to respond to bacterial LPS stimulation in vitro. Therefore, we speculated that prior desialylation can sensitize the host to generate an enhanced inflammatory response upon exposure to a TLR ligand, such as LPS, in a murine model of acute lung injury. Intratracheal instillation of neuraminidase (NA) 30 min prior to intratracheal administration of LPS increased PMNs in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, a measure of pulmonary edema, compared to mice that received LPS alone. Administration of NA alone resulted in desialylation of bronchiolar and alveolar surfaces and induction of TNF-?, IL-1?, and chemokines in lung homogenates and BALF; however, PMN recruitment in mice treated with NA alone did not differ from those of PBS-administered controls. NA pretreatment alone induced apoptosis and markedly enhanced LPS-induced endothelial apoptosis. Administration of recombinant Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic molecule, abolished the effect of NA treatment on LPS-induced PMN recruitment and pulmonary edema formation. We conclude that NA pretreatment potentiates LPS-induced lung injury through enhanced PMN recruitment, pulmonary edema formation, and endothelial and myeloid cell apoptosis. A similar “reprogramming” of immune responses with desialylation may occur during respiratory infection with NA-expressing microbes and contribute to severe lung injury. PMID:24068662

  6. OSCILLATION MECHANICS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: APPLICATIONS TO LUNG DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kaczka, David W.; Dellacá, Raffaele L.

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1950s, the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and the measurement of respiratory impedance have evolved into powerful tools for the assessment of various mechanical phenomena in the mammalian lung during health and disease. In this review, we highlight the most recent developments in instrumentation, signal processing, and modeling relevant to FOT measurements. We demonstrate how FOT provides unparalleled information on the mechanical status of the respiratory system compared to more widely-used pulmonary function tests. The concept of mechanical impedance is reviewed, as well as the various measurement techniques used to acquire such data. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of lower, physiologic frequency ranges (typically less than 10 Hz) that are most sensitive to normal physical processes as well as pathologic structural alterations. Various inverse modeling approaches used to interpret alterations in impedance are also discussed, specifically in the context of three common respiratory diseases: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute lung injury. Finally, we speculate on the potential role for FOT in the clinical arena. PMID:22011237

  7. Rare lung diseases II: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Juvet, Stephen C; Hwang, David; Waddell, Thomas K; Downey, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    The present article is the second in a series on rare lung diseases. It focuses on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates in the alveolar space. PAP was first described in 1958, and for many years the nature of the material accumulating in the lungs was unknown. Major insights into PAP have been made in the past decade, and these have led to the notion that PAP is an autoimmume disorder in which autoantibodies interfere with signalling through the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, leading to macrophage and neutrophil dysfunction. This has spurred new therapeutic approaches to this disorder. The discussion of PAP will begin with a case report, then will highlight the classification of PAP and review recent insights into the pathogenesis of PAP. The approach to therapy and the prognosis of PAP will also be discussed. PMID:18551202

  8. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD. PMID:26059704

  9. Macrolide Antibiotics and Survival in Patients With Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Renda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Animal models suggest that immunomodulatory properties of macrolide antibiotics have therapeutic value for patients with acute lung injury (ALI). We investigated the association between receipt of macrolide antibiotics and clinical outcomes in patients with ALI. Methods: Secondary analysis of multicenter, randomized controlled trial data from the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network Lisofylline and Respiratory Management of Acute Lung Injury Trial, which collected detailed data regarding antibiotic use among participants with ALI. Results: Forty-seven of 235 participants (20%) received a macrolide antibiotic within 24 h of trial enrollment. Among patients who received a macrolide, erythromycin was the most common (57%), followed by azithromycin (40%). The median duration of macrolide use after study enrollment was 4 days (interquartile range, 2-8 days). Eleven of the 47 (23%) patients who received macrolides died, compared with 67 of the 188 (36%) who did not receive a macrolide (P = .11). Participants administered macrolides were more likely to have pneumonia as an ALI risk factor, were less likely to have nonpulmonary sepsis or to be randomized to low tidal volume ventilation, and had a shorter length of stay prior to trial enrollment. After adjusting for potentially confounding covariates, use of macrolide was associated with lower 180-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.23-0.92; P = .028) and shorter time to successful discontinuation of mechanical ventilation (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18-3.17; P = .009). In contrast, fluoroquinolone (n = 90) and cephalosporin antibiotics (n = 93) were not associated with improved outcomes. Conclusions: Receipt of macrolide antibiotics was associated with improved outcomes in patients with ALI. PMID:22116799

  10. Lung Stem and Progenitor Cells in Tissue Homeostasis and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Carla F.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian lung is a complex organ containing numerous putative stem/progenitor cell populations that contribute to region-specific tissue homeostasis and repair. In this review, we discuss recent advances in identifying and studying these cell populations in the context of lung homeostasis and disease. Genetically engineered mice now allow for lineage tracing of several lung stem and progenitor cell populations in vivo during different types of lung injury repair. Using specific sets of cell surface markers, these cells can also be isolated from murine and human lung and tested in 3D culture systems and in vivo transplant assays. The pathology of devastating lung diseases, including lung cancers, is likely in part due to dysregulation and dysfunction of lung stem cells. More precise characterization of stem cells with identification of new, unique markers; improvement in isolation and transplant techniques; and further development of functional assays will ultimately lead to new therapies for a host of human lung diseases. In particular, lung cancer biology may be greatly informed by findings in normal lung stem cell biology as evidence suggests that lung cancer is a disease that begins in, and may be driven by, neoplastic lung stem cells. PMID:24439808

  11. Rikkunshito ameliorates bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in a ghrelin-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Hironobu; Yanagi, Shigehisa; Miura, Ayako; Iizuka, Seiichi; Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Hattori, Tomohisa; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2014-02-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a critical syndrome consisting of acute respiratory failure associated with extensive pulmonary infiltrates. The pathological characterization of ALI includes injuries of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), alveolar neutrophilic infiltration, and increases in proinflammatory cytokines, which cause destruction of the alveolar capillary barrier and subsequent devastating lung fibrosis. Rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is widely used for the treatment of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and is known to stimulate ghrelin secretion. The therapeutic effects of RKT on organ inflammation and fibrosis remain unknown. We investigated the pharmacological potential of RKT in the treatment of ALI by using a bleomycin-induced ALI model in mice. RKT or distilled water (DW) was given to mice daily starting 12 h after bleomycin administration. The RKT-treated mice showed a definitively higher survival rate than the DW-treated mice after injury. They also had smaller reductions in body weight and food intake. The amelioration of neutrophil alveolar infiltration, pulmonary vascular permeability, induction of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of the NF-?B pathway, apoptosis of AECs, and subsequent lung fibrosis were notable in the RKT-treated mice. RKT administration increased the plasma ghrelin levels in wild-type mice, and it also mitigated the ALI response in both ghrelin-deficient mice and growth hormone secretagogue receptor-deficient mice after lung injury. Our results indicate that RKT administration exerts protective effects against ALI by protecting the AECs and regulating lung inflammation independently of the ghrelin system, and they highlight RKT as a promising therapeutic agent for the management of this intractable disease. PMID:24285267

  12. Acute lung injury after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: from the clinic, to the bench and back again.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Kenneth R

    2005-12-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the only curative therapeutic option for a number of malignant and non-malignant conditions, but the success of this treatment strategy is limited by several side effects. Diffuse lung injury is a major complication of SCT that responds poorly to standard treatment and significantly contributes to transplant related morbidity and mortality. Lung injury occurs in both acute and chronic forms and can be either infectious or non-infectious in nature. Acute, non-infectious lung injury following SCT has been defined as idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS). This review will outline the clinical spectrum, risk factors, and pathogeneses of IPS and discuss how current approaches to therapy are being influenced by insights generated using animal models of disease. PMID:16305615

  13. Microcirculation in Acute and Chronic Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zafrani, Lara; Ince, Can

    2015-12-01

    The renal microvasculature is emerging as a key player in acute and chronic kidney diseases. Renal microvascular disease involves alterations in endothelial barrier permeability, exaggerated inflammation, impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation involving the nitric oxide system, increased oxidative stress, and loss of angiogenic factors. Moreover, evidence suggests that there is a microvascular component to the pathogenesis of renal scarring. New technology is being developed to explore renal microcirculation in vivo in experimental models and humans. This technology will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney diseases and will help guide specific therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring the renal microcirculation. This article reviews the cellular and molecular mechanisms of renal microvascular dysfunction in acute and chronic kidney diseases and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. Recent developments in the monitoring of renal microcirculation are described with respect to their advantages and limitations, and future directions are outlined. PMID:26231789

  14. First case of atypical takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a bilateral lung-transplanted patient due to acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Ghadri, Jelena R; Bataisou, Roxana D; Diekmann, Johanna; Lüscher, Thomas F; Templin, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy which is characterised by a transient left ventricular wall motion abnormality was first described in 1990. The disease is still not well known, and as such it is suggested that an emotional trigger is mandatory in this disease. We present the case of a 51-year old female patient seven years after bilateral lung transplantation, who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently suffered from atypical takotsubo cardiomyopathy with transient severe reduction of ejection fraction and haemodynamic instability needing acute intensive care treatment. Acute respiratory failure has emerged as an important physical trigger factor in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Little is known about the association of hypoxia and takotsubo cardiomyopathy which can elicit a life-threatening condition requiring acute intensive care. Therefore, experimental studies are needed to investigate the role of hypoxia in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:24627332

  15. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment. PMID:25590006

  16. Hesperetin attenuates ventilator-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of NF-?B-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhong; Feng, Xiaoli; Ding, Suchun

    2015-12-15

    Hesperetin, a major bioflavonoid in sweet oranges and lemons, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of hesperetin on ventilator-induced acute lung injury has not been studied. In present study, we investigated the protective effect of hesperetin on ventilator-induced acute lung injury in rats. Rats were orally administered hesperetin (10, 20, or 40mg/kg) two hour before acute lung injury was induced by mechanical ventilation. Rats were then randomly divided into six groups: the lung protective ventilation group (n=20, LV group), injurious ventilation group (n=20, HV group), vehicle-treated injurious ventilation group (n=20, LV+vehicle group), hesperetin (10mg/kg)-treated acute lung injury group (n=20, HV+Hsp (10mg)), hesperetin (20mg/kg)-treated acute lung injury group (n=20, HV+Hsp (20mg)), and hesperetin (40mg/kg)-treated acute lung injury group (n=20, HV+Hsp (40mg)). The lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were isolated for subsequent measurements. Treatment with hesperetin dramatically improved the histology of lung tissue, and reduced the wet/dry ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, protein concentration, and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1?, and MIP-2 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats with ventilator-induced acute lung injury. Additionally, our study indicated that this protective effect of hesperetin results from its ability to increase the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? and inhibit the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway. These results suggest that hesperetin may be a potential novel therapeutic candidate for protection against ventilator-induced acute lung injury. PMID:26610718

  17. Interpretation of autoantibody positivity in interstitial lung disease and lung-dominant connective tissue disease*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Daniel Antunes Silva; Kawassaki, Alexandre de Melo; Baldi, Bruno Guedes

    2013-01-01

    The initial evaluation of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) primarily involves a comprehensive, active search for the cause. Autoantibody assays, which can suggest the presence of a rheumatic disease, are routinely performed at various referral centers. When interstitial lung involvement is the condition that allows the definitive diagnosis of connective tissue disease and the classical criteria are met, there is little debate. However, there is still debate regarding the significance, relevance, specificity, and pathophysiological role of autoimmunity in patients with predominant pulmonary involvement and only mild symptoms or formes frustes of connective tissue disease. The purpose of this article was to review the current knowledge of autoantibody positivity and to discuss its possible interpretations in patients with ILD and without clear etiologic associations, as well as to enhance the understanding of the natural history of an allegedly new disease and to describe the possible prognostic implications. We also discuss the proposition of a new term to be used in the classification of ILDs: lung-dominant connective tissue disease. PMID:24473767

  18. Acute effects of volcanic ash from Mount Saint Helens on lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Buist, A S; Johnson, L R; Vollmer, W M; Sexton, G J; Kanarek, P H

    1983-06-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens on the lung function of children, we studied 101 children 8 to 13 yr of age who were attending a 2-wk summer camp for children with diabetes mellitus in an area where about 1.2 cm of ash had fallen after the June 12, 1980, eruption. The outcome variables used were forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, their ratio and mean transit time. Total and respirable dust levels were measured using personal sampling pumps. The children were tested on arrival and twice (early morning [A.M.] and late afternoon [P.M.]) every second or third day during the session. A within-day effect was measured by the P.M./A.M. ratio for the lung function variables; a between-day effect was measured by the change in the P.M. measurements over the 2 wk of camp. We found no strong evidence of either a within-day or a between-day effect on lung function, even in a subgroup of children who had preexisting lung disease or symptoms, despite daytime dust/ash levels that usually exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency's significant harm level for particulate matter. PMID:6859654

  19. Biomarkers of acute lung injury: worth their salt?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The validation of biomarkers has become a key goal of translational biomedical research. The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of biomarkers in the management of acute lung injury (ALI) and related research. Biomarkers should be sensitive and specific indicators of clinically important processes and should change in a relevant timeframe to affect recruitment to trials or clinical management. We do not believe that they necessarily need to reflect pathogenic processes. We critically examined current strategies used to identify biomarkers and which, owing to expedience, have been dominated by reanalysis of blood derived markers from large multicenter Phase 3 studies. Combining new and existing validated biomarkers with physiological and other data may add predictive power and facilitate the development of important aids to research and therapy. PMID:22152131

  20. Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice Are Susceptible to the Development of Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Cory M.; Fessler, Michael B.; Vasanthamohan, Lakshman; Lac, Joanne; Madenspacher, Jennifer; McCaig, Lynda; Yao, Lijuan; Wang, Lefeng; Puntorieri, Valeria; Mehta, Sanjay; Lewis, Jim F.; Veldhuizen, Ruud A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has been shown to play a pivotal role in the development of cardiovascular disease, attributable to its function in lipid trafficking and immune modulating properties; however, its role in modulating inflammation in the setting of acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. Objective To determine whether apoE-deficient mice (apoE?/?) are more susceptible to ALI compared to wild-type (WT) animals. Methods Two independent models of ALI were employed. Firstly, WT and apoE?/? mice were randomized to acid aspiration (50 ?l of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid) followed by 4 h of mechanical ventilation. Secondly, WT and apoE?/? mice were randomized to 72 h of hyperoxia exposure or room air. Thereafter, the intrinsic responses of WT and apoE?/? mice were assessed using the isolated perfused mouse lung (IPML) setup. Finally, based on elevated levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in apoE?/?, the effect of oxLDL on lung endothelial permeability and inflammation was assessed. Results In both in vivo models, apoE?/? mice demonstrated greater increases in lung lavage protein levels, neutrophil counts, and cytokine expression (p < 0.05) compared to WT mice. Experiments utilizing the IPML setup demonstrated no differences in intrinsic lung responses to injury between apoE?/? and WT mice, suggesting the presence of a circulating factor as being responsible for the in vivo observations. Finally, the exposure of lung endothelial cells to oxLDL resulted in increased monolayer permeability and IL-6 release compared to native (nonoxidized) LDL. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a susceptibility of apoE?/? animals to ALI that may occur, in part, due to elevated levels of oxLDL. PMID:24662316

  1. Upregulation of PIAS1 protects against sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis associated with acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Huang, Liya; Sun, Yunwei; Yuan, Yaozong

    2011-06-01

    The regulator of cytokine signaling known as protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (PIAS1) is increasingly understood to have diverse regulatory functions for inflammation, but its effect in inflammatory conditions such as severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has not previously been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upregulation of PIAS1 on SAP associated with acute lung injury (ALI), and its subsequent effect on disease severity. Sprague-Dawley rats were given an IV injection of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)/F35-PIAS1, Ad5/F35-vector or saline before induction of SAP. The control group received only a sham operation. Lung and pancreas samples were harvested 16h after induction. The protein levels of PIAS1 in tissue were investigated. The severity of pancreatic injury was determined by a histological score of pancreatic injury, serum amylase, and pancreatic water content. The lung injury was evaluated by measurement of pulmonary microvascular permeability, lung myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde levels. The survival rates of rats were also analyzed. The results found that in Ad5/F35-PIAS1 treated rats, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels were decreased but showed no influence on the levels of IL-10, and the severity of pancreatic tissue injury was less compared with either untreated SAP or Ad5/F35-vector treated rats (P<0.01). The administration of Ad5/F35-PIAS1 in SAP-induced rats downregulated the activity of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) pathway and the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 protein in lung. Thus, compared with the untreated SAP rats, the inflammatory response and the severity of ALI decreased, and the survival rates increased (P<0.01). These findings suggest that PIAS1 could augment anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting STAT1, thus attenuating the severity of SAP associated with ALI. PMID:21419645

  2. Clinical review: Lung imaging in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients - an update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years lung imaging has greatly contributed to the current understanding of the pathophysiology and the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the past few years, in addition to chest X-ray and lung computed tomography, newer functional lung imaging techniques, such as lung ultrasound, positron emission tomography, electrical impedance tomography and magnetic resonance, have been gaining a role as diagnostic tools to optimize lung assessment and ventilator management in ARDS patients. Here we provide an updated clinical review of lung imaging in ARDS over the past few years to offer an overview of the literature on the available imaging techniques from a clinical perspective. PMID:24238477

  3. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-02-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies. PMID:26530889

  4. Clinical Aspects of Acute Lung Insufficiency (ALI/TRALI)

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Matthias; Walmrath, Hans-Dieter; Seeger, Werner; Mayer, Konstantin

    2008-01-01

    Summary Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common clinical disorder caused by a variety of direct and indirect injuries to the lung, characterized by alveolar epithelial and endothelial injury resulting in damage to the pulmonary alveolar-capillary barrier. The cardinal clinical feature of ARDS, refractory arterial hypoxemia, is the result of protein-rich alveolar edema with impaired surfactant function, due to vascular leakage and vascular dysfunction with consequently impaired matching of ventilation to perfusion. Since its first description in 1967, considerable knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of ARDS has been obtained, however, a plethora of questions remain. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of ARDS has lead to the development of novel therapies, pharmacological strategies, and advances in mechanical ventilation. However, lung-protective ventilation is the only confirmed option in ARDS management improving survival, and few other therapies have translated into improved oxygenation or reduced ventilation time. But despite improvement in our understanding of the therapy and supportive care for patients with ARDS, mortality remains high. It is the purpose of this article to provide an overview of the definition, clinical features, and pathogenesis of ARDS, and to present and discuss therapeutic options currently available in order to effectively treat this severe disorder. PMID:21512632

  5. Genetics of acute lung injury: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Flores, C; Pino-Yanes, M M; Casula, M; Villar, J

    2010-10-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are major health problems worldwide. Critical care physicians have long recognized that there are patients who progress poorly despite therapy while others do unexpectedly better than it might be predicted. It is now well accepted that these responses might be related to variations in the genome. However, little is known about the genes that are responsible for susceptibility and outcome in ALI and ARDS. The search for genetic variants determining susceptibility and predicting outcome is still a developing field. The identification of important associations between genotype and clinical outcomes will have an impact on the development of more efficient genotype- or phenotype-guided therapies for patients with ALI/ARDS. Using this point of view, we will discuss some of the advances in genetic association studies in relation to the occurrence and severity of ALI/ARDS. In addition, we will also discuss the strategic and medical implications of using genetic testing to detect or predict the occurrence and prognosis of ALI/ARDS. PMID:20935622

  6. Protective effect of adenosine receptors against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkov, Boris; Varn, Matthew N.; Zemskova, Marina A.; Zemskov, Evgeny A.; Sridhar, Supriya; Lucas, Rudolf; Verin, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) affect 200,000 people a year in the USA. Pulmonary vascular and specifically endothelial cell (EC) barrier compromise is a hallmark of these diseases. We have recently shown that extracellular adenosine enhances human pulmonary (EC) barrier via activation of adenosine receptors (ARs) in cell cultures. On the basis of these data, we hypothesized that activation of ARs might exert barrier-protective effects in a model of ALI/ARDS in mice. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of pre- and posttreatment of adenosine and 5?-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a nonselective stable AR agonist, on LPS-induced lung injury. Mice were given vehicle or LPS intratracheally followed by adenosine, NECA, or vehicle instilled via the internal jugular vein. Postexperiment cell counts, Evans Blue Dye albumin (EBDA) extravasation, levels of proteins, and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. Harvested lungs were used for histology and myeloperoxidase studies. Mice challenged with LPS alone demonstrated an inflammatory response typical of ALI. Cell counts, EBDA extravasation, as well as levels of proteins and inflammatory cytokines were decreased in adenosine-treated mice. Histology displayed reduced infiltration of neutrophils. NECA had a similar effect on LPS-induced vascular barrier compromise. Importantly, posttreatment with adenosine or NECA recovers lung vascular barrier and reduces inflammation induced by LPS challenge. Furthermore, adenosine significantly attenuated protein degradation of A2A and A3 receptors induced by LPS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that activation of ARs protects and restores vascular barrier functions and reduces inflammation in LPS-induced ALI. PMID:24414256

  7. The serpentine path to a novel mechanism-based inhibitor of acute inflammatory lung injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Comroe lecture on which this review is based described my research path during the past 45 years, beginning with studies of oxidant stress (hyperoxia) and eventuating in the discovery of a synthetic inhibitor of phospholipase A2 activity (called MJ33) that prevents acute lung injury in mice exposed to lipopolysaccharide. In between were studies of lung ischemia, lung surfactant metabolism, the protein peroxiredoxin 6 and its phospholipase A2 activity, and mechanisms for NADPH oxidase activation. These seemingly unrelated research activities provided the nexus for identification of a novel target and a potentially novel therapeutic agent for prevention or treatment of acute lung injury. PMID:24744383

  8. Lung Disease Caused by Mycobacterium malmoense in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Min Kyung; Yoon, Jung A; Kim, Junhwan; Yi, Sangyoung; Sung, Heungsup; Shim, Tae Sun

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium malmoense is a very rare cause of lung disease in South Korea. We reported the first case of lung disease caused by M. malmoense in an immunocompetent patient. The patient was successfully treated with a 14-month course of antibiotics. PMID:26175789

  9. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 is protective in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lin; Bi, Jing; Zhu, Xiaodan; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Jie; Rong, Linyi; Wang, Qin; Xu, Nuo; Zhong, Ming; Zhu, Duming; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2014-09-15

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) plays a key role in lung development, but its role in acute lung injury has not been well characterized. Lipopolysaccharide instillation caused acute lung injury, which significantly elevated lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, protein and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibited surfactant protein A and C expression in lung tissue, and increased pathological injury. Pretreatment with KGF-2 improved the above lung injury parameters, partially restored surfactant protein A and C expression, and KGF-2 given 2-3 days before LPS challenge showed maximum lung injury improvement. Pretreatment with KGF-2 also markedly reduced the levels of TNF-?, MIP-2, IL-1? and IL-6 in BALF and the levels of IL-1? and IL-6 in lung tissue. Histological analysis showed there was increased proliferation of alveolar type II epithelial cells in lung parenchyma, which reached maximal 2 days after KGF-2 instillation. Intratracheal administration of KGF-2 attenuates lung injury induced by LPS, suggesting KGF-2 may be potent in the intervention of acute lung injury. PMID:24973472

  10. Development of a Multicomponent Prediction Model for Acute Esophagitis in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    De Ruyck, Kim; Sabbe, Nick; Oberije, Cary; Vandecasteele, Katrien; Thas, Olivier; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Lambin, Phillipe; Van Meerbeeck, Jan; De Neve, Wilfried; Thierens, Hubert

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To construct a model for the prediction of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy by combining clinical data, treatment parameters, and genotyping profile. Patients and Methods: Data were available for 273 lung cancer patients treated with curative chemoradiotherapy. Clinical data included gender, age, World Health Organization performance score, nicotine use, diabetes, chronic disease, tumor type, tumor stage, lymph node stage, tumor location, and medical center. Treatment parameters included chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy technique, tumor dose, mean fractionation size, mean and maximal esophageal dose, and overall treatment time. A total of 332 genetic polymorphisms were considered in 112 candidate genes. The predicting model was achieved by lasso logistic regression for predictor selection, followed by classic logistic regression for unbiased estimation of the coefficients. Performance of the model was expressed as the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic and as the false-negative rate in the optimal point on the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: A total of 110 patients (40%) developed acute esophagitis Grade {>=}2 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0). The final model contained chemotherapy treatment, lymph node stage, mean esophageal dose, gender, overall treatment time, radiotherapy technique, rs2302535 (EGFR), rs16930129 (ENG), rs1131877 (TRAF3), and rs2230528 (ITGB2). The area under the curve was 0.87, and the false-negative rate was 16%. Conclusion: Prediction of acute esophagitis can be improved by combining clinical, treatment, and genetic factors. A multicomponent prediction model for acute esophagitis with a sensitivity of 84% was constructed with two clinical parameters, four treatment parameters, and four genetic polymorphisms.

  11. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: An autoimmune disease?

    PubMed Central

    Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this review article, we will briefly describe the main characteristics of autoimmune pancreatitis and then we will concentrate on our aim, namely, evaluating the clinical characteristics of patients having recurrence of pain from the disease. In fact, the open question is to evaluate the possible presence of autoimmune pancreatitis in patients with an undefined etiology of acute pancreatitis and for this reason we carried out a search in the literature in order to explore this issue. In cases of recurrent attacks of pain in patients with “diopathic”pancreatitis, we need to keep in mind the possibility that our patients may have autoimmune pancreatitis. Even though the frequency of this disease seems to be quite low, we believe that in the future, by increasing our knowledge on the subject, we will be able to diagnose an ever-increasing number of patients having acute recurrence of pain from autoimmune pancreatitis. PMID:18286678

  12. PAMAM nanoparticles promote acute lung injury by inducing autophagic cell death through the Akt-TSC2-mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenggang; Liu, Haolin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Hongliang; Guo, Feng; Rao, Shuan; Deng, Jiejie; Zhang, Yanli; Miao, Yufa; Guo, Chenying; Meng, Jie; Chen, Xiping; Li, Limin; Li, Dangsheng; Xu, Haiyan; Wang, Heng; Li, Bo; Jiang, Chengyu

    2009-10-01

    Nanotechnology is an important and emerging industry with a projected annual market of around one trillion US dollars by 2011-2015. Concerns about the toxicity of nanomaterials in humans, however, have recently been raised. Although studies of nanoparticle toxicity have focused on lung disease the molecular link between nanoparticle exposure and lung injury remained unclear. In this report, we show that cationic Starburst polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM), a class of nanomaterials that are being widely developed for clinical applications can induce acute lung injury in vivo. PAMAM triggers autophagic cell death by deregulating the Akt-TSC2-mTOR signaling pathway. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine rescued PAMAM dendrimer-induced cell death and ameliorated acute lung injury caused by PAMAM in mice. Our data provide a molecular explanation for nanoparticle-induced lung injury, and suggest potential remedies to address the growing concerns of nanotechnology safety. PMID:19516051

  13. Lung disease with chronic obstruction in opium smokers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa, J. L.; Tock, E. P. C.; Boey, H. K.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-four opium smokers with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied for two-and-a-half years. Forty-eight patients had a cough for at least two years before the onset of inappropriate exertional dyspnoea. Fine, bubbling adventitious sounds suggesting small airway disease were heard on auscultation over the middle and lower lobes in 38 patients. The prevalence of inflammatory lung disease and chronic respiratory failure in this series is suggested as the main cause for the frequent finding of right ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Physiological studies revealed moderate to severe airways obstruction with gross over-inflation and, in 32 patients, an additional restrictive defect probably due to peribronchiolar fibrosis. Radiological evidence of chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis was observed in 45 patients, `pure' chronic bronchiolitis in six patients, and `widespread' emphysema in 25 patients respectively. Necropsy examinations in nine patients, however, showed destructive emphysema of variable severity in all. Chronic bronchiolitis often associated with striking bronchiolectasis was present in six cases. More severe bronchiolar rather than bronchial inflammation was noted. The heavy opium smokers had characteristic nodular shadows on chest radiography, sometimes associated with a striking reticular pattern not seen in `pure' cigarette smokers. This was due to gross pigmented dust (presumably carbon) deposition in relation to blood vessels, lymphatics, and bronchioles, and also within the alveoli. It is speculated that the initial lesion is an acquired bronchiolitis. Opium smoking induces an irritative bronchopathy favouring repeated attacks of acute bronchiolitis and eventually resulting in obliterative bronchiolitis, peribronchiolar fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and destructive emphysema. Images PMID:5134057

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and graft failure after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Aminu; Neujahr, David C

    2010-04-01

    In spite of advances in lung transplantation, the median survival after lung transplant remains less than 5 years, an outcome that is significantly worse than other solid organ transplants. Efforts to understand the unique hurdles faced in lung transplant have revealed gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) as a risk factor for ultimate graft failure. The link between GERD and chronic lung rejection parallels the association between GERD and other forms of lung disease such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Understanding how GERD predisposes to graft failure is an important issue as it may lead to therapies such as surgical correction that aim to lessen the exposure of the pulmonary epithelium to gastric contents. Here, we review the link between GERD and lung disease and discuss the preclinical and clinical studies that are starting to elucidate a mechanism for this association. PMID:20153957

  15. TREM-2 promotes macrophage survival and lung disease after respiratory viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kangyun; Byers, Derek E.; Jin, Xiaohua; Agapov, Eugene; Alexander-Brett, Jennifer; Patel, Anand C.; Cella, Marina; Gilfilan, Susan; Colonna, Marco; Kober, Daniel L.; Brett, Tom J.

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections and type 2 immune responses are thought to be critical for the development of chronic respiratory disease, but the link between these events needs to be better defined. Here, we study a mouse model in which infection with a mouse parainfluenza virus known as Sendai virus (SeV) leads to long-term activation of innate immune cells that drive IL-13–dependent lung disease. We find that chronic postviral disease (signified by formation of excess airway mucus and accumulation of M2-differentiating lung macrophages) requires macrophage expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2). Analysis of mechanism shows that viral replication increases lung macrophage levels of intracellular and cell surface TREM-2, and this action prevents macrophage apoptosis that would otherwise occur during the acute illness (5–12 d after inoculation). However, the largest increases in TREM-2 levels are found as the soluble form (sTREM-2) long after clearance of infection (49 d after inoculation). At this time, IL-13 and the adapter protein DAP12 promote TREM-2 cleavage to sTREM-2 that is unexpectedly active in preventing macrophage apoptosis. The results thereby define an unprecedented mechanism for a feed-forward expansion of lung macrophages (with IL-13 production and consequent M2 differentiation) that further explains how acute infection leads to chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:25897174

  16. Sirtinol Inhibits Neutrophil Elastase Activity and Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yung-Fong; Yu, Huang-Ping; Chang, Wen-Yi; Liu, Fu-Chao; Huang, Zhen-Cheng; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced activity of neutrophil elastase leads to a protease–antiprotease imbalance, and plays an essential pathogenic role in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. We assayed the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of the action of sirtinol in human neutrophils, and in neutrophil elastase (HNE)-induced paw edema and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated ALI in mice. Sirtinol significantly inhibited the activity of HNE from human neutrophils in response to various stimulators. The inhibitory effects on HNE activity were not mediated through protein kinase A, calcium, extracellular-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, or Src family kinases. Analysis of enzymatic activities showed that sirtinol inhibited HNE activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that sirtinol does not affect neutrophil function and is an HNE inhibitor. In addition, administration of sirtinol significantly inhibited HNE-induced paw edema, and attenuated the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced pulmonary wet/dry weight ratio in the LPS-induced ALI mouse model. Our study indicates that sirtinol has anti-inflammatory effects through direct inhibition of HNE activity and attenuates HNE-induced and LPS-mediated tissue or organ injury in vivo. Sirtinol is a novel HNE inhibitor and may have the potential for clinical application in the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:25666548

  17. Colonic metastases from small cell carcinoma of the lung presenting with an acute abdomen: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Costa Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; dos Reis, Luís Simões; Costa Almeida, Carlos Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Colonic metastases are rare, and usually secondary from malignant tumours of the stomach, breast, ovarian, cervix, kidney, lung, prostate, or skin. Around one third are asymptomatic or found only at autopsy. Case Report A middle-aged male smoker, who had a small cell carcinoma of the lung diagnosed two years previously and treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, was admitted to the emergency room with intense abdominal pain and constipation. With the suspicion of an acute appendicitis he was submitted to surgery. At laparotomy he was found to have a normal appendix but two hard colonic lesions: a mobile one in the right colon and the other fixing the sigmoid colon to the sacrum. A right hemicolectomy and a sigmoid loop colostomy were performed. Pathology showed those lesions to be colonic metastases from small cell carcinoma of the lung. Discussion Colonic secondaries are most frequently diagnosed in patients who have had a known primary tumour, and may present with bowel obstruction, lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage, gastrointestinal fistula, or intestinal perforation. Presentation with acute abdomen is rare, and survival is usually limited. Conclusion Colonic metastatic disease should be considered in any patient presenting with an acute abdomen and past history of lung malignancy. PMID:25732616

  18. Oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Simon E; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2014-01-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important events in the history of this debilitating lung condition. Associated health care utilization and morbidity are high, and many patients require supplemental oxygen or ventilatory support. The last 2 decades have seen a substantial increase in our understanding of the best way to manage the respiratory failure suffered by many patients during this high-risk period. This review article examines the evidence underlying supplemental oxygen therapy during exacerbations of COPD. We first discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of respiratory failure in COPD during exacerbations. The rationale and evidence underlying oxygen therapy, including the risks when administered inappropriately, are then discussed, along with further strategies for ventilatory support. We also review current recommendations for best practice, including methods for improving oxygen provision in the future. PMID:25404854

  19. Lung transplant for interstitial lung disease: outcomes for single versus bilateral lung transplantation†

    PubMed Central

    De Oliveira, Nilto C.; Osaki, Satoru; Maloney, James; Cornwell, Richard D.; Meyer, Keith C.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate outcomes for single (SLT) vs. bilateral lung transplantation (BLT) in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). One hundred and eleven patients with ILD who underwent lung transplantation between January 1993 and March 2009 were evaluated. Recipients with BLT were younger (43 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 7 years), and significantly more patients with non-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) received BLT (50%) vs. patients with IPF (18%). BLT recipients had a significantly longer mean waitlist time (240 vs. 125 days), significantly higher systolic (51 ± 18 vs. 40 ± 11 mmHg) pulmonary artery pressures, were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass more frequently (67 vs. 31%), had a higher incidence of primary graft dysfunction (63 vs. 17%), more frequently were given prolonged peri-operative inhaled nitric oxide and more frequently required prolonged post-operative mechanical ventilatory support (6.0 vs. 1.7 days). Additionally, BLT recipients had a significantly longer intensive care unit (8 vs. 4 days) and hospital (24 vs. 15 days) length of stay. We did not detect a difference in survival (Kaplan–Meier) for SLT vs. BLT. Our findings suggest that outcomes for SLT for patients with ILD are comparable or somewhat superior to those for BLT, and short- and long-term survival are not significantly different for the two procedures. PMID:22180607

  20. Lung Transcriptomics during Protective Ventilatory Support in Sepsis-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Lorenzo-Diaz, Fabian; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Corrales, Almudena; Valladares, Francisco; Klassert, Tilman E.; Valladares, Basilio; Slevogt, Hortense; Ma, Shwu-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe inflammatory process of the lung. The only proven life-saving support is mechanical ventilation (MV) using low tidal volumes (LVT) plus moderate to high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, it is currently unknown how they exert the protective effects. To identify the molecular mechanisms modulated by protective MV, this study reports transcriptomic analyses based on microarray and microRNA sequencing in lung tissues from a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis-induced ALI. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. At 24 hours post-CLP, septic animals were randomized to three ventilatory strategies: spontaneous breathing, LVT (6 ml/kg) plus 10 cmH2O PEEP and high tidal volume (HVT, 20 ml/kg) plus 2 cmH2O PEEP. Healthy, non-septic, non-ventilated animals served as controls. After 4 hours of ventilation, lung samples were obtained for histological examination and gene expression analysis using microarray and microRNA sequencing. Validations were assessed using parallel analyses on existing publicly available genome-wide association study findings and transcriptomic human data. The catalogue of deregulated processes differed among experimental groups. The ‘response to microorganisms’ was the most prominent biological process in septic, non-ventilated and in HVT animals. Unexpectedly, the ‘neuron projection morphogenesis’ process was one of the most significantly deregulated in LVT. Further support for the key role of the latter process was obtained by microRNA studies, as four species targeting many of its genes (Mir-27a, Mir-103, Mir-17-5p and Mir-130a) were found deregulated. Additional analyses revealed 'VEGF signaling' as a central underlying response mechanism to all the septic groups (spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated). Based on this data, we conclude that a co-deregulation of 'VEGF signaling' along with 'neuron projection morphogenesis', which have been never anticipated in ALI pathogenesis, promotes lung-protective effects of LVT with high levels of PEEP. PMID:26147972

  1. Biomarkers in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Bonella, Francesco; Costabel, Ulrich

    2014-04-01

    This article reviews major biomarkers in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with respect to their diagnostic and prognostic value in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). In some CTD such as systemic sclerosis (SSc), the incidence of ILD is up to two-third of patients, and currently ILD represents the leading cause of death in SSc. Because of the extremely variable incidence and outcome of ILD in CTD, progress in the discovery and validation of biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, patients' subtyping, response to treatment, or as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials is extremely important. In contrast to idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, autoantibodies play a crucial role as biomarkers in CTD-ILD because their presence is strictly linked to the pathogenesis and tissue damage. Patterns of autoantibodies, for instance, anticitrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis or aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS) in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, have been found to correlate with the presence and occasionally with the course of ILD in CTD. Besides autoantibodies, an increase in serum or BALF of a biomarker of pulmonary origin may be able to predict or reflect the development of fibrosis, the impairment of lung function, and ideally also the prognosis. Promising biomarkers are lung epithelium-derived proteins such as KL-6 (Krebs von den Lungen-6), SP-D (surfactant protein-D), SP-A (surfactant protein-A), YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like protein 1 [CHI3L1] or cytokines such as CCL18 [chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 18]). In the future, genetic/epigenetic markers, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and micro-RNA, may help to identify subtypes of patients with different needs of management and treatment strategies. PMID:24668534

  2. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  3. Regulation of Alveolar Procoagulant Activity and Permeability in Direct Acute Lung Injury by Lung Epithelial Tissue Factor.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Ciara M; Grove, Brandon S; Putz, Nathan D; Clune, Jennifer K; Lawson, William E; Carnahan, Robert H; Mackman, Nigel; Ware, Lorraine B; Bastarache, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    Tissue factor (TF) initiates the extrinsic coagulation cascade in response to tissue injury, leading to local fibrin deposition. Low levels of TF in mice are associated with increased severity of acute lung injury (ALI) after intratracheal LPS administration. However, the cellular sources of the TF required for protection from LPS-induced ALI remain unknown. In the current study, transgenic mice with cell-specific deletions of TF in the lung epithelium or myeloid cells were treated with intratracheal LPS to determine the cellular sources of TF important in direct ALI. Cell-specific deletion of TF in the lung epithelium reduced total lung TF expression to 39% of wild-type (WT) levels at baseline and to 29% of WT levels after intratracheal LPS. In contrast, there was no reduction of TF with myeloid cell TF deletion. Mice lacking myeloid cell TF did not differ from WT mice in coagulation, inflammation, permeability, or hemorrhage. However, mice lacking lung epithelial TF had increased tissue injury, impaired activation of coagulation in the airspace, disrupted alveolar permeability, and increased alveolar hemorrhage after intratracheal LPS. Deletion of epithelial TF did not affect alveolar permeability in an indirect model of ALI caused by systemic LPS infusion. These studies demonstrate that the lung epithelium is the primary source of TF in the lung, contributing 60-70% of total lung TF, and that lung epithelial, but not myeloid, TF may be protective in direct ALI. PMID:25884207

  4. Increased elastin production in experimental granulomatous lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, T. J.; Crouch, E.; Roby, J. D.; Starcher, B.; Pierce, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    In the normal, healthy lung, elastin production is restricted to periods of development and growth. However, elastin expression in the adult lung has been observed in some forms of pulmonary injury, including pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we report that elastin production is significantly increased within precise interstitial compartments of the lung in an experimental model of granulomatous lung disease. An increase in the number and volume of elastic fibers within the alveolar walls was apparent on histological examination of Verhoeff-van Gieson-stained sections of silicotic rat lungs. Quantitation of mature elastin cross-links indicated that silicosis was accompanied by a 17-fold increase in lung elastin content when compared with values from saline-treated controls. In situ hybridization for tropoelastin mRNA revealed that elastin production was absent from granulomatous lesions yet was prominent at nonfibrotic alveolar septal tips, where a high density of elastic fibers is seen in the normal lung. Immunohistochemistry indicated tropoelastin was being expressed by alpha-smooth muscle actin-containing cells. Transforming growth factor-beta was immunolocalized to granulomatous regions of the silicotic lung but was absent from regions showing increased tropoelastin expression. These data indicate that the reinitiation of tropoelastin gene expression is associated with granulomatous lung disease, and this expression leads to the aberrant accumulation of mature elastin in the lung. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7573374

  5. [Why screen for lung cancer in patients with arterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Lederlin, M; Trédaniel, J; Priollet, P

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in France. Such a prognosis is explained by late diagnosis at a metastatic stage for half of the patients. Tobacco is the main risk factor for lung cancer, as it is for peripheral arterial disease. A review of literature shows that between 2.3% and 19% of patients with arterial disease also have lung cancer. When lung cancer is detected after treatment of arterial disease, it is at an advanced stage. But it can be diagnosed at an early stage when it is searched simultaneously with arterial disease treatment. There is no recommendation for lung cancer screening specifically for patients with arterial disease. However individual screening based on an annual low-dose chest scan is proposed for smokers meeting the criteria defined by the study of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Such screening has two disadvantages : the high number of false positives and the irradiation induced by the accumulation of examinations. The ISET method would alternatively help to identify circulating tumor cells on a simple blood test for subjects not yet at solid tumor stage, provided this method be subject to multicentric validation. Thus one could consider that the management of a patient with arterial disease meeting NLST criteria should be accompanied with screening for lung cancer by searching for tumor cells associated with low-dose scanner. PMID:26276562

  6. Cutting Edge: IL-25 Targets Dendritic Cells To Attract IL-9-Producing T Cells in Acute Allergic Lung Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Claudio, Estefania; Tassi, Ilaria; Wang, Hongshan; Tang, Wanhu; Ha, Hye-Lin; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2015-10-15

    Asthma is a common inflammatory disease of airways that is often associated with type 2 responses triggered by allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs). IL-25 is a key mucosal cytokine that may be produced by stressed epithelial cells; it rapidly activates type 2 innate lymphoid cells to produce IL-13 and IL-5. When administered directly into lungs, IL-25 induces acute inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying IL-25-initiated inflammation and the roles of this cytokine in the context of HDM-induced allergic inflammation are not fully understood. We show in this article that lung-resident conventional dendritic cells were direct targets of IL-25. IL-25-stimulated dendritic cells rapidly induced mediators, such as the chemokine CCL17, which, in turn, attracted IL-9-producing T cells. Importantly, these mechanisms also operated during HDM-induced allergic lung inflammation. PMID:26371249

  7. Platelet-activating factor contributes to acute lung leak in rats given interleukin-1 intratracheally.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y M; Hybertson, B M; Cho, H G; Terada, L S; Cho, O; Repine, A J; Repine, J E

    2000-07-01

    Lung lavage fluid of patients with acute lung injury (ALI) has increased levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and neutrophils, but their relationship to the lung leak that characterizes these patients is unclear. To address this concern, we investigated the role of the neutrophil agonist platelet-activating factor [1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAF)] in the development of the acute neutrophil-dependent lung leak that is induced by giving IL-1 intratracheally to rats. We found that PAF acetyltransferase and PAF activities increased in lungs of rats given IL-1 intratracheally compared with lungs of sham-treated rats given saline intratracheally. The participation of PAF in the development of lung leak and lung neutrophil accumulation after IL-1 administration was suggested when treatment with WEB-2086, a commonly used PAF-receptor antagonist, decreased lung leak, lung myeloperoxidase activity, and lung lavage fluid neutrophil increases in rats given IL-1 intratracheally. Additionally, neutrophils recovered from the lung lavage fluid of rats given IL-1 intratracheally reduced more nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) in vitro than neutrophils recovered from control rats or rats that had been given WEB-2086 and then IL-1. Histological examination indicated that the endothelial cell-neutrophil interfaces of cerium chloride-stained lung sections of rats given IL-1 contained increased cerium perhydroxide (the reaction product of cerium chloride with hydrogen peroxide) compared with lungs of control rats or rats treated with WEB-2086 and then given IL-1 intratracheally. These in vivo findings were supported by parallel findings showing that WEB-2086 treatment decreased neutrophil adhesion to IL-1-treated cultured endothelial cells in vitro. We concluded that PAF contributes to neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil activation in lungs of rats given IL-1 intratracheally. PMID:10893205

  8. Clinical and prognostic significance of lung thallium uptake on rest imaging in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, D.; Lahiri, A.; Raftery, E.B. )

    1990-01-15

    Exercise-induced pulmonary uptake of thallium-201 in patients with ischemic heart disease is probably due to transient pulmonary edema and left ventricular failure induced by exercise. The significance of increased lung uptake of thallium-201 at rest after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been described. Ninety-six patients admitted with chest pain for suspected AMI or unstable angina underwent thallium-201 imaging at rest. Using conventional diagnostic criteria, 62 had AMI, 12 had unstable angina and 22 had neither. Increased lung uptake of thallium-201 was present in 24 of the total 96 (25%) patients, 20 of the 62 (32%) patients with AMI and 4 of 34 (13%) patients with no evidence of infarction. In the AMI group, those with increased lung thallium-201 uptake had a higher mean +/- standard deviation segmental thallium-201 defect score (22 +/- 7 vs 12 +/- 8, p less than 0.0001), lower ejection fraction (35 +/- 14 vs 49 +/- 14%, p less than 0.002), higher peak creatine kinase levels (2,410 +/- 1,247 vs 1,496 +/- 1,228 IU/liter, p less than 0.01), higher wall motion abnormality score (25 +/- 13 vs 13 +/- 12, p less than 0.0001), increased incidence of clinical in-hospital heart failure (15 of 20 vs 7 of 42, p less than 0.0001) and higher short-term mortality (4 of 20 vs 1 of 42, p less than 0.02) compared to those without increased lung thallium-201 uptake.

  9. Hemozoin induces lung inflammation and correlates with malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deroost, Katrien; Tyberghein, Ariane; Lays, Natacha; Noppen, Sam; Schwarzer, Evelin; Vanstreels, Els; Komuta, Mina; Prato, Mauro; Lin, Jing-Wen; Pamplona, Ana; Janse, Chris J; Arese, Paolo; Roskams, Tania; Daelemans, Dirk; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Van den Steen, Philippe E

    2013-05-01

    Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS) is a deadly complication of malaria, and its pathophysiology is insufficiently understood. Both in humans and in murine models, MA-ARDS is characterized by marked pulmonary inflammation. We investigated the role of hemozoin in MA-ARDS in C57Bl/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65, P. berghei ANKA, and P. chabaudi AS. By quantifying hemozoin in the lungs and measuring the disease parameters of MA-ARDS, we demonstrated a highly significant correlation between pulmonary hemozoin concentrations, lung weights, and alveolar edema. Histological analysis of the lungs demonstrated that hemozoin is localized in phagocytes and infected erythrocytes, and only occasionally in granulocytes. Species-specific differences in hemozoin production, as measured among individual schizonts, were associated with variations in pulmonary pathogenicity. Furthermore, both pulmonary hemozoin and lung pathology were correlated with the number of infiltrating inflammatory cells, an increased pulmonary expression of cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes, and concentrations of alveolar vascular endothelial growth factor. The causal relationship between hemozoin and inflammation was investigated by injecting P. falciparum-derived hemozoin intravenously into malaria-free mice. Hemozoin potently induced the pulmonary expression of proinflammatory chemokines (interferon-? inducible protein-10/CXC-chemokine ligand (CXCL)10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC-chemokine ligand 2, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXCL1), cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and transforming growth factor-?), and other inflammatory mediators (inducible nitric oxide synthase, heme oxygenase-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- oxidase-2, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1). Thus, hemozoin correlates with MA-ARDS and induces pulmonary inflammation. PMID:23328641

  10. Biomarkers of Rheumatoid Arthritis–Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Doyle, Tracy J.; Liu, Yongliang; Aggarwal, Rohit; Wang, Xiaoping; Shi, Yonghong; Ge, Sheng Xiang; Huang, Heqing; Lin, Qingyan; Liu, Wen; Cai, Yongjin; Koontz, Diane; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Golzarri, Maria F.; Liu, Yushi; Hatabu, Hiroto; Nishino, Mizuki; Araki, Tetsuro; Dellaripa, Paul F.; Oddis, Chester V.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Ascherman, Dana P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a relatively common extraarticular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that contributes significantly to disease burden and excess mortality. The purpose of this study was to identify peripheral blood markers of RA-associated ILD that can facilitate earlier diagnosis and provide insight regarding the pathogenesis of this potentially devastating disease complication. Methods Patients with RA who were enrolled in a well-characterized Chinese identification cohort or a US replication cohort were subclassified as having RA–no ILD, RA–mild ILD, or RA–advanced ILD, based on high-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest. Multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and Luminex xMAP technology were used to assess 36 cytokines/chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and acute-phase proteins in the identification cohort. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to quantify the strength of association between RA-ILD and biomarkers of interest. Results MMP-7 and interferon-?–inducible protein 10 (IP-10)/CXCL10 were identified by multiplex ELISA as potential biomarkers for RA-ILD in 133 RA patients comprising the Chinese identification cohort (50 RA–no ILD, 41 RA-ILD, 42 RA–indeterminate ILD). The findings were confirmed by standard solid-phase sandwich ELISA in the Chinese identification cohort as well as an independent cohort of US patients with RA and different stages of ILD (22 RA–no ILD, 49 RA-ILD, 15 RA–indeterminate ILD), with statistically significant associations in both unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses. Conclusion Levels of MMP-7 and IP-10/CXCL10 are elevated in the serum of RA patients with ILD, whether mild or advanced, supporting their value as pathogenically relevant biomarkers that can contribute to noninvasive detection of this extraarticular disease complication. PMID:25302945

  11. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days); and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels. PMID:25029646

  12. Inducible expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase attenuates acute rejection of tissue-engineered lung allografts in rats.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ammar; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Toolabi, LadanTeimoori; Ghanbari, Hossein; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil

    2016-01-15

    Lung disease remains one of the principal causes of death worldwide and the incidence of pulmonary diseases is increasing. Complexity in treatments and shortage of donors leads us to develop new ways for lung disease treatment. One promising strategy is preparing engineered lung for transplantation. In this context, employing new immunosuppression strategies which suppresses immune system locally rather than systemic improves transplant survival. This tends to reduce the difficulties in transplant rejection and the systemic impact of the use of immunosuppressive drugs which causes side effects such as serious infections and malignancies. In our study examining the immunosuppressive effects of IDO expression, we produced rat lung tissues with the help of decellularized tissue, differentiating medium and rat mesenchymal stem cells. Transduction of these cells by IDO expressing lentiviruses provided inducible and local expression of this gene. To examine immunosuppressive properties of IDO expression by these tissues, we transplanted these allografts into rats and, subsequently, evaluated cytokine expression and histopathological properties. Expression of inflammatory cytokines IFN? and TNF? were significantly downregulated in IDO expressing allograft. Moreover, acute rejection score of this experimental group was also lower comparing other two groups and mRNA levels of FOXP3, a regulatory T cell marker, upregulated in IDO expressing group. However, infiltrating lymphocyte counting did not show significant difference between groups. This study demonstrates that IDO gene transfer into engineered lung allograft tissues significantly attenuates acute allograft damage suggesting local therapy with IDO as a strategy to reduce the need for systemic immunosuppression and, thereby, its side effects. PMID:26506443

  13. Asbestos lung burden and disease patterns in man

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.

    1993-12-31

    This article discusses the relationship between disease and asbestos burden in the human lung. The differences in this relationship for various types of asbestos are also discussed. Finally the outstanding issues in the field of asbestos research and disease are presented including the following: discrepancies between data derived from animal experiments, predictions based on mathematical models, and data derived from actual analysis of autopsied human lungs. 75 refs., 3 figs., 3 tab.

  14. Use of risk reclassification with multiple biomarkers improves mortality prediction in acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Carolyn S.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Glidden, David V.; Eisner, Mark D.; Parsons, Polly E.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Matthay, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Multiple single biomarkers have been associated with poor outcomes in acute lung injury; however, no single biomarker has sufficient discriminating power to clearly indicate prognosis. Using both derivation and replication cohorts, we tested novel risk reclassification methods to determine whether measurement of multiple plasma biomarkers at the time of acute lung injury diagnosis would improve mortality prediction in acute lung injury. Design Analysis of plasma biomarker levels and prospectively collected clinical data from patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials of ventilator therapy for acute lung injury. Setting Intensive care units of university hospitals participating in the National Institutes of Health Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. Patients Subjects enrolled in a trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (derivation cohort) and subjects enrolled in a trial of higher vs. lower positive end-expiratory pressure (replication cohort). Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results The plasma biomarkers were intercellular adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor, interleukin-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, and surfactant protein-D. In the derivation cohort (n = 547), adding data on these biomarkers to clinical predictors (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score) at the time of study enrollment improved the accuracy of risk prediction, as reflected by a net reclassification improvement of 22% (95% confidence interval 13% to 32%; p < .001). In the replication cohort (n = 500), the net reclassification improvement was 17% (95% confidence interval 7% to 26%; p < .001). A reduced set of three biomarkers (interleukin-8, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1, and surfactant protein-D) had nearly equivalent prognostic value in both cohorts. Conclusions When combined with clinical data, plasma biomarkers measured at the onset of acute lung injury can improve the accuracy of risk prediction. Combining three or more biomarkers may be useful for selecting a high-risk acute lung injury population for enrollment in clinical trials of novel therapies. PMID:21283009

  15. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD. PMID:25664615

  16. General anxiety symptoms after acute lung injury: Predictors and correlates

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer E.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Wozniak, Amy; Shanholtz, Carl; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Acute lung injury (ALI) is common in the intensive care unit (ICU), typically requiring life support ventilation. Survivors often experience anxiety after hospital discharge. We evaluated general anxiety symptoms 3 months after ALI for: (1) associations with patient characteristics and ICU variables, and (2) cross-sectional associations with physical function and quality of life (QOL). Methods General anxiety was assessed as part of a prospective cohort study recruiting patients from 13 ICUs at four hospitals in Baltimore, MD using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale — Anxiety Subscale (HAD-A), with associations evaluated using multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results Of 152 patients, 38% had a positive screening test for general anxiety (HAD-A ? 8). Pre-ICU body mass index and psychiatric comorbidity were associated with general anxiety (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 (1.00, 1.13) and 3.59 (1.25, 10.30), respectively). No ICU-related variables were associated with general anxiety. General anxiety was associated with the number of instrumental ADL dependencies (Spearman's rho = 0.22; p = 0.004) and worse overall QOL as measured by EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) (rho = ?0.34; p < 0.001) and utility score (rho = ?0.30; p < 0.001), and by the SF-36 mental health domain (rho = ?0.70; p < 0.001) and Mental Component Summary score (rho = ?0.73; p < 0.001). Conclusion Many patients have substantial general anxiety symptoms 3 months after ALI. General anxiety was associated with patient characteristics and impaired physical function and quality of life. Early identification and treatment of general anxiety may enhance physical and emotional function in patients surviving critical illnesses. PMID:23972420

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  18. Exercise and training in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, N J; van Herwaarden, C L; Folgering, H; Binkhorst, R A

    1988-09-01

    Exercise protocols and training are used more and more in diagnostic procedures and as a tool in improving physical, social and psychological functioning in chronic obstructive lung disease patients. Before starting a training programme in chronic obstructive lung disease patients, one should exclude ventilatory-limited patients from the group. A maximal ergometer test with arterial blood samples or pulse oximetry must be performed. In mild forms of chronic obstructive lung disease with no ventilatory insufficiency demonstrable with exercise testing, the patient can be trained with no restrictions. Endurance training is permitted. It should be noted that it is possible to train the muscular and cardiovascular system up to a new, possible ventilatory maximum. In severe chronic obstructive lung disease endurance training is accompanied by hypoxia, with an associated risk of rhythm disturbances and right heart failure. Training with supplemental oxygen can reduce this risk, but should be done only under close medical supervision. In very severe chronic obstructive lung disease, when endurance training is only marginally possible even with supplemental oxygen, suppleness, coordination and relaxation exercises should be emphasised in rehabilitation programmes. Postural exercises and breathing control exercises can also give great subjective improvements in this often very disabled group of patients. Furthermore they can reduce fear and panic when dyspnoea occurs. Training of the respiratory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease must be regarded as an experimental therapy. The clinical importance remains uncertain. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction should not limit exercises or training, provided it is treated correctly. PMID:3055147

  19. The Rabbit as a Model for Studying Lung Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kamaruzaman, Nurfatin Asyikhin; Kamaldin, Nurulain ‘Atikah; Latahir, Ahmad Zaeri; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2013-01-01

    No single animal model can reproduce all of the human features of both acute and chronic lung diseases. However, the rabbit is a reliable model and clinically relevant facsimile of human disease. The similarities between rabbits and humans in terms of airway anatomy and responses to inflammatory mediators highlight the value of this species in the investigation of lung disease pathophysiology and in the development of therapeutic agents. The inflammatory responses shown by the rabbit model, especially in the case of asthma, are comparable with those that occur in humans. The allergic rabbit model has been used extensively in drug screening tests, and this model and humans appear to be sensitive to similar drugs. In addition, recent studies have shown that the rabbit serves as a good platform for cell delivery for the purpose of stem-cell-based therapy. PMID:23653896

  20. Acute admissions of patients with sickle cell disease who live in Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Brozovi?, M; Davies, S C; Brownell, A I

    1987-01-01

    All acute admissions of patients with sickle cell disease who lived in the London borough of Brent and attended this hospital were analysed for a period of one year. Sixty three of the 211 patients who were followed up by the haematology department required 161 acute admissions during the year. Most admissions (126) were for the 42 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease; 147 (91%) were for vaso-occlusive episodes, 142 of which were for painful crises, three for cerebrovascular accidents, and two for renal papillary necrosis. Preschool children with sickle cell disease were admitted predominantly with limb pain, whereas in schoolchildren and adults the incidence of trunk pain was higher. Twenty four of the 93 episodes of trunk pain culminated in an episode of severe visceral sequestration usually affecting the lungs, the liver, or the mesenteric circulation. Two patients died: an 18 month old baby with an acute splenic sequestration crisis and a 19 year old man with a severe girdle syndrome (sickling in the mesenteric circulation, liver, and lungs). Infective episodes were rare (11 episodes) but severe: one haemophilus meningitis, two salmonella infections, and three aplastic crises due to parvovirus infections. The average duration of the hospital stay was 7.4 days per admission. It is concluded that because sickle cell disease causes appreciable morbidity in older children, adolescents, and adults a systematic approach to management is needed to deal with acute episodes such as sequestration syndromes. PMID:3109583

  1. Wheezing, a significant clinical phenotype of COPD: experience from the Taiwan Obstructive Lung Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wan-Chun; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Wei, Yu-Feng; Kuo, Ping-Hung; Tao, Chi-Wei; Cheng, Shih-Lung; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Ming-Shian

    2015-01-01

    Background COPD is an important public health challenge with significant heterogeneity of clinical presentation and disease progression. Clinicians have been trying to find phenotypes that may be linked to distinct prognoses and different therapeutic choices. Not all patients with COPD present with wheezing, a possible clinical phenotype that can help differentiate patient subgroups. Methods The Taiwan Obstructive Lung Disease study was a retrospective, multicenter research study to investigate the treatment patterns of COPD after the implementation of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2011 guidelines. Between November 2012 and August 2013, medical records were retrieved from patients with COPD aged ?40 years; patients diagnosed with asthma were excluded. Demographic data, lung function, symptom scores, and acute exacerbation were recorded and analyzed, and the differences between patients with and without wheezing were evaluated. Results Of the 1,096 patients with COPD, 424 (38.7%) had the wheezing phenotype. The wheezing group had significantly higher COPD Assessment Test scores (12.4±7.8 versus 10.5±6.7, P<0.001), higher modified Medical Research Council grade (2.0±1.0 versus 1.7±0.9, P<0.001), and more acute exacerbations within the past year (0.9±1.3 versus 0.4±0.9, P<0.001) than the nonwheezing group. The postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second was lower in wheezing patients (1.2±0.5 L versus 1.5±0.6 L, P<0.001). Even in patients with maintenance treatment fitting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2011 guidelines, the wheezing group still had worse symptom scores and more exacerbations. Conclusion Wheezing is an important phenotype in patients with COPD. Patients with COPD having the wheezing phenotype are associated with worse symptoms, more exacerbations, and worse lung function. PMID:26504377

  2. Role and importance of ultrasound lung comets in acute cardiac care.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Fabrizio; Aquilani, Roberta; Radico, Francesco; Bianco, Francesco; Dipace, Gioacchino Giuseppe; Miniero, Ester; De Caterina, Raffaele; Gallina, Sabina

    2015-04-01

    Lung ultrasonography is an emerging, user-friendly and easy-to-use technique that can be performed quickly at the patient's bedside to evaluate several pathologic conditions affecting the lung. Ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) are an echographic sign of uncertain biophysical characterisation mostly attributed to water-thickened subpleural interlobular septa, but invariably associated with increased extravascular lung water. ULCs have thus been proposed as a complementary tool for the assessment and monitoring of acute heart failure and are now entering into statements in international recommendation documents. Adding lung ultrasonography to conventional echocardiography allows for performing an integrated cardiopulmonary ultrasound examination, and this is an important opportunity for the cardiologist. The technique allows the simultaneous gathering of considerable information about the heart and the lungs to investigate acute and chronic cardio-pulmonary conditions within a non-invasive, radiation-free, single-probe, all-in-one examination. We have here reviewed the pertinent literature on the physical origin of ULCs and on their role and importance in intensive and acute cardiac care settings. We also here propose a new algorithm aimed at implementing evaluation in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected acute heart failure. PMID:25267879

  3. New insights into lung diseases using hyperpolarized gas MRI.

    PubMed

    Flors, L; Altes, T A; Mugler, J P; de Lange, E E; Miller, G W; Mata, J F; Ruset, I C; Hersman, F W

    2015-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) gases are a new class of contrast agents that permit to obtain high temporal and spatial resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the lung airspaces. HP gas MRI has become important research tool not only for morphological and functional evaluation of normal pulmonary physiology but also for regional quantification of pathologic changes occurring in several lung diseases. The purpose of this work is to provide an introduction to MRI using HP noble gases, describing both the basic principles of the technique and the new information about lung disease provided by clinical studies with this method. The applications of the technique in normal subjects, smoking related lung disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis are reviewed. PMID:25747807

  4. Heritability of Lung Disease Severity in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Vanscoy, Lori L.; Blackman, Scott M.; Collaco, Joseph M.; Bowers, Amanda; Lai, Teresa; Naughton, Kathleen; Algire, Marilyn; McWilliams, Rita; Beck, Suzanne; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Hamosh, Ada; Cutler, Dave; Cutting, Garry R.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Obstructive lung disease, the major cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF), is poorly correlated with mutations in the disease-causing gene, indicating that other factors determine severity of lung disease. Objectives: To quantify the contribution of modifier genes to variation in CF lung disease severity. Methods: Pulmonary function data from patients with CF living with their affected twin or sibling were converted into reference values based on both healthy and CF populations. The best measure of FEV1 within the last year was used for cross-sectional analysis. FEV1 measures collected over at least 4 years were used for longitudinal analysis. Genetic contribution to disease variation (i.e., heritability) was estimated in two ways: by comparing similarity of lung function in monozygous (MZ) twins (? 100% gene sharing) with that of dizygous (DZ) twins/siblings (? 50% gene sharing), and by comparing similarity of lung function measures for related siblings to similarity for all study subjects. Measurements and Main Results: Forty-seven MZ twin pairs, 10 DZ twin pairs, and 231 sibling pairs (of a total of 526 patients) with CF were studied. Correlations for all measures of lung function for MZ twins (0.82–0.91, p < 0.0001) were higher than for DZ twins and siblings (0.50–0.64, p < 0.001). Heritability estimates from both methods were consistent for each measure of lung function and ranged from 0.54 to 1.0. Heritability estimates generally increased after adjustment for differences in nutritional status (measured as body mass index z-score). Conclusions: Our heritability estimates indicate substantial genetic control of variation in CF lung disease severity, independent of CFTR genotype. PMID:17332481

  5. Understanding Exercise, Diet and Lung Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the system for breathing. This is the respiratory system. The respiratory system serves to provide oxygen to the blood, which ... quality of life through education, exercise and diet. respiratory system Referring to the mouth and nose, trachea, lungs ...

  6. Animal models of beryllium-induced lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, G.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Hahn, F.F.

    1996-10-01

    The Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) is conducting research to improve the understanding of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium-induced lung cancer. Initial animal studies examined beagle dogs that inhaled BeO calcined at either 500 or 1000{degrees}C. At similar lung burdens, the 500{degrees}C BeO induced more severe and extensive granulomatous pneumonia, lymphocytic infiltration into the lung, and positive Be-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses in vitro than the 1000{degrees}C BeO. However, the progressive nature of human CBD was not duplicated. More recently, Strains A/J and C3H/HeJ mice were exposed to Be metal by inhalation. This produced a marked granulomatous pneumonia, diffuse infiltrates, and multifocal aggregates of interstitial lymphocytes with a pronounced T helper component and pulmonary in situ lymphocyte proliferation. With respect to lung cancer, at a mean lung burden as low as 17 pg Be/g lung, inhaled Be metal induced benign and/or malignant lung tumors in over 50% of male and female F344 rats surviving {ge}1 year on study. Substantial tumor multiplicity was found, but K-ras and p53 gene mutations were virtually absent. In mice, however, a lung burden of approximately 60 {mu}g ({approximately}300 {mu}g Be/g lung) caused only a slight increase in crude lung tumor incidence and multiplicity over controls in strain A/J mice and no elevated incidence in strain C3H mice. Taken together, this research program constitutes a coordinated effort to understand beryllium-induced lung disease in experimental animal models. 47 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Acute Lung Injury Complicating Blood Transfusion in Post-Partum Hemorrhage: Incidence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A.; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Background We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH). Methods We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (PLT). Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. According to the 2004 consensus definition, cases of new-onset hypoxemia, within 6 hours after transfusion, with bilateral pulmonary changes, in the absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema were identified as TRALI. If an alternative risk factor for acute lung injury was present, possible TRALI was diagnosed. Results Thirteen cases of TRALI and 1 case of possible TRALI were identified (overall incidence 19.7%). At univariate analysis, patients with TRALI received higher number of RBC, PLT and FFP units and had a longer postpartum hospitalization. Among the diseases occurring in pregnancy- and various pre-existing comorbidities, only gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, significantly increased the risk to develop TRALI (p = 0.006). At multivariate analysis including both transfusion- and patient-related risk factors, pregnancy-related, hypertensive disorders were confirmed to be the only predictors for TRALI, with an odds ratio of 27.7 ( 95% CI 1.27–604.3, p=0.034). Conclusions Patients suffering from PPH represent a high-risk population for TRALI. The patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, not receiving anti-hypertensive therapy, have the highest risk. Therefore, a careful monitoring of these patients after transfusions is recommended. PMID:25408855

  8. Leukocyte-specific protein 1 regulates neutrophil recruitment in acute lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Le, Nguyen Phuong Khanh; Channabasappa, Shankaramurthy; Hossain, Mokarram; Liu, Lixin; Singh, Baljit

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of excessive migration of activated neutrophils into inflamed lungs, credited with tissue damage, are not fully understood. We explored the hitherto unknown expression of leukocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1) in human and mouse lungs and neutrophils and examined its role in neutrophil migration in acute lung inflammation. Autopsied septic human lungs showed increased LSP1 labeling in epithelium, endothelium, and leukocytes, including in their nuclei compared with normal lungs. We induced acute lung inflammation through intranasal administration of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (80 ?g) in LSP1-deficient (Lsp1(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) 129/SvJ mice. Immunocytochemistry and Western blots showed increased expression of LSP1 and phosphorylated LSP1 in lungs of LPS-treated WT mice. Histology showed more congestion, inflammation, and Gr-1(+) neutrophils in lung of WT mice than Lsp1(-/-) mice. LPS-treated WT mice had significantly more neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and myeloperoxidase levels in lungs compared with Lsp1(-/-) mice. However, there were no differences in lung tissue and BAL concentrations of keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1? and -1?, vascular permeability, and phosphorylated p38 MAPK between LPS-treated WT and Lsp1(-/-) mice, whereas TNF-? concentration was higher in BAL fluid from LPS-treated WT. Immunoelectron microscopy showed increased LSP1 in the nuclei of LPS-treated neutrophils. We also found increased levels of phosphorylated LSP1 associated with plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytosol at various times after LPS treatment of murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils, suggesting its role in modulation of neutrophil cytoskeleton and the membrane. These data collectively show increased expression of LSP1 in inflamed mouse and human lungs and its role in neutrophil recruitment and lung inflammation. PMID:26320151

  9. Lung sonography and recruitment in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Bedside lung sonography is a useful imaging tool to assess lung aeration in critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of lung sonography in estimating the nonaerated area changes in the dependent lung regions during a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial of patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods Ten patients (mean ± standard deviation (SD): age 64 ± 7 years, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score 21 ± 4) with early ARDS on mechanical ventilation were included in the study. Transthoracic sonography was performed in all patients to depict the nonaerated area in the dependent lung regions at different PEEP settings of 5, 10 and 15 cm H2O. Lung sonographic assessment of the nonaerated lung area and arterial blood gas analysis were performed simultaneously at the end of each period. A control group of five early ARDS patients matched for APACHE II score was also included in the study. Results The nonaerated areas in the dependent lung regions were significantly reduced during PEEP increases from 5 to 10 to 15 cm H2O (27 ± 31 cm2 to 20 ± 24 cm2 to 11 ± 12 cm2, respectively; P < 0.01). These changes were associated with a significant increase in arterial oxygen partial pressure (74 ± 15 mmHg to 90 ± 19 mmHg to 102 ± 26 mmHg; P < 0.001, respectively). No significant changes were observed in the nonaerated areas in the dependent lung regions in the control group. Conclusions In this study, we show that transthoracic lung sonography can detect the nonaerated lung area changes during a PEEP trial of patients with early ARDS. Thus, transthoracic lung sonography might be considered as a useful clinical tool in the management of ARDS patients. PMID:21816054

  10. Acute diarrhoeal disease in less developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, John E.; Béhar, Moisés; Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1964-01-01

    The programme presented in this article for controlling the diarrhoeas and dysenteries of less developed countries is based on epidemiological principles applicable to acute undifferentiated diarrhoeal disease—its specific as well as its non-specific elements. The dominant importance of weanling diarrhoea requires a main emphasis on maternal and child health procedures, with nutrition singled out for attention, along with public health education and medical care of patients: this in addition to the established worth of means for promoting environmental sanitation. The several features of the suggested programme are within four broad divisions: preventive measures; control of patients, contacts and the immediate environment; measures specifically useful in epidemics; and international measures conducive to broad restriction of the syndrome. PMID:14230891

  11. Corticosteroids prevent acute lung dysfunction caused by thoracic irradiation in unanesthetized sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Loyd, J.E.; Bolds, J.M.; Wickersham, N.; Malcolm, A.W.; Brigham, K.L.

    1988-11-01

    We sought to determine the effect of corticosteroid therapy in a new acute model of oxidant lung injury, thoracic irradiation in awake sheep. Sheep were irradiated with 1,500 rads to the whole chest except for blocking the heart and adjacent ventral lung. Seven experimental sheep were given methylprednisolone (1 g intravenously every 6 h for four doses) and thoracic irradiation; control sheep received only irradiation. In irradiated control sheep, lung lymph flow increased from baseline (7.6 ml/h) to peak at 3 h (13.2), and lung lymph protein clearance increased from 5.1 to 9.7 ml/h. Mean pulmonary artery pressure increased in the irradiated control sheep from 19 to 32.4 cm H/sub 2/O, whereas the lung lymph thromboxane concentration increased from 0.09 to 6.51 ng/ml at 3 h. Arterial oxygen tension in irradiated control sheep fell gradually from 86 mm Hg at baseline to 65 mm Hg at 8 h. Methylprednisolone administration significantly prevented the increase in lung lymph protein clearance, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and lung lymph thromboxane concentration. Methylprednisolone also prevented the fall in arterial oxygen tension after thoracic irradiation, but did not prevent a further decrease in lymphocytes in blood or lung lymph after radiation. We conclude that corticosteroid therapy prevents most of the acute physiologic changes caused by thoracic irradiation in awake sheep.

  12. Dual Oxidase 2 in Lung Epithelia Is Essential for Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Ryu, Jae-Chan; Kwon, Younghee; Lee, Suhee; Bae, Yun Soo; Yoon, Joo-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Acute lung injury (ALI) induced by excessive hyperoxia has been employed as a model of oxidative stress imitating acute respiratory distress syndrome. Under hyperoxic conditions, overloading quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in both lung epithelial and endothelial cells, leading to ALI. Some NADPH oxidase (NOX) family enzymes are responsible for hyperoxia-induced ROS generation in lung epithelial and endothelial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of ROS production in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and ALI induced by hyperoxia are poorly understood. Results: In this study, we show that dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) is a key NOX enzyme that affects hyperoxia-induced ROS production, particularly in type II AECs, leading to lung injury. In DUOX2 mutant mice (DUOX2thyd/thyd) or mice in which DUOX2 expression is knocked down in the lungs, hyperoxia-induced ALI was significantly lower than in wild-type (WT) mice. DUOX2 was mainly expressed in type II AECs, but not endothelial cells, and hyperoxia-induced ROS production was markedly reduced in primary type II AECs isolated from DUOX2thyd/thyd mice. Furthermore, DUOX2-generated ROS are responsible for caspase-mediated cell death, inducing ERK and JNK phophorylation in type II AECs. Innovation: To date, no role for DUOX2 has been defined in hyperoxia-mediated ALI despite it being a NOX homologue and major ROS source in lung epithelium. Conclusion: Here, we present the novel finding that DUOX2-generated ROS induce AEC death, leading to hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1803–1818. PMID:24766345

  13. WORK-RELATED LUNG DISEASES (WORLD) SURVEILLANCE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Work-Related Lung Disease (WoRLD) Surveillance Report is the fifth in a series of occupational respiratory disease surveillance reports (see page iv) produced by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). It presents summary tables and figures of occu...

  14. An observational study of giant cell interstitial pneumonia and lung fibrosis in hard metal lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Terada, Masaki; Takada, Toshinori; Suzuki, Eiichi; Narita, Ichiei; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Hebisawa, Akira; Sakai, Fumikazu; Arakawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Hard metal lung disease has various pathological patterns including giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Although the UIP pattern is considered the prominent feature in advanced disease, it is unknown whether GIP finally progresses to the UIP pattern. Objectives To clarify clinical, pathological and elemental differences between the GIP and UIP patterns in hard metal lung disease. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients from 17 institutes participating in the 10th annual meeting of the Tokyo Research Group for Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases, 2009. Nineteen patients (seven female) diagnosed with hard metal lung disease by the presence of tungsten in lung specimens were studied. Results Fourteen cases were pathologically diagnosed as GIP or centrilobular inflammation/fibrosing. The other five cases were the UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis. Elemental analyses of lung specimens of GIP showed tungsten throughout the centrilobular fibrotic areas. In the UIP pattern, tungsten was detected in the periarteriolar area with subpleural fibrosis, but no association with centrilobular fibrosis or inflammatory cell infiltration. The GIP group was younger (43.1 vs 58.6?years), with shorter exposure duration (73 vs 285?months; p<0.01), lower serum KL-6 (398 vs 710?U/mL) and higher lymphocyte percentage in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (31.5% vs 3.22%; p<0.05) than the fibrosis group. Conclusions The UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis is remarkably different from GIP in distribution of hard metal elements, associated interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and clinical features. In hard metal lung disease, the UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis may not be an advanced form of GIP. PMID:24674995

  15. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Education & Training In Your Community LUNG HEALTH & DISEASES Lung Disease Lookup How Lungs Work Protecting Your Lungs Warning Signs Of Lung Disease Asthma COPD Influenza Lung Cancer Pneumonia SUPPORT & COMMUNITY ...

  16. Treatment for sulfur mustard lung injuries; new therapeutic approaches from acute to chronic phase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sulfur mustard (SM) is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988). It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries. Method This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment. Results Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments. PMID:23351279

  17. Clinical Trials for Rare Lung Diseases: Lessons from Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Francis X.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, slowly progressive neoplasm that causes gradual but often life-threatening cystic destruction of the lung. Advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis have LAM have identified a number of promising targets for testing in therapeutic trials. However, the design, prioritization, organization, and implementation of clinical trials in rare lung diseases poses unique challenges, including geographically disperse populations, sluggish enrollment, off- label drug use, burdensome regulations, and paucity of validated surrogate endpoints. PMID:20235889

  18. Supplementation of parenteral nutrition with fish oil attenuates acute lung injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Kohama, Keisuke; Nakao, Atsunori; Terashima, Mariko; Aoyama-Ishikawa, Michiko; Shimizu, Takayuki; Harada, Daisuke; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Yamashita, Hayato; Fujiwara, Mayu; Kotani, Joji

    2014-03-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has diverse immunomodulatory properties and attenuates acute lung injury when administered in enternal nutrition. However, enteral nutrition is not always feasible. Therefore, we investigated the ability of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil to ameliorate acute lung injury. Rats were infused with parenteral nutrition solutions (without lipids, with soybean oil, or with soybean oil and fish oil) for three days. Lipopolysaccharide (15 mg/kg) was then administered intratracheally to induce acute lung injury, characterized by impaired lung function, polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment, parenchymal tissue damage, and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Administration of parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil prior to lung insult improved gas exchange and inhibited neutrophil recruitment and upregulation of mRNAs for inflammatory mediators. Parenteral nutrition supplemented with fish oil also prolonged survival. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, leukotriene B4 and leukotriene B5 secretion was measured in neutrophils from the peritoneal cavity. The neutrophils from rats treated with fish oil-rich parenteral nutrition released significantly more leukotriene B5, an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid, than neutrophils isolated from rats given standard parenteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition with fish oil significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats in part by promoting the synthesis of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PMID:24688221

  19. Relevance of Lung Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Failure*

    PubMed Central

    Mezière, Gilbert A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assesses the potential of lung ultrasonography to diagnose acute respiratory failure. Methods: This observational study was conducted in university-affiliated teaching-hospital ICUs. We performed ultrasonography on consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure, comparing lung ultrasonography results on initial presentation with the final diagnosis by the ICU team. Uncertain diagnoses and rare causes (frequency < 2%) were excluded.Weincluded 260 dyspneic patients with a definite diagnosis. Three items were assessed: artifacts (horizontal A lines or vertical B lines indicating interstitial syndrome), lung sliding, and alveolar consolidation and/or pleural effusion. Combined with venous analysis, these items were grouped to assess ultrasound profiles. Results: Predominant A lines plus lung sliding indicated asthma (n = 34) or COPD (n = 49) with 89% sensitivity and 97% specificity. Multiple anterior diffuse B lines with lung sliding indicated pulmonary edema (n = 64) with 97% sensitivity and 95% specificity. A normal anterior profile plus deep venous thrombosis indicated pulmonary embolism (n = 21) with 81% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Anterior absent lung sliding plus A lines plus lung point indicated pneumothorax (n = 9) with 81% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Anterior alveolar consolidations, anterior diffuse B lines with abolished lung sliding, anterior asymmetric interstitial patterns, posterior consolidations or effusions without anterior diffuse B lines indicated pneumonia (n = 83) with 89% sensitivity and 94% specificity. The use of these profiles would have provided correct diagnoses in 90.5% of cases. Conclusions: Lung ultrasound can help the clinician make a rapid diagnosis in patients with acute respiratory failure, thus meeting the priority objective of saving time. PMID:18403664

  20. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. [Fundamentals of chronic inflammatory lung diseases (asthma, COPD, fibrosis)].

    PubMed

    Roth, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Since three decades the prevalence of chronic inflammatory lung diseases (asthma, COPD, fibrosis) are worldwide increasing. In Switzerland about 5 % of the population develops asthma, while in other countries it affects up to 20 % (Maori: New Zealand). Today, asthma is the most frequent cause from absence from school and work, and significantly reduces life quality of the patients and their families. COPD, or the smoker's lung, is the 4th most frequent cause of death worldwide and in the Western society affects mainly cigarette smokers and ex-smokers, while in developing countries it is a diseases linked to open fire cocking with most patients being middle aged women. In both diseases only the symptoms can be controlled by muscle relaxing and anti-inflammatory drugs, but there is no cure available. The third chronic inflammatory lung disease is fibrosis which is increasing with the aging population. As indicated by the terminology "chronic inflammatory lung disease" it is widely assumed that the major cause of these diseases is chronic inflammation occurring in different segments of the lung. This hypothesis is now challenged as increasing evidence from clinical and experimental studies that suggest a much different pathogenesis. There is evidence that the inflammation may come second and tissue structural changes are already pre-set during embryogenesis and may become the major driver for the development of chronic inflammatory lung diseases later in life. The mechanism of this pre-disposition is largely unknown and the difficult to perform investigations have only started in recent years. This review aims to provide an overview of key studies published in the past 2 years on clinical and experimental research. PMID:24794334

  2. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Anne T; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Kyjovska, Zdenka O; Halappanavar, Sabina; Yauk, Carole L; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction of the acute phase response is intimately linked to risk of cardiovascular disease as shown in both epidemiological and animal studies. Indeed, blood levels of acute phase proteins, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A, are independent predictors of risk of cardiovascular disease in prospective epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. Increased levels of acute phase mRNA and proteins in lung tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma clearly indicate pulmonary acute phase response following pulmonary deposition of different kinds of particles including diesel exhaust particles, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes. The pulmonary acute phase response is dose-dependent and long lasting. Conversely, the hepatic acute phase response is reduced relative to lung or entirely absent. We also provide evidence that pulmonary inflammation, as measured by neutrophil influx, is a predictor of the acute phase response and that the total surface area of deposited particles correlates with the pulmonary acute phase response. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to occupational exposure to nanoparticles. How to cite this article: WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2014, 6:517–531. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1279 PMID:24920450

  3. Enteropathogens associated with acute diarrhoeal diseases.

    PubMed

    Niyogi, S K; Saha, M R; De, S P

    1994-01-01

    Five types of Escherichia coli are responsible for as much as 25% of all diarrheal diseases in developing countries. They tend to be transmitted via contaminated foods, particularly weaning foods, and water. They include enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroadherent, enteroinvasive, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Shigella species are responsible for 10-15% of acute diarrheas in children less than 5 years old and the most common etiologic agents of childhood dysentery. Shigellosis is common in the warm season. An outbreak of shigella dysentery in West Bengal, India, had a high attack rate in children less than 5 years old and was resistant to many drugs. Nontyphoid Salmonella species cause watery diarrhea with nausea, cramps, and fever. Worldwide, various Salmonella strains exhibit resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole. Campylobacter jejuni produces watery diarrhea which, in 33% of cases and 1-2 days after onset, contains blood and mucus. Many normal healthy children in developing countries are carriers of C. jejuni. Vibrio cholerae O1 is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia (e.g., 5-10% of hospitalized diarrhea patients). The ElTor cholera biotype is responsible for the 7th pandemic. Other bacterial enteropathogens are Aeromonas species, Bacteroides fragilis, and Providencia alcalifaciens. Rotavirus is a major cause of sporadic and epidemic diarrhea among 6-23 month olds. Its incidence peaks in cold or dry seasons. Other viral enteropathogens are Norwalk virus, adenoviruses, astroviruses, and coronaviruses. In India, the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica varies from 3.6% to 47.4%. It occurs equally in high and low socioeconomic classes. Giardia lamblia usually infects 1-5 year old children. Its transmission routes are food, water, and the fecal-oral route. Cryptosporidia produce acute watery diarrhea, especially in children less than 2 years old. Cryptosporidia diarrhea is common among AIDS patients. Oral rehydration therapy and proper feeding during and after diarrhea reduces deaths from diarrhea. PMID:7835992

  4. A Case of Sarcoidosis with Interstitial Lung Disease Mimicking Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis and Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nogi, Shinichi; Sasaki, Noriko; Chinen, Naofumi; Honda, Kiri; Saito, Eiko; Wakabayashi, Takayuki; Yamada, Chiho; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a patient with sarcoidosis who developed edematous erythema and interstitial lung disease. At the initial visit, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) was suspected because he had progressive dyspnea but no muscle weakness. The presence of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 autoantibodies was immediately assessed to facilitate a precise diagnosis, with negative results. Thereafter, skin and transbronchial lung biopsies revealed noncaseating granuloma with Langhans giant cells in both specimens, leading to a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this case, clinical features of skin and lung were unable to distinguish DM (including CADM) from sarcoidosis, but the lack of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 antibody was useful for differentiating CADM with RP-ILD mimicking sarcoidosis from bona fide sarcoidosis. PMID:25431723

  5. Peripheral Leukocytapheresis Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhi-Gao; Huang, Jian; Zhou, Shun-Gang; He, Jing; Chen, Fang-Xiang; Huang, Xian-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The mortality of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) remains high and efforts for prevention and treatments have shown little improvement over the past decades. The present study investigated the efficacy and mechanism of leukocytapheresis (LCAP) to partially eliminate peripheral neutrophils and attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury in dogs. A total of 24 healthy male mongrel dogs were enrolled and randomly divided into LPS, LCAP and LCAP-sham groups. All animals were injected with LPS to induce endotoxemia. The serum levels of leucocytes, neutrophil elastase, arterial blood gas, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) subunit p65 in lung tissues were measured. The histopathology and parenchyma apoptosis of lung tissues were examined. We found that 7, 3, and 7 animals in the LPS, LCAP, and sham-LCAP groups, respectively, developed ALI 36?h after LPS infusion. The levels of NF-?B p65 in lung tissue, neutrophils and elastase in blood, decreased significantly following LCAP. LCAP also alleviated apoptosis, and NF-?B p65 in lung tissues. Collectively, our results show that partial removal of leucocytes from peripheral blood decreases elastase level in serum. This, in turn, attenuates lung injuries and may potentially decrease the incidence of ALI. PMID:22529529

  6. Emodin Ameliorates LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury, Involving the Inactivation of NF-?B in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Min; Zhu, Tao; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Tao; Shen, Yong-Chun; Wan, Qiong-Fang; Wen, Fu-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its severe manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are well-known illnesses. Uncontrolled and self-amplified pulmonary inflammation lies at the center of the pathology of this disease. Emodin, the bio-active coxund of herb Radix rhizoma Rhei, shows potent anti-inflammatory properties through inactivation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of emodin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice, and its potential bio-mechanism. In our study, BALB/c mice were stimulated with LPS to induce ALI. After 72 h of LPS stimulation, pulmonary pathological changes, lung injury scores, pulmonary edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and MCP-1 and E-selectin expression were notably attenuated by emodin in mice. Meanwhile, our data also revealed that emodin significantly inhibited the LPS-enhanced the phosphorylation of NF-?B p65 and NF-?B p65 DNA binding activity in lung. Our data indicates that emodin potently inhibits LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema and MCP-1 and E-selectin expression, and that these effects were very likely mediated by inactivation of NF-?B in mice. These results suggest a therapeutic potential of emodin as an anti-inflammatory agent for ALI/ARDS treatment. PMID:25347274

  7. A genetic variant of cortactin linked to acute lung injury impairs lamellipodia dynamics and endothelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangwook; Camp, Sara M; Dan, Arkaprava; Garcia, Joe G N; Dudek, Steven M; Leckband, Deborah E

    2015-11-01

    Inflammatory mediators released in acute lung injury (ALI) trigger the disruption of interendothelial junctions, leading to loss of vascular barrier function, protein-rich pulmonary edema, and severe hypoxemia. Genetic signatures that predict patient recovery or disease progression are poorly defined, but recent genetic screening of ALI patients has identified an association between lung inflammatory disease and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene for the actin-binding and barrier-regulatory protein cortactin. This study investigated the impact of this disease-linked cortactin variant on wound healing processes that may contribute to endothelial barrier restoration. A microfabricated platform was used to quantify wound healing in terms of gap closure speed, lamellipodia dynamics, and cell velocity. Overexpression of wild-type cortactin in endothelial cells (ECs) improved directional cell motility and enhanced lamellipodial protrusion length, resulting in enhanced gap closure rates. By contrast, the cortactin SNP impaired wound closure and cell locomotion, consistent with the observed reduction in lamellipodial protrusion length and persistence. Overexpression of the cortactin SNP in lung ECs mitigated the barrier-enhancing activity of sphingosine 1-phosphate. These findings suggest that this common cortactin variant may functionally contribute to ALI predisposition by impeding endothelial wound healing. PMID:26361873

  8. Interstitial lung diseases associated with collagen vascular diseases: radiologic and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun A; Lee, Kyung Soo; Johkoh, Takeshi; Kim, Tae Sung; Suh, Gee Young; Kwon, O Jung; Han, Joungho

    2002-10-01

    Collagen vascular diseases that demonstrate features of interstitial lung disease include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis and polymyositis, ankylosing spondylitis, Sjögren syndrome, and mixed connective tissue disease. At histopathologic analysis, interstitial lung diseases associated with collagen vascular diseases are diverse and include nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, usual interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), apical fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Although proportions of interstitial pneumonias vary, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia accounts for a large proportion, especially in progressive systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis and polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. The more favorable prognosis in interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular diseases than in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias may be explained by the larger proportion of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia than of usual interstitial pneumonia. High-resolution computed tomography seems to help characterize and determine the extent of interstitial lung disease in collagen vascular diseases. PMID:12376608

  9. Nanotechnology approaches for inhalation treatment of lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Kuzmov, Andriy; Minko, Tamara

    2015-12-10

    Local administration of therapeutics by inhalation for treatment of lung diseases has the ability to deliver drugs, nucleic acids and peptides specifically to the site of their action and therefore enhance the efficacy of the treatment, limit the penetration of nebulized therapeutic agent(s) into the bloodstream and consequently decrease adverse systemic side effects of the treatment. Nanotechnology allows for a further enhancement of the treatment efficiency. The present review analyzes modern therapeutic approaches of inhaled nanoscale-based pharmaceutics for the detection and treatment of various lung diseases. PMID:26297206

  10. Promotion of Lung Health: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Budinger, G. R. Scott; Escobar, Gabriel J.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hanson, Corrine K.; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Buist, A. Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Lung-related research primarily focuses on the etiology and management of diseases. In recent years, interest in primary prevention has grown. However, primary prevention also includes “health promotion” (actions in a population that keep an individual healthy). We encourage more research on population-based (public health) strategies that could not only maximize lung health but also mitigate “normal” age-related declines—not only for spirometry but across multiple measures of lung health. In developing a successful strategy, a “life course” approach is important. Unfortunately, we are unable to achieve the full benefit of this approach until we have better measures of lung health and an improved understanding of the normal trajectory, both over an individual’s life span and possibly across generations. We discuss key questions in lung health promotion, with an emphasis on the upper (healthier) end of the distribution of lung functioning and resiliency and briefly summarize the few interventions that have been studied to date. We conclude with suggestions regarding the most promising future research for this important, but largely neglected, area of lung research. PMID:24754821

  11. Ventilator graphics and respiratory mechanics in the patient with obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Rajiv

    2005-02-01

    Obstruction of the large and small airways occurs in several diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and bronchiolitis. This article discusses the role of ventilator waveforms in the context of factors that contribute to the development of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress in patients with obstructive lung disease. Displays of pressure, flow, and volume, flow-volume loops, and pressure-volume loops are available on most modern ventilators. In mechanically ventilated patients with airway obstruction, ventilator graphics aid in recognizing abnormalities in function, in optimizing ventilator settings to promote patient-ventilator interaction, and in diagnosing complications before overt clinical signs develop. Ventilator waveforms are employed to detect the presence of dynamic hyperinflation and to measure lung mechanics. Various forms of patient-ventilator asynchrony (eg, auto-triggering and delayed or ineffective triggering) can also be detected by waveform analysis. Presence of flow limitation during expiration and excessive airway secretions can be determined from flow-volume loops. Abnormalities in pressure-volume loops occur when the trigger sensitivity is inadequate, with alterations in respiratory compliance, or during patient-ventilator asynchrony. Thus, ventilator waveforms play an important role in management of mechanically-ventilated patients with obstructive lung disease. PMID:15691394

  12. Perinatal Factors in Neonatal and Pediatric Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Rodney D.; Faksh, Arij; Vogel, Elizabeth; Martin, Richard J.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    Wheezing and asthma are significant clinical problems for infants and young children, particularly following premature birth. Recurrent wheezing in infants can progress to persistent asthma. As in adults, altered airway structure (remodeling) and function (increased bronchoconstriction) are also important in neonatal and pediatric airway diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that airway disease in children is influenced by perinatal factors including perturbations in normal fetal lung development, postnatal interventions in the intensive care unit, and environmental and other insults in the neonatal period. Here, in addition to genetics, maternal health, environmental processes, innate immunity, and impaired lung development/function can all influence pathogenesis of airway disease in children. We summarize current understanding of how prenatal and postnatal factors can contribute to development of airway diseases in neonates and children. Understanding these mechanisms will help identify and develop novel therapies for childhood airway diseases. PMID:24090092

  13. New strategies in mechanical ventilation for acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Burchardi, H

    1996-05-01

    In the fluid-filled lungs of early adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the dependent parts are compressed and atelectatic; whereas, the nondependent areas remain aerated and functional. Ventilating these considerably restricted lungs carries the risk of overinflation and ventilatory-induced lung injury (baro-volutrauma). The consequences for adjusting mechanical ventilation are: 1) reducing tidal volumes in order to avoid alveolar hyperinflation and excessive alveolar pressures; 2) considering permissive hypercapnia if adequate CO2 elimination cannot be maintained; 3) keeping open the unstable alveoli by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (external or intrinsic). However, the large variations in regional lung compliance make it improbable that an optimal external PEEP level beneficial for the whole lung will be found; 4) using intrinsic PEEP in the inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) mode which varies with differences in regional ventilatory kinetics. No clinical study has yet convincingly demonstrated the benefit of IRV compared to conventional ventilation, controlled clinical long-term trials are not yet available; and 5) using superimposed spontaneous breathing which may be considerably more effective in opening up collapsed alveoli, combined with intentional intrinsic PEEP this is achieved in airway pressure release ventilation (APRV). Other new principles of mechanical ventilation, such as "proportional assist ventilation" or "tracheal gas insufflation" must still be considered as experimental. PMID:8793470

  14. MATRILYSIN PARTICIPATES IN THE ACUTE LUNG INJURY INDUCED BY OIL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ROLE OF MATRILYSIN IN THE ACUTE LUNG INJURY INDUCED BY OIL COMBUSTION PARTICLES.

    K L Dreher1, WY Su2 and C L Wilson3. 1US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2Duke University, Durham, NC;3Washington University, St. Louis, MO.

    Mechanisms by ...

  15. ROLE OF CELL SIGNALING IN PROTECTION FROM DIESEL AND LPS INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously demonstrated in CD-1 mice that pre-administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor (SB203580) reduces acute lung injury and inflammation following pulmonary exposures to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here ...

  16. [Management of acute complications in sickle cell disease ].

    PubMed

    Gellen-Dautremer, Justine; Brousse, Valentine; Arlet, Jean-Benoît

    2014-10-01

    Acute complications in sickle cell disease are a major and life-long cause for hospital referral. The most frequent events are painful acute vaso-occlusive crisis involving the limbs and back, and acute chest syndrome. Acute vaso-occlusive crisis is a therapeutic emergency because of the very high level of pain. Acute chest syndrome may be potentially fatal and must be adequately searched for and treated. Sickle cell patients are susceptible to pneumococcal infections notably, but any infection may favour vaso-occlusive crisis. Triggers of sickle cell vase occlusion must be tracked and corrected, if possible. Moderate crisis can be managed at home, but referral is necessary as soon as opiates are needed and/or if acute chest syndrome is suspected. Additional treatments besides opiates include co analgesics, oxygen, hydration, physiotherapy. Blood transfusion may be required but is not systematic. Acute spleen sequestration occurs in young children and requires immediate hospital referral for transfusion. PMID:25510139

  17. Update on scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ming-Hui; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A.; Silver, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc), or scleroderma, is a heterogeneous and complex autoimmune disease characterized by varying degrees of skin and organ fibrosis and obliterative vasculopathy. The disease results in significant morbidity and mortality and to date available treatments are limited. Lung involvement is currently the leading cause of death of patients with SSc. Over the past year, significant advances have been made in our understanding of SSc-associated lung disease and this review attempts to encapsulate these most recent findings and place them in context. We divide our discussion of the most recent literature into 1) clinical aspects of SSc lung management, including classification, imaging, biomarkers, and treatment; 2) promising new animal models that may improve our ability to accurately study this disease; and 3) studies that advance or change our understanding of lung disease pathogenesis, thereby raising the potential for new targets for therapeutic intervention. The goal of this review is to highlight and summarize the most significant studies of the past year and to bring clinicians and researchers alike in the field up to date. PMID:25191993

  18. The effects of Gamijinhae-tang on elastase/lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in an animal model of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gamijinhae-tang (GJHT) has long been used in Korea to treat respiratory diseases. The therapeutic effect of GJHT is likely associated with its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its effects are unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of GJHT in a porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) induced animal model of acute lung injury (ALI). Methods In this study, mice were intranasally exposed to PPE and LPS for 4 weeks to induce chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-like lung inflammation. Two hours prior to PPE and LPS administration, the treatment group was administered GJHT extracts via an oral injection. The numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and total cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were counted, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were also measured. For histologic analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stains were evaluated. Results After inducing ALI by treating mice with PPE and LPS for 4 weeks, the numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and total cells were significantly lower in the GJHT group than in the ALI group. In addition, the IL-1? and IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in the GJHT group. The histological results also demonstrated the attenuation effect of GJHT on PPE- and LPS-induced lung inflammation. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that GJHT has significantly reduces PPE- and LPS-induced lung inflammation. The remarkable protective effects of GJHT suggest its therapeutic potential in COPD treatment. PMID:23866260

  19. Clinical course of acute chemical lung injury caused by 3-chloropentafluoropene.

    PubMed

    Morita, Satomu; Takimoto, Takayuki; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Nishi, Katsuji; lino, Morio

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroallyl chloride (PFAC), a fluorine-containing compound, has very severe toxicity, but this toxicity is not well characterised. We report a fatal case of acute chemical lung injury caused by the inhalation of PFAC. A 39-year-old man, working at a chemical factory, inhaled PFAC gas and died 16 days later of acute lung injury with severe pneumothorax. We present his clinical course together with thoracic CT findings, autopsy and analysis of PFAC in blood and urine samples with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Previously, a fatal case of PFAC was reported in 1981 but PFAC was not identified in any of the patient's samples. In our patient, we identified PFAC in both blood and urine samples. Our toxicological analysis may be used as a reference to detect PFAC toxicity in the future. Our study should be helpful for diagnosing lung injury induced by a highly toxic gas, such as PFAC. PMID:24311414

  20. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS.

    PubMed

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Audi, Said H; Maleki, Sepideh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Eis, Annie L; Konduri, Girija G; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI) in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD), referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR) has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2) pups, hyperoxic (90% O2) pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS), and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS). Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure. PMID:24672581

  1. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

    PubMed Central

    SEPEHR, REYHANEH; AUDI, SAID H.; MALEKI, SEPIDEH; STANISZEWSKI, KEVIN; EIS, ANNIE L.; KONDURI, GIRIJA G.; RANJI, MAHSA

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI) in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD), referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR) has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2) pups, hyperoxic (90% O2) pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS), and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS). Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure. PMID:24672581

  2. Pulmonary Administration of a Water-Soluble Curcumin Complex Reduces Severity of Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Madathilparambil V.; Wagner, Matthew C.; Rosania, Gus R.; Stringer, Kathleen A.; Min, Kyoung Ah; Risler, Linda; Shen, Danny D.; Georges, George E.; Reddy, Aravind T.; Parkkinen, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    Local or systemic inflammation can result in acute lung injury (ALI), and is associated with capillary leakage, reduced lung compliance, and hypoxemia. Curcumin, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound, exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties, but its poor solubility and limited oral bioavailability reduce its therapeutic potential. A novel curcumin formulation (CDC) was developed by complexing the compound with hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (CD). This results in greatly enhanced water solubility and stability that facilitate direct pulmonary delivery. In vitro studies demonstrated that CDC increased curcumin’s association with and transport across Calu-3 human airway epithelial cell monolayers, compared with uncomplexed curcumin solubilized using DMSO or ethanol. Importantly, Calu-3 cell monolayer integrity was preserved after CDC exposure, whereas it was disrupted by equivalent uncomplexed curcumin solutions. We then tested whether direct delivery of CDC to the lung would reduce severity of ALI in a murine model. Fluorescence microscopic examination revealed an association of curcumin with cells throughout the lung. The administration of CDC after LPS attenuated multiple markers of inflammation and injury, including pulmonary edema and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. CDC also reduced oxidant stress in the lungs and activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-?B. These results demonstrate the efficacy of CDC in a murine model of lung inflammation and injury, and support the feasibility of developing a lung-targeted, curcumin-based therapy for the treatment of patients with ALI. PMID:22312018

  3. Derivation and Validation of Automated Electronic Search Strategies to Identify Pertinent Risk Factors for Postoperative Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Alsara, Anas; Warner, David O.; Li, Guangxi; Herasevich, Vitaly; Gajic, Ognjen; Kor, Daryl J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate time-efficient automated electronic search strategies for identifying preoperative risk factors for postoperative acute lung injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included 249 patients undergoing high-risk surgery between November 1, 2005, and August 31, 2006. Two independent data-extraction strategies were compared. The first strategy used a manual review of medical records and the second a Web-based query-building tool. Web-based searches were derived and refined in a derivation cohort of 83 patients and subsequently validated in an independent cohort of 166 patients. Agreement between the 2 search strategies was assessed with percent agreement and Cohen ? statistics. RESULTS: Cohen ? statistics ranged from 0.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.86) for amiodarone to 0.85 for cirrhosis (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.00). Agreement between manual and automated electronic data extraction was almost complete for 3 variables (diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, H2-receptor antagonists), substantial for 3 (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, proton pump inhibitors, statins), moderate for gastroesophageal reflux disease, and fair for 2 variables (restrictive lung disease and amiodarone). Automated electronic queries outperformed manual data collection in terms of sensitivities (median, 100% [range, 77%-100%] vs median, 87% [range, 0%-100%]). The specificities were uniformly high (?96%) for both search strategies. CONCLUSION: Automated electronic query building is an iterative process that ultimately results in accurate, highly efficient data extraction. These strategies may be useful for both clinicians and researchers when determining the risk of time-sensitive conditions such as postoperative acute lung injury. PMID:21531881

  4. Lung transplantation for aspiration-induced silicosis of the lung.

    PubMed

    Chida, Masayuki; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Araki, Osamu; Tamura, Motohiko; Umezu, Hideo; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2010-03-01

    Silicosis, a slowly progressing chronic disease, is rare in lung transplantation patients. Herein, we report a case of single lung transplantation in a 35-year-old man for acute and accelerated silicosis, without a history of inhalation of silicium. A pathology examination of the explanted lung revealed that aspiration of a scouring powder was the cause of lung silicosis. Aspiration-induced lung silicosis is rare. PMID:20349305

  5. Neu-164 and Neu-107, two novel antioxidant and anti-myeloperoxidase compounds, inhibit acute cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Thomas H.; Hsiao, Hsi-Min; Pinner, Elhanan; Laudon, Moshe; Pollock, Stephen J.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a profound proinflammatory stimulus that causes acute lung inflammation and chronic lung disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis), via a variety of mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Cigarette smoke contains high levels of free radicals, whereas inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, express enzymes, including NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, and myeloperoxidase, that generate reactive oxygen species in situ and contribute to inflammation and tissue damage. Neu-164 and Neu-107 are small-molecule inhibitors of myeloperoxidase, as well as potent antioxidants. We hypothesized that Neu-164 and Neu-107 would inhibit acute cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. Adult C57BL/6J mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke for 3 days to induce acute inflammation and were treated daily by inhalation with Neu-164, Neu-107, or dexamethasone as a control. Inflammatory cells and cytokines were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage and histology. mRNA levels of endogenous antioxidant genes heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit were determined by qPCR. Cigarette smoke exposure induced acute lung inflammation with accumulation of neutrophils and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and keratinocyte-derived cytokine. Both Neu-164 and Neu-107 significantly reduced the accumulation of inflammatory cells and the expression of inflammatory cytokines as effectively as dexamethasone. Upregulation of endogenous antioxidant genes was dampened. Neu-164 and Neu-107 inhibit acute cigarette smoke-induced inflammation by scavenging reactive oxygen species in cigarette smoke and by inhibiting further oxidative stress caused by inflammatory cells. These compounds may have promise in preventing or treating lung disease associated with chronic smoke exposure, including COPD. PMID:23686858

  6. Neu-164 and Neu-107, two novel antioxidant and anti-myeloperoxidase compounds, inhibit acute cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Thomas H; Hsiao, Hsi-Min; Pinner, Elhanan; Laudon, Moshe; Pollock, Stephen J; Sime, Patricia J; Phipps, Richard P

    2013-07-15

    Cigarette smoke is a profound proinflammatory stimulus that causes acute lung inflammation and chronic lung disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis), via a variety of mechanisms, including oxidative stress. Cigarette smoke contains high levels of free radicals, whereas inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, express enzymes, including NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, and myeloperoxidase, that generate reactive oxygen species in situ and contribute to inflammation and tissue damage. Neu-164 and Neu-107 are small-molecule inhibitors of myeloperoxidase, as well as potent antioxidants. We hypothesized that Neu-164 and Neu-107 would inhibit acute cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. Adult C57BL/6J mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke for 3 days to induce acute inflammation and were treated daily by inhalation with Neu-164, Neu-107, or dexamethasone as a control. Inflammatory cells and cytokines were assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage and histology. mRNA levels of endogenous antioxidant genes heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit were determined by qPCR. Cigarette smoke exposure induced acute lung inflammation with accumulation of neutrophils and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and keratinocyte-derived cytokine. Both Neu-164 and Neu-107 significantly reduced the accumulation of inflammatory cells and the expression of inflammatory cytokines as effectively as dexamethasone. Upregulation of endogenous antioxidant genes was dampened. Neu-164 and Neu-107 inhibit acute cigarette smoke-induced inflammation by scavenging reactive oxygen species in cigarette smoke and by inhibiting further oxidative stress caused by inflammatory cells. These compounds may have promise in preventing or treating lung disease associated with chronic smoke exposure, including COPD. PMID:23686858

  7. Aging and interstitial lung diseases: unraveling an old forgotten player in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Selman, Moisés; Rojas, Mauricio; Mora, Ana L; Pardo, Annie

    2010-10-01

    Aging is a natural process characterized by a progressive functional impairment and reduced capacity to respond adaptively to environmental stimuli. Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurological diseases. Lung pathologies are not the exception, and the prevalence of several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), primarily idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has been found to increase considerably with age. Although our understanding of the biology of aging has advanced remarkably in the last 2 decades, the molecular mechanisms linking aging to ILD remain unclear. Immunosenescence, oxidative stress, abnormal shortening of telomeres, apoptosis, and epigenetic changes affecting gene expression have been proposed to contribute to the aging process, and aging-associated diseases. Here, we review the emerging concepts highlighting the putative aging-associated abnormalities involved in some human ILDs. PMID:20941661

  8. Modifications of lung clearance mechanisms by acute influenza A infection

    SciTech Connect

    Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Garrard, C.S.

    1985-10-01

    Four volunteers with naturally acquired, culture-proved influenza A infection inhaled a radiolabeled aerosol to permit investigation of lung mucociliary clearance mechanisms during and after symptomatic illness. Mucus transport in the trachea was undetectable when monitored with an external multidetector probe within 48 hours of the onset of the illness, but was found at a normal velocity by 1 week in three of the four subjects. In two volunteers who coughed 23 to 48 times during the 4.5-hour observation period, whole lung clearance was as fast within the first 48 hours of illness as during health 3 months later in spite of the absence of measurable tracheal mucus transport. Conversely, in spite of the return 1 week later of mucus transport at velocities expected in the trachea, whole lung clearance for the 4.5-hour period was slowed in two volunteers who coughed less than once an hour. The data offer evidence that cough is important in maintaining lung clearance for at least several days after symptomatic influenza A infection when other mechanisms that depend on ciliary function are severely deficient.

  9. Occupational lung diseases and the mining industry in Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Lkhasuren, O.; Takahashi, K.; Dash-Onolt, L.

    2007-04-15

    Mining production has accounted for around 50% of the gross industrial product in Mongolia since 1998. Dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis currently account for the largest relative share (67.8%) of occupational diseases in Mongolia, and cases are increasing annually. In 1967-2004, medically diagnosed cases of occupational diseases in Mongolia numbered 7,600. Of these, 5,154 were confirmed cases of dust-induced chronic bronchitis and pneumoconiosis. Lung diseases and other mining-sector health risks pose major challenges for Mongolia. Gold and coal mines, both formal and informal, contribute significantly to economic growth, but the prevalence of occupational lung diseases is high and access to health care is limited. Rapid implementation of an effective national program of silicosis elimination and pneumoconiosis reduction is critical to ensure the health and safety of workers in this important sector of the Mongolian economy.

  10. Observations on a model of proliferative lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, B.; Caldwell, P. R. B.; Fritts, H. W.

    1970-01-01

    Intravenous injections of complete Freund's adjuvant, used by others to stimulate the reticuloendothelial system of small laboratory animals, produced granulomas resembling sarcoid in the lung of the dog. At the height of the disease, when granulomas occupied more than half of the alveolar tissues, transpulmonary arteriovenous (A-[unk]V) differences of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose were measured. When the diseased dogs breathed room air, the A-[unk]V differences of lactate and pyruvate were greater than normal; and when the dogs breathed an hypoxic mixture, the differences increased further. Hence the model affords the opportunity for studying the in vivo metabolism of diseased lungs. It may also prove useful for studying other aspects of granulomatous disease which cannot be easily approached in man. PMID:5432367

  11. Interstitial Lung Disease: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Ivan O.; Dellaripa, Paul F.; Lederer, David J.; Khanna, Dinesh; Young, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based, longitudinal studies spanning decades linking risk factors in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood to incident clinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) events in late adulthood have not been performed. In addition, no observational or randomized clinical trials have been conducted; therefore, there is presently no evidence to support the notion that reduction of risk factor levels in early life prevents ILD events in adult life. Primary prevention strategies are host-directed interventions designed to modify adverse risk factors (i.e., smoking) with the goal of preventing the development of ILD, whereas primordial prevention for ILD can be defined as the elimination of external risk factors (i.e., environmental pollutants). As no ILD primary prevention studies have been previously conducted, we propose that research studies that promote implementation of primary prevention strategies could, over time, make a subset of ILD preventable. Herein, we provide a number of initial steps required for the future implementation of prevention strategies; this statement discusses the rationale and available evidence that support potential opportunities for primordial and primary prevention, as well as fertile areas for future research of preventive intervention in ILD. PMID:24754826

  12. DOES CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE LEAD TO LUNG DISEASE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential role of ozone in the induction of chronic lung diseases remains unclear. sing an ambient profile adopted from aerometric data from the Southwest Air Basin, rats were exposed to O3 for up to 18 months before assessments of pulmonary structure, function and biochemist...

  13. The Immunomodulatory and Therapeutic Effects of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mirabelle S H; Mei, Shirley H J; Stewart, Duncan J

    2015-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that immunomodulation represents an important mechanism underlying the benefits of many stem cell therapies, rather than the classical paradigm of transdifferentiation and cell replacement. In the former paradigm, the beneficial effects of cell therapy result from paracrine mechanism(s) and/or cell-cell interaction as opposed to direct engraftment and repair of diseased tissue and/or dysfunctional organs. Depending on the cell type used, components of the secretome, including microRNA (miRNA) and extracellular vesicles, may be able to either activate or suppress the immune system even without direct immune cell contact. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells, are found not only in the bone marrow, but also in a wide variety of organs and tissues. In addition to any direct stem cell activities, MSCs were the first stem cells recognized to modulate immune response, and therefore they will be the focus of this review. Specifically, MSCs appear to be able to effectively attenuate acute and protracted inflammation via interactions with components of both innate and adaptive immune systems. To date, this capacity has been exploited in a large number of preclinical studies and MSC immunomodulatory therapy has been attempted with various degrees of success in a relatively large number of clinical trials. Here, we will explore the various mechanism employed by MSCs to effect immunosuppression as well as review the current status of its use to treat excessive inflammation in the context of acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis in both preclinical and clinical settings. PMID:25913273

  14. Work of breathing in children with diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    PubMed

    Khirani, Sonia; Nathan, Nadia; Ramirez, Adriana; Aloui, Sabrina; Delacourt, Christophe; Clément, Annick; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2015-01-15

    Respiratory mechanics have been poorly studied in children with chronic diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD). The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of respiratory mechanics to monitor lung function alteration in children with DPLD. Respiratory mechanics, total (WOBt), elastic (WOBe) and resistive (WOBr) work of breathing, gas exchange, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were measured in 10 children, aged 1.8-18.4 years old, who were followed in our national reference centre. Mean tidal volume (Vt) was normal (11±4mL/kg) but respiratory rate (fr, 32±19breaths/min), fr/Vt (118±75breaths/min/L) and total lung resistance (10.2±4.8cmH2OL(-1)s) were increased. Mean WOBt was increased mainly due to WOBe. Dynamic lung compliance (Cldyn) was severely reduced (26±24mL/cmH2O). Cldyn and the oesophageal pressure-time product strongly correlated with vital capacity and functional residual capacity. Respiratory muscle strength was within the normal range. In conclusion, lung mechanics may be considered as useful complementary or alternative markers of functional abnormalities in children with DPLD. PMID:25445729

  15. Baclofen, a GABABR Agonist, Ameliorates Immune-Complex Mediated Acute Lung Injury by Modulating Pro-Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shunying; Merchant, Michael L.; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; McLeish, Kenneth R.; Lederer, Eleanor D.; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Fraig, Mostafa; Barati, Michelle T.; Lentsch, Alex B.; Roman, Jesse; Klein, Jon B.; Rane, Madhavi J.

    2015-01-01

    Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC) deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2), GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-? and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted I?B degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and I?B degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-? and IL-1?AcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-?- and IL-1?-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting a physiological role for GABABR2 in the repair process of lung damage. GABABR2 agonists may play a potential therapeutic role in ALI. PMID:25848767

  16. Interstitial lung disease induced by alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Sakai, Takahiro; Sone, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Niwa, Takashi; Hotta, Machiko; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 75-year-old woman with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma was administered the selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, alectinib, as a third-line treatment in a Phase 1-2 study. On the 102nd day, chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities. Laboratory data revealed high serum levels of KL-6, SP-D and lactate dehydrogenase without any clinical symptoms. There was no evidence of infection. Marked lymphocytosis was seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and transbronchial lung biopsy showed mild thickening of alveolar septa and lymphocyte infiltration. Interstitial lung disease was judged to be related to alectinib based on improvements in imaging findings and serum biomarkers after discontinuation of alectinib. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of alectinib-induced interstitial lung disease. Alectinib is a promising drug for ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials of this selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor will facilitate the meticulous elucidation of its long-term safety profile. PMID:25398579

  17. Eliminating or blocking 12/15-lipoxygenase reduces neutrophil recruitment in mouse models of acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common disease in critically ill patients with a high morbidity and mortality. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) is an enzyme generating 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and 15-HETE from arachidonic acid. It has been shown that 12/15-LO is involved in the regulation of vascular permeability during ALI. Methods To test whether 12/15-LO participates in leukocyte recruitment into the lung, we investigated the role of 12/15-LO in mouse models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation and acid-induced ALI, a clinically relevant model of acute lung injury. Results The increase in neutrophil recruitment following LPS inhalation was reduced in 12/15-LO-deficient (Alox15-/-) mice and in wild-type (WT) mice after the blocking of 12/15-LO with a pharmacological inhibitor. Bone marrow chimeras revealed that 12/15-LO in hematopoietic cells regulates neutrophil accumulation in the interstitial and alveolar compartments, whereas the accumulation of neutrophils in the intravascular compartment is regulated by 12/15-LO in non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic cells. Mechanistically, the increased plasma levels of the chemokine CXCL1 in Alox15-/- mice led to a reduced response of the neutrophil chemokine receptor CXCR2 to stimulation with CXCL1, which in turn abrogated neutrophil recruitment. Alox15-/- mice also showed decreased edema formation, reduced neutrophil recruitment and improved gas exchange in an acid-induced ALI model. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 12/15-LO modulates neutrophil recruitment into the lung by regulating chemokine/chemokine receptor homeostasis. PMID:22973824

  18. [Clinical study on development of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease].

    PubMed

    Kurashima, Atsuyuki

    2004-12-01

    DEVELOPEMENT OF MAC LUNG DISEASE: An increase of nodular bronchiectatic type of MAC lung disease becomes a problem among respiratory physician today. The reason is still unknown, but it seems to be globally recognized that this type of MAC disease is developing particularly in middle-aged woman. Some papers mentioned the existence of such type of MAC lung disease already early in the 70s, in Japan. Yamamoto described that 17 cases of middle lobe type lung disease out of 154 non-photochoromogen cases, and 76.5% were female, in 1970. Shimoide also pointed such type of 39 cases out of 240 MAC lung disease and 84.6% were female, in 1980. Prince reported MAC lung disease seen in old and middle age female of 21 cases including lethality example of 4 cases without a precedent disease in 1989. After his report, the international consensus of this peculiar type of MAC lung disease seems to be spread. In 1989, we compared 72 cases of nodular bronchiectatic type of MAC lung disease and 56 cases of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) that was a most typical chronic airway disease at that time in Japan. The average age of disease onset of DPB group was 37.0 +/- 16.3 years old and that of MAC group was 54.5 +/- 16.3 years old. The percentage of female was 32% in DPB group and 87.5% in MAC group. It was highly possible that two groups belong different parent population. We could grasp that nodular bronchiectatic type of MAC lung disease patients is a unique group. We observed the serial films of 21 cases of nodular bronchiectatic MAC lung disease, and divide the progression of the disease to sequential 7 steps as Fig. 1. Small nodules progress to cavities in mean about 10 years. However, why is MAC which is opportunistic pathogen with weak virulence, able to form a lesion at unimpaired lung parenchyma? Is there really normal site? Why dose it start from lingula? Why is MAC seen a lot in woman? While it is extremely pathognomonic clinical picture, and, is an extremely interesting problem, most are still unidentified. STUDY OF MAC LUNG DISEASE TREATMENT: It was known that Mycobacterium kansasii lung disease is healed with a chemotherapy like analog of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, already in those days. However, the results of MAC lung disease chemotherapy were extremely poor. We tried to express a physicians experience quantitatively as follows, in 1987. The results of 8 weeks sputum culture on Ogawa egg medium were converted semi-quantitatively to CFU numbers based on "Japanese standard guideline of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inspection". We exhibit the ratio of post-treatment consecutive 6 months culture yield to pre-treatment culture yield as response rate, about 110 pulmonary MAC cases. Through this study, we clarify the followings. The results of chemotherapy do not correlate susceptibility test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Multidrug regimen is more useful. Small extent of lesion is more responsive. Combination with aminoglycoside chemotherapy is more effective. These conclusions were almost same as the ATS guideline of 1990. New drugs such as, new macrolides and new quinolones appeared for pulmonary MAC treatment through the feedback from systemic MAC complicated AIDS treatments from the latter half of 90's. We measured the sensitive strain ratio at 2 mcg/ml of OFLX, CPFX, LVFX about 990 clinical isolates and could expect availability for M. kansasii or M. fortuitum, but these new quinolones are not enough effective for MAC. Also we examined MIC for various antimycobacterial agent by 50 MAC clinical isolates, and we could expect a certain availability of SPFX, GFLX, CPFX, CAM for MAC. The availability of clarithromycin (CAM) has been established through many randomized clinical trials for disseminated MAC complicated AIDS, but for pulmonary MAC, complete cure is still difficult if we use CAM including regimen. We performed surgical treatment for relatively young patients with localized lesions. We carry out the adaptation reference such as Table, now. The localization of the lesions become a problem at surgical resection

  19. Immunopathogenesis of Severe Acute Respiratory Disease in Zaire ebolavirus-Infected Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Nfon, Charles K.; Leung, Anders; Smith, Greg; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary; Weingartl, Hana M.

    2013-01-01

    Ebola viruses (EBOV) are filamentous single-stranded RNA viruses of the family Filoviridae. Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) causes severe haemorrhagic fever in humans, great apes and non-human primates (NHPs) with high fatality rates. In contrast, Reston ebolavirus (REBOV), the only species found outside Africa, is lethal to some NHPs but has never been linked to clinical disease in humans despite documented exposure. REBOV was isolated from pigs in the Philippines and subsequent experiments confirmed the susceptibility of pigs to both REBOV and ZEBOV with predilection for the lungs. However, only ZEBOV caused severe lung pathology in 5–6 weeks old pigs leading to respiratory distress. To further elucidate the mechanisms for lung pathology, microarray analysis of changes in gene expression was performed on lung tissue from ZEBOV-infected pigs. Furthermore, systemic effects were monitored by looking at changes in peripheral blood leukocyte subsets and systemic cytokine responses. Following oro-nasal challenge, ZEBOV replicated mainly in the respiratory tract, causing severe inflammation of the lungs and consequently rapid and difficult breathing. Neutrophils and macrophages infiltrated the lungs but only the latter were positive for ZEBOV antigen. Genes for proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and acute phase proteins, known to attract immune cells to sites of infection, were upregulated in the lungs, causing the heavy influx of cells into this site. Systemic effects included a decline in the proportion of monocyte/dendritic and B cells and a mild proinflammatory cytokine response. Serum IgM was detected on day 5 and 6 post infection. In conclusion, a dysregulation/over-activation of the pulmonary proinflammatory response may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ZEBOV infection in 5–6 weeks old pigs by attracting inflammatory cells to the lungs. PMID:23626748

  20. ROLE OF TACHYKININS IN OZONE-INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To examine the hypothesis that the acute, reversible changes caused by O3 exposure are mediated by techykinin release, guinea pigs were depleted of tachykinins using repeated capsaicin (CAP) injections prior to O3 exposure, in an attempt to prevent O3-induced functional changes. ...

  1. Activation of PPAR? by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Seong Ho; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Activation of PPAR? attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-? and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPAR? activation. •PPAR? agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPAR? activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPAR? by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPAR? might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.

  2. Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): Volutrauma and Molecular Effects

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco Loza, R; Villamizar Rodríguez, G; Medel Fernández, N

    2015-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical condition secondary to a variety of insults leading to a severe acute respiratory failure and high mortality in critically ill patients. Patients with ARDS generally require mechanical ventilation, which is another important factor that may increase the ALI (acute lung injury) by a series of pathophysiological mechanisms, whose common element is the initial volutrauma in the alveolar units, and forming part of an entity known clinically as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Injured lungs can be partially protected by optimal settings and ventilation modes, using low tidal volume (VT) values and high positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). The benefits in ARDS outcomes caused by these interventions have been con?rmed by several prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and are attributed to reduction in volutrauma. The purpose of this article is to present an approach to VILI pathophysiology focused on the effects of volutrauma that lead to lung injury and the ‘mechanotransduction’ mechanism. A more complete understanding about the molecular effects that physical forces could have, is essential for a better assessment of existing strategies as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies to reduce the damage resulting from VILI, and thereby contribute to reducing mortality in ARDS. PMID:26312103

  3. Role of transcriptional factor Nrf2 in the acute lung injury of mice

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Minghao; Mao, Jing; Luo, Bijun; Qin, Zonghao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the expression and role of Nrf2 in the acute lung injury (ALI) of mice. Methods: A total of 60 BABL/c mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: ALI group and control group. In ALI group, ALI was introduced by injection of LPS. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect Nrf2 expression in the lung; Western blot assay was employed to detect the expression of Nrf2 in the lung homogenate; ELISA was conducted to detect the expression of Nrf2 in the lung homogenate and BALF. Results: As compared to control group, ALI mice had a high Nrf2 expression in the lung as shown in immunohistochemistry, and the Nrf2 expression in the lung homogenate and BALF also increased markedly (P<0.05). Conclusion: The Nrf2 expression increases in the lung and BALF of ALI mice, suggesting that Nrf2 is involved in the inflammation during ALI and may serve as a new target in the therapy of ALI. PMID:26617809

  4. Natural Antioxidant Betanin Protects Rats from Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Deshun; Zhang, Miao; Yang, Xuelian; Tan, Dehong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of betanin on a rat paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model was investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 20?mg/kg body weight, and betanin (25 and 100?mg/kg/d) was orally administered 3 days before and 2 days after paraquat administration. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last betanin dosage, and lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. In rats treated only with paraquat, extensive lung injury characteristic of ALI was observed, including histological changes, elevation of lung?:?body weight ratio, increased lung permeability, increased lung neutrophilia infiltration, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced claudin-4 and zonula occluden-1 protein levels, increased BALF interleukin (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels, reduced BALF IL-10 levels, and increased lung nuclear factor kappa (NF-?B) activity. In rats treated with betanin, paraquat-induced ALI was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that betanin attenuates paraquat-induced ALI possibly via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, the potential for using betanin as an auxilliary therapy for ALI should be explored further. PMID:25861636

  5. Granulomatous lung disease in a patient with a family history of hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Maria; Van de Loosdrecht, Arjen; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton

    2015-01-01

    A 29-year old patient presented with granulomatous lung disease and a family history of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia. She appeared to be a carrier of a mutation in the transcription factor GATA2. The case adds to the recent described heterogeneous clinical manifestations and syndromes in which, against a background of hematologic disorders, GATA2 mutations have been demonstrated, such as the Monomac and Emberger syndromes. In patients with a granulomatous disease and a history of (familial) hematologic disorders, the occurence of GATA2 mutations should be considered, as to gain further insight in the occurrence of granulomatous disease in a possible distinct phenotype among GATA2 mutation carriers. PMID:25591147

  6. Aerosolised surfactant generated by a novel noninvasive apparatus reduced acute lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu; Yang, Rui; Zhong, Ji-gen; Fang, Feng; Jiang, Jin-jin; Liu, Ming-yao; Lu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Exogenous surfactant has been explored as a potential therapy for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the present study, a nebuliser driven by oxygen lines found in the hospital was developed to deliver aerosolised porcine pulmonary surfactant (PPS). We hypothesised that aerosolised surfactant inhaled through spontaneous breathing may effectively reduce severe lung injury. Methods Rats were intravenously injected with oleic acid (OA) to induce ALI and 30 minutes later they were divided into five groups: model (injury only), PPS aerosol (PPS-aer), saline aerosol (saline-aer), PPS instillation (PPS-inst), and saline instillation (Saline-Inst). Blood gases, lung histology, and protein and TNF-? concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were examined. Results The PPS aerosol particles were less than 2.0 ?m in size as determined by a laser aerosol particle counter. Treatment of animals with a PPS aerosol significantly increased the phospholipid content in the BALF, improved lung function, reduced pulmonary oedema, decreased total protein and TNF-? concentrations in BALF, ameliorated lung injury and improved animal survival. These therapeutic effects are similar to those seen in the PPS-inst group. Conclusions This new method of PPS aerosolisation combines the therapeutic effects of a surfactant with partial oxygen inhalation under spontaneous breathing. It is an effective, simple and safe method of administering an exogenous surfactant. PMID:19257907

  7. Mechanisms of Indirect Acute Lung Injury: A Novel Role for the Co-Inhibitory Receptor, Programmed Death-1 (PD-1)

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Sean F.; Thakkar, Rajan K.; Heffernan, Daithi S.; Huang, Xin; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Lomas-Neira, Joanne; Cioffi, William G.; Ayala, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the contribution of PD-1 in the morbidity and mortality associated with the development of indirect-acute lung injury Summary Background Data The immune cell interaction(s) leading to indirect-acute lung injury are not completely understood. In this respect, while we have recently shown that the murine cell surface co-inhibitory receptor, Programmed Cell death receptor (PD)-1, has a role in septic morbidity/mortality that is mediated in part through the effects on the innate immune arm. However, it is not know if PD-1 has a role in the development of indirect-acute lung injury and how this may be mediated at a cellular level. Methods PD-1 ?/? mice were used in a murine model of indirect-acute lung injury (hemorrhagic shock followed 24 h after with cecal ligation & puncture-septic challenge) and compared to wild type controls. Groups were initially compared for survival and subsequently for markers of pulmonary inflammation, influx of lymphocytes and neutrophils, and expression of PD-1 and its ligand, PD-L1. In addition, peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with indirect-acute lung injury were examined to assess changes in cellular PD-1 expression relative to mortality. Results PD-1 ?/? mice showed improved survival compared to wild type controls. In the mouse lung, CD4+, CD11c+ and Gr-1+ cells showed increased PD-1 expression in response to indirect-acute lung injury. However, while the rise in BAL fluid protein concentrations, lung IL-6, and lung MCP-1 were similar between PD-1 ?/? and wild type animals subjected to indirect acute lung injury, the PD-1 ?/? animals that were subjected to shock/septic challenge had reduced CD4:CD8 ratios, TNF-? levels, MPO activity, and caspase 3 levels in the lung. Comparatively, we observed that humans, who survived their acute lung injury, had significantly lower expression of PD-1 on T cells. Conclusions PD-1 expression contributes to mortality following the induction of indirect-acute lung injury and this appears to be associated with modifications in the cellular and cytokine profiles in the lung. PMID:21997806

  8. PPAR?: A Novel Molecular Target in Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hart, C. Michael; Roman, Jesse; Reddy, Raju; Sime, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) has steadily increased over the past 15 years. The recognition that subclasses of this receptor played critical roles in regulation of metabolism led to the development of synthetic ligands and their widespread application in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. At the same time, emerging evidence demonstrated that the influence of PPARs extends well beyond metabolism and diabetes. A salient example of this can be seen in studies that explore the role of PPARs in lung cell biology. In fact, current literature suggests that PPAR receptors may well represent exciting new targets for treatment in a variety of lung disorders. In an attempt to keep the scientific and medical communities abreast of these developments, a symposium sponsored by the American Federation for Medical Research entitled “PPAR?: A Novel Molecular Target in Lung Disease” was convened on April 29, 2007, at the Experimental Biology Meeting in Washington, DC. During that symposium, 4 speakers reviewed the latest developments in basic and translational research as they relate to specific lung diseases. Jesse Roman, MD, professor and director of the Emory University Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, reviewed the role of PPAR? in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and its implications for therapy. Raju Reddy, MD, assistant professor of Medicine at the University of Michigan, presented data regarding the immunomodula-tory role of PPAR? in alveolar macrophages. Patricia J. Sime, MD, associate professor of Medicine, Environmental Medicine, and Oncology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine, discussed the antifibrogenic potential of PPAR? ligands in pulmonary fibrosis. Finally, C. Michael Hart, MD, professor of Medicine at Emory University and chief of the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center Pulmonary Section, reviewed the role of PPAR? in pulmonary vascular disease. This brief introduction to the symposium will provide background information about PPARs to facilitate the general reader's appreciation of the more in-depth and disease-specific discussions that follow. PMID:18317433

  9. The role of oxygen free radicals in occupational and environmental lung diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Vallyathan, V; Shi, X

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals and their metabolites, collectively described as reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The pulmonary system is particularly vulnerable to ROS-induced injury because of its continuous exposure to toxic pollutants from a wide variety of sources in the ambient air. Additionally, lungs are exposed systemically to ROS generated from xenobiotic compounds and endogenous sources. This review describes the sources of endogenous and exogenous ROS generation in the lung. Special emphasis is given to major sources of ROS in occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos, crystalline silica, coal, chromium, herbicides, bleomycin, and cigarette smoke. ROS-induced lung injury at different target levels may contribute to similar patterns of cell injury and alterations at the molecular level by initiation, propagation, and autocatalytic chain reactions. Intracellular signalling, activation and inactivation of enzymes, stimulation, secretion, and release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nuclear factor activation and alterations are also common events. Understanding the interactions of these intricate mechanistic events is important in the prevention and amelioration of lung injury that results from acute and chronic exposures to toxins in ambient air. PMID:9114285

  10. The future of surfactant therapy for patients with acute lung injury - new requirements and new surfactants.

    PubMed

    Spragg, Roger G

    2002-01-01

    New requirements must be considered when designing trials of new lung surfactants for patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Radiographic inclusion criteria must be carefully applied if they are to generate reproducible patient groups. Strategies for ventilation are now known to significantly affect outcome and also must be clearly defined and applied. Similar mortality rates in patients with different degrees of gas exchange and radiographic abnormalities suggest that prior clinical distinctions should be re-examined. Current trials of surfactant therapy for ALI are examining the efficacy of a natural surfactant, a surfactant containing recombinant SP-C and a surfactant based on an SP-B-like peptide. PMID:12011562

  11. Cytokine levels in pleural fluid as markers of acute rejection after lung transplantation*

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Priscila Cilene León Bueno; Afonso, José Eduardo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Acencio, Milena Marques Pagliarelli; Antonangelo, Leila; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF, as well as the total and differential cell counts, in the pleural fluid of lung transplant recipients, correlating those levels with the occurrence and severity of rejection. We analyzed pleural fluid samples collected from 18 patients at various time points (up to postoperative day 4). The levels of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF tended to elevate in parallel with increases in the severity of rejection. Our results suggest that these levels are markers of acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients. PMID:25210966

  12. Processing of CT images for analysis of diffuse lung disease in the lung tissue research consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian; Zavaletta, Vanessa A.; Holmes, David; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-03-01

    The goal of Lung Tissue Resource Consortium (LTRC) is to improve the management of diffuse lung diseases through a better understanding of the biology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) including Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). Participants are subjected to a battery of tests including tissue biopsies, physiologic testing, clinical history reporting, and CT scanning of the chest. The LTRC is a repository from which investigators can request tissue specimens and test results as well as semi-quantitative radiology reports, pathology reports, and automated quantitative image analysis results from the CT scan data performed by the LTRC core laboratories. The LTRC Radiology Core Laboratory (RCL), in conjunction with the Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR), has developed novel processing methods for comprehensive characterization of pulmonary processes on volumetric high-resolution CT scans to quantify how these diseases manifest in radiographic images. Specifically, the RCL has implemented a semi-automated method for segmenting the anatomical regions of the lungs and airways. In these anatomic regions, automated quantification of pathologic features of disease including emphysema volumes and tissue classification are performed using both threshold techniques and advanced texture measures to determine the extent and location of emphysema, ground glass opacities, "honeycombing" (HC) and "irregular linear" or "reticular" pulmonary infiltrates and normal lung. Wall thickness measurements of the trachea, and its branches to the 3 rd and limited 4 th order are also computed. The methods for processing, segmentation and quantification are described. The results are reviewed and verified by an expert radiologist following processing and stored in the public LTRC database for use by pulmonary researchers. To date, over 1200 CT scans have been processed by the RCL and the LTRC project is on target for recruitment of the 2200 patients with 1800 CT scans in the repository for the 5-year effort. Ongoing analysis of the results in the LTRC database by the LTRC participating institutions and outside investigators are underway to look at the clinical and physiological significance of the imaging features of these diseases and correlate these findings with quality of life and other important prognostic indicators of severity. In the future, the quantitative measures of disease may have greater utility by showing correlation with prognosis, disease severity and other physiological parameters. These imaging features may provide non-invasive alternative endpoints or surrogate markers to alleviate the need for tissue biopsy or provide an accurate means to monitor rate of disease progression or response to therapy.

  13. Lung function in infants and young children with chronic lung disease of infancy: the next steps?

    PubMed

    Stocks, Janet; Coates, Allan; Bush, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Over the past year, a series of papers have reviewed the literature concerning assessment and interpretation of lung function in infants and young children with chronic lung disease of infancy. This manuscript, which represents the final paper in that series, summarizes the findings to date and highlights key areas for future research. Despite the huge literature in this field, interpretation of results and their use in guiding clinical management are still limited by difficulties in 'normalizing data' according to body size and maturation and selection of appropriate control groups. Furthermore, sensitive tests that more closely reflect the underlying pathophysiology of 'new' bronchopulmonary dysplasia, together with simple and reliable methods of assessing lung maturity at birth and true oxygen requirements at specified time points are urgently required. Research in this field is also challenged by the need to separate the independent effects of genetic predisposition, gene-environment interactions, preterm delivery, neonatal respiratory disorders and various treatment strategies on the growing lung. The extent to which disruption of lung growth following premature exposure to the extra-uterine environment leads to an earlier or more aggravated decline in respiratory function in later adult life remains to be elucidated. Whatever its origin, given the increasing survival of smaller and more immature infants, the long term sequelae of neonatal lung disease, are likely to continue to change, requiring ongoing, carefully designed longitudinal studies. Future research strategies need to encompass a multicenter, multi-disciplinary, collaborative approach with closer links between clinicians and basic scientists, to ensure that the most relevant research questions are addressed using appropriate methodology and that findings are implemented into clinical practice in a more timely fashion. PMID:17123320

  14. Protective effect of cryptotanshinone on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Chen, Yulong; Chu, Zhe; Yan, Bo; Xu, Lijun

    2014-01-15

    Crytotanshinone (CTN), one of the main constituents of tanshinones, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of CTN on murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Male BALB/c mice were pretreated with dexamethasone or CTN 1h before intranasal instillation of LPS. Seven hours after LPS administration, the myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung tissues, lung wet/dry weight ratio and inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The effects of CTN on pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. The results showed that CTN significantly inhibited LPS induced increases of macrophages and neutrophils infiltration of lung tissues, as well as markedly attenuated MPO activity. Furthermore, CTN significantly reduced the wet/dry weight ratio of lungs and the concentrations of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? in BALF. Compared with LPS group, lung histopathologic changes were less pronounced in the CTN pretreated mice. Additionally, western blotting showed that CTN efficiently inhibited the phosphorylation of I?B-?, p65 NF-?B and the expression of TLR4. Taken together, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CTN against LPS-induced acute lung injury may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4 mediated NF-?B signaling pathways. CTN may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for ALI treatment. PMID:24161915

  15. Corticosteroids found ineffective for phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sa; Pauluhn, Jürgen; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen

    2014-08-17

    Various therapeutic regimes have been proposed with limited success for treatment of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (P-ALI). Corticoids were shown to be efficacious against chlorine-induced lung injury but there is still controversy whether this applies also to P-ALI. This study investigates whether different regimen of curatively administered budesonide (BUD, 10 mg/kg bw, i.p. bid; 100 mg/m(3)×30 min, nose-only inhalation), mometasone (MOM, 3 mg/kg bw, i.p. bid) and dexamethasone (DEX, 10, 30 mg/kg bw, i.p. bid), show efficacy to alleviate P-ALI. Efficacy of drugs was judged by nitric oxide (eNO) and carbon dioxide (eCO2) in exhaled air and whether these non-invasive biomarkers are suitable to assess the degree of airway injury (chlorine) relative to alveolar injury (phosgene). P-ALI related analyses included lung function (enhanced pause, Penh), morbidity, increased lung weights, and protein in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) one day postexposure. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of P-ALI was indicated by increased Penh lasting for approximately 20 h postexposure. Following the administration of BUD, this increase could be suppressed; however, without significant improvement in survival and lung edema (increased lung weights and BALF-protein). Collectively, protocols shown to be efficacious for chlorine (Chen et al., 2013) were ineffective and even increased adversity in the P-ALI model. This outcome warrants further study to seek for early biomarkers suitable to differentiate chlorine- and phosgene-induced acute lung injury at yet asymptomatic stage. The patterns of eNO and eCO2 observed following exposure to chlorine and phosgene may be suitable to guide the specialized clinical interventions required for each type of ALI. PMID:24910984

  16. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul ; Lee, Seung-Hae; Youn, Young-So; Choi, Ji-Yeon; Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul ; Song, Keung-Sub; Cho, Min-Sun; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2012-08-15

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ?Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ?Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ?TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Patients with Acute Lyme Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Robert P.; Pasternack, Mark S.; Elias, Susan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Gilmore, Edward C.; McCarthy, Carol; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-10-05

    Acute Lyme disease results from transmission of and infection by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi following a tick bite. During acute infection, bacteria can disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to the development of Lyme meningitis. Here we have analyzed pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) allowing for a deep view into the proteome for a cohort of patients with early-disseminated Lyme disease and CSF inflammation leading to the identification of proteins that reflect host responses, which are distinct for subjects with acute Lyme disease. Additionally, we analyzed individual patient samples and quantified changes in protein abundance employing label-free quantitative mass spectrometry based methods. The measured changes in protein abundances reflect the impact of acute Lyme disease on the CNS as presented in CSF. We have identified 89 proteins that differ significantly in abundance in patients with acute Lyme disease. A number of the differentially abundant proteins have been found to be localized to brain synapse and thus constitute important leads for better understanding of the neurological consequence of disseminated Lyme disease.

  18. Detection of acute inhalation injury in fire victims by means of technetium-99m DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lin, W Y; Kao, C H; Wang, S J

    1997-02-01

    Mortality and morbidity in fire victims are largely a function of injury due to heat and smoke. While the degree and area of burn together constitute a reliable numerical measure of cutaneous injury due to heat, as yet no satisfactory measure of inhalation injury has been developed. In this study, we employed technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) radioaerosol lung scintigraphy (inhalation scan) to evaluate acute inhalation injury in fire victims. Ten normal controls and 17 survivors from a fire accident were enrolled in the study. All patients suffered from respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea and/or cough with sputum). 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy was performed in all subjects, using a commercial lung aerosol delivery unit. The degree of lung damage was presented as the clearance rate (k; %/min) calculated from the time-activity curve over the right lungs. In addition, the distribution pattern of the radioactivity in the lungs was evaluated and classified into two groups: homogeneous distribution and inhomogeneous distribution. A plain chest radiograph (CxR) and pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed in the same group of patients. The results showed that 6/17 (35.3%) patients had inhomogeneous distribution of radioactivity in their inhalation scans, and 11/17 (64.7%) had homogeneous scans. Five of the six patients with inhomogeneous scans were admitted for further management, and all patients with homogeneous scans were discharged from the emergency department and needed no further intensive care. The clearance rates of the right lung were 0.73%+/-0.13%/min for normal controls and 1.54%+/-0.58%/min for fire victims. The difference was significant, with a P value of less than 0.01. Using a cut-off value of 0.9%/min (all normal subjects were below 0. 9%/min), 14 (82.4%) patients had abnormal clearance rates of 99mTc-DTPA from the lung. In contrast, only three (17.6%) patients had abnormal CxR and three (17.6%) had abnormal PFTs. We conclude that (1) conventional CxR and PFT are not good modalities for evaluating inhalation injury in fire victims because of their low sensitivity, and (2) 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol inhalation scintigraphy can provide an objective evaluation of inhalation injury during a fire accident and may be useful in therapeutic decision-making and disease monitoring. PMID:9021108

  19. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for acute lung injury and infection-peripheral blood monocyte depletion and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy 

    E-print Network

    Dhaliwal, Kanwaldeep

    2013-07-06

    BACKGROUND Acute lung injury (ALI) and nosocomial pneumonia are major causes of morbidity and mortality. There are 200,000 cases per year of ALI in the US with a mortality of 40%. On the intensive care unit (ICU), ALI ...

  20. Segmentation of interstitial lung disease patterns in HRCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Jatindra K.; Madhavi, Vaddepalli; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kumar, Prafulla

    2015-03-01

    Automated segmentation of pathological bearing region is the first step towards the development of lung CAD. Most of the work reported in the literature related to automated analysis of lung tissue aims towards classification of fixed sized block into one of the classes. This block level classification of lung tissues in the image never results in accurate or smooth boundaries between different regions. In this work, effort is taken to investigate the performance of three automated image segmentation algorithms those results in smooth boundaries among lung tissue patterns commonly encountered in HRCT images of the thorax. A public database that consists of HRCT images taken from patients affected with Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs) is used for the evaluation. The algorithms considered are Markov Random Field (MRF), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Mean Shift (MS). 2-fold cross validation approach is followed for the selection of the best parameter value for individual algorithm as well as to evaluate the performance of all the algorithms. Mean shift algorithm is observed as the best performer in terms of Jaccard Index, Modified Hausdorff Distance, accuracy, Dice Similarity Coefficient and execution speed.

  1. Monitoring of Nonsteroidal Immunosuppressive Drugs in Patients With Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Keith C; Nathanson, Ian; Angel, Luis; Bhorade, Sangeeta M; Chan, Kevin M; Culver, Daniel; Harrod, Christopher G; Hayney, Mary S; Highland, Kristen B; Limper, Andrew H; Patrick, Herbert; Strange, Charlie; Whelan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Immunosuppressive pharmacologic agents prescribed to patients with diffuse interstitial and inflammatory lung disease and lung transplant recipients are associated with potential risks for adverse reactions. Strategies for minimizing such risks include administering these drugs according to established, safe protocols; monitoring to detect manifestations of toxicity; and patient education. Hence, an evidence-based guideline for physicians can improve safety and optimize the likelihood of a successful outcome. To maximize the likelihood that these agents will be used safely, the American College of Chest Physicians established a committee to examine the clinical evidence for the administration and monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs (with the exception of corticosteroids) to identify associated toxicities associated with each drug and appropriate protocols for monitoring these agents. Methods: Committee members developed and refined a series of questions about toxicities of immunosuppressives and current approaches to administration and monitoring. A systematic review was carried out by the American College of Chest Physicians. Committee members were supplied with this information and created this evidence-based guideline. Conclusions: It is hoped that these guidelines will improve patient safety when immunosuppressive drugs are given to lung transplant recipients and to patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease. PMID:23131960

  2. ?2-agonist therapy in lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Page, Clive P; Rogliani, Paola; Matera, M Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    ?2-Agonists are effective bronchodilators due primarily to their ability to relax airway smooth muscle (ASM). They exert their effects via their binding to the active site of ?2-adrenoceptors on ASM, which triggers a signaling cascade that results in a number of events, all of which contribute to relaxation of ASM. There are some differences between ?2-agonists. Traditional inhaled short-acting ?2-agonists albuterol, fenoterol, and terbutaline provide rapid as-needed symptom relief and short-term prophylactic protection against bronchoconstriction induced by exercise or other stimuli. The twice-daily ?2-agonists formoterol and salmeterol represent important advances. Their effective bronchodilating properties and long-term improvement in lung function offer considerable clinical benefits to patients. More recently, a newer ?2-agonist (indacaterol) with a longer pharmacodynamic half-life has been discovered, with the hopes of achieving once-daily dosing. In general, ?2-agonists have an acceptable safety profile, although there is still controversy as to whether long-acting ?2-agonists may increase the risk of asthma mortality. In any case, they can induce adverse effects, such as increased heart rate, palpitations, transient decrease in PaO2, and tremor. Desensitization of ?2-adrenoceptors that occurs during the first few days of regular use of ?2-agonist treatment may account for the commonly observed resolution of the majority of these adverse events after the first few doses. Nevertheless, it can also induce tolerance to bronchoprotective effects of ?2-agonists and has the potential to reduce bronchodilator sensitivity to them. Some novel once-daily ?2-agonists (olodaterol, vilanterol, abediterol) are under development, mainly in combination with an inhaled corticosteroid or a long-acting antimuscarinic agent. PMID:23348973

  3. Time profile of oxidative stress and neutrophil activation in ovine acute lung injury and sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Daniel L.; Horvath, Eszter; Hamahata, Atsumori; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D.; Cox, Robert A.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Herndon, David N.; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2015-01-01

    The formation of oxidative stress in the lung and activation of neutrophils are major determinants in the development of respiratory failure following acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis. However, the time changes of these pathogenic factors have not been sufficiently described. Twenty-four chronically instrumented sheep were subjected to cotton smoke inhalation injury and instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa into both lungs. The sheep and were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours postinjury. Additional sheep received sham injury and were euthanized after 24 hours. Pulmonary function was assessed by determination of oxygenation index and pulmonary shunt fraction. In addition, lung tissue was harvested at the respective time points for the measurement of malondialdehyde, interleukin-6 (IL-6), poly(ADP ribose) (PAR), myeloperoxidase, and alveolar polymorphonuclear neutrophil score. The injury induced severe respiratory failure which was associated with an early increase in lipid peroxidation and IL-6 expression. The injury further led to an increase in PAR activity that reached its peak at 12 hours postinjury and declined afterward. In addition, progressive increases in markers of neutrophil accumulation in the lung were observed. The peak of neutrophil accumulation in the lung was associated with a severe depletion of circulating neutrophils. The results from our model may enhance the understanding of the pathophysiological alterations following ALI and sepsis and thus be useful in exploring therapeutic interventions directed at modifying the expression or activation of inflammatory mediators. PMID:22266977

  4. Inhalation of glycopyrronium inhibits cigarette smoke-induced acute lung inflammation in a murine model of COPD.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang-liang; Liu, Ya-nan; Shen, Hui-juan; Wen, Chong; Jia, Yong-liang; Dong, Xin-wei; Jin, Fang; Chen, Xiao-ping; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-min

    2014-02-01

    Glycopyrronium bromide (GB) is a muscarinic receptor antagonist that has been used as a long-acting bronchodilator in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of inhaled GB in a cigarette smoke-induced acute lung inflammation mouse model. We found that aerosol pre-treatment with GB suppresses the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice. GB at doses of 300 and 600 ?g/ml significantly inhibited the CS-induced increases in the mRNA and protein expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 in lung tissues and the BALF. Moreover, GB at a dose of 600 ?g/ml significantly inhibited the CS-induced changes in glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities in the BALF, decreased the CS-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9, and increased the CS-induced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, as determined through the immunohistochemical staining of lung tissue. Our results demonstrate the beneficial effects of inhaled GB on the inflammatory reaction in COPD. PMID:24389380

  5. Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease in a patient with previous pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hongfei, Duan; Xuerui, Huang; Jing, Wang; Naihui, Chu

    2012-07-01

    Patients with pre-existing lung damage, such as due to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), are susceptible to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. For patients with previous PTB, it is difficult to differentiate NTM lung disease from PTB, especially in tuberculosis (TB) high-burdened countries. Here, we report a case of Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease with a previous history of PTB. The patient underwent a right upper lobe lobectomy due to disappointing treatment response with anti-tuberculosis therapy. However, the disease worsened after the surgery. Five years later, she was diagnosed with M. abscessus lung disease. Successive computed tomography (CT) scans showed the progressing features of M. abscessus lung disease. This patient had multiple micronodules adjacent to the pleura with a positive culture for NTM. Bilateral bronchiectasis without lobar predominance are valuable features for distinguishing M. abscessus lung disease from other mycobacterial lung disease. PMID:23077819

  6. Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease leading to acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manmeet

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the most serious and catastrophic of acute cardiac disorders, accounting for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year worldwide. Although the incidence of AMI has been decreasing in the US according to the American Heart Association, heart disease is still the leading cause of mortality in adults. In most cases of AMI and in a majority of cases of SCD, the underlying pathology is acute intraluminal coronary thrombus formation within an epicardial coronary artery leading to total or near-total acute coronary occlusion. This article summarizes our current understanding of the pathophysiology of these acute coronary syndromes and briefly discusses new approaches currently being researched in an attempt to define and ultimately reduce their incidence. PMID:25705391

  7. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chaoyun; Huang, Qingxian; Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai; Bai, Xianyong

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO{sub 2}/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22{sup phox} levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may enhance Cytokine release, increase NADPH oxidase activation and reduce activities of antioxidant enzymes. • Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) up regulate cAMP/PKA signal pathway in lung tissue induced by OA. • HSYA attenuate OA mediated lung injury via reducing inflammatory cytokine release and improving antioxidant capacity.

  8. A lipid mediator controls neutrophil recruitment in acute lung injury - should we really be surprised?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    New therapeutic approaches are sorely needed for acute lung injury. Neutrophil recruitment is a pathological hallmark of this syndrome, and is mainly regulated by CXC chemokine receptor 2 and its ligand CXC ligand 1. Rossaint and colleagues have described a new mechanism for regulation of this axis by 12/15-lipoxygenase products. This work opens the door for new therapeutic approaches and highlights the crucial interplay between lipid mediators and chemokines, a time-honored but often-ignored concept. PMID:23102473

  9. Pattern of chronic lung lesions in adults with sickle cell disease in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    O. Dosunmu, Adedoyin; A. Akinola, Rachael; A. Onakoya, Josephine; M. Balogunt, Taiwo; O. Adeyeye, Olufunke; A. Akinbami, Akinsegun; M. Arogundade, Olanrewaju; T Brodie-Mends, Ayodeji

    2013-01-01

    Background: The vascular response to recurrent tissue hypoxia and reperfusion following red blood cell sickling causes acute chest syndrome and chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of chronic lung lesions and possible risk factors in sickle cell patients in lagos, Nigeria. Methods: From July 2012 to April 2013, Pulmonary function test (PFT) and chest-x-ray were determined in 56 eligible patients with sickle cell disease. Full blood count, red cell indices, hemoglobin F level, oxygen saturation, liver function tests, lactate dehydrogenase and tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity were measured. Results: The mean age of the patients was 22±6 years. The mean forced vital capacity was low (76.49%±16). Abnormal PFTs were restrictive lung lesion (53%), obstructive lesions (3.7%) and mixed lesions (11%). The vital capacity had negative correlation with the white cell count and platelet count while it had positive correlation with age. There were no significant differences when normal and abnormal PFTs were compared based on the following laboratory data: lactate dehydrogenase (244 vs. 301), hematocrit (22.7 vs. 23.6), fetal hemoglobin (6.2% vs. 4.2%), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (33.7 vs 33.3), aspartate transferase (34.2 vs. 35.1), tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (1.3 vs. 0.92) and oxygen saturation (95.8 vs. 95.5). Abnormal x-ray findings were present in 84% of participants. Chest x ray showed ischemic (17%), congestive (69%), fibrotic and inflammatory (14%) changes. Conclusion: Chronic lung lesion is common in sickle cell disease associated with rising white cell count, platelet count. All adult patients should have regular spirometry done to ensure early detection. PMID:24294468

  10. Acute pulmonary exacerbation and lung function decline in patients with cystic fibrosis: high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) between inflammation and infection.

    PubMed

    Chirico, V; Lacquaniti, A; Leonardi, S; Grasso, L; Rotolo, N; Romano, C; Di Dio, G; Lionetti, E; David, A; Arrigo, T; Salpietro, C; La Rosa, M

    2015-04-01

    Airway inflammation plays a central role in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, and biomarkers of inflammation, such as high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) could be used to monitor disease activity. The main aim of this study was to confirm the role of HMGB1 in CF patients, correlating its serum and sputum levels with pulmonary function and inflammation. Serum and sputum HMGB1 were evaluated in a cohort of 31 CF patients and 30 non-smoking healthy subjects (HS group). Acute pulmonary exacerbation events and lung function decline have been also evaluated during a 3-year follow-up period. Serum HMGB1 levels were significantly higher than those measured in HS, such as sputum HMGB1. Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that patients with high HMGB1 values experienced a significantly faster evolution to decline of lung function. A multiple Cox regression analysis assessed that an increase of serum HMGB1 was associated with 5% increased risk of pulmonary disease progression, whereas elevated sputum HMGB1 was related to a 10% increased risk of lung function decline. In CF patients, HMGB1 closely reflects the entity of pulmonary impairment and represents a strong and independent risk marker for progression of lung function decline. PMID:25658530

  11. Citral inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by activating PPAR-?.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yongbin; Sun, Zhanfeng; Guo, Xiaotong

    2015-01-15

    Citral, a component of lemongrass oil, has been reported to have many pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of citral on acute lung injury (ALI) and the molecular mechanisms have not been reported. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of citral on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and investigate the molecular mechanisms. LPS-induced acute lung injury model was used to detect the anti-inflammatory effect of citral in vivo. The alveolar macrophages were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of citral in vitro. The results showed that pretreatment with citral remarkably attenuated pulmonary edema, histological severities, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? production in LPS-induced ALI in vivo. In vitro, citral inhibited LPS-induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? production in alveolar macrophages. LPS-induced NF-?B activation was also inhibited by citral. Furthermore, we found that citral activated PPAR-? and the anti-inflammatory effects of citral can be reversed by PPAR-? antagonist GW9662. In conclusion, this is the first to demonstrate that citral protects LPS-induced ALI in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral is associated with activating PPAR-?, thereby inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response. PMID:25281205

  12. Method Of Treating Silicosis And Other Occupational Lung Diseases

    Cancer.gov

    The inhalation of dust containing crystalline silica particles causes silicosis, an incurable lung disease that progresses even after dust exposure ceases. Over a million US workers are exposed to silica dust annually, and thousands worldwide die each year from silicosis. The pulmonary inflammation caused by silica inhalation is characterized by a cellular infiltrate and the accumulation of chemokines, cytokines, and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

  13. USE OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS TO ASSESS POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG CHANGES IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF CARDIOVASCULAR (CV) DISEASE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of coronary heart disease (e.g., hyperlipidemic rabbits) are being used to investigate epidemiologic associations between higher levels of air pollution and adverse CV consequences. Mechanisms by which pollutant-induced lung or systemic inflammation leads to acute C...

  14. Atractylenolide I protects mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Liang; Huang, Wei-Min; Zeng, Qi-Yi

    2015-10-15

    Atractylenolide I (AO-I), one of the major bioactive components isolated from Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of AO-I on acute lung injury (ALI) using LPS-induced ALI mouse model. Lung injury was assessed by histological study. Inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? production were detected by ELISA. TLR4 expression and NF-?B activation were measured by western blot analysis. The results showed that treatment of AO-I significantly attenuated LPS-induced lung wet-to-dry weight ratio and MPO activity. Meanwhile, treatment of AO-I significantly inhibited the production of TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, IL-13, and MIF production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as neutrophils and macrophages in BALF. AO-1 could up-regulate the production of IL-10 in BALF. Besides, LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-?B activation were suppressed by treatment of AO-I. In conclusion, the current study suggested that AO-I protected mice acute lung injury induced by LPS via inhibition of TLR4 expression and NF-?B activation. PMID:26297303

  15. Effect of methylsulfonylmethane on paraquat-induced acute lung and liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan; Bohlooli, Shahab

    2013-10-01

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a natural organosulfur compound that exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of MSM on paraquat (PQ)-induced acute lung and liver injury in mice. A single dose of PQ (50 mg/kg, i.p.) induced acute lung and liver toxicity. Mice were treated with MSM (500 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 5 days. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized, and lung and liver tissues were collected for histological and biochemical analysis. Tissue samples were used to determine malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels. Blood samples were used to measure plasma alanine transaminase (ALT), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histological examination indicated that MSM decreased lung and liver damage caused by PQ. Biochemical results showed that MSM treatment significantly reduced tissue levels of MDA, MPO, and TNF-?, while increased the levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH compared with PQ group. MSM treatment also significantly reduced plasma levels of ALT, GGT, and ALP. These findings suggest that MSM as a natural product attenuates PQ-induced pulmonary and hepatic oxidative injury. PMID:23595869

  16. Protection of LPS-Induced Murine Acute Lung Injury by Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yutong; Gorshkova, Irina A.; Berdyshev, Evgeny; He, Donghong; Fu, Panfeng; Ma, Wenli; Su, Yanlin; Usatyuk, Peter V.; Pendyala, Srikanth; Oskouian, Babak; Saba, Julie D.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    A defining feature of acute lung injury (ALI) is the increased lung vascular permeability and alveolar flooding, which leads to associated morbidity and mortality. Specific therapies to alleviate the unremitting vascular leak in ALI are not currently clinically available; however, our prior studies indicate a protective role for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in animal models of ALI with reductions in lung edema. As S1P levels are tightly regulated by synthesis and degradation, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of S1P lyase (S1PL), the enzyme that irreversibly degrades S1P via cleavage, could ameliorate ALI. Intratracheal instillation of LPS to mice enhanced S1PL expression, decreased S1P levels in lung tissue, and induced lung inflammation and injury. LPS challenge of wild-type mice receiving 2-acetyl-4(5)-[1(R),2(S),3(R),4-tetrahydroxybutyl]-imidazole to inhibit S1PL or S1PL+/? mice resulted in increased S1P levels in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and reduced lung injury and inflammation. Moreover, down-regulation of S1PL expression by short interfering RNA (siRNA) in primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells increased S1P levels, and attenuated LPS-mediated phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and I-?B, IL-6 secretion, and endothelial barrier disruption via Rac1 activation. These results identify a novel role for intracellularly generated S1P in protection against ALI and suggest S1PL as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21148740

  17. An Adaptive, Knowledge-Driven Medical Image Search Engine for Interactive Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease

    E-print Network

    Chandy, John A.

    An Adaptive, Knowledge-Driven Medical Image Search Engine for Interactive Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Abstract Characterization and quantification of the severity of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD have been obtained on a small test set. Keywords: CT; texture analysis; interstitial lung disease

  18. The Efficacy and Safety of Chemotherapy in Patients With Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu Jie; Chen, Ling Xiao; Han, Mei Xiang; Zhang, Tian Song; Zhou, Zhi Rui; Zhong, Dian Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chemotherapy plays a critical and venturous role against the co-morbidity of nonsmall cell lung cancer and interstitial lung disease (NSCLC–ILD). We performed a Bayesian meta-analysis and systematic review to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the chemotherapy in NSCLC–ILD patients. EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrials.gov (up to January 2015). We included all study designs except case reports, all studies with NSCLC–ILD patients and all the possible chemotherapy regimens. Quality was assessed by a components approach. We derived summary estimates using Bayesian method through WinBUGS (version 1.4.3, MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK). Seven studies involving 251 patients with NSCLC–ILD were included in the meta-analysis. The treatment response (complete remission, 0; [partial remission, 39.1%; 95% credible interval [CrI], 32.6–45.7]; [stable disease, 36%; 95% CrI, 29.6–42.2]; [PD, 15.4%; 95% CrI, 11.3–19.8]; [nonevaluable, 6.4%; 95% CrI, 2.7–10.1]; [overall response rate, 41.3%; 95% CrI, 35.3–47.4]; [disease control rate, 77.7%; 95% CrI, 72.2–82.7]) were comparable to that of patients with NSCLC alone; the survival outcomes (median overall survival, median progression-free survival, and 1-year survival rate) were slightly worse, especially the lower 1-year survival rate. Platinum-based doublets as first-line chemotherapy may be related to higher incidence of acute exacerbation-ILD in first line chemotherapy (AE, 8.47%; 95% CrI, 5.04–12.6). The data selection bias and small patient number make the meta-analysis of treatment response and conclusions generated from these data inaccurate. The present meta-analysis suggests that chemotherapy might be an effective therapy for patients with NSCLC–ILD, but it might be associated with higher incidence of acute exacerbation. PMID:26356699

  19. Applying Biotechnology and Bioengineering to Pediatric Lung Disease: Emerging Paradigms and Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Kelley L.; Yeager, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric lung diseases remain a costly worldwide health burden. For many children with end-stage lung disease, lung transplantation remains the only therapeutic option. Due to the limited number of lungs available for transplantation, alternatives to lung transplant are desperately needed. Recently, major improvements in tissue engineering have resulted in newer technology and methodology to develop viable bioengineered lungs. These include critical advances in lung cell biology, stem cell biology, lung extracellular matrix, microfabrication techniques, and orthotopic transplantation of bioartificial lungs. The goal of this short review is to engage the reader’s interest with regard to these emerging concepts and to stimulate their interest to learn more. We review the existing state of the art of lung tissue engineering, and point to emerging paradigms and platforms in the field. Finally, we summarize the challenges and unmet needs that remain to be overcome. PMID:26106589

  20. Inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its role in cardiovascular disease and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    King, Paul T

    2015-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by lung inflammation that persists after smoking cessation. This inflammation is heterogeneous but the key inflammatory cell types involved are macrophages, neutrophils and T cells. Other lung cells may also produce inflammatory mediators, particularly the epithelial cells. The main inflammatory mediators include tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, reactive oxygen species and proteases. COPD is also associated with systemic inflammation and there is a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (particularly coronary artery disease) and lung cancer in patients with COPD. There is strong associative evidence that the inflammatory cells/mediators in COPD are also relevant to the development of cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. There are a large number of potential inhibitors of inflammation in COPD that may well have beneficial effects for these comorbidities. This is a not well-understood area and there is a requirement for more definitive clinical and mechanistic studies to define the relationship between the inflammatory process of COPD and cardiovascular disease and lung cancer. PMID:26220864

  1. Biomarkers for oxidative stress in acute lung injury induced in rabbits submitted to different strategies of mechanical ventilation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative damage has been said to play an important role in pulmonary injury, which is associated with the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to identify biomarkers to determine the oxidative stress in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) using ...

  2. Suspected Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury Improving following Administration of Tranexamic Acid: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ryniak, Stan; Harbut, Piotr; Östlund, Anders; Jakobsson, Jan G.

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old woman with craniofacial injury developed severe acute respiratory failure under the primary reconstructive surgical procedure requiring several units of blood and plasma. A transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) was suspected and supportive treatment was initiated. Because of the severity of symptoms, acute extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was planned. During preparation for ECMO, a single intravenous dose, 1?g of tranexamic acid, was administered and a remarkable improvement was observed shortly thereafter. The patient was placed on ECMO for 16 hours. The further course was uncomplicated and the patient was discharged from ICU on the 6th day after admission fully and she recovered. A clinical improvement was observed in a timely fashion following the administration of tranexamic acid. The handling of a suspected TRALI and potential benefit from administration of tranexamic acid are discussed in this case report. PMID:24995132

  3. Allergic Airway Inflammation Decreases Lung Bacterial Burden following Acute Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in a Neutrophil- and CCL8-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Dulek, Daniel E.; Newcomb, Dawn C.; Goleniewska, Kasia; Cephus, Jaqueline; Zhou, Weisong; Reiss, Sara; Toki, Shinji; Ye, Fei; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Sherrill, Taylor P.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Moore, Martin L.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Kolls, Jay K.

    2014-01-01

    The Th17 cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, and IL-22 are critical for the lung immune response to a variety of bacterial pathogens, including Klebsiella pneumoniae. Th2 cytokine expression in the airways is a characteristic feature of asthma and allergic airway inflammation. The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 diminish ex vivo and in vivo IL-17A protein expression by Th17 cells. To determine the effect of IL-4 and IL-13 on IL-17-dependent lung immune responses to acute bacterial infection, we developed a combined model in which allergic airway inflammation and lung IL-4 and IL-13 expression were induced by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge prior to acute lung infection with K. pneumoniae. We hypothesized that preexisting allergic airway inflammation decreases lung IL-17A expression and airway neutrophil recruitment in response to acute K. pneumoniae infection and thereby increases the lung K. pneumoniae burden. As hypothesized, we found that allergic airway inflammation decreased the number of K. pneumoniae-induced airway neutrophils and lung IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 expression. Despite the marked reduction in postinfection airway neutrophilia and lung expression of Th17 cytokines, allergic airway inflammation significantly decreased the lung K. pneumoniae burden and postinfection mortality. We showed that the decreased lung K. pneumoniae burden was independent of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17A and partially dependent on IL-13 and STAT6. Additionally, we demonstrated that the decreased lung K. pneumoniae burden associated with allergic airway inflammation was both neutrophil and CCL8 dependent. These findings suggest a novel role for CCL8 in lung antibacterial immunity against K. pneumoniae and suggest new mechanisms of orchestrating lung antibacterial immunity. PMID:24958709

  4. Peripleural lung disease detection based on multi-slice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhiro, M.; Suzuki, H.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2015-03-01

    With the development of multi-slice CT technology, obtaining accurate 3D images of lung field in a short time become possible. To support that, a lot of image processing methods need to be developed. Detection peripleural lung disease is difficult due to its existence out of lung region, because lung extraction is often performed based on threshold processing. The proposed method uses thoracic inner region extracted by inner cavity of bone as well as air region, covers peripleural lung diseased cases such as lung nodule, calcification, pleural effusion and pleural plaque. We applied this method to 50 cases including 39 peripleural lung diseased cases. This method was able to detect 39 peripleural lung disease with 2.9 false positive per case.

  5. Will chronic e-cigarette use cause lung disease?

    PubMed

    Rowell, Temperance R; Tarran, Robert

    2015-12-15

    Chronic tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the lung, tobacco smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, and also causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses both emphysema and chronic bronchitis. E-cigarettes (E-Cigs), or electronic nicotine delivery systems, were developed over a decade ago and are designed to deliver nicotine without combusting tobacco. Although tobacco smoking has declined since the 1950s, E-Cig usage has increased, attracting both former tobacco smokers and never smokers. E-Cig liquids (e-liquids) contain nicotine in a glycerol/propylene glycol vehicle with flavorings, which are vaporized and inhaled. To date, neither E-Cig devices, nor e-liquids, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has proposed a deeming rule, which aims to initiate legislation to regulate E-Cigs, but the timeline to take effect is uncertain. Proponents of E-Cigs say that they are safe and should not be regulated. Opposition is varied, with some opponents proposing that E-Cig usage will introduce a new generation to nicotine addiction, reversing the decline seen with tobacco smoking, or that E-Cigs generally may not be safe and will trigger diseases like tobacco. In this review, we shall discuss what is known about the effects of E-Cigs on the mammalian lung and isolated lung cells in vitro. We hope that collating this data will help illustrate gaps in the knowledge of this burgeoning field, directing researchers toward answering whether or not E-Cigs are capable of causing disease. PMID:26408554

  6. Is bird fancier's lung associated with coeliac disease?

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, D J; Faux, J A; Anand, B; Piris, J; Marshall, R

    1978-01-01

    Precipitin responses to different avian serum antigens occur in bird fancier's lung (BFL) and coeliac disease. Failure to distinguish between them could encourage an erroneous diagnosis of BFL in patients with coeliac disease, and the recent suggestion that these two disorders are strongly associated may be questioned, partly for this reason. In the present study small bowel biopsy specimens were obtained from 12 of a series of 14 patients proved to have BFL by inhalation provocation tests. None was suggestive of coeliac disease. Of a further 61 patients with biopsy-proved coeliac disease, seven were found to be exposed currently and 33 formerly to birds. As a result of clinical evaluation, BFL was considered a possible cause of undue breathlessness reported by three of the current bird fanciers only, and all underwent inhalation provocation tests. One alone gave positive results. We conclude that if a real association does exist between these two disorders, its clinical importance has been greatly exaggerated. PMID:694796

  7. BCG priming enhances endotoxin-induced acute lung injury independent of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, S; Ishizaka, A; Urano, T; Sayama, K; Sakamaki, F; Nakamura, H; Terashima, T; Waki, Y; Soejima, K; Oyamada, Y

    1995-09-01

    Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is known to increase susceptibility to endotoxin in some animal species. We investigated the effect of BCG-priming and the role of neutrophils in the priming process on the pathogenesis of acute lung injury caused by intravenously administered Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS). Guinea pigs were divided into seven groups: (1) control (n = 8), (2) BCG-alone (n = 6), (3) cyclophosphamide (CPA)-alone (n = 6), (4) CPA+LPS (n = 6), (5) LPS-alone (n = 6), (6) BCG+LPS (n = 6), and (7) BCG+CPA+LPS (n = 6). A BCG dose of 8 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously 10 d before the study. CPA was administered intraperitoneally to induce peripheral neutropenia. Animals were observed for 4 h after intravenous administration of 0.2 mg/kg of LPS. The plasma TNF level was measured 2 h after LPS challenge. Lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, [125I] albumin leakage in lung tissue, differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histopathologic features were examined immediately after death. Although the LPS-alone group showed PMN accumulation in lung tissue, neither excess lung water nor increased albumin leakage was induced by this dose of LPS. The BCG+LPS group showed increased lung water, histopathologic edema, and increases in BAL fluid cell counts and plasma TNF in comparison with the LPS-alone group. The BCG+CPA+LPS group also showed enhanced lung injury comparable to that seen in the BCG+LPS group. In both the CPA-alone and the CPA+LPS groups, no parameter was increased as compared with those in the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7663781

  8. HIF1A Reduces Acute Lung Injury by Optimizing Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Alveolar Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Megan; Packard, Thomas; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H.; Mariani, Thomas J.; Kominsky, Douglas J.; Mittelbronn, Michel; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2013-01-01

    Background While acute lung injury (ALI) contributes significantly to critical illness, it resolves spontaneously in many instances. The majority of patients experiencing ALI require mechanical ventilation. Therefore, we hypothesized that mechanical ventilation and concomitant stretch-exposure of pulmonary epithelia could activate endogenous pathways important in lung protection. Methods and Findings To examine transcriptional responses during ALI, we exposed pulmonary epithelia to cyclic mechanical stretch conditions—an in vitro model resembling mechanical ventilation. A genome-wide screen revealed a transcriptional response similar to hypoxia signaling. Surprisingly, we found that stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A) during stretch conditions in vitro or during ventilator-induced ALI in vivo occurs under normoxic conditions. Extension of these findings identified a functional role for stretch-induced inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in mediating normoxic HIF1A stabilization, concomitant increases in glycolytic capacity, and improved tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle function. Pharmacologic studies with HIF activator or inhibitor treatment implicated HIF1A-stabilization in attenuating pulmonary edema and lung inflammation during ALI in vivo. Systematic deletion of HIF1A in the lungs, endothelia, myeloid cells, or pulmonary epithelia linked these findings to alveolar-epithelial HIF1A. In vivo analysis of 13C-glucose metabolites utilizing liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry demonstrated that increases in glycolytic capacity, improvement of mitochondrial respiration, and concomitant attenuation of lung inflammation during ALI were specific for alveolar-epithelial expressed HIF1A. Conclusions These studies reveal a surprising role for HIF1A in lung protection during ALI, where normoxic HIF1A stabilization and HIF-dependent control of alveolar-epithelial glucose metabolism function as an endogenous feedback loop to dampen lung inflammation. PMID:24086109

  9. Acute ozone-induced lung injury in rats: Structural-functional relationships of developing alveolar edema

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.F.; Hammond, M.D.; Montgomery, M.R.; Sharp, J.T.; Farrier, S.E.; Balis, J.U. )

    1992-11-01

    As part of a study on the effects of acute ozone stress on the lung surfactant system, we correlated morphometric, biochemical, and functional indices of lung injury using male rats exposed to 3 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 4, and 8 hr. Evaluation of lung mechanics, using the Pulmonary Evaluation and Diagnostic Laboratory System, revealed a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance (ml/cmH[sub 2]O/kg) from a control value of 0.84 [plus minus] 0.02 (SEM) to 0.72 [plus minus] 0.04 and 0.57 [plus minus] 0.06 at 4 and 8 hr, respectively. At 2 hr there was a transient increase in PaO[sub 2] to 116 torr (control = 92 torr) followed by a decrease at 4 hr (65 torr) and 8 hr (55 torr). Morphometry of lung tissue, fixed by perfusion of fixative via the pulmonary artery at 12 cm H[sub 2]O airway distending pressure, demonstrated an increase in the area of the intravascular compartment at 8 hr, in association with a 65 and 39% replacement of the alveolar area by fluid in ventral and dorsal lung regions, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.966) between alveolar edema and transudated proteins in lavage fluid. A stepwise multiple regression model, with edema as the dependent variable, suggested that pulmonary vasodilatation, hypoxemia, and depletion of surfactant tubular myelin in lavage fluid were indices for predicting alveolar edema. In a second model, with lavage protein concentration as the dependent variable, decreasing dynamic compliance and hypoxemia were predictors of progressive, intraalveolar transudation of plasma proteins. The above structural-functional relationships support the concept that ozone-induced high-protein alveolar edema is pathogenetically linked to pulmonary hyperemia, deficiency of surfactant tubular myelin, and associated lung dysfunctions.

  10. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Nitrogen Mustard-induced Acute Lung Injury, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Vayas, Kinal N.; Cervelli, Jessica A.; Malaviya, Rama; Hall, LeRoy; Massa, Christopher B.; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic alkylating agent that causes damage to the respiratory tract. Evidence suggests that macrophages and inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? contribute to pulmonary injury. Pentoxifylline is a TNF? inhibitor known to suppress inflammation. In these studies, we analyzed the ability of pentoxifylline to mitigate NM-induced lung injury and inflammation. Exposure of male Wistar rats (250 g; 8–10 weeks) to NM (0.125 mg/kg, i.t.) resulted in severe histolopathological changes in the lung within 3 d of exposure, along with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number and protein, indicating inflammation and alveolar-epithelial barrier dysfunction. This was associated with increases in oxidative stress proteins including lipocalin (Lcn)2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in the lung, along with pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic (COX-2+ and MMP-9+), and anti-inflammatory/wound repair (CD163+ and Gal-3+) macrophages. Treatment of rats with pentoxifylline (46.7 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 3 d beginning 15 min after NM significantly reduced NM-induced lung injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress, as measured histologically and by decreases in BAL cell and protein content, and levels of HO-1 and Lcn2. Macrophages expressing COX-2 and MMP-9 also decreased after pentoxifylline, while CD163+ and Gal-3+ macrophages increased. This was correlated with persistent upregulation of markers of wound repair including pro-surfactant protein-C and proliferating nuclear cell antigen by Type II cells. NM-induced lung injury and inflammation were associated with alterations in the elastic properties of the lung, however these were largely unaltered by pentoxifylline. These data suggest that pentoxifylline may be useful in treating acute lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress induced by vesicants. PMID:24886962

  11. THERAPEUTIC ACCESSIBILITY OF CASPASE MEDIATED CELL DEATH AS A KEY PATHOMECHANISM IN INDIRECT ACUTE LUNG INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Mario; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Perl, Ulrike; Thakkar, Rajan; Lomas-Neira, Joanne; Ayala, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    Objective Indirect acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with high morbidity/ mortality. However, the underlying pathophysiology is only marginally understood and so far no pathophysiologic based remedy exists. We hypothesized, that apoptosis of lung epithelial cells is a pathophysiological relevant process in the development of indirect ALI and that it should be accessible to a small interfering (si)RNA based therapeutic intervention in vivo. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. Setting Basic science laboratory of a university affiliated level-1 trauma center. Subjects Male C3H/HeN mice, 8 weeks old, n=121 Interventions First, siRNA sequences to knock down caspase-3 expression at a RNA as well as protein level were evaluated in vitro. Then, C3H/HeN mice were subjected to hemorrhagic shock, following which they received either a caspase-3 siRNA or a control/nonsense siRNA. Subsequently, they were then subjected to polymicrobial sepsis (induced by cecal ligation and puncture). Measurements and Main Results Twelve and 24 hours after sepsis increased lung epithelial apoptosis, as evidenced by active caspase-3 western blotting, caspase-3-, TUNEL- and M30 immunohistochemistry, was observed. Hallmarks of ALI, such as increased concentrations of pulmonary cytokines/chemokines, lung protein leakage, myeloperoxidase activity and altered lung histology, were evident in response to these insults. The single intratracheal instillation of caspase-3 siRNA not only attenuated lung apoptosis and inflammation, but also ameliorated the development of ALI in treated mice. Most interestingly, this experimental therapeutic approach markedly improved 10 day survival of hemorrhaged-septic mice. Conclusions Apoptosis of lung epithelial cells is a relevant pathomechanism in the development of hemorrhage-induced indirect septic ALI, and caspase-3 appears to be a valuable therapeutic target, accessible by siRNA treatment in vivo. PMID:20154604

  12. Nebulized anticoagulants for acute lung injury - a systematic review of preclinical and clinical investigations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Data from interventional trials of systemic anticoagulation for sepsis inconsistently suggest beneficial effects in case of acute lung injury (ALI). Severe systemic bleeding due to anticoagulation may have offset the possible positive effects. Nebulization of anticoagulants may allow for improved local biological availability and as such may improve efficacy in the lungs and lower the risk of systemic bleeding complications. Method We performed a systematic review of preclinical studies and clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of nebulized anticoagulants in the setting of lung injury in animals and ALI in humans. Results The efficacy of nebulized activated protein C, antithrombin, heparin and danaparoid has been tested in diverse animal models of direct (for example, pneumonia-, intra-pulmonary lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and smoke inhalation-induced lung injury) and indirect lung injury (for example, intravenous LPS- and trauma-induced lung injury). Nebulized anticoagulants were found to have the potential to attenuate pulmonary coagulopathy and frequently also inflammation. Notably, nebulized danaparoid and heparin but not activated protein C and antithrombin, were found to have an effect on systemic coagulation. Clinical trials of nebulized anticoagulants are very limited. Nebulized heparin was found to improve survival of patients with smoke inhalation-induced ALI. In a trial of critically ill patients who needed mechanical ventilation for longer than two days, nebulized heparin was associated with a higher number of ventilator-free days. In line with results from preclinical studies, nebulization of heparin was found to have an effect on systemic coagulation, but without causing systemic bleedings. Conclusion Local anticoagulant therapy through nebulization of anticoagulants attenuates pulmonary coagulopathy and frequently also inflammation in preclinical studies of lung injury. Recent human trials suggest nebulized heparin for ALI to be beneficial and safe, but data are very limited. PMID:22546487

  13. A NOVEL WEARABLE PUMP-LUNG DEVICE: IN-VITRO AND ACUTE IN-VIVO STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xufeng; Bianchi, Giacomo; Wong, Philip M.; Biancucci, Brian; Griffith, Bartley P.; Wu, Zhongjun J.

    2011-01-01

    Background To provide long-term ambulatory cardiopulmonary and respiratory support for adult patients, a novel wearable artificial pump-lung device has been developed. The design features, in-vitro and acute in-vivo performance of this device are reported in this paper. Methods This device features a uniquely designed hollow fiber membrane bundle integrated with a magnetically levitated impeller together to form one ultra-compact pump-lung device, which can be placed like current paracorporeal ventricular assist devices to allow ambulatory support. The device is 117 mm in length and 89 mm in diameter and has a priming volume of 115 ml. In-vitro hydrodynamic, gas transfer and biocompatibility experiments were carried out in mock flow loops using ovine blood. Acute in-vivo characterization was conducted in ovine by surgically implanting the device between right atrium and pulmonary artery. Results The in-vitro results showed that the device with a membrane surface area of 0.8 m2 was capable of pumping blood from 1 to 4 L/min against a wide range of pressures and transferring oxygen at a rate of up to 180 ml/min at a blood flow of 3.5 L/min. Standard hemolysis tests demonstrated low hemolysis at the targeted operating condition. The acute in-vivo results also confirmed that the device can provide sufficient oxygen transfer with excellent biocompatibility. Conclusions Base on the in-vitro and acute in-vivo study, this highly integrated wearable pump-lung device can provide efficient respiratory support with good biocompatibility and it is ready for long-term evaluation. PMID:22014451

  14. The Art and Science of Diagnosing and Treating Lung and Heart Disease Secondary to Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David S; Fallon, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Patients with chronic liver disease are at risk of extrahepatic complications related to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, as well as organ-specific complications of certain liver diseases. These complications can compromise quality of life, while also increasing morbidity and mortality before and after liver transplantation. Patients with chronic liver disease are at risk for pulmonary complications of hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary syndrome; the cardiac complication fall under the general concept of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, which can affect systolic and diastolic function, as well as cardiac conduction. In addition, patients with certain diseases are at risk of lung and/or cardiac complications that are specific to the primary disease (ie, emphysema in ?-1-antitrypsin deficiency) or occur with increased incidence in certain conditions (ie, ischemic heart disease associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis). This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, treatment options, and role of transplantation for lung and heart diseases secondary to liver disease, while also highlighting select liver diseases that directly affect the lungs and heart. PMID:25934564

  15. Soyasaponin Ab inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Cheng, Yanwen; Wang, Tao; Tang, Lihua; Sun, Yan; Lu, Xiuyun; Yu, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    Soyasaponin Ab (SA) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effects of SA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of SA on LPS-induced ALI and clarify the possible mechanism. The mice were stimulated with LPS to induce ALI. SA was given 1h after LPS treatment. 12h later, lung tissues were collected to assess pathological changes and edema. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected to assess inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) production. In vitro, mice alveolar macrophages were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of SA. Our results showed that SA attenuated LPS-induced lung pathological changes, edema, the expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissues, as well as TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, and NO production in mice. Meanwhile, SA up-regulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase decreased by LPS in mice. SA also inhibited LPS-induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? production as well as NF-?B activation in alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, SA could activate Liver X Receptor Alpha (LXR?) and knockdown of LXR? by RNAi abrogated the anti-inflammatory effects of SA. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that SA exhibited protective effects against LPS-induced acute lung injury and the possible mechanism was involved in activating LXR?, thereby inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response. PMID:26672918

  16. Depression in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sameer; Cardenas-Garcia, Jose; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Talwar, Arunabh

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lung diseases such as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are chronic diseases that cause significantly high morbidity and mortality. As a result, patients can undergo some psychological changes leading to a poor quality of life and depression. Diagnosis of depression is often obscured because fatigue and apathy, two common symptoms of depression, frequently overlap with PAH and ILD. Healthcare providers are sometimes reluctant to ask or mistakenly believe that these symptoms are part of the ongoing disease process, rather than a serious condition like depression. Screening tools are available for physicians to be well positioned in recognizing clinical depression in PAH and ILD. A MedLine/PubMED search was performed identifying all relevant articles with “PAH”, “ILD”, “screening tools” and/or “Depression” in the title. The aim of this review is to provide a brief description of some of the instruments used to screen patients and classes of psychotropic medications accessible to physicians. While pulmonary rehabilitation programs can have a positive impact on patients, physicians should also utilize cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as part of regular care. PMID:25006558

  17. Genetics of Interstitial Lung Disease: Vol de Nuit (Night Flight)

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Hiroshi; Oka, Shomi; Shimada, Kota; Tsuchiya, Naoyuki; Tohma, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a chronic, progressive fibrotic lung disease with a dismal prognosis. ILD of unknown etiology is referred to as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), which is sporadic in the majority of cases. ILD is frequently accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and other autoimmune diseases, and is referred to as collagen vascular disease-associated ILD (CVD-ILD). Susceptibility to ILD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent advances in radiographic imaging techniques such as high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning as well as high-throughput genomic analyses have provided insights into the genetics of ILD. These studies have repeatedly revealed an association between IIP (sporadic and familial) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter region of the mucin 5B (MUC5B). HLA-DRB1*11 alleles have been reported to correlate with ILD in European patients with SSc, whereas in Japanese patients with RA, the HLA-DR2 serological group was identified. The aim of this review is to describe the genetic background of sporadic IIP, CVD-ILD, drug-induced-ILD (DI-ILD), pneumoconiosis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The genetics of ILD is still in progress. However, this information will enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis of ILD and aid the identification of novel therapeutic targets for personalized medicine in future. PMID:26056507

  18. Acute Chagas Disease: New Global Challenges for an Old Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Daniela V.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. PMID:25077613

  19. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  20. The Lung Tissue Microbiome in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Marc A.; Dimitriu, Pedro A.; Hayashi, Shizu; Elliott, W. Mark; McDonough, John E.; Gosselink, John V.; Cooper, Joel; Sin, Don D.; Mohn, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Based on surface brushings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Hilty and coworkers demonstrated microbiomes in the human lung characteristic of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which have now been confirmed by others. Objectives: To extend these findings to human lung tissue samples. Methods: DNA from lung tissue samples was obtained from nonsmokers (n = 8); smokers without COPD (n = 8); patients with very severe COPD (Global Initiative for COPD [GOLD] 4) (n = 8); and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 8). The latter served as a positive control, with sterile water as a negative control. All bacterial community analyses were based on polymerase chain reaction amplifying 16S rRNA gene fragments. Total bacterial populations were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and bacterial community composition was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and pyrotag sequencing. Measurement and Main Results: Total bacterial populations within lung tissue were small (20–1,252 bacterial cells per 1,000 human cells) but greater in all four sample groups versus the negative control group (P < 0.001). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing distinguished three distinct bacterial community compositions: one common to the nonsmoker and smoker groups, a second to the GOLD 4 group, and the third to the CF-positive control group. Pyrotag sequencing identified greater than 1,400 unique bacterial sequences and showed an increase in the Firmicutes phylum in GOLD 4 patients versus all other groups (P < 0.003) attributable to an increase in the Lactobacillus genus (P < 0.0007). Conclusions: There is a detectable bacterial community within human lung tissue that changes in patients with very severe COPD. PMID:22427533

  1. Interstitial Lung Disease with ANCA-associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The association between interstitial lung disease (ILD) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), particularly microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), has been described in a number of case reports and case series reports in the last 2 decades. In addition, patients with pulmonary fibrosis and ANCA positivity but without other manifestations of systemic vasculitis have also been reported. Pulmonary fibrosis was clinically manifested at the time of diagnosis in the majority of AAV patients that developed this condition. Moreover, ANCA-positive conversion occurs in patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and as a result, other manifestations of systemic vasculitis develop in some of these patients. There is significant predominance of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and MPA in patients with AAV and ILD. Radiological and pathological findings generally demonstrate usual interstitial pneumonia (pattern) in the lungs of these patients. In most studies, AAV patients with ILD have a worse prognosis than those without it. PMID:26448696

  2. Pleural mesothelial cells in pleural and lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Veena B.

    2015-01-01

    During development, the mesoderm maintains a complex relationship with the developing endoderm giving rise to the mature lung. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) derived from the mesoderm play a key role during the development of the lung. The pleural mesothelium differentiates to give rise to the endothelium and smooth muscle cells via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). An aberrant recapitulation of such developmental pathways can play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease processes such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The PMC is the central component of the immune responses of the pleura. When exposed to noxious stimuli, it demonstrates innate immune responses such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns as well as causes the release of several cytokines to activate adaptive immune responses. Development of pleural effusions occurs due to an imbalance in the dynamic interaction between junctional proteins, n-cadherin and ?-catenin, and phosphorylation of adherens junctions between PMCs, which is caused in part by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released by PMCs. PMCs play an important role in defense mechanisms against bacterial and mycobacterial pleural infections, and in pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion, asbestos related pleural disease and malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMCs also play a key role in the resolution of inflammation, which can occur with or without fibrosis. Fibrosis occurs as a result of disordered fibrin turnover and due to the effects of cytokines such as transforming growth factor-?, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor; which are released by PMCs. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for PMCs in the pathogenesis of IPF suggesting their potential as a cellular biomarker of disease activity and as a possible therapeutic target. Pleural-based therapies targeting PMCs for treatment of IPF and other lung diseases need further exploration. PMID:26150910

  3. Current Status of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine in Lung Biology and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Lung diseases remain a significant and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In contrast to many other major diseases, lung diseases notably chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), including both asthma and emphysema, are increasing in prevalence and COPD is expected to become the 3rd leading cause of disease mortality worldwide by 2020. New therapeutic options are desperately needed. A rapidly growing number of investigations of stem cells and cell therapies in lung biology and diseases as well as in ex vivo lung bioengineering have offered exciting new avenues for advancing knowledge of lung biology as well as providing novel potential therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. These initial observations have led to a growing exploration of endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells in clinical trials of pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with other clinical investigations planned. Ex vivo bioengineering of the trachea, larynx, diaphragm, and the lung itself with both biosynthetic constructs as well as decellularized tissues have been utilized to explore engineering both airway and vascular systems of the lung. Lung is thus a ripe organ for a variety of cell therapy and regenerative medicine approaches. Current state-of-the-art progress for each of the above areas will be presented as will discussion of current considerations for cell therapy based clinical trials in lung diseases. PMID:23959715

  4. Heart and lung, a dangerous liaison-Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy and respiratory diseases: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Manfredini, Roberto; Fabbian, Fabio; Giorgi, Alfredo De; Pala, Marco; Menegatti, Alessandra Mallozzi; Parisi, Claudia; Misurati, Elisa; Tiseo, Ruana; Gallerani, Massimo; Salmi, Raffaella; Bossone, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible association between Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC)-a reversible clinical condition mimicking an acute myocardial infarction characterized by multifactorial pathophysiologic mechanisms- and respiratory system diseases. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE medical information sources, to identify the different triggering causes, limiting our search to articles in English. The search keywords were: “tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy”, “takotsubo”, “takotsubo cardiomyopathy”, “broken heart syndrome”, “stress-induced cardiomyopathy”, “apical ballooning syndrome”, and “ampulla cardiomyopathy in combination with respiratory diseases, lung, pulmonary disease. For each kind of disease, we registered: author, year and country of study, patient sex, age, concurring situation, and outcome. RESULTS: Out of a total of 1725 articles found, we selected 37 papers reporting a total of 38 patients. As expected, most patients were women (81.6%), mean age was 65 ± 10 years. Outcome was favorable in 100% of cases, and all the patients have been discharged uneventfully in a few days. CONCLUSION: An association between respiratory diseases and TTC is likely to exist. Patients with severe respiratory diseases, due to the high dosages of ?2-agonists used or to the need of invasive procedures, are highly exposed to the risk of developing TTC. PMID:24944763

  5. Enteral Omega-3 Fatty Acid, ?-Linolenic Acid, and Antioxidant Supplementation in Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Todd W.; Wheeler, Arthur P.; Thompson, B. Taylor; deBoisblanc, Bennett P.; Steingrub, Jay; Rock, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Context The omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, along with ?-linolenic acid and antioxidants, may modulate systemic inflammatory response and improve oxygenation and outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Objective To determine if dietary supplementation of these substances to patients with acute lung injury would increase ventilator-free days to study day 28. Design, Setting, and Participants The OMEGA study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through February 21, 2009. Participants were 272 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. All participants had complete follow-up. Interventions Twice-daily enteral supplementation of n-3 fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, and antioxidants compared with an isocaloric control. Enteral nutrition, directed by a protocol, was delivered separately from the study supplement. Main Outcome Measure Ventilator-free days to study day 28. Results The study was stopped early for futility after 143 and 129 patients were enrolled in the n-3 and control groups. Despite an 8-fold increase in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels, patients receiving the n-3 supplement had fewer ventilator-free days (14.0 vs 17.2; P=.02) (difference, -3.2 [95% CI, -5.8 to -0.7]) and intensive care unit-free days (14.0 vs 16.7; P=.04). Patients in the n-3 group also had fewer nonpulmonary organ failure-free days (12.3 vs 15.5; P=.02). Sixty-day hospital mortality was 26.6% in the n-3 group vs 16.3% in the control group (P=.054), and adjusted 60-day mortality was 25.1% and 17.6% in the n-3 and control groups, respectively (P=.11). Use of the n-3 supplement resulted in more days with diarrhea (29% vs 21%; P=.001). Conclusions Twice-daily enteral supplementation of n-3 fatty acids, ?-linolenic acid, and antioxidants did not improve the primary end point of ventilator-free days or other clinical outcomes in patients with acute lung injury and may be harmful. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00609180 PMID:21976613

  6. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shichao; Cai, Weixia; Yang, Xuekang; Jia, Yanhui; Zheng, Zhao; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun; Li, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Fan, Lei; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by BAY11-7082 attenuated burn-induced ALI, as demonstrated by the concomitant remission of histopathologic changes and the reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissue, and protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In the in vitro experiments, we used AMs (alveolar macrophages) challenged with burn serum to mimic the postburn microenvironment and noted that the serum significantly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The use of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cells exposed to burn serum. These results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an essential role in burn-induced ALI and that burn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a partly ROS-dependent process. Targeting this axis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced ALI. PMID:26576075

  7. Nogo-B protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wujian; Zhu, Ying; Ning, Yunye; Dong, Yuchao; Huang, Haidong; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinying; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Nogo-B, a member of the reticulon 4 protein family, plays a critical role in tissue repair and acute inflammation. Its role in acute lung injury (ALI) remains unclear. Here, we assessed the function of Nogo-B during tissue injury in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mouse model. We found that pulmonary Nogo-B was significantly repressed after LPS instillation in C57BL/6 mice. Over-expression of pulmonary Nogo-B using an adenovirus vector carrying the Nogo-B-RFP-3flag gene (Ad-Nogo-B) significantly prolonged the survival of mice challenged with a lethal dose of LPS. The Ad-Nogo-B-treated mice also had less severe lung injury, less alveolar protein exudation, and a higher number of macrophages but less neutrophil infiltration compared with Ad-RFP-treated mice. Interestingly, microarray analysis showed that the Ad-Nogo-B-treated mice had different gene expression profiles compared with the controls and the prominent expression of genes related to wound healing and the humoral immune response after LPS induction. Of the 49 differently expressed genes, we found that the expression of PTX3 was significantly up-regulated following Nogo-B over-expression as observed in lung tissues and RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, Nogo-B plays a protective role against LPS-induced ALI, and this effect might be exerted through the modulation of alveolar macrophage recruitment and PTX3 production. PMID:26174362

  8. Integrated training in Lung Biology and Diseases Sponsored by the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Integrated training in Lung Biology and Diseases Sponsored by the Division of Pulmonary Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, Emphysema) 3 Pulmonary Infections 4 Lung Cancer 5 Cystic Fibrosis 6 Lung Transplantation 7 Pulmonary Hypertension 8 Pulmonary Embolism 9 Occupational Lung Diseases 10 Airway Allergic

  9. Ketamine effect on HMGB1 and TLR4 expression in rats with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ming-Zhe; Gu, Qiu-Han; Tao, Jun; Song, Xiao-Yang; Gan, Guo-Sheng; Luo, Zhong-Bin; Li, Bi-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common emergency and severe case in clinic. High mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) can be treated as a new anti-inflammatory treatment target. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important receptor of HMGB1. Ketamine is a widely used intravenous anesthetic with good anti-inflammatory and immune regulating function. Whether it can protect ALI through inhibiting HMGB1 and TLR4 expression in lung tissue still needs further investigation. Male SD rats were randomly divided into control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group and ketamine intervention group with 15 rats in each group. The rats were euthanatized at 24 h after modeling and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for HMGB1 and TLR4 level detection. Western Blot was applied to analyze HMGB1 and TLR4 protein expression in the lung tissue. HMGB1 and TLR4 concentration in BALF were 5.369 ± 1.564 ng/ml and 43.980 ± 7.524 pg/ml in the control, respectively. They were 12.358 ± 4.681 ng/ml and 102.538 ± 8.412 pg/ml in LPS group, and 7.399 ± 2.346 ng/ml and 87.208 ± 7.558 pg/ml in ketamine intervention group, respectively. Their levels increased significantly in LPS group and down-regulated after ketamine intervention. HMGB1 and TLR4 protein expression in lung tissue elevated obviously in LPS group, and decreased after ketamine treatment. HMGB1 and TLR4 protein level showed positive correlation in lung tissue (r = 0.921, P < 0.001). Ketamine can inhibit HMGB1 and TLR4 expression in ALI, and alleviate LPS induced rat lung injury. PMID:26722488

  10. Carnosine markedly ameliorates H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tong; Wang, Cunlian; Zhang, Ruihua; Xu, Mingju; Liu, Baojian; Wei, Dong; Wang, Guohua; Tian, Shufei

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress injury is an important pathogenesis of influenza virus in critically ill patients. The present study investigated the efficacy of carnosine, an antioxidant and free radical scavenger, on a model of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by H9N2 swine influenza virus. Female specific-pathogen-free BALB/c mice were randomized into four groups and treated as follows: (1) H9N2 group, (2) mock control group, (3) H9N2+carnosine group and (4) carnosine control group. The H9N2 group mice were inoculated intranasally with A/Swine/Hebei/012/2008/ (H9N2) virus (100??l) in allantoic fluid (AF), whilst mock-infected animals were intranasally inoculated with non-infectious AF. Carnosine [10?mg (kg?body mass)-?1] was administered orally (100??l) for 7 days consecutively. The survival rate, lung water content, TNF-? and IL-1? levels, lung histopathology, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 levels were determined at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14?days after inoculation. Carnosine treatment effectively decreased the mortality (43 versus 75?%, P?lungs and decreased the lung wet/dry mass ratio (P?lungs of infected mice (P?

  11. Expression of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and effects of inhibitor Wortmannin on expression of tumor necrosis factor-? in severe acute pancreatitis associated with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ming; Gong, Yan-jie; Tu, Ling; Li, Jia; Liang, Ying-hong; Zhang, Yi-hua

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common and serious complication of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The study aimed to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor Wortmannin in SAP associated with ALI. METHODS: Ninety rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation (SO) group (n=30), SAP group (n=30), and SAP+Wortmannin (SAP+W) group (n=30). SAP model was induced by retrograde injection of 4% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct of rats. The rate of lung water content, myeloperoxidase (MPO), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), protein kinase B (PKB), abdphosphorylation of protein kinase B (P-PKB) activity in the lung tissue were evaluated. RESULTS: In the SAP group, the p-PKB expression in the lung tissue began to rise at 3 hours after modeling, and peaked at 12 hours (P<0.05); the rate of lung water content, MPO and TNF-? activity were also gradually increased, and the degree of lung lesion gradually increased (P<0.05). In the SAP+Wortmannin group, the p-PKB expression in the lung tissue began to rise at 3 hours after modeling, and peaked at 12 hours; it was higher than that in the SO group (P<0.05), but significantly lower than that in the SAP group (P<0.05). The rest indicators in the SAP+Wortmannin group were also significantly decreased as compared with the SAP group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The expression of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B was elevated in severe pancreatitis rats with lung injury. This suggested that PI3K signal transduction pathway is involved in the control and release of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis associated with lung injury. This finding indicated that Wortmannin can block the PI3K signal transduction pathway, and inhibit the release of inflammatory factor TNF-?.

  12. The Incidence of Non-tuberculous Mycobacterium Lung Disease in Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong Hee; Kim, Yee Hyung; Kang, So Young; Lee, Woo In

    2015-12-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) lung disease is increasing in prevalence. We analyzed the frequency of NTM lung disease among patients who are suspected of tuberculosis. NTM was isolated from about one-fourth of the mycobacterium culture-positive patients and about half of these had NTM lung disease. Therefore, NTM isolates should be routinely identified at the species level for adequate treatment. PMID:26543274

  13. Postnatal Infections and Immunology Affecting Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Pryhuber, Gloria S

    2015-12-01

    Premature infants suffer significant respiratory morbidity during infancy with long-term negative consequences on health, quality of life, and health care costs. Enhanced susceptibility to a variety of infections and inflammation play a large role in early and prolonged lung disease following premature birth, although the mechanisms of susceptibility and immune dysregulation are active areas of research. This article reviews aspects of host-pathogen interactions and immune responses that are altered by preterm birth and that impact chronic respiratory morbidity in these children. PMID:26593074

  14. HSPA12B attenuates acute lung injury during endotoxemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Li, Jingjin; Li, Chuanfu; Li, Yuehua; Zhu, Weina; Zhou, Hongmei; Ding, Zhengnian; Liu, Li

    2015-12-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a critical manifestation of sepsis/septic shock. Heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B), an endothelial cell-expressed heat shock protein, shows a negative regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in myocardium and endothelial cells. However, it is unclear whether HSPA12B exerts protective effects against ALI during sepsis/septic shock. In this study, we treated HSPA12B transgenic mice (Tg) and wild type littermates (WT) with LPS for 6h to induce endotoxemia. LPS treatment significantly caused pulmonary injuries as evidenced by microarchitecture destruction, vascular leakage and neutrophil recruitment in lungs of WT mice. However, the LPS-induced pulmonary injuries were significantly attenuated in Tg mice. Moreover, the LPS-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were inhibited in Tg lungs compared with that in WT mice. Additionally, Tg lungs showed a significant lower level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with WT mice. Our results demonstrate a pulmonary protective effect of HSPA12B against endotoxin challenge, which indicates management of HSPA12B expression could serve as a potential therapeutic target for ALI during sepsis/septic shock. PMID:26428851

  15. Interactive effects of mechanical ventilation, inhaled nitric oxide and oxidative stress in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Carlos Fernando; Ferreira, Ana Lucia Anjos; Campos, Fabio Joly; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Carpi, Mario Ferreira; Moraes, Marcos Aurélio; Bonatto, Rossano Cesar; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Fioretto, Jose Roberto

    2014-01-01

    To compare conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), with/without inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), for oxygenation, inflammation, antioxidant/oxidative stress status, and DNA damage in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). Lung injury was induced by tracheal infusion of warm saline. Rabbits were ventilated at [Formula: see text] 1.0 and randomly assigned to one of five groups. Overall antioxidant defense/oxidative stress was assessed by total antioxidant performance assay, and DNA damage by comet assay. Ventilatory and hemodynamic parameters were recorded every 30min for 4h. ALI groups showed worse oxygenation than controls after lung injury. After 4h of mechanical ventilation, HFOV groups presented significant improvements in oxygenation. HFOV with and without iNO, and CMV with iNO showed significantly increased antioxidant defense and reduced DNA damage than CMV without iNO. Inhaled nitric oxide did not beneficially affect HFOV in relation to antioxidant defense/oxidative stress and pulmonary DNA damage. Overall, lung injury was reduced using HFOV or CMV with iNO. PMID:24148688

  16. Characterization of a murine model of monocrotaline pyrrole-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrascu, Rio; Koebrich, Silke; Dony, Eva; Weissmann, Norbert; Savai, Rajkumar; Pullamsetti, Soni S; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Samidurai, Arun; Traupe, Horst; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Schermuly, Ralph T

    2008-01-01

    Background New animal models of chronic pulmonary hypertension in mice are needed. The injection of monocrotaline is an established model of pulmonary hypertension in rats. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of pulmonary hypertension by injection of the active metabolite, monocrotaline pyrrole. Methods Survival studies, computed tomographic scanning, histology, bronchoalveolar lavage were performed, and arterial blood gases and hemodynamics were measured in animals which received an intravenous injection of different doses of monocrotaline pyrrole. Results Monocrotaline pyrrole induced pulmonary hypertension in Sprague Dawley rats. When injected into mice, monocrotaline pyrrole induced dose-dependant mortality in C57Bl6/N and BALB/c mice (dose range 6–15 mg/kg bodyweight). At a dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight, mice developed a typical early-phase acute lung injury, characterized by lung edema, neutrophil influx, hypoxemia and reduced lung compliance. In the late phase, monocrotaline pyrrole injection resulted in limited lung fibrosis and no obvious pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion Monocrotaline and monocrotaline pyrrole pneumotoxicity substantially differs between the animal species. PMID:19087359

  17. Role of Oxidants in Interstitial Lung Diseases: Pneumoconioses, Constrictive Bronchiolitis, and Chronic Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia

    PubMed Central

    Rom, William N.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidants such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and myeloperoxidase from activated inflammatory cells in the lower respiratory tract contribute to inflammation and injury. Etiologic agents include inorganic particulates such as asbestos, silica, or coal mine dust or mixtures of inorganic dust and combustion materials found in World Trade Center dust and smoke. These etiologic agents are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages or bronchial epithelial cells and release chemotactic factors that recruit inflammatory cells to the lung. Chemotactic factors attract and activate neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes and further activate macrophages to release more oxidants. Inorganic dusts target alveolar macrophages, World Trade Center dust targets bronchial epithelial cells, and eosinophils characterize tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) caused by filarial organisms. The technique of bronchoalveolar lavage in humans has recovered alveolar macrophages (AMs) in dust diseases and eosinophils in TPE that release increased amounts of oxidants in vitro. Interestingly, TPE has massively increased eosinophils in the acute form and after treatment can still have ongoing eosinophilic inflammation. A course of prednisone for one week can reduce the oxidant burden and attendant inflammation and may be a strategy to prevent chronic TPE and interstitial lung disease. PMID:22131646

  18. T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance in acute cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Eitel, Ingo; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using T2-weighted sequences can visualize myocardial edema. When compared to previous protocols, newer pulse sequences with substantially improved image quality have increased its clinical utility. The assessment of myocardial edema provides useful incremental diagnostic and prognostic information in a variety of clinical settings associated with acute myocardial injury. In patients with acute chest pain, T2-weighted CMR is able to identify acute or recent myocardial ischemic injury and has been employed to distinguish acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from non-ACS as well as acute from chronic myocardial infarction.T2-weighted CMR can also be used to determine the area at risk in reperfused and non-reperfused infarction. When combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, the salvaged area and thus the success of early coronary revascularization can be quantified. Strong evidence for the prognostic value of myocardial salvage has enabled its use as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. The present article reviews the current evidence and clinical applications for T2-weighted CMR in acute cardiac disease and gives an outlook on future developments."The principle of all things is water"Thales of Miletus (624 BC - 546 BC). PMID:21332972

  19. The Role of Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ye; Cheng, Qiao; Wu, Depei; Liu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem that plays an important role in host immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that alterations in intestinal microbiota composition are linked to multiple inflammatory diseases in humans, including acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). aGVHD is one of the major obstacles in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), characterized by tissue damage in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, lung, and skin. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of intestinal microbiota in the control of immune responses during aGVHD. Additionally, the possibility of using probiotic strains for potential treatment or prevention of aGVHD will be discussed. PMID:26090477

  20. Involvement of Protein Kinase C-? in Vascular Permeability in Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jong J.; Jung, Jong P.; Park, Soon E.; Lee, Minhyun

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is a major cause of mortality due to acute lung injury (ALI). The involvement of protein kinase C-? (PKC-?) in ALI has been a controversial topic. Here we investigated PKC-? function in ALI using PKC-? knockout (KO) mice and PKC inhibitors. Our results indicated that although the ability to produce proinflammatory mediators in response to LPS injury in PKC-? KO mice was similar to that of control mice, they showed enhanced recruitment of neutrophils to the lung and more severe pulmonary edema. PKC-? inhibition promoted barrier dysfunction in an endothelial cell layer in vitro, and administration of a PKC-?-specific inhibitor significantly increased steady state vascular permeability. A neutrophil transmigration assay indicated that the PKC-? inhibition increased neutrophil transmigration through an endothelial monolayer. This suggests that PKC-? inhibition induces structural changes in endothelial cells, allowing extravasation of proteins and neutrophils. PMID:26330807

  1. Circulating Biomarkers of Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lota, Harpreet K.; Renzoni, Elisabetta A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Although a large proportion of SSc patients have only limited interstitial involvement with an indolent course, in a significant minority ILD is progressive, requiring prompt treatment and careful monitoring. One of the main challenges for the clinician treating this highly variable disease is the early identification of patients at risk of progressive ILD, while avoiding potentially toxic treatments in those whose disease is inherently stable. Easily available and repeatable biomarkers that allow estimation of the risk of ILD progression and early response to treatment are highly desirable. In this paper, we review the evidence for circulating biomarkers with potential roles in diagnosis, monitoring of disease activity, or determining prognosis. Peripheral blood biomarkers offer the advantages of being readily obtained, non-invasive, and serially monitored. Several possible candidates have emerged from studies performed so far, including SP-D, KL-6, and CCL18. Presently however, there are few prospective studies evaluating the predictive ability of prospective biomarkers after adjustment for disease severity. Future carefully designed, prospective studies of well characterised patients with ILD, with optimal definition of disease severity and outcome measures are needed. PMID:22988462

  2. Host Platelets and, in Part, Neutrophils Mediate Lung Accumulation of Transfused UVB-Irradiated Human Platelets in a Mouse Model of Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xuan; Zhi, Li; Gelderman, Monique P.; Vostal, Jaroslav G.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that ultraviolet light B (UVB)-treated human platelets (hPLTs) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) in a two-event SCID mouse model in which the predisposing event was Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection and the second event was infusion of UVB-treated hPLTs. To delineate contributions of host mouse platelets (mPLTs) and neutrophils in the pathogenesis of ALI in this mouse model, we depleted mPLTs or neutrophils and measured hPLT accumulation in the lung. We also assessed lung injury by protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). LPS injection followed by infusion of UVB-treated hPLTs resulted in sequestration of both mPLTs and hPLTs in the lungs of SCID mice, although the numbers of neutrophils in the lung were not significantly different from the control group. Depletion of mouse neutrophils caused only a mild reduction in UVB-hPLTs accumulation in the lungs and a mild reduction in protein content in BALF. In comparison, depletion of mPLTs almost completely abolished hPLTs accumulation in the lung and significantly reduced protein content in BALF. UVB-treated hPLTs bound to host mPLTs, but did not bind to neutrophils in the lung. Aspirin treatment of hPLTs in vitro abolished hPLT accumulation in the lung and protected mice from lung injury. Our data indicate that host mPLTs accumulated in the lungs in response to an inflammatory challenge and subsequently mediated the attachment of transfused UVB-hPLTs. Neutrophils also recruited a small percentage of platelets to the lung. These findings may help develop therapeutic strategies for ALI which could potentially result from transfusion of UV illuminated platelets. PMID:23028636

  3. Glucocorticoids limit acute lung inflammation in concert with inflammatory stimuli by induction of SphK1

    PubMed Central

    Vettorazzi, Sabine; Bode, Constantin; Dejager, Lien; Frappart, Lucien; Shelest, Ekaterina; Klaßen, Carina; Tasdogan, Alpaslan; Reichardt, Holger M.; Libert, Claude; Schneider, Marion; Weih, Falk; Henriette Uhlenhaut, N.; David, Jean-Pierre; Gräler, Markus; Kleiman, Anna; Tuckermann, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe inflammatory disease for which no specific treatment exists. As glucocorticoids have potent immunosuppressive effects, their application in ALI is currently being tested in clinical trials. However, the benefits of this type of regimen remain unclear. Here we identify a mechanism of glucocorticoid action that challenges the long-standing dogma of cytokine repression by the glucocorticoid receptor. Contrarily, synergistic gene induction of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) by glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory stimuli via the glucocorticoid receptor in macrophages increases circulating sphingosine 1-phosphate levels, which proves essential for the inhibition of inflammation. Chemical or genetic inhibition of SphK1 abrogates the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids. Inflammatory p38 MAPK- and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1)-dependent pathways cooperate with glucocorticoids to upregulate SphK1 expression. Our findings support a critical role for SphK1 induction in the suppression of lung inflammation by glucocorticoids, and therefore provide rationales for effective anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:26183376

  4. Methanol extract of Antrodia camphorata protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by suppressing NF-?B and MAPK pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chen, Chin-Chu; Huang, Ching-Jang; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2014-06-11

    Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a herbal medicine for drug intoxication for the treatment of inflammation syndromes and liver-related diseases in Taiwan. This study demonstrates the protective effect of the methanol extract of AC (MAC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were treated with MAC 1 h before the intratracheal (I.T.) instillation of LPS challenge model. Lung injury was evaluated 6 h after LPS induction. Pretreatment with MAC markedly improved LPS-induced histological alterations and edema in lung tissues. Moreover, MAC also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), and IL-6 at 6 h in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during LPS-induced lung injury. Furthermore, MAC reduced total cell number and protein concentrations in the BALF the pulmonary wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in lung tissues. MAC also efficiently blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and inhibited the degradation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and I?B?. This is the first investigation in which MAC inhibited acute lung edema effectively, which may provide a potential target for treating ALI. MAC may utilize the NF-?B and MAPKs pathways and the regulation of SOD activity to attenuate LPS-induced nonspecific pulmonary inflammation. PMID:24849405

  5. Patterns of Lung Volume Use during an Extemporaneous Speech Task in Persons with Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined patterns of lung volume use in speakers with Parkinson disease (PD) during an extemporaneous speaking task. The performance of a control group was also examined. Behaviors described are based on acoustic, kinematic and linguistic measures. Group differences were found in breath group duration, lung volume initiation, and lung

  6. MONITORING LUNG DISEASE USING ELECTRONIC STETHOSCOPE ARRAYS Kyle Mulligan, Andy Adler, and Rafik Goubran

    E-print Network

    Adler, Andy

    MONITORING LUNG DISEASE USING ELECTRONIC STETHOSCOPE ARRAYS Kyle Mulligan, Andy Adler, and Rafik evidence has shown that lung protective ventilation strategies lead to dramatic improvements in patient health by reducing ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) 1 . To protect against VILI, many novel modes

  7. Murine models of acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Enquist, Ida Berglin; Bianco, Christophe Lo; Ooka, Andreas; Nilsson, Eva; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Ehinger, Mats; Richter, Johan; Brady, Roscoe O.; Kirik, Deniz; Karlsson, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the glucosidase, beta, acid (GBA) gene that encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucosylceramidase (GCase). GCase deficiency leads to characteristic visceral pathology and, in some patients, lethal neurological manifestations. Here, we report the generation of mouse models with the severe neuronopathic form of GD. To circumvent the lethal skin phenotype observed in several of the previous GCase-deficient animals, we genetically engineered a mouse model with strong reduction in GCase activity in all tissues except the skin. These mice exhibit rapid motor dysfunction associated with severe neurodegeneration and apoptotic cell death within the brain, reminiscent of neuronopathic GD. In addition, we have created a second mouse model, in which GCase deficiency is restricted to neural and glial cell progenitors and progeny. These mice develop similar pathology as the first mouse model, but with a delayed onset and slower disease progression, which indicates that GCase deficiency within microglial cells that are of hematopoietic origin is not the primary determinant of the CNS pathology. These findings also demonstrate that normal microglial cells cannot rescue this neurodegenerative disease. These mouse models have significant implications for the development of therapy for patients with neuronopathic GD. PMID:17954912

  8. Stem cell conditioned medium improves acute lung injury in mice: in vivo evidence for stem cell paracrine action

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Lavinia; Byrne, Roisin N.; van Haaften, Tim; Vadivel, Arul; Alphonse, Rajesh S.; Rey-Parra, Gloria J.; Weissmann, Gaia; Hall, Adam; Eaton, Farah

    2012-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome remain high because of the lack of pharmacological therapies to prevent injury or promote repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) prevent lung injury in various experimental models, despite a low proportion of donor-derived cell engraftment, suggesting that MSCs exert their beneficial effects via paracrine mechanisms. We hypothesized that soluble factors secreted by MSCs promote the resolution of lung injury in part by modulating alveolar macrophage (AM) function. We tested the therapeutic effect of MSC-derived conditioned medium (CdM) compared with whole MSCs, lung fibroblasts, and fibroblast-CdM. Intratracheal MSCs and MSC-CdM significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung neutrophil influx, lung edema, and lung injury as assessed by an established lung injury score. MSC-CdM increased arginase-1 activity and Ym1 expression in LPS-exposed AMs. In vivo, AMs from LPS-MSC and LPS-MSC CdM lungs had enhanced expression of Ym1 and decreased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase compared with untreated LPS mice. This suggests that MSC-CdM promotes alternative macrophage activation to an M2 “healer” phenotype. Comparative multiplex analysis of MSC- and fibroblast-CdM demonstrated that MSC-CdM contained several factors that may confer therapeutic benefit, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Recombinant IGF-I partially reproduced the lung protective effect of MSC-CdM. In summary, MSCs act through a paracrine activity. MSC-CdM promotes the resolution of LPS-induced lung injury by attenuating lung inflammation and promoting a wound healing/anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype in part via IGF-I. PMID:23023971

  9. Clinical evaluation of sivelestat for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome following surgery for abdominal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboko, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Shinhiro; Mii, Seiji; Nakazato, Keiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Uchida, Eiji; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of sivelestat in the treatment of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) has not been established. In part, this is due to the wide variety of factors involved in the etiology of ALI/ARDS. In this study, we examined the efficacy of sivelestat in patients with ALI/ARDS associated with abdominal sepsis. Methods The subjects were 49 patients with ALI/ARDS after surgery for abdominal sepsis. The efficacy of sivelestat was retrospectively assessed in two treatment groups, ie, a sivelestat group (n = 34) and a non-sivelestat group (n = 15). Results The sivelestat group showed significant improvements in oxygenation, thrombocytopenia, and multiple organ dysfunction score. The number of ventilator days (6.6 ± 6.1 versus 11.1 ± 8.4 days; P = 0.034) and length of stay in the intensive care unit (8.5 ± 6.2 versus 13.3 ± 9.5 days; P = 0.036) were significantly lower in the sivelestat group. The hospital mortality rate decreased by half in the sivelestat group, but was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion Administration of sivelestat to patients with ALI/ARDS following surgery for abdominal sepsis resulted in early improvements of oxygenation and multiple organ dysfunction score, early ventilator weaning, and early discharge from the intensive care unit. PMID:23091371

  10. Detecting Lung Diseases from Exhaled Aerosols: Non-Invasive Lung Diagnosis Using Fractal Analysis and SVM Classification

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Zhao, Weizhong; Yuan, Jiayao Eddie; Kim, JongWon; Si, Xiuhua; Xu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Background Each lung structure exhales a unique pattern of aerosols, which can be used to detect and monitor lung diseases non-invasively. The challenges are accurately interpreting the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and quantitatively correlating them to the lung diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, we presented a paradigm of an exhaled aerosol test that addresses the above two challenges and is promising to detect the site and severity of lung diseases. This paradigm consists of two steps: image feature extraction using sub-regional fractal analysis and data classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Numerical experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the breath test in four asthmatic lung models. A high-fidelity image-CFD approach was employed to compute the exhaled aerosol patterns under different disease conditions. Findings By employing the 10-fold cross-validation method, we achieved 100% classification accuracy among four asthmatic models using an ideal 108-sample dataset and 99.1% accuracy using a more realistic 324-sample dataset. The fractal-SVM classifier has been shown to be robust, highly sensitive to structural variations, and inherently suitable for investigating aerosol-disease correlations. Conclusion For the first time, this study quantitatively linked the exhaled aerosol patterns with their underlying diseases and set the stage for the development of a computer-aided diagnostic system for non-invasive detection of obstructive respiratory diseases. PMID:26422016

  11. Regulatory cells induced by acute toxoplasmosis prevent the development of allergic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Ignacio M; Sanchez, Vanesa R; Soto, Ariadna S; Picchio, Mariano S; Maglioco, Andrea; Corigliano, Mariana G; Dran, Graciela I; Martin, Valentina; Goldman, Alejandra

    2015-05-01

    The increased prevalence of allergies in developed countries has been attributed to a reduction of some infections. Supporting epidemiological studies, we previously showed that both acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection can diminish allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice. The mechanisms involved when sensitization occurs during acute phase would be related to the strong Th1 response induced by the parasite. Here, we further investigated the mechanisms involved in T. gondii allergy protection in mice sensitized during acute T. gondii infection. Adoptive transference assays and ex vivo co-cultures experiments showed that not only thoracic lymph node cells from infected and sensitized mice but also from non-sensitized infected animals diminished both allergic lung inflammation and the proliferation of effector T cells from allergic mice. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells. IL-10 would not be involved in allergy suppression since IL-10-deficient mice behaved similar to wild type mice. Our results extend earlier work and show that, in addition to immune deviation, acute T. gondii infection can suppress allergic airway inflammation through immune suppression. PMID:25532793

  12. Interstitial Lung Disease in Childhood: Clinical and Genetic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Hiroshi; Kure, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in childhood is a heterogeneous group of rare pulmonary conditions presenting chronic respiratory disorders. Many clinical features of ILD still remain unclear, making the treatment strategies mainly investigative. Guidelines may provide physicians with an overview on the diagnosis and therapeutic directions. However, the criteria used in different clinical studies for the classification and diagnosis of ILDs are not always the same, making the development of guidelines difficult. Advances in genetic testing have thrown light on some etiologies of ILD, which were formerly classified as ILDs of unknown origins. The need of genetic testing for unexplained ILD is growing, and new classification criteria based on the etiology should be adopted to better understand the disease. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the clinical and genetic aspects of ILD in children. PMID:26512209

  13. Surfactant Lipidomics in Healthy Children and Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, Gerhard; Rauch, Daniela; Stückler, Ferdinand; Schmitz, Gerd; Zarbock, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipids account for the majority of pulmonary surfactant, which is essential for normal breathing. We asked if interstitial lung diseases (ILD) in children may disrupt alveolar surfactant and give clues for disease categorization. Methods Comprehensive lipidomics profiles of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were generated in 115 children by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Two reference populations were compared to a broad range of children with ILD. Results Class and species composition in healthy children did not differ from that in children with ILD related to diffuse developmental disorders, chronic tachypnoe of infancy, ILD related to lung vessels and the heart, and ILD related to reactive lymphoid lesions. As groups, ILDs related to the alveolar surfactant region, ILD related to unclear respiratory distress syndrome in the mature neonate, or in part ILD related to growth abnormalities reflecting deficient alveolarisation, had significant alterations of some surfactant specific phospholipids. Additionally, lipids derived from inflammatory processes were identified and differentiated. In children with ABCA3-deficiency from two ILD causing mutations saturated and monounsaturated phosphatidylcholine species with 30 and 32 carbons and almost all phosphatidylglycerol species were severely reduced. In other alveolar disorders lipidomic profiles may be of less diagnostic value, but nevertheless may substantiate lack of significant involvement of mechanisms related to surfactant lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipidomic profiling may identify specific forms of ILD in children with surfactant alterations and characterized the molecular species pattern likely to be transported by ABCA3 in vivo. PMID:25692779

  14. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Review ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Occupational Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bacchus, Leon; Shah, Rakesh D; Chung, Jonathan H; Crabtree, Traves P; Heitkamp, Darel E; Iannettoni, Mark D; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Jokerst, Clinton; McComb, Barbara L; Saleh, Anthony G; Steiner, Robert M; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Ravenel, James G

    2016-01-01

    Occupational lung disease is a category of disease entities characterized by a reaction of the lung parenchyma to inhaled aerosolized particles found in the environment. This document summarizes the imaging appropriateness data for silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis, and asbestosis. The main points of the document are that computed tomography is more sensitive than radiography, computed tomography without contrast generally suffices for evaluation, and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography may have utility in patients with mesothelioma. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review includes an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26656194

  15. Recent developments in epigenetics of acute and chronic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Marpadga A; Natarajan, Rama

    2015-08-01

    The growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes, the aging population as well as prevalence of drug abuse has led to significant increases in the rates of the closely associated acute and chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, evidence shows that parental behavior and diet can affect the phenotype of subsequent generations via epigenetic transmission mechanisms. These data suggest a strong influence of the environment on disease susceptibility and that, apart from genetic susceptibility, epigenetic mechanisms need to be evaluated to gain critical new information about kidney diseases. Epigenetics is the study of processes that control gene expression and phenotype without alterations in the underlying DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, including cytosine DNA methylation and covalent post-translational modifications of histones in chromatin, are part of the epigenome, the interface between the stable genome and the variable environment. This dynamic epigenetic layer responds to external environmental cues to influence the expression of genes associated with disease states. The field of epigenetics has seen remarkable growth in the past few years with significant advances in basic biology, contributions to human disease, as well as epigenomics technologies. Further understanding of how the renal cell epigenome is altered by metabolic and other stimuli can yield novel new insights into the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. In this review, we have discussed the current knowledge on the role of epigenetic mechanisms (primarily DNAme and histone modifications) in acute and chronic kidney diseases, and their translational potential to identify much needed new therapies. PMID:25993323

  16. Effect of acute ozone exposure on the proteinase-antiproteinase balance in the rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, J.A.; Gregory, R.E.; Cole, D.J.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.

    1987-04-01

    Lung disease may result from a persisting proteinase excess or a depletion of antiproteinase in pulmonary parenchyma. We investigated the in vivo effect of a 48-hr exposure to ozone at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm on proteinase and antiproteinase activity of rat lungs. Elastase inhibitory capacities of serum, lung tissue, and airway washings were measured as indicators of antielastase activity. Trypsin inhibitory capacity was measured using an esterolytic procedure. Proteinase was measured as radioactive release from a /sup 14/C-globin substrate. The 48-hr exposures to O/sub 3/ at levels up to 1 ppm produced concentration-dependent decreases of 35-80% of antiproteinase activities in serum and in lung tissue. However, exposure to 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/ resulted in no decrease in antiproteinase activities. Acid proteinase activities (pH 4.2) were increased 65-120% by exposure to 1 or 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, which correlated with inflammatory cells noted histologically. At 1.5 ppm O/sub 3/, pulmonary edema and hemorrhage were noted in histologic sections. These changes led to a flooding of the alveoli with up to 40 times normal protein levels and a greater than fivefold increase in airway antiproteinase. These data suggest that serum and soluble lung tissue antiproteinase activity decreased upon exposure to low levels of ozone. However, if O/sub 3/ exposure is high enough to produce pulmonary hemorrhage, antiproteinase may increase following serum exudation. These changes may be important in the development of ozone-induced lung diseases, especially emphysema.

  17. Systemic air embolism causing acute stroke and myocardial infarction after percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy-a case report.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Heng; Chang, Chun-Chi; Ho, Shang-Yun; Liao, Chiung-Ying; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung biopsy is a common procedure for the diagnosis of pulmonary lesion. Pneumothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage and hemoptysis are the most common complications of the procedure. Air embolism is a rare serious complication. We reported a case with air embolism related acute ischemic stroke and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) simultaneously after percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsy. PMID:26374639

  18. Severe pulmonary hypertension in lung disease: phenotypes and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Brewis, Melanie J; Church, Alistair C; Johnson, Martin K; Peacock, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to lung disease (World Health Organization (WHO) group 3) is common, but severe PH, arbitrarily defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ?35?mmHg is reported in only a small proportion. Whether these should be treated as patients in WHO group 1 (i.e. pulmonary arterial hypertension) with PH-targeted therapies is unknown.We compared the phenotypic characteristics and outcomes of 118 incident patients with severe PH and lung disease with 74 idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients, all treated with pulmonary vasodilators.Lung disease patients were older, more hypoxaemic, and had lower gas transfer, worse New York Heart Association functional class and lower 6-min walking distance (6MWD) than IPAH patients. Poorer survival in those with lung disease was driven by the interstitial lung disease (ILD) cohort.In contrast to IPAH, where significant improvements in 6MWD and N-terminal pro-brain natruiretic peptide (NT-proBNP) occurred, PH therapy in severe PH lung disease did not lead to improvement in 6MWD or functional class, but neither was deterioration seen. NT-proBNP decreased from 2200 to 1596?pg·mL(-1) (p=0.015). Response varied by lung disease phenotype, with poorer outcomes in patients with ILD and emphysema with preserved forced expiratory volume in 1?s. Further study is required to investigate whether vasodilator therapy may delay disease progression in severe PH with lung disease. PMID:26293503

  19. Overview of Clinical Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Jonathan C.; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2014-01-01

    Since the first successful lung transplant 30 years ago, lung transplantation has rapidly become an established standard of care to treat end-stage lung disease in selected patients. Advances in lung preservation, surgical technique, and immunosuppression regimens have resulted in the routine performance of lung transplantation around the world for an increasing number of patients, with wider indications. Despite this, donor shortages and chronic lung allograft dysfunction continue to prevent lung transplantation from reaching its full potential. With research into the underlying mechanisms of acute and chronic lung graft dysfunction and advances in personalized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to both the donor lung and the lung transplant recipient, there is increasing confidence that we will improve short- and long-term outcomes in the near future. PMID:24384816

  20. [Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO)].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to respiratory complications of transfusion. Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is defined as an acute lung injury that is temporally associated with blood transfusion. TRALI is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although the etiology of TRALI is not fully understood, one of its main causes is thought to be anti-leukocyte antibodies, such as HLA antibody or HNA antibody. A precautionary male-predominant plasma strategy has been implemented in many developed countries, which has resulted in considerable achievements in reducing the incidence of TRALI. Meanwhile, transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) has emerged as a major differential diagnosis of TRALI. TACO is a well-known complication of transfusion, which has been considered not as a side effect of transfusion but a result of erroneous medical practice. It has long been an under-reported complication of transfusion and has not been investigated scientifically. Recent data on transfusion mortality from the Food and Drug Administration revealed that TACO was the second highest cause of death in the United States. Our data also suggested a steep increase in the reported cases of TACO in Japan. Precautionary measures should also be implemented for this emerging complication. PMID:23947178

  1. Cervical lung herniation complicating a case of acute asphyxial asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Martchek, Melissa A; Padilla, Benjamin E; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Friedlaender, Eron Y

    2015-04-01

    The abrupt onset of respiratory failure secondary to asthma, known as acute asphyxial asthma (AAA) in adults, is uncommonly reported in children. Here, we report a case of a child with the acute onset of respiratory failure consistent with AAA complicated by the finding of a neck mass during resuscitation. This 11-year-old boy with a history of asthma initially presented in respiratory failure with altered mental status after the complaint of difficulty in breathing minutes before collapsing at home. Initially, his respiratory failure was thought to be secondary to status asthmaticus, and treatment was initiated accordingly. However, a neck mass noted during the resuscitation was cause for concern, and other etiologies for his respiratory failure were considered, including an airway obstructing neck mass. After pediatric surgery and anesthesia consultation for intubation and possible tracheostomy placement, general anesthesia was induced in the operating room with an inhaled anesthetic, with prompt resolution of the bronchspasm and decompression of the neck mass. Review of the imaging and clinical course ultimately yielded a diagnosis of cervical lung herniation as the etiology of his neck mass. We report this case of AAA and cervical lung herniation and a review of the literature of these 2 uncommon phenomena in children. PMID:25831031

  2. Single high-dose dexamethasone and sodium salicylate failed to attenuate phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Pauluhn, Jürgen; Trübel, Hubert; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Life-threatening acute lung injury potentially occurs following high-level accidental exposures to phosgene gas. This situation was mirrored in rats exposed nose-only at 900-1000 mg phosgene/m(3)min. At this exposure level, previous studies on rats demonstrated sustained reflexively induced cardiopulmonary dysfunction and evidence of vascular fluid redistribution. These findings challenge the currently applied treatment strategies to mitigate the presumed non-cardiogenic lung edema by steroidal or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study investigates whether high doses of curatively administered dexamethasone (DX; 100 mg/kg bw, ip) and sodium salicylate (SS; 200 mg/kg bw, ip), alone or in combination, show efficacy to mitigate the phosgene-induced lung edema. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), animal morbidity and mortality, and increased lung weights one day postexposure served as endpoints of lung injury and drug efficacy. When applying this dosing regimen, SS showed minimal (if any) efficacy while DX, alone or in combination with SS, substantially aggravated the emerging lung edema (lung weights) with 40% mortality. The degree of acute lung injury (ALI) was mirrored by increased eNO. Its direct relationship to ALI-severity was evidenced by decreased eNO following NO-synthetase inhibitor administration (aminoguanidine-aerosol) and associated mitigation of ALI. All non-treated phosgene-exposed as well as treated but non-phosgene-exposed rats survived. This experimental evidence suggests that high-dose corticoid treatments may aggravate the pulmonary toxicity of phosgene. Similarly, this outcome supports the supposition that non-inflammatory, cardiogenic and/or neurogenic factors play a role in this type of acute lung injury. PMID:24280380

  3. Lung-dominant connective tissue disease among patients with interstitial lung disease: prevalence, functional stability, and common extrathoracic features*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Daniel Antunes Silva; Dias, Olívia Meira; de Almeida, Guilherme Eler; Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Kawano-Dourado, Letícia Barbosa; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a cohort of patients with lung-dominant connective tissue disease (LD-CTD). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) results (? 1/320), with or without specific autoantibodies, and at least one clinical feature suggestive of connective tissue disease (CTD). RESULTS: Of the 1,998 patients screened, 52 initially met the criteria for a diagnosis of LD-CTD: 37% were male; the mean age at diagnosis was 56 years; and the median follow-up period was 48 months. During follow-up, 8 patients met the criteria for a definitive diagnosis of a CTD. The remaining 44 patients comprised the LD-CTD group, in which the most prevalent extrathoracic features were arthralgia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The most prevalent autoantibodies in this group were ANA (89%) and anti-SSA (anti-Ro, 27%). The mean baseline and final FVC was 69.5% and 74.0% of the predicted values, respectively (p > 0.05). Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia patterns were found in 45% and 9% of HRCT scans, respectively; 36% of the scans were unclassifiable. A similar prevalence was noted in histological samples. Diffuse esophageal dilatation was identified in 52% of HRCT scans. Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed in 22 patients; 17 showed a scleroderma pattern. CONCLUSIONS: In our LD-CTD group, there was predominance of females and the patients showed mild spirometric abnormalities at diagnosis, with differing underlying ILD patterns that were mostly unclassifiable on HRCT and by histology. We found functional stability on follow-up. Esophageal dilatation on HRCT and scleroderma pattern on nailfold capillaroscopy were frequent findings and might come to serve as diagnostic criteria. PMID:25972968

  4. The Burden of Exposure–Related Diffuse Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldyn, Sheryl R.; Condos, Rany; Rom, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the burden of exposure-related diffuse lung disease in terms of health effects and economic burden remains challenging. Labor statistics are inadequate to define the scope of the problem, and few studies have analyzed the prevalence of exposure-related illnesses and the subsequent health care cost. Well-defined exposures, such as those associated with coal mines, asbestos mines, and stonecutting, have led to more accurate assessment of prevalence and cost. As governmental regulation of workplace exposure has increased, the prevalence of diseases such as silicosis and coal workers’ pneumoconiosis has diminished. However, the health and economic effects of diseases with long latency periods, such as asbestosis and mesothelioma, continue to increase in the short term. Newer exposures, such as those related to air pollution, nylon flock, and the World Trade Center collapse, have added to these costs. As a result, estimates of cost for occupational diseases, including respiratory illnesses, exceed $26 billion annually, and the true economic burden is likely much higher. PMID:19221957

  5. Recent Treatment of Interstitial Lung Disease with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Kawasumi, Hidenaga; Gono, Takahisa; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prognostic factor for poor outcome in polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM). The appropriate management of ILD is very important to improve the prognosis of patients with PM/DM. ILD activity and severity depend on the disease subtype. Therefore, clinicians should determine therapeutic strategies according to the disease subtype in each patient with PM/DM. Anti–melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody and hyperferritinemia predict the development and severity of rapidly progressive (RP) ILD, particularly in East Asian patients. Combination therapy with corticosteroids, intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse, and calcineurin inhibitors should be administered in RP-ILD. In contrast, patients with anti–aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) show better responses to corticosteroids alone. However, ILDs with anti-ARS often display disease recurrence or become refractory to corticosteroid monotherapy. Recent studies have demonstrated that the administration of tacrolimus or rituximab in addition to corticosteroids may be considered in ILD patients with anti-ARS. Large-scale, multicenter randomized clinical trials should be conducted in the future to confirm that the aforementioned agents exhibit efficacy in ILD patients with PM/DM. The pathophysiology of ILD with PM/DM should also be elucidated in greater detail to develop effective therapeutic strategies for patients with ILD in PM/DM. PMID:26279636

  6. [The role of biopsy as diagnostic measure in rare nonspecific lung diseases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chomenko, A G; Oserova, L W

    1980-01-01

    In this paper the diagnostic value of biopsy as diagnostic measure in rare nonspecific lung diseases is analysed. The rare nonspecific are diseases are heterogen in the view of etiology, pathogenesis and clinical, röntgenological nd morphological symptoms. Most of these diseases out of the material of our institute showed disseminated changes in the lungs. The role of the biopsy in the diagnostic of these group of diseases is demonstrated. In an another group of rare unspecific lung diseases the value of biopsy is only small and diagnosis can be secured by clinical-röntgenological examinations. PMID:7210743

  7. Pulmonary clearance of radiotracers after positive end-expiratory pressure or acute lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Barrowcliffe, M.P.; Zanelli, G.D.; Jones, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    In anesthetized rabbits we measured clearance from lung to blood of eight aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled compounds: diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA); cytochrome c; myoglobin; a myoglobin polymer; albumin; and anionic, cationic, and neutral dextrans of equivalent molecular size. We investigated the effect of applying positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and, on a subsequent occasion, of injecting oleic acid intravenously to produce acute lung injury on the pulmonary clearance rate. Base-line clearance rates were monoexponential and varied with the molecular weights of the radiotracers. For each tracer the rate of clearance was increased a similar degree by either PEEP or oleic acid. However, with PEEP, clearance remained monoexponential, whereas after oleic acid, smaller molecular-weight radiotracers had multiexponential clearance curves. This suggests that after oleic acid the alveolar epithelium breaks down in a nonuniform fashion. We conclude that differentiation of the effect of PEEP from that of severe lung injury caused by oleic acid is not readily accomplished by either increasing the size of the tracer molecule or by varying the molecular charge.

  8. Acute response to elastase in sheep lungs measured with Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Brill, A.B.; Janoff, A.; Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.

    1984-12-01

    The early inflammatory changes in sheep's lungs were studied with Ga-67 citrate, injected i.v. immediately following intrabronchial instillation of different doses of elastase into the right diaphragmatic lobes of 15 sheep. The elastase-induced lesions in the first five sheep (two received 4000 units; three got 6000) were imaged up to seven times in an 8-day period to measure the temporal changes in the lesion and to select the appropriate imaging time; the other ten sheep (800-8000 units) were imaged once at 52 hr. Localization of Ga-67, as seen on the posterior and right lateral projections, was confined to a well-circumscribed region in the right lung field. The lesion could be detected as early as 4 hr after elastase instillation. It decreased to 60% of its initial area at 4 hr, while the total Ga-67 activity in the sheep remained constant after 52-75 hr. Gallium-67 uptake in the lesion correlated positively with the dose of elastase (r = 0.88, p < 0.001) and with the reduction in perfusion, as determined 4 wk after the elastase instillation (r = 0.66, p < 0.05). Early Ga-67 uptake in inflammatory lung lesions could therefore be used as a reliable predictor of the size of the acute elastase-induced inflammatory reaction, as well as of the sequelae involving the regional vascular supply 4 wk later. 25 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of triptolide in LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dong; Huang, Zhihong

    2014-08-01

    Triptolide is one of the main active components of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of triptolide on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and to clarify the possible mechanisms. Mice were administered intranasally with LPS to induce lung injury. Triptolide was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before LPS challenge. Triptolide-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced leukocyte, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, edema of the lung, as well as TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with LPS-treated mice. Additionally, Western blot analysis showed that triptolide inhibited the phosphorylation of inhibitor-kappa B kinase-alpha (I?B-?), p65, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), p38, extracellular receptor kinase (ERK), and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) caused by LPS. In conclusion, our results suggested that the promising anti-inflammatory mechanism of triptolide may be that triptolide activates peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?), thereby attenuating an LPS-induced inflammatory response. Triptolide may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for ALI treatment. PMID:24706025

  10. Withaferin A attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, S; Li, H; Zhou, X-Q; You, J-B; Tu, D-N; Xia, G; Jiang, J-X; Xin, C

    2015-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is an active compound from Withania somnifera and has been reported to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti—inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti—tumor properties. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective role of WFA on acute lung injury in neonatal rats induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that WFA significantly attenuated the pathological changes of lungs induced by LPS injection. Administration with WFA obviously decreased pulmonary neutrophil infiltration accompanied with decreased MPO concentrations. WFA also reduced the expression of pro—inflammatory cytokines including MIP—2, TNF—?, IL—1? and IL—6. Meanwhile, the expression levels of anti—inflammatory mediators such as TGF—?1 and IL—10 were significantly increased following WFA administration. Moreover, WFA protected LPS—treated rats from oxidative damage via up—regulation of TBARS and H2O2 concentrations and down—regulation of ROS contents. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that WFA administration attenuated LPS—induced lung injury through inhibition of inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. PMID:26255139

  11. Influence of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Lung Function Changes After the Lung Resection for Primary Lung Cancer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mujovic, Natasa; Mujovic, Nebojsa; Subotic, Dragan; Ercegovac, Maja; Milovanovic, Andjela; Nikcevic, Ljubica; Zugic, Vladimir; Nikolic, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Influence of physiotherapy on the outcome of the lung resection is still controversial. Study aim was to assess the influence of physiotherapy program on postoperative lung function and effort tolerance in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that are undergoing lobectomy or pneumonectomy. The prospective study included 56 COPD patients who underwent lung resection for primary non small-cell lung cancer after previous physiotherapy (Group A) and 47 COPD patients (Group B) without physiotherapy before lung cancer surgery. In Group A, lung function and effort tolerance on admission were compared with the same parameters after preoperative physiotherapy. Both groups were compared in relation to lung function, effort tolerance and symptoms change after resection. In patients with tumors requiring a lobectomy, after preoperative physiotherapy, a highly significant increase in FEV1, VC, FEF50 and FEF25 of 20%, 17%, 18% and 16% respectively was registered with respect to baseline values. After physiotherapy, a significant improvement in 6-minute walking distance was achieved. After lung resection, the significant loss of FEV1 and VC occurred, together with significant worsening of the small airways function, effort tolerance and symptomatic status. After the surgery, a clear tendency existed towards smaller FEV1 loss in patients with moderate to severe, when compared to patients with mild baseline lung function impairment. A better FEV1 improvement was associated with more significant loss in FEV1. Physiotherapy represents an important part of preoperative and postoperative treatment in COPD patients undergoing a lung resection for primary lung cancer. PMID:26618048

  12. MARESIN 1 PREVENTS LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED NEUTROPHIL SURVIVAL AND ACCELERATES RESOLUTION OF ACUTE LUNG INJURY.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jie; Liu, Hong; Wu, Jing; Qi, Hong; Wu, Zhou-Yang; Shu, Hua-Qing; Li, Hong-Bin; Chen, Lin; Wang, Ya-Xin; Li, Bo; Tang, Min; Ji, Yu-Dong; Yuan, Shi-Ying; Yao, Shang-Long; Shang, You

    2015-10-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by lung inflammation and diffuse infiltration of neutrophils. Neutrophil apoptosis is recognized as an important control point in the resolution of inflammation. Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a new docosahexaenoic acid-derived proresolving agent that promotes the resolution of inflammation. However, its function in neutrophil apoptosis is unknown. In this study, isolated human neutrophils were incubated with MaR1, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine the mechanism of neutrophil apoptosis. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS. In addition, mice were treated with MaR1 intravenously at the peak of inflammation and administered z-VAD-fmk intraperitoneally. We found that culture of isolated human neutrophils with LPS dramatically delayed neutrophil apoptosis through the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, and p38 to upregulate the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, which was blocked by pretreatment with MaR1 in vitro. In mice, MaR1 accelerated the resolution of inflammation in LPS-induced ALI through attenuation of neutrophil accumulation, pathohistological changes, and pulmonary edema. Maresin 1 promoted resolution of inflammation by accelerating caspase-dependent neutrophil apoptosis. Moreover, MaR1 also reduced the LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulated the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. In contrast, treatment with z-VAD-fmk inhibited the proapoptotic action of MaR1 and attenuated the protective effects of MaR1 in LPS-induced ALI. Taken together, MaR1 promotes the resolution of LPS-induced ALI by overcoming LPS-mediated suppression of neutrophil apoptosis. PMID:26196844

  13. Use of ipratropium bromide in obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Mann, K V; Leon, A L; Tietze, K J

    1988-09-01

    The chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of ipratropium bromide are reviewed. Ipratropium bromide, a synthetic quaternary isopropyl derivative of atropine, interrupts vagally mediated bronchoconstriction by inhibiting the cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate system at parasympathetic nerve endings. Ipratropium bromide is poorly absorbed after oral and inhaled administration but diffuses rapidly into tissue after i.v. or i.m. administration. The elimination half-life is 3.2-3.8 hours. After inhalation, the drug is eliminated in the urine and feces. The bronchodilatory effect of ipratropium bromide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be comparable, and may be superior, to that of the beta-sympathomimetic agents. In acute exacerbations, ipratropium bromide is useful but may not be the preferred agent because of a delayed onset of action (within 15 minutes; mean dose-dependent duration of effect, three to five hours). Combination therapy with other bronchodilating drugs has proved useful. Ipratropium bromide may be a useful adjunctive agent in the treatment of asthma. Since the onset of action is delayed, ipratropium bromide should not be used as single-drug therapy in an acute asthmatic exacerbation. Reported adverse effects, including cough, nausea, palpitations, dry mouth, nervousness, gastrointestinal distress, and dizziness, have been mild. The usual dosage is two inhalations (36 micrograms) four times daily, and the maximum number of doses per day should not exceed 12. Although ipratropium bromide is currently indicated only for maintenance therapy in stable chronic bronchitis and emphysema, it may be useful as adjunctive therapy in asthma and in the management of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and asthma. Additional experience in a variety of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders will help to clarify the role of ipratropium bromide in the treatment of obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:2977109

  14. Chronic lung disease of prematurity: a short history.

    PubMed

    Philip, Alistair G S

    2009-12-01

    Chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is commonly considered to be a consequence of assisted ventilation. However, prior to the description in 1967 of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), following ventilator therapy for respiratory distress syndrome, Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS) had been described in very preterm infants on minimal oxygen supplementation. In the 1970s and 1980s, many infants treated with assisted ventilation required prolonged mechanical ventilation after developing radiographic features of coarse infiltrates, severe hyperinflation, and microcystic changes, associated with hypercarbemia and the need for increased inspired oxygen concentrations. Some infants died and showed evidence of pulmonary fibrosis, obstructive bronchiolitis, and dysplastic change. The role of supplemental oxygen, positive pressure ventilation, and the immaturity of the lung have long been considered important in the etiology of CLD/BPD. More recently, the role of inflammation (particularly antenatal exposure to cytokines) and individual susceptibility (genetic predisposition) have assumed greater etiologic importance. The historical setting into which corticosteroid treatment for BPD was introduced is also discussed. After the licensing of exogenous surfactant to treat RDS in the early 1990s and more widespread use of prenatal corticosteroids in the mid-1990s, severe BPD became an unusual event. Gradually, the diagnosis of CLD, still often referred to as BPD, was based on an oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. However, it is not clear that this 'new BPD' is substantially different from WMS. It is difficult to make prognostications about long-term lung function of these infants based on oxygen 'requirement' at 36 weeks, since supplemental oxygen is frequently used unnecessarily. PMID:19699162

  15. Statin Use Is Associated with Reduced Mortality in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that statin use begun before the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is associated with reduced mortality. Methods We studied all patients diagnosed with interstitial lung disease in the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2009, comparing statin use versus no statin use in a nested 1:2 matched study. Results The cumulative survival as a function of follow-up time from the date of diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (n = 1,786+3,572) and idiopathic lung fibrosis (n = 261+522) was higher for statin users versus never users (log-rank: P = 7·10?9 and P = 0.05). The median survival time in patients with interstitial lung disease was 3.3 years in statin users and 2.1 years in never users. Corresponding values in patients with idiopathic lung fibrosis were 3.4 versus 2.4 years. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality for statin users versus never users was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 0.79) in patients with interstitial lung disease and 0.76 (0.62 to 0.93) in patients with idiopathic lung fibrosis. Results were robust in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusion Among patients with interstitial lung disease statin use was associated with reduced all-cause mortality. PMID:26473476

  16. Alveolar recruitment can be predicted from airway pressure-lung volume loops: an experimental study in a porcine acute lung injury model

    PubMed Central

    Koefoed-Nielsen, Jacob; Nielsen, Niels Dahlsgaard; Kjærgaard, Anders J; Larsson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Simple methods to predict the effect of lung recruitment maneuvers (LRMs) in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are lacking. It has previously been found that a static pressure–volume (PV) loop could indicate the increase in lung volume induced by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in ARDS. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that in ALI (1) the difference in lung volume (?V) at a specific airway pressure (10 cmH2O was chosen in this test) obtained from the limbs of a PV loop agree with the increase in end-expiratory lung volume (?EELV) by an LRM at a specific PEEP (10 cmH2O), and (2) the maximal relative vertical (volume) difference between the limbs (maximal hysteresis/total lung capacity (MH/TLC)) could predict the changes in respiratory compliance (Crs), EELV and partial pressures of arterial O2 and CO2 (PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively) by an LRM. Methods In eight ventilated pigs PV loops were obtained (1) before lung injury, (2) after lung injury induced by lung lavage, and (3) after additional injurious ventilation. ?V and MH/TLC were determined from the PV loops. At all stages Crs, EELV, PaCO2 and PaO2 were registered at 0 cmH2O and at 10 cmH2O before and after LRM, and ?EELV was calculated. Statistics: Wilcoxon's signed rank, Pearson's product moment correlation, Bland–Altman plot, and receiver operating characteristics curve. Medians and 25th and 75th centiles are reported. Results ?V was 270 (220, 320) ml and ?EELV was 227 (177, 306) ml (P < 0.047). The bias was 39 ml and the limits of agreement were – 49 ml to +127 ml. The R2 for relative changes in EELV, Crs, PaCO2 and PaO2 against MH/TLC were 0.55, 0.57, 0.36 and 0.05, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for MH/TLC of 0.3 to predict improvement (>75th centile of what was found in uninjured lungs) were for EELV 1.0 and 0.85, Crs 0.88 and 1.0, PaCO2 0.78 and 0.60, and PaO2 1.0 and 0.69. Conclusion A PV-loop-derived parameter, MH/TLC of 0.3, predicted changes in lung mechanics better than changes in gas exchange in this lung injury model. PMID:18205959

  17. Lung function, transfusion, pulmonary capillary blood volume and sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Alan; McGhee, Emily; Robinson, Polly; Rees, David; Height, Susan; Greenough, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Lung function abnormalities occur in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and may be associated with elevated pulmonary blood volume. To investigate that association, we determined whether blood transfusion in SCD children acutely increased pulmonary capillary blood volume (PCBV) and increased respiratory system resistance (Rrs5). Measurements of Rrs5 and spirometry were made before and after blood transfusion in 18 children, median age 14.2 (6.6-18.5) years. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed to calculate the PCBV. Post transfusion, the median Rrs5 had increased from 127.4 to 141.3% predicted (p<0.0001) and pulmonary capillary blood volume from 39.7 to 64.1ml/m2 (p<0.0001); forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.0056) and vital capacity (p=0.0008) decreased. The increase in Rrs5 correlated with the increase in PCBV (r=0.50, p=0.0493). Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume may at least partially explain the lung function abnormalities in SCD children. PMID:26592148

  18. Bag-of-features approach for improvement of lung tissue classification in diffuse lung disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Noriji; Fukui, Motofumi; Isozaki, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Many automated techniques have been proposed to classify diffuse lung disease patterns. Most of the techniques utilize texture analysis approaches with second and higher order statistics, and show successful classification result among various lung tissue patterns. However, the approaches do not work well for the patterns with inhomogeneous texture distribution within a region of interest (ROI), such as reticular and honeycombing patterns, because the statistics can only capture averaged feature over the ROI. In this work, we have introduced the bag-of-features approach to overcome this difficulty. In the approach, texture images are represented as histograms or distributions of a few basic primitives, which are obtained by clustering local image features. The intensity descriptor and the Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) descriptor are utilized to extract the local features, which have significant discriminatory power due to their specificity to a particular image class. In contrast, the drawback of the local features is lack of invariance under translation and rotation. We improved the invariance by sampling many local regions so that the distribution of the local features is unchanged. We evaluated the performance of our system in the classification task with 5 image classes (ground glass, reticular, honeycombing, emphysema, and normal) using 1109 ROIs from 211 patients. Our system achieved high classification accuracy of 92.8%, which is superior to that of the conventional system with the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) feature especially for inhomogeneous texture patterns.

  19. Gprc5a-deficiency confers susceptibility to endotoxin-induced acute lung injury via NF-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yueling; Song, Hongyong; Xu, Dongliang; Jiao, Huike; Yao, Feng; Liu, Jingyi; Wu, Yadi; Zhong, Shuangshuang; Yin, Huijing; Liu, Shuli; Wang, Xiaofei; Guo, Wenzheng; Sun, Beibei; Han, Baohui; Chin, Y Eugene; Deng, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) varies greatly among patients in sepsis/septic shock. The genetic and biochemical reasons for the difference are not fully understood. G protein coupled receptor family C group 5 member A (GPRC5A), a retinoic acid target gene, is predominately expressed in the bronchioalveolar epithelium of lung. We hypothesized that Gprc5a is important in controlling the susceptibility to ALI or ARDS. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of wild-type and Gprc5a-knockout (ko) mice to induced ALI. Administration of endotoxin LPS induced an increased pulmonary edema and injury in Gprc5a-ko mice, compared to wild-type counterparts. Consistently, LPS administration induced higher levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF?) and chemokine (KC) in Gprc5a-ko mouse lungs than in wild-type. The enhanced pulmonary inflammatory responses were associated with dysregulated NF-?B signaling in the bronchioalveolar epithelium of Gprc5a-ko mouse lungs. Importantly, selective inhibition of NF-?B through expression of the super-repressor I?B? in the bronchioalveolar epithelium of Gprc5a-ko mouse lungs alleviated the LPS-induced pulmonary injury, and inflammatory response. Thus, Gprc5a is critical for lung homeostasis, and Gprc5a deficiency confers the susceptibility to endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema and injury, mainly through NF-?B signaling in bronchioalveolar epithelium of lung. PMID:25714996

  20. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Kazebayashi, Yoshihiro; Hirai, Noriko; Sasaki, Takaaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV) have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix) are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  1. Improved survival and reduced vascular permeability by eliminating or blocking 12/15-lipoxygenase in mouse models of acute lung injury (ALI).5

    PubMed Central

    Zarbock, Alexander; DiStasi, Matthew R.; Smith, Emily; Sanders, John; Kronke, Gerhard; Harry, Brian; von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Buscher, Konrad; Nadler, Jerry L.; Ley, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a prevalent disease associated with high mortality. 12/15 lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) is an enzyme producing 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE from arachidonic acid. To test whether 12/15-LO is involved in increasing vascular permeability in the lung, we investigated the role of 12/15-LO in murine models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation and clinically relevant acid-induced ALI. The vascular permeability increase upon LPS inhalation was abolished in Alox15?/? mice lacking 12/15-LO and in WT mice after pharmacological blockade of 12/15-LO. Alox15?/? mice also showed improved gas exchange, reduced permeability increase, and prolonged survival in the acid-induced ALI model. Bone marrow chimeras and reconstitution experiments revealed that 12-HETE produced by hematopoietic cells regulates vascular permeability through a CXCR2-dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that 12/15-LO-derived 12-HETE is a key mediator of vascular permeability in acute lung injury. PMID:19752233

  2. Hesperidin ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by inhibiting HMGB1 release.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-xin; Yu, Dan-dan; Chen, Mao-jian; Sun, Ting; Li, Gang; Huang, Wen-jian; Nie, Hao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yan-xiang; Gong, Quan; Ren, Bo-xu

    2015-04-01

    Hesperidin (HDN), a flavanone glycoside, possesses anti-inflammatory properties and has been suggested to be able to modulate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) serves as an inflammatory cytokine when released extracellularly and is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory disorders. The current study aimed to investigate the involvement of HMGB1 in HDN-induced immunoregulation of ALI. ALI in male BALB/c mice was induced by intranasal administration of LPS (0.5mg/kg). HDN (500mg/kg) was administered intragastrically 10days prior to LPS exposure. HDN significantly protected animals from LPS-induced ALI as evidenced by decreased elevation of the lung wet to dry weight ratio, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, associated with reduced lung histological damage. In the meantime, HDN pretreatment markedly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Furthermore, HDN pretreatment dramatically inhibited the infiltration of macrophages and suppressed the expression and release of HMGB1 in vivo and in vitro. In addition, intranasal application of exogenous HMGB1 could result in lung injury which was also alleviated by HDN administration. These results suggest that HDN pretreatment protects mice from LPS-induced ALI via inhibiting the production of TNF-? and IL-6. Moreover, we found that HDN could inhibit the expression and release of HMGB1 via suppressing the infiltration of macrophages and production of MCP-1. PMID:25724384

  3. Stimulation of Brain AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Attenuates Inflammation and Acute Lung Injury in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Mulchandani, Nikhil; Yang, Weng-Lang; Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Zhang, Fangming; Marambaud, Philippe; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are enormous public health problems with astronomical financial repercussions on health systems worldwide. The central nervous system (CNS) is closely intertwined in the septic process but the underlying mechanism is still obscure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a ubiquitous energy sensor enzyme and plays a key role in regulation of energy homeostasis and cell survival. In this study, we hypothesized that activation of AMPK in the brain would attenuate inflammatory responses in sepsis, particularly in the lungs. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR, 20 ng), an AMPK activator, or vehicle (normal saline) by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection, followed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at 30 min post-ICV. The septic mice treated with AICAR exhibited elevated phosphorylation of AMPK? in the brain along with reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), compared with the vehicle. Similarly, the expressions of TNF-?, IL-1?, keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 as well as myeloperoxidase activity in the lungs of AICAR-treated mice were significantly reduced. Moreover, histological findings in the lungs showed improvement of morphologic features and reduction of apoptosis with AICAR treatment. We further found that the beneficial effects of AICAR on septic mice were diminished in AMPK?2 deficient mice, showing that AMPK mediates these effects. In conclusion, our findings reveal a new functional role of activating AMPK in the CNS to attenuate inflammatory responses and acute lung injury in sepsis. PMID:26252187

  4. Lack of cyclophilin D protects against the development of acute lung injury in endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Fonai, Fruzsina; Priber, Janos K; Jakus, Peter B; Kalman, Nikoletta; Antus, Csenge; Pollak, Edit; Karsai, Gergely; Tretter, Laszlo; Sumegi, Balazs; Veres, Balazs

    2015-12-01

    Sepsis caused by LPS is characterized by an intense systemic inflammatory response affecting the lungs, causing acute lung injury (ALI). Dysfunction of mitochondria and the role of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species produced by mitochondria have already been proposed in the pathogenesis of sepsis; however, the exact molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Oxidative stress induces cyclophilin D (CypD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), leading to organ failure in sepsis. In previous studies mPT was inhibited by cyclosporine A which, beside CypD, inhibits cyclophilin A, B, C and calcineurin, regulating cell death and inflammatory pathways. The immunomodulatory side effects of cyclosporine A make it unfavorable in inflammatory model systems. To avoid these uncertainties in the molecular mechanism, we studied endotoxemia-induced ALI in CypD(-/-) mice providing unambiguous data for the pathological role of CypD-dependent mPT in ALI. Our key finding is that the loss of this essential protein improves survival rate and it can intensely ameliorate endotoxin-induced lung injury through attenuated proinflammatory cytokine release, down-regulation of redox sensitive cellular pathways such as MAPKs, Akt, and NF-?B and reducing the production of ROS. Functional inhibition of NF-?B was confirmed by decreased expression of NF-?B-mediated proinflammatory genes. We demonstrated that impaired mPT due to the lack of CypD reduces the severity of endotoxemia-induced lung injury suggesting that CypD specific inhibitors might have a great therapeutic potential in sepsis-induced organ failure. Our data highlight a previously unknown regulatory function of mitochondria during inflammatory response. PMID:26385159

  5. Impact of lung disease on respiratory impedance in young children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Ranganathan, Sarath C; Gangell, Catherine L; Turkovic, Lidija; Park, Judy; Skoric, Billy; Stick, Stephen M; Sly, Peter D; Hall, Graham L

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) to detect underlying lung disease in preschool children with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed following newborn screening.184 children (aged 3-6?years) with CF underwent lung function testing on 422 occasions using the FOT to assess respiratory resistance and reactance at the time of their annual bronchoalveolar lavage collection and chest computed tomography scan. We examined associations between FOT outcomes and the presence and progression of respiratory inflammation, infection and structural lung disease.Children with CF who had pronounced respiratory disease, including free neutrophil elastase activity, infection with pro-inflammatory pathogens and structural lung abnormalities had similar FOT outcomes to those children without detectable lung disease. In addition, the progression of lung disease over 1?year was not associated with worsening FOT outcomes.We conclude that the forced oscillation technique is relatively insensitive to detect underlying lung disease in preschool children with CF. However, FOT may still be of value in improving our understanding of the physiological changes associated with early CF lung disease. PMID:26405283

  6. Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use, chronic lung diseases and lung cancer in Harbin, Northeast China

    SciTech Connect

    Galeone, C.; Pelucchi, C.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Bosetti, C.; Hu, J.F.

    2008-10-15

    In some areas of China, indoor air pollution (IAP) originating principally from the combustion of solid fuels has a relevant role in lung cancer. Most previous studies focused on the female population and only a few on both the sexes. We analyzed the relationship between IAP from solid fuel use and selected chronic lung diseases and lung cancer risk in Harbin, Northeast China, an area with a very high base line risk of lung cancer for both the sexes. We used data from a case-control study conducted between 1987 and 1990, including 218 patients with incident, histologically confirmed lung cancer and 436 controls admitted to the same hospitals as cases. We calculated an index of IAP from solid fuel use exposure using data on heating type, cooking fuel used, and house measurements. Cases reported more frequently than controls on exposure to coal fuel for house heating and/or cooking, and the odds ratio (OR) for ever versus never exposed was 2.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.46). The ORs of lung cancer according to subsequent tertiles of IAP exposure index were 1.82 (95% CI: 1.14-2.89) and 1.99 (95% CI: 1.26-3.15) as compared with the lowest tertile. The ORs of lung cancer for participants with a history of chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis were 3.79 (95% CI: 2.38-6.02) and 3.82 (95% CI: 1.97-7.41), respectively. This study gives further support and quantification of the positive association between IAP, history of selected nonmalignant lung diseases, and lung cancer risk for both the sexes.

  7. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro; Hall, LeRoy; Gow, Andrew J.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ? Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ? Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ? Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury induced by NM.

  8. [Role of biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of acute respiratory failure in the immediate postoperative period of lung transplantation].

    PubMed

    Ruano, L; Sacanell, J; Roman, A; Rello, J

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplant recipients are at high risk of suffering many complications during the immediate postoperative period, such as primary graft dysfunction, acute graft rejection or infection. The most common symptom is the presence of acute respiratory failure, and the use of biomarkers could be useful for establishing an early diagnosis of these conditions. Different biomarkers have been studied, but none have proven to be the gold standard in the differential diagnosis of acute respiratory failure. This paper offers a review of the different biomarkers that have been studied in this field. PMID:23462428

  9. Comparative effectiveness research in lung diseases and sleep disorders: recommendations from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tracy A; Au, David; Krishnan, Jerry A; Moss, Marc; Selker, Harry; Harabin, Andrea; Taggart, Virginia; Connors, Alfred

    2011-10-01

    The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) held a workshop to develop recommendations on topics, methodologies, and resources for comparative effectiveness research (CER) that will guide clinical decision making about available treatment options for lung diseases and sleep disorders. A multidisciplinary group of experts with experience in efficacy, effectiveness, implementation, and economic research identified (a) what types of studies the domain of CER in lung diseases and sleep disorders should include, (b) the criteria and process for setting priorities, and (c) current resources for and barriers to CER in lung diseases. Key recommendations were to (1) increase efforts to engage stakeholders in developing CER questions and study designs; (2) invest in further development of databases and other infrastructure, including efficient methods for data sharing; (3) make full use of a broad range of study designs; (4) increase the appropriate use of observational designs and the support of methodologic research; (5) ensure that committees that review CER grant applications include persons with appropriate perspective and expertise; and (6) further develop the workforce for CER by supporting training opportunities that focus on the methodologic and practical skills needed. PMID:21965016

  10. Current perspectives on the prevention and management of chronic lung disease in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Shah, Prakesh S

    2003-01-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a recognized sequel of preterm birth. With improving survival of infants at lower gestational ages, the incidence is on the rise. Pathological features of CLD include alveolar maldevelopment, with or without areas of pulmonary fibrosis. Assisted ventilation, infection/inflammation, oxygen administration, and fluid overload are the major risk factors in the evolution of CLD.Interventions, including the treatment of maternal infection, administration of prenatal glucocorticoids, and postnatal surfactant replacement therapy, improve the survival of preterm infants; however, their effect on CLD is difficult to determine. Strategies that have been effective in reducing CLD are the administration of retinol (vitamin A), high frequency oscillatory ventilation, and administration of glucocorticoids. Previous concerns regarding neurological problems associated with high frequency ventilation have not been substantiated in recent studies. Current recommendations do not advise the routine use of glucocorticoids due to concerns regarding long-term neurodevelopment. Therapies that were found to be ineffective in reducing the incidence of CLD include prenatal thyrotropin, cromolyn sodium (sodium cromoglycate), alpha-1 antitrypsin, superoxide dismutase, tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), allopurinol, ambroxol, inositol, inhaled bronchodilators, and fluid restriction. Strategies that may be effective in reducing lung injury and subsequent CLD include avoiding assisted ventilation, lung protective ventilatory maneuvers, permissive hypercapnia, prevention of infection, early aggressive nutrition, and the treatment of a patent ductus arteriosus. The use of inhaled glucocorticoids improves pulmonary dynamics but long-term effects are unknown. The management of infants with established CLD has not been studied adequately, and the role of various ventilatory strategies for infants with established CLD is not clear. Adequate oxygenation should be maintained to prevent hypoxic episodes. Diuretics are helpful during acute decompensation; however, their long-term impact has not been well studied. Provision of adequate nutrition, immunization (routine and against respiratory syncytial virus), follow-up, and monitoring are the key elements in the long-term management of infants with CLD. Future research priorities should be to identify strategies to prevent/treat inflammation and promote the healing processes in the injured lung. The long-term effects of lung-protective ventilation strategies need to be studied. PMID:12837119

  11. Critical role for CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein beta in immune complex-induced acute lung injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI), the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses in ALI are poorly understood, and therapeutic options remain limited. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) gamma and -gamma have been implicated...

  12. Always expect the unexpected: lung abscess due to pseudomonas aeruginosa mimicking pulmonary aspergilloma in acute B-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dieks, J-K; von Bueren, A O; Schaefer, I-M; Menke, J; Lex, C; Krause, U; Zenker, D; Kühnle, I; Kramm, C M

    2013-11-01

    We report on a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and consecutive lung abscess in a 13-year-old patient with acute B-cell leukemia. At first, radiographic findings strongly suggested presence of pulmonary aspergilloma and only microbiological testing of the surgically enucleated mass revealed the correct underlying pathogen and confirmed final diagnosis. PMID:24166086

  13. Sickle erythrocytes and platelets augment lung leukotriene synthesis with downregulation of anti-inflammatory proteins: relevance in the pathology of the acute chest syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Opene, Michael; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Husain, Sumair

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Initiation, progression, and resolution of vaso-occlusive pain episodes in sickle cell disease (SCD) have been recognized as reperfusion injury, which provokes an inflammatory response in the pulmonary circulation. Some 5-lipoxygenase (5-lox) metabolites are potent vasoconstrictors in the pulmonary circulation. We studied stimulation of production of the inflammatory eicosanoids leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by isolated rat lungs perfused with sickle (HbSS) erythrocytes. Our hypothesis is that HbSS erythrocytes produce more LTs than normal (HbAA) erythrocytes, which can induce vaso-occlusive episodes in SCD patients. Lung perfusates were collected at specific time points and purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and LTC4 and PGE2 contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rat lung explants were also cultured with purified HbAA and HbSS peptides, and 5-lox, cyclooxygenase 1/2, and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) proteins were measured by Western blotting, while prostacyclin and LTs produced by cultured lung explants were measured by ELISA. Lung weight gain and blood gas data were not different among the groups. HbSS-perfused lungs produced more LTC4 and PGE2 than HbAA-perfused lungs: 10.40 ± 0.62 versus 0.92 ± 0.2 ng/g dry lung weight (mean ± SEM; P = 0.0001) for LTC4. Inclusion of autologous platelets (platelet-rich plasma) elevated LTC4 production to 12.6 ± 0.96 and 7 ± 0.60 ng/g dry lung weight in HbSS and HbAA perfusates, respectively. HbSS lungs also expressed more 5-lox and PAFR. The data suggest that HbSS erythrocytes and activated platelets in patient’s pulmonary microcirculation will enhance the synthesis and release of the proinflammatory mediators LTC4 and PGE2, both of which may contribute to onset of the acute chest syndrome in SCD. PMID:25621162

  14. Treatment of Lung Carcinoid by Type and Extent of Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » Treatment of lung carcinoid, by type and extent of ... With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Lung Carcinoid Tumor Research? Other Resources and References ... & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer ...

  15. Altered Lipid Composition of Surfactant and Lung Tissue in Murine Experimental Malaria-Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scaccabarozzi, Diletta; Deroost, Katrien; Lays, Natacha; Taramelli, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Malaria-associated acute lung injury (MA-ALI) and its more severe form malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS) are common, often fatal complications of severe malaria infections. However, little is known about their pathogenesis. In this study, biochemical alterations of the lipid composition of the lungs were investigated as possible contributing factors to the severity of murine MA-ALI/ARDS. C57BL/6J mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 to induce lethal MA-ARDS, or with Plasmodium chabaudi AS, a parasite strain that does not induce lung pathology. The lipid profile of the lung tissue from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 developing MA-ALI/ARDS, but not that from mice without lung pathology or controls, was characterized by high levels of phospholipids -mainly phosphatidylcholine- and esterified cholesterol. The high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the linoleic/oleic fatty acid ratio of the latter reflect the fatty acid composition of plasma cholesterol esters. In spite of the increased total polyunsaturated fatty acid pool, which augments the relative oxidability of the lung membranes, and the presence of hemozoin, a known pro-oxidant, no excess oxidative stress was detected in the lungs of Plasmodium berghei NK65 infected mice. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of Plasmodium berghei NK65 infected mice was characterized by high levels of plasma proteins. The phospholipid profile of BAL large and small aggregate fractions was also different from uninfected controls, with a significant increase in the amounts of sphingomyelin and lysophosphatidylcholine and the decrease in phosphatidylglycerol. Both the increase of proteins and lysophosphatidylcholine are known to decrease the intrinsic surface activity of surfactant. Together, these data indicate that an altered lipid composition of lung tissue and BAL fluid, partially ascribed to oedema and lipoprotein infiltration, is a characteristic feature of murine MA-ALI/ARDS and possibly contribute to lung dysfunction. PMID:26624290

  16. Selection of an optimal treatment method for acute periodontitis disease.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Rafik A; Aliyev, B F; Gardashova, Latafat A; Huseynov, Oleg H

    2012-04-01

    The present paper is devoted to selection of an optimal treatment method for acute periodontitis by using fuzzy Choquet integral-based approach. We consider application of different treatment methods depending on development stages and symptoms of the disease. The effectiveness of application of different treatment methods in each stage of the disease is linguistically evaluated by a dentist. The stages of the disease are also linguistically described by a dentist. Dentist's linguistic evaluations are represented by fuzzy sets. The total effectiveness of the each considered treatment method is calculated by using fuzzy Choquet integral with fuzzy number-valued integrand and fuzzy number-valued fuzzy measure. The most effective treatment method is determined by using fuzzy ranking method. PMID:20703669

  17. Protection against LPS-induced acute lung injury by a mechanism-based inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (type 2)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Intae; Dodia, Chandra; Chatterjee, Shampa; Feinstein, Sheldon I.

    2014-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 activity of peroxiredoxin 6 is inhibited by the transition state analog, 1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol (MJ33). This activity is required for the activation of NADPH oxidase, type 2. The present study evaluated the effect of MJ33 on manifestations of acute lung injury. Mice were injected intratracheally (IT) with LPS from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 (LPS, 1 or 5 mg/kg), either concurrently with LPS or 2 h later, and evaluated for lung injury 24 h later. MJ33 inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by lungs when measured at 24 h after LPS. LPS at either a low or high dose significantly increased lung infiltration with inflammatory cells, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-?, and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2), expression of lung vascular cell adhesion molecule, lung permeability (protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, leakage of FITC-dextran, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio), tissue lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, 8-isoprostanes), tissue protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), and activation of NF-?B. MJ33, given either concurrently or 2 h subsequent to LPS, significantly reduced all of these measured parameters. Previous studies of toxicity showed a high margin of safety for MJ33 in the intact mouse. Thus we have identified MJ33 as a potent, nontoxic, and specific mechanism-based inhibitor of NADPH oxidase type 2-mediated ROS generation that protects mice against lung injury associated with inflammation. PMID:24487388

  18. Imatinib attenuates inflammation and vascular leak in a clinically relevant two-hit model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Alicia N; Sammani, Saad; Esquinca, Adilene E; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Garcia, Joe G N; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Dudek, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS), an illness characterized by life-threatening vascular leak, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Recent preclinical studies and clinical observations have suggested a potential role for the chemotherapeutic agent imatinib in restoring vascular integrity. Our prior work demonstrates differential effects of imatinib in mouse models of ALI, namely attenuation of LPS-induced lung injury but exacerbation of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Because of the critical role of mechanical ventilation in the care of patients with ARDS, in the present study we pursued an assessment of the effectiveness of imatinib in a "two-hit" model of ALI caused by combined LPS and VILI. Imatinib significantly decreased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, total cells, neutrophils, and TNF-? levels in mice exposed to LPS plus VILI, indicating that it attenuates ALI in this clinically relevant model. In subsequent experiments focusing on its protective role in LPS-induced lung injury, imatinib attenuated ALI when given 4 h after LPS, suggesting potential therapeutic effectiveness when given after the onset of injury. Mechanistic studies in mouse lung tissue and human lung endothelial cells revealed that imatinib inhibits LPS-induced NF-?B expression and activation. Overall, these results further characterize the therapeutic potential of imatinib against inflammatory vascular leak. PMID:26432864

  19. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI): A Clinical Review with Emphasis on the Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Alexander B.; Moss, Marc; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality world-wide. Although first described in 1983, it took two decades to develop consensus definitions that remain controversial. The pathogenesis of TRALI is related to the infusion of donor antibodies that recognize leukocyte antigens in the transfused host or the infusion of lipids and other biologic response modifiers that accumulate during storage or processing of blood components. TRALI appears to be the result of at least two sequential events and treatment is supportive. This review demonstrates that critically ill patients are more susceptible to TRALI and require special attention by critical care specialists, haematologists and transfusion medicine experts. Further research is required into TRALI and its pathogenesis so that transfusions are safer and administered appropriately. Avoidance including male-only transfusion practices, the use of leukoreduced components, fresher blood/blood components and solvent detergent plasma are also discussed. PMID:19663827

  20. Antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury; from discovery to prevention.

    PubMed

    Peters, Anna L; Van Stein, Danielle; Vlaar, Alexander P J

    2015-09-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a syndrome of respiratory distress caused by blood transfusion, is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. The majority of TRALI cases have been related to passive infusion of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies in donor blood. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo animal models have provided insight in TRALI pathogenesis. The various classes of antibodies implicated in TRALI appear to have different pathophysiological mechanisms for the induction of TRALI involving endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes and, as very recently has been discovered, lymphocytes. The HLA and HNA-antibodies are found mainly in blood from multiparous women as they have become sensitized during pregnancy. The incidence of TRALI has decreased rapidly following the introduction of a male-only strategy for plasma donation. This review focuses on pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the pathophysiology of antibody-mediated TRALI. PMID:25921271

  1. Interleukin 6 Mediates the Therapeutic Effects of Adipose-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shijia; Danchuk, Svitlana D.; Bonvillain, Ryan W.; Xu, Beibei; Scruggs, Brittni A.; Strong, Amy L.; Semon, Julie A.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Betancourt, Aline M.; Sullivan, Deborah E.; Bunnell, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) have anti-inflammatory as well as immunosuppressive activities and are currently the focus of clinical trials for a number of inflammatory diseases. Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory condition of the lung for which standard treatment is mainly supportive due to lack of effective therapies. Our recent studies have demonstrated the ability of both human ASCs (hASCs) and mouse ASCs (mASCs) to attenuate lung damage and inflammation in a rodent model of lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI, suggesting that ASCs may also be beneficial in treating ALI. To better understand how ASCs may act in ALI and to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in ASC modulation of lung inflammation, gene expression analysis was performed in ASC-treated (hASCs or mASCs) and control sham-treated lungs. The results revealed a dramatic difference between the expression of anti-inflammatory molecules by hASCs and mASCs. These data show that the beneficial effects of hASCs and mASCs in ALI may result from the production of different paracrine factors. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression in the mASC-treated lungs was significantly elevated as compared to sham-treated controls 20 hours after delivery of the cells by oropharyngeal aspiration. Knockdown of IL-6 expression in mASCs by RNA interference abrogated most of their therapeutic effects, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory properties of mASCs in ALI are explained, at least in part, by activation of IL-6 secretion. PMID:24449042

  2. Effects of inhaled CO administration on acute lung injury in baboons with pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fredenburgh, Laura E; Kraft, Bryan D; Hess, Dean R; Harris, R Scott; Wolf, Monroe A; Suliman, Hagir B; Roggli, Victor L; Davies, John D; Winkler, Tilo; Stenzler, Alex; Baron, Rebecca M; Thompson, B Taylor; Choi, Augustine M; Welty-Wolf, Karen E; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2015-10-15

    Inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) gas has therapeutic potential for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome if a safe, evidence-based dosing strategy and a ventilator-compatible CO delivery system can be developed. In this study, we used a clinically relevant baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia to 1) test a novel, ventilator-compatible CO delivery system; 2) establish a safe and effective CO dosing regimen; and 3) investigate the local and systemic effects of CO therapy on inflammation and acute lung injury (ALI). Animals were inoculated with S. pneumoniae (10(8)-10(9) CFU) (n = 14) or saline vehicle (n = 5); in a subset with pneumonia (n = 5), we administered low-dose, inhaled CO gas (100-300 ppm × 60-90 min) at 0, 6, 24, and/or 48 h postinoculation and serially measured blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. We found that CO inhalation at 200 ppm for 60 min is well tolerated and achieves a COHb of 6-8% with ambient CO levels ? 1 ppm. The COHb level measured at 20 min predicted the 60-min COHb level by the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation with high accuracy. Animals given inhaled CO + antibiotics displayed significantly less ALI at 8 days postinoculation compared with antibiotics alone. Inhaled CO was associated with activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in the lung and with augmentation of renal antioxidative programs. These data support the feasibility of safely delivering inhaled CO gas during mechanical ventilation and provide preliminary evidence that CO may accelerate the resolution of ALI in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate pneumonia model. PMID:26320156

  3. C-reactive protein enhances murine antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Rick; Kim, Michael; Shanmugabhavananthan, Shanjeevan; Liu, Jonathan; Li, Yuan; Semple, John W

    2015-12-17

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a syndrome of respiratory distress triggered by blood transfusions and is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. TRALI has primarily been attributed to passive infusion of HLA and/or human neutrophil antigen antibodies present in transfused blood products, and predisposing factors such as inflammation are known to be important for TRALI initiation. Because the acute-phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) is highly upregulated during infections and inflammation and can also enhance antibody-mediated responses such as in vitro phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and in vivo thrombocytopenia, we investigated whether CRP affects murine antibody-mediated TRALI induced by the anti-major histocompatibility complex antibody 34-1-2s. We found that BALB/c mice injected with 34-1-2s or CRP alone were resistant to TRALI, however mice injected with 34-1-2s together with CRP had significantly enhanced lung damage and pulmonary edema. Mechanistically, 34-1-2s injection with CRP resulted in a significant synergistic increase in plasma levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and pulmonary neutrophil accumulation. Importantly, murine MIP-2 is the functional homolog of human interleukin-8, a known risk factor for human TRALI. These results suggest that elevated in vivo CRP levels, like those observed during infections, may significantly predispose recipients to antibody-mediated TRALI reactions and support the notion that modulating CRP levels is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce TRALI severity. PMID:26453659

  4. Aging and Lung Disease. Clinical Impact and Cellular and Molecular Pathways.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Mauricio; Mora, Ana L; Kapetanaki, Maria; Weathington, Nathaniel; Gladwin, Mark; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    With the expected rapid growth of the aging population worldwide, there is a clear need to understand the complex process of aging to develop interventions that might extend the health span in this group of patients. Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to a variety of chronic diseases, and lung pathologies are no exception. The prevalence of lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been found to increase considerably with age. In October 2014, the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care of the University of Pittsburgh cohosted the Pittsburgh-Munich Lung Conference focused in aging and lung disease with the Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Ludwig-Maximilians University and Helmholtz Zentrum Munich Germany. The purpose of the conference was to disseminate novel concepts in aging mechanisms that have an impact in lung physiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases that commonly occur in older populations. The conference included 28 presentations on diverse topics, which are summarized in this report. The participants identified priorities for future basic and translational investigations that will assist in the identification of molecular insights involved in the pathogenesis of age-related pulmonary diseases and the design of therapeutic interventions for these lung conditions. PMID:26653202

  5. Respiratory rehabilitation in severe restrictive lung disease secondary to tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, G F; Alba, A; Lee, M

    1984-09-01

    There is a need for portable and less expensive devices for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. The case of a 44-year-old Hispanic woman is illustrative. The patient had severe restrictive lung disease secondary to right phrenic nerve crush/pneumoperitoneum and left pneumonectomy/decortication for bilateral lower lobe tuberculosis. In 1969, 12 years after her last operation, she developed dyspnea, coryza, and somnolence. She was hospitalized with a PaO2 of 30mmHg; PaCO2 of 77mmHg and a pH of 7.28. Pulmonary function tests showed alveolar hypoventilation and her resting ventilation was between 2.26 to 3.74L/min. Her vital capacity was 1130cc (37% of predicted value) and maximum breathing capacity was 36L/min (44% of predicted value). From 1969, she used a poncho (wraparound) ventilator for her long-term respiratory care and modified the poncho suit to meet her personal needs. In 1971, she discovered that a mouth intermittent positive pressure ventilation (MIPPV) method, often used by patients with neuromuscular disorders, was easier to apply. Since then, she has continued to use a Bantam Respirator with MIPPV and a lipguard/mouthpiece during the night, and the respirator with a mouthpiece for a few hours during the days. However, when she has an upper respiratory infection or feels tired, she finds that she needs the greater rest and comfort that the poncho provides. With the assistance of these two respiratory devices, she has been able to complete her education, marry, and lead a fulfilling life in the community. This patient is considered the first person with severe lung pathology to utilize MIPPV for sleep. PMID:6383263

  6. Acute acalculous cholecystitis and cardiovascular disease: a land of confusion.

    PubMed

    Tana, Marco; Tana, Claudio; Cocco, Giulio; Iannetti, Giovanni; Romano, Marcello; Schiavone, Cosima

    2015-12-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) can be defined as acute inflammatory disease of the gallbladder without evidence of gallstones. The first case was reported in 1844 by Duncan et al.; however, some cases may have been missed previously in view of the complexity of the diagnosis. Several risk factors have been identified, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), in view of its multiple mechanisms of action, seems to play a key role. Atypical clinical onset, paucity of symptoms, overlap with comorbidities, and lack of robust, controlled trials result often in under or misdiagnosed cases. Moreover, laboratory results may be negative or not specific in the late stage of the disease, when a surgical treatment cannot be longer helpful if complications arise. A rapid diagnosis is therefore essential to achieve a prompt treatment and to avoid further clinical deterioration. In this short review, we would present the current evidence regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of the complex relation between AAC and CVD. Then, we fully emphasize the role of ultrasound to achieve an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment in suspected cases, reducing mortality and complications rates. PMID:26550069

  7. Lithium-Induced Minimal Change Disease and Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Parul; Wong, Natalie; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lithium carbonate is a psychiatric medication commonly used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. It has been implicated in inducing nephrogenic diabetes inspidus, chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, and acute tubular necrosis. We describe a case of lithium-induced minimal change disease (MCD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Case Report: A 32-year-old female with a medical history of bipolar disorder treated with chronic lithium therapy presented with anasarca, fatigue, and tremors. Work-up revealed supra-therapeutic lithium levels, hypoalbuminemia, and significant proteinuria. The patient was treated conservatively with fluids and discontinuation of lithium therapy. Subsequently, she developed significant AKI and persistent proteinuria. She underwent a renal biopsy that demonstrated effacement of podocyte foot processes consistent with lithium-induced MCD. This was treated with corticosteroids, which decreased the proteinuria and resolved all the patient's symptoms. Conclusion: Lithium-induced MCD is a rare disease that affects patients of all ages. It is often associated with therapeutic lithium and is typically resolved with discontinuation of lithium. In some cases, concurrent AKI may result due to vascular obstruction from hyperalbuminuria and associated renal interstitial edema. Corticosteroids may be needed to reduce the proteinuria and prevent progression to chronic kidney disease. As such, patients on lithium therapy may benefit from monitoring of glomerular function via urinalysis to prevent the onset of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26258081

  8. Factors promoting acute and chronic diseases caused by yersiniae.

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, R R

    1991-01-01

    The experimental system constructed with the medically significant yersiniae provides a powerful basic model for comparative study of factors required for expression of acute versus chronic disease. The system exploits the close genetic similarity between Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of bubonic plague, and enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. Y. pestis possesses three plasmids, of which one, shared by the enteropathogenic species, mediates a number of virulence factors that directly or indirectly promote survival within macrophages and immunosuppression. The two remaining plasmids are unique and encode functions that promote acute disease by enhancing bacterial dissemination in tissues and resistance to phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes. These properties are replaced in the enteropathogenic yersiniae by host cell invasins and an adhesin which promote chronic disease; the latter are cryptic in Y. pestis. Additional distinctions include specific mutational losses in Y. pestis which result in loss of fitness in natural environments plus gain of properties that facilitate transmission and infection via fleabite. Images PMID:1889045

  9. [Acute respiratory diseases: a study on health inequalities].

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Anna M; Westphal, Marcia F; Akerman, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses health inequalities based on acute childhood respiratory diseases in the coverage area of a health center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, to help plan local health promotion activities. The work was based on ecological studies using the geographic area as the unit of analysis, allowing a comparison of health and socioeconomic indicators based on census data. Indicators were constructed for "social inclusion" and "housing quality", generating the "potential exposure index", which reflects the respiratory disease risk conditions. Statistical treatment included grouping according to the cluster technique. Four homogenous social groups were identified in terms of risk conditions for acute respiratory diseases. Groups III and IV, with the worst socioeconomic conditions, showed important differences in comparison to groups I and II. The differences in mortality from pneumonia suggest important health inequalities. The results allow the geographic localization of the highest and lowest concentration of needs in terms of living conditions and the comparison of census tracts for recognizing distinct needs, thus supporting proposals for inter-sector collaboration. PMID:18209834

  10. Dexmedetomidine attenuates acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mouse through inhibition of MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingzhen; Zhang, Ruyi; Li, Chunli; Yin, Xue; Lv, Changjun; Wang, Yaoqi; Zhao, Wenxiang; Zhang, Xiuli

    2015-10-01

    Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is widely used for sedation in intensive care units and can be used as an adjunct to anesthetics. Previous studies have demonstrated that Dex has anti-inflammatory property. In this study, we aim to explore the potential therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Dex on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. To induce ALI, mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS, while Dex was treated 1 h before LPS injection. The inflammation of lung tissues was evaluated by HE stain, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained after 6 h to measure protein concentrations. We also used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the secretion levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum. Western blotting method was adopted to observe changes in mitogen-activated protein kinases and downstream nuclear transcription factors. The results showed that pretreatment with Dex considerably reduced neutrophil infiltration and pulmonary edema, and significantly reduced protein concentrations in the BALF, as well as suppressed LPS-induced elevation of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) in the serum. In addition, we observed that the molecular mechanism of Dex-mediated anti-inflammation is associated with decreasing phosphorylation of MKK4, MMK3/6, ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and JNK, and diminishing activation of Elk-1, c-Jun, and ATF-2. Dex could attenuate ALI induced by LPS in mice, and this effect may be mediated through the inhibition of MAPK pathway. PMID:26211495

  11. Acute Abdominal Pain after Intercourse: Adrenal Hemorrhage as the First Sign of Metastatic Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Clifford D.

    2014-01-01

    Although the adrenal glands are a common site of cancer metastases, they are often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on CT scan or autopsy. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage associated with metastatic lung cancer is an exceedingly rare phenomenon, and diagnosis can be difficult due to its nonspecific symptoms and ability to mimic other intra-abdominal pathologies. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with a history of right upper lobectomy seven months earlier for stage IB non-small cell lung cancer who presented with acute abdominal pain after intercourse. CT scan revealed a new right adrenal mass with surrounding hemorrhage, and subsequent FDG-PET scan confirmed new metabolic adrenal metastases. The patient's presentation of abdominal pain and adrenal hemorrhage immediately after sexual intercourse suggests that exertion, straining, or increased intra-abdominal pressure might be risk factors for precipitation of hemorrhage in patients with adrenal metastases. Management includes pain control and supportive treatment in mild cases, with arterial embolization or adrenalectomy being reserved for cases of severe hemorrhage. PMID:25126096

  12. [Associations between Clinical Factors and Acute Renal Failure Due to Cisplatin Combination Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Koki; Yoshino, Masaki; Sasaki, Naho; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Abe, Maki; Tagawa, Chiaki; Kawahara, Fumiko; Kato, Katsuhiko; Kaise, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Chou, Takaaki

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the clinical factors associated with acute kidney injury(AKI)due to combination therapy with cisplatin(CDDP)for treating lung cancer. We classified cases according to the presence or absence of adequate hydration and magnesium(Mg)administered above the regulations of the registered regimen to evaluate the effect due to differences in hydration on AKI. We also investigated clinical factors before and after administration of CDDP in each case group, and examined their association with AKI. Seventy-four patients with lung cancer that were indicated for treatment with a CDDP combination regimen between December 2012 and April 2013 were studied. The patients whose conditions progressed to AKI of Bgrade 2 accounted for 0%(0/33)in theMg administration group and 7.3%(3/41)in theMg non-administration group. In particular, 2 cases of serious AKI(grade 4)were observed in the Mg non-administration without additional hydration group. When compared with other groups, a high antiemetic rate and favorable urine volume were observed in the Mg administration with additional hydration group. In the patients with AKI, many developed hyponatremia of Bgrade 3 within 1 week after administration of CDDP. Although Mg administration and ample hydration seem to be effective measures to deal with CDDP-caused AKI, comprehensive monitoring, including antiemesis therapy, after CDDP administration and correction of electrolytes is important. PMID:26602395

  13. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nai-yu; Li, Xian-lun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Zhi-tao; Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Dao-feng

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara (RJFs) in acute lung injury (ALI) mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6?mg/kg) per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3) in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1?), and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals. PMID:25013450

  14. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chun-Jun; Xu, Nai-Yu; Li, Xian-Lun; Xia, Long; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Dao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara (RJFs) in acute lung injury (ALI) mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6?mg/kg) per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3) in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF- ? , IL-6, and IL-1 ? ), and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals. PMID:25013450

  15. Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease Study in Tehran: Research Design and Lung Spirometry Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Hooman; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Habib; Ghanei, Mostafa; Buist, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are planned to rank fifth in burden of disease and third with respect to mortality by 2020. Carrying out research regarding different aspects of COPD is mentioned as important health priorities by academic institutions and governments. The burden of lung disease (BOLD) Initiative was designed a decade ago to develop robust models that can be used to estimate the prevalence and current and future economic burden of COPD. The goal of the present project is to describe the prevalence and determining the causes and risk factors of COPD in the population of Tehran city. Methods: This cross-sectional study follows a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population is all noninstitutionalized inhabitants, aged 18-40 in one group and over 40 in another, who inhabit in Tehran city. The stratification of the sample according to the 22 municipal districts of Tehran is incorporated in the sampling process. Proportional to the number of households in the 22 districts, the appropriate number of clusters is weighted according to each district. For each cluster, a team of three members approaches the index household, which is specified through the aforementioned random selection of clusters, and continues the enumeration in 10 neighbor households in a systematic manner. Results: As a study protocol, there are no specific results to present; our purpose is to share our design with the scientific body. Conclusions: We expect that findings from the BOLD study in Tehran will show the status of COPD and its causes in the community. PMID:25538840

  16. Combined Effects of Chronic Nicotine and Acute Virus Exposure on Neurotrophin Expression in Rat Lung

    PubMed Central

    Urrego, Fernando; Scuri, Mario; Auais, Alexander; Mohtasham, Lida; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Summary Strong epidemiologic evidence indicates that tobacco smoke influences frequency and severity of respiratory infections. Previously, we have shown that infection with respiratory syncytial virus upregulates expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors in the lungs, but the effect of tobacco exposure on neurotrophins is unknown. Therefore, we first sought to determine the expression of neurotrophic pathways in lungs of rats chronically exposed to nicotine, and then we studied the interactions between pollution and infection by inoculating virus after nicotine exposure. Expression of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, of their high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptors (trkA and trkB, respectively), and of the low-affinity receptor p75NTR was measured in the lungs of nicotine-exposed rats both at the mRNA level by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and at the protein level by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Nicotine increased NGF expression both at the mRNA and protein level and also created a receptor imbalance deriving from increased expression of the pro-inflammatory p75NTR receptor without any concomitant change in the high-affinity trkA receptor. Viral infection after chronic nicotine exposure exerted an additive effect on NGF expression, and resulted in exaggerated neurogenic airway inflammation that was abolished by selective inhibition. In conclusion, nicotine levels comparable to those found in smokers are per se able to upregulate the expression of critical neurotrophic molecules in the respiratory tract, and combination of an acute infection following chronic nicotine exposure produces more severe neurotrophic dysregulation and neurogenic-mediated inflammation compared to either infection or nicotine alone. PMID:19824047

  17. Galantamine protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Zhou, Cl; Zhou, Qs; Zou, Hd

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia triggers the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and can cause acute lung injury (ALI). The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein plays an important role as a late mediator of sepsis and ALI. Galantamine (GAL) is a central acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that inhibits the expression of HMGB1. This study evaluated the effects of GAL by measuring levels of inflammatory mediators and observing histopathological features associated with LPS-induced ALI. Sixty 8-10 week old male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-240 g) were randomized into three groups as follows: control group, LPS group (7.5 mg/kg LPS), and LPS+GAL group (5 mg/kg GAL before LPS administration). Histopathological examination of lung specimens obtained 12 h after LPS administration was performed to analyze changes in wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and HMGB1 expression level. Additionally, plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and HMGB1 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 0 (baseline), 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after LPS administration. Mortality in the three groups was recorded at 72 h. LPS-induced ALI was characterized by distortion of pulmonary architecture and elevation of MPO activity, W/D weight ratio, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and HMGB1. Pretreatment with GAL significantly reduced the LPS-induced lung pathological changes, W/D weight ratio, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MPO activity (ANOVA). Moreover, GAL treatment significantly decreased the mortality rate (ANOVA). In conclusion, we demonstrated that GAL exerted a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in rats. PMID:26648090

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress of Neutrophils Is Required for Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Yan, Jia; Li, Qi-Fang; Huang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Jiang, Hong

    2015-11-15

    Diverse clinical factors, including intestinal ischemia, contribute to acute lung injury (ALI), which has up to a 40% mortality rate. During the development of lung injury an immune response is elicited that exacerbates the lung insult. Neutrophils have been well studied in mediating the pulmonary insults through an assortment of mechanisms, such as release of granule contents and production of proinflammatory cytokines due to the overactivation of complement and cytokines. In this study, we found that enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in infiltrated neutrophils in the early stage of an ALI mice model. In neutrophils, complement 5a (C5a) inspires strong ER stress through inositol-requiring kinase 1a and, to a less extent, the protein kinase R -: like ER kinase signaling pathway. The granule release induced by C5a was ER stress mediated. Knowkdown of X-box -: binding protein 1, a downstream signaling molecule of inositol-requiring kinase 1a, impaired granule release, based on myeloperoxidase production. Further analysis revealed that C5a induced ER stress by binding to C5a receptor in neutrophils. Using xbp(f/f) MRP8-cre mice in which X-box-binding protein 1 is deficient specifically in neutrophils and ER stress is deprived, we confirmed that ER stress in neutrophils was required for granule release in vivo and led to ALI, whereas dampening ER stress in neutrophils substantially alleviated ALI. Taken together, our results demonstrated that C5a receptor -: mediated ER stress induced granule release in neutrophils, contributing to the development of ALI. This novel mechanism suggests a new potential therapeutic target in autophagy regulation for ALI. PMID:26475925

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress of Neutrophils Is Required for Ischemia/Reperfusion–Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Yan, Jia; Li, Qi-Fang; Huang, Yan; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Diverse clinical factors, including intestinal ischemia, contribute to acute lung injury (ALI), which has up to a 40% mortality rate. During the development of lung injury an immune response is elicited that exacerbates the lung insult. Neutrophils have been well studied in mediating the pulmonary insults through an assortment of mechanisms, such as release of granule contents and production of proinflammatory cytokines due to the overactivation of complement and cytokines. In this study, we found that enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in infiltrated neutrophils in the early stage of an ALI mice model. In neutrophils, complement 5a (C5a) inspires strong ER stress through inositol-requiring kinase 1a and, to a less extent, the protein kinase R–like ER kinase signaling pathway. The granule release induced by C5a was ER stress mediated. Knowkdown of X-box–binding protein 1, a downstream signaling molecule of inositol-requiring kinase 1a, impaired granule release, based on myeloperoxidase production. Further analysis revealed that C5a induced ER stress by binding to C5a receptor in neutrophils. Using xbpf/f MRP8-cre mice in which X-box–binding protein 1 is deficient specifically in neutrophils and ER stress is deprived, we confirmed that ER stress in neutrophils was required for granule release in vivo and led to ALI, whereas dampening ER stress in neutrophils substantially alleviated ALI. Taken together, our results demonstrated that C5a receptor–mediated ER stress induced granule release in neutrophils, contributing to the development of ALI. This novel mechanism suggests a new potential therapeutic target in autophagy regulation for ALI. PMID:26475925

  20. Sevoflurane reduces severity of acute lung injury possibly by impairing formation of alveolar oedema.

    PubMed

    Schläpfer, M; Leutert, A C; Voigtsberger, S; Lachmann, R A; Booy, C; Beck-Schimmer, B

    2012-04-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI), consisting of various degrees of water and proteins. Physiologically, sodium enters through apical sodium channels (ENaC) and is extruded basolaterally by a sodium-potassium-adenosine-triphosphatase pump (Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase). Water follows to maintain iso-osmolar conditions and to keep alveoli dry. We postulated that the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane would impact oedema resolution positively in an in-vitro and in-vivo model of ALI. Alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII) and mixed alveolar epithelial cells (mAEC) were stimulated with 20?µg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and co-exposed to sevoflurane for 8?h. In-vitro active sodium transport via ENaC and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase was determined, assessing (22) sodium and (86) rubidium influx, respectively. Intratracheally applied LPS (150?µg) was used for the ALI in rats under sevoflurane or propofol anaesthesia (8?h). Oxygenation index (PaO(2) /FiO(2) ) was calculated and lung oedema assessed determining lung wet/dry ratio. In AECII LPS decreased activity of ENaC and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase by 17·4%?±?13·3% standard deviation and 16·2%?±?13·1%, respectively. These effects were reversible in the presence of sevoflurane. Significant better oxygenation was observed with an increase of PaO(2) /FiO(2) from 189?±?142?mmHg to 454?±?25?mmHg after 8?h in the sevoflurane/LPS compared to the propofol/LPS group. The wet/dry ratio in sevoflurane/LPS was reduced by 21·6%?±?2·3% in comparison to propofol/LPS-treated animals. Sevoflurane has a stimulating effect on ENaC and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in vitro in LPS-injured AECII. In-vivo experiments, however, give strong evidence that sevoflurane does not affect water reabsorption and oedema resolution, but possibly oedema formation. PMID:22385247

  1. Directional Multi-scale Modeling of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) Lung Images for Diffuse Lung Disease Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Kiet T.; Sowmya, Arcot

    A directional multi-scale modeling scheme based on wavelet and contourlet transforms is employed to describe HRCT lung image textures for classifying four diffuse lung disease patterns: normal, emphysema, ground glass opacity (GGO) and honey-combing. Generalized Gaussian density parameters are used to represent the detail sub-band features obtained by wavelet and contourlet transforms. In addition, support vector machines (SVMs) with excellent performance in a variety of pattern classification problems are used as classifier. The method is tested on a collection of 89 slices from 38 patients, each slice of size 512x512, 16 bits/pixel in DICOM format. The dataset contains 70,000 ROIs of those slices marked by experienced radiologists. We employ this technique at different wavelet and contourlet transform scales for diffuse lung disease classification. The technique presented here has best overall sensitivity 93.40% and specificity 98.40%.

  2. Next generation treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Magenau, J; Reddy, P

    2014-12-01

    Despite rapid increase in the utilization of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, non-relapse mortality and sequela from acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain principle barriers. GVHD involves complex interactions between innate and adaptive immunity, culminating in tissue damage by inflammatory mediators and cellular effectors. Recently, our understanding of the molecular intricacies of GVHD has grown tremendously. New insights into the roles played by novel cytokines, chemokines, intracellular signaling pathways, epigenetics and post-translational modifications of proteins in GVHD biology provide numerous targets that might be therapeutically exploited. This review highlights recent advances and identifies opportunities for reshaping contemporary GVHD therapeutics. PMID:24938648

  3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and lung fibrosis after ingestion of a high dose of ortho-phenylphenol.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Wang, Hao-Chien; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2005-08-01

    Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) and its sodium salt are used as fungicides and antibacterial agents, ingestion of which has been found to cause liver toxicity, renal toxicity and carcinomas in the urinary tract of rats. Lung damage due to OPP ingestion has not been reported in humans. We report a suicidal 39-year-old woman with stage II cervical cancer who drank a potentially lethal dose of OPP in the form of a commercial antiseptic, which led to the complication of liver and renal function impairment, severe lung damage with acute respiratory distress syndrome and subsequent severe lung fibrosis. Open lung biopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage. She was discharged after 34 days of hospitalization with continuing domiciliary oxygen therapy. PMID:16193180

  4. Release of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nuclear import block enhances host transcription in human lung cells.

    PubMed

    Sims, Amy C; Tilton, Susan C; Menachery, Vineet D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Schäfer, Alexandra; Matzke, Melissa M; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Chang, Jean; Luna, Maria L; Long, Casey E; Shukla, Anil K; Bankhead, Armand R; Burkett, Susan E; Zornetzer, Gregory; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; Metz, Thomas O; Pickles, Raymond; McWeeney, Shannon; Smith, Richard D; Katze, Michael G; Waters, Katrina M; Baric, Ralph S

    2013-04-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus accessory protein ORF6 antagonizes interferon signaling by blocking karyopherin-mediated nuclear import processes. Viral nuclear import antagonists, expressed by several highly pathogenic RNA viruses, likely mediate pleiotropic effects on host gene expression, presumably interfering with transcription factors, cytokines, hormones, and/or signaling cascades that occur in response to infection. By bioinformatic and systems biology approaches, we evaluated the impact of nuclear import antagonism on host expression networks by using human lung epithelial cells infected with either wild-type virus or a mutant that does not express ORF6 protein. Microarray analysis revealed significant changes in differential gene expression, with approximately twice as many upregulated genes in the mutant virus samples by 48 h postinfection, despite identical viral titers. Our data demonstrated that ORF6 protein expression attenuates the activity of numerous karyopherin-dependent host transcription factors (VDR, CREB1, SMAD4, p53, EpasI, and Oct3/4) that are critical for establishing antiviral responses and regulating key host responses during virus infection. Results were confirmed by proteomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay analyses and in parallel microarray studies using infected primary human airway epithelial cell cultures. The data strongly support the hypothesis that viral antagonists of nuclear import actively manipulate host responses in specific hierarchical patterns, contributing to the viral pathogenic potential in vivo. Importantly, these studies and modeling approaches not only provide templates for evaluating virus antagonism of nuclear import processes but also can reveal candidate cellular genes and pathways that may significantly influence disease outcomes following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in vivo. PMID:23365422

  5. Release of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nuclear Import Block Enhances Host Transcription in Human Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Susan C.; Menachery, Vineet D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Schäfer, Alexandra; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Chang, Jean; Luna, Maria L.; Long, Casey E.; Shukla, Anil K.; Bankhead, Armand R.; Burkett, Susan E.; Zornetzer, Gregory; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; Metz, Thomas O.; Pickles, Raymond; McWeeney, Shannon; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus accessory protein ORF6 antagonizes interferon signaling by blocking karyopherin-mediated nuclear import processes. Viral nuclear import antagonists, expressed by several highly pathogenic RNA viruses, likely mediate pleiotropic effects on host gene expression, presumably interfering with transcription factors, cytokines, hormones, and/or signaling cascades that occur in response to infection. By bioinformatic and systems biology approaches, we evaluated the impact of nuclear import antagonism on host expression networks by using human lung epithelial cells infected with either wild-type virus or a mutant that does not express ORF6 protein. Microarray analysis revealed significant changes in differential gene expression, with approximately twice as many upregulated genes in the mutant virus samples by 48 h postinfection, despite identical viral titers. Our data demonstrated that ORF6 protein expression attenuates the activity of numerous karyopherin-dependent host transcription factors (VDR, CREB1, SMAD4, p53, EpasI, and Oct3/4) that are critical for establishing antiviral responses and regulating key host responses during virus infection. Results were confirmed by proteomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay analyses and in parallel microarray studies using infected primary human airway epithelial cell cultures. The data strongly support the hypothesis that viral antagonists of nuclear import actively manipulate host responses in specific hierarchical patterns, contributing to the viral pathogenic potential in vivo. Importantly, these studies and modeling approaches not only provide templates for evaluating virus antagonism of nuclear import processes but also can reveal candidate cellular genes and pathways that may significantly influence disease outcomes following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in vivo. PMID:23365422

  6. A Novel Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Role for Resolvin D1 in Acute Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Thomas H.; Croasdell, Amanda; Levy, Elizabeth P.; Fulton, Robert A.; Olsen, Keith C.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Serhan, Charles N.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoke is a profound pro-inflammatory stimulus that contributes to acute lung injuries and to chronic lung disease including COPD (emphysema and chronic bronchitis). Until recently, it was assumed that resolution of inflammation was a passive process that occurred once the inflammatory stimulus was removed. It is now recognized that resolution of inflammation is a bioactive process, mediated by specialized lipid mediators, and that normal homeostasis is maintained by a balance between pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving pathways. These novel small lipid mediators, including the resolvins, protectins and maresins, are bioactive products mainly derived from dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We hypothesize that resolvin D1 (RvD1) has potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects in a model of cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation. Methods Primary human lung fibroblasts, small airway epithelial cells and blood monocytes were treated with IL-1? or cigarette smoke extract in combination with RvD1 in vitro, production of pro-inflammatory mediators was measured. Mice were exposed to dilute mainstream cigarette smoke and treated with RvD1 either concurrently with smoke or after smoking cessation. The effects on lung inflammation and lung macrophage populations were assessed. Results RvD1 suppressed production of pro-inflammatory mediators by primary human cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of mice with RvD1 concurrently with cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced neutrophilic lung inflammation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. RvD1 promoted differentiation of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages and neutrophil efferocytosis. RvD1 also accelerated the resolution of lung inflammation when given after the final smoke exposure. Conclusions RvD1 has potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects in cells and mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Resolvins have strong potential as a novel therapeutic approach to resolve lung injury caused by smoke and pulmonary toxicants. PMID:23484005

  7. Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca; Reese, Charles; Bonner, Michael; Tourkina, Elena; Hajdu, Zoltan; Riemer, Ellen C; Silver, Richard M; Visconti, Richard P; Hoffman, Stanley

    2014-04-15

    The interstitial lung diseases (ILD) include a large number of chronic, progressive, irreversible respiratory disorders involving pulmonary fibrosis, the most common of which are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and scleroderma lung disease (SSc ILD). Because bleomycin causes lung fibrosis when used in cancer chemotherapy, it is used to model human ILD in rodents. In most studies, bleomycin has been delivered directly into the lung by intratracheal or intraoral administration. Here we have compared the effects in mice of bleomycin delivered directly into the lungs (direct model) or systemically using osmotic minipumps (pump model) to determine which more closely resembles human ILD. The pump model is more similar to human SSc ILD in that: 1) lung injury/fibrosis is limited to the subpleural portion of the lung in the pump model and in SSc ILD, whereas the entire lung is affected in the direct model; 2) conversely, there is massive inflammation throughout the lung in the direct model, whereas inflammation is limited in the pump model and in SSc ILD; 3) hypertrophic type II alveolar epithelial cells are present at high levels in SSc ILD and in the pump model but not in the direct model; and 4) lung fibrosis is accompanied by dermal fibrosis. The pump model is also move convenient and humane than the direct model because there is less weight loss and mortality. PMID:24583879

  8. Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca; Reese, Charles; Bonner, Michael; Tourkina, Elena; Hajdu, Zoltan; Riemer, Ellen C.; Silver, Richard M.; Visconti, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    The interstitial lung diseases (ILD) include a large number of chronic, progressive, irreversible respiratory disorders involving pulmonary fibrosis, the most common of which are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and scleroderma lung disease (SSc ILD). Because bleomycin causes lung fibrosis when used in cancer chemotherapy, it is used to model human ILD in rodents. In most studies, bleomycin has been delivered directly into the lung by intratracheal or intraoral administration. Here we have compared the effects in mice of bleomycin delivered directly into the lungs (direct model) or systemically using osmotic minipumps (pump model) to determine which more closely resembles human ILD. The pump model is more similar to human SSc ILD in that: 1) lung injury/fibrosis is limited to the subpleural portion of the lung in the pump model and in SSc ILD, whereas the entire lung is affected in the direct model; 2) conversely, there is massive inflammation throughout the lung in the direct model, whereas inflammation is limited in the pump model and in SSc ILD; 3) hypertrophic type II alveolar epithelial cells are present at high levels in SSc ILD and in the pump model but not in the direct model; and 4) lung fibrosis is accompanied by dermal fibrosis. The pump model is also move convenient and humane than the direct model because there is less weight loss and mortality. PMID:24583879

  9. Aspirin as Primary Prevention of Acute Coronary Heart Disease Events

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Stephen P.; Hovater, Martha; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Aspirin for primary prophylaxis is controversial. This study evaluated associations between prophylactic aspirin use and incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods and Results The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study was accessed for aspirin use examining black and white hazards for incident CHD, for men and women, each adjusting incrementally for sampling, sociodemographics, and CHD risk factors. Stratified models examined risks across strata of the Framingham risk score, and all-cause mortality. 23,949 participants (mean 64 yo), had 503 incident events over a 3.5 year follow-up. Prophylactic aspirin use was not associated with incident acute CHD, HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.86, 1.29). Modeling had little impact on the HR (1.09 {95% CI 0.89, 1.33) nor did the addition of risk factors (HR 1.00 {95% CI 0.81, 1.23). Aspirin use was not associated with incident CHD for any Framingham risk level. Findings were similar when including all aspirin users (not just those taking aspirin prophylactically), and when examining associations with all-cause mortality. There was no excess hospitalized bleeding in the aspirin users. Conclusion Aspirin was not associated with lower risk for incident acute CHD overall, or within race, gender, or Framingham Risk Score. PMID:26413491

  10. Implementation and results of a new ECMO program for lung transplantation and acute respiratory distress

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Eduardo San; Venuti, María Sofía; Ciarrocchi, Nicolás Marcelo; Ceballos, Ignacio Fernández; Gogniat, Emiliano; Villarroel, Sonia; Carini, Federico Carlos; Giannasi, Sergio Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The development of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in Latin America represents a challenge in this specialty field. The objective of this article was to describe the results of a new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation program in an intensive care unit. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 22 patients who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and were treated from January 2011 to June 2014. The baseline characteristics, indications, duration of the condition, days on mechanical ventilation, days in the intensive care unit, complications, and hospital mortality were evaluated. Results Fifteen patients required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after lung transplantation, and seven patients required oxygenation due to acute respiratory distress. All transplanted patients were weaned from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a median duration of 3 days (Interquartile range - IQR: 2 - 5), were on mechanical ventilation for a median of 15.5 days (IQR: 3 - 25), and had an intensive care unit stay of 31.5 days (IQR: 19 - 53) and a median hospital stay of 60 days (IQR: 36 - 89) with 20% mortality. Patients with acute respiratory distress had a median oxygenation membrane duration of 9 days (IQR: 3 - 14), median mechanical ventilation time of 25 days (IQR: 13 - 37), a 31 day stay in therapy (IQR: 11 - 38), a 32 day stay in the hospital (IQR: 11 - 41), and 57% mortality. The main complications were infections (80%), acute kidney failure (43%), bleeding at the surgical site and at the site of cannula placement (22%), plateletopenia (60%), and coagulopathy (30%). Conclusion In spite of the steep learning curve, we considered this experience to be satisfactory, with results and complications comparable to those reported in the literature. PMID:26340153

  11. Time course changes of oxidative stress and inflammation in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shouli; Shi, Min; Liu, Changting; Liu, Qinghui; Guo, Jun; Yu, Senyang; Jiang, Tingshu

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Therapies with high levels of oxygen are commonly used in the management of critical care. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia can cause acute lung injury. Although oxidative stress and inflammation are purported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury, the exact mechanisms are still less known in the hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI). Materials and Methods: In this study, we investigated the time course changes of oxidative stress and inflammation in lung tissues of rats exposed to >95% oxygen for 12-60 hr. Results: We found that at 12 hr after hyperoxia challenge, the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly reduced with remarkably increased lipid peroxidation. At 12 hr, NF-?B p65 expression was also upregulated, but I?-B? expression showed a remarkable decline. Significant production of inflammatory mediators, e.g, interleukin-1?, occurred 24 hr after hyperoxia exposure. In addition, the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and the activity of myeloperoxidase were significantly increased at 24 hr with a peak at 48 hr. Conclusion: Our data support that hyperoxia-induced oxidative damage and NF-?B pathway activation implicate in the early phase of HALI pathogenesis. PMID:25810882

  12. A Coin-Like Peripheral Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Associated with Acute Paraneoplastic Axonal Guillain-Barre-Like Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Balasa, Rodica; Motataianu, Anca; Contac, Anca Otilia; Halmaciu, Ioana; Popescu, Septimiu; Simu, Iunius

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A 65-year-old previously healthy male heavy smoker was hospitalized with a 2-week history of progressive muscle weakness in the lower and upper extremities. After 10 days of hospitalization, urinary sphincter incompetence and fecal incontinence were added and tetraparesis was established. The computer-tomography scan examination revealed a massive right hydrothorax and multifocal solid acinar structures with peripheral localization in the left lung, which suggested pulmonary cancer. Bone marrow metastases were also suspected. Based on the examination results, the final diagnosis was acute paraneoplastic axonal Guillain-Barre-like syndrome. The patient died 3 weeks after hospitalization. At autopsy, bronchopneumonia and a right hydrothorax were confirmed. Several 4 to 5-mm-sized round peripherally located white nodules were identified in the left lung, without any central tumor mass. Under microscope, a coin-shaped peripheral/subpleural small cell carcinoma was diagnosed, with generalized bone metastases. A huge thrombus in the abdominal aorta and acute pancreatitis was also seen at autopsy. This case highlights the difficulty of diagnosis of lung carcinomas and the necessity of a complex differential diagnosis of severe progressive ascending neuropathies. This is the 6th reported case of small cell lung cancer-associated acute Guillain-Barre-like syndrome and the first report about an association with a coin-like peripheral pattern. PMID:26039124

  13. Dent's disease complicated by an acute Budd-Chiari syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Caroline; Jadresic, Lyda; Dudley, Jan; Hartley, Jane L

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young boy with Dent's disease, identified as having a mutation in the kidney-specific chloride-proton antitransporter CLCN5 during investigation for nephrotic-range proteinuria. He went on to develop growth hormone deficiency and was treated with recombinant growth hormone. He later presented acutely with hepatorenal failure and thrombotic occlusion of the middle and right hepatic veins consistent with a diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome, which required a prolonged period of intensive care. The diagnosis of Dent's disease should be considered early in boys with nephrotic-range proteinuria in the absence of clinical oedema and hypoalbuminaemia to allow for the timely introduction of strategies, such as a high-citrate diet, to preserve renal function. The measurement of urinary ?-2 microglobulin has been shown by this case to be a more reliable and specific marker of tubular dysfunction than the urinary retinol-binding protein. PMID:24398869

  14. Dent's disease complicated by an acute Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed

    Platt, Caroline; Jadresic, Lyda; Dudley, Jan; Hartley, Jane L

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young boy with Dent's disease, identified as having a mutation in the kidney-specific chloride-proton antitransporter CLCN5 during investigation for nephrotic-range proteinuria. He went on to develop growth hormone deficiency and was treated with recombinant growth hormone. He later presented acutely with hepatorenal failure and thrombotic occlusion of the middle and right hepatic veins consistent with a diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome, which required a prolonged period of intensive care. The diagnosis of Dent's disease should be considered early in boys with nephrotic-range proteinuria in the absence of clinical oedema and hypoalbuminaemia to allow for the timely introduction of strategies, such as a high-citrate diet, to preserve renal function. The measurement of urinary ?-2 microglobulin has been shown by this case to be a more reliable and specific marker of tubular dysfunction than the urinary retinol-binding protein. PMID:24398869

  15. Balloon angioplasty in acute and chronic coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, D.R. Jr.; Vlietstra, R.E. )

    1989-04-14

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has grown exponentially since its introduction. Currently, selection criteria include single-vessel and multivessel disease, stable and unstable angina, and acute infarction. The outcome depends on specific patient and antiographic characteristics. In ideal lesions, success rates should be greater than 90%, with low morbidity and mortality. With more severe and diffuse multivessel disease, success rates are lower and complication rates are higher. In these cases, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty still offers a reasonable option, provided complete revascularization can be achieved or the angina-producing lesion dilated. Numerous issues remain unresolved, including (1) the role of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty vs coronary surgery (currently being tested), (2) restenosis, which occurs in approximately 30% of treated lesions, and (3) organizational adjustments such as training and certification to maintain high standards of care.

  16. Lung Manifestations in an Autopsy-Based Series of Pulmonary or Disseminated Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Meghan L.; Birkenkamp, Kate E.; Kleiner, David E.; Folio, Les R.; Holland, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comparisons of lung manifestations in primary pulmonary vs disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial disease have not been well described. The clinical, histopathologic, and radiologic disease manifestations of primary pulmonary or disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial disease were compared in an autopsy series. Methods: Medical and microbiologic records, autopsy reports, histopathologic slides of the lungs, and chest CT scans were reviewed on patients at the National Institutes of Health with nontuberculous mycobacterial disease who died between 1996 and 2010. Results: The 11 patients with primary pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease were predominantly female (n = 9), with symptom onset at median 50 (range 35, 71) years and time from onset until death of 12 (3, 34) years. Bronchiectasis with cavity formation and necrotizing bronchocentric granulomatous inflammation predominated but extrapulmonary infection was absent. The five patients with disseminated disease and systemic immune defects were all men with age at onset of 2 (0.33, 33) years and time from onset of disease until death of 9 (1, 31) years. Miliary nodules and/or consolidation with poorly formed granulomatous inflammation were noted in the three disseminated patients with mycobacterial lung involvement. Significant extrapulmonary infection was noted in all five with a relative paucity of lung findings. Conclusions: Nontuberculous mycobacteria can cause progressive, fatal disease. Primary pulmonary disease is bronchocentric and lacks extrathoracic infection consistent with impaired airway surface defenses. In contrast, fatal disseminated infections involving the lung have hematogenous spread, extensive extrathoracic disease, and a distinct pulmonary histopathology consistent with systemic immune dysfunction. PMID:22194586

  17. Breath analysis system for early detection of lung diseases based on multi-sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Yu, Joon-Boo; Shin, Jeong-Suk; Byun, Hyung-Gi; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Expiratory breath contains various VOCs(Volatile Organic Compounds) produced from the human. When a certain disease exists, the exhalation has specific VOCs which may be generated from diseases. Many researchers have been actively working to find different types of biomarkers which are characteristic for particular diseases. Research regarding the identification of specific diseases from exhalation is still in progress. The aim of this research is to implement early detection of lung disease such as lung cancer and COPD(Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), which was nominated on the 6th of domestic death rate in 2010, based on multi-sensor array system. The system has been used to acquire sampled expiratory gases data and PCA(Principle Component Analysis) technique was applied to analyze signals from multi-sensor array. Throughout the experimental trials, a clearly distinguishable difference between lung disease patients and healthy controls was found from the measurement and analysis of their respective expiratory gases.

  18. Extracorporeal Bioartificial Liver for Treating Acute Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, Anuj; Jain, Shivali

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Liver is a vital organ of the human body performing myriad of essential functions. Liver-related ailments are often life-threatening and dramatically deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Management of acute liver diseases requires adequate support of various hepatic functions. Thus far, liver transplantation has been proven as the only effective solution for acute liver diseases. However, broader application of liver transplantation is limited by demand for lifelong immunosuppression, shortage of organ donors, relative high morbidity, and high cost. Therefore, research has been focused on attempting to develop alternative support systems to treat liver diseases. Earlier attempts have been made to use nonbiological therapies based on the use of conventional detoxification procedures such as filtration and dialysis. However, the absence of liver cells in such techniques reduced the overall survival rate of the patients and led to inadequate essential liver-specific functions. As a result, there has been growing interest in the development of biological therapy-based extracorporeal liver support systems as a bridge to liver transplantation or to support the ailing liver. A bioartificial liver support is an extracorporeal device through which plasma is circulated over living and functionally active hepatocytes packed in a bioreactor with the aim to aid the diseased liver until it regenerates or until a suitable graft for transplantation is available. This review article gives a brief overview of efficacy of various liver support systems that are currently available. Also, the development of advanced liver support systems, which has been analyzed for improving the important system component such as cell source and other culture and circulation conditions for the maintenance of the liver-specific functions, have been described. PMID:22416599

  19. Quantification of nonuniform distribution of hemi-lung perfusion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Mitomo, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Nonuniform distribution (NUD) of perfusion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is caused by impaired perfusion-related fluctuations of the functional volume (FFV). It was determined if digital analysis of NUD in each hemi-lung damaged by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could improve the whole lung impairment assessment. We examined 665 subjects and 8 controls by SPECT. The basic whole lung SPECT volume was defined at 10 % of maximum whole lung count cutoff threshold (T h). For the whole lung and each hemi-lung, the 10 % T h width volume, FFV rate, and misfit from the control were calculated at every T h width number (n) from 1 to 9 for every additional 10 % T h from 10 to 100 %. The misfit value integrated from 1 to 9 of n was defined by 3 NUD indices: D, whole lung NUD index; D rl , the index for the sum of each hemi-lung NUD; and D (I) , the NUD index with every interpolating pattern in which FFV rates of hemi-lungs comprised negative and positive value at the same n. D rl index was the sum of D and D (I) indices in all patients. D rl and D indices significantly increased in pulmonary disease subjects relative to those of the normal group and non-pulmonary disease subjects. D rl and D indices increased in COPD subjects. Progressive COPD subjects had larger D rl index values and "diffuse and even" hemi-lung impairment. The three indices quantizing FFV itself leading to NUD helped to digitally evaluate the degree of lung impairment of perfusion. Clinically, it is expected that the NUD indices and images obtained by SPECT, which visually and digitally show the pathological fluctuations in perfusion caused by lung impairment, will be able to provide specific and useful information for improving treatment and/or care of subjects with COPD. PMID:26644008

  20. Metabolomics provide new insights on lung cancer staging and discrimination from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Deja, Stanislaw; Porebska, Irena; Kowal, Aneta; Zabek, Adam; Barg, Wojciech; Pawelczyk, Konrad; Stanimirova, Ivana; Daszykowski, Michal; Korzeniewska, Anna; Jankowska, Renata; Mlynarz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are widespread lung diseases. Cigarette smoking is a high risk factor for both the diseases. COPD may increase the risk of developing lung cancer. Thus, it is crucial to be able to distinguish between these two pathological states, especially considering the early stages of lung cancer. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools are required to properly determine lung cancer progression because this information directly impacts the type of the treatment prescribed. In this study, serum samples collected from 22 COPD and 77 lung cancer (TNM stages I, II, III, and IV) patients were analyzed. Then, a collection of NMR metabolic fingerprints was modeled using discriminant orthogonal partial least squares regression (OPLS-DA) and further interpreted by univariate statistics. The constructed discriminant models helped to successfully distinguish between the metabolic fingerprints of COPD and lung cancer patients (AUC training=0.972, AUC test=0.993), COPD and early lung cancer patients (AUC training=1.000, AUC test=1.000), and COPD and advanced lung cancer patients (AUC training=0.983, AUC test=1.000). Decreased acetate, citrate, and methanol levels together with the increased N-acetylated glycoproteins, leucine, lysine, mannose, choline, and lipid (CH3-(CH2)n-) levels were observed in all lung cancer patients compared with the COPD group. The evaluation of lung cancer progression was also successful using OPLS-DA (AUC training=0.811, AUC test=0.904). Based on the results, the following metabolite biomarkers may prove useful in distinguishing lung cancer states: isoleucine, acetoacetate, and creatine as well as the two NMR signals of N-acetylated glycoproteins and glycerol. PMID:25213261

  1. Neurovascular changes in acute, sub-acute and chronic mouse models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sumit; Raymick, James; Mann, Dushyant; Bowyer, John F; Hanig, Joseph P; Schmued, Larry C; Paule, Merle G; Chigurupati, Srinivasulu

    2014-02-01

    Although selective neurodegeneration of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons is widely accepted as a cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), the role of vascular components in the brain in PD pathology is not well understood. However, the neurodegeneration seen in PD is known to be associated with neuroinflammatory-like changes that can affect or be associated with brain vascular function. Thus, dysfunction of the capillary endothelial cell component of neurovascular units present in the brain may contribute to the damage to dopaminergic neurons that occurs in PD. An animal model of PD employing acute, sub-acute and chronic exposures of mice to methyl-phenyl-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was used to determine the extent to which brain vasculature may be damaged in PD. Fluoro-Turquoise gelatin labeling of microvessels and endothelial cells was used to determine the extent of vascular damage produced by MPTP. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and NeuN were employed to detect and quantify dopaminergic neuron damage in the striatum (CPu) and substantia nigra (SNc). Gliosis was evaluated through GFAP immunohistochemistry. MPTP treatment drastically reduced TH immunoreactive neurons in the SNc (20.68 ± 2.83 in acute; 22.98 ± 2.14 in sub-acute; 10.20 ± 2.24 in chronic vs 34.88 ± 2.91 in controls; p<0.001). Similarly, TH immunoreactive terminals were dramatically reduced in the CPu of MPTP treated mice. Additionally, all three MPTP exposures resulted in a decrease in the intensity, length, and number of vessels in both CPu and SNc. Degenerative vascular changes such as endothelial cell 'clusters' were also observed after MPTP suggesting that vasculature damage may be modifying the availability of nutrients and exposing blood cells and/or toxic substances to neurons and glia. In summary, vascular damage and degeneration could be an additional exacerbating factor in the progression of PD, and therapeutics that protect and insure vascular integrity may be novel treatments for PD. PMID:24274908

  2. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Prevents Murine Antibody-Mediated Acute Lung Injury at the Level of Neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production

    PubMed Central

    Semple, John W.; Kim, Michael; Hou, Jing; McVey, Mark; Lee, Young Jin; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Chai, Zhong-Wei; Lazarus, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality that can occur with any type of transfusion and is thought to be primarily due to donor antibodies activating pulmonary neutrophils in recipients. Recently, a large prospective case controlled clinical study of cardiac surgery patients demonstrated that despite implementation of male donors, a high incidence of TRALI still occurred and suggested a need for additional interventions in susceptible patient populations. To examine if intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may be effective, a murine model of antibody-mediated acute lung injury that approximates human TRALI was examined. When BALB/c mice were injected with the anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody 34-1-2s, mild shock (reduced rectal temperature) and respiratory distress (dyspnea) were observed and pre-treatment of the mice with 2 g/kg IVIg completely prevented these symptoms. To determine IVIg's usefulness to affect severe lung damage, SCID mice, previously shown to be hypersensitive to 34-1-2s were used. SCID mice treated with 34-1-2s underwent severe shock, lung damage (increased wet/dry ratios) and 40% mortality within 2 hours. Treatment with 2 g/kg IVIg 18 hours before 34-1-2s administration completely protected the mice from all adverse events. Treatment with IVIg after symptoms began also reduced lung damage and mortality. While the prophylactic IVIg administration did not affect 34-1-2s-induced pulmonary neutrophil accumulation, bone marrow-derived neutrophils from the IVIg-treated mice displayed no spontaneous ROS production nor could they be stimulated in vitro with fMLP or 34-1-2s. These results suggest that IVIg prevents murine antibody-mediated acute lung injury at the level of neutrophil ROS production and thus, alleviating tissue damage. PMID:22363629

  3. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in age-related lung disease.

    PubMed

    Sauler, Maor; Bucala, Richard; Lee, Patty J

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of many common respiratory disorders, including pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer, increases with age. Little is known of the host factors that may predispose individuals to such diseases. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a potent upstream regulator of the immune system. MIF is encoded by variant alleles that occur commonly in the population. In addition to its role as a proinflammatory cytokine, a growing body of literature demonstrates that MIF influences diverse molecular processes important for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and may influence the incidence or clinical manifestations of a variety of chronic lung diseases. This review highlights the biological properties of MIF and its implication in age-related lung disease. PMID:25957294

  4. Non-invasive assessment of ventilation maldistribution in lung disease using multiple breath inert gas washouts. 

    E-print Network

    Horsley, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Clinical research in cystic fibrosis (CF) requires study endpoints that are sensitive to airways disease, repeatable and non-invasive. Despite significant advances in the treatment of CF, lung function assessments continue ...

  5. Novel therapeutic strategies for acute lung injury induced by lung damaging agents: the potential role of growth factors as treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Christopher D

    2011-07-01

    The increasing threat from terrorism has brought attention to the possible use of toxic industrial compounds (TICs) and other lung-damaging agents as weapons against civilian populations. The way in which these agents could be used favours the development of generic countermeasures. Improved medical countermeasures would increase survivability and improve the quality of recovery of lung damaged casualties. It is evident that there is a dearth of therapeutic regimes available to treat those forms of lung damage that currently require intensive care management. It is quite possible that mass casualties from a terrorist incident or major industrial accident involving the release of large quantities of inhaled TICs would place a severe burden on already scarce intensive care facilities. The development of effective pharmacological approaches to assist the recovery of casualties suffering from acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may improve the prognosis of such patients (which is currently poor) and would ideally be used as a means of preventing subjects from developing the pulmonary oedema characteristic of ALI/ARDS. Many promising candidate pharmacological treatments have been evaluated for the treatment of ALI/ARDS, but their clinical value is often debatable. Thus, despite improvements in ventilation strategies, pharmacological intervention for ALI/ARDS remains problematical. A new approach is clearly required for the treatment of patients with severely compromised lungs. Whilst the pathology of ALI/ARDS associated with exposure to a variety of agents is complex, numerous experimental studies suggest that generic therapeutic intervention directed at approaches that aim to upregulate repair of the damaged alveolar blood/air barrier of the lung may be of value, particularly with respect to chemical-induced injury. To this end, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), epithelial growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are emerging as the most important candidates. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) does not have epithelial specificity for lung tissue. However, the enhanced effects of combinations of growth factors, such as the synergistic effect of HGF upon vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endothelial cell activity, and the combined effect of HGF and KGF in tissue repair should be investigated, particularly as the latter pair of growth factors are frequently implicated in processes associated with the repair of lung damage. Synergistic interactions also occur between trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides and growth factors such as EGF. TFF peptides are most likely to be of value as a short term therapeutic intervention strategy in stimulating epithelial spreading activities which allow damaged mucosal surfaces to be rapidly covered by epithelial cells. PMID:20621953

  6. Relationship Between Diseased Lung Tissues on Computed Tomography and Motion of Fiducial Marker Near Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Onodera, Yuya; Nishioka, Noriko; Yasuda, Koichi; Fujima, Noriyuki; Torres, Mylin; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Ooyama, Noriko; Onimaru, Rikiya; Terae, Satoshi; Ooizumi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: For lung cancer patients with poor pulmonary function because of emphysema or fibrosis, it is important to predict the amplitude of internal tumor motion to minimize the irradiation of the functioning lung tissue before undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Two board-certified diagnostic radiologists independently assessed the degree of pulmonary emphysema and fibrosis on computed tomography scans in 71 patients with peripheral lung tumors before real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy. The relationships between the computed tomography findings of the lung parenchyma and the motion of the fiducial marker near the lung tumor were investigated. Of the 71 patients, 30 had normal pulmonary function, and 29 had obstructive pulmonary dysfunction (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of <70%), 6 patients had constrictive dysfunction (percentage of vital capacity <80%), and 16 had mixed dysfunction. Results: The upper region was associated with smaller tumor motion, as expected (p = .0004), and the presence of fibrosis (p = .088) and pleural tumor contact (p = .086) were weakly associated with tumor motion. The presence of fibrotic changes in the lung tissue was associated with smaller tumor motion in the upper region (p <.05) but not in the lower region. The findings of emphysema and pulmonary function tests were not associated with tumor motion. Conclusion: Tumors in the upper lung region with fibrotic changes have smaller motion than those in the upper region of the lungs without fibrotic changes. The tumor motion in the lower lung region was not significantly different between patients with and without lung fibrosis. Emphysema was not associated with the amplitude of tumor motion.

  7. Telomere Dysfunction and Cell Senescence in Chronic Lung Diseases: Therapeutic Potential.

    PubMed

    Adnot, Serge; Amsellem, Valérie; Boyer, Laurent; Marcos, Elisabeth; Saker, Mirna; Houssaini, Amal; Kebe, Kanny; Dagouassat, Maylis; Lipskaia, Larissa; Boczkowski, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Cellular senescence--defined as a stable cell-cycle arrest combined with stereotyped phenotypic changes--might play a causal role in various lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is predicted to become the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020. COPD is characterized by slowly progressive airflow obstruction and emphysema due to destruction of the lung parenchyma and is often complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH). No curative treatment is available. Senescent cells, which accumulate with age, are increased in lungs from patients with COPD and express a robust senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which is proinflammatory. The aim of this review is to show how senescent cells can drive the lung alterations seen in COPD, which mechanisms may be involved, and whether therapeutic interventions may slow or delay the in vitro cell-senescence process and in vivo lung alterations. PMID:26096607

  8. Castleman's disease presenting in the lungs: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    CAO, WEIJUN; LIANG, SHUO; LIU, JINMING; BAI, JIUWU; LI, HUIPING

    2015-01-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare disease that most commonly occurs in the mediastinum. The lung is a rare site in which CD may occur. The current study reported 2 cases of CD localized in the lungs. Computed tomography imaging identified a high-density mass in the lungs of the two patients. Biopsy and pathological examinations indicated that one case presented features of two CD types (hyaline-vascular and plasma cell types), while the other case suffered from multicentric CD. The present study highlighted the typical clinical features of CD in the lungs. In addition, it is proposed that a diagnosis of CD should be considered for certain patients with masses in the lungs, and a biopsy should be performed to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26622622

  9. Digging our own graves: coal miners and the struggle over black lung disease. Doctoral thesis (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.E.

    1981-05-01

    The report analyzes the controversy over black lung disease among U.S. coal miners, situated within the recent struggle over industrial relations in bituminous coal. Summaries of the postwar coal industry and the changing medical approach to black lung provide the historical backdrop to the recent controversy. The development of the black lung movement is reconstructed primarily through material from oral interviews with its participants. The movement is viewed essentially as a class conflict between miners and operators over who would bear the burden of occupational disease: miners, by continuing to be disabled and without compensation; or the operators, by reducing dust levels in the mines and financing benefits for disabled workers.

  10. Driving performance in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, interstitial lung disease and healthy controls: a crossover intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Troelsen, Thomas; Hilberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive deficits in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been described and hypoxaemia has been addressed as a possible cause. Cognitive functions in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) are not well studied. These patients are taking part in everyday traffic, but little is known regarding their driving performance. This study was conducted to determine the driving performance in patients with COPD and ILD, respectively compared to healthy controls using a driving simulator. Additionally, the effect of oxygen supply was addressed. Methods 16 patients with COPD (8 receivers and 8 non-receivers of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT)), 8 patients with ILD (consisting of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias) and 8 healthy controls were tested in a driving simulator. Each test lasted 45?min. In the oxygen intervention part of the study the patients were randomised to receive oxygen therapy in the first or second test and acted as their own controls. Results Patients with COPD had significantly impaired driving performance when comparing SD from the centre of the road and number of off-road events to controls. Patients with COPD receiving LTOT performed significantly worse than those not receiving LTOT when comparing SD and worse than the patients with ILD when comparing SD and off-road events. Patients with ILD performed similarly to controls (SD: LTOT 2.39*; no LTOT 0.69*; ILD 0.37; controls 0.36; *p<0.05. Off-road: LTOT 226.67*; no LTOT 78.92*; ILD 40.00; controls 25.78; *p<0.05). Oxygen therapy had no effect on driving performance. Conclusions Patients with ILD performed similarly to controls in the driving simulator, whereas patients with COPD showed decreased driving performance, especially those receiving LTOT. Doctors should be aware of this when renewing the driving license of patients with COPD. Oxygen therapy showed no effect on driving performance. Trial registration number NCT02125916 PMID:26719805

  11. A randomized study of the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, N.K.C.; Kersey, J.H.; Robison, L.L.; McGlave, P.B.; Woods, W.G.; Krivit, W.; Kim, T.H.; Goldman, A.I.; Nesbit, M.E., Jr.

    1982-02-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease is a major problem in allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation. We performed a randomized study to compare the effectiveness of two regimens in the prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease. Thirty-five patients received methotrexate alone, and 32 received methotrexate, antithymocyte globulin, and prednisone. Of the patients who received methotrexate alone, 48 percent had acute graft-versus-host disease, as compared with 21 per cent of those who received methotrexate, antithymocyte globulin, and prednisone (P = 0.01). The age of the recipient was a significant factor in the development of acute graft-versus-host disease: Older patients had a higher incidence of the disease (P = 0.001). We conclude that the combination of methotrexate, antithymocyte globulin, and prednisone significantly decreased the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease and should be used to prevent this disorder in patients receiving allogeneic marrow transplants.

  12. Automated Measurement of Heterogeneity in CT Images of Healthy and Diseased Rat Lungs using Variogram Analysis of an Octree Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Rick E.; Carson, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Elastase dosed mice, whole lung and single lobe groups. Combines octree image decomposition with variogram-based analysis Results in promising novel approach for characterizing and measuring lung disease at different stages

  13. Natural history of five children with surfactant protein C mutations and interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Avital, Avraham; Hevroni, Avigdor; Godfrey, Simon; Cohen, Shlomo; Maayan, Channa; Nusair, Samir; Nogee, Lawrence M; Springer, Chaim

    2014-11-01

    Interstitial lung diseases in infants and children are uncommon and may be caused by specific inborn errors of surfactant metabolism. Five children with open lung biopsy diagnosed interstitial lung disease were followed (mean of 27.2 years) and evaluated for surfactant protein gene mutations. Four of the children were originally diagnosed as desquamative interstitial pneumonitis and one as chronic interstitial pneumonitis. All had good response to chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine treatment for periods of 7-38 months. Lung function tests, incremental exercise tests, and rentgenological studies were performed in the children. Surfactant protein gene mutations were searched in all the patients and in part of their families. Three of the patients, aged now 32, 29, and 37 years, feel well and have normal lung function, while two of the patients, both females, aged 28 and 37 years, conduct normal activities of daily living, have healthy children but have clinical, physiological and rentgenological evidence of restrictive lung disease. All five patients were found to have surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC) mutations, three of them with the most common mutation (p.I73T) and the other two with new mutations of surfactant protein C gene (p.I38F and p.V39L). We conclude that detection of surfactant protein mutations should be attempted in all children presenting with interstitial lung disease. Furthermore, treatment with hydroxychloroquine should be considered in children with SFTPC mutations. Prospective evaluation of hydroxychloroquine therapy in a greater number of patients is needed. PMID:24347114

  14. Salidroside alleviates paraquat-induced rat acute lung injury by repressing TGF-?1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuoyi; Ding, Limin; Wu, Liqun; Xu, Liying; Zheng, Lanzhi; Huang, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of salidroside (SDS) via suppressing the expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) in rat acute lung injury (ALI) induced by paraquat (PQ) and to explore the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods: A total of 90 male rats (190-210 g) were randomly and evenly divided into 9 groups: control group, PQ groups (4 groups), and PQ + SDS groups (4 groups). The rats in control group were treated with equal volume of saline intraperitoneally. The rats in PQ groups were exposed to PQ solution (20 mg/kg) by gastric gavage for 1, 6, 24, and 72 hours, respectively. The rats in PQ + SDS groups were intraperitoneally injected once with SDS (10 mg/kg) every 12 hours after PQ perfusion. Pulmonary pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The expression of TGF-?1 and the mRNA were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) scoring and real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR), respectively. Results: SDS alleviated the symptoms of PQ induced ALI. Moreover, SDS reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TGF-?1 including TGF-?1 IHC scores (at each time point from 6 to 72 hours after PQ perfusion) and mRNA level (at each time point from 1 to 72 hours after PQ perfusion) compared with PQ groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: SDS alleviated the pulmonary symptoms of PQ-induced ALI, at least partially, by repressing inflammatory cell infiltration and the expression of TGF-?1 resulting in delayed lung fibrosis. PMID:25674253

  15. Duodeno-colic fistula as a rare presentation of lung cancer — surgical treatment of a stage IV oligometastatic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Vitor; Santiago, Inês; Marinho, Rui; Pires, David; Theias, Rita; Gomes, António; Pignatelli, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rare adenosquamous carcinomas have no defined standard approach given their low incidence. They present with nonspecific imaging characteristics and are described as having worse prognosis than other lung malignancies, with greater likelihood of local invasion and early metastasis. Presentation of case Male caucasian patient, 43 years, 26 pack-year smoking history, presented with watery diarrhea, early emesis and loss of 25% body weight (20 kg) in four weeks. Colonoscopy identified a left colonic mass. Abdominal CT/ultrasound showed a large fistulous lesion between the 4th portion of the duodenum and left colon. CT showed a solid mass in the right upper lung lobe. Endoscopy and transthoracic biopsy were inconclusive. En bloc D3 and D4 duodenectomy, proximal enterectomy and left hemicolectomy were performed, with inconclusive histology of the specimen. Three months later, a right upper lung lobectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed, revealing an adenosquamous carcinoma of lung origin, R0, staged as pT2pN0pM1b. Six months later, a single dural metastasis in the left cerebellopontine angle was detected and resected, with subsequent holocranial radiotherapy and systemic adjuvant chemotherapy. Patient is currently with 18 months follow-up, in good general health and with no evidence of recurrent disease. Discussion There are no specific guidelines to treat oligometastatic adenosquamous lung carcinoma. Our approach was abdominal surgery as a life-saving procedure and, months later, oncological resection of primary lung tumor and metachronous metastasis to the brain. Conclusion A systematic, patient-oriented, patient-shared, multidisciplinary approach is particularly relevant when dealing with atypical presentations of rare diseases in young patients. PMID:26197095

  16. A randomized trial of recombinant human GM-CSF for patients with acute lung injury*

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Robert; Standiford, Theodore J.; Dechert, Ronald E.; Moss, Marc; Martin, Gregory S.; Rosenberg, Andrew L.; Thannickal, Victor J.; Burnham, Ellen L.; Brown, Morton B.; Hyzy, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Despite recent advances in critical care and ventilator management, acute lung injury (ALI) and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be beneficial for patients with ARDS. Objectives To determine whether intravenous infusion of GM-CSF would improve clinical outcomes for patients with ALI/ARDS. Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of human recombinant GM-CSF vs. placebo. The primary outcome was days alive and breathing without mechanical ventilatory support within the first 28 days after randomization. Secondary outcomes included mortality and organ failure free days. Setting Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Units at three academic medical centers. Patients One hundred-thirty individuals with ALI of at least three days duration were enrolled, out of a planned cohort of 200 subjects. Interventions Patients were randomized to receive human recombinant GM-CSF (64 subjects, 250 ?g/M2) or placebo (66 subjects) by intravenous infusion daily for 14 days. Patients received mechanical ventilation using a lung protective protocol. Measurements and Main Results There was no difference in ventilator-free days between groups (10.7 ± 10.3 days placebo vs. 10.8 ± 10.5 days GM-CSF, p=0.82). Differences in 28-day mortality (23% in placebo vs. 17% in patients receiving GM-CSF (p=0.31)) and organ failure free days (12.8 ± 11.3 days placebo vs. 15.7 ± 11.9 days GM-CSF, p=0.16) were not statistically significant. There were similar numbers of serious adverse events in each group. Conclusions In a randomized phase II trial, GM-CSF treatment did not increase the number of ventilator free days in patients with ALI/ARDS. A larger trial would be required to determine whether treatment with GM-CSF might alter important clinical outcomes such as mortality or multiorgan failure. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00201409 [ClinicalTrials.gov]) PMID:21926600

  17. Interactive high-resolution computed tomography digital atlas of interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher M; Chung, Jonathan H; Wall, Corey; Pipavath, Sudhakar N; Chapman, Teresa; Reddy, Gautham P; Stern, Eric J; Godwin, J David; Weinberger, Ed

    2011-11-01

    High-resolution computed tomography is a necessary tool used in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. The interpretation of high-resolution computed tomography can be difficult given the wide spectrum of imaging appearances within the same disease and among different diseases. The authors provide a new educational method to learn about the spectrum of idiopathic interstitial lung disease through the use of a free online digital atlas and review article. This atlas can be downloaded at http://www.seattlechildrens.org/radiologyeducation/ILD. PMID:21889896

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in poor prognostic germ cell tumor with multiple lung metastases: a case report.

    PubMed

    Naseer, M A; Mohammed, S S; Das Majumdar, S K; Patnaik, R; Al Tublani, H M N; Justin, J S; Meddikar, J A

    2011-07-01

    We report a case which is unique as this patient was diagnosed pathologically as adenocarcinoma of the endometrium but clinically progressed as germ cell tumor. This was evident by progressive and rapid raised tumor markers (BHCG & LDH) with the development of multiple bilateral lung metastases. She was treated by administrating low doses of systemic combination chemotherapy as per the literature. Unfortunately, she developed acute respiratory distress syndrome as the complication of treatment and died due to it. PMID:21724533

  19. GADD45a Promoter Regulation by a Functional Genetic Variant Associated with Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sumegha; Wade, Michael S.; Sun, Xiaoguang; Moldobaeva, Nurgul; Flores, Carlos; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Growth arrest DNA damage inducible alpha (GADD45a) is a stress-induced gene we have shown to participate in the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) via regulation of mechanical stress-induced Akt ubiquitination and phosphorylation. The regulation of GADD45a expression by mechanical stress and its relationship with acute lung injury (ALI) susceptibility and severity, however, remains unknown. Objectives We examined mechanical stress-dependent regulatory elements (MSRE) in the GADD45a promoter and the contribution of promoter polymorphisms in GADD45a expression and ALI susceptibility. Methods and Results Initial studies in GADD45a knockout and heterozygous mice confirmed the relationship of GADD45a gene dose to VILI severity. Human lung endothelial cells (EC) transfected with a luciferase vector containing the full length GADD45a promoter sequence (?771 to +223) demonstrated a >4 fold increase in GADD45a expression in response to 18% cyclic stretch (CS, 4 h) compared to static controls while specific promoter regions harboring CS-dependent MSRE were identified using vectors containing serial deletion constructs of the GADD45a promoter. In silico analyses of GADD45a promoter region (?371 to ?133) revealed a potential binding site for specificity protein 1 (SP1), a finding supported by confirmed SP1 binding with the GADD45a promoter and by the significant attenuation of CS-dependent GADD45a promoter activity in response to SP1 silencing. Separately, case-control association studies revealed a significant association of a GADD45a promoter SNP at ?589 (rs581000, G>C) with reduced ALI susceptibility. Subsequently, we found allelic variation of this SNP is associated with both differential GADD45a expression in mechanically stressed EC (18% CS, 4 h) and differential binding site of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) at this site. Conclusion These results strongly support a functional role for GADD45a in ALI/VILI and identify a specific gene variant that confers risk for ALI. PMID:24940746

  20. Acute kidney injury in patients with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Rognant, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent clinical event in patients with liver disease, compounding their prognosis. Furthermore, it is likely that the occurrence of AKI has a detrimental impact on the subsequent renal function and the long-term survival of these patients. Recently, some authors advocated the use of new diagnostic criteria for detecting acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis. These criteria are based on the rapidity and extent of the creatinine increase comparing to the basal creatinine and also on the kinetics of diuresis decrease. Although their validity in this population requires further studies to be clearly established, these new criteria could have two advantages: (1) to allow earlier diagnosis of AKI and, thus, hepatorenal syndrome for which earlier intervention could improve patients’ survival; and (2) to promote more intensive monitoring of renal function in these patients with high risk of AKI. Finally, recent practice guidelines about the prevention and treatment of general AKI have been published which should be useful in optimising the management of AKI in cirrhotic patients. PMID:25954481

  1. [Analysis of surgical treatment of primary lung cancer having M1 diseases].

    PubMed

    Tabata, T; Kondo, T

    2006-01-01

    The presence of distant metastasis is thought as systemic dissemination of disease. Patients with lung cancer in this category are not usually considered candidates for surgical resection of the primary and metastatic sites. The purpose of this study is to determine long-term survival and identify potential prognostic factors for surgical treatment to primary non-small cell lung cancer with distant metastasis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the surgical outcome of 24 patients who were classified as having M1 disease. The 5-year survival rate was 34.6% in our facility. Among the 12 patients had N2 disease and a poor prognosis. Long-term survival can be achieved if the metastatic site is lung and there is no lymph node involvement, although differentiation of pulmonary metastasis and multiple primary lung cancer is commonly difficult. PMID:16440678

  2. [Acute miliary tuberculosis or Isambert disease: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ziad, T; Nouri, H; Adny, A; Rochdi, Y; Aderdour, L; Raji, A

    2013-01-01

    Pharynx tuberculosis consists in a set of active lesions in granulomatous-type mucosa, resulting from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In an endemic context, this diagnosis should be raised in cases of head and neck disease. A recent observation of a case of acute miliary tuberculosis gave us the opportunity to conduct a literature review of this disorder. This 9-year-old girl presented with dysphagia associated with pharyngeal discomfort, snoring, and hoarseness lasting for 8 months. This pharyngeal syndrome occurred in the context of an impaired general condition. Clinical examination found a diffuse mucosal granulation aspect in the oropharynx. The workup showed an inflammatory syndrome with a strong positive intradermal tuberculin reaction. The biopsy found an aspect of giant cell granuloma with caseous necrosis. The course was favorable on antituberculous chemotherapy. Tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by a bacterium belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex. Pharyngeal tuberculosis remains a rare disease, but several epidemiological parameters show an upsurge of this disease, prompting us to report this observation. PMID:23266174

  3. /sup 111/In-platelet and /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition in the lungs in experimental acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Goulbourne, I.A.; Watson, H.; Davies, G.C.

    1987-12-01

    An experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats has been used to study intrapulmonary /sup 125/I-fibrinogen and /sup 111/In-platelet deposition. Pancreatitis caused a significant increase in wet lung weight compared to normal, and this could be abolished by heparin or aspirin pretreatment. /sup 125/I-fibrinogen was deposited in the lungs of animals to a significantly greater degree than in controls (P less than 0.01). /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition was reduced to control levels by pretreatment with aspirin or heparin (P less than 0.05). The uptake of radiolabeled platelets was greater in pancreatitis than in controls (P less than 0.001). Pancreatitis appears to be responsible for platelet entrapment in the lungs. Platelet uptake was reduced by heparin treatment but unaffected by aspirin therapy.

  4. Effects of Ergosterol, Isolated from Scleroderma Polyrhizum Pers., on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-ying; Xu, Li-ting; Li, Ai-xin; Wang, Shu-min

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of ergosterol, isolated from Scleroderma polyrhizum Pers., in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by LPS (0.5 mg/kg), and ergosterol (25 and 50 mg/kg) was administrated orally 1 h prior to LPS administration. Ergosterol pretreatment at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg decreased LPS-induced lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio. In addition, pretreatment with ergosterol inhibited inflammatory cells and proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, we demonstrated that ergosterol blocked the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathways. The results presented here suggest that the protective mechanism of ergosterol may be attributed partly to the inhibition of NF-?B, COX-2, and iNOS pathways. PMID:25920808

  5. Spectrum of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in occupational lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Bhawna; Kumar, Sanyal; Ojha, Umesh Chandra; Gothi, Dipti

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the lungs caused by dusts or fumes or noxious substances inhaled by workers in certain specific occupation is known as occupational lung disease. Recognition of occupational lung disease is especially important not only for the primary worker, but also because of the implications with regard to primary and secondary disease prevention in the exposed co-workers. Although many of the disorders can be detected on chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior in delineating the lung architecture and depicting pathology. The characteristic radiological features suggest the correct diagnosis in some, whereas a combination of clinical features, occupational history, and radiological findings is essential in establishing the diagnosis in others. In the presence of a history of exposure and consistent clinical features, the diagnosis of even an uncommon occupational lung disease can be suggested by the characteristic described HRCT findings. In this article, we briefly review the HRCT appearance of a wide spectrum of occupational lung diseases. PMID:24604929

  6. The utility of surgical lung biopsy in cancer patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This retrospective study evaluated the utility and safety of surgical lung biopsy (SLB) in cancer patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods All cases of critically ill patients with cancer and diagnosed with ARDS who underwent SLB in a tertiary care hospital from January 2002 to July 2009 were reviewed. Clinical data including patient baseline characteristics, surgical complications, pathological findings, treatment alterations, and survival outcomes were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results A total of 16 critically ill patients with cancer diagnosed with ARDS who underwent SLB were enrolled. The meantime from ARDS onset to SLB was 3.0?±?1.5 days. All SLB specimens offered a pathological diagnosis, and specific diagnoses were made in 9 of 16 patients. Biopsy findings resulted in a change in therapy in 11 of 16 patients. Overall, the SLB surgical complication rate was 19% (3/16). SLB did not directly cause the observed operative mortality. The ICU mortality rate was 38% (6/16). Patients who switched therapies after SLB had a trend toward decreased mortality than patients without a change in therapy (27% versus 60%; P?=?0.299). Conclusions In selected critically ill cancer patients with ARDS, SLB had a high diagnostic yield rate and an acceptable surgical complication rate. PMID:23680446

  7. Critical role for the NLRP3 inflammasome during acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Grailer, Jamison J; Canning, Bethany A; Kalbitz, Miriam; Haggadone, Mikel D; Dhond, Rasika M; Andjelkovic, Anuska V; Zetoune, Firas S; Ward, Peter A

    2014-06-15

    The inflammasome is a key factor in innate immunity and senses soluble pathogen and danger-associated molecular patterns as well as biological crystals (urate, cholesterol, etc.), resulting in expression of IL-1? and IL-18. Using a standard model of acute lung injury (ALI) in mice featuring airway instillation of LPS, ALI was dependent on availability of NLRP3 as well as caspase-1, which are known features of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The appearance of IL-1?, a product of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) in a macrophage- and neutrophil-dependent manner. Neutrophil-derived extracellular histones appeared in the BALF during ALI and directly activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. Ab-mediated neutralization of histones significantly reduced IL-1? levels in BALF during ALI. Inflammasome activation by extracellular histones in LPS-primed macrophages required NLRP3 and caspase-1 as well as extrusion of K(+), increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and generation of reactive oxygen species. NLRP3 and caspase-1 were also required for full extracellular histone presence during ALI, suggesting a positive feedback mechanism. Extracellular histone and IL-1? levels in BALF were also elevated in C5a-induced and IgG immune complex ALI models, suggesting a common inflammatory mechanism. These data indicate an interaction between extracellular histones and the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in ALI. Such findings suggest novel targets for treatment of ALI, for which there is currently no known efficacious drug. PMID:24795455

  8. Clinical Evidence of Early Acute Lung Injury Often Precedes the Diagnosis of ALI

    PubMed Central

    Rackley, Craig R.; Levitt, Joseph E.; Zhuo, Hanjing; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury (ALI) has been primarily defined in patients who require positive pressure ventilation. As a result, the clinical characteristics of patients with early ALI (EALI) prior to the need for mechanical ventilation have not been well characterized. Early identification of patients with ALI and the impending need for positive pressure ventilation could define a study population for trials of novel therapies. Methods We analyzed clinical data from 93 patients at 12, 24, and 48 hours prior to the standard diagnosis of ALI. The time of ALI diagnosis was defined when patients were mechanically ventilated and met the 1994 American–European Consensus Conference diagnostic criteria for ALI. Results The majority of patients with ALI presented to the hospital more than 24 hours prior to developing ALI. Specifically, 73% presented more than 12 hours prior to diagnosis, and 57% presented more than 24 hours prior to diagnosis. Of patients hospitalized for at least 12 hours prior to ALI diagnosis, 94% had either bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph, tachypnea, or an oxygen requirement greater than 2 L/min; 79% and 48% had 2 and 3 of these abnormalities, respectively. Conclusion The majority of hospitalized patients who are destined to develop ALI demonstrate tachypnea, increased oxygen requirements, and/or bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph more than 12 hours prior to meeting criteria for diagnosis. Some patients with EALI may be identified prior to meeting diagnostic criteria during a potential therapeutic window. PMID:22733725

  9. Ultra-short echo-time magnetic resonance imaging distinguishes ischemia/reperfusion injury from acute rejection in a mouse lung transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Chuck, Natalie C; Boss, Andreas; Wurnig, Moritz C; Weiger, Markus; Yamada, Yoshito; Jungraithmayr, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether lung tissue characterization by ultra-short echo-time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows ischemia/reperfusion injury to be distinguished from acute rejection in a mouse lung transplantation model. After orthotopic lung transplantation with 6 mice receiving syngeneic (C57Bl/6) lung transplants and 6 mice receiving allogeneic (BALB/c) transplants, they underwent postoperative imaging using three-dimensional UTE-MRI (echo times TE = 50-5000 ?s) and conventional T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging. Quantitative T2* values of lung transplant parenchyma and spin density (SD) were compared by region-of-interest analysis. All samples underwent histological and immunohistochemical workup. In the allogeneic group, alveolar infiltration resulting from acute organ rejection was visualized in the UTE sequences. This was reflected by the quantitative measurements of SD and T2* values with higher values in the allogeneic group compared with the syngeneic group and nontransplanted lung at the first time point (24 h postoperative: Tx allogeneic group SD: 2133.9 ± 516; Tx syngeneic group SD: 1648.61 ± 271; P = 0.004; Tx allogeneic group T2*: 1710.16 ± 644 ?s, Tx syngeneic group T2*: 577.16 ± 263 ?s; P = <0.001). Changes caused by acute rejection after lung transplantation can be visualized and characterized using a UTE sequence due to different relaxation properties compared with both syngeneic lung transplants and normal lung tissue. PMID:26339975

  10. Single-breath test in lateral decubitus reflects function of single lungs grafted for interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Van Muylem, Alain; Gevenois, Pierre Alain; Kallinger, Elizabeth; Bankier, Alexander A; Knoop, Christiane; Verleden, Geert; Estenne, Marc

    2008-01-01

    After single-lung transplantation (SLT) for emphysema, heterogeneity of ventilation distribution in the graft can be assessed by measuring the slope of the alveolar plateau, computed from a single-breath test, performed in lateral decubitus with this lung in the nondependent position. We tested the validity of this technique in patients with SLT for interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Twelve patients with SLT for ILD, 12 nontransplanted patients with ILD, and 10 healthy control subjects performed single-breath washouts in right and left lateral decubitus; nitrogen slope (S(N(2))) and the difference between SF(6) and He slopes (S(SF(6))-S(He)) were measured between 75 and 100% of expired volume. In 10 transplant recipients, the volume of each lung was measured in both postures by computerized tomography. Slopes were unaffected by posture in normal control subjects and patients with ILD. On the other hand, S(N(2)) and S(SF(6))-S(He) in transplant recipients were smaller with the graft in the nondependent than in the dependent position (0.366 +/- 0.445 vs. 1.035 +/- 0.498 for S(N(2)); 0.094 +/- 0.201 vs. 0.218 +/- 0.277 for S(SF(6))-S(He)). Values of S(N(2)) and S(SF(6))-S(He) obtained in the former position were similar to those obtained in normal controls, while values obtained in the latter position were similar to those obtained in nontransplanted patients with ILD. Computerized tomography studies with the graft in the nondependent position indicated that this lung contributed 82% of the volume expired below functional residual capacity. We conclude that, in patients with SLT for ILD, the slope of the alveolar plateau obtained with the graft in the nondependent position reflects heterogeneity of ventilation distribution in this lung. PMID:17991791

  11. Computerized scheme for detection of diffuse lung diseases on CR chest images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Roberto R., Jr.; Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Feng; Li, Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for detection of diffuse lung disease in computed radiographic (CR) chest images. One hundred ninety-four chest images (56 normals and 138 abnormals with diffuse lung diseases) were used. The 138 abnormal cases were classified into three levels of severity (34 mild, 60 moderate, and 44 severe) by an experienced chest radiologist with use of five different patterns, i.e., reticular, reticulonodular, nodular, air-space opacity, and emphysema. In our computerized scheme, the first moment of the power spectrum, the root-mean-square variation, and the average pixel value were determined for each region of interest (ROI), which was selected automatically in the lung fields. The average pixel value and its dependence on the location of the ROI were employed for identifying abnormal patterns due to air-space opacity or emphysema. A rule-based method was used for determining three levels of abnormality for each ROI (0: normal, 1: mild, 2: moderate, and 3: severe). The distinction between normal lungs and abnormal lungs with diffuse lung disease was determined based on the fractional number of abnormal ROIs by taking into account the severity of abnormalities. Preliminary results indicated that the area under the ROC curve was 0.889 for the 44 severe cases, 0.825 for the 104 severe and moderate cases, and 0.794 for all cases. We have identified a number of problems and reasons causing false positives on normal cases, and also false negatives on abnormal cases. In addition, we have discussed potential approaches for improvement of our CAD scheme. In conclusion, the CAD scheme for detection of diffuse lung diseases based on texture features extracted from CR chest images has the potential to assist radiologists in their interpretation of diffuse lung diseases.

  12. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKDEPI) equation best characterizes kidney function in patients being considered for lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Osho, Asishana A.; Castleberry, Anthony W.; Snyder, Laurie D.; Palmer, Scott M.; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Lin, Shu S.; Davis, R. Duane; Hartwig, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methods for direct measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are expensive and inconsistently applied across transplant centers. The Modified Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation is commonly used for GFR estimation, but is inaccurate for GFRs > 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKDEPI) and Wright equations have shown improved predictive capabilities in some patient populations. We compared these equations to determine which one correlates best with direct GFR measurement in lung transplant candidates. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 274 lung transplant recipients. Pre-operative GFR was measured directly using a radionuclide GFR assay. Results from the MDRD, CKDEPI, Wright, and Cockroft–Gault equations were compared with direct measurement. Findings were validated using logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in looking at GFR as a predictor of mortality and renal function outcomes post-transplant. RESULTS Assessed against the radionuclide GFR measurement, CKDEPI provided the most consistent results, with low values for bias (0.78), relative standard error (0.03) and mean absolute percentage error (15.02). Greater deviation from radionuclide GFR was observed for all other equations. Pearson’s correlation between radionuclide and calculated GFR was significant for all equations. Regression and ROC analyses revealed equivalent utility of the radionuclide assay and GFR equations for predicting post-transplant acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS In patients being evaluated for lung transplantation, CKDEPI correlates closely with direct radionuclide GFR measurement and equivalently predicts post-operative renal outcomes. Transplant centers could consider replacing or supplementing direct GFR measurement with less expensive, more convenient estimation by using the CKDEPI equation. PMID:25107351

  13. Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    ZHUAN-YUN, LI; XUE-PING, YAO; BIN, LIU; REHEMAN, HA NIZAIER; YANG, GAO; ZHAN, SUN; QI, MA

    2015-01-01

    Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharide (AAP) has shown a variety of pharmacological properties. In the present study, the role of AAP in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was analyzed in rats to further explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the control, AAP, LPS and LPS plus AAP groups. Rats were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) to induce ALI. Rats in the LPS plus AAP group were treated with AAP for 7 days before the induction of ALI. The protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The animal lung edema degree was evaluated by the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed by MPO and MDA kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin (IL)-6, were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The data showed that treatment with AAP significantly improved LPS-induced lung pathological changes, attenuated protein concentration in the BALF, inhibited MPO activity and reduced the MDA level and lung W/D weight ratio. AAP also inhibited the release of TNF-? and IL-6 in blood. The results indicated that AAP has a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in rats. PMID:26171152

  14. Timosaponin B-II inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung toxicity via TLR/NF-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianzhu; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shumin; Ma, Chunhua

    2015-11-01

    Timosaponin B-II (TB), a main bioactive compound in Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, has various kinds of pharmacological activities, the present study aimed to investigate the protective role of TB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS, and TB (20 and 60?mg/kg) was given orally 1?h prior to LPS administration. After 6?h, bronchoalveolar lavagefluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. TB decreased LPS-induced evident lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, TB inhibited inflammatory cells and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in BALF. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TB inhibited the Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene-88 (MyD88), nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 in LPS-induced ALI. These results showed that administration of TB prior to LPS improves ALI, possibly mediating ALI through suppressing TLR/NF-?B pathway activation. PMID:26540118

  15. ANGPT2 Genetic Variant Is Associated with Trauma-associated Acute Lung Injury and Altered Plasma Angiopoietin-2 Isoform Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Nuala J.; Li, Mingyao; Feng, Rui; Bradfield, Jonathan; Gallop, Robert; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fuchs, Barry D.; Lanken, Paul N.; Albelda, Steven M.; Rushefski, Melanie; Aplenc, Richard; Abramova, Helen; Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N.; Beers, Michael F.; Calfee, Carolyn S.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Christiani, David C.; O'Keefe, Grant E.; Ware, Lorraine B.; May, Addison K.; Wurfel, Mark M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Christie, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) acts as a complex genetic trait, yet its genetic risk factors remain incompletely understood. Large-scale genotyping has not previously been reported for ALI. Objectives: To identify ALI risk variants after major trauma using a large-scale candidate gene approach. Methods: We performed a two-stage genetic association study. We derived findings in an African American cohort (n = 222) using a cardiopulmonary disease–centric 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Genotype and haplotype distributions were compared between subjects with ALI and without ALI, with adjustment for clinical factors. Top performing SNPs (P < 10?4) were tested in a multicenter European American trauma-associated ALI case-control population (n = 600 ALI; n = 2,266 population-based control subjects) for replication. The ALI-associated genomic region was sequenced, analyzed for in silico prediction of function, and plasma was assayed by ELISA and immunoblot. Measurements and Main Results: Five SNPs demonstrated a significant association with ALI after adjustment for covariates in Stage I. Two SNPs in ANGPT2 (rs1868554 and rs2442598) replicated their significant association with ALI in Stage II. rs1868554 was robust to multiple comparison correction: odds ratio 1.22 (1.06–1.40), P = 0.0047. Resequencing identified predicted novel splice sites in linkage disequilibrium with rs1868554, and immunoblots showed higher proportion of variant angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) isoform associated with rs1868554T (0.81 vs. 0.48; P = 0.038). Conclusions: An ANGPT2 region is associated with both ALI and variation in plasma angiopoietin-2 isoforms. Characterization of the variant isoform and its genetic regulation may yield important insights about ALI pathogenesis and susceptibility. PMID:21257790

  16. Chronic obstructive lung disease and posttraumatic stress disorder: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Thad E; Blevins, Amy; Weg, Mark W Vander

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have reported on the co-occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and psychiatric conditions, with the most robust evidence base demonstrating an impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on COPD-related outcomes. In recent years, research has sought to determine if there is a co-occurrence between COPD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as for associations between PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. To date, there have been no published reviews summarizing this emerging literature. Objectives The primary objective of this review was to determine if there is adequate evidence to support a co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Secondary objectives were to: 1) determine if there are important clinical considerations regarding the impact of PTSD on COPD management, and 2) identify targeted areas for further research. Methods A structured review was performed using a systematic search strategy limited to studies in English, addressing adults, and to articles that examined: 1) the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD and 2) the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes. To be included, articles must have addressed some type of nonreversible obstructive lung pathology. Results A total of 598 articles were identified for initial review. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, n=19 articles or abstracts addressed our stated objectives. Overall, there is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence between PTSD and COPD. Studies finding a significant co-occurrence generally had inferior methods of identifying COPD; in contrast, studies that utilized more robust COPD measures (such as a physician exam) generally failed to find a relationship. Among studies that examined the impact of PTSD on COPD-related outcomes, there was more consistent evidence that PTSD affects the perception of respiratory symptom burden and management. In addition, methods for measuring an important confounder (smoking) were generally lacking. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence to support the co-occurrence of COPD and PTSD. There was stronger evidence implicating PTSD as an important comorbidity impacting COPD management. Further research is needed to: 1) determine whether or not COPD and PTSD are likely to be comorbid, and 2) further elucidate the mechanisms connecting PTSD and COPD-related outcomes. PMID:26508851

  17. The Role of School Health Education in Preventing Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Newman, Ian M.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the scope and dynamics of heart, lung, and blood diseases and explains the need for research on primary prevention programs for children. Suggestions for school health education programs that contribute to disease prevention are delineated. (Author/DF)

  18. Systems Medicine for Lung Diseases: Phenotypes and Precision Medicine in Cancer, Infection, and Allergy.

    PubMed

    Schmeck, Bernd; Bertrams, Wilhelm; Lai, Xin; Vera, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Lung diseases cause an enormous socioeconomic burden. Four of them are among the ten most important causes of deaths worldwide: Pneumonia has the highest death toll of all infectious diseases, lung cancer kills the most people of all malignant proliferative disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ranks third in mortality among the chronic noncommunicable diseases, and tuberculosis is still one of the most important chronic infectious diseases. Despite all efforts, for example, by the World Health Organization and clinical and experimental researchers, these diseases are still highly prevalent and harmful. This is in part due to the specific organization of tissue homeostasis, architecture, and immunity of the lung. Recently, several consortia have formed and aim to bring together clinical and molecular data from big cohorts of patients with lung diseases with novel experimental setups, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and mathematical modeling. This "systems medicine" concept will help to match the different disease modalities with adequate therapeutic and possibly preventive strategies for individual patients in the sense of precision medicine. PMID:26677183

  19. A role for cell adhesion in beryllium-mediated lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a debilitating lung disorder in which exposure to the lightweight metal beryllium (Be) causes the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in the lung and formation of noncaseating pulmonary granulomas. Treatment for CBD patients who exhibit progressive pulmonary decline is limited to systemic corticosteroids, which suppress the severe host inflammatory response. Studies in the past several years have begun to highlight cell-cell adhesion interactions in the development of Be hypersensitivity and CBD. In particular, the high binding affinity between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (I-CAM1) on lung epithelial cells and the {beta}{sub 2} integrin LFA-1 on migrating lymphocytes and macrophages regulates the concerted rolling of immune cells to sites of inflammation in the lung. In this review, we discuss the evidence that implicates cell adhesion processes in onset of Be disease and the potential of cell adhesion as an intervention point for development of novel therapies.

  20. Sphingosine-1–Phosphate, FTY720, and Sphingosine-1–Phosphate Receptors in the Pathobiology of Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Steven M.; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Huang, Long Shuang; Abassi, Taimur; Mathew, Biji; Zhao, Yutong; Wang, Lichun; Bittman, Robert; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) attributable to sepsis or mechanical ventilation and subacute lung injury because of ionizing radiation (RILI) share profound increases in vascular permeability as a key element and a common pathway driving increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, despite advances in the understanding of lung pathophysiology, specific therapies do not yet exist for the treatment of ALI or RILI, or for the alleviation of unremitting pulmonary leakage, which serves as a defining feature of the illness. A critical need exists for new mechanistic insights that can lead to novel strategies, biomarkers, and therapies to reduce lung injury. Sphingosine 1–phosphate (S1P) is a naturally occurring bioactive sphingolipid that acts extracellularly via its G protein–coupled S1P1–5 as well as intracellularly on various targets. S1P-mediated cellular responses are regulated by the synthesis of S1P, catalyzed by sphingosine kinases 1 and 2, and by the degradation of S1P mediated by lipid phosphate phosphatases, S1P phosphatases, and S1P lyase. We and others have demonstrated that S1P is a potent angiogenic factor that enhances lung endothelial cell integrity and an inhibitor of vascular permeability and alveolar flooding in preclinical animal models of ALI. In addition to S1P, S1P analogues such as 2-amino-2-(2-[4-octylphenyl]ethyl)-1,3-propanediol (FTY720), FTY720 phosphate, and FTY720 phosphonates offer therapeutic potential in murine models of lung injury. This translational review summarizes the roles of S1P, S1P analogues, S1P-metabolizing enzymes, and S1P receptors in the pathophysiology of lung injury, with particular emphasis on the development of potential novel biomarkers and S1P-based therapies for ALI and RILI. PMID:23449739

  1. Prediction of short term re-exacerbation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Peng, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Bai, Si-Hong; Liu, Hai-Xia; Qu, Jie-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of the study is to develop a scoring system for predicting a 90-day re-exacerbation in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods A total of 176 consecutive hospitalized patients with AECOPD were included. The sociodemographic characteristics, status before acute exacerbation (AE), presentations of and treatment for the current AE, and the re-exacerbation in 90 days after discharge from hospital were collected. Results The re-exacerbation rate in 90 days was 48.9% (86 out of 176). It was associated with the degree of lung function impairment (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] grades), frequency of AE in the previous year, and parameters of the current AE, including pleural effusion, use of accessory respiratory muscles, inhaled long-acting ?-2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, controlled oxygen therapy, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay, but was not associated with body mass index, modified Medical Research Council scale, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test. A subgroup of ten variables was selected and developed into the re-exacerbation index scoring system (age grades, GOLD grades, AE times in the previous year, pleural effusion, use of accessory respiratory muscles, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, controlled oxygen therapy, inhaled long-acting ?-2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids, and length of hospital stay). The re-exacerbation index showed good discrimination for re-exacerbation, with a C-statistic of 0.750 (P<0.001). Conclusion A comprehensive assessment integrating parameters of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, clinical presentations at exacerbation, and treatment showed a strong predictive capacity for short-term outcome in patients with AECOPD. Further studies are required to verify these findings. PMID:26170655

  2. Pathogenesis of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Chiao; Ng, Tze Hann; Ando, Masahiro; Lee, Chung-Te; Chen, I-Tung; Chuang, Jie-Cheng; Mavichak, Rapeepat; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Yeh, Mi-De; Chiang, Yi-An; Takeyama, Haruko; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O; Lo, Chu-Fang; Aoki, Takashi; Wang, Han-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also called early mortality syndrome (EMS), is a recently emergent shrimp bacterial disease that has resulted in substantial economic losses since 2009. AHPND is known to be caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that contain a unique virulence plasmid, but the pathology of the disease is still unclear. In this study, we show that AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus secrete the plasmid-encoded binary toxin PirAB(vp) into the culture medium. We further determined that, after shrimp were challenged with AHPND-causing bacteria, the bacteria initially colonized the stomach, where they started to produce PirAB(vp) toxin. At the same early time point (6 hpi), PirB(vp) toxin, but not PirA(vp) toxin, was detected in the hepatopancreas, and the characteristic histopathological signs of AHPND, including sloughing of the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreatic tubules, were also seen. Although some previous studies have found that both components of the binary PirAB(vp) toxin are necessary to induce a toxic effect, our present results are consistent with other studies which have suggested that PirB(vp) alone may be sufficient to cause cellular damage. At later time points, the bacteria and PirA(vp) and PirB(vp) toxins were all detected in the hepatopancreas. We also show that Raman spectroscopy "Whole organism fingerprints" were unable to distinguish between AHPND-causing and non-AHPND causing strains. Lastly, by using minimum inhibitory concentrations, we found that both virulent and non-virulent V. parahaemolyticus strains were resistant to several antibiotics, suggesting that the use of antibiotics in shrimp culture should be more strictly regulated. PMID:26549178

  3. Utilization Patterns and Patient Outcomes Associated with Use of Rescue Therapies in Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Walkey, Allan J.; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the practice patterns and clinical outcomes associated with use of rescue therapies in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Design Secondary analysis of multi-center, randomized-controlled trial data from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ARDS Clinical Trials Network (ARDSNet). Setting Intensive care units of ARDSNet centers across the United States. Patients Subjects enrolled in 6 ARDSNet trials occurring between1996–2005. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results 166/2632(6.3%) of subjects received rescue therapy, defined as prone positioning [97/166 (58%)], inhaled vasodilators [47/166 (28%)], high frequency ventilation (HFV) [12/166 (7%)] or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) [10/166 (6%)]. Use of inhaled vasodilators increased while use of prone position decreased over time (p for trend = 0.04 and 0.0013, respectively). Multivariate predictors for use of rescue therapy included age [odds ratio (OR) per 10 years, (95% confidence intervals): 0.88, (0.78–0.99), p=0.049], positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) [OR per 5 cm H2O increase 1.33, (1.05–1.69), p=0.019], PaO2/FiO2 [OR per 5 increase: 0.98, (0.96–0.99), p=0.017], peak airway pressure [OR per 5cm H2O increase: 1.11, (1.001–1.237), p=0.047], and study order [OR per subsequent ARDSNet study: 1.21, (1.03–1.41), p=0.02]. Cox proportional hazards analysis of propensity score-matched subjects showed no difference in survival for those who received rescue therapy versus those that did not [Hazard ratio (HR) for death after rescue therapy or index date 1.10, (0.67–1.78), p=0.72]. No differences in survival were found between those who received prone positioning versus inhaled vasodilators [propensity score-adjusted HR for prone 0.87 (0.86–2.10), p=0.76]. Conclusions Rescue therapies are utilized in younger patients with more severe oxygenation deficits. Patterns of rescue therapy utilization appear to be changing over time. Within the limits of an observational study design, we did not find evidence of a survival benefit with use of rescue therapies in ALI. PMID:21336109

  4. Impedance in Isolated Mouse Lungs for the Determination of Site of Action of Vasoactive Agents and Disease

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    . The measurement of PVZ in isolated lungs allows for an improved understanding of the modes of action of drugsImpedance in Isolated Mouse Lungs for the Determination of Site of Action of Vasoactive Agents the review of this article. Abstract--Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is a disease of the lung vasculature

  5. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling: Evidence for Its Protective Role in Endotoxin Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xing; Jin, Yuting; Hou, Xiaoming; Liu, Fengqin; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective role of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling associated with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in a mouse model. Methods Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS-cyclopamine group and cyclopamine group. ALI was induced by LPS ip injection (5 mg/kg). The sonic hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine (50 mg/kg) was given to the LPS-cyclopamine group at 30 min after LPS injection as well as normal mice as control. Lung injury was observed histologically in hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained tissue sections, semi-quantified by lung tissue injury score, and the lung tissue mass alteration was measured by wet to dry weight ratio (W/D). mRNA expression levels of TNF-?, SHH, Patched (PTC) and GLI1 in lung tissue were studied with real time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), while the protein expression of SHH and GLI1 was determined by western blot analysis. Results Lung tissue injury score, thickness of alveolar septa, W/D, and TNF-? mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the ALI mice than the normal mice (P<0.05). The mRNA expression levels of SHH, PTC, and GLI1 in the ALI mice were significantly higher at 12h and 24h after LPS injection, but not at the 6h time point. Protein production of SHH and GLI1 at 6h, 12h, and 24h in the lungs of ALI mice significantly increased, in a time-dependent manner, compared with that in normal mice. Cyclopamine alone has no effect on pathological changes in normal mice. Intervention with cyclopamine in ALI mice led to a reduction in mRNA levels of SHH, PTC, and GLI1 as well as SHH and GLI1 protein levels; meanwhile, the pathological injury scores of lung tissues, thickness of alveolar septa, W/D, and mRNA expression levels of TNF-? increased compared with mice receiving LPS only. Conclusion The SHH signaling pathway was activated in response to LPS-induced ALI, and up-regulation of SHH expression could alleviate lung injury and be involved in the repair of injured lung tissue. PMID:26545089

  6. Expression of Carcinoembryonic Cell Adhesion Molecule 6 and Alveolar Epithelial Cell Markers in Lungs of Human Infants with Chronic Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Linda W; Gonzalez, Robert; Barrette, Anne Marie; Wang, Ping; Dobbs, Leland; Ballard, Philip L

    2015-12-01

    The membrane protein carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM6) is expressed in the epithelium of various tissues, participating in innate immune defense, cell proliferation and differentiation, with overexpression in gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic and lung tumors. It is developmentally and hormonally regulated in fetal human lung, with an apparent increased production in preterm infants with respiratory failure. To further examine the expression and cell localization of CEACAM6, we performed immunohistochemical and biochemical studies in lung specimens from infants with and without chronic lung disease. CEACAM6 protein and mRNA were increased ~4-fold in lungs from infants with chronic lung disease as compared with controls. By immunostaining, CEACAM6 expression was markedly increased in the lung parenchyma of infants and children with a variety of chronic lung disorders, localizing to hyperplastic epithelial cells with a ~7-fold elevated proliferative rate by PCNA staining. Some of these cells also co-expressed membrane markers of both type I and type II cells, which is not observed in normal postnatal lung, suggesting they are transitional epithelial cells. We suggest that CEACAM6 is both a marker of lung epithelial progenitor cells and a contributor to the proliferative response after injury due to its anti-apoptotic and cell adhesive properties. PMID:26374831

  7. A Simple Clinical Predictive Index for Objective Estimates of Mortality in Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Colin R.; Shah, Chirag V.; Gallop, Robert; Bellamy, Scarlett; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Eisner, Mark D.; Lanken, Paul N.; Localio, A. Russell; Christie, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a simple point score that would accurately capture the risk of hospital death for patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Design This is a secondary analysis of data from two randomized trials. Baseline clinical variables collected within 24 hours of enrollment were modeled as predictors of hospital mortality using logistic regression and bootstrap resampling to arrive at a parsimonious model. We constructed a point score based on regression coefficients. Setting Medical centers participating in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trials network (ARDSnet). Patients Model development: 414 patients with non-traumatic ALI participating in the low tidal volume arm of the ARDSnet ARMA study. Model validation: 459 patients participating in the ARDSnet ALVEOLI study. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results Variables comprising the prognostic model were: hematocrit <26% (1 point), bilirubin ? 2 mg/dl (1 point), fluid balance greater than 2.5 liters positive (1 point), and age (1 point for age 40–64, 2 points for age ? 65 years). Predicted mortality (95% confidence interval) for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4+ point totals was 8% (5–14%), 17% (12–23%), 31% (26–37%), 51% (43–58%), and 70% (58–80%), respectively. There was excellent agreement between predicted and observed mortality in the validation cohort. Observed mortality for 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4+ point totals in the validation cohort was 12%, 16%, 28%, 47%, and 67%, respectively. Compared to the APACHE III score, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the point score were greater in the development cohort (0.72 vs. 0.67, p=0.09) and lower in the validation cohort (0.68 vs. 0.75, p=0.03). Conclusions Mortality in ALI patients can be predicted using an index of four readily-available clinical variables with good calibration. This index may help inform prognostic discussions, but validation in non-clinical trial populations is necessary before widespread use. PMID:19384214

  8. Treatment-Related Pneumonitis and Acute Esophagitis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Chemotherapy and Helical Tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chang Hoon; Pyo, Hongryull; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Dae Woong; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To assess clinical outcomes and complications in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with helical tomotherapy (HT) with or without chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Data from 37 NSCLC patients treated between January 2007 and August 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-eight patients had Stage III disease. Concurrent and neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to 24 and 14 patients, respectively. Radiotherapy was delivered to a total dose of 60-70.4 Gy at 2.0-2.4 Gy per fraction to the gross tumor volume and 50-64 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy per fraction to the planning target volume. Results: With a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 6-27 months), 2-year local control and overall survival rates were 63% and 56% for all 37 patients, respectively, and were 78% and 75% for the patients with Stage III disease who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone. Acute esophagitis and treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP) {>=}Grade 3 occurred in 5 and 7 patients, respectively. Four patients died of treatment-related death (TRD) after HT. In univariate analysis, poor performance status, total lung V{sub 5}, contralateral lung (CL) V{sub 5}, and V{sub 10} were associated with TRD. Only CL V{sub 5} remained significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.029). Conclusions: HT with chemotherapy has shown promising clinical outcomes, esophagitis, and TRPs. However, HT has produced a somewhat high rate of fatal pulmonary complications. Our data suggest that CL V{sub 5} should be considered and kept as low as possible (<60%) in addition to the conventional dosimetric factors.

  9. Acute Esophagus Toxicity in Lung Cancer Patients After Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kwint, Margriet; Uyterlinde, Wilma; Nijkamp, Jasper; Chen, Chun; Bois, Josien de; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Heuvel, Michel van den; Knegjens, Joost; Herk, Marcel van; Belderbos, Jose

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-effect relation between acute esophageal toxicity (AET) and the dose-volume parameters of the esophagus after intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy were prospectively analyzed. The fractionation scheme was 66 Gy in 24 fractions. All patients received concurrently a daily dose of cisplatin (6 mg/m Superscript-Two ). Maximum AET was scored according to Common Toxicity Criteria 3.0. Dose-volume parameters V5 to V70, D{sub mean} and D{sub max} of the esophagus were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the dose-effect relation between these parameters and grade {>=}2 and grade {>=}3 AET. The outcome was compared with the clinically used esophagus V35 prediction model for grade {>=}2 after radical 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) treatment. Results: In our patient group, 9% did not experience AET, and 31% experienced grade 1 AET, 38% grade 2 AET, and 22% grade 3 AET. The incidence of grade 2 and grade 3 AET was not different from that in patients treated with CCRT using 3DCRT. The V50 turned out to be the most significant dosimetric predictor for grade {>=}3 AET (P=.012). The derived V50 model was shown to predict grade {>=}2 AET significantly better than the clinical V35 model (P<.001). Conclusions: For NSCLC patients treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy, the V50 was identified as most accurate predictor of grade {>=}3 AET. There was no difference in the incidence of grade {>=}2 AET between 3DCRT and IMRT in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  10. Effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary hemodynamics after acute lung injury in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Romand, J.A.; Pinsky, M.R.; Firestone, L.; Zar, H.A.; Lancaster, J.R. Jr. )

    1994-03-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and mismatch in ventilation-to-perfusion ratio characterize acute lung injury (ALI). Pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) decreases when nitric oxide (NO) is inhaled during hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV); thus NO inhalation may reduce PVR and improve gas exchange in ALI. The authors studied the hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of NO inhalation during HPV and then ALI in eight anesthetized open-chest mechanically ventilated dogs. Right atrial pressure, Ppa, and left ventricular and arterial pressures were measured, and cardiac output was estimated by an aortic flow probe. Shunt and dead space were also estimated. The effect of 5-min exposures to 0, 17, 28, 47, and 0 ppm inhaled NO was recorded during hyperoxia, hypoxia, and oleic acid-induced ALI. During ALI, partial [beta]-adrenergic blockage (propanolol, 0.15 mg/kg iv) was induced and 74 ppm NO was inhaled. Nitrosylhemoglobin (NO-Hb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) levels were measured. During hyperoxia, NO inhalation had no measurable effects. Hypoxia increased Ppa and calculated PVR, both of which decreased with 17 ppm NO. ALI decreased arterial Po[sub 2] and increased airway pressure, shunt, and dead space ventilation. Ppa and PVR were greater during ALI than during hyperoxia. NO inhalation had no measurable effect during ALI before or after [beta]-adrenergic blockage. MetHb remained low, and NO-Hb was unmeasurable. Bolus infusion of nitroglycerin (15 [mu]g) induced an immediate decrease in Ppa and PVR during ALI. Short-term NO inhalation does not affect PVR or gas exchange in dogs with oleic acid-induced ALI, nor does it increase NO-Hb or MetHb. In contrast, NO can diminish hypoxia-induced elevations in pulmonary vascular tone. These data suggest that NO inhalation selectively dilates the pulmonary circulation and specifically reduces HPV but not oleic acid-induced increases in pulmonary vasomotor tone. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Andrographolide Protects against LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inactivation of NF-?B

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tao; Wang, Dao-xin; Zhang, Wei; Liao, Xiu-qing; Guan, Xian; Bo, Hong; Sun, Jia-yang; Huang, Ni-wen; He, Jing; Zhang, Yun-kun; Tong, Jing; Li, Chang-yi

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a central transcriptional factor and a pleiotropic regulator of many genes involved in acute lung injury. Andrographolide is found in the plant of Andrographis paniculata and widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, exhibiting potently anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting NF-?B activity. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of andrographolide on various aspects of LPS induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods and Results In vivo, BALB/C mice were subjected to LPS injection with or without andrographolide treatments to induce ALI model. In vitro, MLE-12 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence and absence of andrographolide. In vivo, pulmonary inflammation, pulmonary edema, ultrastructure changes of type II alveolar epithelial cells, MPO activity, total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? in BALF, along with the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF were dose-dependently attenuated by andrographolide. Meanwhile, in vitro, the expression of VCAM-1 and VEGF was also reduced by andrographolide. Moreover, our data showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited the ratios of phospho-IKK?/total IKK?, phospho-I?B?/total I?B? and phospho-NF-?B p65/total NF-?B p65, and NF-?B p65 DNA binding activities, both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results indicate that andrographolide dose-dependently suppressed the severity of LPS-induced ALI, more likely by virtue of andrographolide-mediated NF-?B inhibition at the level of IKK? activation. These results suggest andrographolide may be considered as an effective and safe drug for the potential treatment of ALI. PMID:23437127

  12. Legionnaires disease presenting as acute kidney injury in the absence of pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Meera; Sivasambu, Bhradeev

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonic illness with multisystem involvement. In 1987, Haines et al reported the only reported case of isolated renal disease of legionellosis without concurrent respiratory disease. A 62-year-old man presented with generalised weakness and malaise and watery diarrhoea, and was found to have acute kidney injury on admission. He was initially managed as acute gastroenteritis complicated with dehydration and acute kidney injury with intravenous hydration. Despite adequate hydration, his renal function was worsening day by day. Later in the course of his sickness he developed pneumonic illness and was diagnosed with Legionnaires disease after a positive urine antigen test. We are reporting the second case of Legionnaires disease presenting as an isolated acute kidney injury in the absence of respiratory symptoms on presentation. PMID:25691580

  13. Local and systemic neutrophilic inflammation in patients with lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent investigations suggest that neutrophils play an important role in the immune response to lung cancer as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of neutrophils and markers of their activity in lung cancer and COPD and in coexistence of these two diseases. Methods In total, 267 persons were included in the study: 139 patients with lung cancer, 55 patients with lung cancer and COPD, 40 patients with COPD, and 33 healthy subjects. Peripheral blood and BAL fluid samples were obtained for cell count analysis and determination of NE, MPO levels and ROS production. NE and MPO levels in the serum and BAL fluid were determined by ELISA. ROS production was analyzed by flow cytometer. Results The percentage, cell count of neutrophils and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the peripheral blood were significantly higher in lung cancer patients with or without COPD compared to COPD patients or healthy individuals (P?lung cancer with or without COPD than in patients with COPD (P?lung cancer than COPD patients or healthy individuals (P?lung cancer with or without COPD compared with COPD patients or healthy individuals (P?lung cancer (with or without COPD) than in patients with COPD. PMID:23919722

  14. Comparison of the Clinical Manifestations between Acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease and Acute Bilateral Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Woo Beom; Kim, Min Kyo; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare clinical, angiographic, and optical coherence tomographic characteristics between eyes with acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and eyes with acute bilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), and to demonstrate distinguishing features between the two diseases in confusing cases. Methods The medical records of 35 patients with VKH disease and 25 patients with bilateral CSC were retrospectively reviewed. Characteristics according to slit-lamp biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were compared between the two diseases. Results Five of 35 patients (10 of 70 eyes, 14.3%) with VKH disease were initially misdiagnosed as CSC patients, and six of 25 patients (12 of 50 eyes, 24%) with bilateral CSC were initially misdiagnosed as patients with VKH disease. Pigment epithelial detachment in CSC and optic disc hyperemia in VKH disease show the highest positive predictive values of 100% for each disease. Conclusions Optic disc hyperemia in VKH disease and pigment epithelial detachment in bilateral CSC are the most specific clinical manifestations of each disease at initial patient presentation. PMID:26635455

  15. Regulation of apoptosis through cysteine oxidation: implications for fibrotic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M.W.; Aesif, Scott W.; van der Velden, Jos; Guala, Amy S.; Reiss, Jessica N.; Roberson, Elle C.; Budd, Ralph C.; Reynaert, Niki L.; Anathy, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    Tissue fibrosis is believed to be a manifestation of dysregulated repair following injury, in association with impaired reepithelialization, and aberrant myofibroblast activation and proliferation. Numerous pathways have been linked to the pathogenesis of fibrotic lung disease, including the death receptor Fas, which contributes to apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. A redox imbalance also has been implicated in disease pathogenesis, although mechanistic details whereby oxidative changes intersect with profibrotic signaling pathways remain elusive. Oxidation of cysteines in proteins, such as S-glutathionylation (PSSG), is known to act as a regulatory event that affects protein function. This manuscript will discuss evidence that S-glutathionylation regulates death receptor induced apoptosis, and the potential implications for cysteine oxidations in the pathogenesis of in fibrotic lung disease. PMID:20716279

  16. Application of Clinico-Radiologic-Pathologic Diagnosis of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases in Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dan; Chen, Zhimin; Chen, Huizhong; Huang, Rongyan; Zhao, Shunying; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhou, Chunju; Peng, Yun; Yuan, Xinyu; Zou, Jizhen; Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Deyu; Liu, Enmei; Zheng, Yuejie; Zhong, Lili; Lu, Min; Lu, Jirong; Nong, Guangmin

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases in children (chDPLD) or interstitial lung diseases in children (chILD) represent a heterogeneous group of respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, the incidence of chDPLD is so low that most pediatricians lack sufficient knowledge of chDPLD, especially in China. Based on the clinico- radiologic- pathologic (CRP) diagnosis, we tried to describe (1) the characteristics of chDPLD and (2) the ratio of each constituent of chDPLD in China. Data were evaluated, including clinical, radiographic, and pathologic results from lung biopsies. We collected 25 cases of chDPLD, 18 boys and 7 girls with a median age of 6.0 years, from 16 hospitals in China. The most common manifestations included cough (n = 24), dyspnea (n = 21), and fever (n = 4). There were three cases of exposure-related interstitial lung disease (ILD), three cases of systemic disease-associated ILD, nineteen cases of alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD, and no cases of ILD specific to infancy. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 9) was the two largest groups. Conclusion: Non-specific interstitial pneumonia is the main categories of chDPLD in China. Lung biopsy is always a crucial step in the final diagnosis. However, clinical and imaging studies should be carefully evaluated for their value in indicating a specific chDPLD. PMID:25569558

  17. Use of corticosteroids during acute phase of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong Jin

    2015-11-01

    In spite of initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, a significant number of patients are unresponsive to it and are at a higher risk for coronary artery lesions. Corticosteroids have been used as a secondary drug or used in combination with IVIG. Three options of using corticosteroids for the treatment of patients during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, have been considered. The first is their use exclusively for patients unresponsive to IVIG treatment. The second is their use in combination with IVIG as the routine first line therapy for all patients. The last is the use in the combination as the first line therapy for selected patients at a high risk being unresponsive to initial IVIG. However, it is uncertain that the corticosteroids as the second line treatment are better than the additional IVIG in patients unresponsive to initial IVIG. The combination of corticosteroids and IVIG as the routine first line therapy also have not enough evidences. The last option of using corticosteroids - the combination of corticosteroids and IVIG in patients at high risk of unresponsiveness, is a properly reasonable treatment strategy. However, there have been no globally standardized predictive models for the unresponsiveness to initial IVIG treatment. Therefore, future investigations to determine the best predictive model are necessary. PMID:26566486

  18. Use of corticosteroids during acute phase of Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeong Jin

    2015-01-01

    In spite of initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, a significant number of patients are unresponsive to it and are at a higher risk for coronary artery lesions. Corticosteroids have been used as a secondary drug or used in combination with IVIG. Three options of using corticosteroids for the treatment of patients during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease, have been considered. The first is their use exclusively for patients unresponsive to IVIG treatment. The second is their use in combination with IVIG as the routine first line therapy for all patients. The last is the use in the combination as the first line therapy for selected patients at a high risk being unresponsive to initial IVIG. However, it is uncertain that the corticosteroids as the second line treatment are better than the additional IVIG in patients unresponsive to initial IVIG. The combination of corticosteroids and IVIG as the routine first line therapy also have not enough evidences. The last option of using corticosteroids - the combination of corticosteroids and IVIG in patients at high risk of unresponsiveness, is a properly reasonable treatment strategy. However, there have been no globally standardized predictive models for the unresponsiveness to initial IVIG treatment. Therefore, future investigations to determine the best predictive model are necessary. PMID:26566486

  19. Management of Parkinson's disease in the acute hospital environment.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, M J; MacMahon, D G

    2012-06-01

    There have been a number of exciting developments in the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the past decade. However the objective for the vast majority of patients remains the maintenance of quality of life through the achievement of steady levels of dopaminergic stimulation within the target neurones of the basal ganglia. While there is a great deal of guidance available for the PD specialist, it remains a challenge for the generalist to know which patients require specialist input, how urgently that input should be obtained and what steps should be taken while awaiting review. Diagnosis can be difficult in the acute setting. While a high index of suspicion is important, it is not a diagnosis that should be made lightly and all cases should be reviewed by a specialist who will then advise on initial treatment. Management of PD medication during intercurrent illness is a challenge, particularly when the gastrointestinal tract is dysfunctional. Some guidance on dealing with this situation is available and has been summarised in this article. Problems that may present to the general physician include aspiration pneumonia, uncontrolled dyskinesias, psychosis, dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome and rarely, neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome. These conditions will be reviewed, along with general guidance for managing patients on more sophisticated regimes such as continuous intrajejunal levodopa infusion (Duodopa) and patients with a deep brain stimulator in situ. PMID:22693703

  20. Gender gap in acute coronary heart disease: Myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Mette; Sybrandy, Kirsten C; Appelman, Yolande E; Asselbergs, Folkert W

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential gender differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease (CVD) management, and prognosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed through Medline using pre-specified keywords. An additional search was performed, focusing specifically on randomized controlled clinical trials in relation to therapeutic intervention and prognosis. In total, 92 relevant articles were found. RESULTS: Women with CVD tended to have more hypertension and diabetes at the time of presentation, whereas men were more likely to smoke. Coronary angiography and revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention were performed more often in men. Women were at a greater risk of short-term mortality and complications after revascularization. Interestingly, women under 40 years presenting with ACS were at highest risk of cardiovascular death compared with men of the same age, irrespective of risk factors. This disadvantage disappeared in older age. The long-term mortality risk of ACS was similar in men and women, and even in favor of women. CONCLUSION: Mortality rates are higher among young women with ACS, but this difference tends to disappear with age, and long-term prognosis is even better among older women. PMID:22379536

  1. The Expanding Role of Biomarkers in the Assessment of Smoking-Related Parenchymal Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tracy J.; Pinto-Plata, Victor; Morse, Danielle; Celli, Bartolome R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of clinical biomarkers suggest that quantification of serum proteins could play an important role in the diagnosis, classification, prognosis, and treatment response of smoking-related parenchymal lung diseases. COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), two common chronic progressive parenchymal lung diseases, share cigarette smoke exposure as a common dominant risk factor for their development. We have recently shown that COPD and interstitial lung disease may represent distinct outcomes of chronic tobacco use, whereas others have demonstrated that both diseases coexist in some individuals. In this perspective, we examine the potential role of peripheral blood biomarkers in predicting which individuals will develop COPD or IPF, as well as their usefulness in tracking disease progression and exacerbations. Additionally, given the current lack of sensitive and effective metrics to determine an individual’s response to treatment, we evaluate the potential role of biomarkers as surrogate markers of clinical outcomes. Finally, we examine the possibility that changes in levels of select protein biomarkers can provide mechanistic insight into the common origins and unique individual susceptibilities that lead to the development of smoking-related parenchymal lung diseases. This discussion is framed by a consideration of the properties of ideal biomarkers for different clinical and research purposes and the best uses for those biomarkers that have already been proposed and investigated. PMID:23032451

  2. STAT3-dependent CXC chemokine formation and neutrophil migration in streptococcal M1 protein-induced acute lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songen; Hwaiz, Rundk; Luo, Lingtao; Herwald, Heiko; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes cause infections ranging from mild pharyngitis to severe streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). The M1 serotype of Streptococcus pyogenes is most frequently associated with STSS. Herein, it was hypothesized that STAT3 signaling might be involved in M1 protein-evoked lung inflammation. The STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201, was administered to male C57Bl/6 mice before iv challenge with M1 protein. Bronchoalveolar fluid and lung tissue were harvested for quantification of STAT3 activity, neutrophil recruitment, edema, and CXC chemokine formation. Neutrophil expression of Mac-1 was quantified by use of flow cytometry. Levels of IL-6 and HMGB1 were determined in plasma. CXCL2-induced neutrophil chemotaxis was studied in vitro. Administration of S3I-201 markedly reduced M1 protein-provoked STAT3 activity, neutrophil recruitment, edema formation, and inflammatory changes in the lung. In addition, M1 protein significantly increased Mac-1 expression on neutrophils and CXC chemokine levels in the lung. Treatment with S3I-201 had no effect on M1 protein-induced expression of Mac-1 on neutrophils. In contrast, inhibition of STAT3 activity greatly reduced M1 protein-induced formation of CXC chemokines in the lung. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition markedly decreased plasma levels of IL-6 and HMGB1 in animals exposed to M1 protein. Moreover, we found that S3I-201 abolished CXCL2-induced neutrophil migration in vitro. In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that STAT3 signaling plays a key role in mediating CXC chemokine production and neutrophil infiltration in M1 protein-induced acute lung inflammation. PMID:25840996

  3. Extramedullary Disease in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Two-In-One Disease

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Francesco; Specchia, Giorgina

    2011-01-01

    In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), extramedullary disease (EMD) is particularly rare and shows special clinical and biological features. It is estimated that about 3–5% of APL patients will suffer extramedullary relapse. The most common site of EMD in APL is the central nervous system (CNS). At present, there are still many issues of EMD in APL needing further clarification, including pathogenesis, risk factors, prognosis and treatment. A better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying EMD is important to be able to devise more effective CNS prophylaxis and induction-consolidation therapeutic strategies. PMID:22220263

  4. A pilot study on the refinement of acute inhalation toxicity studies: the isolated perfused rat lung as a screening tool for surface-active substances.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Monika; Koch, Wolfgang; Windt, Horst; Dasenbrock, Clemens

    2012-09-01

    New surface-active agents in waterproofing spray