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Sample records for acute pancreatitis mri

  1. [Imaging of acute pancreatitis--the role of US, CT and MRI].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Saisho, Hiromitsu

    2004-11-01

    Imaging of the pancreas with US and CT plays a major role in the diagnosis and evaluations of patients with acute pancreatitis. In severe acute pancreatitis, dynamic CT is essential to assess the severity of the disease and evaluate the complications. MRI is comparable to CT in its capacity to provide precise information about the severity of acute pancreatitis. MRI has some advantages over CT in being free from ionizing radiation and lower toxity of gadolinium which is used for contrast medium intravenously. The disadvantages of MRI, however, include cost, longer exam duration, limited availability and the practical difficulties of scanning a patient with ICU equipment. PMID:15552887

  2. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rate Lab tests that show the release of pancreatic enzymes will be done. These include: Increased blood amylase level Increased serum blood lipase level Increased urine amylase ... include: Abdominal CT scan Abdominal MRI Abdominal ultrasound

  3. Gadolinium induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Blasco-Perrin, H; Glaser, B; Pienkowski, M; Peron, J M; Payen, J L

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. The two most common causes are alcohol use and biliary stones. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis are rare (1.4-2%). In this present study, we present a case of recurrent acute pancreatitis induced by a specific magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) contrast agent called gadobenate dimeglumine. PMID:23395575

  4. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  5. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist. PMID:26526433

  6. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure children receive vaccines to protect them against mumps and other childhood illnesses. Treat medical problems that ... Heart failure - overview Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Kawasaki disease Mumps Mycoplasma pneumonia Reye syndrome Patient Instructions Pancreatitis - discharge ...

  7. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: does it exist?

    PubMed

    Tenner, Scott

    2014-11-28

    As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

  8. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?

    PubMed Central

    Tenner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

  9. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested clinically by abdominal pain, nausea and dehydration that is usually self-limiting ... room for evaluation should they develop any abnormal abdominal pain symptoms. Conclusions While a rare event, acute pancreatitis ...

  10. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  11. [Acute pancreatitis in children].

    PubMed

    Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M

    1998-02-21

    Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment. PMID:9562770

  12. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery. PMID:8139793

  13. [Etiological factors of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Spicák, J

    2002-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis develops immediately after the causative impulse, while chronic pancreatitis develops after the long-term action of the noxious agent. A typical representative of acute pancreatitis is biliary pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis develops in alcoholism and has a long latency. As alcoholic pancreatitis is manifested at first as a rule by a potent attack, it is classified in this stage as acute pancreatitis. The most frequent etiological factors in our civilization are thus cholelithiasis and alcoholism (both account for 20-50% in different studies). The assumed pathogenetic principles in acute biliary pancreatitis are the common canal of both efferent ducts above the obturated papilla, duodenopancreatic reflux and intrapancreatic hypertension. A detailed interpretation is however lacking. The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is more complicated. Among others some part is played by changes in the calcium concentration and fusion of cellular membranes. Idiopathic pancreatitis occurs in up to 10%, part of the are due to undiagnosed alcoholism and cholelithiasis. Other etiologies are exceptional. Similarly as in cholelithiasis pancreatitis develops also during other pathological processes in the area of the papilla of Vater such as dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi, ampulloma and juxtapapillary diverticulum, it is however usually mild. The incidence of postoperative pancreatitis is declining. Its lethality is 30% and the diagnosis is difficult. In the pathogenesis changes of the ion concentration are involved, hypoxia and mechanical disorders of the integrity of the gland. Pancreatitis develops in association with other infections--frequently in mumps, rarely in hepatitis, tuberculosis, typhoid and mycoses. Viral pancreatitis is usually mild. In parasitoses pancreatitis develops due to a block of the papilla Vateri. In hyperparathyroidism chronic pancreatitis is more likely to develop, recent data are lacking. As to dyslipoproteinaemias

  14. Pancreatic blood flow in experimental acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, A.R.; Millar, A.M.; Taylor, T.V.

    1982-05-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of acute necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis remain controversial. Recent work has suggested that an early fall in pancreatic blood flow, causing ischemia, may be the initiating factor. Using an established rat model of hemorrhagic pancreatitis and the fractional indicator distribution technique with /sup 86/RbCl, pancreatic blood flow and tissue perfusion have been measured at various times in the condition. Six groups of ten rats were studied: control sham operation and pancreatitis groups were sacrificed at 1, 6, and 24 hr. Pancreatic blood flow (% of cardiac output) and perfusion (blood flow/g tissue) were measured. Blood flow was increased by a maximum of 53% at 1 hr (P less than 0.001) and remained elevated for 24 hr, and perfusion was increased by a maximum of 70% (P less than 0.001) at 1 hr and remained elevated at 6 hr. Pancreatic perfusion declines after 6 hr due to increasing gland edema. The results demonstrate a significant increase in pancreatic blood flow and perfusion in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis, suggesting a primary inflammatory response, and refute the ischemic etiological theory.

  15. Hypocalcemia in acute pancreatitis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is a frequent finding in acute pancreatitis. Severe hypocalcemia can present with neurological as well as cardiovascular manifestations. Correction of hypocalcemia by parenteral calcium infusion remains a controversial topic as intracellular calcium overload is the central mechanism of acinar cell injury in pancreatitis. The current article deals with the art and science of calcium correction in pancreatitis patients. PMID:27076730

  16. [Latest advances in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The present article analyses the main presentations on acute pancreatitis at Digestive Disease Week 2015. Arterial pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis (incidence 0.7%) and mortality from this cause is currently anecdotal. Diabetes mellitus has little impact on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis, unlike cirrhosis, which doubles the risk of mortality. Intake of unsaturated fat could be associated with an increased severity of acute pancreatitis and is a confounding factor in studies evaluating the relationship between obesity and morbidity and mortality. PET-CT (positron emission tomography-computed tomography) could be a non-invasive tool to detect infection of collections in acute pancreatitis. Peripancreatic fat necrosis is less frequent than pancreatic fat necrosis and is associated with a better clinical course. If the clinical course is poor, increasing the calibre of the percutaneous drains used in the treatment of infected necrosis can avoid surgery in 20% of patients. The use of low molecular-weight heparin in moderate or severe pancreatitis could be associated with a better clinical course, specifically with a lower incidence of necrosis. In acute recurrent pancreatitis, simvastatin is a promising drug for prophylaxis of new episodes of acute pancreatitis. Nutritional support through a nasogastric tube does not improve clinical course compared with oral nutrition. PMID:26520203

  17. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Bahiyah; Kathiresan Pillai, Thanikasalam; Cheen, Lim Huay; Ryan, Ray Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:25628906

  18. Acute pancreatitis: clinical vs. CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.C.; Barkin, J.; Isikoff, M.B.; Silver stein, W.; Kalser, M.

    1982-08-01

    In a prospective study of 91 patients with acute pancreatitis, computed tomographic (CT) findings were correlated with the clinical type of acute pancreatitis. In acute edematous pancreatitis (63 patients; 16 with repeat CT), CT was normal (28%) or showed inflammation limited to the pancreas (61%). Phlegmonous changes were present in 11%, including one patient with focal pancreatic hemorrhage, indicating that clinically unsuspected hemorrhagic pancreatitis can occur. In acute necrotizing (hemorrhagic, suppurative) pancreatitis (nine patients; eight with repeat CT), no patient had a normal CT scan and 89% had phlegmonous changes. One patient had hemorrhagic pancreatitis and three had abscesses. In acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis (10 patients; three with repeat CT), there were pancreatic calcifications (70%), a focal mass (40%), and pancreatic ductal dilation (30%). On follow-up CT, the findings of acute pancreatitis did not always disappear with resolution of the clinical symptons. This was especialy true of phlegmonous pancreatitis, where the CT findings could persist for months.

  19. Cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Howaizi, Mehran; Chahine, Mouhamad; Haydar, Fadi; Jemaa, Yassine; Lapoile, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis has a large number of causes. Major causes are alcohol and gallstones. Toxic causes, mainly represented by medication-induced pancreatitis account for less than 2% of the cases. Cannabis is an anecdotally reported cause of acute pancreatitis. Six cases have previously been reported. Herein we report a new case of cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:23402090

  20. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  1. Canagliflozin-Associated Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajanshu

    2016-01-01

    Canagliflozin is a new drug in class of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors used for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We describe a patient who developed moderately severe acute pancreatitis as an untoward consequence after being initiated on this drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of canagliflozin-associated acute pancreatitis in clinical literature. PMID:25187092

  2. Acute Scorpion Pancreatitis in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, Courtenay

    1970-01-01

    Over a two-month period 30 patients were admitted to hospital following stings of the scorpion of Trinidad, the Tityus trinitatis. In 24 cases acute pancreatitis developed soon after the sting, but in nine of these no abdominal pain occurred. All the patients made an uneventful recovery. Although such complications have been reported no pseudocyst formations or acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis occurred in this series. PMID:5443968

  3. [New model of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Cherkezova-Kinova, E; Lateva, E

    1981-01-01

    The authors propose a new model of acute pancreatitis by infusing duodenal content, obtained both from animals with experimental pancreatitis and from patients with pancreatitis, hepatitis and cholecystitis, into the duodenum of experimental animals without pressure for a period of several days. Pancreatitis was established functionally and histomorphologically. The control group of animals did not reveal deviations from the norm after infusion of duodenal content. The authors suggested the presence of pathogenic substances in the duodenal content of animals and sick persons, and these components damaged the pancreas, liver and kidneys by means of blood and lymph ways. PMID:7227280

  4. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  5. Blood tests for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Basnayake, Chamara; Ratnam, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Summary The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis requires the presence of at least two of the three diagnostic criteria – characteristic abdominal pain, elevated serum amylase or lipase, and radiological evidence of pancreatitis. Serum concentrations of amylase and lipase rise within hours of the pancreatic injury. A threshold concentration 2–4 times the upper limit of normal is recommended for diagnosis. Serum lipase is now the preferred test due to its improved sensitivity, particularly in alcohol-induced pancreatitis. Its prolonged elevation creates a wider diagnostic window than amylase. Neither enzyme is useful in monitoring or predicting the severity of an episode of pancreatitis in adults. New biomarkers including trypsinogen and elastase have no significant advantage over amylase or lipase. PMID:26648641

  6. Liraglutide-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jeyaraj, Santhosh; Shetty, Ananth Samith; Kumar, Champat Raj Roopesh; Nanditha, Arun; Krishnamoorthy, Satheesh; Raghavan, Arun; Raghavan, K; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2014-01-01

    An obese lady of 51 year with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus for 13 years was prescribed Liraglutide, a glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogue (Victoza) for glycaemic control and reduction of weight. She was on gliclazide and Insulin prior to initiation of Liraglutide. Eight weeks after initiation of GLP -1 analogue, she developed severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. She was admitted to a private hospital and evaluated. Biochemical tests and CT scan revealed presence of pancreatitis and she was treated for acute pancreatitis. Liraglutide was withdrawn and symptoms subsided. Subsequent follow-up showed that pancreatic enzyme levels were normal. PMID:25327099

  7. Acute pancreatitis caused by bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Solakoglu, Tevfik; Akyol, Pinar; Guney, Tekin; Dilek, Imdat; Atalay, Roni; Koseoglu, Huseyin; Akin, Ebru; Demirezer Bolat, Aylin; Buyukasik, Naciye Semnur; Ersoy, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis has been reported rarely. Bortezomib is a selective and reversible proteasome inhibitor used for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, one case report about acute pancreatitis (AP) caused by bortezomib was published in the international literature. Herein we report a case of AP in a 67-year-old male on bortezomib therapy. On the fourth day after the first administration of bortezomib, the patient admitted to the hospital with symptoms of AP. The common etiological factors for AP were all excluded. Than the patient was diagnosed as bortezomib-induced pancreatitis. PMID:23561979

  8. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Orestis; Lavrentieva, Athina; Botsios, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    In the majority (80%) of patients with acute pancreatitis, the disease is self limiting and, after a few days of withholding feeding and intravenous administration of fluids, patients can again be normally fed orally. In a small percentage of patients, the disease progresses to severe necrotic pancreatitis, with an intense systemic inflammatory response and often with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. As mortality is high in patients with severe disease and as mortality and morbidity rates are directly related to the failure of establishing a positive nitrogen balance, it is assumed that feeding will improve survival in patients with severe disease. The aim of nutritional support is to cover the elevated metabolic demands as much as possible, without stimulating pancreatic secretion and maximizing self-digestion. The administration of either total parenteral nutrition or jejunal nutrition does not stimulate pancreatic secretion. Recently, a series of controlled clinical studies has been conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of enteral nutrition with jejunal administration of the nutritional solution. The results have shown that enteral nutrition, as compared to total parenteral nutrition, was cheaper, safer and more effective as regards the suppression of the immunoinflammatory response, the decrease of septic complications, the need for surgery for the management of the complications of acute pancreatitis and the reduction of the total hospitalization period. It did not seem to affect mortality or the rate of non-septic complications. In conclusion, enteral nutrition should be the preferred route of nutritional support in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:18648127

  9. Management of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Doctor, Nilesh; Agarwal, Pravin; Gandhi, Vidhyachandra

    2012-02-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) develops in about 25% of patients with acute pancreatitis. Severity of acute pancreatitis is linked to the presence of systemic organ dysfunctions and/or necrotizing pancreatitis. Risk factors independently determining the outcome of SAP are early multiorgan failure (MOF), infection of necrosis, and extended necrosis (>50%). Morbidity of SAP is biphasic, in the first week it is strongly related to systemic inflammatory response syndrome while, sepsis due to infected pancreatic necrosis leading to MOF syndrome occurs in the later course after the first week. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography provides the highest diagnostic accuracy for necrotizing pancreatitis when performed after the first week of disease. Patients who suffer early organ dysfunctions or are at risk for developing a severe disease require early intensive care treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis has not been shown as an effective preventive treatment. Early enteral feeding is based on a high level of evidence, resulting in a reduction of local and systemic infection. Patients suffering infected necrosis causing clinical sepsis are candidates for intervention. Hospital mortality of SAP after interventional or surgical debridement has decreased to below 20% in high-volume centers. PMID:23372306

  10. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  11. Acute Pancreatitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Werlin, Steven L.

    2001-10-01

    There are no drugs that cure or abate pancreatitis. The treatment of patients with mild and moderate episodes of pancreatitis (85%) is supportive and expectant. Central issues include the removal of the initiating process (if possible), relief of pain, and maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be required for stone extraction in patients with biliary pancreatitis. Surgery is rarely required. The aims of treatment for patients with severe disease includes treatment of local, systemic, and septic complications in addition to those for mild and moderate disease. Homeostasis is maintained by the correction of hypocalcemia, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, electrolyte imbalances, and hypoxemia. A large number of medications have been used unsuccessfully in an attempt to halt the progression of the autodigestive process within the pancreas and to reduce pancreatic secretions. Nutritional support with either enteral or parenteral feeding is given. Intravenous antibiotics or selective bowel decontamination decrease mortality in patients with severe episodes of pancreatitis. The treatment for these individuals is often prolonged. Surgical treatment of traumatic pancreatitis with ductal rupture includes repair or resection. At times, simple drainage is performed and definitive surgery is deferred until later. Surgical treatment of severe pancreatitis includes debridement of necrotic and infected tissue. The emerging consensus appears to be that necrosectomy and local lavage or open management with planned re-exploration offers better survival than the conventional therapy of resection plus drainage alone. PMID:11560787

  12. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the symptoms of pancreatitis? Common symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. However, not every patient with ... help the pancreas to recover. Patients who have abdominal pain can be treated with pain medications. Some patients ...

  13. Acute pancreatitis induced by anticancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ben Kridis, W; Khanfir, A; Frikha, M

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis is rare (1.4-2%). This report describes a 20-year-old female patient who developed acute pancreatitis while being treated for neurosarcoma of abdominal wall with the ifosfamide and doxorubicin regimen. Although it is unusual, it is important to consider chemotherapeutic agents as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24455804

  14. Acute Pancreatitis Due to a Duodenal Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Pyeon, Sung Ik; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Ban Seok; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Oh, Kong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Duodenal ulcers and acute pancreatitis are two of the most commonly encountered gastrointestinal diseases among the general population. However, duodenal ulcer-induced pancreatitis is very rarely reported worldwide. This report elaborates on a distinct medical treatment that contributes to partial or complete treatment of acute pancreatitis induced by a duodenal ulcer scar. PMID:25505728

  15. Nutritional support for acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pisters, P W; Ranson, J H

    1992-09-01

    The current review has summarized current data relevant to the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis. Selection of the most appropriate form of nutritional support for patients with acute pancreatitis is intimately linked to a thorough understanding of the effects of various forms of enteral and parenteral nutrition on physiologic exocrine secretory mechanisms. Two basic concepts have emerged from the multiple studies that have addressed these issues to date: 1, enteral feeds should have low fat composition and be delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz to minimize exocrine pancreatic secretion and 2, parenteral substrate infusions, alone or in combinations similar to those administered during TPN, do not stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion. From a practical standpoint, most patients with acute pancreatitis are diagnosed by nonoperative means and will manifest some degree of paralytic ileus during the early phase of the disease. Therefore, jejunal feeds are usually not a therapeutic option early in the course of this disease. On the basis of the clinical studies reviewed herein we propose general guidelines for the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis: 1, most patients with mild uncomplicated pancreatitis (one to two prognostic signs) do not benefit from nutritional support; 2, nutritional support should begin early in the course of patients with moderate to severe disease (as soon as hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory stability permit); 3, initial nutritional support should be through the parenteral route and include fat emulsion in amounts sufficient to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency (no objective data exist to recommend specific amino acid formulations); 4, patients requiring operation for diagnosis or complications of the disease should have a feeding jejunostomy placed at the time of operation for subsequent enteral nutrition using a low fat formula, such as Precision HN (Sandoz, 1.3 percent calories as fat

  16. Acute pancreatitis in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Sai, Jin Kan; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    In this Topic Highlight, the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of acute pancreatitis in children are discussed. Acute pancreatitis should be considered during the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in children and requires prompt treatment because it may become life-threatening. The etiology, clinical manifestations, and course of acute pancreatitis in children are often different than in adults. Therefore, the specific features of acute pancreatitis in children must be considered. The etiology of acute pancreatitis in children is often drugs, infections, trauma, or anatomic abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (such as abdominal pain and vomiting), serum pancreatic enzyme levels, and imaging studies. Several scoring systems have been proposed for the assessment of severity, which is useful for selecting treatments and predicting prognosis. The basic pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis does not greatly differ between adults and children, and the treatments for adults and children are similar. In large part, our understanding of the pathology, optimal treatment, assessment of severity, and outcome of acute pancreatitis in children is taken from the adult literature. However, we often find that the common management of adult pancreatitis is difficult to apply to children. With advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment methods, severe acute pancreatitis in children is becoming better understood and more controllable. PMID:25400985

  17. Imaging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Part 2: complications of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, A; Erden, A; Türkoğlu, M A; Seçil, M; Yüce, G

    2015-02-01

    The Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 1992 and divides patients into mild and severe groups based on clinical and biochemical criteria. Recently, the terminology and classification scheme proposed at the initial Atlanta Symposium have been reviewed and a new consensus statement has been proposed by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Major changes include subdividing acute fluid collections into "acute peripancreatic fluid collection" and "acute post-necrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collection (acute necrotic collection)" based on the presence of necrotic debris. Delayed fluid collections have been similarly subdivided into "pseudocyst" and "walled of pancreatic necrosis". Appropriate use of the new terms describing the fluid collections is important for management decision-making in patients with acute pancreatitis. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of complications of the acute pancreatitis with emphasis on their prognostic significance and impact on clinical management and to clarify confusing terminology for pancreatic fluid collections. PMID:24703377

  18. Plasmablastic Lymphoma Mimicking Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan; Cheema, Ahmad R.; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Background. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm. It predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and exhibits a highly aggressive clinical behavior. Case Presentation. We describe an unusual case of a 37-year-old HIV-positive male who presented with acute pancreatitis secondary to multiple peripancreatic masses compressing the pancreas. Histopathological examination of the lesions showed diffuse and cohesive pattern of large B-cells resembling immunoblasts or plasmablasts. The neoplastic cells were positive for BOB1 and MUM1, partially positive for CD79a, and negative for CD20, CD56, CD138, CD3, CD5, AE1/AE3, and HHV8. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization was positive. These features were consistent with PBL. The patient was initiated on cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy, demonstrating a striking response. Conclusion. To our research, this is the first report of PBL with the initial presentation of acute pancreatitis. The findings in this case suggest that PBL should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. PMID:27034868

  19. Plasmablastic Lymphoma Mimicking Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Faisal; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan; Cheema, Ahmad R; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Background. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm. It predominantly occurs in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and exhibits a highly aggressive clinical behavior. Case Presentation. We describe an unusual case of a 37-year-old HIV-positive male who presented with acute pancreatitis secondary to multiple peripancreatic masses compressing the pancreas. Histopathological examination of the lesions showed diffuse and cohesive pattern of large B-cells resembling immunoblasts or plasmablasts. The neoplastic cells were positive for BOB1 and MUM1, partially positive for CD79a, and negative for CD20, CD56, CD138, CD3, CD5, AE1/AE3, and HHV8. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization was positive. These features were consistent with PBL. The patient was initiated on cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy, demonstrating a striking response. Conclusion. To our research, this is the first report of PBL with the initial presentation of acute pancreatitis. The findings in this case suggest that PBL should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tumors. PMID:27034868

  20. Atorvastatin Use Associated With Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few data are present in the literature on the relationship between atorvastatin use and acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to explore this issue in Taiwan. Using representative claims data established from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program, this case–control study consisted of 5810 cases aged 20 to 84 years with a first-time diagnosis of acute pancreatitis during the period 1998 to 2011and 5733 randomly selected controls without acute pancreatitis. Both cases and controls were matched by sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for other statins or nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs were excluded from the study. If subjects never had 1 prescription for atorvastatin, they were defined as never use of atorvastatin. Current use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted ≤7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Late use of atorvastatin was defined as subjects whose last remaining 1 tablet of atorvastatin was noted >7 days before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of acute pancreatitis associated with atorvastatin use was calculated by using the logistic regression analysis. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 1.67 for subjects with current use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 1.18, 2.38), when compared with subjects with never use of atorvastatin. The odds ratio decreased to 1.15 for those with late use of atorvastatin (95% confidence interval 0.87, 1.52), but without statistical significance. Current use of atorvastatin is associated with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Clinically, clinicians should consider the possibility of atorvastatin-associated acute pancreatitis when patients present with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis without a definite etiology but are taking

  1. Computerized tomography in acute and chronic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmar, J.A.; Matthews, C.C.; Bishop, L.A.

    1984-11-01

    Modern imaging techniques have revolutionized the diagnostic evaluation of pancreatitis, primarily demonstrating its complications. Computerized tomography (CT) is a more sensitive method than ultrasonography and pancreatic ductography. A chart review revealed 214 patients at our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of pancreatitis. Sixty patients had CT for evaluation of possible complications. Only five scans were normal. Of 37 cases of acute pancreatitis, 92% demonstrated localized or diffuse enlargement, and 65% showed loss of pancreatic outline. Other frequent findings included thickening of perirenal fascia (49%), ileus (43%), edema of mesentery (35%), and inflammatory exudate (32%). Abscess and pseudocyst were each detected in 8% of cases. In chronic pancreatitis 65% of patients showed localized or diffuse pancreatic enlargement. Atrophy of the gland (30%), calcification (30%), pseudocyst (26%), and dilated pancreatic ducts (17%) were also seen. CT is effective in evaluating pancreatitis and its complications. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Acute pancreatitis: international classification and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Bollen, T L

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing and it is associated with a major healthcare concern. New insights in the pathophysiology, better imaging techniques, and novel treatment options for complicated AP prompted the update of the 1992 Atlanta Classification. Updated nomenclature for pancreatic collections based on imaging criteria is proposed. Adoption of the newly Revised Classification of Acute Pancreatitis 2012 by radiologists should help standardise reports and facilitate accurate conveyance of relevant findings to referring physicians involved in the care of patients with AP. This review will clarify the nomenclature of pancreatic collections in the setting of AP. PMID:26602933

  3. Acute mediastinitis arising from pancreatic mediastinal fistula in recurrent pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Choe, In Soo; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Sun Moon; Song, Kyung Ho; Koo, Hoon Sup; Park, Jung Ho; Pyo, Jin Sil; Kim, Ji Yeong; Choi, In Seok

    2014-01-01

    Acute mediastinitis is a fatal disease that usually originates from esophageal perforation and surgical infection. Rare cases of descending necrotizing mediastinitis can occur following oral cavity and pharynx infection or can be a complication of pancreatitis. The most common thoracic complications of pancreatic disease are reactive pleural effusion and pneumonia, while rare complications include thoracic conditions, such as pancreaticopleural fistula with massive pleural effusion or hemothorax and extension of pseudocyst into the mediastinum. There have been no reports of acute mediastinitis originating from pancreatitis in South Korea. In this report, we present the case of a 50-year-old female suffering from acute mediastinitis with pleural effusion arising from recurrent pancreatitis that improved after surgical intervention. PMID:25356062

  4. Advances in Management of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Janisch, Nigeen H; Gardner, Timothy B

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews advances in the management of acute pancreatitis. Medical treatment has been primarily supportive for this diagnosis, and despite extensive research efforts, there are no pharmacologic therapies that improve prognosis. The current mainstay of management, notwithstanding the ongoing debate regarding the volume, fluid type, and rate of administration, is aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation. Although antibiotics were used consistently for prophylaxis in severe acute pancreatitis to prevent infection, they are no longer used unless infection is documented. Enteral nutrition, especially in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, is considered a cornerstone in management of this disease. PMID:26895677

  5. Saxagliptin-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Feng; Sun, Meng-Shun; Tai, Yen-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Although dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been implicated in the development of acute pancreatitis, the causality of this phenomenon is not well established. We herein report the case of an 85-year-old woman who presented with epigastric pain after taking saxagliptin for five months. A high serum lipase level with characteristic computed tomography findings confirmed the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The patient's symptoms rapidly resolved after admission, although they recurred when she resumed treatment with saxagliptin for 18 days after discharge. In the absence of any identifiable causes of pancreatitis and considering the temporal sequence of events, the saxagliptin therapy was highly suspected to be the triggering factor. Although drug-induced pancreatitis is rare, treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors should be included as a potential etiology of acute pancreatitis. PMID:24930656

  6. Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mark R.; Hall, Oliver Morgan; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of drug-induced pancreatitis cases are mild to moderate in severity, but severe and even fatal cases can occur. Management of drug-induced pancreatitis requires withdrawal of the offending agent and supportive care. Methods This review focuses on differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, drug-mediated effects, treatments, and mechanisms of pancreatitis, with an emphasis on drug-induced pancreatitis. Results Although only a minority of cases associated with acute pancreatitis are linked to drugs, clinical presentation and mechanisms of injury to the pancreas are not well understood by clinicians in terms of individual drug effects in the mediation or modulation of injury to the pancreas. In recent years, a large number of commonly prescribed medications has been linked to drug-induced pancreatitis pathogenesis. Although mechanisms are proposed, the exact cause of injury is either not well understood or controversial. Conclusion Future investigation into the mechanisms of pancreatitis and an appreciation by clinicians of the drugs commonly linked to the condition will help establish earlier diagnosis and quicker cessation of offending drugs in the treatment of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:25829880

  7. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following acute pancreatitis during chemotherapy for acute monocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Koh, Hideo; Bingo, Masato; Yoshida, Masahiro; Nanno, Satoru; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Nakane, Takahiko; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Shimono, Taro; Hino, Masayuki

    2014-05-01

    We describe an 18-year-old man with acute leukemia who presented with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) shortly after developing acute pancreatitis. On day 15 after the third consolidation course with high-dose cytarabine, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics was initiated for febrile neutropenia. On day 16, he developed septic shock, and subsequently, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After adding vancomycin, micafungin and high-dose methylprednisolone (mPSL) to his treatment regimen, these manifestations subsided. On day 22, he received hemodialysis for drug-induced acute renal failure. On day 24, he developed acute pancreatitis possibly due to mPSL; the following day he had generalized seizures, and was intubated. Cerebrospinal fluid findings were normal. Brain MRI revealed hyperintense signals on FLAIR images and increased apparent diffusion coefficient values in the sub-cortical and deep white matter areas of the bilateral temporal and occipital lobes, indicative of vasogenic edema. Thus, we diagnosed PRES. Blood pressure, seizures and volume status were controlled, with MRI findings showing improvement by day 42. He was extubated on day 32 and discharged on day 49 without complications. Although little is known about PRES following acute pancreatitis, clinicians should be aware that this condition may develop. PMID:24881921

  8. Management of acute pancreatitis (AP) – Polish Pancreatic Club recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Rosołowski, Mariusz; Lipiński, Michał; Dobosz, Marek; Durlik, Marek; Głuszek, Stanisław; Kuśnierz, Katarzyna; Lampe, Paweł; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Nowakowska-Duława, Ewa; Nowak-Niezgoda, Magdalena; Radomańska, Barbara; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Wereszczyńska-Siemiątkowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The presented recommendations concern the current management of acute pancreatitis. The recommendations relate to the diagnostics and treatment of early and late phases of acute pancreatitis and complications of the disease taking into consideration surgical and endoscopic methods. All the recommendations were subjected to voting by the members of the Working Group of the Polish Pancreatic Club, who evaluated them every single time on a five-point scale, where A means full acceptance, B means acceptance with a certain reservation, C means acceptance with a serious reservation, D means rejection with a certain reservation and E means full rejection. The results of the vote, together with commentary, are provided for each recommendation. PMID:27350832

  9. Biliary scintigraphy in acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, A.N.; Al-Sheikh, W.; Barkin, J.S.; Hourani, M.; Sfakiankis, G.; Clarke, L.P.; Ashkar, F.S.

    1982-08-01

    A prospective study was carried out in 60 patients to determine the efficacy of /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scintigraphy in differentiating biliary pancreatitis from nonbiliary pancreatitis. Forty patients were classified as having biliary pancreatitis and 20 patients as having the nonbiliary type. Scintigraphic scans were divided into five main types according to the time to visualization of the gallbladder and the time to excretion of /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA into the intestinal tract. Normal scans were obtained on 95% of patients (19/20) with nonbiliary pancreatitis; 22.5% of patients (9/40) with biliary pancreatitis had normal scans. It is concluded that elevated amylase levels together with an abnormal biliary scan, as defined by the criteria presented here, indicate biliary pancreatitis, while a normal scan largely excludes such diagnosis.

  10. Biliary scintigraphy in acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Serafini, A.N.; Al-Sheikh, W.; Barkin, J.S.; Hourani, M.; Sfakiankis, G.; Clarke, L.P.; Ashkar, F.S.

    1982-08-01

    A prospective study was carried out in 60 patients to determine the efficacy of /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scintigraphy in differentiating biliary pancreatitis from nonbiliary pancreatitis. Forty patients were classified as having biliary pancreatitis and 20 patients as having the nonbiliary type. Scintigraphic scans were divided into five main types according to the time to visualization of the gallbladder and the time to excretion of /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA into the intestinal tract. Normal scans were obtained in 95% of patients (19/20) with nonbiliary pancreatitis; 22.5% of patients (9/40) with biliary pancreatitis had normal scans. It is concluded that elevated amylase levels together with an abnormal biliary scan, as defined by the criteria presented here, indicate biliary pancreatitis, while a normal scan largely excludes such diagnosis.

  11. Pazopanib-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Hata, Hiroo; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Kawahata, Shuhei; Kubo, Kimitoshi; Imafuku, Keisuke; Kitamura, Shinya; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    Pazopanib is an oral angiogenesis inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, platelet-derived growth factor receptors, and c-Kit approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma. Nonselective kinase inhibitors, such as sunitinib and sorafenib, are known to be associated with acute pancreatitis. There are few case reports of severe acute pancreatitis induced by pazopanib treatment. We present a case of severe acute pancreatitis caused by pazopanib treatment for cutaneous angiosarcoma. The patient was an 82-year-old female diagnosed with cutaneous angiosarcoma. She had been refractory to docetaxel treatment and began pazopanib therapy. Three months after pazopanib treatment, CT imaging of the abdomen showed the swelling of the pancreas and surrounding soft tissue inflammation without abdominal pain. After she continued pazopanib treatment for 2 months, she presented with nausea and appetite loss. Abdominal CT showed the worsening of the surrounding soft tissue inflammation of the pancreas. Serum amylase and lipase levels were 296 and 177 IU/l, respectively. She was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis induced by pazopanib treatment and was managed conservatively with discontinuation of pazopanib, but the symptoms did not improve. Subsequently, an abdominal CT scan demonstrated the appearance of a pancreatic pseudocyst. She underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided pseudocyst drainage using a flared-end fully covered self-expandable metallic stent. Then, the symptoms resolved without recurrence. Due to the remarkable progress of molecular targeted therapy, the oncologist should know that acute pancreatitis was recognized as a potential adverse event of pazopanib treatment and could proceed to severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:26464570

  12. Acute recurrent pancreatitis: Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Pier Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) refers to a clinical entity characterized by episodes of acute pancreatitis which occurs on more than one occasion. Recurrence of pancreatitis generally occurs in a setting of normal morpho-functional gland, however, an established chronic disease may be found either on the occasion of the first episode of pancreatitis or during the follow-up. The aetiology of ARP can be identified in the majority of patients. Most common causes include common bile duct stones or sludge and bile crystals; sphincter of oddi dysfunction; anatomical ductal variants interfering with pancreatic juice outflow; obstruction of the main pancreatic duct or pancreatico-biliary junction; genetic mutations; alcohol consumption. However, despite diagnostic technologies, the aetiology of ARP still remains unknown in up to 30% of cases: in these cases the term “idiopathic” is used. Because occult bile stone disease and sphincter of oddi dysfunction account for the majority of cases, cholecystectomy, and eventually the endoscopic biliary and/or pancreatic sphincterotomy are curative in most of cases. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy appeared to be a curative procedure per se in about 80% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid oral treatment alone has also been reported effective for treatment of biliary sludge. In uncertain cases toxin botulin injection may help in identifying some sphincter of oddi dysfunction, but this treatment is not widely used. In the last twenty years, pancreatic endotherapy has been proven effective in cases of recurrent pancreatitis depending on pancreatic ductal obstruction, independently from the cause of obstruction, and has been widely used instead of more aggressive approaches. PMID:25493002

  13. Acute pancreatitis induced by methimazole therapy.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Albin; Raghavan, Pooja; Patel, Rajshree; Rajan, Dhyan; Singh, Jaspreet; Mustacchia, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Among the causative factors for acute pancreatitis, adverse drug reactions are considered to be rare. The diagnosis of drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) is challenging to establish, and is often underestimated because of the difficulties in determining the causative agent and the need for a retrospective re-evaluation of the suspected agent. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with complaints of abdominal pain. Her medications included methimazole (MMI) which she had been on for the past 3 months. Computed tomography of her abdomen showed peripancreatic fat stranding with trace amount of surrounding fluid, along with amylase and lipase levels suggestive of acute pancreatitis. In the absence of classical risk factors for acute pancreatitis, a diagnosis of DIP secondary to MMI use was made. Withdrawal of the drug from her medication regimen was accompanied by relief of symptoms and resolution of clinical evidence of pancreatitis. The aim of this paper is to report only the fourth case of MMI-induced pancreatitis in the published literature, and to illustrate the significance of an appropriate and timely diagnosis of DIP. PMID:22679409

  14. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lodewijkx, Piet J; Besselink, Marc G; Witteman, Ben J; Schepers, Nicolien J; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; On Behalf Of The Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group

    2016-05-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition, although several limitations should be taken into account. The optimal route of enteral nutrition remains unclear, but normal or nasogastric tube feeding seems safe when tolerated. In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis an on-demand feeding strategy is advised and when patients do not tolerate an oral diet after 72 hours, enteral nutrition can be started. The use of supplements, both parenteral as enteral, are not recommended. Optimal nutritional support in severe cases often requires a tailor-made approach with day-to-day evaluation of its effectiveness. PMID:26823272

  15. Recent Advances in Managing Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Janisch, Nigeen; Gardner, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the recent advances in managing acute pancreatitis. Supportive care has long been the standard of treatment for this disease despite extensive, but ultimately unsuccessful, efforts to develop disease-specific pharmacologic therapies. The primary interventions center on aggressive fluid resuscitation, initiation of early enteral nutrition, targeted antibiotic therapy, and the management of complications. In this article, we will detail treatment of acute pancreatitis with a focus on intravenous fluid resuscitation, enteral feeding, and the current evidence behind the use of antibiotics and other pharmacologic therapies. PMID:26918139

  16. Management of infection in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Werner; Werner, Jens; Uhl, Waldemar; Büchler, Markus W

    2002-01-01

    The clinical course of acute pancreatitis varies from a mild, transitory illness to a severe, rapidly fatal disease. In about 80% to 90% of cases pancreatitis presents as a mild, self-limiting disease with low morbidity and mortality. Unlike mild pancreatitis, necrotizing pancreatitis develops in about 15% of patients, with infection of pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis representing the single most important risk factor for a fatal outcome. Infection of pancreatic necrosis in the natural course develops in the second and third week after onset of the disease and is reported in 40% to 70% of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. Just recently, prevention of infection by prophylactic antibiotic treatment and assessment of the infection status of pancreatic necrosis by fine-needle aspiration have been established in the management of severe pancreatitis. Because medical treatment alone will result in a mortality rate of almost 100% in patients with signs of local and systemic septic complications, patients with infected necrosis must undergo surgical intervention, which consists of an organ-preserving necrosectomy combined with a postoperative closed lavage concept that maximizes further evacuation of infected debris and exudate. However, intensive care treatment, including prophylactic antibiotics, reduces the infection rate and delays the need for surgery in most patients until the third or fourth week after the onset of symptoms. At that time, debridement of necrosis is technically easier to perform, due to better demarcation between viable and necrotic tissue compared with necrosectomy earlier in the disease. In contrast, surgery is rarely needed in the presence of sterile pancreatic necrosis. In those patients the conservative approach is supported by the present data. PMID:12483263

  17. Development of acute pancreatitis after Nissen fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mikihiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Otake, Kohei; Okigami, Masato; Maji, Tomoaki; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis subsequent to Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an extremely rare adverse event. We describe a pediatric case of acute pancreatitis resulting from superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) and gas bloat after fundoplication. Gas bloat is one of the known postoperative complications after Nissen fundoplication. Poor nutrition status, which is often associated with severe pediatric GERD, is a risk factor for SMAS. In this case, development of gas bloat and SMAS led to the formation of a closed loop and increased intraluminal pressure of the duodenum and pancreatic duct. Many pediatric patients who need anti-reflux surgery face the risk of developing this entity. Preventive measures, such as treatment with prokinetics and frequent small-volume meals, should be considered until improvement of nutritional status after fundoplication. PMID:25868962

  18. Acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in a patient with pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emily K; Ek, Edmund; Croagh, Daniel; Spain, Lavinia A; Farrell, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature. PMID:19824123

  19. Acute hepatitis E complicated by acute pancreatitis and multiorgan dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Karanth, Suman S; Khan, Zohaib; Rau, Nileshwar Radhakrishna; Rao, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    We report this rare case of a 27-year-old man who presented with acute hepatitis E and went on to develop acute epigastric pain. He was diagnosed to have acute severe pancreatitis with shock and acute renal failure due to hepatitis E. Such a phenomenon has rarely been reported in the literature, with patients following a benign course and complete recovery after conservative management and analgesia. Awareness of this potentially life-threatening complication, especially in young men from endemic areas with acute hepatitis E presenting with abdomen pain has been highlighted. PMID:24899005

  20. Intra-abdominal hypertension and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mifkovic, A; Skultety, J; Sykora, P; Prochotsky, A; Okolicany, R

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) contributes to organ dysfunction and leads to the development of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). IAH and ACS are relatively frequent findings in patiens with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and are associated with deterioration in organ functions. The most affected are cardiovascular, respiratory and renal functions. The incidence of IAH in patients with SAP is approximately 60-80%. There is an accumulating evidence in human and animal studies that changes of perfusion, particularly to the microvasculature, are crucial events in the progression of acute pancreatitis (AP). The perfusion of the small and large intestine is impaired due to reduced arterial pressure, increased vascular resistence and diminished portal blood flow. Bacterial translocation has been described in patients with ACS, and this may apply to patients with SAP. Approximately 30-40% of SAP patients develop ACS because of pancreatic (retroperitoneal) inflammation, peripancreatic tissue edema, formation of fluid collections or abdominal distension. Surgical debridement was the preferred treatment to control necrotizing pancreatitis in the past. However, the management of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed over the last decade. The main objective of this article is to describe the association between IAH and AP and to emphasize this situation in clinical praxis as well (Fig. 1, Ref. 38). PMID:23406186

  1. Clinical practice guideline: management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Joshua A.; Hsu, Jonathan; Bawazeer, Mohammad; Marshall, John; Friedrich, Jan O.; Nathens, Avery; Coburn, Natalie; May, Gary R.; Pearsall, Emily; McLeod, Robin S.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis reported worldwide. Despite improvements in access to care, imaging and interventional techniques, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, recent studies auditing the clinical management of the condition have shown important areas of noncompliance with evidence-based recommendations. This underscores the importance of creating understandable and implementable recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of the present guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis as well as the management of complications of acute pancreatitis and of gall stone–induced pancreatitis. Une hausse de l’incidence de pancréatite aiguë a été constatée à l’échelle mondiale. Malgré l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins et aux techniques d’imagerie et d’intervention, la pancréatite aiguë est toujours associée à une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Bien qu’il existe des guides de pratique clinique pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, des études récentes sur la vérification de la prise en charge clinique de cette affection révèlent des lacunes importantes dans la conformité aux recommandations fondées sur des données probantes. Ces résultats mettent en relief l’importance de formuler des recommandations compréhensibles et applicables pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë. La présente ligne directrice vise à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, qu’elle soit bénigne ou grave, ainsi que de ses complications et de celles de la pancréatite causée par un calcul biliaire. PMID:27007094

  2. Improving the Outcome of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Marco J

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common indication for hospital admission and its incidence is rising. It has a variable prognosis, which is mainly dependent upon the development of persistent organ failure and infected necrotizing pancreatitis. In the past few years, based on large-scale multicenter randomized trials, some novel insights regarding clinical management have emerged. In patients with infected pancreatic necrosis, a step-up approach of percutaneous catheter drainage followed by necrosectomy only when the patient does not improve, reduces new-onset organ failure and prevents the need for necrosectomy in about a third of patients. A randomized pilot study comparing surgical to endoscopic necrosectomy in patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis showed a striking reduction of the pro-inflammatory response following endoscopic necrosectomy. These promising results have recently been tested in a large multicenter randomized trial whose results are eagerly awaited. Contrary to earlier data from uncontrolled studies, a large multicenter randomized trial comparing early (within 24 h) nasoenteric tube feeding compared with an oral diet after 72 h, did not show that early nasoenteric tube feeding was superior in reducing the rate of infection or death in patients with AP at high risk for complications. Although early ERCP does not have a role in the treatment of predicted mild pancreatitis, except in the case of concomitant cholangitis, it may ameliorate the disease course in patients with predicted severe pancreatitis. Currently, a large-scale randomized study is underway and results are expected in 2017. PMID:27336312

  3. Severe acute pancreatitis: Clinical course and management

    PubMed Central

    Beger, Hans G; Rau, Bettina M

    2007-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) develops in about 25% of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Severity of AP is linked to the presence of systemic organ dysfunctions and/or necrotizing pancreatitis pathomorphologically. Risk factors determining independently the outcome of SAP are early multi-organ failure, infection of necrosis and extended necrosis (> 50%). Up to one third of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis develop in the late course infection of necroses. Morbidity of SAP is biphasic, in the first week strongly related to early and persistence of organ or multi-organ dysfunction. Clinical sepsis caused by infected necrosis leading to multi-organ failure syndrome (MOFS) occurs in the later course after the first week. To predict sepsis, MOFS or deaths in the first 48-72 h, the highest predictive accuracy has been objectified for procalcitonin and IL-8; the Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)-score predicts the outcome in the first 48 h, and provides a daily assessment of treatment response with a high positive predictive value. Contrast-enhanced CT provides the highest diagnostic accuracy for necrotizing pancreatitis when performed after the first week of disease. Patients who suffer early organ dysfunctions or at risk of developing a severe disease require early intensive care treatment. Early vigorous intravenous fluid replacement is of foremost importance. The goal is to decrease the hematocrit or restore normal cardiocirculatory functions. Antibiotic prophylaxis has not been shown as an effective preventive treatment. Early enteral feeding is based on a high level of evidence, resulting in a reduction of local and systemic infection. Patients suffering infected necrosis causing clinical sepsis, pancreatic abscess or surgical acute abdomen are candidates for early intervention. Hospital mortality of SAP after interventional or surgical debridement has decreased in high volume centers to below 20%. PMID:17876868

  4. Tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia causing acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hemant Kumar; Prasad, Mahendranath S; Kandasamy, Arun K; Dharanipragada, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen has both antagonistic and agonistic tissue-specific actions. It can have a paradoxical estrogenic effect on lipid metabolism resulting in elevated triglyceride and chylomicron levels. This can cause life-threatening complications like acute pancreatitis. To our knowledge, very few cases of tamoxifen-induced pancreatitis have been reported in the literature. We report a case of severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis following tamoxifen use. A 50-year-old diabetic lady was on tamoxifen (20mg/day) hormonal therapy for breast cancer. Within 3 months of starting therapy, she developed hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. Laboratory values include: Serum amylase 778 IU/L, total cholesterol 785 mg/dL, triglycerides 4568 mg/dL and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) 12 mg/dL. Tamoxifen was substituted with letrozole and atorvastatin started. There was a prompt reversal of the adverse effects. Effects on lipid profile must be considered while initiating tamoxifen in predisposed individuals as the consequences are life threatening. PMID:27127396

  5. Tamoxifen-induced hypertriglyceridemia causing acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hemant Kumar; Prasad, Mahendranath S.; Kandasamy, Arun K.; Dharanipragada, Kadambari

    2016-01-01

    Tamoxifen has both antagonistic and agonistic tissue-specific actions. It can have a paradoxical estrogenic effect on lipid metabolism resulting in elevated triglyceride and chylomicron levels. This can cause life-threatening complications like acute pancreatitis. To our knowledge, very few cases of tamoxifen-induced pancreatitis have been reported in the literature. We report a case of severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis following tamoxifen use. A 50-year-old diabetic lady was on tamoxifen (20mg/day) hormonal therapy for breast cancer. Within 3 months of starting therapy, she developed hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. Laboratory values include: Serum amylase 778 IU/L, total cholesterol 785 mg/dL, triglycerides 4568 mg/dL and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) 12 mg/dL. Tamoxifen was substituted with letrozole and atorvastatin started. There was a prompt reversal of the adverse effects. Effects on lipid profile must be considered while initiating tamoxifen in predisposed individuals as the consequences are life threatening. PMID:27127396

  6. CXCR2 inhibition suppresses acute and chronic pancreatic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Steele, Colin W; Karim, Saadia A; Foth, Mona; Rishi, Loveena; Leach, Joshua D G; Porter, Ross J; Nixon, Colin; Jeffry Evans, T R; Carter, C Ross; Nibbs, Robert J B; Sansom, Owen J; Morton, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatitis is a significant clinical problem and the lack of effective therapeutic options means that treatment is often palliative rather than curative. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic pancreatitis is necessary to develop new therapies. Pathological changes in pancreatitis are dependent on innate immune cell recruitment to the site of initial tissue damage, and on the coordination of downstream inflammatory pathways. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 drives neutrophil recruitment during inflammation, and to investigate its role in pancreatic inflammation, we induced acute and chronic pancreatitis in wild-type and Cxcr2(-/-) mice. Strikingly, Cxcr2(-/-) mice were strongly protected from tissue damage in models of acute pancreatitis, and this could be recapitulated by neutrophil depletion or by the specific deletion of Cxcr2 from myeloid cells. The pancreata of Cxcr2(-/-) mice were also substantially protected from damage during chronic pancreatitis. Neutrophil depletion was less effective in this model, suggesting that CXCR2 on non-neutrophils contributes to the development of chronic pancreatitis. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 in wild-type mice replicated the protection seen in Cxcr2(-/-) mice in acute and chronic models of pancreatitis. Moreover, acute pancreatic inflammation was reversible by inhibition of CXCR2. Thus, CXCR2 is critically involved in the development of acute and chronic pancreatitis in mice, and its inhibition or loss protects against pancreatic damage. CXCR2 may therefore be a viable therapeutic target in the treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:25950520

  7. Hiatus Hernia: A Rare Cause of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shruti; Jawairia, Mahreema; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Mustacchia, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hiatal hernia (HH) is the herniation of elements of the abdominal cavity through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. A giant HH with pancreatic prolapse is very rare and its causing pancreatitis is an even more extraordinary condition. We describe a case of a 65-year-old man diagnosed with acute pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic herniation. In these cases, acute pancreatitis may be caused by the diaphragmatic crura impinging upon the pancreas and leading to repetitive trauma as it crosses the hernia; intermittent folding of the main pancreatic duct; ischemia associated with stretching at its vascular pedicle; or total pancreatic incarceration. Asymptomatic hernia may not require any treatment, while multiple studies have supported the recommendation of early elective repair as a safer route in symptomatic patients. In summary, though rare, pancreatic herniation should be considered as a cause of acute pancreatitis. A high index of suspicion for complications is warranted in cases like these. PMID:27066077

  8. Acute Pancreatitis Classifications: Basis and Key Goals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao Dong; Wang, Zhe Yuan; Zhang, Ling Yi; Ni, Rui; Wei, Feng Xian; Han, Wei; Zhang, Hui Han; Zhang, Ya Wu; Wei, Zhen Gang; Guo, Xiao Hu; Guo, Liu Qiang; Ma, Jian Zhong; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-12-01

    To explore the efficacy of the revised Atlanta classification (RACAP) and the determinant-based classification of acute pancreatitis severity (DBCAPS) on the basis of clinical data and feedback from patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). The authors retrospectively investigated a total of 573 patients with AP admitted to our hospital between December 2011 and December 2014. The definitions of severity and local complications in AP using RACAP and DBCAPS are presented and common points and mutual differences between the 2 groups are analyzed and discussed. Classification according to RACAP and DBCAPS found 86 (15%) and 178 (31.1%) mild cases (P < 0.01), 269 (46.9%) and 176 (30.7%) moderate cases (P < 0.01), and 218 (38.0%) and 219 (38.2%) severe cases (P = 0.95), respectively. A major contribution of DBCAPS is the introduction of a new type of severe AP, critical AP, identified in 4 patients (0.7%). Complications were observed in 313 RACAP-defined cases and 153 DBCAPS-defined cases (P < 0.01). Among the 313 RACAP-defined cases, acute peripancreatic fluid collection (236 patients, 75.40%), pancreatic pseudocysts (20 patients, 6.4%), acute necrotic collection (42 patients, 13.4%), and walled-off necrosis (15 patients, 4.8%) were observed. Among the 153 DBCAPS-defined cases, sterile peripancreatic necrosis (105 patients, 68.6%), sterile pancreatic necrosis (44 patients, 28.8%), infected peripancreatic necrosis (2 patients, 1.3%), and infected pancreatic necrosis (2/153 patients, 1.3%) were observed. Both classifications adopted organ failure and complications as determinants of severity. Revised Atlanta classification refined local complications and DBCAPS modified severity to include critical AP. In accordance with the demands of precision medicine, a combination of the 2 could be important for further clinical practice and scientific research. PMID:26632905

  9. Acute pancreatitis : complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab; Basu, Arindam; Dey, Somitra; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2012-12-01

    Chicken pox is a benign self limited disease. But it may rarely be complicated with acute pancreatitis in otherwise healthy patient. We present a case of varicella pancreatitis and its marked recovery with acyclovir. PMID:23781673

  10. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  11. Hereditary Angioedema Presenting as Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Tal D; Garty, Ben-Zion

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) may manifest with swelling of the face, extremities, and upper airways. Gastrointestinal symptoms are also common and may include abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. However, pancreatic involvement is rare and has been reported only in a few adults with previously diagnosed HAE. We describe a 6-year-old boy who presented with recurrent severe abdominal pain accompanied by an elevation in pancreatic enzyme levels, without subcutaneous or cutaneous angioedema. His symptoms had begun 18 months earlier, and he was hospitalized several times before the present admission with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. More comprehensive analysis yielded low levels of C2, C4, CH50, and C1 esterase inhibitor, establishing the diagnosis of HAE. One year after diagnosis, swelling of the extremities appeared for the first time. This is the first report of a child in whom pancreatic disease was the presenting symptom of HAE. HAE should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent pancreatitis in children. PMID:26812927

  12. Acute pancreatitis: prognostic value of CT

    SciTech Connect

    Balthazar, E.J.; Ranson, J.H.C.; Naidich, D.P.; Megibow, A.J.; Caccavale, R.; Cooper, M.M.

    1985-09-01

    In 83 patients with acute pancreatitis, the initial computed tomographic (CT) examinations were classified by degree of disease severity (grades A-E) and were correlated with the clinical follow-up, objective prognostic signs, and complications and death. The length of hospitalization correlated well with the severity of the initial CT findings. Abscesses occurred in 21.6% of the entire group, compared with 60.0% of grade E patients. Pleural effusions were also more common in grade E patients. Abscesses were seen in 80.0% of patients with six to eight prognostic signs, compared with 12.5% of those with zero to two. The use of prognostic signs with initial CT findings results in improved prognostic accuracy. Early CT examination of patients with acute pancreatitis is a useful prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality.

  13. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2002-06-01

    Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication. PMID:12046971

  14. Tc-99m IDA cholescintigraphy in acute pancreatitis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.; Turner, D.A.; Fordham, E.W.

    1982-10-01

    Recently it has been suggested that cholescintigraphy is unreliable in the detection of acute cholecystitis when acute pancreatitis is present. During a recent 17 month interval, twenty-one patients with a firmly established diagnosis of acute pancreatitis underwent cholescintigraphy in our laboratory. The gallbladder failed to visualize in only five cases, all of whom had acute cholecystitis. These data, and those available in the literature, lead us to conclude that cholescintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis whether or not acute pancreatitis is present.

  15. Imaging lexicon for acute pancreatitis: 2012 Atlanta Classification revisited.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Arora, Ankur

    2016-02-01

    The original 1992 Atlanta Classification System for acute pancreatitis was revised in 2012 by the Atlanta Working Group, assisted by various national and international societies, through web-based consensus. This revised classification identifies two phases of acute pancreatitis: early and late. Acute pancreatitis can be either oedematous interstitial pancreatitis or necrotizing pancreatitis. Severity of the disease is categorized into three levels: mild, moderately severe and severe, depending upon organ failure and local/systemic complications. According to the type of pancreatitis, collections are further divided into acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pseudocyst, acute necrotic collection, and walled-off necrosis. Insight into the revised terminology is essential for accurate communication of imaging findings. In this review article, we will summarize the updated nomenclature and illustrate corresponding imaging findings using examples. PMID:26224684

  16. [Concept of SIRS and severe acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Hirota, Masahiko; Sugita, Hiroki; Maeda, Keisuke; Ichibara, Atsushi; Ogawa, Michio

    2004-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially fatal disease, the severity of which ranges from a mild edematous form to a severe necrotizing form. Most patients develop systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is induced by proinflammatory cytokines. The cytokine production can be induced by activation of Toll-like receptor. The breakdown products of the pancreatic and peripancreatic tissues by proteases might be the agonists. Cytokines are supposed to be produced as a biological defense system. However, cytokines may often evoke organ failure and/or immunosuppressive state, if they would be produced excessively. To express this complicated pathologic condition, Ogawa proposed a concept of LISIS(local inflammation-induced systemic immunosuppression syndrome). We have to pay attention to such aspects in the management of this disease. PMID:15552899

  17. Acute Pancreatitis: The Role of Imaging and Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, Michael M.; Lucey, Brian C.; Gervais, Debra A.; Mueller, Peter R.

    2004-09-15

    Acute pancreatitis can manifest as a benign condition with minimal abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia or can have a fulminant course, which can be life-threatening usually due to the development of infected pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Fortunately, 70-80% of patients with acute pancreatitis have a benign self-limiting course. The initial 24-48 hours after the initial diagnosis is usually the period that determines the subsequent course, and for many of the 20-30% of patients who subsequently have a fulminant course, this becomes apparent within this time frame. With reference to long-term outcome following acute pancreatitis, most cases recover without long-term sequelae with only a minority of cases progressing to chronic pancreatitis. In the initial management of acute pancreatitis, assessment of metabolic disturbances and systemic organ dysfunction is critical. However, the advent and continued refinement of cross-sectional imaging modalities over the past two decades has led to a prominent role for diagnostic imaging in assessing acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, these cross-sectional imaging modalities have enabled the development of diagnostic and therapeutic interventional techniques in the hands of radiologists. In this article we review the diagnostic features of acute pancreatitis, the clinical staging systems, complications and the role of imaging. The role of interventional radiology techniques in the management of acute pancreatitis will be discussed as well as potential complications associated with these treatments.

  18. [Galvanic current in the conservative treatment of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Alekseenko, A V; Iftodiĭ, A G; Stoliar, V F

    1990-10-01

    Experiments were conducted on 42 adult dogs with a model of acute pancreatitis to study the degree of antibiotic storage in the pancreatic tissue in different variants of intralesional+ electrophoresis. Optimum concentration of the antibiotic was produced in transverse galvanization of the zone of the pancreas. Clinical observations over 63 patients with various forms of acute pancreatitis bear evidence that the method raises the efficacy of nonoperative treatment in the oedematous stage of the process and reduces the duration of treatment. PMID:2283730

  19. Acute pancreatitis following granulosa cell tumor removal in a mare

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Radtke, Catherine L.; Russell, Lauren A.; Lopez, Alfonso; Wichtel, Maureen W.

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare disease in horses and is often associated with gastrointestinal disorders. Accurate diagnosis is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific clinical signs. This case represents the first documentation of acute pancreatitis in a horse following surgery of the reproductive tract. PMID:26483579

  20. Liver transplantation for acute liver failure accompanied by severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kirino, Izumi; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Hata, Koichiro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The role of liver transplantation (LT) in acute liver failure (ALF) complicated by severe acute pancreatitis is still unclear. We here report a case of deceased-donor LT for idiopathic ALF accompanied by severe acute pancreatitis. A 58-year-old man with no history of liver disease presented with idiopathic ALF and acute pancreatitis. After careful consideration, he received a liver from a deceased donor. Following surgery, the patient's liver function rapidly reverted to normal level and the acute pancreatitis simultaneously subsided. The patient later developed a pancreatic pseudocyst, which was treated successfully with combination interventional radiology. LT can be considered for ALF associated with severe acute pancreatitis if there is no clinical evidence of an absolute contraindication for organ transplantation, such as systemic or local infection. Moreover, we recommend a close follow-up by ultrasonography to allow early detection and treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts following surgery. PMID:27600056

  1. Scrub typhus masquerading as acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Amit; Gupta, Monica; Bhardwaj, Shweta; Handa, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of scrub typhus ranges from mild to fatal depending on the virulence of bacterial strain, susceptibility of the host and promptness with which treatment is started. We report a case of a 14-year-old child with scrub typhus who developed acute pancreatitis. On serological confirmation, doxycycline therapy was started. The patient responded well and had no complications on follow-up. This case report highlights the importance of recognising an uncommon presentation of this common tropical disease, and its prompt diagnosis and early treatment for prevention of serious complications of the condition. PMID:27161204

  2. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. It happens when digestive enzymes start digesting the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute or chronic. Either form is ...

  3. Pterostilbene as treatment for severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Ding, Y; Wu, J; Ning, B T

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) has a fast onset and progression, which lead to an unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, the development of novel drugs for its treatment is critical. As a homologous derivative of resveratrol, pterostilbene exerts a variety of effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor effects. This study investigated the potential of pterostilbene for treatment of severe AP (SAP) and related mechanisms. Effects of pterostilbene were evaluated in a Wistar rat model of AP. Serum levels of amylase (AMY), creatinine (Cr), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were quantified. Furthermore, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-1b were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nuclear factor (NF)-kB expression in pancreatic tissues was quantified by real-time PCR and western blotting. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using a spectrometer, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was assayed. In the AP rat model, the expression of inflammatory markers TNF-a and IL-1b, expression of NF-kB, and serum indices (AMY, Cr, and ALT) increased compared to the corresponding levels in the control group (P < 0.05). Pterostilbene reduced serum levels of TNF-a and IL-1b; decreased NF-kB gene expression, serum indices, and ROS generation; and increased SOD activity in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, pterostilbene can alleviate SAP-induced tissue damage by decreasing the inflammatory response and by promoting antioxidation leading to the protection of pancreatic tissues. PMID:27525946

  4. Energetic etiologies of acute pancreatitis: A report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Shmelev, Artem; Abdo, Alain; Sachdev, Sarina; Shah, Urvi; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2015-11-15

    There are several common causes of acute pancreatitis, principally excessive alcohol intake and gallstones, and there are many rare causes. However, cases of pancreatitis still occur in the absence of any recognizable factors, and these cases of idiopathic pancreatitis suggest the presence of unrecognized etiologies. Five cases of acute pancreatitis in four patients came to attention due to a strong temporal association with exposure to nerve stimulators and energy drinks. Given that these cases of pancreatitis were otherwise unexplained, and given that these exposures were not clearly known to be associated with pancreatitis, we performed a search for precedent cases and for mechanistic bases. No clear precedent cases were found in PubMed and only scant, weak precedent cases were found in public-health databases. However, there was a coherent body of intriguing literature in support of a mechanistic basis for these exposures playing a role in the etiology of pancreatitis. PMID:26600983

  5. Energetic etiologies of acute pancreatitis: A report of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Shmelev, Artem; Abdo, Alain; Sachdev, Sarina; Shah, Urvi; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    There are several common causes of acute pancreatitis, principally excessive alcohol intake and gallstones, and there are many rare causes. However, cases of pancreatitis still occur in the absence of any recognizable factors, and these cases of idiopathic pancreatitis suggest the presence of unrecognized etiologies. Five cases of acute pancreatitis in four patients came to attention due to a strong temporal association with exposure to nerve stimulators and energy drinks. Given that these cases of pancreatitis were otherwise unexplained, and given that these exposures were not clearly known to be associated with pancreatitis, we performed a search for precedent cases and for mechanistic bases. No clear precedent cases were found in PubMed and only scant, weak precedent cases were found in public-health databases. However, there was a coherent body of intriguing literature in support of a mechanistic basis for these exposures playing a role in the etiology of pancreatitis. PMID:26600983

  6. [Acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia--an underestimated disease?].

    PubMed

    Wild, Wolfgang; Tajjiou, Morad; Ferschke, Melanie; Bormann, Fabian; Dörr, Pius; Schwarzbach, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a rare, but since a long time well known etiology for acute pancreatitis. It could occure alone or coactive with other triggers like alcohlic excess. Nevertheless it found no approach to the current classifications and parameters of prognosis of the acute pancreatitis. We refer about two patients with hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis, whose initial disease was limited on the tail of the pancreas with just a circumscripted or--in the other case--no necrosis. However, in both cases and although a consequent treatment started immediately, a serious process developed including a life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome in one case, which necessitated an extracorporal membrane oxygenation. PMID:26710203

  7. Acute Pancreatitis in a Patient with Complicated Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Prasanta Kumar; Lynrah, Kryshan G; Ete, Tony; Issar, Neel Kanth

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most common protozoan diseases, especially in tropical countries. The clinical manifestation of malaria, especially falciparum malaria varies from mild acute febrile illness to life threatening severe systemic complications involving one or more organ systems. We would like to report a case of complicated falciparum malaria involving cerebral, renal, hepatic system along with acute pancreatitis. The patient was successfully treated with anti malarial and other supportive treatment. To the best of our knowledge there are very few reports of acute pancreatitis due to malaria. Falciparum malaria therefore should be added to the list of infectious agents causing acute pancreatitis especially in areas where malaria is endemic. PMID:26894117

  8. Lipolysis of Visceral Adipocyte Triglyceride by Pancreatic Lipases Converts Mild Acute Pancreatitis to Severe Pancreatitis Independent of Necrosis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krutika; Trivedi, Ram N.; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Cline, Rachel A.; DeLany, James P.; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat necrosis has been associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) for over 100 years; however, its pathogenesis and role in SAP outcomes are poorly understood. Based on recent work suggesting that pancreatic fat lipolysis plays an important role in SAP, we evaluated the role of pancreatic lipases in SAP-associated visceral fat necrosis, the inflammatory response, local injury, and outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP). For this, cerulein pancreatitis was induced in lean and obese mice, alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat and parameters of AP induction (serum amylase and lipase), fat necrosis, pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure, and inflammatory response were assessed. Pancreatic lipases were measured in fat necrosis and were overexpressed in 3T3-L1 cells. We noted obesity to convert mild cerulein AP to SAP with greater cytokines, unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and multisystem organ failure, and 100% mortality without affecting AP induction or pancreatic necrosis. Increased pancreatic lipase amounts and activity were noted in the extensive visceral fat necrosis of dying obese mice. Lipase inhibition reduced fat necrosis, UFAs, organ failure, and mortality but not the parameters of AP induction. Pancreatic lipase expression increased lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. We conclude that UFAs generated via lipolysis of visceral fat by pancreatic lipases convert mild AP to SAP independent of pancreatic necrosis and the inflammatory response. PMID:25579844

  9. Quetiapine-induced hypertriglyceridaemia causing acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Franco, John Mark; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Griffin, Timothy John

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics have well-known metabolic side effects such as hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. A middle-aged man presented with epigastric and flank pain associated with nausea, and was noted to have elevated triglycerides (3590 mg/dL or 40.53 mmol/L), lipase and glucose. Haematological parameters revealed neutropenia with pancytopaenia. The patient was started on conservative management for acute pancreatitis, and on intravenous insulin and oral gemfibrozil for lowering of his triglycerides. He gradually improved and was transitioned to oral atorvastatin and fenofibrate. His triglycerides, glucose and leucocyte counts normalised at discharge and he was transitioned to ziprasidone. The combination of hypertriglyceridaemia, worsening hyperglycaemia and neutropenia made us suspect quetiapine as the causative agent. Medications cause only 0.1-7% of acute pancreatitis cases, with quetiapine implicated in only five-reported cases. Hypertriglyceridaemia (>600 mg/dL or 6.77 mmol/L) is frequently reported with quetiapine use, but severe hypertriglyceridaemia (>1000 mg/dL or 11.29 mmol/L) has been reported in <10 patients. PMID:25976202

  10. Is nasogastric suction necessary in acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Naeije, R; Salingret, E; Clumeck, N; De Troyer, A; Devis, G

    1978-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients with mild to moderately severe acute pancreatitis were randomly allocated to treatment with or without nasogastric suction (27 and 31 patients respectively). Intravenous fluids and pethidine hydrochloride were also given. The two groups were comparable clinically at the start of the study. There were no differences between the two groups in the mean duration of the following features: abdominal pain or tenderness; absence of bowel movements; raised serum amylase concentration; time to resumption of oral feeding; and days in hospital. Prolonged hyperamylasaemia (serum amylase greater than 0.33 mU/l) occurred in one patient in the suction group and in three patients in the non-suction group. A mild recurrence of abdominal pain after resumption of oral feeding occurred in three patients in the suction group and in two patients in the non-suction group. Two patients in the suction group developed overt consumption coagulopathy and two others pulmonary complications. No patient in the non-suction group had complications. The findings suggest that most patients with mild to moderately severe acute pancreatitis do not benefit from nasogastric suction. The procedure should be elective rather than mandatory in treating this condition. PMID:698650

  11. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  12. Questions about the use of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    De Campos, Tercio; Assef, Jose Cesar; Rasslan, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Background and objective The use of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis despite recent clinical trials remains controversial. The aim of this study is to review the latest clinical trials and guidelines about antibiotics in acute pancreatitis and determine its proper use. Methods Through a Medline search, we selected and analyzed pertinent randomized clinical trials and guidelines that evaluated the use of antibiotics in acute pancreatitis. We answered the most frequent questions about this topic. Results and conclusion Based on these clinical trials and guidelines, we conclude that the best treatment currently is the use of antibiotics in patients with severe acute pancreatitis with more than 30% of pancreatic necrosis. The best option for the treatment is Imipenem 3 × 500 mg/day i.v. for 14 days. Alternatively, Ciprofloxacin 2 × 400 mg/day i.v. associated with Metronidazole 3 × 500 mg for 14 days can also be considered as an option. PMID:16820058

  13. Severe acute pancreatitis: nutritional management in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Neeraj; O'Keefe, Stephen J D

    2004-02-01

    Patients with acute pancreatitis have elevated nutritional needs due to increased energy expenditure and catabolism. It is a clinical challenge to provide adequate nutrition to these patients while maintaining gut function, preventing pancreatic stimulation, and minimizing the risk of septic and metabolic complications associated with nutritional support. We present the case of a patient who had severe acute pancreatitis and was initially given total parenteral nutrition. After a period of initial improvement, he developed hyperglycemia, bacteremia, and sepsis. Parenteral nutrition was discontinued and infection was treated with antibiotics. Subsequent nutritional support consisted of enteral feeding with an elemental diet infused via a nasojejunal feeding tube. His condition improved gradually and he made a full recovery. This case illustrates the difficulties encountered while managing a case of severe acute pancreatitis and provides an evidence based approach to the nutritional management of severe acute pancreatitis in the intensive care unit setting. PMID:16215093

  14. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy causing maternal death

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hae Rin; Cho, Yoon Jin; Chon, Seung Joo

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is rare and occurs in approximately 3 in 10,000 pregnancies. It rarely complicates pregnancy, and can occur during any trimester, however over half (52%) of cases occur during the third trimester and during the post-partum period. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, acute pancreatitis caused by hypertriglyceridemia due to increase of estrogen during the gestational period is very unusual, but complication carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality for both the mother and the fetus. We experienced a case of pregnant woman who died of acute exacerbation of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis at 23 weeks of gestation. We report on progress and management of this case along with literature reviews. PMID:27004207

  15. [Biochemical diagnostics in acute pancreatitis recognition and outcome predicition].

    PubMed

    Olczyk, Paweł; Kozma, Ewa M; Olczyk, Krystyna; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna

    2004-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease associated with an improper activation of pancreatic zymogens leading to autodigestion of the gland and if excessive--to multiple organ dysfunction. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis manifested by 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis is a life threatening disorder requiring subsequent management in intensive care unit. Unfortunately, none of biochemical tests presently used for laboratory assessment of acute pancreatitis at the early stage of the disease is able to estimate accurately: diagnosis, etiology and severity. At present, diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on evaluation of serum amylase and lipase activity due to easy availability and simplicity of these enzymatic tests. Low specificity of the mentioned enzymes resulted in studies concerning pancreatic isoamylase, elastase-1, chymotrypsine, procarboxy-peptidase B, trypsinogen-2 and immunoreactive trypsinogen usefulness in the laboratory diagnosis of AP. The prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis using multifactorial scoring systems is cumbersome especially due to their complexity. On the other hand the biochemical method of choice, estimation of serum C reactive protein, is useless in the early phase of disease. Unfortunately, the computed tomography--the most accurate method in severity assessing--is not always available. Recent studies have brought some progress in severity predicting, such as phospholipase A2, cellular immunity markers, cytokines, activation peptides of trypsinogen and carboxypeptidase B, procalcitonine, pancreatitis associated protein and serum amyloid A. All these newly introduced biochemical methods allow to look optimistically into the future of laboratory diagnostics of the acute pancreatitis believing that the problem of diagnosing and predicting the AP severity will be solved. PMID:15850341

  16. Acute Pancreatitis: Landmark Studies, Management Decisions, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Banks, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the last 50 years in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Many landmark studies have been published and have focused on the classification of acute pancreatitis, markers of severity, important roles of imaging and endoscopy, and improvements in our treatment. This report will review several landmark studies, describe ongoing controversies in management decisions including standards of early fluid resuscitation and appropriate use of enteral feeding, and outline what will be required in the future to improve the care of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27077712

  17. Revised Atlanta Classification for Acute Pancreatitis: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Foster, Bryan R; Jensen, Kyle K; Bakis, Gene; Shaaban, Akram M; Coakley, Fergus V

    2016-01-01

    The 2012 revised Atlanta classification is an update of the original 1992 Atlanta classification, a standardized clinical and radiologic nomenclature for acute pancreatitis and associated complications based on research advances made over the past 2 decades. Acute pancreatitis is now divided into two distinct subtypes, necrotizing pancreatitis and interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IEP), based on the presence or absence of necrosis, respectively. The revised classification system also updates confusing and sometimes inaccurate terminology that was previously used to describe pancreatic and peripancreatic collections. As such, use of the terms acute pseudocyst and pancreatic abscess is now discouraged. Instead, four distinct collection subtypes are identified on the basis of the presence of pancreatic necrosis and time elapsed since the onset of pancreatitis. Acute peripancreatic fluid collections (APFCs) and pseudocysts occur in IEP and contain fluid only. Acute necrotic collections (ANCs) and walled-off necrosis (WON) occur only in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and contain variable amounts of fluid and necrotic debris. APFCs and ANCs occur within 4 weeks of disease onset. After this time, APFCs or ANCs may either resolve or persist, developing a mature wall to become a pseudocyst or a WON, respectively. Any collection subtype may become infected and manifest as internal gas, though this occurs most commonly in necrotic collections. In this review, the authors present a practical image-rich guide to the revised Atlanta classification system, with the goal of fostering implementation of the revised system into radiology practice, thereby facilitating accurate communication among clinicians and reinforcing the radiologist's role as a key member of a multidisciplinary team in treating patients with acute pancreatitis. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163588

  18. Transcatheter embolization of pancreatic arteriovenous malformation associated with recurrent acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Bhatia, Vikram; Arora, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is extremely rare; even rarer is its association with pancreatitis. The authors report a case of PAVM causing recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis in a 46-year-old male. Patient refused surgery and was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using liquid embolic agent (mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue and lipiodol), which resulted in a significant decrease in the size of the PAVM. PMID:27081231

  19. Chronic pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - chronic; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - chronic; Acute pancreatitis - chronic ... abuse over many years. Repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Genetics may be ...

  20. Procalcitonin Strip Test as an Independent Predictor in Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dias, Brendan Hermenigildo; Rozario, Anthony Prakash; Olakkengil, Santosh Antony; V, Anirudh

    2015-12-01

    Plasma procalcitonin (PCT) is a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of bacterial infection and sepsis. Studies have demonstrated its role in the setting of sepsis and acute pancreatitis. This study aims to analyze and compare the prognostic efficacy of plasma procalcitonin strip test in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study was conducted in the department of general surgery from June 2012 to June 2013. Plasma procalcitonin was estimated by the semiquantitative strip test. The study included a total of 50 patients diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. Data was collected and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17. Thirty-nine out of the 50 patients (78 %) were males with a mean age of 46.8 years (range, 25-78 years) and 25 patients (50 %) had ethanol-induced pancreatitis, while 13 patients (26 %) had gall stone pancreatitis. Plasma PCT values were found to correlate better than CRP levels and total leukocyte count with the total duration of hospitalization, ITU, and ICU stay, as well as with the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. A cut off for plasma PCT of >2 ng/mL was found to be 100 % sensitive and 100 % specific and a cut off for CRP of >19 mg/dL was 70 % sensitive and 65 % specific for predicting the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. Plasma PCT also correlated well with antibiotic requirement. A cut off value of >0.5 ng/mL for plasma PCT was 100 % sensitive and 80 % specific and a cut off value of >18 mg/dL for CRP was 86 % sensitive and 63 % specific for predicting antibiotic requirement. Plasma procalcitonin is an early and reliable prognostic indicator in acute pancreatitis. The procalcitonin strip test is a rapid test which is useful in analyzing prognosis in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27011501

  1. Acute pancreatitis in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Kandasami, P; Harunarashid, Hanafiah; Kaur, Harjit

    2002-06-01

    There is very little information in literature describing ethnic variations in etiologic and clinical outcome of acute pancreatitis in the Asian population. This study describes the demographic, etiologic and clinical course of acute pancreatitis among the three main races in Malaysia namely, the Malays, Chinese and Indians. One hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients were admitted for acute pancreatitis for the period January 1994 to July 1999 and they consisted of 77 males and 56 females with a mean age of 43.5 years (SD+/- 14.7). The racial breakdown of acute pancreatitis was: Malays 38 (28.6%), Chinese 19 (14.3%), Indians 75 (56.4%) and 1 (0.8%) patient was an orang asli. The incidence of alcohol association with acute pancreatitis was significantly increased in the males, while gallstone pancreatitis was principally a disease of the female. Alcohol was identified as the predominant factor associated with acute pancreatitis among the Indians (73.3%) and in contrast, gallstone was the commonest associated etiologic factor for the Malays and Chinese. No etiologic factor could be identified in a substantial proportion of the Malay patients (60.5%) when compared to the Chinese (36.8%) and Indians (35%). Severe disease developed in 25% of the cases reviewed but there was no difference in of the rate of severe pancreatitis in terms of ethnic groupings or etiologic factors. The overall mortality rate was 7.5% and the commonest cause of death was multi-organ failure. The study recognises that there are differences in the characteristics of acute pancreatitis among the three major races in the country and this divergence is primarily due to sociocultural habits. PMID:12380724

  2. Immune-modulating therapy in acute pancreatitis: Fact or fiction

    PubMed Central

    Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, bearing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current treatment of AP remains unspecific and supportive and is mainly targeted to aggressively prevent systemic complications and organ failure by intensive care. As acute pancreatitis shares an indistinguishable profile of inflammation with sepsis, therapeutic approaches have turned towards modulating the systemic inflammatory response. Targets, among others, have included pro- and anti-inflammatory modulators, cytokines, chemokines, immune cells, adhesive molecules and platelets. Even though, initial results in experimental models have been encouraging, clinical implementation of immune-regulating therapies in acute pancreatitis has had a slow progress. Main reasons include difficulty in clinical translation of experimental data, poor understanding of inflammatory response time-course, flaws in experimental designs, need for multimodal approaches and commercial drawbacks. Whether immune-modulation in acute pancreatitis remains a fact or just fiction remains to be seen in the future. PMID:25386069

  3. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  4. BPC 157 therapy to detriment sphincters failure-esophagitis-pancreatitis in rat and acute pancreatitis patients low sphincters pressure.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, I; Dobric, I; Drmic, D; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Radic, B; Brcic, L; Kolenc, D; Zlatar, M; Kunjko, K; Jurcic, D; Martinac, M; Rasic, Z; Boban Blagaic, A; Romic, Z; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2011-10-01

    Possibly, acute esophagitis and pancreatitis cause each other, and we focused on sphincteric failure as the common causative key able to induce either esophagitis and acute pancreatitis or both of them, and thereby investigate the presence of a common therapy nominator. This may be an anti-ulcer pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (tested for inflammatory bowel disease, wound treatment) affecting esophagitis, lower esophageal and pyloric sphincters failure and acute pancreatitis (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg intraperitoneally or in drinking water). The esophagitis-sphincter failure procedure (i.e., insertion of the tubes into the sphincters, lower esophageal and pyloric) and acute pancreatitis procedure (i.e., bile duct ligation) were combined in rats. Esophageal manometry was done in acute pancreatitis patients. In rats acute pancreatitis procedure produced also esophagitis and both sphincter failure, decreased pressure 24 h post-surgery. Furthermore, bile duct ligation alone immediately declines the pressure in both sphincters. Vice versa, the esophagitis-sphincter failure procedure alone produced acute pancreatitis. What's more, these lesions (esophagitis, sphincter failure, acute pancreatitis when combined) aggravate each other (tubes into sphincters and ligated bile duct). Counteraction occurred by BPC 157 therapies. In acute pancreatitis patients lower pressure at rest was in both esophageal sphincters in acute pancreatitis patients. We conclude that BPC 157 could cure esophagitis/sphincter/acute pancreatitis healing failure. PMID:22204800

  5. Early severe acute pancreatitis: characteristics of a new subgroup.

    PubMed

    Isenmann, R; Rau, B; Beger, H G

    2001-04-01

    This study focuses on patients with severe acute pancreatitis complicated by organ failure within the initial phase of the disease. Data of 158 patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) admitted to hospital within 72 hours after onset of symptoms were prospectively documented and analyzed for the occurrence of early severe acute pancreatitis (ESAP). ESAP was defined as presence of organ failure (OF) at admission. Forty-seven (30%) patients had ESAP, compared with 111 patients without OF (SAP group). In a multivariate analysis, the main factor predisposing to ESAP was the presence of extended pancreatic necrosis (odds ratio, 3.8), whereas biliary pancreatitis was associated with a slightly lower risk compared with alcoholic pancreatitis (odds ratio, 0.34). Compared with SAP, patients with ESAP more frequently developed intractable organ failure, which posed the indication for surgical treatment. Surgical necrosectomy due to progressive OF had to be performed in 89% of the ESAP patients and in 60% of the SAP patients. The incidence of infected pancreatic necrosis did not differ between both groups (23 vs. 21%). Mortality was significantly higher in ESAP (42 vs. 14%; p = 0.0003). ESAP is characterized by the presence of extended pancreatic necrosis and a complicated clinical course. Intractable organ failure is a frequent finding. Given the poor prognosis of ESAP, these patients should be treated in specialized intensive care units. PMID:11291929

  6. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2016-01-01

    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans. PMID:27302647

  7. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2016-01-01

    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans. PMID:27302647

  8. Acute pancreatitis in a young girl with the Netherton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Söreide, Kjetil; Söiland, Håvard; Körner, Hartwig; Haga, Harald; Söreide, Jon Arne

    2005-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is uncommon in children younger than 15 years. We present the first report on the association of acute pancreatitis with the Netherton syndrome. The Netherton syndrome is an inherited skin disease characterized by ichthyosiform erythroderma, a pathognomonic hair shaft defect ("bamboo hair"), and atopic features. A 14-year-old girl with symptoms and signs of severe acute pancreatitis was admitted to our department. A diagnostic workup could not reveal any common known cause of pancreatitis, and the cause of pancreatitis would most likely be considered idiopathic. However, based on recent reports regarding various pathophysiological mechanisms for both acute pancreatitis and the Netherton syndrome (eg, shearing the 5q locus for the respective gene-associated defects in SPINK1 and SPINK5), we speculate if a possible association may exist. Investigations on pancreatitis and the Netherton syndrome may disclose factors closely involved in the pathomechanisms of both. This notion may be of clinical importance as it adds to the number of potential life-threatening events to patients with the Netherton syndrome. PMID:16291148

  9. Lupeol Protects Against Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jun; Bae, Gi-Sang; Choi, Sun Bok; Jo, Il-Joo; Kim, Dong-Goo; Shin, Joon-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Kon; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2015-10-01

    Lupeol is a triterpenoid commonly found in fruits and vegetables and is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antiinflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effects of lupeol on acute pancreatitis specifically have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated the effects of lupeol on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Acute pancreatitis was induced via an intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 µg/kg). In the lupeol treatment group, lupeol was administered intraperitoneally (10, 25, or 50 mg/kg) 1 h before the first cerulein injection. Blood samples were taken to determine serum cytokine and amylase levels. The pancreas was rapidly removed for morphological examination and used in the myeloperoxidase assay, trypsin activity assay, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we isolated pancreatic acinar cells using a collagenase method to examine the acinar cell viability. Lupeol administration significantly attenuated the severity of pancreatitis, as was shown by reduced pancreatic edema, and neutrophil infiltration. In addition, lupeol inhibited elevation of digestive enzymes and cytokine levels, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6. Furthermore, lupeol inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death. In conclusion, these results suggest that lupeol exhibits protective effects on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26179197

  10. Molecular Imaging with MRI: Potential Application in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Wu, Chang Qiang; Chen, Tian Wu; Tang, Meng Yue; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variety of approaches that have been improved to achieve a good understanding of pancreatic cancer (PC), the prognosis of PC remains poor, and the survival rates are dismal. The lack of early detection and effective interventions is the main reason. Therefore, considerable ongoing efforts aimed at identifying early PC are currently being pursued using a variety of methods. In recent years, the development of molecular imaging has made the specific targeting of PC in the early stage possible. Molecular imaging seeks to directly visualize, characterize, and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels. Among different imaging technologies, the magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging has potential in this regard because it facilitates noninvasive, target-specific imaging of PC. This topic is reviewed in terms of the contrast agents for MR molecular imaging, the biomarkers related to PC, targeted molecular probes for MRI, and the application of MRI in the diagnosis of PC. PMID:26579537

  11. Tyropanoate cholecystography early in the course of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Longstreth, G F; Slivka, J

    1981-01-01

    Oral cholecystography (OCG) has traditionally been delayed until several weeks after hospitalization for pancreatitis because of the putative frequent poor visualization during the acute episode. Recently, OCG with iopanoic acid was reported successful in most patients with acute pancreatitis soon after resumption of a solid diet. We evaluated OCG with sodium tyropanoate, a pharmacokinetically different contrast material, in 30 hospitalized patients with pancreatitis before resumption of solid food. It accurately evaluated the gallbladder in 24 cases (80%). Abnormal liver function tests, including mild hyperbilirubinemia, did not interfere with the examination. Consequently, 1) tyropanoate OCG adequately opacifies the gallbladder in most patients with acute pancreatitis who are fasting or taking liquids only; 2) allows gallbladder evaluation earlier than with iopanoic acid OCG; 3) is less affected by hepatic dysfunction; and 4) provides an alternative to ultrasonography. PMID:7328298

  12. Activity of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" in rat serum in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis (preliminary results).

    PubMed

    Kálmán, A; Kálmán, Z; Velösy, G; Vargha, G; Vargha, G; Papp, M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain more information on the serum level of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" (PCE) in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in rats. The effects of caerulein stimulation, hepatic duct ligation, bile-pancreatic duct ligation or the effect of retrograde injection of saline, 5% taurocholate and sunflower oil were investigated. The activity of PCE and amylase was measured in the serum, pancreatic tissue, pancreatic juice and ascitic fluid. The changes in PCE activity were greater (both in directions to increase or decrease) than that of amylase, produced by different experimental procedures. The results confirm the thesis that the serum activity of PCE is a more sensitive diagnostic method than that of amylase to detect the inflammatory process in the pancreas or the effect of obstruction of the pancreatic duct. PMID:2480696

  13. Peripancreatic fat necrosis worsens acute pancreatitis independent of pancreatic necrosis via unsaturated fatty acids increased in human pancreatic necrosis collections

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Crowell, Michael D; Pannala, Rahul; Lee, Kenneth; Brand, Randall; Chennat, Jennifer; Slivka, Adam; Papachristou, Georgios I; Khalid, Asif; Whitcomb, David C; DeLany, James P; Cline, Rachel A; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Murad, Faris M; Yadav, Dhiraj; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Peripancreatic fat necrosis occurs frequently in necrotising pancreatitis. Distinguishing markers from mediators of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is important since targeting mediators may improve outcomes. We evaluated potential agents in human pancreatic necrotic collections (NCs), pseudocysts (PCs) and pancreatic cystic neoplasms and used pancreatic acini, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and an acute pancreatitis (AP) model to determine SAP mediators. Methods We measured acinar and PBMC injury induced by agents increased in NCs and PCs. Outcomes of caerulein pancreatitis were studied in lean rats coadministered interleukin (IL)-1β and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene, triolein alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. Results NCs had higher fatty acids, IL-8 and IL-1β versus other fluids. Lipolysis of unsaturated triglyceride and resulting unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) oleic and linoleic acids induced necro-apoptosis at less than half the concentration in NCs but other agents did not do so at more than two times these concentrations. Cytokine coadministration resulted in higher pancreatic and lung inflammation than caerulein alone, but only triolein coadministration caused peripancreatic fat stranding, higher cytokines, UFAs, multisystem organ failure (MSOF) and mortality in 97% animals, which were prevented by orlistat. Conclusions UFAs, IL-1β and IL-8 are elevated in NCs. However, UFAs generated via peripancreatic fat lipolysis causes worse inflammation and MSOF, converting mild AP to SAP. PMID:25500204

  14. Hormonal protection in acute pancreatitis by ghrelin, leptin and melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Jaworek, Jolanta; Konturek, Stanisław Jan

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a nonbacterial disease of the pancreas. The severe form of this ailment is characterized by high mortality. Whether acute pancreatitis develops as the severe type or resolves depends on the intensity of the inflammatory process which is counteracted by the recruitment of innate defense mechanisms. It has been shown that the hormones ghrelin, leptin and melatonin are able to modulate the immune function of the organism and to protect the pancreas against inflammatory damage. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the application of these substances prior to the induction of acute pancreatitis significantly attenuated the intensity of the inflammation and reduced pancreatic tissue damage. The pancreatic protective mechanisms of the above hormones have been related to the mobilization of non-specific immune defense, to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and modulation of cytokine production, to the stimulation of heat shock proteins and changes of apoptotic processes in the acinar cells, as well as to the activation of antioxidant system of the pancreatic tissue. The protective effect of ghrelin seems to be indirect and perhaps dependent on the release of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Leptin and ghrelin, but not melatonin, employ sensory nerves in their beneficial action on acute pancreatitis. It is very likely that ghrelin, leptin and melatonin could be implicated in the natural protection of the pancreatic gland against inflammatory damage because the blood levels of these substances increase in the initial phase of pancreatic inflammation. The above hormones could be a part of the innate resistance system which might remove noxious factors and could suppress or attenuate the inflammatory process in the pancreas. PMID:25493003

  15. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis-induced acute renal injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor-κB signal pathway. PMID:27279569

  16. Emodin promoted pancreatic claudin-5 and occludin expression in experimental acute pancreatitis rats

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xian-Ming; Li, Bang-Ku; Xing, Shi-Mei; Ruan, Hai-Ling

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on pancreatic claudin-5 and occludin expression, and pancreatic paracellular permeability in acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Experimental pancreatitis was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Emodin was injected via the external jugular vein 0 or 6 h after induction of AP. Rats from sham operation and AP groups were injected with normal saline at the same time. Samples of pancreas were obtained 6 or 12 h after drug administration. Pancreatic morphology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Pancreatic edema was estimated by measuring tissue water content. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 level were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pancreatic paracellular permeability was assessed by tissue dye extravasation. Expression of pancreatic claudin-5 and occludin was examined by immunohistology, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. RESULTS: Pancreatic TNF-α and IL-6 levels, wet/dry ratio, dye extravasation, and histological score were significantly elevated at 3, 6 and 12 h following sodium taurocholate infusion; treatment with emodin prevented these changes at all time points. Immunostaining of claudin-5 and occludin was detected in rat pancreas, which was distributed in pancreatic acinar cells, ductal cells and vascular endothelial cells, respectively. Sodium taurocholate infusion significantly decreased pancreatic claudin-5 and occludin mRNA and protein levels at 3, 6 and 12 h, and that could be promoted by intravenous administration of emodin at all time points. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that emodin could promote pancreatic claudin-5 and occludin expression, and reduce pancreatic paracellular permeability. PMID:22563203

  17. Malignant lymphoma of spleen presenting as acute pancreatitis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao-Ming; Cheng, Lung-Chih; Lo, Gin-Ho; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Cheng, Chia-Ling; Pan, Wen-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This is a case report of a patient who presented with acute pancreatitis without the common causes. A pancreatic biopsy revealed large B cell lymphoma. Spleen lymphoma with pancreatic involvement inducing acute pancreatitis, which is a rare disorder, was diagnosed. Here we also review the few similar cases reported in the literature. PMID:17659747

  18. Preventive strategies for septic complications of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Oláh, A; Pardavi, G; Belágyi, T; Romics, L

    2007-01-01

    The diagram of the mortality of acute pancreatitis is characterized by two distinct peaks, in a similar manner to other generalized acute inflammatory responses. In the first phase, which is characterized by "hyper-inflammatory" mechanisms, death occurs due to overwhelming SIRS and subsequent multi-organ failure. The second peak of death is usually detected much later, at least two weeks after the onset of acute pancreatitis. Infection in necrotising pancreatitis is frequently observed in this so-called "compensatory antiinflammatory" phase. Since there has been no effective therapy evolved to prevent the activation of inflammatory and proteolytic cascades, the treatment of acute pancreatitis is merely symptomatic. Adequate fluid resuscitation and analgesia are the mainstays of treatment. In case of development of multi-organ failure, extensive medical and ventilatory supportive therapy is usually necessary. However, recent studies suggested certain methods might decrease the incidence of infection in pancreatic necrosis, which is usually due to bacterial translocation from the gut. Numerous attempts have been published in the literature to decrease the frequency of septic complications. Furthermore, the outcome of studies favouring antibiotic prophylaxis in acute pancreatitis were debatable. The development of multi-resistant strains of Gram-positive bacteria and Candida, due to long-term antibiotic use, is a strong argument against the indication of prophylactic antibiotic use. Recently, various clinical studies aimed to decrease bacterial translocation, including probiotic use and enteral feeding as part of the treatment. This paper provides a systematic review on data available in the evidence based literature on the use of antibiotics and the role of alternative and supportive therapy in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:17966933

  19. An Unusual Case of Ascending Pancreatitis with Mediastinal Involvement: A Case Report with CT and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Ernesto; Di Sibio, Alessandra; Gennarelli, Antonio; Felli, Valentina; Vellucci, Valentina; Casazza, Ines; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Fluid collections are common findings of pancreatitis and spread, more often, along preferential drainage pathways in the abdomen. In some rare cases, fluid collections may spread towards extra-abdominal sites like the mediastinum leading to the formation of mediastinal collections. We present the case of a 52-years-old man with pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and mid-epigastrium lasting for some hours. Laboratory tests suggested a diagnosis of pancreatitis. CT and subsequent MRI revealed changes consistent with acute exacerbation on chronic pancreatitis spreading to the mediastinum and to the greater omentum. The patient received medical treatment and reported gradual improvement in his laboratory results and CT findings. PMID:24955277

  20. [Urinalysis in patients at the early stage of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Rybak, Katarzyna; Sporek, Mateusz; Gala-Błądzińska, Agnieszka; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Dumnicka, Paulina; Walocha, Jerzy; Drożdż, Ryszard; Kuźniewski, Marek; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Urinalysis is a routine and cheap laboratory test that provides clinically useful information in patients with acute abdominal conditions, including acute pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between the results of urinalysis and the course of the disease among 65 patients with acute pancreatitis (34 men and 31 women, mean age 61 ± 19 years) at the early phase of the disease, i.e. during the first 72 hours from the onset of symptoms. Mild acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in 47 patients, moderately severe in 13 and severe in 5. The most prevalent abnormalities were proteinuria (43% of patients), high urinary bilirubin (20%), erythrocytes (18%), glucose (18%) and leukocytes (17%). High urinary protein and low specific gravity were associated with more severe acute disease and with acute kidney injury. The severity of bilirubinuria and proteinuria were positively correlated with urine concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL). Urinalysis should be routinely performed in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27197429

  1. Inferior phrenic artery pseudoaneurysm complicating drug-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Salem, Jean F; Haydar, Ali; Hallal, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Inferior phrenic artery (IPA) pseudoaneurysm is an extremely rare complication of chronic pancreatitis with only three cases reported in the literature so far. It is a serious condition that can be life-threatening if not diagnosed promptly. Recent advances in endovascular interventions made angiography with embolisation the modality of choice for diagnosis and treatment. We presented the first report of a case of ruptured IPA pseudoaneurysm complicating a drug-induced acute pancreatitis that was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolisation. Despite its rarity, rupture of pseudoaneurysm due to drug-induced pancreatitis should be suspected and included in the differential diagnosis when associated with haemodynamic instability. PMID:24385392

  2. Pancreatitis-imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Busireddy, Kiran K; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Ramalho, Miguel; Kalubowila, Janaka; Baodong, Liu; Santagostino, Ilaria; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis is defined as the inflammation of the pancreas and considered the most common pancreatic disease in children and adults. Imaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis, severity assessment, recognition of complications and guiding therapeutic interventions. In the setting of pancreatitis, wider availability and good image quality make multi-detector contrast-enhanced computed tomography (MD-CECT) the most used imaging technique. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers diagnostic capabilities similar to those of CT, with additional intrinsic advantages including lack of ionizing radiation and exquisite soft tissue characterization. This article reviews the proposed definitions of revised Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, illustrates a wide range of morphologic pancreatic parenchymal and associated peripancreatic changes for different types of acute pancreatitis. It also describes the spectrum of early and late chronic pancreatitis imaging findings and illustrates some of the less common types of chronic pancreatitis, with special emphasis on the role of CT and MRI. PMID:25133027

  3. Surgical and interventional management of complications caused by acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karakayali, Feza Y

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. It requires acute hospitalization, with a reported annual incidence of 13 to 45 cases per 100000 persons. In severe cases there is persistent organ failure and a mortality rate of 15% to 30%, whereas mortality of mild pancreatitis is only 0% to 1%. Treatment principles of necrotizing pancreatitis and the role of surgery are still controversial. Despite surgery being effective for infected pancreatic necrosis, it carries the risk of long-term endocrine and exocrine deficiency and a morbidity and mortality rate of between 10% to 40%. Considering high morbidity and mortality rates of operative necrosectomy, minimally invasive strategies are being explored by gastrointestinal surgeons, radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Since 1999, several other minimally invasive surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic approaches to drain and debride pancreatic necrosis have been described. In patients who do not improve after technically adequate drainage, necrosectomy should be performed. When minimal invasive management is unsuccessful or necrosis has spread to locations not accessible by endoscopy, open abdominal surgery is recommended. Additionally, surgery is recognized as a major determinant of outcomes for acute pancreatitis, and there is general agreement that patients should undergo surgery in the late phase of the disease. It is important to consider multidisciplinary management, considering the clinical situation and the comorbidity of the patient, as well as the surgeons experience. PMID:25309073

  4. Burkitt lymphoma with unusual presentation: Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Koca, Tugba; Aslan, Nagehan; Dereci, Selim; Akcam, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatitis due to malignant infiltration is an uncommon condition in childhood. Pancreatic lymphomas constitute <2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Only six reported cases with various clinical presentation have been documented in the literature. Described herein is the case of a nine-year-old boy with abdominal pain, jaundice, emesis, weight loss, diarrhea, who developed hyperlipidemia and cholestasis. Pancreatitis was suspected due to high amylase and lipase. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse enlargement of the pancreas. This sausage pancreas imaging was suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis, but the patient was diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma on bone marrow aspiration, and rapidly improved with chemotherapy. Burkitt lymphoma should be kept in mind when patients present with pancreatitis, especially with diffuse enlarged pancreas. PMID:26031558

  5. Pituitary metastasis of pancreatic origin in a dog presenting with acute-onset blindness.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Carrera, Inés; Dobromylskyj, Melanie; Patterson-Kane, Janet; Ortega, Maria; Wessmann, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary metastases have rarely been recorded in dogs, and to date, none of those reported have been of pancreatic origin. MRI findings are available for only one of those cases. Herein the authors present an 11 yr old English springer spaniel diagnosed with pituitary metastasis of pancreatic origin with a 24 hr history of blindness and only a single lesion on MRI. Neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations localized the lesion to the optic nerves, optic tracts, or optic chiasm. MRI showed a single lesion characterized by a well-circumscribed pituitary mass with extrasellar extension, causing compression of the optic chiasm. Signal intensity was unusual as enhancement could not be appreciated after contrast administration. The dog was euthanized without further diagnostic tests. Histopathologic examination revealed a poorly differentiated exocrine pancreatic carcinoma with widespread metastasis involving the pituitary gland. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case reported in a dog. Pituitary metastases should be included as a differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with acute-onset blindness and for single brain masses affecting the pituitary gland. PMID:24051261

  6. Loss of Ifnar1 in Pancreatic Acinar Cells Ameliorates the Disease Course of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katharina J; Raulefs, Susanne; Kong, Bo; Steiger, Katja; Regel, Ivonne; Gewies, Andreas; Kleeff, Jörg; Michalski, Christoph W

    2015-01-01

    Type I interferon constitutes an essential component of the combinational therapy against viral disease. Acute pancreatitis is one side effect of type I interferon-based therapy, implying that activation of type I interferon signaling affects the homeostasis and integrity of pancreatic acinar cells. Here, we investigated the role of type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells using a caerulein-induced murine model of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas-specific ablation of interferon (alpha and beta) receptor 1 (Ifnar1) partially protected animals from caerulein-induced pancreatitis, as demonstrated by reduced tissue damage. Profiling of infiltrating immune cells revealed that this dampened tissue damage response correlated with the number of macrophages in the pancreas. Pharmacologic depletion of macrophages reversed the protective effect of Ifnar1 deficiency. Furthermore, expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2), a potent factor for macrophage recruitment, was significantly increased in the Ifnar1-deficient pancreas. Thus, type I interferon signaling in pancreatic acinar cells controls pancreatic homeostasis by affecting the macrophage-mediated inflammatory response in the pancreas. PMID:26618925

  7. Cardiac MRI of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akerem Khan, Shamruz; Khan, Shamruz Akarem; Williamson, Eric E; Foley, Thomas A; Cullen, Ethany L; Young, Phillip M; Araoz, Philip A

    2013-05-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New serological biomarkers, such as troponins, have improved the diagnosis of ACS; however, the diagnosis of ACS can still be difficult as there is marked heterogeneity in its presentation and significant overlap with other disorders presenting with chest pain. Evidence is accumulating that cardiac MRI provides information that can aid the detection and differential diagnosis of ACS, guide clinical decision-making and improve risk-stratification after an event. In this review, we present the relevant cardiac MRI techniques that can be used to detect ACS accurately, provide differential diagnosis, identify the sequelae of ACS, and determine prognostication after ACS. PMID:23668741

  8. [PREVENTION AND CORRECTION OF PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS FOR SEVERE ACUTE PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Fedorkiv, M B

    2015-06-01

    Increased of proinflammatory cytokines levels, including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on severe acute pancreatitis causes vasodilatation, increased permeability of the wall, accumulation of fluid in lung tissue and pleural sinuses. Transudate from acute parapancreatyc clusters of hot liquid and abdomen falls into the chest cavity through microscopic defects in the diaphragm due to the formation of pathological pleural-peritoneal connections or the relevant pressure gradient between the abdominal and pleural cavities. Remediation and removal of acute parapancreatyc clusters combined with the use of a multicomponent drug infusion therapy Cytoflavin provide a reduction in the frequency of pulmonary complications of acute pancreatitis from 48.3 to 31.0%. Use of the drug Cytoflavin reduces the severity of endogenous intoxication and mortality from acute lung injury from 12.9 to 6.1%. PMID:26521460

  9. Eruptive xanthomas and acute pancreatitis in a patient with hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Desirée Pérez; Díaz, Juan Oscar Fernández; Bobes, Carmen Maciá

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and eruptive xanthomas are the only recognised direct complications of severe hypertriglyceridaemia. We present the case of a 33-years old male patient in whom the onset of a type 2 diabetes, added to an unknown familial hyperlipidemia, precipitated a dramatic raise of serum triglyceride levels, that cause in turn an acute pancreatitis and the appearance of dermic eruptive xanthomas. TRANSLATION: This article is translated from Spanish, originally published in Archivos de Medicina. The original work is at doi:10.3823/001. PMID:18474088

  10. Eruptive xanthomas and acute pancreatitis in a patient with hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Desirée Pérez; Díaz, Juan Óscar Fernández; Bobes, Carmen Maciá

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and eruptive xanthomas are the only recognised direct complications of severe hypertriglyceridaemia. We present the case of a 33-years old male patient in whom the onset of a type 2 diabetes, added to an unknown familial hyperlipidemia, precipitated a dramatic raise of serum triglyceride levels, that cause in turn an acute pancreatitis and the appearance of dermic eruptive xanthomas. Translation This article is translated from Spanish, originally published in Archivos de Medicina. The original work is at doi:10.3823/001 PMID:18474088

  11. Misdiagnosis of Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy: Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunita; Gupta, Shweta; Begum, Jasmina; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a pregnant woman who presented to our emergency department with complaints of severe abdominal pain, was misdiagnosed as scar dehiscence and underwent emergency repeat caesarean section at 33 wks for fetal distress. The preterm baby developed severe respiratory distress and succumbed on the second postnatal day. Persistent severe pain in the postoperative period in the mother prompted further evaluation which led to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conservative and supportive management was instituted leading to an eventual favourable maternal outcome. PMID:25738042

  12. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation

  13. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıç, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. Materials/Methods Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. Results There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). Conclusions Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  14. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıc, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. RESULTS There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (P<0.05). When the CMl group and C group were compared, no statistically significant differences were found in any parameter analyzed. When the CMe group was compared with the C group, pancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). Finally, when the CMe group and the Control group were compared, significant differences were found in all except 2 (leukocyte and pO2) parameters (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Leukotriene receptor antagonists used in the late phases of pancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  15. Activation of cellular immune response in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mora, A; Pérez-Mateo, M; Viedma, J A; Carballo, F; Sánchez-Payá, J; Liras, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators have recently been implicated as potential markers of severity in acute pancreatitis. AIMS: To determine the value of neopterin and polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase as markers of activation of cellular immunity and as early predictors of disease severity. PATIENTS: Fifty two non-consecutive patients classified according to their clinical outcome into mild (n = 26) and severe pancreatitis (n = 26). METHODS: Neopterin in serum and the PMN elastase/A1PI complex in plasma were measured during the first three days of hospital stay. RESULTS: Within three days after the onset of acute pancreatitis, PMN elastase was significantly higher in the severe pancreatitis group. Patients with severe disease also showed significantly higher values of neopterin on days 1 and 2 but not on day 3 compared with patients with mild disease. There was a significant correlation between PMN elastase and neopterin values on days 1 and 2. PMN elastase on day 1 predicted disease severity with a sensitivity of 76.7% and a specificity of 91.6%. Neopterin did not surpass PMN elastase in the probability of predicting disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that activation of cellular immunity is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and may be a main contributory factor to disease severity. Neopterin was not superior to PMN elastase in the prediction of severity. PMID:9245935

  16. Acute pancreatitis in slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Naples, Lisa M; Lacasse, Claude; Landolfi, Jennifer A; Langan, Jennifer N; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2010-06-01

    Four adult, full-sibling slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The incident case presented with lethargy, anorexia, abdominal guarding, and a cranial abdominal mass. Serum was grossly lipemic, with elevated cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and increased amylase and lipase activity. An exploratory laparotomy confirmed chylous peritonitis and included excision of a saponified spleno-duodenal mass, a partial pancreatectomy, and a splenectomy. Histopathology revealed severe, multifocal, subacute necrotizing and granulomatous pancreatitis. Within 13 days of the incident case, the second meerkat was identified with essentially identical clinical, surgical, and histologic findings. During subsequent physical examinations of apparently unaffected cohorts (n=12), physical and hematologic findings suggestive of pancreatitis were identified in the two remaining siblings of the first two cases. The definitive cause for these four cases is undetermined; however, common risk factors identified were obesity and hyperlipidemia, a change to a higher-fat diet, and genetic predisposition. To assess its usefulness in the diagnosis of meerkat pancreatitis, serum canine and feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI and fPLI) concentrations were measured in serum samples (n=61) from two unrelated meerkat populations. Although these assays are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in domestic carnivores, similar correlation was not apparent for meerkats. In addition, hyperlipidemia was inconsistently present in many meerkats, with no apparent correlation to the development of clinical illness. Based on these observations, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests for pancreatitis in meerkats are currently unavailable. PMID:20597219

  17. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  18. Early enteral feeding in severe acute pancreatitis: can it prevent secondary pancreatic (super) infection?

    PubMed

    Lehocky, P; Sarr, M G

    2000-01-01

    Sepsis continues to account for a second peak in mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The prevention of these septic complications and subsequent development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome remains a major focus for investigators, yet despite considerable clinical and experimental work addressing its etiology, septic complications remain high. Several studies have been designed to demonstrate the mechanism of origin of these septic complications with an attempt to define strategies for their prevention to improve patient outcomes. There is clear evidence that the origin of this secondary bacterial infection arises from enteric bacterial translocation secondary to disruption of the gut mucosal barrier during acute pancreatitis. Strategies designed to prevent secondary pancreatic infection include aggressive fluid resuscitation to maximize organ perfusion, early systemic antibiotic treatment or selective gut decontamination, and recently attempts to block mediators of the systemic inflammatory response. This discussion will summarize our present understanding of the etiopathogenesis of secondary bacterial 'superinfection' of necrotizing pancreatitis and how the initiation of enteral feeding early in the course of acute pancreatitis may prove to be an effective means of preventing and/or reversing the breakdown of the gut mucosal defense barrier. PMID:11155001

  19. Enteral nutrition and immune modulation of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Refaat A; DeWitt, Tiffany

    2014-11-21

    Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modulate the immune responses. Despite this consistent evidence of early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis, clinical practice continues to vary due to individual clinician preference. Achieving the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition heavily depend on proper placement of the feeding tube and managing any tube feeding associated complications. The current article reviews the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition and pro- and prebiotics and suggests some practical tools that help improve the patient adherence and tolerance to the tube feeding. Proper selection of the type of the tube, close monitoring of the tube for its placement, patency and securing its proper placement and routine checking the gastric residual volume could all help improve the outcome. Using peptide-based and high medium chain triglycerides feeding formulas help improving feeding tolerance. PMID:25473161

  20. Percutaneous Drainage of Suppurative Pylephlebitis Complicating Acute Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Nouira, Kais Bedioui, Haykel; Azaiez, Olfa; Belhiba, Hend; Messaoud, Monia Ben; Ksantini, Rachid; Jouini, Mohamed; Menif, Emna

    2007-11-15

    Suppurative pylephlebitis is a rare condition with a significant mortality rate, ranging from 50% to 80%. We report a case of suppurative pylephlebitis complicating acute pancreatitis treated by percutaneous drainage in a 40-year-old woman. The patient had an uneventful recovery.

  1. Alcohol abuse-related severe acute pancreatitis with rhabdomyolysis complications

    PubMed Central

    SU, MAO-SHENG; JIANG, YING; YAN, XIAO-YUAN HU; ZHAO, QING-HUA; LIU, ZHI-WEI; ZHANG, WEN-ZHI; HE, LEI

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. One of the major risk factors of both acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis is alcohol abuse. However, only a few studies have reported the prognosis and association of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and rhabdomyolysis in alcohol abuse patients. In the present study, we report two cases presenting with SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis following high-dose alcohol intake. The disease onset, clinical manifestations, laboratory data, diagnosis and treatment procedure of each patient were recorded, and the association with rhabdomyolysis was analyzed. Alcohol consumption was the most predominant cause of SAP and rhabdomyolysis in these patients. SAP-related rhabdomyolysis was primarily induced by the toxicity associated with pancreatic necrosis. The laboratory tests revealed that the concentration of serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin increased and acute renal failure symptoms were present, which provided an exact diagnosis for SAP-induced rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis and subsequent hypermyoglobinuria severely impaired kidney function and aggravated hypocalcemia. The therapy of early stage SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis involved liquid resuscitation support. When first stage treatment fails, blood purification should be performed immediately. Both patients developed multiple organ failure (MOF) and succumbed to the disease. Considering the two cases presented, we conclude that alcohol-related SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis may have a poor clinical prognosis. PMID:23251265

  2. CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC CORRELATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH SLIGHT ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    MUNHOZ-FILHO, Clewis Henri; BATIGÁLIA, Fernando; FUNES, Hamilton Luiz Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas due to enzymatic autodigestion which can cause necrosis or multiple organ failure; its pathophysiology is not fully known yet. Aim To evaluate the correlation between clinical and therapeutic data in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. Methods A retrospective study in 55 medical records of patients admitted with acute mild pancreatitis was realized to analyze the association between age, leukocytosis, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, antibiotics, time admission and Ranson´s scores. Results There was a positive association between less intensive care (strict hydration, analgesia and monitoring of vital signs), early antibiotic therapy (monotherapy), early return to diet after 48 hours and laboratory control of the serum amylase and lipase (high in the first week and decreasing after 10 days, without any prognostic value). Conclusions Changes in the management of patients with mild acute pancreatitis, such as enteral nutrition, rational use of lower spectrum antibiotics and intensive care, have contributed significantly to the reduction of hospitalization time and mortality. PMID:25861064

  3. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy in newly diagnosed pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bala, Asif; Ali, Butool; Khan, Husna; Bracamonte, Erika; Sussman, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy can occur due to primary hyperoxaluria and secondary hyperoxaluria. The primary hyperoxalurias are a group of autosomal recessive disorders of endogenous oxalate overproduction. Secondary hyperoxaluria may occur as a result of excess dietary intake, poisoning with oxalate precursors (ethylene glycol), or enteric hyperoxaluria. The differential diagnosis of enteric hyperoxaluria includes inflammatory bowel disease, short bowel syndrome, bariatric surgery (with jejunoileal bypass or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), celiac disease, partial colectomy, and chronic pancreatitis. The common etiology in all these processes is fat malabsorption, steatorrhea, saponification of calcium, and absorption of free oxalate. Hyperoxaluria causes increased urinary oxalate excretion, urolithiasis (promoted by hypovolemia, decreased urinary pH caused by metabolic acidosis, and decreased citrate and magnesium concentrations in urine), tubulointerstitial oxalate deposits, and tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a rare case of acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy and exocrine insufficiency caused by newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer. PMID:26614399

  4. Ascites fluid in severe acute pancreatitis: from pathophysiology to therapy.

    PubMed

    Dugernier, T; Laterre, P F; Reynaert, M S

    2000-01-01

    Several pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in the development of the inflammatory necrotizing process that takes place in the retroperitoneal area during the early phase of acute pancreatitis. They include premature intraglandular activation of pancreatic proenzymes (zymogens) and in particular trypsin, early microcirculatory impairment with subsequent ischaemia/reperfusion and overstimulation of immune effector cells. Although intra-acinar or interstitial activation of trypsinogen is most probably the trigger of acute pancreatitis, in recent years much emphasis has been put on the role of leukocytes. Based on numerous experimental and human data several pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, arachidonic acid derivatives, activated oxygen species and proteases are released locally by overactivated neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages among other cells. They are now believed to play a central role in the development of pancreatic necrosis and, once they gain access to the systemic circulation, in the emergence of early multisystem organ failure. However the sequential and relative contribution of each of these 3 pathophysiological mechanisms remain controversial and the precise identification of the mediators incriminated in local and remote tissue injury is still awaited. Severe acute pancreatitis still carries a mortality of 20% to 30%. With advances in intensive care management 80% of the deaths occur somewhat late in the attack due to infected pancreatic necrosis. Nevertheless early remote organ failures still remain a lifethreatening condition for most of these patients. A peritoneal exudate rich in activated lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes, vasoactive substances and several other pro-inflammatory mediators collect in over 60% of the patients with severe acute pancreatitis. On the basis of favourable animal experiments early percutaneous or surgical peritoneal lavage with or without the addition of antiproteases has been carried out in human

  5. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy associated with severe acute pancreatitis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cássio Vieira; Moreira, Alecsandro; Baima, Julio P; Franzoni, Leticia de C; Lima, Talles B; Yamashiro, Fabio da S; Coelho, Kunie Yabuki Rabelo; Sassaki, Ligia Y; Caramori, Carlos Antonio; Romeiro, Fernando G; Silva, Giovanni F

    2014-01-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare disease that affects women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Although infrequent, the disease can cause maternal mortality. The diagnosis is not always clear until the pregnancy is terminated, and significant complications, such as acute pancreatitis, can occur. Pancreatic involvement typically only occurs in severe cases after the development of hepatic and renal impairment. To date, little knowledge is available regarding how the disease causes pancreatitis. Treatment involves supportive measures and pregnancy interruption. In this report, we describe a case of a previously healthy 26-year-old woman at a gestational age of 27 wk and 6 d who was admitted with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. This case illustrates the clinical and laboratory overlap between acute fatty liver of pregnancy and pancreatitis, highlighting the difficulties in differentiating each disease. Furthermore, the hypothesis for this overlapping is presented, and the therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:25068005

  6. Relationship between pancreatic hormones and glucose metabolism: A cross-sectional study in patients after acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pendharkar, Sayali A; Asrani, Varsha M; Xiao, Amy Y; Yoon, Harry D; Murphy, Rinki; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism is present in almost 40% of patients after acute pancreatitis, but its pathophysiology has been poorly investigated. Pancreatic hormone derangements have been sparingly studied to date, and their relationship with abnormal glucose metabolism is largely unknown. The aim was to investigate the associations between pancreatic hormones and glucose metabolism after acute pancreatitis, including the effect of potential confounders. This was a cross-sectional study of 83 adult patients after acute pancreatitis. Fasting venous blood was collected from all patients and used for analysis of insulin, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide, amylin, somatostatin, C-peptide, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c. Statistical analyses were conducted using the modified Poisson regression, multivariable linear regression, and Spearman's correlation. Age, sex, body mass index, recurrence of acute pancreatitis, duration from first attack, severity, and etiology were adjusted for. Increased insulin was significantly associated with abnormal glucose metabolism after acute pancreatitis, in both unadjusted (P = 0.038) and adjusted (P = 0.001) analyses. Patients with abnormal glucose metabolism also had significantly decreased pancreatic polypeptide (P = 0.001) and increased amylin (P = 0.047) in adjusted analyses. Somatostatin, C-peptide, and glucagon were not changed significantly in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Increased insulin resistance and reduced insulin clearance may be important components of hyperinsulinemic compensation in patients after acute pancreatitis. Increased amylin and reduced pancreatic polypeptide fasting levels characterize impaired glucose homeostasis. Clinical studies investigating islet-cell hormonal responses to mixed-nutrient meal testing and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps are now warranted for further insights into the role of pancreatic hormones in glucose metabolism derangements secondary to pancreatic diseases. PMID:27173509

  7. Enterococcus hirae Bacteremia Associated with Acute Pancreatitis and Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V.; De Aguirre, Manuel; Divito, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Enterococcus hirae has rarely been reported in humans but is not uncommon in mammals and birds. We describe a case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia associated with acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and septic shock responsive to antibiotic therapy and supportive critical care management. Unique aspects of this case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia are its association with acute pancreatitis and its geographical origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia occurring in a patient in the United States. Although human infection with this organism appears to be rare, all cases reported to date describe bacteremia associated with severe and life-threatening illness. Thus, physicians need to be cognizant of the clinical significance of this heretofore little recognized pathogen. PMID:26417465

  8. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) After Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Tara; Al-Sharief, Khalid; Sethi, Vineeta; Ranger, Gurpreet S.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an unusual condition typified by acute visual impairment caused by sudden, marked parieto-occipital vasogenic edema. Thought to be inflammatory in origin, it has been described in patients undergoing chemotherapy, with autoimmune disease, and in some infections. We report a case of PRES that occurred one week after an episode of acute pancreatitis in an otherwise healthy 40-year-old female. There was progressive visual impairment over a 24-hour period with almost complete visual loss, with characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging. After treatment with steroids, the visual loss recovered. Clinicians should retain an index of suspicion of this rare condition in patients with visual impairment after acute pancreatitis. PMID:26759673

  9. Muscarinic receptors and amylase secretion of rat pancreatic acini during cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Morisset, J; Wood, J; Solomon, T E; Larose, L

    1987-08-01

    This study examines the effects of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis on the secretory response of rat pancreatic acini to carbamylcholine and concentration of acinar muscarinic receptors. Rats were injected subcutaneously every 8 hr with cerulein, 12 micrograms/kg, for two days. They were sacrificed 2 and 4 hr after the first injection, 4 hr after the second and third, and 8 hr after the sixth. By 2 hr after the first injection, carbamylcholine showed decreased potency for stimulating amylase release; decreased potency becomes maximal after the second injection. Four hours after the first injection, carbamylcholine also showed decreased efficacy for causing maximal amylase release. In the course of development of pancreatitis, progressive reductions in muscarinic receptor concentrations were evident from 4 hr after the second injection. Following the complete treatment (8 hr after the sixth injection), no alteration could be observed in the affinity or proportions of each agonist class of muscarinic receptors. These studies indicate that the pancreatic acinar cells still remain functional after acute cerulein-induced pancreatitis, although significant reductions in potency and efficacy of carbamylcholine to cause amylase release and reduced muscarinic receptor concentration occur. PMID:2440647

  10. Acute pancreatitis possibly due to arginine use: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saka, Mendane; Tüzün, Ahmet; Ateş, Yüksel; Bağci, Sait; Karaeren, Necmettin; Dağalp, Kemal

    2004-03-01

    Arginine has been used by millions of athletes over the past 20 years to enhance production of human growth hormone. The effects of arginine supplementation include increased fat burning and muscle building, enhanced immunity, and improvement in erectile function in men. Excessive doses of basic amino acids such as ethionine, methionine and lysine are known to damage the rat pancreas. Recent studies have demonstrated that excessive doses of arginine induce necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. In this article, we report a 16-year-old male patient hospitalized in our clinic because of severe pain in upper abdomen, nausea and vomiting who was suspected to have arginine-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:15264124

  11. Reduced Pancreatic Exocrine Function and Organellar Disarray in a Canine Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuepeng; Bai, Yongyu; Li, Qiang; Bhugul, Pravin Avinash; Huang, Xince; Liu, Lewei; Pan, Liangliang; Ni, Haizhen; Chen, Bicheng; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Qiyu; Hehir, Michael; Zhou, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pancreatic exocrine function in a canine model and to analyze the changes in organelles of pancreatic acinar cells during the early stage of acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate (0.5 ml/kg) into the main pancreatic duct of dogs. The induction of AP resulted in serum hyperamylasemia and a marked reduction of amylase activity in the pancreatic fluid (PF). The pancreatic exocrine function was markedly decreased in subjects with AP compared with the control group. After the induction of AP, histological examination showed acinar cell edema, cytoplasmic vacuolization, fibroblasts infiltration, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the interstitium. Electron micrographs after the induction of AP revealed that most of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were dilated and that some of the ribosomes were no longer located on the RER. The mitochondria were swollen, with shortened and broken cristae. The present study demonstrated, in a canine model, a reduced volume of PF secretion with decreased enzyme secretion during the early stage of AP. Injury of mitochondria and dilatation and degranulation of RER may be responsible for the reduced exocrine function in AP. Furthermore, the present model and results may be useful for researching novel therapeutic measures in AP. PMID:26895040

  12. Reduced Pancreatic Exocrine Function and Organellar Disarray in a Canine Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Bhugul, Pravin Avinash; Huang, Xince; Liu, Lewei; Pan, Liangliang; Ni, Haizhen; Chen, Bicheng; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Qiyu; Hehir, Michael; Zhou, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pancreatic exocrine function in a canine model and to analyze the changes in organelles of pancreatic acinar cells during the early stage of acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate (0.5 ml/kg) into the main pancreatic duct of dogs. The induction of AP resulted in serum hyperamylasemia and a marked reduction of amylase activity in the pancreatic fluid (PF). The pancreatic exocrine function was markedly decreased in subjects with AP compared with the control group. After the induction of AP, histological examination showed acinar cell edema, cytoplasmic vacuolization, fibroblasts infiltration, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the interstitium. Electron micrographs after the induction of AP revealed that most of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were dilated and that some of the ribosomes were no longer located on the RER. The mitochondria were swollen, with shortened and broken cristae. The present study demonstrated, in a canine model, a reduced volume of PF secretion with decreased enzyme secretion during the early stage of AP. Injury of mitochondria and dilatation and degranulation of RER may be responsible for the reduced exocrine function in AP. Furthermore, the present model and results may be useful for researching novel therapeutic measures in AP. PMID:26895040

  13. Pancreatic Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Deficiency Exacerbates Acute Pancreatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Koike, Shinichiro; Chahed, Samah; Bachaalany, Santana; Griffey, Stephen; Sastre, Juan; Haj, Fawaz G

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and devastating gastrointestinal disorder that causes significant morbidity. The disease starts as local inflammation in the pancreas that may progress to systemic inflammation and complications. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated in inflammatory signaling, but its significance in AP remains unclear. To investigate whether PTP1B may have a role in AP, we used pancreas PTP1B knockout (panc-PTP1B KO) mice and determined the effects of pancreatic PTP1B deficiency on cerulein- and arginine-induced acute pancreatitis. We report that PTP1B protein expression was increased in the early phase of AP in mice and rats. In addition, histological analyses of pancreas samples revealed enhanced features of AP in cerulein-treated panc-PTP1B KO mice compared with controls. Moreover, cerulein- and arginine-induced serum amylase and lipase were significantly higher in panc-PTP1B KO mice compared with controls. Similarly, pancreatic mRNA and serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1B, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were increased in panc-PTP1B KO mice compared with controls. Furthermore, panc-PTP1B KO mice exhibited enhanced cerulein- and arginine-induced NF-κB inflammatory response accompanied with increased mitogen-activated protein kinases activation and elevated endoplasmic reticulum stress. Notably, these effects were recapitulated in acinar cells treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of PTP1B. These findings reveal a novel role for pancreatic PTP1B in cerulein- and arginine-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:27461362

  14. [A case of acute pancreatitis and acute hepatitis caused by ingestion of Ceramium kondoi].

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-bin; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Song, Hyun Joo; Song, Byung-Cheol

    2013-11-01

    In Korea, the use of herbal remedies is a common cause of drug-induced liver injury. However, the occurrence of both acute pancreatitis and acute hepatitis after taking herbal remedies has rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent acute pancreatitis and acute hepatitis associated with Ceramium kondoi ingestion. A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer 7 months ago. Total gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy was performed without complications. The patient had been well until recently, when she presented with severe abdominal pain after ingestion of Ceramium kondoifor 4 weeks. The laboratory findings demonstrated elevated liver enzymes and lipase, and abdominal computed tomography revealed pancreas swelling with fat infiltration. The diagnosis was made based on the diagnostic criteria for drug induced pancreatitis and the Russel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scale for drug-induced liver injury. After cessation of Ceramium kondoi, she showed clinical and biochemical improvement. PMID:24262598

  15. Acute Pancreatitis and Diabetic Ketoacidosis following L-Asparaginase/Prednisone Therapy in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Quintanilla-Flores, Dania Lizet; Flores-Caballero, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor Eloy; González-González, José Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis are unusual adverse events following chemotherapy based on L-asparaginase and prednisone as support treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We present the case of a 16-year-old Hispanic male patient, in remission induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia on treatment with mitoxantrone, vincristine, prednisone, and L-asparaginase. He was hospitalized complaining of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Hyperglycemia, acidosis, ketonuria, low bicarbonate levels, hyperamylasemia, and hyperlipasemia were documented, and the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis was made. Because of uncertainty of the additional diagnosis of acute pancreatitis as the cause of abdominal pain, a contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed resulting in a Balthazar C pancreatitis classification. PMID:24716037

  16. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  17. SU-E-J-193: Feasibility of MRI-Only Based IMRT Planning for Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, P; Botros, M; Chen, X; Paulson, E; Erickson, B; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: With the increasing use of MRI simulation and the advent of MRI-guided delivery, it is desirable to use MRI only for treatment planning. In this study, we assess the dosimetric difference between MRI- and CTbased IMRT planning for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Planning CTs and MRIs acquired for a representative pancreatic cancer patient were used. MRI-based planning utilized forced relative electron density (rED) assignment of organ specific values from IRCU report 46, where rED = 1.029 for PTV and a rED = 1.036 for non-specified tissue (NST). Six IMRT plans were generated with clinical dose-volume (DV) constraints using a research Monaco planning system employing Monte Carlo dose calculation with optional perpendicular magnetic field (MF) of 1.5T. The following five plans were generated and compared with the planning CT: 1.) CT plan with MF and dose recalculation without optimization; 2.) MRI (T2) plan with target and OARs redrawn based on MRI, forced rED, no MF, and recalculation without optimization; 3.) Similar as in 2 but with MF; 4.) MRI plan with MF but without optimization; and 5.) Similar as in 4 but with optimization. Results: Generally, noticeable differences in PTV point doses and DV parameters (DVPs) between the CT-and MRI-based plans with and without the MF were observed. These differences between the optimized plans were generally small, mostly within 2%. Larger differences were observed in point doses and mean doses for certain OARs between the CT and MRI plan, mostly due to differences between image acquisition times. Conclusion: MRI only based IMRT planning for pancreatic cancer is feasible. The differences observed between the optimized CT and MRI plans with or without the MF were practically negligible if excluding the differences between MRI and CT defined structures.

  18. Parathyroid cyst presenting as acute pancreatitis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Young; Chung, Cho-Yun; Kim, Jong-Sun; Myung, Dae-Seong; Cho, Sung-Bum; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Young; Joo, Young-Eun

    2013-12-01

    We report the first case of hypercalcemia-induced acute pancreatitis caused by a functioning parathyroid cyst in a 67-year-old man. Laboratory investigation revealed increased serum amylase and lipase, increased serum ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and decreased serum phosphate, indicating pancreatitis and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed mild swelling of the pancreatic head with peri-pancreatic fat infiltration and fluid collection around the pancreatic tail. Ultrasonography and CT of the neck showed a cystic lesion at the inferior portion of the left thyroid gland, suggesting a parathyroid cyst. There was no evidence of parathyroid adenoma by 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy. PHPT caused by a functioning parathyroid cyst was suspected. The patient underwent surgical resection of the functioning parathyroid cyst owing to his prolonged hypercalcemia. At 3 weeks after the operation, his serum levels of PTH, total calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphate, amylase, and lipase were normalized. At the follow-up examinations, he has remained asymptomatic. PMID:24400215

  19. [Acute pancreatitis associated with MMR vaccination].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lars Folmer; Nordling, Mette Maria; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøl

    2003-05-26

    A 12-year-old girl got abdominal pain three weeks after having received the second vaccination against MMR. MRCP showed dilatation of ductus choledochus and edema of caput pancreaticus. No stone was to be seen and the P-calcium level was normal. Hepatitis A virus, Ebstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, serum col hemaggutinins, Yersinia and cystic fibrosis were all negative. Pancreatitis is seen with endemic parotitis and we suggest that MMR vaccination may have a causal connection with the above case. PMID:12830760

  20. Purtscher-like retinopathy in acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Nitin; Ishrat, Saba; Verma, Abha; Kela, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    A 23-year-old man with a history of alcoholism presented with vomiting, fever, and sharp epigastric pain radiating to the back and flanks. He was diagnosed as a case of acute alcoholic pancreatitis on the basis of clinical findings and investigations. On the next day of presentation, he developed sudden bilateral visual loss. His best-corrected visual acuity was finger counting at one-foot distance in both eyes. He had diffuse whitening in the circumpapillary area, haloes around the retinal vessels (Purtscher flecken) and intra-retinal hemorrhages on ophthalmoscopic examination. Optical coherence tomography revealed bilateral macular edema. These findings were characteristic of Purtscher-like retinopathy. The patient showed systemic and visual improvement at 8 weeks follow-up after receiving the conventional treatment for acute alcoholic pancreatitis. This case emphasizes the importance of fundus examination by an ophthalmologist in the diagnosis of this rare under-diagnosed entity. PMID:27433040

  1. Citrobacter freundii infection after acute necrotizing pancreatitis in a patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Infections are the most frequent and severe complications of acute necrotizing pancreatitis with a mortality rate of up to 80 percent. Although experimental and clinical studies suggest that the microbiologic source of pancreatic infection could be enteric, information in this regard is controversial. Case presentation We describe a Citrobacter freundii isolation by endoscopy ultrasound fine needle aspiration in a 80-year-old Caucasian man with pancreatic pseudocyst after acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Conclusion Our case report confirms that this organism can be recovered in patients with a pancreatic pseudocyst. On-site cytology feedback was crucial to the successful outcome of this case as immediate interpretation of the fine needle aspiration sample directed the appropriate cultures and, ultimately, the curative therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of isolated pancreatic C. freundii diagnosed by endoscopy ultrasound fine needle aspiration. PMID:21299889

  2. Acute pancreatitis as a complication of childhood cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Milica; Jazbec, Janez; Lindgren, Fredrik; Bulajić, Milutin; Löhr, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is now well recognized as a possible complication of childhood cancer treatment, interrupting the chemotherapy regimen, and requiring prolonged hospitalization, possibly with intensive care and surgical intervention, thereby compromising the effect of chemotherapy and the remission of the underlying malignant disease. This review summarizes the current literature and presents the various etiological factors for AP during chemotherapy as well as modern trends in the diagnosis and therapy of AP in children. PMID:26872431

  3. Laparoscopic Management of Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Rapunzel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koushk Jalali, Bijan; Bingöl, Alperen; Reyad, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl presented with bilious vomiting and abdominal pain to the surgery department. The history was positive for trichotillomania and trichophagia. A CT scan showed a mass in the stomach, which was highly suspicious for a gastric bezoar. Drooping parts of the bezoar caused a duodenal obstruction with secondary acute pancreatitis. The bezoar was removed via a laparoscopically performed gastrotomy. PMID:27144047

  4. The clinical analysis of acute pancreatitis in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy after operation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yanlei; Han, Zhen; Shao, Limei; Li, Yunling; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Yuehuan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication in postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin + calcium folinate +5-FU [5-fluorouracil]) chemotherapy. In this paper, a total of 62 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were observed after the burst of acute pancreatitis. Surgery of the 62 cases of colorectal cancer patients was completed successfully. But when they underwent FOLFOX6 chemotherapy, five patients got acute pancreatitis (8.06%), four (6.45%) had mild acute pancreatitis, and one (1.61%) had severe acute pancreatitis, of which two were males (3.23%) and three females (4.84%). No patients (0.00%) had acute pancreatitis on the 1st day after chemotherapy; one patient (1.61%) got it in the first 2 and 3 days after chemotherapy; and three others (4.83%) got it in the first 4 days after chemotherapy. In the 62 patients with malignant tumors, the body mass index (BMI) was less than 18 (underweight) in six of them, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (33.33%); the BMI was 18–25 (normal weight) in 34 cases, with one case (2.94%) of acute pancreatitis; the BMI was 25–30 (overweight) in 13 cases, with 0 cases (0.00%) of acute pancreatitis; and the BMI was ≥30 (obese) in nine patients, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (22.22%). After symptomatic treatment, four patients were cured and one died; the mortality rate was 1.61%. Most of them appeared in the first 4 days after chemotherapy; the probability of this complication is significantly higher in slim and obese patients than in normal weight patients. Postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 chemotherapy have a sudden onset of acute pancreatitis occult, especially in patients with severe acute pancreatitis; the symptoms are difficult to control, there is high mortality and it is worthy of clinician’s attention. PMID:26392780

  5. The clinical analysis of acute pancreatitis in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy after operation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yanlei; Han, Zhen; Shao, Limei; Li, Yunling; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Yuehuan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication in postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin + calcium folinate +5-FU [5-fluorouracil]) chemotherapy. In this paper, a total of 62 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were observed after the burst of acute pancreatitis. Surgery of the 62 cases of colorectal cancer patients was completed successfully. But when they underwent FOLFOX6 chemotherapy, five patients got acute pancreatitis (8.06%), four (6.45%) had mild acute pancreatitis, and one (1.61%) had severe acute pancreatitis, of which two were males (3.23%) and three females (4.84%). No patients (0.00%) had acute pancreatitis on the 1st day after chemotherapy; one patient (1.61%) got it in the first 2 and 3 days after chemotherapy; and three others (4.83%) got it in the first 4 days after chemotherapy. In the 62 patients with malignant tumors, the body mass index (BMI) was less than 18 (underweight) in six of them, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (33.33%); the BMI was 18-25 (normal weight) in 34 cases, with one case (2.94%) of acute pancreatitis; the BMI was 25-30 (overweight) in 13 cases, with 0 cases (0.00%) of acute pancreatitis; and the BMI was ≥30 (obese) in nine patients, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (22.22%). After symptomatic treatment, four patients were cured and one died; the mortality rate was 1.61%. Most of them appeared in the first 4 days after chemotherapy; the probability of this complication is significantly higher in slim and obese patients than in normal weight patients. Postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 chemotherapy have a sudden onset of acute pancreatitis occult, especially in patients with severe acute pancreatitis; the symptoms are difficult to control, there is high mortality and it is worthy of clinician's attention. PMID:26392780

  6. Obestatin Accelerates the Recovery in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bukowczan, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Tomaszewska, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several previous studies have shown that obestatin exhibits protective and regenerative effects in some organs including the stomach, kidney, and the brain. In the pancreas, pretreatment with obestatin inhibits the development of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, and promotes survival of pancreatic beta cells and human islets. However, no studies investigated the effect of obestatin administration following the onset of experimental acute pancreatitis. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obestatin therapy in the course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced pancreatitis. Moreover, we tested the influence of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis and administration of obestatin on daily food intake and pancreatic exocrine secretion. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion of the pancreas. Obestatin (8nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day, starting 24 hours after the beginning of reperfusion. The effect of obestatin in the course of necrotizing pancreatitis was assessed between 2 and 14 days, and included histological, functional, and biochemical analyses. Secretory studies were performed on the third day after sham-operation or induction of acute pancreatitis in conscious rats equipped with chronic pancreatic fistula. Results Treatment with obestatin ameliorated morphological signs of pancreatic damage including edema, vacuolization of acinar cells, hemorrhages, acinar necrosis, and leukocyte infiltration of the gland, and led to earlier pancreatic regeneration. Structural changes were accompanied by biochemical and functional improvements manifested by accelerated normalization of interleukin-1β level and activity of myeloperoxidase and lipase, attenuation of the decrease in pancreatic DNA synthesis, and by an improvement of pancreatic blood flow. Induction of acute pancreatitis by pancreatic ischemia followed by reperfusion significantly decreased daily food

  7. A retrospective study of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Etiological diagnosis is an important part of the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Hantavirus infection is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, which is easy to ignore. There is a need to analyze clinical features of acute pancreatitis caused by Hantavirus. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from May 1, 2006 to May 31, 2012 on patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome at our hospital. We reviewed these patients medical records, laboratory results and radiologic examinations to determine the prevalence and summarize clinical features of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Results A total of 218 patients were diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome during the 6-year study period. Only 2.8% (6/218) of the total hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The first symptom for all six of the patients with acute pancreatitis was fever. All six patients experienced hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia during the disease course, which was different from general acute pancreatitis. In addition, we presented two misdiagnosed clinical cases. Conclusions Acute pancreatitis is not a frequent complication in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome when acute pancreatitis patients with epidemiological data have high fever before abdominal pain. PMID:24345089

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of retroperitoneal interfascial plane involvement in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xiao-Xiao; Chen, Tian-Wu; Huang, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Lin; Tang, Wei; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J.; Xiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background To study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of acute pancreatitis (AP) involving the retroperitoneal interfascial planes and to analyze the correlations of interfascial plane involvement with the magnetic resonance severity index (MRSI) and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scoring system. Methods A total of 316 consecutive patients with AP between November 2011 and August 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The extension and path of the inflammation spreading along the retroperitoneal interfascial plane on MRI were graded from grade 0 to grade 5. The relationships between interfascial plane involvement and MRSI and APACHE II were analyzed. Results Of the 316 patients with AP, 293 patients (92.7%) had interfascial plane involvement, which appeared as interfascial plane edema, thickening and effusion. There were 60, 105, 78, 25, and 25 patients in grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Interfascial plane involvement strongly correlated with the MRSI score (r=0.703), but was only weakly correlated with the APACHE-II score (r=0.291). Conclusions MRI depicts the characteristics of interfascial plane involvement in AP. The value of interfascial plane involvement for determining the disease severity is likely to be limited. PMID:27429909

  9. Early Assessment of Pancreatic Infections and Overall Prognosis in Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Procalcitonin (PCT)

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Bettina M.; Kemppainen, Esko A.; Gumbs, Andrew A.; Büchler, Markus W.; Wegscheider, Karl; Bassi, Claudio; Puolakkainen, Pauli A.; Beger, Hans G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic infections and sepsis are major complications in severe acute pancreatitis (AP) with significant impact on management and outcome. We investigated the value of Procalcitonin (PCT) for identifying patients at risk to develop pancreatic infections in severe AP. Methods: A total of 104 patients with predicted severe AP were enrolled in five European academic surgical centers within 96 hours of symptom onset. PCT was measured prospectively by a semi-automated immunoassay in each center, C-reactive protein (CRP) was routinely assessed. Both parameters were monitored over a maximum of 21 consecutive days and in weekly intervals thereafter. Results: In contrast to CRP, PCT concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with pancreatic infections and associated multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) who all required surgery (n = 10) and in nonsurvivors (n = 8) early after onset of symptoms. PCT levels revealed only a moderate increase in patients with pancreatic infections in the absence of MODS (n = 7), all of whom were managed nonoperatively without mortality. A PCT value of ≥3.5 ng/mL on 2 consecutive days was superior to CRP ≥430 mg/L for the assessment of infected necrosis with MODS or nonsurvival as determined by ROC analysis with a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 88% for PCT and 40% and 100% for CRP, respectively (P < 0.01). The single or combined prediction of the two major complications was already possible on the third and fourth day after onset of symptoms with a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 93% for PCT ≥3.8 ng/mL compared with 36% and 97% for CRP ≥430 mg/L, respectively (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Monitoring of PCT allows early and reliable assessment of clinically relevant pancreatic infections and overall prognosis in AP. This single test parameter significantly contributes to an improved stratification of patients at risk to develop major complications. PMID:17457167

  10. The Effects of Total Colectomy on Bacterial Translocation in a Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Şenocak, Rahman; Yigit, Taner; Kılbaş, Zafer; Coşkun, Ali Kağan; Harlak, Ali; Menteş, Mustafa Öner; Kılıç, Abdullah; Günal, Armağan; Kozak, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Prevention of secondary infection is currently the main goal of treatment for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Colon was considered as the main origin of secondary infection. Our aim was to investigate whether prophylactic total colectomy would reduce the rate of bacterial translocation and infection of pancreatic necrosis. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Pancreatitis was created by ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Rats were divided into four groups: group-1, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; group-2, laparotomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate; group-3, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of saline; and group-4, total colectomy + pancreatic ductal infusion of sodium taurocholate. Forty-eight hours later, tissue and blood samples were collected for microbiological and histopathological analysis. Total colectomy caused small bowel bacterial overgrowth with gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Bacterial count of gram-negative rods in the small intestine and pancreatic tissue in rats with colectomy and acute pancreatitis were significantly higher than in rats with acute pancreatitis only (group-2 versus group-4; small bowel, p = <0.001; pancreas, p = 0.002). Significant correlation was found between proximal small bowel bacterial overgrowth and pancreatic infection (r = 0,836, p = 0.001). In acute pancreatitis, prophylactic total colectomy (which can mimic colonic cleansing and reduction of colonic flora) induces small bowel bacterial overgrowth, which is associated with increased bacterial translocation to the pancreas. PMID:26730036

  11. Increased expression of transforming growth factor beta s after acute oedematous pancreatitis in rats suggests a role in pancreatic repair.

    PubMed Central

    Riesle, E; Friess, H; Zhao, L; Wagner, M; Uhl, W; Baczako, K; Gold, L I; Korc, M; Büchler, M W

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta isoforms (TGF beta s) belong to a family of multifunctional regulators of cellular growth and differentiation. They are mitogenic and chemotactic for fibroblasts and are potent stimulators of extracellular matrix production (collagen) and deposition. Upregulation of TGF beta transcription has been reported for several in vivo systems during repair after injury. AIMS: To study the expression of the three mammalian isoforms of TGF beta (TGF beta 1-3) and their relation to collagen expression as a marker for fibroblast response in acute oedematous pancreatitis in rats. METHODS: Using northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, the expression and localisation of TGF beta isoforms, collagen, and amylase were analysed during the course of acute oedematous pancreatitis in rats, experimentally induced by intravenous caerulein infusion. RESULTS: Induction of acute pancreatitis resulted in a biphasic peak pattern of expression of TGF beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 mRNA, with a pronounced increase from day 1 to day 3 (sixfold, 2.5-fold, fivefold, respectively) and again from day 5 to day 7 (three-fold, 2.3-fold, 3.5-fold, respectively). The temporal changes in TGF beta mRNA identically paralleled the expression in collagen mRNA. In contrast, amylase mRNA expression, used as a general indicator of acinar cell integrity, was slightly decreased after induction of acute pancreatitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatitis tissue showed that increased expression of TGF beta s was mainly present in the pancreatic acinar and ductal cells; this was evident within one day after pancreatitis induction. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of TGF beta s after induction of acute pancreatitis suggests a role for these proteins in pancreatic repair and remodelling. The increased levels of TGF beta s may help suppress immune activation, and may contribute to the increase in the extracellular matrix including collagen and to the repair of the

  12. Pancreatitis-induced acute lung injury. An ARDS model.

    PubMed Central

    Guice, K S; Oldham, K T; Johnson, K J; Kunkel, R G; Morganroth, M L; Ward, P A

    1988-01-01

    Cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats is associated with acute lung injury characterized by increased pulmonary microvascular permeability, increased wet lung weights, and histologic features of alveolar capillary endothelial cell and pulmonary parenchymal injury. The alveolar capillary permeability index is increased 1.8-fold after a 3-hour injury (0.30 to 0.54, p less than 0.05). Gravimetric analysis shows a similar 1.5-fold increase in wet lung weights at 3 hours (0.35% vs. 0.51% of total body weight, p less than 0.05). Histologic features assessed by quantitative morphometric analysis include significant intra-alveolar hemorrhage (0.57 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.12 +/- 0.02 RBC/alveolus at 6 hours, p less than 0.001); endothelial cell disruption (28.11% vs. 4.3%, p less than 0.001); and marked, early neutrophil infiltration (7.45 +/- 0.53 vs. 0.83 +/- 0.18 PMN/hpf at 3 hours, p less than 0.001). The cerulein peptide itself, a cholecystokinin (CCK) analog, is naturally occurring and is not toxic and in several in vitro settings including exposure to pulmonary artery endothelial cells, Type II epithelial cells, and an ex vivo perfused lung preparation. The occurrence of this ARDS-like acute lung injury with acute pancreatitis provides an excellent experimental model to investigate mechanisms and mediators involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3389946

  13. Pancreatitis-induced acute lung injury. An ARDS model.

    PubMed

    Guice, K S; Oldham, K T; Johnson, K J; Kunkel, R G; Morganroth, M L; Ward, P A

    1988-07-01

    Cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats is associated with acute lung injury characterized by increased pulmonary microvascular permeability, increased wet lung weights, and histologic features of alveolar capillary endothelial cell and pulmonary parenchymal injury. The alveolar capillary permeability index is increased 1.8-fold after a 3-hour injury (0.30 to 0.54, p less than 0.05). Gravimetric analysis shows a similar 1.5-fold increase in wet lung weights at 3 hours (0.35% vs. 0.51% of total body weight, p less than 0.05). Histologic features assessed by quantitative morphometric analysis include significant intra-alveolar hemorrhage (0.57 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.12 +/- 0.02 RBC/alveolus at 6 hours, p less than 0.001); endothelial cell disruption (28.11% vs. 4.3%, p less than 0.001); and marked, early neutrophil infiltration (7.45 +/- 0.53 vs. 0.83 +/- 0.18 PMN/hpf at 3 hours, p less than 0.001). The cerulein peptide itself, a cholecystokinin (CCK) analog, is naturally occurring and is not toxic and in several in vitro settings including exposure to pulmonary artery endothelial cells, Type II epithelial cells, and an ex vivo perfused lung preparation. The occurrence of this ARDS-like acute lung injury with acute pancreatitis provides an excellent experimental model to investigate mechanisms and mediators involved in the pathogenesis of ARDS. PMID:3389946

  14. Severe acute pancreatitis: Pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Mofleh, Ibrahim A Al

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis develop a severe disease associated with complications and high risk of mortality. The purpose of this study is to review pathogenesis and prognostic factors of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). An extensive medline search was undertaken with focusing on pathogenesis, complications and prognostic evaluation of SAP. Cytokines and other inflammatory markers play a major role in the pathogenesis and course of SAP and can be used as prognostic markers in its early phase. Other markers such as simple prognostic scores have been found to be as effective as multifactorial scoring systems (MFSS) at 48 h with the advantage of simplicity, efficacy, low cost, accuracy and early prediction of SAP. Recently, several laboratory markers including hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and serum amyloid A (SAA) have been used as early predictors of severity within the first 24 h. The last few years have witnessed a tremendous progress in understanding the pathogenesis and predicting the outcome of SAP. In this review we classified the prognostic markers into predictors of severity, pancreatic necrosis (PN), infected PN (IPN) and mortality. PMID:18205255

  15. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Tiffany J.; Sentongo, Timothy A.; Mak, Grace Z.; Kahn, Stacy A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26925282

  16. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Patton, Tiffany J; Sentongo, Timothy A; Mak, Grace Z; Kahn, Stacy A

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26925282

  17. Recognition and Importance of New Definitions of Peripancreatic Fluid Collections in Managing Patients with Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Akram; Gibreel, Waleed; Sarr, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has matured tremendously in the last 3 decades. Advanced cross-sectional imaging with 3-dimensional techniques along with use of intravenous contrast to image the presence or absence of organ tissue perfusion has allowed early recognition of necrotizing pancreatitis. With this knowledge, the old terms to describe what used to be called 'peri-pancreatic fluid collections' we now recognize are no longer accurate nor appropriate. The 2013 revised Atlanta Classification has introduced a new, accurate, objective classification of acute pancreatitis and terminology for the natural history of all forms of acute pancreatitis that is easy to use and will help in both the description of the disease and its appropriate treatment. This review will describe these pancreatic and peri-pancreatic collections with added insight into their natural history. PMID:27216496

  18. Acute pancreatitis due to ascariasis: a sonographic pictorial essay on four cases.

    PubMed

    Lynser, Donboklang; Thangkhiew, R S; Laloo, Demitrost; Hek, M D; Marbaniang, Evarisalin; Tariang, Satisfy

    2016-06-01

    Ascariasis is the commonest helminthic disease to infect humans. Due to their wandering nature, the roundworms from the second part of the duodenum migrate through the biliary opening into the hepatobiliary and pancreatic ducts. Ascariasis is the most common parasitic cause of pancreatitis in endemic region. Pancreatitis can result due to pancreatic ascariasis, biliary ascariasis or both. Pancreatitis due to ascariasis can be severe and life-threatening. We present a pictorial essay of acute pancreatitis due to ascariasis on four cases. PMID:27059341

  19. Effects of Local Pancreatic Renin-Angiotensin System on the Microcirculation of Rat with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ling; Long, Haocheng; Wang, Hui; Feng, Jiarui; Chen, Feixiang

    2015-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is normally related to multiorgan dysfunction and local complications. Studies have found that local pancreatic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was significantly upregulated in drug-induced SAP. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of angiotensin II receptors inhibitor valsartan on dual role of RAS in SAP in a rat model and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. 3.8% sodium taurocholate (1 ml/kg) was injected to the pancreatic capsule in order for pancreatitis induction. Rats in the sham group were injected with normal saline in identical locations. We also investigated the regulation of experimentally induced SAP on local RAS expression in the pancreas through determination of the activities of serum amylase, lipase and myeloperoxidase, histological and biochemical analysis, radioimmunoassay, fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. The results indicated that valsartan could effectively suppress the local RAS to protect against experimental acute pancreatitis through inhibition of microcirculation disturbances and inflammation. The results suggest that pancreatic RAS plays a critical role in the regulation of pancreatic functions and demonstrates application potential as AT1 receptor antagonists. Moreover, other RAS inhibitors could be a new therapeutic target in acute pancreatitis. PMID:26170733

  20. Effects of Local Pancreatic Renin-Angiotensin System on the Microcirculation of Rat with Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhijian; Feng, Ling; Long, Haocheng; Wang, Hui; Feng, Jiarui; Chen, Feixiang

    2015-07-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is normally related to multiorgan dysfunction and local complications. Studies have found that local pancreatic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was significantly upregulated in drug-induced SAP. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of angiotensin II receptors inhibitor valsartan on dual role of RAS in SAP in a rat model and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. 3.8% sodium taurocholate (1 ml/kg) was injected to the pancreatic capsule in order for pancreatitis induction. Rats in the sham group were injected with normal saline in identical locations. We also investigated the regulation of experimentally induced SAP on local RAS expression in the pancreas through determination of the activities of serum amylase, lipase and myeloperoxidase, histological and biochemical analysis, radioimmunoassay, fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. The results indicated that valsartan could effectively suppress the local RAS to protect against experimental acute pancreatitis through inhibition of microcirculation disturbances and inflammation. The results suggest that pancreatic RAS plays a critical role in the regulation of pancreatic functions and demonstrates application potential as AT1 receptor antagonists. Moreover, other RAS inhibitors could be a new therapeutic target in acute pancreatitis. PMID:26170733

  1. Acute Pancreatitis, Hepatitis and Bone Erosion in Acute Yellow Phosphorous Compound Poisoning - A Rare Complication.

    PubMed

    Kamarthi, Prabhakar; Subramani, Parimala; Gopu, Arun Vardharaju; Prasad, Reddy; Srinivasa, Chandrakala

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis and hepatitis following ingestion of yellow phosphorous. The condition of the patient progressed to encephalopathy and bony erosion of the nasal septum. Fungal mass was observed in both the nasal cavities by endoscopy. Microbiological investigation revealed the identity of the fungus as Aspergillus flavus and Candida tropicalis. Patient improved with fluconazole treatment. PMID:27504287

  2. Acute Pancreatitis, Hepatitis and Bone Erosion in Acute Yellow Phosphorous Compound Poisoning – A Rare Complication

    PubMed Central

    Kamarthi, Prabhakar; Gopu, Arun Vardharaju; Prasad, Reddy; Srinivasa, Chandrakala

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis and hepatitis following ingestion of yellow phosphorous. The condition of the patient progressed to encephalopathy and bony erosion of the nasal septum. Fungal mass was observed in both the nasal cavities by endoscopy. Microbiological investigation revealed the identity of the fungus as Aspergillus flavus and Candida tropicalis. Patient improved with fluconazole treatment. PMID:27504287

  3. Contemporary management of infected necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jamdar, Saurabh; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis is a challenging scenario in contemporary critical care practice; it requires multidisciplinary care in a setting where there is a relatively limited evidence base to support decision making. This commentary provides a concise overview of current management of patients with infected necrosis, focusing on detection, the role of pharmacologic intervention, and the timing and nature of surgical interventions. Fine-needle aspiration of necrosis remains the mainstay for establishment of infection. Pharmacological intervention includes antibiotic therapy as an adjunct to surgical debridement/drainage and, more recently, drotrecogin alfa. Specific concerns remain regarding the suitability of drotrecogin alfa in this setting. Early surgical intervention is unhelpful; surgery is indicated when there is strong evidence for infection of necrotic tissue, with the current trend being toward 'less drastic' surgical interventions. PMID:16356213

  4. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Tonsi, Alfredo F; Bacchion, Matilde; Crippa, Stefano; Malleo, Giuseppe; Bassi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century. PMID:19554647

  5. Validation of a novel, physiologic model of experimental acute pancreatitis in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Kathryn M; Wade, Terence E; Wang, Sue; Swartz-Basile, Deborah A; Pitt, Henry A; Zyromski, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many experimental models of acute pancreatitis suffer from lack of clinical relevance. We sought to validate a recently reported murine model of acute pancreatitis that more closely represents the physiology of human biliary pancreatitis. Methods: Mice (C57BL/6J n=6 and CF-1 n=8) underwent infusion of 50μl of 5% sodium taurocholate (NaT) or 50μl of normal saline (NaCl) directly into the pancreatic duct. Twenty-four hours later, pancreatitis severity was graded histologically by three independent observers, and pancreatic tissue concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined by ELISA. Results: Twenty four hours after retrograde injection, the total pancreatitis score was significantly greater in mice infused with NaT than in those infused with NaCl (6.3 ± 1.2 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4, p<0.05). In addition, the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and MCP-1 were increased in the NaT group relative to the NaCl group. Discussion: Retrograde pancreatic duct infusion of sodium taurocholate induces acute pancreatitis in the mouse. This model is likely representative of human biliary pancreatitis pathophysiology, and therefore provides a powerful tool with which to elucidate basic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:21416058

  6. Nifuroxazide-induced acute pancreatitis: a new side-effect for an old drug?

    PubMed

    Shindano, Akilimali; Marot, Liliane; Geubel, André P

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a middle-aged woman who developed a typical picture of acute pancreatitis together with systemic features of immunoallergy after the intake of two capsules (200 mg) of nifuroxazide. Even if acute pancreatitis is a rare adverse event of nitrofuran derivative therapy, nifuroxazide-induced pancreatitis as not been previously described. As suggested by associated systemic features, the disease is likely of immunoallergic origin. PMID:17619536

  7. Acute pancreatitis associated with pegylated interferon-alpha-2a therapy in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Wook; Lee, June Sung; Paik, Woo Hyun; Song, Tae Jun; Kim, Jung Wook; Bae, Won Ki; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Jung Gon

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Combination therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin (RBV) is a current standard treatment for chronic HCV infection in Korea, which has considerable adverse effects. Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication of PEG-IFN-α administration. We report a case of a 62-year-old female who experienced acute pancreatitis after 4 weeks of PEG-IFN-α-2a and RBV combination therapy for chronic HCV infection. The main cause of the acute pancreatitis in this case was probably PEG-IFN-α rather than RBV for several reasons. A few cases have been reported in which acute pancreatitis occurred during treatment with PEG-IFN-α-2b. This is the first report of acute pancreatitis associated with PEG-IFN-α-2a in Korea. PMID:27044768

  8. Imaging and Percutaneous Management of Acute Complicated Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Sridhar; Sonnenberg, Eric van; Silverman, Stuart G.; Tuncali, Kemal; Banks, Peter A.

    2004-11-15

    Acute pancreatitis varies from a mild, self-limited disease to one with significant morbidity and mortality in its most severe forms. While clinical criteria abound, imaging has become indispensable to diagnose the extent of the disease and its complications, as well as to guide and monitor therapy. Percutaneous interventional techniques offer options that can be life-saving, surgery-sparing or important adjuncts to operation. Close cooperation and communication between the surgeon, gastroenterologist and interventional radiologist enhance the likelihood of successful patient care.

  9. [Immune and enzyme disorders in patients with acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Briskin, B S; Iarovaia, G A; Savchenko, Z I; Rybakov, G S; Khalidov, O Kh; Mkhitarova, L A; Suplotova, A A

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of immune and enzyme disorders in 85 patients with acute pancreatitis shows that persistent imbalance of immunoregulatory T-lymphocytes with suppression predominance; reduction of all immunoglobulines number, imbalance in phagocytic immunity with height of absorbing activity of neutropils and stimultaneous decrease of their digestive capacity are prognostically unfavourable for high risk of pyonecrotic complications and lethal outcome. It is necessary to include immunocorrectors in combined therapy. Direct assessment of leukocytic elastase activity and alpha-IP level in blood plasma permits to evaluate spreading of inflammatory process and it severity, efficacy and prognosis of treatment. PMID:11521303

  10. Relaxin prevents the development of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cosen-Binker, Laura Iris; Binker, Marcelo Gustavo; Cosen, Rodica; Negri, Gustavo; Tiscornia, Osvaldo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated to the intensity of leukocyte activation, inflammatory up-regulation and microcirculatory disruption associated to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Microvascular integrity and inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators are key-factors in the evolution of AP. Relaxin is an insulin-like hormone that has been attributed vasorelaxant properties via the nitric oxide pathway while behaving as a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. METHODS: AP was induced by the bilio-pancreatic duct-outlet-exclusion closed-duodenal-loops model. Treatment with relaxin was done at different time-points. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition by L-NAME and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) blockage by mifepristone was considered. AP severity was assessed by biochemical and histopathological analyses. RESULTS: Treatment with relaxin reduced serum amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-10, hsp72, LDH and 8-isoprostane as well as pancreatic and lung myeloperoxidase. Acinar and fat necrosis, hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltrate were also decreased. ATP depletion and ADP/ATP ratio were reduced while caspases 2-3-8 and 9 activities were increased. L-NAME and mifepristone decreased the efficiency of relaxin. CONCLUSION: Relaxin resulted beneficial in the treatment of AP combining the properties of a GR agonist while preserving the microcirculation and favoring apoptosis over necrosis. PMID:16570348

  11. Genetics and Treatments Options for Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Celeste A.; Whitcomb, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion Statement Worldwide research efforts demonstrate a major role of gene-environment interactions for the risk, development, and progression of most pancreatic diseases, including recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. New findings of pancreas disease-associated risk variants have been reported in the CPA1, GGT1, CLDN2, MMP1, MTHFR, and other genes. These risk genes and their regulatory regions must be added to the known pathogenic variants in the PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CTRC, CASR, UBR1, SBDS, CEL, and CTSB genes. This new knowledge promises to improve disease management and prevention through personalized medicine. At the same time, however, knowledge of an increasing number of pathogenic variants, and their complicated effects when present in combination, results in increasing difficulty in interpretation and development of recommendations. Direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic testing results also adds complexity to disease management paradigms, especially without interpretation and, in many cases, proven accuracy. While improvements in the ability to rapidly and accurately interpret complex genetic tests are clearly needed, some results, such as pathogenic CFTR variants – including a new class of bicarbonate-defective mutations – and PRSS1 variants have immediate implications that direct management. In addition, discovery of pancreatitis-associated genetic variants in patients with glucose intolerance may suggest underlying type 3c diabetes, which also has implications for treatment and disease management. PMID:24954874

  12. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  13. Acute Marchiafava-Bignami disease: clinical and serial MRI correlation

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Chandan; Prakashini, Koteshwara; Polnaya, Ashwin

    2014-01-01

    Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a form of toxic demyelinating disease more often seen in chronic alcoholics. The disease process typically involves the corpus callosum and clinically often presents with altered sensorium, neurocognitive defects or seizures with acute cases often deteriorating to comatose state. The death rate is high. We report a rare case of MBD with complete clinical recovery. A 50-year-old male patient presented in an unconscious state and underwent MRI of the brain which showed significant lesions involving the corpus callosum. Following treatment with thiamine and supportive therapy, he improved clinically and a follow-up MRI revealed significant resolution of the earlier lesions. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed the changes more conspicuously as compared with conventional imaging. The clinical resolution corresponded well with the MRI pattern. The case highlights that diffusion-weighted MRI is an extremely useful tool in evaluation and prognostication of MBD. PMID:24850553

  14. Protective effect of a microtubule stabilizer taxol on caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, T; Takeyama, Y; Kaneda, K; Adachi, M; Ohyanagi, H; Saitoh, Y

    1992-01-01

    The effect of taxol, which is a microtubule stabilizer, was examined in a model of acute edematous pancreatitis induced in rat by the administration of caerulein. Prophylactic administration of taxol ameliorated inhibition of pancreatic secretion, increased level of serum amylase, pancreatic edema, and histological alterations in this model. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that taxol stabilized the arrangement of microtubules by the action of promoting tubulin polymerization and prevented inhibition of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion. In isolated rat pancreatic acini, taxol reversed the inhibition of amylase secretion induced by supramaximal concentrations of cholecystokinin octapeptide and did not affect the binding of cholecystokinin octapeptide to its receptor. The results obtained in this study suggest that microtubule disorganization is the initiating event in caerulein-induced pancreatitis and that the inhibition of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion by interfering with intracellular vesicular transport due to microtubule disorganization causes caerulein-induced pancreatitis. Images PMID:1370296

  15. [Acute necrotizing pancreatitis--diagnostic and treatment strategy].

    PubMed

    Madzhov, R; Georgiev, K; Arnaudov, P; Radev, R; Bankov, P

    2003-01-01

    Despite of the current achievements of medicine, the mortality of necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) is still too high--up to 35-40% and stands as a serious diagnostic and treatment problem. The results of treatment of 148 patients, admitted in the clinic with diagnosis NP, 95 males and 53 females, are discussed. The ratio between patients with acute oedematic and acute NP is 81.1% to 18.9%. According to the hystopatology findings, the results are as follows: pancreatic necrosis--128 patients, peripancreatic necrosis--42 patients, retropancreatic necrosis--29 patients, phlegmonous cholecystitis--31 patients. For the exact diagnostic estimation of the development and prognosis of NP, we are based on: Clinic symptomatology, biochemical constellations (the prognostic scale of Ranson), ultrasonography, CT, ERCP, ES, laparoscopy (48 pts), and laparoscopic drainage (34 pts) of the abdominal cavity with one or two drains, in order to decrease the intoxication and manage intraperitoneal irrigation with antibiotics and enzymes. The operative intervations consists of a thorough exploration, broad necrectomy combined with lavage and large drainage. COLD (controlled open lesser sac drainage) has been performed at 34 cases. In 31 pts cholecystectomy and choledochotomy with T-tube drainage of d. choledochus (Kehr drainage) was performed. Reoperations have been made at 34 pts (22.9%); in 11 of them--2 operative revisions have been carried out, in 3 cases--three, and in 3 cases--4 operative revisions were performed. The total postoperative death rate was 21.6% (32 patients). The most common postoperative complications were as follows: pulmonary complications at 11 cases, pleural effusions--9 pts, intraabdominal abscesses--6 patients, postnecrotic pseudocysts--9 cases, pancreatic fistulas--6 cases, fistulas of the colon--2 pts, bleeding--4 patients. PMID:15584453

  16. Strongyloidiasis: A case with acute pancreatitis and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jasbir; Balar, Bhavna; Niazi, Masooma; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil transmitted helminth infection, affects millions with varying prevalence worldwide. A large number of affected hosts are asymptomatic. Symptoms pertaining to pulmonary and gastrointestinal involvement may be present. Manifestations of involvement beyond lung and intestine can be seen with dissemination of infection and lethal hyperinfection. Immunosuppression secondary to use of steroids or other immunosuppressants and coexistence of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 are the known risk factors for dissemination and hyperinfection. Diagnostic modalities comprise stool examination, serology and molecular testing. Stool tests are inexpensive but are limited by low sensitivity, whereas serologic and molecular tests are more precise but at the expense of higher cost. Treatment with Ivermectin or Albendazole as an alternative is safe and efficacious. We present a rare case of acute pancreatitis secondary to Strongyloides. High index of suspicion in patients specifically from endemic countries of origin and lack of other common etiologies of acute pancreatitis may help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this potentially fatal infection. PMID:25805946

  17. Early complications after interventions in patients with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ai-Lin; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Ming-Jun; Hu, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Da

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify the possible predictors of early complications after the initial intervention in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. METHODS: We collected the medical records of 334 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis who received initial intervention in our center. Complications associated with predictors were analyzed. RESULTS: The postoperative mortality rate was 16% (53/334). Up to 31% of patients were successfully treated with percutaneous catheter drainage alone. The rates of intra-abdominal bleeding, colonic fistula, and progressive infection were 15% (50/334), 20% (68/334), and 26% (87/334), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that Marshall score upon admission, multiple organ failure, preoperative respiratory infection, and sepsis were the predictors of postoperative progressive infection (P < 0.05). Single organ failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome upon admission, and C-reactive protein level upon admission were the risk factors of postoperative colonic fistula (P < 0.05). Moreover, preoperative Marshall score, organ failure, sepsis, and preoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome were the risk factors of postoperative intra-abdominal bleeding (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Marshall score, organ failures, preoperative respiratory infection, sepsis, preoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and C-reactive protein level upon admission are associated with postoperative complications. PMID:26973421

  18. Time course and cellular source of pancreatic regeneration following acute pancreatitis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Elsaesser, H.P.A.; Adler, G.; Kern, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of the different cell types in the rat exocrine pancreas has been studied in a model of hormone-induced acute pancreatitis in which pancreatic edema, inflammation, and acinar cell destruction were induced within 12 h of infusion of supramaximal concentrations of cerulein (5 micrograms/kg/h). A sequential biochemical and structural analysis of the pancreas in daily intervals was combined with the autoradiographic quantitation of labeling indices of five cell populations following /sup 3/H-thymidine injection at days 1-7 after induction of pancreatitis. Desquamation of acinar cell apical cytoplasm and release of cytoplasmic segments into the acinar lumen on the first day following induction of pancreatitis led to formation of duct-like tubular complexes. Enzyme content in the pancreas decreased progressively following the formation of the edema to levels 15-20% of controls and remained reduced during the initial 5 days. Thymidine incorporation into total DNA showed a biphasic pattern with a distinct peak at day 1 and a second broader peak between days 4 and 7. Autoradiographic quantitation of labeling indices demonstrated the exclusive incorporation into intercalated duct cells and interstitial cells during the initial 24 h, while the second peak was predominantly due to labeling of acinar cells. Larger interlobular ducts and islets did not show changes in labeling index. In vivo labeling with /sup 3/H-thymidine during the first day and analysis of labeling indices 14 days later showed the persistence of label in intercalated duct cells and interstitial cells and argued against the stem cell hypothesis and against transformation of duct cells into acinar cells.

  19. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and serum nutritional markers after acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Tepes, Bojan; Makuc, Jana; Rudolf, Sasa; Zaletel, Jelka; Vidmar, Tjasa; Seruga, Maja; Birsa, Bostjan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate impairment and clinical significance of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in patients after acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Patients with AP were invited to participate in the study. Severity of AP was determined by the Atlanta classification and definitions revised in 2012. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed by the concentration of fecal elastase-1. An additional work-up, including laboratory testing of serum nutritional markers for determination of malnutrition, was offered to all patients with low levels of fecal elastase-1 FE. Hemoglobin A1c or oral glucose tolerance tests were also performed in patients without prior diabetes mellitus, and type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included in the study: 75% (75/100) of patients had one attack of AP and 25% (25/100) had two or more attacks. The most common etiology was alcohol. Mild, moderately severe and severe AP were present in 67, 15 and 18% of patients, respectively. The mean time from attack of AP to inclusion in the study was 2.7 years. PEI was diagnosed in 21% (21/100) of patients and T3cDM in 14% (14/100) of patients. In all patients with PEI, at least one serologic nutritional marker was below the lower limit of normal. T3cDM was more frequently present in patients with severe AP (P = 0.031), but was also present in some patients with mild and moderately severe AP. PEI was present in all degrees of severity of AP. There were no statistically significantly differences according to gender, etiology and number of AP attacks. CONCLUSION: As exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop after AP, routine follow-up of patients is necessary, for which serum nutritional panel measurements can be useful. PMID:25561813

  20. [Acute pancreatitis after ingestion of ibuprofen in a 16-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Bruusgaard-Mouritsen, Mads Emil; Leerhøy, Bonna; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2015-07-01

    This is a case report of a 16-year-old boy with possible drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) caused by ibuprofen. The patient had a history of psychiatric, but no somatic, disease, and he was admitted with a clinical presentation consistent with acute pancreatitis after a bolus ingestion of 10 g of ibuprofen in a suicidal attempt. No evidence of other causality for acute pancreatitis was identified. The patient was treated with a standard pancreatitis treatment regime and was discharged against medical advice after four days. The case represents a possible causality between ibuprofen and DIP. PMID:26239856

  1. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection - Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kottanattu, Lisa; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Helbling, Rossana; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis have been occasionally reported in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. We completed a review of the literature and retained 48 scientific reports published between 1966 and 2016 for the final analysis. Acute pancreatitis was recognized in 14 and acalculous cholecystitis in 37 patients with primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. In all patients, the features of acute pancreatitis or acalculous cholecystitis concurrently developed with those of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis resolved following a hospital stay of 25days or less. Acalculous cholecystitis was associated with Gilbert-Meulengracht syndrome in two cases. In conclusion, this thorough analysis indicates that acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis are unusual but plausible complications of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis deserve consideration in cases with severe abdominal pain. These complications are usually rather mild and resolve spontaneously without sequelae. PMID:27434148

  2. Splenectomy Correlates With Increased Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the association between splenectomy and acute pancreatitis. Methods We conducted a case-control study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 7666 subjects aged 20–84 years with first-time acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998–2011 as cases and 30 664 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as controls. Both cases and controls were matched for sex, age, and index year of acute pancreatitis diagnosis. The association of acute pancreatitis with splenectomy was examined using a multivariable unconditional logistic regression model and reported as an odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Results After adjustment for covariables, the adjusted odds ratio of acute pancreatitis was 2.90 for subjects with splenectomy (95% CI, 1.39–6.05) compared with subjects without splenectomy. Conclusions Splenectomy is associated with acute pancreatitis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanism. PMID:27087607

  3. Role of IL-10 gene polymorphisms in the development of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, B Z; Tang, L; Xue, H; Liu, D P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that chemokines contribute to the initiation and development of acute pancreatitis. We evaluated the relationship between IL-10 gene polymorphisms (-1082A/G and -819T/C) and development of acute pancreatitis in the Chinese population, in order to provide data for screening high-risk Chinese individuals. In total, 182 patients with confirmed cases of acute pancreatitis and 262 control subjects were recruited from the Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital between April 2012 and December 2014. IL-10 gene polymorphisms at positions -1082A/G and -819T/C were examined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Through multiple-logistic regression analysis, the GG genotype in IL-10 -1082A/G could influence the susceptibility to acute pancreatitis compared to the AA genotype, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) was 2.68 (1.34-5.39) (P = 0.002). Individuals who carried the AG+GG genotype of IL-10 -1082A/G were associated with greater risk for acute pancreatitis compared to the wide-type genotype, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) was 1.64 (1.09-2.46). However, no significant difference in susceptibility to acute pancreatitis was found between the IL-10 gene polymorphism at -819T/C. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the IL-10 -1082A/G gene polymorphism contributes to the development of acute pancreatitis. PMID:27173345

  4. Predictors of critical acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A; Li, Jie-shou; Petrov, Maxim S

    2014-11-01

    Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, data on patients with AP were prospectively collected and D-dimer, CRP, and IAP levels were measured using standard methods at admission whereas the APACHE II score was calculated within 24 hours of hospital admission. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied and the likelihood ratios were calculated to evaluate the predictive accuracy. A total of 173 consecutive patients were included in the analysis and 47 (27%) of them developed CAP. The overall hospital mortality was 11% (19 of 173). APACHE II score ≥11 and IAP ≥13 mm Hg showed significantly better overall predictive accuracy than D-dimer and CRP (area under the ROC curve-0.94 and 0.92 vs. 0.815 and 0.667, correspondingly). The positive likelihood ratio of APACHE II score is excellent (9.9) but of IAP is moderate (4.2). The latter can be improved by adding CRP (5.8). In conclusion, of the parameters studied, APACHE II score and IAP are the best available predictors of CAP within 24 hours of hospital admission. Given that APACHE II score is rather cumbersome, the combination of IAP and CRP appears to be the most practical way to predict critical course of AP early after hospital admission. PMID:25380082

  5. Update on pathogenesis and clinical management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Santamaría, Dulce M; Taxonera, Carlos; Giner, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP), defined as the acute nonbacterial inflammatory condition of the pancreas, is derived from the early activation of digestive enzymes found inside the acinar cells, with variable compromise of the gland itself, nearby tissues and other organs. So, it is an event that begins with pancreatic injury, elicits an acute inflammatory response, encompasses a variety of complications and generally resolves over time. Different conditions are known to induce this disorder, although the innermost mechanisms and how they act to develop the disease are still unknown. We summarize some well established aspects. A phase sequence has been proposed: etiology factors generate other conditions inside acinar cells that favor the AP development with some systemic events; genetic factors could be involved as susceptibility and modifying elements. AP is a disease with extremely different clinical expressions. Most patients suffer a mild and limited disease, but about one fifth of cases develop multi organ failure, accompanied by high mortality. This great variability in presentation, clinical course and complications has given rise to the confusion related to AP related terminology. However, consensus meetings have provided uniform definitions, including the severity of the illness. The clinical management is mainly based on the disease´s severity and must be directed to correct the underlying predisposing factors and control the inflammatory process itself. The first step is to determine if it is mild or severe. We review the principal aspects to be considered in this treatment, as reflected in several clinical practice guidelines. For the last 25 years, there has been a global increase in incidence of AP, along with many advances in diagnosis and treatment. However, progress in knowledge of its pathogenesis is scarce. PMID:22737590

  6. Differentiation of solid pancreatic tumors by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing among different solid pancreatic tumor types, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) is important, as the treatment options are vastly different. This study compared characteristics of solid pancreatic tumors by using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty patients underwent MR imaging of pancreatic masses with a histopathology that was later confirmed as an adenocarcinoma (n = 27), a NET (n = 16), and a SPT (n = 7). For qualitative analysis, two reviewers evaluated the morphologic features of the tumors: locations, margins, shapes, contained products, pancreatic ductal dilatation, and grade of signal intensity (SI). For the quantitative analysis, all phases of the MR images were co-registered using proprietary image registration software; thus, a region of interest (ROI) defined on one phase could be re-applied in other phases. The following four ratios were considered: tumor-to-uninvolved pancreas SI ratio, percent SI change, tumor-touninvolved pancreas enhancement index, and arterial-to-delayed washout rate. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed for the four ratios. Adenocarcinomas had ill-defined margins, irregular shapes, and ductal dilatation compared with NETs and SPTs (P < 0.001). The tumor-to-uninvolved pancreas ratio on all dynamic phases was significantly higher for NETs than for both adenocarcinomas and SPTs (P < 0.05). Percentage SI changes of pancreatic tumors on the pancreatic and the portal venous phases were significantly higher for NETs than for both adenocarcinomas and SPTs (P < 0.05). A significant difference between NETs and adenocarcinomas was also found with respect to the tumor-to-uninvolved pancreas enhancement index and arterial-to-delayed washout rate. The percentage SI changes in the pancreatic phase and the arterial-to-delayed washout rate best distinguished between adenocarcinomas and

  7. Use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis: A case–control study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Some cases of acute pancreatitis have been reported to be associated with use of methimazole. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis on the basis of a systematic analysis. Methods: This was a population-based case–control study analyzing the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 5764 individuals aged 20–84 years with a first attack of acute pancreatitis from 1998 to 2011 as the cases and 23,056 randomly selected sex- and age-matched individuals without acute pancreatitis as the controls. Use of methimazole was categorized as “never use” and “ever use.” We estimated the relative risk of acute pancreatitis associated with the use of methimazole by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results: After adjustment for confounding factors, the OR of acute pancreatitis was 0.91 in individuals with ever use of methimazole, when compared with individuals with never use of methimazole (95% CI, 0.60–1.38). Unlike methimazole use, alcohol-related disease, biliary stone, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hypertriglyceridemia were factors significantly associated with acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: Our study does not detect a substantial association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis on the basis of systematic analysis. There appears to be a discrepancy between case reports and our systematic analysis about the association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis. PMID:27127323

  8. Acute Lipotoxicity Regulates Severity of Biliary Acute Pancreatitis without Affecting Its Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Cline, Rachel; Trivedi, Ram N.; DeLany, James P.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Lee, Kenneth; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Navina, Sarah; Murad, Faris; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Obese patients have worse outcomes during acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous animal models of AP have found worse outcomes in obese rodents who may have a baseline proinflammatory state. Our aim was to study the role of acute lipolytic generation of fatty acids on local severity and systemic complications of AP. Human postpancreatitis necrotic collections were analyzed for unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and saturated fatty acids. A model of biliary AP was designed to replicate the human variables by intraductal injection of the triglyceride glyceryl trilinoleate alone or with the chemically distinct lipase inhibitors orlistat or cetilistat. Parameters of AP etiology and outcomes of local and systemic severity were measured. Patients with postpancreatitis necrotic collections were obese, and 13 of 15 had biliary AP. Postpancreatitis necrotic collections were enriched in UFAs. Intraductal glyceryl trilinoleate with or without the lipase inhibitors resulted in oil red O–positive areas, resembling intrapancreatic fat. Both lipase inhibitors reduced the glyceryl trilinoleate–induced increase in serum lipase, UFAs, pancreatic necrosis, serum inflammatory markers, systemic injury, and mortality but not serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, or amylase. We conclude that UFAs are enriched in human necrotic collections and acute UFA generation via lipolysis worsens pancreatic necrosis, systemic inflammation, and injury associated with severe AP. Inhibition of lipolysis reduces UFA generation and improves these outcomes of AP without interfering with its induction. PMID:24854864

  9. Use of laparoscopy for diagnosing experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-wook; Oh, Ye-in; Choi, Ji-hye; Kim, Dae-yong

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs remains a significant challenge despite the development of advanced diagnostic methodologies. Visual inspection and pancreas biopsy using laparoscopy are generally considered to be procedures free of complications when conducted on healthy animals. However, the usefulness of laparoscopy for diagnosing acute pancreatitis has not been assessed. In the present study, the efficacy of laparoscopy for diagnosing acute pancreatitis in dogs was evaluated in animals with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Gross appearance of the pancreatic area was examined by laparoscopy to survey for the presence of edema, adhesions, effusion, pseudocysts, hemorrhage, and fat necrosis. Laparoscopic biopsy was performed and the histopathologic results were compared to those of pancreatic samples obtained during necropsy. The correlation between laparoscopy and histopathologic findings of the pancreas was evaluated. The presence of adhesions, effusion, and hemorrhage in the pancreatic area observed by laparoscopy significantly correlated with the histopathologic results (p < 0.05). There was no significant relationship between the histopathologic and laparoscopic biopsy findings. Results of this study suggested that laparoscopic evaluation of gross lesions has clinical significance although the laparoscopic biopsy technique has some limitations. This method combined with additional diagnostic tools can be effective for diagnosing acute pancreatitis in dogs. PMID:24962411

  10. Ciliated pancreatic foregut cyst: MRI, EUS, and cytologic features.

    PubMed

    Alessandrino, Francesco; Allard, Felicia D; Mortelé, Koenraad J

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated foregut cysts are extremely uncommon pancreatic cystic lesions, with-to the best of our knowledge-only five cases previously reported in the English literature. We report herein on a case of a ciliated foregut cyst of the pancreas connected with the duct of Wirsung. The magnetic resonance imaging, endoultrasonographic, and cytologic features are described and a brief review of literature is also presented. PMID:26526788

  11. Acute pancreatitis with eclampsia-preeclampsia syndrome and poor maternal outcome: two case reports and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gainder, Shalini; Arora, Parul; Saha, S C; Kaman, Lileswar

    2015-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is a rare entity and has been reported to be associated with preeclampsia in the literature. Fulminant pancreatitis may have a guarded prognosis despite intensive multidisciplinary management. Two cases of maternal mortality in women with acute pancreatitis noted in the setting of preeclampsia-eclampsia syndrome are reported here. PMID:27512470

  12. A randomised, double blind, multicentre trial of octreotide in moderate to severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, W; Buchler, M; Malfertheiner, P; Beger, H; Adler, G; Gaus, W; the, G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The pharmacological inhibition of exocrine pancreatic secretion with the somatostatin analogue octreotide has been advocated as a specific treatment of acute pancreatitis.
AIM—To investigate the efficacy of octreotide in acute pancreatitis in a randomised, placebo controlled trial.
METHODS—302 patients from 32 hospitals, fulfilling the criteria for moderate to severe acute pancreatitis within 96 hours of the onset of symptoms, were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: group P (n=103) received placebo, while groups O1 (n=98) and O2 (n=101) received 100 and 200 µg of octreotide, respectively, by subcutaneous injection three times daily for seven days. The primary outcome variable was a score composed of mortality and 15 typical complications of acute pancreatitis.
RESULTS—The three groups were well matched with respect to pretreatment characteristics. An intent to treat analysis of all 302 patients revealed no significant differences among treatment groups with respect to mortality (P: 16%; O1: 15%; O2: 12%), the rate of newly developed complications, the duration of pain, surgical interventions, or the length of the hospital stay. A valid for efficacy analysis (251 patients) also revealed no significant differences.
CONCLUSIONS—This trial shows no benefit of octreotide in the treatment of acute pancreatitis.


Keywords: acute pancreatitis; somatostatin; octreotide; randomised controlled multicentre trial PMID:10369711

  13. Necroptosis: a potential, promising target and switch in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Qu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Le; Lv, Jia-Chen; Sun, Bei

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell death is the major pathophysiological change in early acute pancreatitis (AP), and the death modalities are important factors determining its progression and prognosis. During AP, acinar cells undergo two major modes of death, including necrosis and apoptosis. Acinar necrosis can lead to intensely local and systemic inflammatory responses, which both induce and aggravate the lesion. Necrosis has long been considered an unregulated, and passive cell death process. Since the effective interventions of necrosis are difficult to perform, its relevant studies have not received adequate attention. Necroptosis is a newly discovered cell death modality characterized by both necrosis and apoptosis, i.e., it is actively regulated by special genes, while has the typical morphological features of necrosis. Currently, necroptosis is gradually becoming an important topic in the fields of inflammatory diseases. The preliminary results from necroptosis in AP have confirmed the existence of acinar cell necroptosis, which may be a potential target for effectively regulating inflammatory injuries and improving its outcomes; however, the functional changes and mechanisms of necroptosis still require further investigation. This article reviewed the progress of necroptosis in AP to provide a reference for deeply understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of AP and identifying new therapeutic targets. PMID:26514558

  14. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis and its complications.

    PubMed

    Zerem, Enver

    2014-10-14

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), which is the most serious type of this disorder, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. SAP runs a biphasic course. During the first 1-2 wk, a pro-inflammatory response results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). If the SIRS is severe, it can lead to early multisystem organ failure (MOF). After the first 1-2 wk, a transition from a pro-inflammatory response to an anti-inflammatory response occurs; during this transition, the patient is at risk for intestinal flora translocation and the development of secondary infection of the necrotic tissue, which can result in sepsis and late MOF. Many recommendations have been made regarding SAP management and its complications. However, despite the reduction in overall mortality in the last decade, SAP is still associated with high mortality. In the majority of cases, sterile necrosis should be managed conservatively, whereas in infected necrotizing pancreatitis, the infected non-vital solid tissue should be removed to control the sepsis. Intervention should be delayed for as long as possible to allow better demarcation and liquefaction of the necrosis. Currently, the step-up approach (delay, drain, and debride) may be considered as the reference standard intervention for this disorder. PMID:25320523

  15. Soluble epoxide hydrolase deficiency ameliorates acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce; Haj, Fawaz

    2014-10-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent gastrointestinal disorder that causes significant morbidity and its incidence has been progressively increasing. AP starts as a local inflammation in the pancreas that often leads to systemic inflammatory response and complications. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a cytosolic enzyme whose inhibition in murine models has beneficial effects in inflammatory diseases, but its significance in AP remains unexplored. To investigate whether sEH may have a causal role in AP we utilized sEH knockout (KO) mice to determine the effects of sEH deficiency on ceruelin- and arginine-induced AP. sEH expression increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels, as well as sEH activity in the early phase of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP in mice. In addition, amylase and lipase levels were lower in cerulein-treated sEH KO mice compared with non-treated controls. Moreover, pancreatic mRNA and serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-6 were lower in sEH KO mice compared with controls. Further, sEH KO mice exhibited decreased cerulein- and arginine-induced NF-?B inflammatory response, MAPKs activation and decreased cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel role for sEH in the progression of cerulein- and arginine-induced AP. PMID:26461340

  16. Acute prevertebral abscess secondary to infected pancreatic pseudocyst

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Pillai, Suresh; Venkitachalam, Shruti; Anand, Aishwarya

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a middle aged, man with diabetes who presented with dysphagia and odynophagia. On evaluation, he was diagnosed to have an acute prevertebral abscess with an unusual aetiology, an infected pseudocyst of pancreas. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed an enhancing collection in the prevertebral space extending to the retrogastric space and communicating with the body of the pancreas via the oesophageal hiatus. Transoral incision and drainage of the prevertebral abscess were performed. Nasogastric tube was placed in the prevertebral space for continuous drainage and daily irrigation. Supportive intravenous broad spectrum antibiotic therapy along with the surgical intervention led to the resolution of the prevertebral abscess and the infected pancreatic pseudocyst. PMID:24408943

  17. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Ömer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Öztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study. PMID:24995088

  18. Resolvin D1 protects against inflammation in experimental acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Dan; Long, Fei-Wu; Chen, Ke-Ling; Yang, Hong-Wei; Lv, Zhao-Yin; Zhou, Bin; Peng, Zhi-Hai; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Guang

    2016-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition that may lead to multisystemic organ failure with considerable mortality. Recently, resolvin D1 (RvD1) as an endogenous anti-inflammatory lipid mediator has been confirmed to protect against many inflammatory diseases. This study was designed to investigate the effects of RvD1 in acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. Acute pancreatitis varying from mild to severe was induced by cerulein or cerulein combined with LPS, respectively. Mice were pretreated with RvD1 at a dose of 300 ng/mouse 30 min before the first injection of cerulein. Severity of AP was assessed by biochemical markers and histology. Serum cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in pancreas and lung were determined for assessing the extent of inflammatory response. NF-κB activation was determined by Western blotting. The injection of cerulein or cerulein combined with LPS resulted in local injury in the pancreas and corresponding systemic inflammatory changes with pronounced severity in the cerulein and LPS group. Pretreated RvD1 significantly reduced the degree of amylase, lipase, TNF-α, and IL-6 serum levels; the MPO activities in the pancreas and the lungs; the pancreatic NF-κB activation; and the severity of pancreatic injury and associated lung injury, especially in the severe acute pancreatitis model. These results suggest that RvD1 is capable of improving injury of pancreas and lung and exerting anti-inflammatory effects through the inhibition of NF-κB activation in experimental acute pancreatitis, with more notable protective effect in severe acute pancreatitis. These findings indicate that RvD1 may constitute a novel therapeutic strategy in the management of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:26702138

  19. The Role of Eugenol in the Prevention of Acute Pancreatitis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Markakis, Charalampos; Tsaroucha, Alexandra; Papalois, Apostolos E.; Lambropoulou, Maria; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Tsigalou, Christina; Romanidis, Konstantinos; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory intra-abdominal disease, which takes a severe form in 15–20% of patients and can result in high mortality especially when complicated by acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to assess the possible reduction in the extent of acute kidney injury after administration of eugenol in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Materials and Methods. 106 male Wistar rats weighing 220–350 g were divided into 3 groups: (1) Sham, with sham surgery; (2) Control, with induction of acute pancreatitis, through ligation of the biliopancreatic duct; and (3) Eugenol, with induction of acute pancreatitis and eugenol administration at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Serum urea and creatinine, histopathological changes, TNF-α, IL-6, and MPO activity in the kidneys were evaluated at predetermined time intervals. Results. The group that was administered eugenol showed milder histopathological changes than the Control group, TNF-α activity was milder in the Eugenol group, and there was no difference in activity for MPO and IL-6. Serum urea and creatinine levels were lower in the Eugenol group than in the Control group. Conclusions. Eugenol administration was protective for the kidneys in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats. PMID:26884642

  20. Pancreatitis developing in the context of acute hepatitis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Khedmat, Hossein; Ghamar-Chehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Agah, Shahram; Aghaei, Aghdas

    2015-03-01

    Despite strong evidence suggestive of associations between hepatic diseases and pancreas injury, a potential relationship between acute hepatitis and acute pancreatitis has not been a matter of review; which we focused on in the current paper. Some of the main findings of this review article are: fulminant hepatitis failure represents the highest incident rate of hepatitis-related acute pancreatitis; so a screening program might be indicative in these patients. Specific characteristics of HAV-related pancreatitis are that it is a benign condition with no reported mortality; and a male preponderance in the incidence, with females developing in older ages and having shown the signs of both conditions simultaneously. The incidence of acute pancreatitis in HBV infection is the lowest, but the mortality was the highest. HEV-related acute pancreatitis was most likely to represent pseudocysts and there was an apparent ethnic-priority with Indian descents, the only reported cases in the literature. Hepatitis-related pancreatitis in liver transplant recipients was most frequent in HBV infected patients; and in IFN-induced pancreatitis, cessation of the drug was most effective in treatment, with no catastrophic event reported. PMID:25791542

  1. A MSLN-targeted multifunctional nanoimmunoliposome for MRI and targeting therapy in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Ke, Xingfa; He, Zhiying; Yang, Daoqiu; Gong, Hai; Zhang, Yingying; Jing, Xiaolong; Yao, Jianzhong; Chen, Jianming

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease with a 5-year survival rate less than 5% due to the lack of an early diagnosis method and effective therapy. To provide a novel early diagnostic method and targeted therapy for pancreatic cancer, a multifunctional nanoimmunoliposome with high loading of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs) and doxorubicin (DOX) was prepared by transient binding and reverse-phase evaporation method, and was conjugated with anti-mesothelin monoclonal antibody by post-insertion method to target anti-mesothelin-overexpressed pancreatic cancer cells. The in vitro and in vivo properties of this anti-mesothelin antibody-conjugated PEGlyated liposomal DOX and USPIOs (M-PLDU; and PEGlyated nanoimmunoliposome without antibody conjugation [PLDU]) were evaluated both in human pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 cell and in a pancreatic cancer xenograft animal model. Results showed that M-PLDUs were spherical and uniform with a diameter about ∼180 nm, with a zeta potential of about -28∼-30 mV, and had good efficacy encapsulating DOX and USPIOs. The in vitro study demonstrated that M-PLDUs possessed good magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) capability with a transverse relaxivity (r(2)) of about 58.5 mM(-1) · s(-1). Confocal microscopy showed more efficient uptake of M-PLDU in Panc-1 cells by antibody-mediated targeting. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay results showed significant inhibitory effect of M-PLDU against Panc-1 cells (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 1.95 μM). The in vivo imaging study showed that the tumor signal intensity (SI) dropped significantly about 4 hours after intravenous injection of M-PLDU. The decrease in tumor SI induced by M-PLDUs (ΔSI = 145.98 ± 20.45) or PLDUs (ΔSI = 75.69 ± 14.53) was much more significant than that by free USPIOs (ΔSI = 42.78 ± 22.12; P < 0.01). The in vivo antitumor study demonstrated that compared with FD (free DOX) and PLDU, M-PLDU possessed higher inhibitory effect on tumor

  2. Angiopoietin-2 Is an Early Indicator of Acute Pancreatic-Renal Syndrome in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sporek, Mateusz; Dumnicka, Paulina; Gala-Bladzinska, Agnieszka; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembinski, Artur; Stepien, Ewa; Walocha, Jerzy; Drozdz, Ryszard; Kuzniewski, Marek; Kusnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Within the first week of the disease, acute kidney injury (AKI) is among the most common causes of mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP). Recently, serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) has been associated with hyperdynamic state of the systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between Ang-2 and the clinical AP severity during the first 72 hours of the disease, and organ disfunction, including AKI. Methods. Study included patients admitted to the surgery ward, diagnosed with AP. AKI was diagnosed according to KDIGO guidelines and renal failure according to modified Marshall scoring system. Ang-2 was determined in serum with ELISA. Results. AP was classified as mild (MAP) in 71% of patients, moderately severe (MSAP) in 22%, and severe (SAP) in 8%. During the first 72 hours of AP, 11 patients developed AKI and 6 developed renal failure. Ang-2 at 24, 48, and 72 hours following the onset of AP symptoms significantly predicted SAP and MSAP, as well as AKI and renal failure. Also, Ang-2 significantly correlated with acute phase proteins as well as with the indicators of renal disfunction. Conclusions. Serum Ang-2 may be a relevant predictor of AP severity, in particular of the development of AP-renal syndrome. PMID:27022209

  3. Epidural anesthesia improves pancreatic perfusion and decreases the severity of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Samira M; Andres, Axel; Morel, Philippe; Schiffer, Eduardo; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Bühler, Leo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the safety of epidural anesthesia (EA), its effect on pancreatic perfusion and the outcome of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: From 2005 to August 2010, patients with predicted severe AP [Ranson score ≥ 2, C-reactive protein > 100 or necrosis on computed tomography (CT)] were prospectively randomized to either a group receiving EA or a control group treated by patient controlled intravenous analgesia. Pain management was evaluated in the two groups every eight hours using the visual analog pain scale (VAS). Parameters for clinical severity such as length of hospital stay, use of antibiotics, admission to the intensive care unit, radiological/clinical complications and the need for surgical necrosectomy including biochemical data were recorded. A CT scan using a perfusion protocol was performed on admission and at 72 h to evaluate pancreatic blood flow. A significant variation in blood flow was defined as a 20% difference in pancreatic perfusion between admission and 72 h and was measured in the head, body and tail of the pancreas. RESULTS: We enrolled 35 patients. Thirteen were randomized to the EA group and 22 to the control group. There were no differences in demographic characteristics between the two groups. The Balthazar radiological severity score on admission was higher in the EA group than in the control group (mean score 4.15 ± 2.54 vs 3.38 ± 1.75, respectively, P = 0.347) and the median Ranson scores were 3.4 and 2.7 respectively (P = NS). The median duration of EA was 5.7 d, and no complications of the epidural procedure were reported. An improvement in perfusion of the pancreas was observed in 13/30 (43%) of measurements in the EA group vs 2/27 (7%) in the control group (P = 0.0025). Necrosectomy was performed in 1/13 patients in the EA group vs 4/22 patients in the control group (P = 0.63). The VAS improved during the first ten days in the EA group compared to the control group (0.2 vs 2.33, P = 0.034 at 10 d). Length

  4. [A case of chronic hepatitis C with pancreas divisum and acute pancreatitis during combination treatment with telaprevir/peginterferon/ribavirin].

    PubMed

    Morio, Reona; Imamura, Michio; Fukuhara, Takayuki; Kan, Hiromi; Fujino, Hatsue; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Akira; Aikata, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Tamito; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-10-01

    A 47-year-old man developed acute pancreatitis during combination treatment with telaprevir/peginterferon/ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. Cessation of telaprevir, fasting, and gabexate mesilate improved the pancreatitis. Although peginterferon and ribavirin treatment was continued, there was no recurrence of the pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography incidentally showed a pancreas divisum. We definitively diagnosed drug-induced acute pancreatitis due to telaprevir. PMID:25283229

  5. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    PubMed

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic. PMID:26690772

  6. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder by Tc-99m HIDA cholescintigraphy in acute pancreatitis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, G.; Kempi, V.; van der Linden, W.

    1982-02-01

    In five of seven patients with acute pancreatitis, Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy failed to visualize the gallbladder. In all five patients the gallbladder was later found to be normal and in three of them normal filling was obtained at a repeat examination performed after the attack had subsided. Transient nonvisualization of the gallbladder in acute pancreatitis is probably due to disturbed motility of the biliary tree.

  7. Effect of harmless acute pancreatitis score, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio on the mortality of patients with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis at the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Gülen, Bedia; Sonmez, Ertan; Yaylaci, Serpil; Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Dur, Ali; Turkdogan, Figen Tunali; Söğüt, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harmless acute pancreatitis score (HAPS), neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are used to determine the early prognosis of patients diagnosed with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis (K 85.9) in the ED according to the ICD10 coding during one year were included in the study. Patients with chronic pancreatitis and those who had missing data in their files were excluded from the study. Patients who did not have computed tomography (CT) in the ED were not included in the study. RESULTS: Ultimately, 322 patients were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 53.1 (IQR=36–64). Of the patients, 68.1% (n=226) had etiological causes of the biliary tract. The mortality rate of these patients within the first 48 hours was 4.3% (n=14). In the logistic regression analysis performed by using Balthazar classification, HAPS score, RDW, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio, age, diabetes mellitus and systolic blood pressure, the only independent variable in determining mortality was assigned as Balthazar classification (OR: 15; 95% CI: 3.5 to 64.4). CONCLUSIONS: HAPS, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and RDW were not effective in determining the mortality of nontraumatic acute pancreatitis cases within the first 48 hours. The only independent variable for determining the mortality was Balthazar classification. PMID:25802563

  8. A study of the clinical profile of acute pancreatitis and its correlation with severity indices

    PubMed Central

    Vengadakrishnan, K.; Koushik, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a common disease with wide clinical variation and its incidence is increasing. Acute pancreatitis may vary in severity, from mild self-limiting pancreatic inflammation to pancreatic necrosis with life-threatening sequelae. Severity of acute pancreatitis is linked to the presence of systemic organ dysfunctions and/or necrotizing pancreatitis. Aim and objectives The present study was aimed to assess the clinical profile of acute pancreatitis and to assess the efficacy of various severity indices in predicting the outcome of patients. Methodology This was a prospective study done in Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital from April 2012–September 2014. All patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were included in this study. Along with routine lab parameters, serum amylase, lipase, lipid profile, calcium, CRP, LDH, CT abdomen, CXR and 2D Echo was done for all patients. Results A total of 110 patients were analysed. 50 patients required Intensive care, among them 9 patients (18%) died. 20 patients (18.2%) had MODS, 15 patients (13.6%) had pleural effusion, 9 patients (8.2%) had pseudocyst, 2 patients(1.8%) had hypotension, 2 patients(1.8%) had ARDS and 2 patients(1.8%) had DKA. In relation to various severity indices, high score of CRP, LDH and CT severity index was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. 15 patients (13.6%) underwent open necrosectomy surgery, 3 patients (2.7%) underwent laparoscopic necrosectomy and 7 patients (6.4%) were tried step up approach but could not avoid surgery. Step up approach and surgery did not have a significant reduction in the mortality. Conclusion Initial assessment of severity by CRP, LDH and lipase could be reliable indicators of outcome in acute pancreatitis PMID:26715920

  9. Vascular Access System for Continuous Arterial Infusion of a Protease Inhibitor in Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ganaha, Fumikiyo; Yamada, Tetsuhisa; Yorozu, Naoya; Ujita, Masuo; Irie, Takeo; Fukuda, Yasushi; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Tada, Shimpei

    1999-09-15

    We used a vascular access system (VAS) for continuous arterial infusion (CAI) of a protease inhibitor in two patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The infusion catheter was placed into the dorsal pancreatic artery in the first patient and into the gastroduodenal artery in the second, via a femoral artery approach. An implantable port was then connected to the catheter and was secured in a subcutaneous pocket prepared in the right lower abdomen. No complications related to the VAS were encountered. This system provided safe and uncontaminated vascular access for successful CAI for acute pancreatitis.

  10. A Case of Idiopathic Acute Pancreatitis in the First Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tomomi; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Oride, Aki; Ishihara, Tomoko; Kyo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is rare in pregnancy, with an estimated incidence of approximately 1 in 1000 to 1 in 10,000 pregnancies. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy usually occurs in the third trimester. Here, we report a case of acute pancreatitis in the first trimester. A 36-year-old primigravida at 11 weeks of gestation complained of severe lower abdominal pain. The pain gradually worsened and migrated toward the epigastric region. She had no history of chronic alcoholism. Blood investigations showed elevated level of C-reactive protein (9.58 mg/dL), pancreatic amylase (170 IU/L), and lipase (332 IU/L). There was no gallstone and no abnormality in the pancreatic and biliary ducts on ultrasonography. Antinuclear antibody and IgG4 were negative and no evidence of hyperlipidemia or diabetes was found. There was also no evidence of viral infection. On the third day of hospitalization, she was diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis on magnetic resonance imaging. Medical interventions were initiated with nafamostat mesilate and ulinastatin, and parenteral nutrition was administered through a central venous catheter. On the eighth day of hospitalization, her condition gradually improved with a decreased level of pancreatic amylase and the pain subsided. After conservative management, she did not have any recurrence during her pregnancy. PMID:26843995

  11. Leptin Is Associated With Persistence of Hyperglycemia in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, James I.C.; Askelund, Kathryn J.; Premkumar, Rakesh; Phillips, Anthony R.J.; Murphy, Rinki; Windsor, John A.; Petrov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adipokines have many homeostatic roles, including modulation of glucose metabolism, but their role in the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia associated with acute and critical illnesses in general, and acute pancreatitis (AP) in particular, is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a panel of adipokines and hyperglycemia in the early course of AP, as well as the role of adipokines as predictors of AP severity. Adiponectin, leptin, omentin, resistin, and visfatin were measured on a daily basis in the first 72 hours after hospital admission. A first set of analyses was undertaken with admission glycemia stratified by severity, and a second set of analyses was undertaken based on persistence of early hyperglycemia. All of the analyses were adjusted for confounders. A total of 32 patients with AP were included in this study. None of the studied adipokines was significantly associated with glucose level on admission. Leptin was significantly (P = 0.003) increased in patients with persistent hyperglycemia. Adiponectin was significantly associated with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.015), visfatin with APACHE II score in patients with persistent hyperglycemia (P = 0.014), and omentin with APACHE II score in all of the patients regardless of the presence or absence of hyperglycemia (P = 0.021). Leptin is significantly associated with persistent hyperglycemia in the early course of AP. Omentin has a potential to become an accurate predictor of AP severity. PMID:26871770

  12. MRI in acute ligamentous injuries of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Martella, Ilenia; Azzali, Emanuele; Milanese, Gianluca; Praticò, Francesco Emanuele; Ruggirello, Margherita; Trunfio, Vincenzo; Parziale, Raffaele; Corrado, Michele; Della Casa, Giovanni; Capasso, Raffaella; De Filippo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Ankle sprains are the most common lower limb injuries and affect more frequently young athletes; imaging is needed for an accurate diagnosis of such traumatic injuries. The purpose of this review is to analyse the magnetic resonance (MR) findings of both normal and pathological ankle's ligaments; indeed, MRI is the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute traumatic injuries and is useful for differentiation of the causes of ankle instability as well as for pre-operative planning. PMID:27467862

  13. Acute pancreatitis and normoamylasemia. Not an uncommon combination.

    PubMed Central

    Clavien, P A; Robert, J; Meyer, P; Borst, F; Hauser, H; Herrmann, F; Dunand, V; Rohner, A

    1989-01-01

    A consecutive series of 352 attacks of acute pancreatitis (AP) was studied prospectively in 318 patients. AP was ascertained by contrast-enhanced CT scan in all but four cases in which diagnosis was made at operation or autopsy. Sixty-seven of these cases (19%) had normal serum amylase levels on admission (i.e., less than 160 IU/L, a limit that includes 99% of control values), a figure considerably higher than generally admitted. When compared to AP with elevated serum amylase, normoamylasemic pancreatitis was characterized by the following: (1) the prevalence of alcoholic etiology (58% vs. 33%, respectively, p less than 0.01), (2) a greater number of previous attacks in alcoholic pancreatitis (0.7 vs. 0.4, p less than 0.01); and (3) a longer duration of symptoms before admission (2.4 vs. 1.5 days, p less than 0.005). In contrast AP did not appear to differ significantly in terms of CT findings, Ranson's score, and clinical course, when comparing normo- and hyperamylasemic patients, although there was a tendency for normoamylasemic patients to follow milder courses. Serum lipase was measured in 65 of these normoamylasemic cases and was found to be elevated in 44 (68%), thus increasing diagnostic sensitivity from 81% when amylase alone is used to 94% for both enzymes. A peritoneal tab was obtained in 44 cases: amylase concentration in the first liter of dialysate was greater than 160 IU/L in 24 cases (55%), and lipase was greater than 250 U/L in 31 cases (70%). Twelve of these 44 cases had low peritoneal fluid and plasma concentrations for both enzymes. Thus little gain in diagnostic sensitivity was obtained when adding peritoneal values (96%) to serum determinations. AP is not invariably associated with elevated serum amylase. Multiple factors may contribute to the absence of hyperamylasemia on admission, including a return to normal enzyme levels before hospitalization or the inability of inflamed pancreases to produce amylase. Approximately two thirds of cases

  14. Inhibition of pancreatic oxidative damage by stilbene derivative dihydro-resveratrol: implication for treatment of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Siu Wai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Wang, Juan; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol is a natural stilbenoid possessing multifarious pharmacological benefits; however, when orally consumed, it is rapidly metabolised by colonic microflora and converted to dihydro-resveratrol. Thus, this microbial metabolite is of great therapeutic relevance. In the present study, upon the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol (10–50 mg/kg), the severity of acute pancreatitis in the cerulein-treated rats was significantly ameliorated as evidenced by decreased α-amylase activities in the plasma and lessened oedema formation in the pancreatic parenchyma. In addition, the generation of intracellular reactive oxidative products, including malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls, was accordingly reduced, so as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While inhibiting the activities of NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase, the depletion of glutathione was considerably restored. Importantly, the attenuation of pancreatic oxidative damage by dihydro-resveratrol was associated with a down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase-serine/threonine kinase signalling pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the solubility of dihydro-resveratrol was at least 5 times higher than trans-resveratrol whilst exhibiting a much lower cytotoxicity. Collectively, the current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of dihydro-resveratrol in pancreatic oxidative damage, and advocate its therapeutic potential for the management of acute pancreatitis, particularly for patients unresponsive to trans-resveratrol due to the lack of proper microbial strains. PMID:26971398

  15. Inhibition of pancreatic oxidative damage by stilbene derivative dihydro-resveratrol: implication for treatment of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Siu Wai; Guan, Yi-Fu; Wang, Juan; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol is a natural stilbenoid possessing multifarious pharmacological benefits; however, when orally consumed, it is rapidly metabolised by colonic microflora and converted to dihydro-resveratrol. Thus, this microbial metabolite is of great therapeutic relevance. In the present study, upon the oral administration of dihydro-resveratrol (10-50 mg/kg), the severity of acute pancreatitis in the cerulein-treated rats was significantly ameliorated as evidenced by decreased α-amylase activities in the plasma and lessened oedema formation in the pancreatic parenchyma. In addition, the generation of intracellular reactive oxidative products, including malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls, was accordingly reduced, so as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. While inhibiting the activities of NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase, the depletion of glutathione was considerably restored. Importantly, the attenuation of pancreatic oxidative damage by dihydro-resveratrol was associated with a down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-serine/threonine kinase signalling pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the solubility of dihydro-resveratrol was at least 5 times higher than trans-resveratrol whilst exhibiting a much lower cytotoxicity. Collectively, the current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of dihydro-resveratrol in pancreatic oxidative damage, and advocate its therapeutic potential for the management of acute pancreatitis, particularly for patients unresponsive to trans-resveratrol due to the lack of proper microbial strains. PMID:26971398

  16. Valproic Acid-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Pseudocyst Formation: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sukanta; Khamrui, Sujan; Kataria, Mohnish; Biswas, Jayanta; Saha, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Valproic acid is the most widely used anti-epilep-tic drug in children, and it is probably the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Outcomes for patients with valproic acid-associated pancreatitis vary from full recovery after discontinuation of the drug to severe acute pancreatitis and death. Here, we present a case of valproic acid-induced severe acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no resolution of the pseudocyst after discontinuation of valproic acid. The patient became symptomatic with a progressive increase in the size of the pseudocyst. She was successfully treated with cystogastrostomy and was well at 12-month follow-up. PMID:26366333

  17. Valproic Acid-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis with Pseudocyst Formation: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Khamrui, Sujan; Kataria, Mohnish; Biswas, Jayanta; Saha, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid is the most widely used anti-epilep­tic drug in children, and it is probably the most frequent cause of drug-induced acute pancreatitis. Outcomes for patients with valproic acid-associated pancreatitis vary from full recovery after discontinuation of the drug to severe acute pancreatitis and death. Here, we present a case of valproic acid-induced severe acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation in a 10-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. There was no resolution of the pseudocyst after discontinuation of valproic acid. The patient became symptomatic with a progressive increase in the size of the pseudocyst. She was successfully treated with cystogastrostomy and was well at 12-month follow-up. PMID:26366333

  18. The crosstalk between gut inflammation and gastrointestinal disorders during acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Pu; Yi, Zhi-Hui; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia reperfusion during acute pancreatitis (AP) often leads to multiple organ dysfunction and aggravation of acute pancreatitis. This review concerns up-date progress of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanism of the excessive production of gut-derived cytokines. The regulation effects of immuno-neuro-endocrine network for pancreatic necrosis are the basis for pharmacological therapeutic in AP. The translation from basic research to clinical trials for the prevention or treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is of great value. Early enteral nutrition is necessary for the restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of the intestinal epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Clearance of the excess intestinal bacteria and supplement of probiotics may be helpful to prevent bacterial translocation and infection of pancreas. PMID:23782148

  19. Risk Factors for the Development of Intra-Abdominal Fungal Infections in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schwender, Brian J.; Gordon, Stuart R.; Gardner, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intra-abdominal fungal infections (AFI) complicating acute pancreatitis arise in the context of pancreatic necrosis. Our goal was to determine which risk factors contribute to AFI in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods Records were reviewed from 479 non-transfer patients admitted to our medical center with acute pancreatitis from 1985–2009. Using multivariable regression models, risk factors for AFI were identified. Results Out of 479 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, 17 patients were subsequently found to have an AFI and 3 of these patients expired. The mean length of stay for patients with an AFI was 24 days and 76% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Patients with AFI were more likely to have received prophylactic antibiotics on admission (OR 1.7, 95% C.I. 1.2–2.3), TPN within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7) or to have necrosis on CT scan within 7 days of admission (OR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7). Multivariable regression models identified admission antibiotic use (OR 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.4–1.8) as the strongest predictor of AFI. Conclusion Admission antibiotics are the biggest risk factor for the development of intra-abdominal fungal infections in acute pancreatitis. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infected necrosis should therefore be discouraged. PMID:25872170

  20. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Attila; Romics, Laszlo

    2014-11-21

    The use of enteral feeding as part of the management of acute pancreatitis dates back almost two decades. This review describes the indications for and limitations of enteral feeding for the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. A systematic review was carried out to analyse current data on the use of enteral nutrition in the management of acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature was analysed from the viewpoints of enteral vs parenteral feeding, early vs delayed enteral nutrition, nasogastric vs nasojejunal feeding, and early oral diet and immunonutrition, particularly glutamine and probiotic supplementation. Finally, current applicable guidelines and the effects of these guidelines on clinical practice are discussed. The latest meta-analyses suggest that enteral nutrition significantly reduces the mortality rate of severe acute pancreatitis compared to parenteral feeding. To maintain gut barrier function and prevent early bacterial translocation, enteral feeding should be commenced within the first 24 h of hospital admission. Also, the safety of nasogastric feeding, which eases the administration of enteral nutrients in the clinical setting, is likely equal to nasojejunal feeding. Furthermore, an early low-fat oral diet is potentially beneficial in patients with mild pancreatitis. Despite the initial encouraging results, the current evidence does not support the use of immunoenhanced nutrients or probiotics in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:25473164

  1. Gastrointestinal Fistulas in Acute Pancreatitis With Infected Pancreatic or Peripancreatic Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Tong, Zhihui; Yang, Dongliang; Ke, Lu; Shen, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a well-recognized complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, it has been reported in limited literature. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and outcome of GI fistulas in AP patients complicated with infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis (IPN). Between 2010 and 2013 AP patients with IPN who diagnosed with GI fistula in our center were analyzed in this retrospective study. And we also conducted a comparison between patients with and without GI fistula regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes. Over 4 years, a total of 928 AP patients were admitted into our center, of whom 119 patients with IPN were diagnosed with GI fistula and they developed 160 GI fistulas in total. Colonic fistula found in 72 patients was the most common form of GI fistula followed with duodenal fistula. All duodenal fistulas were managed by nonsurgical management. Ileostomy or colostomy was performed for 44 (61.1%) of 72 colonic fistulas. Twenty-one (29.2%) colonic fistulas were successfully treated by percutaneous drainage or continuous negative pressure irrigation. Mortality of patients with GI fistula did not differ significantly from those without GI fistula (28.6% vs 21.9%, P = 0.22). However, a significantly higher mortality (34.7%) was observed in those with colonic fistula. GI fistula is a common finding in patients of AP with IPN. Most of these fistulas can be successfully managed with different procedures depending on their sites of origin. Colonic fistula is related with higher mortality than those without GI fistula. PMID:27057908

  2. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis‑induced acute renal injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti‑inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 were measured with enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor‑κB signal pathway. PMID:27279569

  3. Role of Biomarkers in Diagnosis and Prognostic Evaluation of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Susanta; Mishra, Tushar Subhadarshan; Sasmal, Prakash Kumar; Rath, Satyajit; Sharma, Rakesh; Rout, Bikram; Sahu, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a potentially life threatening disease. The spectrum of severity of the illness ranges from mild self-limiting disease to a highly fatal severe necrotizing pancreatitis. Despite intensive research and improved patient care, overall mortality still remains high, reaching up to 30–40% in cases with infected pancreatic necrosis. Although little is known about the exact pathogenesis, it has been widely accepted that premature activation of digestive enzymes within the pancreatic acinar cell is the trigger that leads to autodigestion of pancreatic tissue which is followed by infiltration and activation of leukocytes. Extensive research has been done over the past few decades regarding their role in diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of severe acute pancreatitis. Although many standalone biochemical markers have been studied for early assessment of severity, C-reactive protein still remains the most frequently used along with Interleukin-6. In this review we have discussed briefly the pathogenesis and the role of different biochemical markers in the diagnosis and severity evaluation in acute pancreatitis. PMID:26345247

  4. Soluble CD163 is increased in patients with acute pancreatitis independent of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, Thomas; Brünnler, Tanja; Hamer, Okka W; Schmid, Karin; Voelk, Markus; Herfarth, Hans; Buechler, Christa

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is specifically released from macrophages and systemic levels are increased in inflammatory diseases. Here, sCD163 was measured in serum of 50 patients with acute pancreatitis to find out possible associations with disease activity. Admission levels of systemic sCD163 were nearly three-fold higher in patients with acute pancreatitis compared to controls. In patients sCD163 did not correlate with C-reactive protein and leukocyte count as established markers of inflammation. Levels were not associated with disease severity assessed by the Schroeder score, Balthazar score, Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation (Apache) II score and peripancreatic necrosis score. Soluble CD163 was not related to complications of acute pancreatitis. These data show that serum sCD163 is increased in acute pancreatitis indicating activation of macrophages but is not associated with disease severity and outcome. PMID:26209500

  5. Mechanisms of interleukin-22's beneficial effects in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Huan, Chongmin; Kim, Daniel; Ou, Peiqi; Alfonso, Antonio; Stanek, Albert

    2016-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a disorder characterized by parenchymal injury of the pancreas controlled by immune cell-mediated inflammation. AP remains a significant challenge in the clinic due to a lack of specific and effective treatment. Knowledge of the complex mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response in AP is needed for the development of new approaches to treatment, since immune cell-derived inflammatory cytokines have been recognized to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine secreted by leukocytes, when applied in the severe animal models of AP, protects against the inflammation-mediated acinar injury. In contrast, in a mild AP model, endogenous IL-22 has been found to be a predominantly anti-inflammatory mediator that inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration via the induction of Reg3 proteins in acinar cells, but does not protect against acinar injury in the early stage of AP. However, constitutively over-expressed IL-22 can prevent the initial acinar injury caused by excessive autophagy through the induction of the anti-autophagic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Thus IL-22 plays different roles in AP depending on the severity of the AP model. This review focuses on these recently reported findings for the purpose of better understanding IL-22's regulatory roles in AP which could help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:26909233

  6. New tools for optimizing fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Perrine; Saulnier, Fabienne; Colling, Delphine; Redheuil, Alban; Preau, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a frequent disease with degrees of increasing severity responsible for high morbidity. Despite continuous improvement in care, mortality remains significant. Because hypovolemia, together with microcirculatory dysfunction lead to poor outcome, fluid therapy remains a cornerstone of the supportive treatment. However, poor clinical evidence actually support the aggressive fluid therapy recommended in recent guidelines since available data are controversial. Fluid management remains unclear and leads to current heterogeneous practice. Different strategies may help to improve fluid resuscitation in AP. On one hand, integration of fluid therapy in a global hemodynamic resuscitation has been demonstrated to improve outcome in surgical or septic patients. Tailored fluid administration after early identification of patients with high-risk of poor outcome presenting inadequate tissue oxygenation is a major part of this strategy. On the other hand, new decision parameters have been developed recently to improve safety and efficiency of fluid therapy in critically ill patients. In this review, we propose a personalized strategy integrating these new concepts in the early fluid management of AP. This new approach paves the way to a wide range of clinical studies in the field of AP. PMID:25473163

  7. Intravenous glutamine for severe acute pancreatitis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xin; Liang, Cui-Ping; Gong, Shu

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intravenous glutamine on the patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and EBM review databases were searched up to June 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared non-glutamine nutrition with intravenous glutamine supplemented nutrition in patients with SAP were included. A method recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration was used to perform a meta-analysis of those RCTs. RESULTS: Four RCTs involving a total of 190 participants were included. Analysis of these RCTs revealed the presence of statistical homogeneity among them. Results showed that glutamine dipeptide has a positive effect in reducing the mortality rate (OR = 0.26, 95%CI: 0.09-0.73, P = 0.01), length of hospital stay (weighted mean difference = -4.85, 95%CI: 6.67--3.03, P < 0.001), and the rate of complications (OR = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.22-0.78, P = 0.006). No serious adverse effects were found. CONCLUSION: Current best evidence demonstrates that glutamine is effective for SAP. Further high quality trials are required and parameters of nutritional condition and hospital cost should be considered in future RCTs with sufficient size and rigorous design. PMID:24701410

  8. The role of fat and alcohol in acute pancreatitis: A dangerous liaison.

    PubMed

    Criddle, David N

    2015-07-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a major trigger for severe acute pancreatitis which may lead to multi-organ dysfunction and premature death of the individual. Hyperlipidaemia is a risk factor for both acute and chronic pancreatitis and the role of fatty acids in mediating damage has received increasing attention in recent years. In the pancreas ethanol is metabolised by both oxidative and non-oxidative pathways. The latter, predominant route generates fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from fatty acid substrates via the action of diverse enzymes called FAEE synthases, including carboxylester lipase an enzyme synthesized and secreted by the acinar cells. Inhibition of the oxidative pathway promotes formation of FAEEs which induce sustained elevations of cytosolic calcium leading to inhibition of mitochondrial function, loss of ATP and necrosis of isolated pancreatic acinar cells. Furthermore, FAEEs undergo hydrolysis in the mitochondria releasing free fatty acids that exert toxic effects. Our recent work has shown that pharmacological inhibition of carboxylester lipase ameliorated detrimental effects of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism in isolated pancreatic acinar cells in vitro and in a new in vivo experimental model of alcoholic acute pancreatitis, revealing a specific enzyme target for ethanol-induced injury. Strategies that prevent FAEE synthesis, protect mitochondria, reduce calcium overload or sustain calcium homeostasis by ATP provision may provide promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of alcoholic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25845855

  9. Acute Pancreatitis after Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Hershberger, Richard C. Bornak, Arash; Aulivola, Bernadette; Mannava, Krishna

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: We describe a case of severe acute pancreatitis after percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) and review the literature for the occurrence of this complication. Materials and Methods: A 53-year-old man with a history of bilateral external iliac artery stent placement sought care for acute onset of lifestyle-limiting left claudication. Angiography confirmed left external iliac stent occlusion, and PMT with the AngioJet Xpeedior catheter (Possis Medical, Minneapolis MN) was performed. Results: After PMT of the occluded external iliac artery, a residual in-stent stenosis required the placement of a second iliac stent. The procedure was complicated by severe acute pancreatitis. Other causes of pancreatitis were eliminated during the patient's hospital stay. A literature review revealed nine cases of acute pancreatitis after PMT. Conclusion: Although rare, pancreatitis can be a devastating complication of PMT. The development of pancreatitis seems to be related to the products of extensive hemolysis triggering an inflammatory process. To prevent this complication, we recommend that close attention be paid to the duration and extent of PMT, thereby avoiding extensive hemolysis and subsequent complications.

  10. Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion Therapy for Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Motoo Ogino, Hiroyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2009-05-15

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was treated in an 8-year-old girl. She experienced acute pancreatitis during treatment for M. pneumoniae. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed necrotizing pancreatitis. The computed tomographic severity index was 8 points (grade E). A protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, was provided via intravenous infusion but was ineffective. Continuous regional arterial infusion therapy was provided with gabexate mesilate (FOY-007, a protease inhibitor) and meropenem trihydrate, and the pancreatitis improved. This case suggests that infusion therapy is safe and useful in treating necrotizing pancreatitis in children.

  11. Physical exercise and pancreatic islets: acute and chronic actions on insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Felipe N; Proença, André R G; Chimin, Patrícia; Marçal, Anderson C; Bessa-Lima, Fábio; Carvalho, Carla R O

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a great public health problem, which attacks part of the world population, being characterized by an imbalance in body glucose homeostasis. Physical exercise is pointed as a protective agent and is also recommended to people with DM. As pancreatic islets present an important role in glucose homeostasis, we aim to study the role of physical exercise (chronic adaptations and acute responses) in pancreatic islets functionality in Wistar male rats. First, animals were divided into two groups: sedentary (S) and aerobic trained (T). At the end of 8 weeks, half of them (S and T) were submitted to an acute exercise session (exercise until exhaustion), being subdivided as acute sedentary (AS) and acute trained (AT). After the experimental period, periepididymal, retroperitoneal and subcutaneous fat pads, blood, soleus muscle and pancreatic islets were collected and prepared for further analysis. From the pancreatic islets, total insulin content, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, leucine, arginine and carbachol were analyzed. Our results pointed that body adiposity and glucose homeostasis improved with chronic physical exercise. In addition, total insulin content was reduced in group AT, insulin secretion stimulated by glucose was reduced in trained groups (T and AT) and insulin secretion stimulated by carbachol was increased in group AT. There were no significant differences in insulin secretion stimulated by arginine and leucine. We identified a possible modulating action on insulin secretion, probably related to the association of chronic adaptation with an acute response on cholinergic activity in pancreatic islets. PMID:22868676

  12. Incretin based drugs and risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Faillie, Jean-Luc; Azoulay, Laurent; Patenaude, Valerie; Hillaire-Buys, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the use of incretin based drugs, compared with sulfonylureas, is associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Design Population based cohort study. Setting 680 general practices in the United Kingdom contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Participants From 1 January 2007 to 31 March 2012, 20 748 new users of incretin based drugs were compared with 51 712 users of sulfonylureas and followed up until 31 March 2013. Main outcome measures Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for acute pancreatitis in users of incretin based drugs compared with users of sulfonylureas. Models were adjusted for tenths of high dimensional propensity score (hdPS). Results The crude incidence rate for acute pancreatitis was 1.45 per 1000 patients per year (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 2.11) for incretin based drug users and 1.47 (1.23 to 1.76) for sulfonylurea users. The rate of acute pancreatitis associated with the use of incretin based drugs was not increased (hdPS adjusted hazard ratio: 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 1.70) relative to sulfonylurea use. Conclusions Compared with use of sulfonylureas, the use of incretin based drugs is not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. While this study is reassuring, it does not preclude a modest increased risk, and thus additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24764569

  13. Acute pancreatitis and development of pancreatic pseudo cyst after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy to a left renal calculus: A rare case with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mylarappa, Prasad; Javali, Tarun; Prathvi; Ramesh, D.

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is considered the standard of care for the treatment of small upper ureteric and renal calculi. A few centers have extended its use to the treatment of bile duct calculi and pancreatic calculi. The complication rates with SWL are low, resulting in its wide spread acceptance and usage. However, some of the serious complications reported in 1% of patients include acute pancreatitis, perirenal hematoma, urosepsis, venous thrombosis, biliary obstruction, bowel perforation, lung injury, rupture of aortic aneurysm and intracranial hemorrhage. To our knowledge, only six cases of acute pancreatitis or necrotizing pancreatitis following SWL have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of acute pancreatitis and formation of a pseudo cyst following SWL for left renal pelvic calculus. PMID:24497695

  14. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Methimazole in a Patient With Subclinical Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Agito, Katrina; Manni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We report here a unique case of methimazole (MMI)-induced pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is the sixth case reported in the literature and the first diagnosed in a patient with toxic multinodular goiter. A 51-year-old Caucasian female with a history of benign multinodular goiter and subclinical hyperthyroidism was started on MMI 10 mg orally daily. Three weeks later, she developed sharp epigastric pain, diarrhea, lack of appetite, and fever. Her lipase was elevated 5 times the upper limit of normal, consistent with acute pancreatitis. There was no history of hypertriglyceridemia, or alcohol abuse. Abdominal computed tomography was consistent with acute uncomplicated pancreatitis, without evidence of gallstones or tumors. MMI was discontinued, and her hyperthyroid symptoms were managed with propranolol. Her acute episode of pancreatitis quickly resolved clinically and biochemically. One year later, she redeveloped mild clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism with biochemical evidence of subclinical hyperthyroidism. MMI 10 mg orally daily was restarted. Five days later, she experienced progressive abdominal discomfort. Her lipase was elevated 12 times the upper limit of normal, and the abdominal computed tomography was again compatible with acute uncomplicated pancreatitis. MMI was again discontinued, which was followed by rapid resolution of her pancreatitis. The patient is currently considering undergoing definitive therapy with radioactive iodine ablation. Our case as well as previous case reports in the literature should raise awareness about the possibility of pancreatitis in subjects treated with MMI in the presence of suggestive symptoms. If the diagnosis is confirmed by elevated pancreatic enzymes, the drug should be discontinued. PMID:26425645

  15. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Methimazole in a Patient With Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Agito, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    We report here a unique case of methimazole (MMI)-induced pancreatitis. To our knowledge, this is the sixth case reported in the literature and the first diagnosed in a patient with toxic multinodular goiter. A 51-year-old Caucasian female with a history of benign multinodular goiter and subclinical hyperthyroidism was started on MMI 10 mg orally daily. Three weeks later, she developed sharp epigastric pain, diarrhea, lack of appetite, and fever. Her lipase was elevated 5 times the upper limit of normal, consistent with acute pancreatitis. There was no history of hypertriglyceridemia, or alcohol abuse. Abdominal computed tomography was consistent with acute uncomplicated pancreatitis, without evidence of gallstones or tumors. MMI was discontinued, and her hyperthyroid symptoms were managed with propranolol. Her acute episode of pancreatitis quickly resolved clinically and biochemically. One year later, she redeveloped mild clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism with biochemical evidence of subclinical hyperthyroidism. MMI 10 mg orally daily was restarted. Five days later, she experienced progressive abdominal discomfort. Her lipase was elevated 12 times the upper limit of normal, and the abdominal computed tomography was again compatible with acute uncomplicated pancreatitis. MMI was again discontinued, which was followed by rapid resolution of her pancreatitis. The patient is currently considering undergoing definitive therapy with radioactive iodine ablation. Our case as well as previous case reports in the literature should raise awareness about the possibility of pancreatitis in subjects treated with MMI in the presence of suggestive symptoms. If the diagnosis is confirmed by elevated pancreatic enzymes, the drug should be discontinued. PMID:26425645

  16. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing. PMID:25917334

  17. Vasoactive mediators and the progression from oedematous to necrotising experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Weidenbach, H; Lerch, M M; Gress, T M; Pfaff, D; Turi, S; Adler, G

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiological factors that determine the clinical severity of acute pancreatitis. Because impairment of pancreatic circulation and oxygenation is associated with greater disease severity and morphological damage in experimental pancreatitis it has been suggested that various vasoactive mediators might participate in the progression from the oedematous to the necrotising variety of the disease. This study used an animal model of acute pancreatitis induced by intravenous caeruleint (10 micrograms/kg/h for up to six hours), which does not entail either haemorrhage or significant necrosis of the pancreas. This study considered whether the administration or the inhibition of either nitric oxide, bradykinin, or adrenergic mediators can convert this mild variety into haemorrhagic and necrotising pancreatitis. Neither nitric oxide nor catecholamines were involved in the progression from oedematous to haemorrhagic pancreatitis. Their substitution, activation, and inhibition all failed to change the severity of the disease process. Bradykinin alone seemed to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic haemorrhage and necrosis. However, the inhibition of bradykinin and not its activation or substitution increased the severity of the disease. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7590444

  18. Controlled clinical trial of selective decontamination for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Luiten, E J; Hop, W C; Lange, J F; Bruining, H A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized, controlled, multicenter trial was undertaken in 102 patients with objective evidence of severe acute pancreatitis to evaluate whether selective decontamination reduces mortality. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Secondary pancreatic infection is the major cause of death in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Controlled clinical trials to study the effect of selective decontamination in such patients are not available. METHODS: Between April 22, 1990 and April 19, 1993, 102 patients with severe acute pancreatitis were admitted to 16 participating hospitals. Patients were entered into the study if severe acute pancreatitis was indicated, on admission, by multiple laboratory criteria (Imrie score > or = 3) and/or computed tomography criteria (Balthazar grade D or E). Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment (control group) or standard treatment plus selective decontamination (norfloxacin, colistin, amphotericin; selective decontamination group). All patients received full supportive treatment, and surveillance cultures were taken in both groups. RESULTS: Fifty patients were assigned to the selective decontamination group and 52 were assigned to the control group. There were 18 deaths in the control group (35%), compared with 11 deaths (22%) in the selective decontamination group (adjusted for Imrie score and Balthazar grade: p = 0.048). This difference was mainly caused by a reduction of late mortality (> 2 weeks) due to significant reduction of gram-negative pancreatic infection (p = 0.003). The average number of laparotomies per patient was reduced in patients treated with selective decontamination (p < 0.05). Failure of selective decontamination to prevent secondary gram-negative pancreatic infection with subsequent death was seen in only three patients (6%) and transient gram-negative pancreatic infection was seen in one (2%). In both groups of patients, all gram-negative aerobic pancreatic infection was preceded by

  19. CT Evaluation of Acute Pancreatitis and its Prognostic Correlation with CT Severity Index

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajesh; Vyas, Mahendra Mohan; Sharma, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatitis is one of most complex and clinically challenging of all abdominal disorders. USG and abdominal CT are the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modalities for the evaluation of pancreas. Computed Tomography (CT) is highly accurate and sensitive than USG in both diagnosing as well as demonstrating the extent. Early assessment of the cause and severity of acute pancreatitis is of utmost importance for prompt treatment and close monitoring of patient with severe disease. CT is the imaging method of choice for assessing the extent of acute pancreatitis and for evaluating complications. Aim To assess prognostic correlation and clinical outcome of acute pancreatitis on the basis of CT severity index. Materials and Methods A prospective study of 50 cases was carried out in the Department of Radio Diagnosis, with complaint suggestive of acute pancreatitis on the basis of clinical/laboratory/ultrasonography findings were evaluated in Siemens somatom 40 slice CT. The severity of pancreatitis was scored using CT severity index, modified severity index and revised Atlanta classification and classified into mild, moderate, severe categories. Clinical follow-up of the patients was done in terms of the following parameters: Length of hospital stay, Need for surgery or percutaneous intervention, Evidence of infection in any organ system, Occurrence of organ failure- respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic and haematological system, death. The clinical outcome was compared with the currently accepted Balthazar’s CTSI and Modified Mortele’s CTSI and revised Atlanta classification in all the cases. Results Gall stone disease was most common aetiological factor seen in 40% cases, it was more common in females than males. Alcohol was second most common aetiological factor seen in 38% cases and was noted only in males. Pleural effusion was the most common extra-pancreatic complication seen in 46% cases. Balthazar grade C was the most common (40

  20. Early Nasogastric Feeding in Predicted Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Eckerwall, Gunilla E.; Axelsson, Jakob B.; Andersson, Roland G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early, nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Summary Background Data: In SAP, the magnitude of the inflammatory response as well as increased intestinal permeability correlates with outcome. Enteral feeding has been suggested superior to parenteral feeding due to a proposed beneficial effect on the gut barrier. Methods: Fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to TPN or EN groups. The nutritional regimen was started within 24 hours from admission and EN was provided through a nasogastric tube. The observation period was 10 days. Intestinal permeability was measured by excretion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and concentrations of antiendotoxin core antibodies (Endocab). Interleukins (IL)-6 IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as markers of the systemic inflammatory response. Morbidity and feasibility of the nutritional route were evaluated by the frequency of complications, gastrointestinal symptoms, and abdominal pain. Results: PEG, Endocab, CRP, IL-6, APACHE II score, severity according to the Atlanta classification (22 patients), and gastrointestinal symptoms or abdominal pain did not significantly differ between the groups. The incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN patients (21 of 26 vs. 7 of 23; P < 0.001). Total complications (25 vs. 52; P = 0.04) and pulmonary complications (10 vs. 21; P = 0.04) were significantly more frequent in EN patients, although complications were diagnosed dominantly within the first 3 days. Conclusion: In predicted SAP, nasogastric early EN was feasible and resulted in better control of blood glucose levels, although the overall early complication rate was higher in the EN group. No beneficial effects on intestinal permeability or the inflammatory response were seen by EN treatment. PMID:17122621

  1. Quantitative functional MRI in a clinical orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer in immunocompetent Lewis rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuoli; Zheng, Linfeng; Li, Weiguo; Gordon, Andrew C; Huan, Yi; Shangguan, Junjie; Procissi, Daniel; Bentrem, David J; Larson, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate feasibility of performing quantitative MRI measurements in an immuno-competent rat model of pancreatic cancer by comparing in vivo anatomic and quantitative imaging measurements to tumor dissemination observations and histologic assays at necropsy. Meterials and methods: Rat ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma DSL-6A/C1 cell line and Lewis rats were used for these studies. 108 DSL-6A/C1 cells were injected subcutaneously into the right flank of donor rats. Donor tumors reaching 10 mm were excised, and 1 mm3 tumor fragments were implanted within recipient rat pancreas during mini-laparotomy. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI were performed using a Bruker 7.0T ClinScan. After MRI, all animals underwent autopsy. Primary tumor size was measured, and dissemination score was used to assess local invasion and distant metastasis. Primary tumor and all sites of metastases were harvested and fixed for H&E, Masson’s trichrome, and rat anti-CD34 staining. Trichrome slides were scanned and digitized for measurement of fibrotic tissue areas. Anti-CD34 slides were used for microvessel density (MVD) measurements. Results: Primary tumors, local invasion, and distant metastases were confirmed for all rats. No significant differences were found between in vivo MRI measurements (48.7 ± 5.3 mm) and ex vivo caliper measurements (43.6 ± 3.6 mm) of primary tumor sizes (p > .05). Spleen, liver, diaphragm, peritoneum, and abdominal wall metastases were observed on MRI but smaller lung, mediastinum, omen, and mesentery metastases were only observed at necropsy. Contrast uptake observed during DCE measurements was significantly greater in both primary and metastatic tumor tissues compared to skeletal muscle and normal liver tissues. Both primary and metastatic tumors were hyper-intense in T2-weighted images and hypo-intense in T1-weighted images, but no differences were found between quantitative T2 measurements in

  2. Surgical management of acute pancreatitis in Italy: lessons from a prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    De Rai, Paolo; Zerbi, Alessandro; Castoldi, Laura; Bassi, Claudio; Frulloni, Luca; Uomo, Generoso; Gabbrielli, Armando; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Cavallini, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis in Italy and to assess compliance with international guidelines. Methods A series of 1173 patients in 56 hospitals were prospectively enrolled and their data analysed. Results Twenty-nine patients with severe pancreatitis underwent surgical intervention. Necrosectomy was performed in 26 patients, associated with postoperative lavage in 70% of cases. A feeding jejunostomy was added in 37% of cases. Mortality was 21%. Of the patients with mild pancreatitis, 714 patients with a biliary aetiology were evaluated. Prophylactic treatment of relapses was carried out in 212 patients (36%) by cholecystectomy and in 161 using a laparoscopic approach. Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was associated with cholecystectomy in 83 patients (39%). Forty-seven patients (22%) were treated at a second admission, with a median delay of 31 days from the onset of pancreatitis. Eighteen patients with severe pancreatitis underwent cholecystectomy 37.9 days after the first admission. There were no deaths. Discussion The results indicate poor compliance with published guidelines. In severe pancreatitis, early surgical intervention is frequently performed and enteral feeding is seldom used. Only a small number of patients with mild biliary pancreatitis undergo definitive treatment (i.e. cholecystectomy) within 4 weeks of the onset of pancreatitis. PMID:20961367

  3. A Case of Severe Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis after Administration of Sitagliptin

    PubMed Central

    Sue, Mariko; Yoshihara, Aya; Kuboki, Koji; Hiroi, Naoki; Yoshino, Gen

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese man with a 3-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital for upper abdominal pain. Control of diabetes mellitus was good with voglibose and metformin, with sitagliptin added to this regimen 8 months prior. His pancreatic enzyme levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed diffuse pancreatic swelling with fluid accumulation and ascites of CT grade 3. The patient was diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis. There were no obvious causes for pancreatitis except the recently administered sitagliptin. Since incretin-related drugs entered the market, the number of incretin-related drugs prescriptions rapidly increased and so did the incidence of pancreatitis. There are several reports suggesting the correlation between incretin-related drugs and pancreatitis, such as a report based on data obtained from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which revealed a significant correlation between the administration of exenatide or sitagliptin and pancreatitis. However, there also is a report that denied the evidence for such in a large cohort study. The relation between incretin based drugs and pancreatitis is still controversial. PMID:23467428

  4. Treatment of acute pancreatitis with mexidol and low-intensity laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parzyan, G. R.; Geinits, A. V.

    2001-04-01

    This article presents the results of treatment of 54 patients with acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to the method of treatment. The control group (26 patients) received a conventional therapy, whereas the experimental group (28 patients) received mexidol in combination with the intravenous laser irradiation of blood. Clinical and laboratory tests confirmed a high efficiency of the combined therapy based on the administration of mexidol antioxidant and low-intensity (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers diode laser irradiation of blood. This therapeutic technique produced an influence on the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of acute pancreatitis. The application of this method of treatment improved the course and prognosis of acute pancreatitis.

  5. Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won

    2012-01-01

    Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely. PMID:23082068

  6. Fatal hypertriglyceridaemia, acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis possibly induced by quetiapine

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Kristian Roerbaek

    2014-01-01

    A 27-year-old man treated with quetiapine for anxiety disorder developed hypertriglyceridaemia-induced acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis. He was otherwise physically healthy with no family history of hyperlipidaemia. Despite aggressive intensive therapy he died of multiorgan failure within 36 h from initial presentation. While second-generation antipsychotics are well known to be causally linked to diabetes and hyperlipidaemia, this is to my knowledge the first-described case of a fatal triad of extreme hypertriglyceridaemia, acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis possibly induced by quetiapine. Clinicians should be aware of this rare clinical presentation since rapid progression to multiorgan failure can occur. Early supportive therapy should be initiated. Lactescent serum and ketoacidosis in severe acute pancreatitis should not be overlooked—initiate insulin therapy and possibly plasmapheresis in case of extreme hypertriglyceridaemia. PMID:24403385

  7. Antiretroviral drugs and acute pancreatitis in HIV/AIDS patients: is there any association? A literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Natalia Mejias; Ferreira, Felipe Augusto Yamauti; Yonamine, Raquel Yumi; Chehter, Ethel Zimberg

    2014-01-01

    In HIV-seropositive individuals, the incidence of acute pancreatitis may achieve 40% per year, higher than the 2% found in the general population. Since 1996, when combined antiretroviral therapy, known as HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), was introduced, a broad spectrum of harmful factors to the pancreas, such as opportunistic infections and drugs used for chemoprophylaxis, dropped considerably. Nucleotide analogues and metabolic abnormalities, hepatic steatosis and lactic acidosis have emerged as new conditions that can affect the pancreas. To evaluate the role of antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV/AIDS in a scenario of high incidence of acute pancreatitis in this population, a systematic review was performed, including original articles, case reports and case series studies, whose targets were HIV-seropositive patients that developed acute pancreatitis after exposure to any antiretroviral drugs. This association was confirmed after exclusion of other possible etiologies and/or a recurrent episode of acute pancreatitis after re-exposure to the suspected drug. Zidovudine, efavirenz, and protease inhibitors are thought to lead to acute pancreatitis secondary to hyperlipidemia. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, despite being powerful inhibitors of viral replication, induce a wide spectrum of side effects, including myelotoxicity and acute pancreatitis. Didanosine, zalcitabine and stavudine have been reported as causes of acute and chronic pancreatitis. They pose a high risk with cumulative doses. Didanosine with hydroxyurea, alcohol or pentamidine are additional risk factors, leading to lethal pancreatitis, which is not a frequent event. In addition, other drugs used for prophylaxis of AIDS-related opportunistic diseases, such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and pentamidine, can produce necrotizing pancreatitis. Despite comorbidities that can lead to pancreatic involvement in the HIV/AIDS population, antiretroviral drug-induced pancreatitis

  8. [Are urgent imaging tests indicated in the management of acute pancreatitis?].

    PubMed

    Fornell Pérez, R; Lozano Rodríguez, A

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common emergency within abdominal disease. It is accepted that two of three conditions must be fulfilled for its diagnosis: characteristic clinical presentation, characteristic laboratory findings, and/or characteristic diagnostic imaging findings. The first two conditions are the most often used, probably for reasons of efficiency and frequency. Nevertheless, the need for imaging studies is sometimes a source of conflict. For this reason, we decided to review the current evidence regarding the indication of urgent imaging tests in the management of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26655802

  9. Is there a role for glutamine supplementation in the management of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Castro-Gutiérrez, Victoria; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    There is no consensus about the effects of glutamine supplementation for acute pancreatitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 15 systematic reviews including 31 randomized controlled trials addressing the question of this article. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded glutamine supplementation might decrease infectious complications in acute pancreatitis, but it is not clear if it affects mortality or length of hospital stay because the certainty of the evidence is very low. PMID:27580296

  10. Perforated appendicitis masquerading as acute pancreatitis in a morbidly obese patient.

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael-J; Akoh, Jacob-A

    2008-03-21

    Diagnosis and treatment of common conditions in morbidly obese patients still pose a challenge to physicians and surgeons. Sometimes too much reliance is put on investigations that can lead to a misdiagnosis. This case demonstrates an obese woman admitted under the medical team with a presumed diagnosis of pneumonia, who was later found to have an acute abdomen and raised amylase, which led to an assumed diagnosis of pancreatitis. She died within 24 h of admission and post mortem confirmed the cause of death as systemic sepsis due to perforated appendicitis, with no evidence of pancreatitis. Significantly elevated serum amylase level may occur in non-pancreatitic acute abdomen. PMID:18350613

  11. Preventive Effect of Cichorium Intybus L. Two Extracts on Cerulein-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Ali-Reza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Abed, Ali-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of pancreas with sudden onset, high mortality rate and multiple organ failure characteristics. It has been shown that oxygen free radicals have an important role in development of pancreatitis and its complications. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxicity and gastroprotective properties of Cichorium intybus L. suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects in the management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: Five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulean (50 μg/ kg at 1 h intervals) in mice resulted in acute pancreatitis, which was characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, as well as increases in the serum levels of amylase and lipase in comparison to normal mice. Different doses of C. intybus root (CRE) and aerial parts hydroalcoholic extract (CAPE) orally (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) and intraperitoneally (50, 100, 200 mg/kg) were administrated 1.0 and 0.5 h respectively before pancreatitis induction on separate groups of male mice (n=6). Control groups treated with normal saline (5 ml/ kg) similarly. Results: Both extracts in greater test doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) were effective to decrease amylase (23-36%) and lipase (27-35%) levels. In oral route, the dose of 200 mg/ kg showed a significant decrease in levels of amylase (16%) and lipase (24%) activity while the greatest dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.) was only effective to diminish inflammatory features like edema and leukocyte infiltration in pancreatitis tissue (P<0.01). Vacuolization was not significantly reduced in extracts treated groups. Conclusions: These data suggest that C. intybus hydroalcoholic extracts were effective to protect against experimental acute pancreatitis and the efficacy was partly dependent to the dose and was more significant after parenteral administration. PMID:22708031

  12. Extrapancreatic organ impairment during acute pancreatitis induced by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction. Effect of N-acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Manuel A; Ramudo, Laura; De Dios, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Summary Multiple organ failure is frequently associated with acute pancreatitis (AP). Our aim was to study pulmonary, hepatic and renal complications developed in the course of AP experimentally induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO), differentiating the complications caused by AP itself, from those directly caused by bile duct obstruction (BDO), after ligating the choledocus. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered as a therapeutic approach. Myeloperoxidase activity revealed neutrophil infiltration in lungs from 12 h after BDO, even if AP was not triggered. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity indicated hepatocyte death from 48 h after BDO, and from 24 h following BPDO-induced AP onwards, an effect delayed until 48 h by NAC treatment. Rats with single cholestasis (BDO) and rats with BPDO-induced AP showed a significant increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin concentration from 12 h onwards, whose values were reduced by NAC treatment at early BPDO. No renal failure was found during 120 h of bile-pancreatic obstruction. Our results showed lung and liver impairment as a result of BDO, even if AP does not develop. Pancreatic damage and extrapancreatic complications during AP induced by BPDO were palliated by NAC treatment. PMID:17877536

  13. Pancreatic abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Most people with pancreatic abscesses have had pancreatitis. However, the complication often takes 7 or more days to develop. Signs of an abscess can be seen on: CT scan of the abdomen MRI of the abdomen Ultrasound of the abdomen

  14. Serum Triglyceride Level: A Predictor of Complications and Outcomes in Acute Pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Hassan; Gaduputi, Vinaya; Peralta, Richard; Abbas, Naeem; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Thet, Phyo; Zaw, Tin; Hui, Shirley; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study serum triglyceride level as a predictor of complications and outcomes in acute pancreatitis. Methods. In this retrospective observational study, 582 patients admitted with acute pancreatitis, who had serum triglyceride levels measured within the first 24 hours, were divided into two groups. The study group consisted of patients with a triglyceride level ≥2.26 mmol/L (group 2) and the control group consisted of triglyceride level of <2.26 mmol/L (group 1). We collected data for baseline demographics, laboratory values, incidence of complications (local and systemic), admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), ICU length of stay, length of total hospital stay, and death in the two groups. Results. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L was found to be an independent predictor of developing altered mental status (p: 0.004), pancreatic necrosis (p: 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (p: 0001), systemic Inflammatory response syndrome (p: 0.001), acute kidney injury (p: 0.001), hospital length of stay (LOS) (p: 0.002), admission to intensive care unit (ICU) (p: 0.002), and ICU LOS (p: 0.003). Conclusion. A triglyceride level of ≥2.26 mmol/L on admission in acute pancreatitis is an independent predictor of developing local and systemic complications, hospital LOS, admission to ICU, and ICU LOS.

  15. Extract of grapefruit-seed reduces acute pancreatitis induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats: possible implication of tissue antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Dembinski, A; Warzecha, Z; Konturek, S J; Ceranowicz, P; Dembinski, M; Pawlik, W W; Kusnierz-Cabala, B; Naskalski, J W

    2004-12-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been shown to exert antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity possibly due to the presence of naringenin, the flavonoid with cytoprotective action on the gastric mucosa. No study so far has been undertaken to determine whether this GSE is also capable of preventing acute pancreatic damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which is known to result from reduction of anti-oxidative capability of pancreatic tissue, and whether its possible preventive effect involves an antioxidative action of this biocomponent. In this study carried out on rats with acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis induced by 30 min partial pancreatic ischemia followed by 6 h of reperfusion, the GSE or vehicle (vegetable glycerin) was applied intragastrically in gradually increasing amounts (50-500 microl) 30 min before I/R. Pretreatment with GSE decreased the extent of pancreatitis with maximal protective effect of GSE at the dose 250 microl. GSE reduced the pancreatitis-evoked increase in serum lipase and poly-C specific ribonuclease activity, and attenuated the marked fall in pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. GSE administered alone increased significantly pancreatic tissue content of lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkens, and when administered before I/R, GSE reduced the pancreatitis-induced lipid peroxidation. We conclude that GSE exerts protective activity against I/R-induced pancreatitis probably due to the activation of antioxidative mechanisms in the pancreas and the improvement of pancreatic blood flow. PMID:15613745

  16. Biopsy-proven drug-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with acute kidney injury and alcoholic severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Wakako; Mori, Takayasu; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tamura, Teiichi

    2013-01-01

    We report a 49-year-old man with alcoholic severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated by drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (DI-AIN). Oliguria persisted and became anuric again on day 17 despite improvement of pancreatitis. He presented rash, fever and eosinophilia from day 20. Renal biopsy was performed for dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI), DI-AIN was revealed, and prompt use of corticosteroids fully restored his renal function. This diagnosis might be missed because it is difficult to perform renal biopsy in such a clinical situation. If the patient's general condition allows, renal biopsy should be performed and reversible AKI must be distinguished from many cases of irreversible AKI complicated by SAP. This is the first report of biopsy-proven DI-AIN associated with SAP, suggesting the importance of biopsy for distinguishing DI-AIN in persisting AKI of SAP. PMID:23645698

  17. [Severe acute pancreatitis and infection by influenza A (H1N1) virus in a child: case report].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Schulz, Diego; Martínez, Agustina; Guzmán, María Belén; Robledo, Hugo; Capocasa, Patricia; Martínez, Luz; Garnero, Analía

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas, characterized by abdominal pain and high level of pancreatic enzymes. Pancreatitis is the most common disease of pancreas in children and adults. For the diagnosis we need 2 of 3 characteristics: abdominal pain characteristic of acute pancreatitis, amylase and/or lipase 3 times higher than the normal upper limit and characteristic findings in images. The etiologies are multiple: trauma, metabolic disease and infections: mixovirus, HIV, measles, coxsackie, hepatitis B, C, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes simplex. Three cases of PA associated with H1N1 Influenza virus were reported, only one in a child with uncomplicated features. PMID:26172021

  18. Waterlow score as a surrogate marker for predicting adverse outcome in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gillick, K; Elbeltagi, H; Bhattacharya, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Introduced originally to stratify risk for developing decubitus ulcers, the Waterlow scoring system is recorded routinely for surgical admissions. It is a composite score, reflecting patients' general condition and co-morbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Waterlow score can be used as an independent surrogate marker to predict severity and adverse outcome in acute pancreatitis. Methods In this retrospective analysis, a consecutive cohort was studied of 250 patients presenting with acute pancreatitis, all of whom had their Waterlow score calculated on admission. Primary outcome measures were length of hospital stay and mortality. Secondary outcome measures included rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and development of complications such as peripancreatic free fluid, pancreatic necrosis and pseudocyst formation. Correlation of the Waterlow score with some known markers of disease severity and outcomes was also analysed. Results The Waterlow score correlated strongly with the most commonly used marker of disease severity, the Glasgow score (analysis of variance, p=0.0012). Inpatient mortality, rate of ICU admission and length of hospital stay increased with a higher Waterlow score (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.0007, p=0.049 and p=0.0002 respectively). There was, however, no significant association between the Waterlow score and the incidence of three known complications of pancreatitis: presence of peripancreatic fluid, pancreatic pseudocyst formation and pancreatic necrosis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated good predictive power of the Waterlow score for mortality (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.73), ICU admission (AUC: 0.65) and length of stay >7 days (AUC: 0.64). This is comparable with the predictive power of the Glasgow score and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The Waterlow score for patients admitted with acute pancreatitis could provide a useful tool in prospective assessment of disease

  19. Central role of neutrophil in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi-wen; Meng, Xiao-xiao; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is an acute abdominal disease with the strong systemic inflammatory response, and rapidly progresses from a local pancreatic damage into multiple organ dysfunction. For many decades, the contributions of neutrophils to the pathology of SAP were traditionally thought to be the chemokine and cytokine cascades that accompany inflammation. In this review, we focus mainly on those recently recognized aspects of neutrophils in SAP processes. First, emerging evidence suggests that therapeutic interventions targeting neutrophils significantly lower tissue damage and protect against the occurrence of pancreatitis. Second, trypsin activation promotes the initial neutrophils recruitment into local pancreas, and subsequently neutrophils infiltration in turn triggers trypsin production. Finally, neutrophils have the unique ability to release neutrophil extracellular traps even in the absence of pathogens. PMID:26249268

  20. Comparing the Roles of EUS, ERCP and MRCP in Idiopathic Acute Recurrent Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mohammad Taghi; Miri, Mohammad Bager; Ebadi, Shahram; Shahrokh, Shabnam; Alizadeh, Amir Houshang Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) is defined as more than two attacks of acute pancreatitis with complete or almost complete resolution of symptoms and signs of pancreatitis between episodes. The initial evaluation fails to detect the cause of ARP in 10%–30% of patients, whose condition is classified as idiopathic ARP. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has gained increasing attention as a useful imaging modality for the pancreas and the extrahepatic biliary tree. The close proximity of the pancreas to the digestive tract allows EUS to obtain detailed images of this organ. This review aims to record pancreaticobiliary endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and other imaging modalities in the clinical management of patients with idiopathic ARP. PMID:27375362

  1. Acute Pancreatitis-Progress and Challenges: A Report on an International Symposium.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Elham; Pandol, Stephen J; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Sutton, Robert; Wu, Bechien U; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Gorelick, Fred; Hirota, Morihisa; Windsor, John; Lo, Simon K; Freeman, Martin L; Lerch, Markus M; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Melmed, Gil Y; Wassef, Wahid; Mayerle, Julia

    2015-11-01

    An international symposium entitled "Acute pancreatitis: progress and challenges" was held on November 5, 2014 at the Hapuna Beach Hotel, Big Island, Hawaii, as part of the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and the Japanese Pancreas Society. The course was organized and directed by Drs. Stephen Pandol, Tooru Shimosegawa, Robert Sutton, Bechien Wu, and Santhi Swaroop Vege. The symposium objectives were to: (1) highlight current issues in management of acute pancreatitis, (2) discuss promising treatments, (3) consider development of quality indicators and improved measures of disease activity, and (4) present a framework for international collaboration for development of new therapies. This article represents a compilation and adaptation of brief summaries prepared by speakers at the symposium with the purpose of broadly disseminating information and initiatives. PMID:26465949

  2. Central role of neutrophil in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Wen; Meng, Xiao-Xiao; Xu, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is an acute abdominal disease with the strong systemic inflammatory response, and rapidly progresses from a local pancreatic damage into multiple organ dysfunction. For many decades, the contributions of neutrophils to the pathology of SAP were traditionally thought to be the chemokine and cytokine cascades that accompany inflammation. In this review, we focus mainly on those recently recognized aspects of neutrophils in SAP processes. First, emerging evidence suggests that therapeutic interventions targeting neutrophils significantly lower tissue damage and protect against the occurrence of pancreatitis. Second, trypsin activation promotes the initial neutrophils recruitment into local pancreas, and subsequently neutrophils infiltration in turn triggers trypsin production. Finally, neutrophils have the unique ability to release neutrophil extracellular traps even in the absence of pathogens. PMID:26249268

  3. Effects of everolimus on a rat model of cerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Özkardeş, Alper Bilal; Bozkurt, Birkan; Dumlu, Ersin Gürkan; Tokaç, Mehmet; Yazgan, Aylin Kılıç; Ergin, Merve; Erel, Özcan; Kılıç, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the biochemical and histopathological effects of everolimus in an experimental rat model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of everolimus on blood biochemical parameters and tissue histopathology in an experimental rat model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods: In 30 Wistar albino rats (male; 240–260 g), acute pancreatitis was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) administered twice in 2 h. They were equally divided into the following three groups: 0.9% isotonic solution (Group 1; control), everolimus once (Group 2), and everolimus twice (Group 3) by oral gavage after cerulein injection. Thirty hours after the induction of pancreatitis, blood samples were collected by direct intracardiac puncture, rats were sacrificed, and pancreatic tissue samples were obtained. Results: Biochemical analyses of the blood samples showed statistically significant difference in red blood cell count as well as hemoglobin, hematocrit, urea, and alanine transaminase levels among the study groups (p<0.05 in all). Everolimus proved to significantly increase red blood cell count in a dose-independent manner. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels significantly increased only after treatment with one dose of everolimus. Urea level was significantly different between the Groups 2 and 3; however, no change was observed in both groups when compared with the control. Alanine transaminase level significantly decreased only after treatment with two doses of everolimus. Histopathological analyses revealed that everolimus significantly decreased inflammation and perivascular infiltrate in a dose-dependent manner (35% in Group 2, 75% in Group 3; p=0.048). Conclusion: Treatment with two doses of everolimus improved some biochemical and histopathological parameters of experimental rat models of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis and implied the specific inhibition of

  4. Hepatic steatosis depresses alpha-1-antitrypsin levels in human and rat acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Du, Jianjun; Yu, Pengfei; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Qingchuan; Liu, Chaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) can exacerbate acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to investigate the relation between α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and acute pancreatitis when patients have HS. Using proteomic profiling, we identified 18 differently expressed proteins pots in the serum of rats with or without HS after surgical establishment of AP. AAT was found to be one of the significantly down-regulated proteins. AAT levels were significantly lower in hepatic steatosis acute pancreatitis (HSAP) than in non-HSAP (NHSAP) (P < 0.001). To explore the clinical significance of these observations, we measured the levels of AAT in the serum of 240 patients with HSAP, NHSAP, fatty liver disease (FLD), or no disease. Compared with healthy controls, serum AAT levels in patients with NHSAP were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while in patients with HSAP serum AAT levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Further studies showed that acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-II) scores were negatively correlated with serum AAT levels (r = −0.85, P < 0.01). In conclusion, low serum levels of AAT in patients with HSAP are correlated with disease severity and AAT may represent a potential target for therapies aiming to improve pancreatitis. PMID:26634430

  5. Hepatic steatosis depresses alpha-1-antitrypsin levels in human and rat acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Du, Jianjun; Yu, Pengfei; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Qingchuan; Liu, Chaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) can exacerbate acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to investigate the relation between α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and acute pancreatitis when patients have HS. Using proteomic profiling, we identified 18 differently expressed proteins pots in the serum of rats with or without HS after surgical establishment of AP. AAT was found to be one of the significantly down-regulated proteins. AAT levels were significantly lower in hepatic steatosis acute pancreatitis (HSAP) than in non-HSAP (NHSAP) (P < 0.001). To explore the clinical significance of these observations, we measured the levels of AAT in the serum of 240 patients with HSAP, NHSAP, fatty liver disease (FLD), or no disease. Compared with healthy controls, serum AAT levels in patients with NHSAP were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while in patients with HSAP serum AAT levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Further studies showed that acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-II) scores were negatively correlated with serum AAT levels (r = -0.85, P < 0.01). In conclusion, low serum levels of AAT in patients with HSAP are correlated with disease severity and AAT may represent a potential target for therapies aiming to improve pancreatitis. PMID:26634430

  6. Acute Pancreatitis and Gastroduodenal Intussusception Induced by an Underlying Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Ahmet; Koparan, Ibrahim Halil; Adin, Mehmet Emin

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal system and comprise only 1% to 3% of all gastrointestinal tract tumors, with the majority of them arising in the stomach. In this report, we present the unique findings of a case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by an underlying gastric GIST and complicated with severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27104028

  7. A Preliminary Investigation of Normal Pancreas and Acute Pancreatitis Elasticity Using Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTQ) Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Juan; Zou, Liling; Yao, Minghua; Xu, Guang; Zhao, Lixia; Xu, Huixiong; Wu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the use of elastometry in healthy volunteers and patients with acute pancreatitis using virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) imaging technology performed on the pancreas. Material/Methods We enrolled 210 healthy volunteers and 44 acute pancreatitis patients in the study between March 2012 and June 2013. Healthy subjects were divided into 3 groups: young (18–30 years), middle-aged (30–50 years), and elderly (>50 years). VTQ was performed on the pancreatic head and body regions to obtain shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements, which were used to evaluate the elasticity values of tissues. Results The pancreatic head SWV value in the whole healthy group was 1.18±0.23 m/s, and that in the pancreatic body was 1.21±0.20 m/s. In patients with acute pancreatitis, the mean SWV measurements at the head were 1.18±0.20 m/s, compared to 1.25±0.19 m/s in the pancreatic body. There was no statistically significant difference between whole healthy volunteers and the acute pancreatitis group. Conclusions VTQ is a new method that shows promise for the quantification of pancreatic elasticity, but further studies are warranted. PMID:26062803

  8. Impaired lipid clearance in patients with previous acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, S; Nervi, F; Llanos, O; León, P; Valdivieso, V

    1985-01-01

    Fasting serum triglycerides were measured in 52 patients who had sustained an attack of pancreatitis (gall stone related 33, alcoholism six) at least six months earlier. Several patients (23%) had raised fasting serum triglycerides, with a type IV phenotype in all but one patient. The 40 patients with normal fasting serum triglycerides received an oral load of 100 g sunflower oil to compare their clearance of dietary triglycerides with that of a control group of 54 subjects. The clearance of ingested triglycerides was significantly impaired in the patients - irrespective of the presumed aetiological factor, or clinical condition associated with pancreatitis - compared with the clearance in controls. A triglyceride tolerance test is the only way to detect those patients in whom a future attack of pancreatitis may be precipitated by a diet rich in fat, or endogenous over production of triglycerides as after an alcoholic debauch. PMID:4029716

  9. Association between glucose-regulated protein and neutrophil apoptosis in severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lan-Tao; Xu, He-Ling; Fu, Ming-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the role of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP-78) in the apoptosis of neutrophils in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. Methods: A total of 54 SD male rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups: sham group (n=24) and pancreatitis group (n=30). Severe acute pancreatitis was induced by retrograde cholangiopancreatography injection of sodium taurocholate. Rats were sacrified at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h after injection. In control group, rats received laparotomy, but the pancreates remained intact. The serum amylase was detected at different time points, and flow cytometry was done to detect the apoptosis of neutrophils. Proteins were extracted from neutrophils and subjected to detection of GRP78 and Mcl-1 expression by Western blot assay. HE staining was performed for pathological scoring of the pancreas. Results: The serum amylase in pancreatitis group increased markedly when compared with control group (P<0.01). In SAP group, the serum amylase increased gradually over time (P<0.01). HE staining showed a lot of inflammatory cells and infiltration of red blood cells and the apoptosis rate of neutrophils reduced gradually (P<0.01). Western blot assay showed the protein expression of GRP-78 and Mcl-1 increased in neutrophils over time. Conclusion: In rats with SAP, the apoptosis rate of neutrophils reduced over time, which may be associated to the stress induced expression of GRP78 and subsequent activation of Mcl-1 resulting in suppression of neutrphil apoptosis over time. PMID:26464680

  10. Berberine inhibits inflammatory mediators and attenuates acute pancreatitis through deactivation of JNK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Bok; Bae, Gi-Sang; Jo, Il-Joo; Wang, Shaofan; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2016-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a life-threatening disease. Berberine (BBR), a well-known plant alkaloid, is reported to have anti-inflammatory activity in many diseases. However, the effects of BBR on AP have not been clearly elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of BBR on cerulein-induced AP in mice. AP was induced by either cerulein or l-arginine. In the BBR treated group, BBR was administered intraperitoneally 1h before the first cerulein or l-arginine injection. Blood samples were obtained to determine serum amylase and lipase activities and nitric oxide production. The pancreas and lung were rapidly removed for examination of histologic changes, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the regulating mechanisms of BBR were evaluated. Treatment of mice with BBR reduced pancreatic injury and activities of amylase, lipase, and pancreatitis-associated lung injury, as well as inhibited several inflammatory parameters such as the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthesis (iNOS). Furthermore, BBR administration significantly inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in the cerulein-induced AP. Deactivation of JNK resulted in amelioration of pancreatitis and the inhibition of inflammatory mediators. These results suggest that BBR exerts anti-inflammatory effects on AP via JNK deactivation on mild and severe acute pancreatitis model, and could be a beneficial target in the management of AP. PMID:27148818

  11. Extrapancreatic spread of acute pancreatitis: New observations with real-time US

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, R.B.; Laing, F.C.; Wing, V.W.

    1986-06-01

    Real-time ultrasonography (US) was compared with abdominal computed tomography (CT) in 40 patients with moderate to severe acute pancreatitis. Emphasis was placed on the ability of US to disclose peri-pancreatic involvement of the anterior pararenal spaces, lesser sac, and transverse mesocolon. When a real-time US scanning technique emphasizing semierect patient positioning and coronal views was used, 20 of 26 lesions in the anterior pararenal space (77%) and 14 of 14 abnormalities in the lesser sac (100%) were visualized. Abnormalities in the transverse mesocolon, however, were poorly detected on US scans. Ten patients (25%) in the study had extrapancreatic abnormalities missed by US. CT remains the imaging method of choice in patients with clinically moderate to severe pancreatitis. In patients with mild pancreatitis, the real-time US technique the authors describe improved extrapancreatic visualization compared with previous studies using static scanners. A new US observation of perivascular spread of acute pancreatitis around the splenic and portal veins is described.

  12. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol.

    PubMed

    Raja, Raheel A; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Albertsen, Birgitte K; Prunsild, Kaie; Zeller, Bernward; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Heyman, Mats; Taskinen, Mervi; Harila-Saari, Arja; Kanerva, Jukka; Frandsen, Thomas L

    2014-04-01

    L-asparaginase is an important drug in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Treatment is associated with several toxicities, including acute pancreatitis. Clinical course, presentation, re-exposure to L-asparginase after pancreatitis and risk of recurrent pancreatitis within an asparaginase-intensive protocol has been poorly reported. Children (1-17 years) on the ongoing Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL2008 protocol with asparaginase-associated pancreatitis (AAP) diagnosed between 2008 and 2012 were identified through the online NOPHO ALL toxicity registry. NOPHO ALL2008 includes eight or 15 doses of intramuscular pegylated L-asparginase (PEG-asparaginase) 1000 iu/m(2) /dose at 2-6 weeks intervals, with a total of 30 weeks of exposure to PEG-asparaginase (clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT00819351). Of 786 children, 45 were diagnosed with AAP with a cumulative risk of AAP of 5·9%. AAP occurred after a median of five doses (range 1-13), and 11 d (median) from the latest administration of PEG-Asparaginase. Thirteen patients developed pseudocysts (30%) and 11 patients developed necrosis (25%). One patient died from pancreatitis. Twelve AAP patients were re-exposed to L-asparginase, two of whom developed mild AAP once more, after four and six doses respectively. In conclusion, re-exposure to PEG-asparaginase in ALL patients with mild AAP seems safe. PMID:24428625

  13. Estimation of plasma esterolytic activity and it's in vitro inhibition by proteinase inhibitors during acute pancreatitis in the human.

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, K. J.; Cuschieri, A.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma esterolytic activity was measured using benzyol arginine ethyl ester (BAEe) in the peripheral venous blood of patients with acute pancreatitis, normal healthy volunteers and a contrast group of patients with acute intrabdominal inflammations other than acute pancreatitis. The plasma esterolytic activity was significantly elevated in the pancreatitis group. This activity was maximal during the first 48 hours of the illness and remained elevated for a further 8 days thereafter. Aprotinin in a dose of 2000 K.I. u/0-3 ml plasma did not completely inhibit this esterolytic activity, although it resulted in a more substantial inhibition than either ovomucoid or soy bean inhibitor. It is concluded that pancreatic enzymes are released into the circulation during acute pancreatitis and that Aprotinin does not completely inhibit this proteolytic activity. This polyvalent proteinase inhibitor should therefore be administered in much higher dosage than that used hitherto in acute pancreatitis. The plasma esterolytic activity seems to be of diagnostic value in acute pancreatitis. PMID:1083738

  14. Successful Resolution of Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by Pancreatic Pseudocyst or Walled-Off Necrosis After Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shao-Yang; Gao, Shun-Liang; Liang, Zhong-Yan; Yu, Wen-Qiao; Liang, Ting-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) can be caused by gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction, which may occur when pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) or walled-off necrosis (WON) compresses the stomach. The aim of the study was to explore a proper surgical treatment. Methods From June 2010 to June 2013, 25 of 148 patients with AP suffered DGE. Among them, 12 were caused by gastroparesis, 1 was a result of obstruction from a Candida albicans plug, and 12 were gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) compressed by PP (n = 8) or WON (n = 4), which were treated by percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD). Results All 12 cases of compressing GOO achieved resolution by PCD after 6 [1.86] and 37.25 [12.02] days for PP and WON, respectively. Five cases developed intracystic infection, 3 cases had pancreatic fistulae whereas 2 achieved resolution and 1 underwent a pseudocyst jejunostomy. Conclusions Gastric outlet obstruction caused by a PP or WON is a major cause of DGE in patients with AP. Percutaneous catheter drainage with multiple sites, large-bore tubing, and lavage may be a good therapy due to high safety and minimal invasiveness. PMID:26465954

  15. Conservative management of cholestasis with and without fever in acute biliary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, José Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Ardengh, José Celso; Jr, Jorge Elias

    2012-01-01

    The presence of cholestasis in both mild and severe forms of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) does not justify, of itself, early endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) or endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES). Clinical support treatment of acute pancreatitis for one to two weeks is usually accompanied by regression of pancreatic edema, of cholestasis and by stone migration to the duodenum in 60%-88% of cases. On the other hand, in cases with both cholestasis and fever, a condition usually characterized as ABP associated with cholangitis, early ES is normally indicated. However, in daily clinical practice, it is practically impossible to guarantee the coexistence of cholangitis and mild or severe acute pancreatitis. Pain, fever and cholestasis, as well as mental confusion and hypotension, may be attributed to inflammatory and necrotic events related to ABP. Under these circumstances, evaluation of the bile duct by endo-ultrasonography (EUS) or magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) before performing ERC and ES seems reasonable. Thus, it is necessary to assess the effects of the association between early and opportune access to the treatment of local and systemic inflammatory/infectious effects of ABP with cholestasis and fever, and to characterize the possible scenarios and the subsequent approaches to the common bile duct, directed by less invasive examinations such as MRC or EUS. PMID:22530079

  16. Intracellular Hmgb1 Inhibits Inflammatory Nucleosome Release and Limits Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Rui; Zhang, Qiuhong; Hou, Wen; Yan, Zhenwen; Chen, Ruochan; Bonaroti, Jillian; Bansal, Preeti; Billiar, Timothy R.; Tsung, Allan; Wang, Qingde; Bartlett, David L.; Whitcomb, David C; Chang, Eugene B.; Zhu, Xiaorong; Wang, Haichao; Lu, Ben; Tracey, Kevin J.; Cao, Lizhi; Fan, Xue-Gong; Lotze, Michael T.; Zeh, Herbert J.; Tang, Daolin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an abundant protein that regulates chromosome architecture and also functions as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule. Little is known about its intracellular roles in response to tissue injury or during subsequent local and systemic inflammatory responses. We investigated the function of Hmgb1 in mice following induction of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: We utilized a Cre/LoxP system to create mice with pancreas-specific disruption in Hmbg1 (Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox mice). Acute pancreatitis was induced in these mice (HMGB1flox/flox mice served as controls) following injection of L-arginine or cerulein. Pancreatic tissues and acinar cells were collected and analyzed by histologic, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: Following injection of L-arginine or cerulein, Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox mice developed acute pancreatitis more rapidly than controls, with increased mortality. Pancreatic tissues of these mice also had higher levels of serum amylase, acinar cell death, leukocyte infiltration, and interstitial edema than controls. Pancreatic tissues and acinar cells collected from the Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox mice following L-arginine- or cerulein injection demonstrated nuclear catastrophe with greater nucleosome release when compared with controls, along with increased phosphorylation/activation of RELA Nfκb, degradation of Iκb, and phosphorylation of Mapk. Inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) blocked L-arginine–induced DNA damage, necrosis, apoptosis, release of nucleosomes, and activation of Nfκb in pancreatic tissues and acinar cells from Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox and control mice. Exogenous genomic DNA and recombinant histone H3 proteins significantly induced release of HMGB1 from mouse macrophages; administration of antibodies against H3 to mice reduced serum levels of HMGB1 and increased survival following L-arginine injection. CONCLUSIONS: In 2 mouse

  17. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis: a rare manifestation of an incomplete "dapsone syndrome".

    PubMed

    Das, Anup K; Jawed, Qaiser

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) is under-reported, and a large number of drugs are listed as offenders, but are often overlooked. Knowledge about the possible association of medications in causing AP is important, and needs a high index of suspicion, especially with drugs that have been reported to be the etiology only rarely. Dapsone, a commonly used drug, can cause various hypersensitivity reactions including AP collectively called "dapsone syndrome." Here, we report dapsone-induced AP in a young man. Our case shows certain dissimilarities like associated acute renal failure and acute hemolysis not previously described. PMID:25097293

  18. Src kinases play a novel dual role in acute pancreatitis affecting severity but no role in stimulated enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Ramos-Álvarez, Irene; Jensen, R T

    2016-06-01

    In pancreatic acinar cells, the Src family of kinases (SFK) is involved in the activation of several signaling cascades that are implicated in mediating cellular processes (growth, cytoskeletal changes, apoptosis). However, the role of SFKs in various physiological responses such as enzyme secretion or in pathophysiological processes such as acute pancreatitis is either controversial, unknown, or incompletely understood. To address this, in this study, we investigated the role/mechanisms of SFKs in acute pancreatitis and enzyme release. Enzyme secretion was studied in rat dispersed pancreatic acini, in vitro acute-pancreatitis-like changes induced by supramaximal COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK). SFK involvement assessed using the chemical SFK inhibitor (PP2) with its inactive control, 4-amino-7-phenylpyrazol[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP3), under experimental conditions, markedly inhibiting SFK activation. In CCK-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells, activation occurred of trypsinogen, various MAP kinases (p42/44, JNK), transcription factors (signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, nuclear factor-κB, activator protein-1), caspases (3, 8, and 9) inducing apoptosis, LDH release reflective of necrosis, and various chemokines secreted (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted). All were inhibited by PP2, not by PP3, except caspase activation leading to apoptosis, which was increased, and trypsin activation, which was unaffected, as was CCK-induced amylase release. These results demonstrate SFK activation is playing a dual role in acute pancreatitis, inhibiting apoptosis and promoting necrosis as well as chemokine/cytokine release inducing inflammation, leading to more severe disease, as well as not affecting secretion. Thus, our studies indicate that SFK is a key mediator of inflammation and pancreatic acinar cell death in acute pancreatitis, suggesting it

  19. Ischemia-reperfusion rat model of acute pancreatitis: protein carbonyl as a putative early biomarker of pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Schanaider, Alberto; de Carvalho, Thales Penna; de Oliveira Coelho, Simone; Renteria, Juan Miguel; Eleuthério, Elis Cristina Araújo; Castelo-Branco, Morgana Teixeira Lima; Madi, Kalil; Baetas-da-Cruz, Wagner; de Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disorder that can affect adjacent and/or remote organs. Some evidence indicates that the production of reactive oxygen species is able to induce AP. Protein carbonyl (PC) derivatives, which can also be generated through oxidative cleavage mechanisms, have been implicated in several diseases, but there is little or no information on this biomarker in AP. We investigated the association between some inflammatory mediators and PC, with the severity of ischemia-reperfusion AP. Wistar rats (n = 56) were randomly assigned in the following groups : control; sham, 15- or 180-min clamping of splenic artery, with 24 or 72 h of follow-up. The relationships between serum level of PC and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) to myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in tissue homogenates and to cytokines in culture supernatants of pancreatic samples were analyzed. MPO activity was related to the histology scores and increased in all clamping groups. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 were higher in the 180-min groups. Significant correlations were found between MPO activity and the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β. PC levels increased in the 15-min to 24-h group. TBARS levels were not altered substantially. MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations in pancreatic tissue are correlated with AP severity. Serum levels of PC appear to begin to rise early in the course of the ischemia-reperfusion AP and are no longer detected at later stages in the absence of severe pancreatitis. These data suggest that PC can be an efficient tool for the diagnosis of early stages of AP. PMID:24934325

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis: the position statement of the Italian Association for the study of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Pezzilli, R; Uomo, G; Zerbi, A; Gabbrielli, A; Frulloni, L; De Rai, P; Delle Fave, G; Di Carlo, V

    2008-10-01

    This medical position statement has been developed by the board of ProInf AISP (Computerized Project on Acute Pancreatitis) Study Group. The evidence and key recommendations were discussed at a dedicated meeting held in Milan on September 2007 and during this meeting the main clinical and therapeutic medical topics were extensively discussed. Each of the proposed recommendations was discussed and an initial consensus was reached. Acute pancreatitis in Italy is a disease of increasing annual incidence. The diagnosis of the disease should be established within 48hours of admission. Early identification of patients at risk of developing a severe attack of acute pancreatitis is of great importance because rapid therapeutic interventions improve outcome. The endoscopic approach seems to be most beneficial measure in patients with acute pancreatitis with jaundice and in those with cholangitis. The development of infected necrosis should be assessed using fine-needle aspiration and the sample should be cultured for germ isolation and characterization. The role of early ERCP in all patients with severe acute pancreatitis of biliary origin is still controversial. The data supporting the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infection of necrosis are conflicting. The refeeding is a crucial topic in patients who have recovered from an acute episode of mild acute pancreatitis, but there are very few studies on this issue. PMID:18387862

  1. Challenges in detecting pre-malignant pancreatic lesions during acute pancreatitis using a serum microRNA assay: a study based on KrasG12D transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiafei; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Wenze; Ye, Adam Yongxin; Song, Wei; Dai, Hongmei; Wang, Xianze; Wu, Fan; You, Lei; Wu, Wenming; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis accelerates the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions in a pancreas-specific KrasG12D mouse model. The purpose of this study was to explore whether serum microRNAs (miRNAs) can serve as sensitive biomarkers to detect occult PanIN in the setting of acute pancreatitis. Serum miRNA profiles were quantified by an array-based method and normalized by both Variance Stabilization Normalization (VSN) and invariant methods. Individual miRNAs were validated by TaqMan real-time PCR with synthetic spike-in C. elegans miRNAs as external controls. Serum miRNA profiles distinguished KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice without pancreatitis, but failed to differentiate KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis from wild-type mice with pancreatitis. Most individual miRNAs that increased in KrasG12D mice with pancreatitis were not significantly different between KrasG12D mice without pancreatitis and wild-type mice without pancreatitis. Mechanistically, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) of the mRNA array data and immunohistochemical assays showed that caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis involved acinar cell loss and immune cell infiltration, which might contribute to serum miRNA profile changes. This study highlighted the challenges in using sensitive serum miRNA biomarker screening for the early detection of pancreatic malignancies during acute pancreatitis. PMID:27009811

  2. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Use Is Not Associated With Acute Pancreatitis in High-Risk Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ting; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To analyze the association between use of DPP-4 inhibitors and acute pancreatitis in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients. A retrospective nationwide cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claim database. The risk associated with sitagliptin was compared to that with acarbose, a second-line antidiabetic drug prescribed for patients with similar diabetes severity and with a known neutral effect on pancreatitis. Between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010, a total of 8526 sitagliptin initiators and 8055 acarbose initiators who had hypertriglyceridemia or prior hospitalization history for acute pancreatitis were analyzed for the risk of hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis stratified for baseline propensity score. In the crude analysis, sitagliptin was associated with a decreased risk of acute pancreatitis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62–0.88) compared to acarbose in diabetic patients with prior history of hospitalization for pancreatitis or hypertriglyceridemia. The association was abolished after stratification for propensity score quintiles (adjusted HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.79–1.16). Similar results were found separately in both patients’ histories of prior hospitalization of acute pancreatitis (adjusted HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76–1.24) and those with hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65–1.13). No significant association was found for different durations or accumulative doses of sitagliptin. In the stratified analysis, no significant effect modification was found in relation to patients’ characteristics. Use of sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis in high-risk diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia or with history of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26886601

  3. A case of recurrent arrhythmia in an acute pancreatitis patient--pathophysiological explanation using shortage of 'repolarization reserve'.

    PubMed

    Uvelin, Arsen; Hajduković, Danica; Vrsajkov, Vladimir; Kolak, Radmila; Lazukić, Aleksandra; Vicković, Sanja; Gojković, Zoran

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of a patient with acute pancreatitis who developed serious heart rhythm abnormalities on three occasions, two of which were associated with administration of the first generation antihistamine chloropyramine, and the third one with hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia. Dysrhythmic events consisted of bigeminy, multifocal ventricular extrasystoles and torsades de pointes-like ventricular tachycardia. Electrocardiographic changes in acute pancreatitis in the absence of previous heart disease can occur in more than half of the cases. Antihistamines are medications that are known to produce heart rhythm disturbances, especially the second generation drugs astemizole and terfenadine. This is the first report of chloropyramine causing dysrhythmia. It seems that acute pancreatitis patients are especially prone to heart dysrhythmia caused by different factors such as electrolyte disturbances and pronounced vagal tone. Acute pancreatitis may be added to the list of risk factors with altered 'repolarization reserve', predisposing to drug-induced QT interval prolongation and possible torsades de pointes occurrence. PMID:24697004

  4. [Artificial nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis: an evolving concept].

    PubMed

    Mangiante, Gerardo; Zugni, Chiara; Chimetto, Andrea; Rossi, Michele; Campagnaro, Tommaso; Biasiutti, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    We reviewed our series of consecutive cases of severe pancreatitis observed from 2002 to 2004, in order to verify how our actual therapeutic strategy improved prognosis. Seventeen patients with diagnosis of severe pancreatitis (SP) were admitted. On presumption of SP we inserted a naso-jejunal self-propelling feeding tube (SPT) in all but one patients, and an early enteral nutrition ( EEN ) was started. Severity of pancreatitis has been scored by APACHE II (> 8), IMRIE (> or = 3), and Balthazar Computed Tomography findings (> 30% necrosis). We always used a polymeric diet added with glutamine and fibres at initial rate of 20-30 ml/h until achievement of a full regimen of EEN, based on Harris-Benedict formula but no more than 30 kcal/kg/day. Only one patient has been submitted to surgical removal of infected necrosis. A patient died (5.8%) by dis-metabolic and septic state. From our experience we can state EEN is safe and useful to determine a favourable outcome on this dismal pathology, preserving the patient from infection, without significative alterations of nutritional index. PMID:17361934

  5. Tumor Size on Abdominal MRI Versus Pathologic Specimen in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Implications for Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, William A.; Mikell, John L.; Mittal, Pardeep; Colbert, Lauren; Prabhu, Roshan S.; Kooby, David A.; Nickleach, Dana; Hanley, Krisztina; Sarmiento, Juan M.; Ali, Arif N.; Landry, Jerome C.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining tumor size by comparing the preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo (3-dimensional [3D] volumetric interpolated breath-hold [VIBE]) MRI tumor size with pathologic specimen size. Methods and Materials: The records of 92 patients who had both preoperative contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI images and detailed pathologic specimen measurements were available for review. Primary tumor size from the MRI was independently measured by a single diagnostic radiologist (P.M.) who was blinded to the pathology reports. Pathologic tumor measurements from gross specimens were obtained from the pathology reports. The maximum dimensions of tumor measured in any plane on the MRI and the gross specimen were compared. The median difference between the pathology sample and the MRI measurements was calculated. A paired t test was conducted to test for differences between the MRI and pathology measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association of disparity between the MRI and pathology sizes with the pathology size. Disparities relative to pathology size were also examined and tested for significance using a 1-sample t test. Results: The median patient age was 64.5 years. The primary site was pancreatic head in 81 patients, body in 4, and tail in 7. Three patients were American Joint Commission on Cancer stage IA, 7 stage IB, 21 stage IIA, 58 stage IIB, and 3 stage III. The 3D VIBE MRI underestimated tumor size by a median difference of 4 mm (range, −34-22 mm). The median largest tumor dimensions on MRI and pathology specimen were 2.65 cm (range, 1.5-9.5 cm) and 3.2 cm (range, 1.3-10 cm), respectively. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI underestimates tumor size by 4 mm when compared with pathologic specimen. Advanced abdominal MRI sequences warrant further investigation for radiation therapy planning in pancreatic adenocarcinoma before

  6. Emodin enhances alveolar epithelial barrier function in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xian-Ming; Wang, Fang-Yu; Wang, Zhen-Kai; Wan, Hai-Jun; Xu, Wen-An; Lu, Heng

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on expression of claudin-4, claudin-5 and occludin, as well as the alveolar epithelial barrier in rats with pancreatitis induced by sodium taurocholate. METHODS: Experimental pancreatitis was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Emodin was injected via the external jugular vein 3 h after induction of acute pancreatitis. Rats from sham operation group and acute pancreatitis group were injected with normal saline (an equivalent volume as emodin) at the same time point. Samples of lung and serum were obtained 6 h after drug administration. Pulmonary morphology was examined with HE staining. Pulmonary edema was estimated by measuring water content in lung tissue samples. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level were measured by enzyme-linked immunospecific assay. Serum amylase and pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were detected by spectrophotometry. Alveolar epithelial barrier was assessed by pulmonary dye extravasation. Expression of claudin-4, claudin-5 and occludin in lung tissue samples was examined by immunohistology, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Pancreatitis-associated lung injury was characterized by pulmonary edema, leukocyte infiltration, alveolar collapse, and elevated serum amylase level. The pulmonary damage, pulmonary pathological scores, serum amylase and MPO activity, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, and wet/dry ratio were decreased in rats after treatment with emodin. Immunostaining of claudin-4, claudin-5 and occludin was detected in lung tissue samples from rats in sham operation group, which was distributed in alveolar epithelium, vascular endothelium, and bronchial epithelium, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin-4, claudin-5 and occludin in lung tissue samples were markedly decreased, the expression level of

  7. Cholestatic jaundice, acute kidney injury and acute pancreatitis secondary to the recreational use of methandrostenolone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over the last few years the use of anabolic steroids has become increasingly common amongst amateur athletes and for aesthetic purposes. As a result, the adverse events related to their use are being seen more frequently. Methandrostenolone is an anabolic steroid which is widely available and has been used for both performance enhancement and aesthetic purposes. This drug has also been reported to cause cholestasis of the intra-hepatic bile ducts resulting in elevated aminotransferases, hyperbilirubinemia and clinical jaundice. However, to the best of our knowledge this agent has not been previously reported to cause pancreatitis or acute kidney injury. Case presentation In this paper, we report the case of a 50-year-old man of Indian descent who presented with a six week history of diffuse abdominal pain, anorexia and weight loss following an eight week cycle of methandrostenolone use. At initial presentation, his lipase level was 785 U/L, bilirubin was 922 μmol/L and creatinine was 200 U/L while his aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were only mildly elevated at 61 U/L and 56 U/L respectively. His lipase peaked on day nine at >3000 U/L whilst his creatinine level was 299 U/L. Imaging was consistent with acute pancreatitis while a liver biopsy was consistent with intra-hepatic cholestasis and a kidney biopsy revealed evidence of acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion Both acute pancreatitis and acute kidney injury have rarely been reported with anabolic steroid use and they have not been previously reported to occur in the same patient. This case demonstrates some potentially new and serious adverse consequences occurring with the use of anabolic steroids, of which physicians need to be aware. PMID:21470406

  8. Perfusion-CT - Can We Predict Acute Pancreatitis Outcome within the First 24 Hours from the Onset of Symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowska, Joanna; Gwoździewicz, Katarzyna; Skrobisz-Balandowska, Katarzyna; Marek, Iwona; Kostro, Justyna; Szurowska, Edyta; Studniarek, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is still a significant clinical problem which is associated with a highly mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation of prognostic value of CT regional perfusion measurement performed on the first day of onset of symptoms of AP, in assessing the risk of developing severe form of acute pancreatitis. Material and Methods 79 patients with clinical symptoms and biochemical criteria indicative of acute pancreatitis (acute upper abdominal pain, elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase) underwent perfusion CT within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. The follow-up examinations were performed after 4–6 days to detect progression of the disease. Perfusion parameters were compared in 41 people who developed severe form of AP (pancreatic and/or peripancreatic tissue necrosis) with parameters in 38 consecutive patients in whom course of AP was mild. Blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time and permeability surface area product were calculated in the three anatomic pancreatic subdivisions (head, body and tail). At the same time the patient's clinical status was assessed by APACHE II score and laboratory parameters such as CRP, serum lipase and amylase, AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin were compared. Results Statistical differences in the perfusion parameters between the group of patients with mild and severe AP were shown. Blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were significantly lower and permeability surface area product was significantly higher in patients who develop severe acute pancreatitis and presence of pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis due to pancreatic ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of evaluated on admission severity of pancreatitis assessed using APACHE II score and laboratory tests. Conclusions CT perfusion is a very useful indicator for prediction and selection patients in early stages of acute pancreatitis who are at risk of

  9. Age-dependent effects of UCP2 deficiency on experimental acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sarah; Kaiser, Hannah; Krüger, Burkhard; Fitzner, Brit; Lange, Falko; Bock, Cristin N; Nizze, Horst; Ibrahim, Saleh M; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Jaster, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) for many years but experimental evidence is still limited. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2)-deficient mice are an accepted model of age-related oxidative stress. Here, we have analysed how UCP2 deficiency affects the severity of experimental AP in young and older mice (3 and 12 months old, respectively) triggered by up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 μg/kg body weight) at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of alpha-amylase, intrapancreatic trypsin activation and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung and pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, in vitro studies with pancreatic acini were performed. At an age of 3 months, UCP2-/- mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were virtually indistinguishable with respect to disease severity. In contrast, 12 months old UCP2-/- mice developed a more severe pancreatic damage than WT mice at late time points after the induction of AP (24 h and 7 days, respectively), suggesting retarded regeneration. Furthermore, a higher peak level of alpha-amylase activity and gradually increased MPO levels in pancreatic and lung tissue were observed in UCP2-/- mice. Interestingly, intrapancreatic trypsin activities (in vivo studies) and intraacinar trypsin and elastase activation in response to cerulein treatment (in vitro studies) were not enhanced but even diminished in the knockout strain. Finally, UCP2-/- mice displayed a diminished ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione in serum but no increased ROS levels in pancreatic acini. Together, our data indicate an aggravating effect of UCP2 deficiency on the severity of experimental AP in older but not in young mice. We suggest that increased severity of AP in 12 months old UCP2-/- is caused by an imbalanced inflammatory response but is unrelated to acinar cell functions. PMID:24721982

  10. Age-Dependent Effects of UCP2 Deficiency on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Burkhard; Fitzner, Brit; Lange, Falko; Bock, Cristin N.; Nizze, Horst; Ibrahim, Saleh M.; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Jaster, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) for many years but experimental evidence is still limited. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2)-deficient mice are an accepted model of age-related oxidative stress. Here, we have analysed how UCP2 deficiency affects the severity of experimental AP in young and older mice (3 and 12 months old, respectively) triggered by up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 μg/kg body weight) at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of alpha-amylase, intrapancreatic trypsin activation and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lung and pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, in vitro studies with pancreatic acini were performed. At an age of 3 months, UCP2-/- mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were virtually indistinguishable with respect to disease severity. In contrast, 12 months old UCP2-/- mice developed a more severe pancreatic damage than WT mice at late time points after the induction of AP (24 h and 7 days, respectively), suggesting retarded regeneration. Furthermore, a higher peak level of alpha-amylase activity and gradually increased MPO levels in pancreatic and lung tissue were observed in UCP2-/- mice. Interestingly, intrapancreatic trypsin activities (in vivo studies) and intraacinar trypsin and elastase activation in response to cerulein treatment (in vitro studies) were not enhanced but even diminished in the knockout strain. Finally, UCP2-/- mice displayed a diminished ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione in serum but no increased ROS levels in pancreatic acini. Together, our data indicate an aggravating effect of UCP2 deficiency on the severity of experimental AP in older but not in young mice. We suggest that increased severity of AP in 12 months old UCP2-/- is caused by an imbalanced inflammatory response but is unrelated to acinar cell functions. PMID:24721982

  11. Duration of injury correlates with necrosis in caerulein-induced experimental acute pancreatitis: implications for pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Tony G; Raghav, Rahul; Kumar, Ajay; Garg, Pramod K; Roy, Tara S

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell necrosis is indicative of severe pancreatitis and the degree of necrosis is an index of its outcome. We studied whether the dose and duration of injury correlates with severity, particularly in terms of necrosis, in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in Swiss albino mice. In addition to control group 1 (G1), groups 2 and 3 received four injections of caerulein every hour but were sacrificed at five hours (G2) and nine hours (G3) respectively, and group 4 received eight injections and was sacrificed at nine hours (G4). The severity of pancreatitis was assessed histopathologically and biochemically. The histopathological scores of pancreatitis in groups 3 and 4 were significantly higher than in groups 1 and 2 (4 vs. 1, 4 vs. 2, 3 vs. 1, 3 vs. 2; P < 0.05). TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 compared with groups 1 and 4 (P < 0.05). Necrosis was significantly more in group 4 than other groups (37.49% (4.68) vs. 19.97% (1.60) in G2; 20.36% (1.56) in G3; P = 0.006 for G 2 vs. 4 and P = 0.019 for G 3 vs. 4). Electron microscopy revealed numerous autophagosomes in groups 2 and 3 and mitochondrial damage and necrosis in group 4. The pancreatic and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity in group 4 was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0.01). Hence, severity of pancreatitis is a function of the dose of injurious agent, while inflammation is both dose and duration dependent, which may also explain the wide spectrum of severity of AP seen in clinical practice. PMID:24761825

  12. Review of experimental animal models of biliary acute pancreatitis and recent advances in basic research

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Mei H; Huang, Wei; Latawiec, Diane; Jiang, Kun; Booth, David M; Elliott, Victoria; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Xia, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a formidable disease, which, in severe forms, causes significant mortality. Biliary AP, or gallstone obstruction-associated AP, accounts for 30–50% of all clinical cases of AP. In biliary AP, pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) death (the initiating event in the disease) is believed to occur as acinar cells make contact with bile salts when bile refluxes into the pancreatic duct. Recent advances have unveiled an important receptor responsible for the major function of bile acids on acinar cells, namely, the cell surface G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar1), located in the apical pole of the PAC. High concentrations of bile acids induce cytosolic Ca2+ overload and inhibit mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, resulting in cell injury to both PACs and pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Various bile salts are employed to induce experimental AP, most commonly sodium taurocholate. Recent characterization of taurolithocholic acid 3-sulphate on PACs has led researchers to focus on this bile salt because of its potency in causing acinar cell injury at relatively low, sub-detergent concentrations, which strongly implicates action via the receptor Gpbar1. Improved surgical techniques have enabled the infusion of bile salts into the pancreatic duct to induce experimental biliary AP in mice, which allows the use of these transgenic animals as powerful tools. This review summarizes recent findings using transgenic mice in experimental biliary AP. PMID:22221567

  13. Valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis in pediatric age: case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    COFINI, M.; QUADROZZI, F.; FAVORITI, P.; FAVORITI, M.; COFINI, G.

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is commonly prescribed medication for epilepsy, migraine and bipolar disorder. Although the common adverse effect associated with VPA are typically benign, less common adverse effect can occur; these include hepatotixicity, teratogenicity and acute pancreatitis (AP). VPA-induced pancreatitis does not depend on valproic acid serum level and may occur anytime after onset of therapy. Re-challenge with VPA is dangerous and should be avoided. The diagnosis of VPA-induced pancreatitis seems to be underestimated because of difficulties in determining the causative agent and the need for a retrospective re-evaluation of the causative factor. More of idiopathic pancreatitis should be a drug-induced pancreatitis. We report four cases of VPA-induced AP found in a group of 52 cases of AP in children come to our attention from January 2008 to December 2012. The aim of these reports is to point out our experience about clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, outcome in children with VPA-induced AP and review of literature. PMID:26712070

  14. Thoracic epidural analgesia: a new approach for the treatment of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Windisch, Olivier; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Giraud, Raphaël; Morel, Philippe; Bühler, Léo

    2016-01-01

    This review article analyzes, through a nonsystematic approach, the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) with a focus on the effects of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) on the disease. The benefit-risk balance is also discussed. AP has an overall mortality of 1 %, increasing to 30 % in its severe form. The systemic inflammation induces a strong activation of the sympathetic system, with a decrease in the blood flow supply to the gastrointestinal system that can lead to the development of pancreatic necrosis. The current treatment for severe AP is symptomatic and tries to correct the systemic inflammatory response syndrome or the multiorgan dysfunction. Besides the removal of gallstones in biliary pancreatitis, no satisfactory causal treatment exists. TEA is widely used, mainly for its analgesic effect. TEA also induces a targeted sympathectomy in the anesthetized region, which results in splanchnic vasodilatation and an improvement in local microcirculation. Increasing evidence shows benefits of TEA in animal AP: improved splanchnic and pancreatic perfusion, improved pancreatic microcirculation, reduced liver damage, and significantly reduced mortality. Until now, only few clinical studies have been performed on the use of TEA during AP with few available data regarding the effect of TEA on the splanchnic perfusion. Increasing evidence suggests that TEA is a safe procedure and could appear as a new treatment approach for human AP, based on the significant benefits observed in animal studies and safety of use for human. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the clinical benefits observed in animal studies. PMID:27141977

  15. Valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis in pediatric age: case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Cofini, M; Quadrozzi, F; Favoriti, P; Favoriti, M; Cofini, G

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is commonly prescribed medication for epilepsy, migraine and bipolar disorder. Although the common adverse effect associated with VPA are typically benign, less common adverse effect can occur; these include hepatotixicity, teratogenicity and acute pancreatitis (AP). VPA-induced pancreatitis does not depend on valproic acid serum level and may occur anytime after onset of therapy. Re-challenge with VPA is dangerous and should be avoided. The diagnosis of VPA-induced pancreatitis seems to be underestimated because of difficulties in determining the causative agent and the need for a retrospective re-evaluation of the causative factor. More of idiopathic pancreatitis should be a drug-induced pancreatitis. We report four cases of VPA-induced AP found in a group of 52 cases of AP in children come to our attention from January 2008 to December 2012. The aim of these reports is to point out our experience about clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, outcome in children with VPA-induced AP and review of literature. PMID:26712070

  16. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide modulates the severity of acute pancreatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    DENG, YUAN-YUAN; SHAMOON, MUHAMMAD; HE, YUE; BHATIA, MADHAV; SUN, JIA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). AP is a common clinical condition characterized by acute abdominal inflammation. Innate immune cells and mediators are intrinsically linked to the pathogenesis of AP. Cathelicidins are innate immunity-derived antimicrobial peptides that exert immunomodulatory effects on various host cells. However, how cathelicidins are involved and modulate the severity and inflammatory responses of AP remains unclear. In the present study, the mouse CRAMP gene-deficient cnlp−/− mice and their wild-type C57BL/6J littermates were induced with AP by multiple hourly injections of supramaximal doses of caerulein. Serum amylase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity and histological examination were performed in order to determine the disease severity and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease severity and inflammatory markers were subsequently evaluated in the control mice, cnlp−/− C57BL/6J mice with AP, and wild-type C57BL/6J mice with AP. The results demonstrated that cnlp−/− mice exhibited a more severe phenotype and inflammatory response following AP induction compared with the wild-type mice, as evidenced by increased serum amylase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase release, and early inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor-α production. Histological examination confirmed that CRAMP deficiency worsened the pancreatic inflammatory condition. These results indicate that CRAMP may be considered a novel modulatory mediator in mouse experimental AP. PMID:27035328

  17. Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide modulates the severity of acute pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Shamoon, Muhammad; He, Yue; Bhatia, Madhav; Sun, Jia

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). AP is a common clinical condition characterized by acute abdominal inflammation. Innate immune cells and mediators are intrinsically linked to the pathogenesis of AP. Cathelicidins are innate immunity-derived antimicrobial peptides that exert immunomodulatory effects on various host cells. However, how cathelicidins are involved and modulate the severity and inflammatory responses of AP remains unclear. In the present study, the mouse CRAMP gene‑deficient cnlp‑/‑ mice and their wild‑type C57BL/6J littermates were induced with AP by multiple hourly injections of supramaximal doses of caerulein. Serum amylase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity and histological examination were performed in order to determine the disease severity and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Disease severity and inflammatory markers were subsequently evaluated in the control mice, cnlp‑/‑ C57BL/6J mice with AP, and wild‑type C57BL/6J mice with AP. The results demonstrated that cnlp‑/‑ mice exhibited a more severe phenotype and inflammatory response following AP induction compared with the wild‑type mice, as evidenced by increased serum amylase levels, pancreatic myeloperoxidase release, and early inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor‑α production. Histological examination confirmed that CRAMP deficiency worsened the pancreatic inflammatory condition. These results indicate that CRAMP may be considered a novel modulatory mediator in mouse experimental AP. PMID:27035328

  18. Smoke or fire? Acute pancreatitis and the liraglutide trials.

    PubMed

    Gale, Edwin A M

    2015-06-01

    Over the past few years, substantial clinical data have been presented showing that incretin-based therapies are effective glucose-lowering agents. Specifically, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists demonstrate an efficacy comparable to insulin treatment with minimal hypoglycemia and have favorable effects on body weight. Thus, many of the unmet clinical needs noted from prior therapies are addressed by these agents. However, even after many years of use, many continue to raise concerns about the long-term safety of these agents and, in particular, the concern with pancreatitis. This clearly remains a complicated topic. Thus, in this issue of Diabetes Care, we continue to update our readers on this very important issue by presenting two studies evaluating incretin-based medications and risk of pancreatitis. Both have undergone significant revisions based on peer review that provided significant clarification of the data. We applaud both author groups for being extremely responsive in providing the additional data and revisions requested by the editorial team. As such, because of the critical peer review, we feel both articles achieve the high level we require for Diabetes Care and are pleased to now present them to our readers. In keeping with our aim to comprehensively evaluate this topic, we asked for additional commentaries to be prepared. In the narrative outlined below, Prof. Edwin A.M. Gale provides a commentary on the report that focuses on clinical trials of liraglutide in the treatment of diabetes. In the narrative that follows Prof. Gale's contribution, Dr. Laurent Azoulay provides a commentary about the remaining uncertainty in this area and also discusses the results from a nationwide population-based case-control study. From the journal's perspective, both of the articles on pancreatitis and incretin-based therapies reported in this issue have been well vetted, and we feel both of the commentaries are insightful. PMID:25998284

  19. Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-ping; Zhang, Jie; Song, Qiao-ling; Chen, Han-qin

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition. AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes, bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and secondary infection of pancreatic tissue, and then cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which are important factors influencing AP’s severity and mortality. Meanwhile, the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier plays a key role in AP’s process. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the relationship between the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier and AP. In addition, many factors such as microcirculation disturbance, ischemical reperfusion injury, excessive release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis may also play important roles in the damage of intestinal mucosa barrier. In this review, we summarize studies on mechanisms of AP. PMID:18257123

  20. Damage to pancreatic acinar cells and preservation of islets of Langerhans in a rat model of acute pancreatitis induced by Karwinskia humboldtiana (buckthorn).

    PubMed

    Carcano-Diaz, Katya; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Segoviano-Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Loera-Arias, Maria de Jesus; Garcia-Juarez, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Karwinskia humboldtiana (Kh) is a poisonous plant that grows in some regions of the American continent. Consuming large amounts of Kh fruit results in acute intoxication leading to respiratory failure, culminating in death within days. There is evidence of histological damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys following accidental and experimental Kh intoxication. To date, the microscopic effect of Kh consumption on the pancreas has not been described. We examined the early effects of Kh fruit on pancreatic tissue at different stages of acute intoxication in the Wistar rat. We found progressive damage confined to the exocrine pancreas, starting with a reduction in the number of zymogen granules, loss of acinar architecture, the presence of autophagy-like vesicles, apoptosis and inflammatory infiltrate. The pancreatic pathology culminated in damaged acini characterized by necrosis and edema, with a complete loss of lobular architecture. Interestingly, the morphology of the islets of Langerhans was conserved throughout our evaluations. Taken together, our results indicate the damage induced by a high dose of Kh fruit in the Wistar rat is consistent with an early acute necrotizing pancreatitis that exclusively affects the exocrine pancreas. Therefore, this system might be useful as an animal model to study the treatment of pancreatic diseases. More importantly, as the islets of Langerhans were preserved, the active compounds of Kh fruit could be utilized for the treatment of acinar pancreatic cancer. Further studies might provide insight into the severity of acute Kh intoxication in humans and influence the design of treatments for pancreatic diseases and acinar pancreatic cancer. PMID:26877198

  1. Renovascular acute renal failure precipitated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for pancreatic stones

    PubMed Central

    Cecere, Nicolas; Goffette, Pierre; Deprez, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Morelle, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic stones is considered a safe and efficient method to facilitate fragmentation and stone removal. We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with a solitary functioning kidney who presented an acute-onset anuria and renovascular renal failure the day after ESWL. We speculate that vascular calcifications in the area targeted by shock waves played a critical role in renal artery obstruction in the present case. PMID:26251710

  2. A case of severe acute pancreatitis treated with CTR-001 direct hemoperfusion for cytokine apheresis.

    PubMed

    Saotome, Takao; Endo, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Teiji; Tabata, Takahisa; Hamamoto, Tetsu; Fujino, Kazunori; Andoh, Akira; Eguchi, Yutaka; Tani, Tohru; Fujiyama, Yoshihide

    2005-08-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is a clinical entity that can develop into multiple organ failure (MOF), and still has a poor prognosis. It is generally agreed that excessive humoral mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Furthermore, it has been reported that continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) can remove the excess humoral mediators during the hypercytokinemic state of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We experienced a case of severe acute pancreatitis induced by alcohol abuse, on whom we performed cytokine apheresis. The patient was a 46 year-old male. He received 14 cytokine apheresis procedures, for about 4 hours in each session, using a CTR-001 direct hemoperfusion (DHP) cartridge. His serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6; 1649.1+/-667.1-1257.1+/-489.4 pg/mL, P=0.013) decreased significantly after the CTR-001 procedures. However tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (26.2+/-1.7-24.3+/-1.9 pg/mL, P=0.087), IL-1beta (6.1+/-2.9-3.49+/-1.1 pg/mL, P=0.477), IL-8 (192.5+/-33.4-229.5+/-51.8 pg/mL, P=0.754) and IL-10 (14.4+/-2.7-14.0+/-1.9 pg/mL, P=0.726) did not decrease statistically. Therefore, we conclude that in this case, cytokine apheresis using a CTR-001 cartridge was effective for reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokines during severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:16076384

  3. Quantitative Evaluation and Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Mouse Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhaoping; Gao, Jinhang; Lv, Xiuhe; Yang, Wenjuan; Wen, Shilei; Tong, Huan; Tang, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of differences in gene expression is dependent on normalization using reference genes. However, the expression of many of these reference genes, as evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, is upregulated in acute pancreatitis, so they cannot be used as the standard for gene expression in this condition. For this reason, we sought to identify a stable reference gene, or a suitable combination, for expression analysis in acute pancreatitis. The expression stability of 10 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18sRNA, TUBB, B2M, HPRT1, UBC, YWHAZ, EF-1α, and RPL-13A) was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software and evaluated according to variations in the raw Ct values. These reference genes were evaluated using a comprehensive method, which ranked the expression stability of these genes as follows (from most stable to least stable): RPL-13A, YWHAZ > HPRT1 > GAPDH > UBC > EF-1α > 18sRNA > B2M > TUBB > ACTB. RPL-13A was the most suitable reference gene, and the combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ was the most stable group of reference genes in our experiments. The expression levels of ACTB, TUBB, and B2M were found to be significantly upregulated during acute pancreatitis, whereas the expression level of 18sRNA was downregulated. Thus, we recommend the use of RPL-13A or a combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ for normalization in qRT-PCR analyses of gene expression in mouse models of acute pancreatitis. PMID:27069927

  4. A triad of linezolid toxicity: hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, and acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, P. Connor; Phillips, Kristy M.; O'Donnell, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of suspected linezolid toxicity in a 34-year-old man with sickle cell disease and line-related vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia and tricuspid valve endocarditis. The patient developed sudden-onset hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, and acute pancreatitis 11 days after initiation of linezolid. All adverse effects quickly resolved with drug cessation. The pathophysiology underlying this triad of linezolid toxicity is unclear, but may be related to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26424943

  5. [Prevention and early diagnosis of acute pancreatitis after surgery of abdominal organs].

    PubMed

    Vansovich, V E

    1990-01-01

    Of the 506 patients, operated on the abdominal organs, the clinical signs of acute postoperative pancreatitis (APP) were revealed in 28 (5.5%), stable increase of the amylase activity in the blood-- in 98 (19.4%). Systematic study of the amylase activity in the blood permits to diagnose the mild forms of APP. In high probability of the APP development, its prophylaxis should be started before the operation by means of administration of the protease inhibitors and cytostatic agents. PMID:2074679

  6. [Immune deficiency in the genesis of acute postoperative pancreatitis (initial studies)].

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, V; Krŭstev, S

    1998-01-01

    The issue of acute postoperative pancreatitis (APP) development is discussed against the background of the immune state of the organism. The problem in itself is by no means a new one. Attention is called to the major role of immunodeficiency as an underlying cause of APP. Proceeding from experience had with two observations, the early results of researches along this line are presented. PMID:9974003

  7. Multicenter Approach to Recurrent Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis in the United States: The North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2)

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, David C.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Adam, Slivka; Hawes, Robert H.; Brand, Randall E.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Money, Mary E.; Banks, Peter A.; Bishop, Michele D.; Baillie, John; Sherman, Stuart; DiSario, James; Burton, Frank R.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Gelrud, Andres; Lo, Simon K.; DeMeo, Mark T.; Steinberg, William M.; Kochman, Michael L.; Etemad, Babak; Forsmark, Christopher E.; Elinoff, Beth; Greer, Julia B.; O’Connell, Michael; Lamb, Janette; Barmada, M. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are complex syndromes associated with numerous etiologies, clinical variables and complications. We developed the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2) to be sufficiently powered to understand the complex environmental, metabolic and genetic mechanisms underlying RAP and CP. Methods Between August 2000 and September 2006, a consortium of 20 expert academic and private sites prospectively ascertained 1,000 human subjects with RAP or CP, plus 695 controls (spouse, family, friend or unrelated). Standardized questionnaires were completed by both the physicians and study subjects and blood was drawn for genomic DNA and biomarker studies. All data were double-entered into a database and systematically reviewed to minimize errors and include missing data. Results A total of 1,000 subjects (460 RAP, 540 CP) and 695 controls who completed consent forms and questionnaires and donated blood samples comprised the final dataset. Data were organized according to diagnosis, supporting documentation, etiological classification, clinical signs and symptoms (including pain patterns and duration, and quality of life), past medical history, family history, environmental exposures (including alcohol and tobacco use), medication use and therapeutic interventions. Upon achieving the target enrollment, data were organized and classified to facilitate future analysis. The approaches, rationale and datasets are described, along with final demographic results. Conclusion The NAPS2 consortium has successfully completed a prospective ascertainment of 1,000 subjects with RAP and CP from the USA. These data will be useful in elucidating the environmental, metabolic and genetic conditions, and to investigate the complex interactions that underlie RAP and CP. PMID:18765957

  8. Phenylpropenoic Acid Glucoside from Rooibos Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Cell Death Induced by Acute Injury

    PubMed Central

    Himpe, Eddy; Cunha, Daniel A.; Song, Imane; Bugliani, Marco; Marchetti, Piero; Cnop, Miriam; Bouwens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies demonstrated that a phenylpropenoic acid glucoside (PPAG) from rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract had anti-hyperglycemic activity and significant protective effects on the pancreatic beta cell mass in a chronic diet-induced diabetes model. The present study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of the phytochemical on beta cells exposed to acute cell stress. Methods Synthetically prepared PPAG was administered orally in mice treated with a single dose of streptozotocin to acutely induce beta cell death and hyperglycemia. Its effect was assessed on beta cell mass, proliferation and apoptotic cell death. Its cytoprotective effect was also studied in vitro on INS-1E beta cells and on human pancreatic islet cells. Results Treatment with the phytochemical PPAG protected beta cells during the first days after the insult against apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by TUNEL staining, and prevented loss of expression of anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 in vivo. In vitro, PPAG protected INS-1E beta cells from streptozotocin-induced apoptosis and necrosis in a BCL2-dependent and independent way, respectively, depending on glucose concentration. PPAG also protected human pancreatic islet cells against the cytotoxic action of the fatty acid palmitate. Conclusions These findings show the potential use of PPAG as phytomedicine which protects the beta cell mass exposed to acute diabetogenic stress. PMID:27299564

  9. Characterization of Pancreatic Tumor Motion Using Cine MRI: Surrogates for Tumor Position Should Be Used With Caution

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Mary Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Adusumilli, Saroja; Cao Yue; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Our current understanding of intrafraction pancreatic tumor motion due to respiration is limited. In this study, we characterized pancreatic tumor motion and evaluated the application of several radiotherapy motion management strategies. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer were enrolled in a prospective internal review board-approved study and imaged during shallow free-breathing using cine MRI on a 3T scanner. Tumor borders were agreed on by a radiation oncologist and an abdominal MRI radiologist. Tumor motion and correlation with the potential surrogates of the diaphragm and abdominal wall were assessed. These data were also used to evaluate planning target volume margin construction, respiratory gating, and four-dimensional treatment planning for pancreatic tumors. Results: Tumor borders moved much more than expected. To provide 99% geometric coverage, margins of 20 mm inferiorly, 10 mm anteriorly, 7 mm superiorly, and 4 mm posteriorly are required. Tumor position correlated poorly with diaphragm and abdominal wall position, with patient-level Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.18-0.43. Sensitivity and specificity of gating with these surrogates was also poor, at 53%-68%, with overall error of 35%-38%, suggesting that the tumor may be underdosed and normal tissues overdosed. Conclusions: Motion of pancreatic tumor borders is highly variable between patients and larger than expected. There is substantial deformation with breathing, and tumor border position does not correlate well with abdominal wall or diaphragmatic position. Current motion management strategies may not account fully for tumor motion and should be used with caution.

  10. [CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS BILIARY ETIOLOGY COURSE IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS].

    PubMed

    Godlevskiy, A I; Savolyuk, S I; Tomashevskiy, Ya V

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of cytopathic hypoxia markers in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) biliary etiology (BE), depending on the presence of concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM), which is an independent factor of premorbid severity increase and increase in the degree of operational and anesthetic risk. Markers of cytopathic hypoxia use as methods for early diagnosis of acute liver failure (ALF) and monitoring the effectiveness of its correction promising. In terms of cytopathic hypoxia may be at the stage of laboratory diagnostics to distinguish between destructive and non-destructive forms APBE, and for markers of endothelial dysfunction--destructive forms on the area and depth of destruction of the pancreas. PMID:26591209

  11. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... open. Balloon dilatation. Some endoscopes have a small balloon that the doctor uses to dilate, or stretch, a narrowed pancreatic or bile duct. A temporary stent may be placed for a few months to ...

  12. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting with acute pancreatitis and asymptomatic bone involvement

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Aasem

    2015-01-01

    Summary A 15-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with vomiting and abdominal pain. She had two similar attacks in the previous three months both of them were diagnosed as pancreatitis in two different hospitals. On admission, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were very high. CT scan revealed left inferior parathyroid adenoma. Investigations to rule out possible multiple endocrine neoplasia were all negative. The patient was managed by intravenous fluids and furosemide to lower her serum calcium level. Then, left inferior parathyroidectomy was done. Postoperatively, the patient had hungry bone syndrome with severe hypocalcaemia and was managed by intravenous calcium infusion for five days in the intensive care unit. Later, she was kept on oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. She became symptom-free and her serum calcium improved gradually. PMID:26604950

  13. Acute verbal dyspraxia, a rare presentation in multiple sclerosis: a case report with MRI localization.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Stephen L; Glabus, Michael F; Kelley, Roger E; Minagar, Alireza

    2003-12-01

    Cortical speech disorders rarely occur in multiple sclerosis (MS). We report a patient with relapsing-remitting MS, who presented with acute verbal dyspraxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an acute T2/Flair hyperintense, primarily white matter lesion underlying the middle third of the inferior frontal gyrus. The verbal dyspraxia cleared beginning 48 hours after the initiation of iv dexamethasone. Follow-up MRI demonstrated qualitative and quantitative diminution of the hyperintensity. This is the first report of a clinically definite MS patient with acute verbal dyspraxia. Moreover, there was a suggestive localization of verbal praxis to Brodmann areas 44/45. PMID:14664479

  14. ACUTE PANCREATITIS GRAVITY PREDICTIVE FACTORS: WHICH AND WHEN TO USE THEM?

    PubMed Central

    FERREIRA, Alexandre de Figueiredo; BARTELEGA, Janaina Alves; URBANO, Hugo Corrêa de Andrade; de SOUZA, Iure Kalinine Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acute pancreatitis has as its main causes lithiasic biliary disease and alcohol abuse. Most of the time, the disease shows a self-limiting course, with a rapid recovery, only with supportive treatment. However, in a significant percentage of cases, it runs with important local and systemic complications associated with high mortality rates. Aim: To present the current state of the use of these prognostic factors (predictive scores) of gravity, as the time of application, complexity and specificity. Method: A non-systematic literature review through 28 papers, with emphasis on 13 articles published in indexed journals between 2008 and 2013 using Lilacs, Medline, Pubmed. Results: Several clinical, laboratory analysis, molecular and image variables can predict the development of severe acute pancreatitis. Some of them by themselves can be determinant to the progression of the disease to a more severe form, such as obesity, hematocrit, age and smoking. Hematocrit with a value lower than 44% and serum urea lower than 20 mg/dl, both at admission, appear as risk factors for pancreatic necrosis. But the PCR differentiates mild cases of serious ones in the first 24 h. Multifactorial scores measured on admission and during the first 48 h of hospitalization have been used in intensive care units, being the most ones used: Ranson, Apache II, Glasgow, Iget and Saps II. Conclusion: Acute pancreatitis is a disease in which several prognostic factors are employed being useful in predicting mortality and on the development of the severe form. It is suggested that the association of a multifactorial score, especially the Saps II associated with Iget, may increase the prognosis accuracy. However, the professional's preferences, the experience on the service as well as the available tools, are factors that have determined the choice of the most suitable predictive score. PMID:26537149

  15. [Change in pancreatic exocrine function in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iu A

    1979-10-01

    In order to study changes in the functional state of the pancreas 1572 investigations of the blood and urine amylase, atoxylresistant lipase of the blood serum before operation were performed in different postoperative periods in 131 patients with acute appendicitis. The enzyme activity was established to increase, especially in destructive forms of appendicitis and in elderly patients. PMID:505800

  16. The role of acetaldehyde in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Nordback, I H; MacGowan, S; Potter, J J; Cameron, J L

    1991-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA), the first product of ethanol metabolism, has been suggested as an important mediator in alcoholic pancreatitis, but experimental evidence has not been convincing. Prior work using the isolated perfused canine pancreas preparation has suggested that toxic oxygen metabolites generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) may mediate the early injury in pancreatitis. Xanthine oxidase is capable of oxidizing AA, and during this oxidation free radicals are released. The hypothesis that acute alcoholic pancreatitis may be initiated by AA in the presence of active XO (converted from xanthine dehydrogenase [XD]) was tested in the authors' experimental preparation by converting XD to XO by a period of ischemia, and infusing AA. Control preparations remained normal throughout the 4-hour perfusion (weight gain, 7 +/- 4 g; amylase activity, 1162 +/- 202 U/dL). One hour of ischemia or infusion of AA at 25 mg/hr or at 50 mg/hr without ischemia did not induce changes in the preparation. Acetaldehyde at 250 mg/hr induced minimal edema and weight gain (16 +/- 4 g; p less than 0.05), but not significant hyperamylasemia. Changes also were not observed when 1-hour ischemia was followed by a bolus of ethanol (1.5 g) or sodium acetate (3.0 g), or by infusion of 25 mg/hr of AA. One hour of ischemia followed by infusion of AA at 50 mg/hr or at 250 mg/hr induced edema, hemorrhage, weight gain (22 +/- 7 g [p less than 0.05] and 26 +/- 17 g [p less than 0.05]) and hyperamylasemia (2249 +/- 1034 U/dL [p less than 0.05] and 2602 +/- 1412 U/dL [p less than 0.05]). Moreover infusion of AA at 250 mg/hr after 2 hours of ischemia potentiated the weight gain (62 +/- 20 g versus 30 +/- 14 g [p less than 0.05]), but not the hyperamylasemia (3404 +/- 589 U/dL versus 2862 +/- 1525 U/dL) as compared with 2 hours of ischemia alone. Pancreatitis induced by 1 hour of ischemia followed by AA at 50 mg/hr could be inhibited by pretreatment with the free radical scavengers superoxide dismutase and

  17. A murine model of obesity implicates the adipokine milieu in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zyromski, Nicholas J; Mathur, Abhishek; Pitt, Henry A; Lu, Debao; Gripe, John T; Walker, Julia J; Yancey, Kyle; Wade, Terence E; Swartz-Basile, Deborah A

    2008-09-01

    Obesity is clearly an independent risk factor for increased severity of acute pancreatitis (AP), although the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. Adipokines (including leptin and adiponectin) are pleiotropic molecules produced by adipocytes that are important regulators of the inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the altered adipokine milieu observed in obesity contributes to the increased severity of pancreatitis. Lean (C57BL/6J), obese leptin-deficient (LepOb), and obese hyperleptinemic (LepDb) mice were subjected to AP by six hourly intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 microg/kg). Severity of AP was assessed by histology and by measuring pancreatic concentration of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-6, the chemokine MCP-1, and the marker of neutrophil activation MPO. Both congenitally obese strains of mice developed significantly more severe AP than wild-type lean animals. Severity of AP was not solely related to adipose tissue volume: LepOb mice were heaviest; however, LepDb mice developed the most severe AP both histologically and biochemically. Circulating adiponectin concentrations inversely mirrored the severity of pancreatitis. These data demonstrate that congenitally obese mice develop more severe AP than lean animals when challenged by cerulein hyperstimulation and suggest that alteration of the adipokine milieu exacerbates the severity of AP in obesity. PMID:18583460

  18. Acute vertigo in an anesthesia provider during exposure to a 3T MRI scanner

    PubMed Central

    Gorlin, Andrew; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Pavlicek, William; Thunberg, Christopher A; Seamans, David

    2015-01-01

    Vertigo induced by exposure to the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner is a well-known phenomenon within the radiology community but is not widely appreciated by other clinical specialists. Here, we describe a case of an anesthetist experiencing acute vertigo while providing sedation to a patient undergoing a 3 Tesla MRI scan. After discussing previous reports, and the evidence surrounding MRI-induced vertigo, we review potential etiologies that include the effects of both static and time-varying magnetic fields on the vestibular apparatus. We conclude our review by discussing the occupational standards that exist for MRI exposure and methods to minimize the risks of MRI-induced vertigo for clinicians working in the MRI environment. PMID:25792858

  19. [Changes in the management of acute pancreatitis as related to its pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Bodnár, Zoltán

    2005-03-13

    Although acute pancreatitis runs a benign self limiting course in 80% of cases, acute necrotizing form of it still remained a severe disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severity assessment thus plays an important role in identifying patients with high risk of local and/or systemic complications. Locally, development of necrosis especially if it becomes infected accounts for high mortality, but systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) following necrosis further increases the risk of fatal outcome. Several scoring systems, contrast-enhanced CT scan can help to recognize patients requiring early intensive management. Prophylactic systemic antibiotic treatment and nasojejunal feeding improves prognosis by decreasing the gut derived infection of necrosis. CT guided fine needle aspiration sample must be cultured to detect infection. Conservative therapy should be continued while necrosis remains sterile, but surgical and/or CT guided percutaneous catheter drainage is mandatory when infected necrosis developed. Results of therapeutic influence on the proinflammatory cytokine cascade in acute pancreatitis are still controversial. Enteral feeding seems to be the only proven tool in attenuating acute phase response and improving disease severity. PMID:15813188

  20. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [<220 U/L], mildly elevated [220 to 660 U/L], elevated [>660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P < 0.001). We found four independent factors for paraquat death prediction: amylase, PaCO2, leukocyte number, and neutrophil percentage. Models using pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication. PMID:26603772

  1. Defining a Therapeutic Program for Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis Patients with Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Vincenzo; Lapolla, Francesco; Di Lascia, Alessandra; Giambavicchio, Libero Luca

    2014-01-01

    AIM To define a therapeutic program for mild-moderate acute pancreatitis (AP), often recurrent, which at the end of the diagnostic process remains of undefined etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period 2011–2012, we observed 64 cases of AP: 52 mild-moderate, 12 severe; biliary 39, biliary in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis 5, unexplained recurrent 20. The clinical and instrumental evaluation of the 20 cases of unexplained AP showed 6 patients with biliary sludge, 4 microlithiasis, 4 sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and 6 cases that remained undefined. RESULTS Among 20 patients with recurrent, unexplained AP at initial etiological assessment, we performed 10 video laparo cholecystectomies (VLCs), 2 open cholecystectomies and 4 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/endoscopic sphincterotomies (ERCP/ES) in patients who had undergone previous cholecystectomy; 4 patients refused surgery. Among these 20 patients, 6 had AP that remained unexplained after second-level imaging investigations. For these patients, 4 VLCs and 2 ERCP/ES were performed. Follow-up after six months was negative for further recurrence. CONCLUSION The recurrence of unexplained acute pancreatitis could be treated with empirical cholecystectomy and/or ERCP/ES in cases of previous cholecystectomy. PMID:24833943

  2. Minimal contribution of severe hypertriglyceridemia in L-asparaginase-associated pancreatitis developed in a child with acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Ryosei; Nohara, Atsushi; Mase, Shintaro; Fujiki, Toshihiro; Irabu, Hitoshi; Kuroda, Rie; Araki, Raita; Ikawa, Yasuhiro; Maeba, Hideaki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    A 10-year-old girl developed L-asparaginase (ASP)-associated pancreatitis during chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. Her symptoms showed alleviation with continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitor and systemic somatostatin analog therapy. She had intermittent and marked hypertriglyceridemia, an initial trigger for pancreatitis, probably as a side effect of ASP and steroids. However, we considered the pancreatitis to have developed mainly because of factors other than hypertriglyceridemia as lipoprotein analysis confirmed chylomicron levels to be nearly undetectable. Extremely large chylomicrons contribute directly to the onset of pancreatitis by causing blockage of small vessels. Although it is necessary to examine patients for dyslipidemia developing as a side effect of ASP, therapeutic intervention for hypertriglyceridemia is not considered to prevent the onset of ASP-associated pancreatitis. PMID:27599414

  3. Early increase in intestinal permeability in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: correlation with endotoxemia, organ failure, and mortality.

    PubMed

    Ammori, B J; Leeder, P C; King, R F; Barclay, G R; Martin, I G; Larvin, M; McMahon, M J

    1999-01-01

    Sepsis accounts for 80% of deaths from acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to investigate early changes in intestinal permeability in patients with acute pancreatitis, and to correlate these changes with subsequent disease severity and endotoxemia. The renal excretion of enterally administered polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and PEG 400 was measured within 72 hours of onset of acute pancreatitis to determine intestinal permeability. Severity was assessed on the basis of APACHE II scores and C-reactive protein measurements. Serum endotoxin and antiendotoxin antibodies were measured on admission. Eight-five patients with acute pancreatitis (mild in 56, severe in 29) and 25 healthy control subjects were studied. Urinary excretion of PEG 3350 (median) was significantly greater in patients who had severe attacks (0.61%) compared to those with mild disease (0.09%) and health control subjects (0.12%) (P <0. 0001), as was the permeability index (PEG 3350/400 excretion) (P <0. 00001). The permeability index was significantly greater in patients who subsequently developed multiple organ system failure and/or died compared with other severe cases (0.16 vs. 0.04) (P = 0.0005). The excretion of PEG 3350 correlated strongly with endotoxemia (r = 0.8; P = 0.002). Early increased intestinal permeability may play an important role in the pathophysiology of severe acute pancreatitis. Therapies that aim to restore intestinal barrier function may improve outcome. PMID:10481118

  4. TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway mediates HMGB1-induced pancreatic injury in mice with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    LI, GANG; WU, XUEJUN; YANG, LE; HE, YUXIANG; LIU, YANG; JIN, XING; YUAN, HAI

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is an extremely dangerous acute abdominal disorder which causes multiple complications and has a high mortality rate. Previous research has suggested that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of SAP; however, the mechanisms underlying this strong correlation remain unclear. In this study, to further investigate whether HMGB1 acts as a stimulating factor, and whether Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) acts as its major mediator in the development of pancreatic injury during SAP, recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) and TLR4-deficient mice were used. We found that HMGB1 and TLR4 were highly expressed, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was activated in our mouse model of SAP. We noted that the rhHMGB1 pancreas-targeted injection activated the TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway and induced pancreatic injury in wild-type mice. In TLR4-deficient mice, the rhHMGB1-induced activation of NF-κB and pathological changes in the pancreas were less evident than in wild-type mice. Therefore, this study provides evidence that HMGB1 promotes the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, and its downstream TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway is a potential important mediator in the development of this form of pancreatic injury. PMID:26719855

  5. Elevated Deoxycholic Acid and Idiopathic Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report With 48 Months of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening condition with a well-established differential diagnosis. In a significant number of cases, no explanation exists. This case report documents one patient with a clear pattern of recurrent acute pancreatitis and no identifiable cause despite great effort. After 7 years of recurrent symptoms, she was found to have marked elevation of fecal deoxycholic acid (DCA), a secondary bile acid used to precipitate pancreatitis in animal models. This report documents cessation of symptoms/hospitalizations with normalization of her fecal DCA levels. This secondary bile acid is easily measured in stool. Needed now is an observational study of fecal DCA levels in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:24891995

  6. Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-ping; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    Study on the action mechanism of inflammatory mediators generated by the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in multiple organ injury is a hotspot in the surgical field. In clinical practice, the main complicated organ dysfunctions are shock, respiratory failure, renal failure, encephalopathy, with the rate of hepatic diseases being closely next to them. The hepatic injury caused by SAP cannot only aggravate the state of pancreatitis, but also develop into hepatic failure and cause patient death. Its complicated pathogenic mechanism is an obstacle in clinical treatment. Among many pathogenic factors, the changes of vasoactive substances, participation of inflammatory mediators as well as OFR (oxygen free radical), endotoxin, etc. may play important roles in its progression. PMID:17444596

  7. Acinar inflammatory response to lipid derivatives generated in necrotic fat during acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mateu, A; Ramudo, L; Manso, M A; Closa, D; De Dios, I

    2014-09-01

    Lipids play a role in acute pancreatitis (AP) progression. We investigate the ability of pancreatic acinar cells to trigger inflammatory response in the presence of lipid compounds generated in necrotic areas of peripancreatic adipose tissue (AT) during AP induced in rats by 5% sodium taurocholate. Lipid composition of AT was analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Acinar inflammatory response to total lipids as well as to either the free fatty acid (FFA) fraction or their chlorinated products (Cl-FFAs) was evaluated. For this, mRNA expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and P-selectin as well as the activation of MAPKs, NF-κB and STAT-3 were analyzed in pancreatic acini. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as an inducer of Cl-FFA generation, was also analyzed in AT. MPO activity significantly increased in necrotic (AT-N) induced changes in lipid composition of necrotic fat, such as increase in FFA and phospholipid (PL) content, generation of Cl-FFAs and increases in saturated FFAs and in the poly-:mono-unsaturated FFA ratio. Total lipids from AT-N induced overexpression of CCL2 and P-selectin in pancreatic acini as well as MAPKs phosphorylation and activation of NF-κB and STAT3. FFAs, but not Cl-FFAs, up-regulated CCL2 and P-selectin in acinar cells. We conclude that FFAs are capable of up-regulating inflammatory mediators in pancreatic acini and given that they are highly produced during AP, mainly may contribute to the inflammatory response triggered in acinar cells by fat necrosis. No role is played by Cl-FFAs generated as a result of neutrophil infiltration. PMID:24959971

  8. Silencing Mist1 Gene Expression Is Essential for Recovery from Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Anju; Humphrey, Sean E.; Steele, Rebecca E.; Hess, David A.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Konieczny, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas are tasked with synthesizing, packaging and secreting vast quantities of pro-digestive enzymes to maintain proper metabolic homeostasis for the organism. Because the synthesis of high levels of hydrolases is potentially dangerous, the pancreas is prone to acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that targets acinar cells, leading to acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM), inflammation and fibrosis—events that can transition into the earliest stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Despite a wealth of information concerning the broad phenotype associated with pancreatitis, little is understood regarding specific transcriptional regulatory networks that are susceptible to AP and the role these networks play in acinar cell and exocrine pancreas responses. In this study, we examined the importance of the acinar-specific maturation transcription factor MIST1 to AP damage and organ recovery. Analysis of wild-type and Mist1 conditional null mice revealed that Mist1 gene transcription and protein accumulation were dramatically reduced as acinar cells underwent ADM alterations during AP episodes. To test if loss of MIST1 function was primarily responsible for the damaged status of the organ, mice harboring a Cre-inducible Mist1 transgene (iMist1) were utilized to determine if sustained MIST1 activity could alleviate AP damage responses. Unexpectedly, constitutive iMist1 expression during AP led to a dramatic increase in organ damage followed by acinar cell death. We conclude that the transient silencing of Mist1 expression is critical for acinar cells to survive an AP episode, providing cells an opportunity to suppress their secretory function and regenerate damaged cells. The importance of MIST1 to these events suggests that modulating key pancreas transcription networks could ease clinical symptoms in patients diagnosed with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:26717480

  9. Radial EUS Examination Can be Helpful in Predicting the Severity of Acute Biliary Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Alper, Emrah; Arabul, Mahmut; Aslan, Fatih; Cekic, Cem; Celik, Mustafa; Ipek, Serkan; Unsal, Belkis

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the utility of noncontrast enhanced endosonography (EUS) in predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) during the first 72 to 96 h of admission.In total, 187 patients with acute biliary pancreatitis were included. The patients were classified into 2 groups as having severe and mild AP according to the Modified Glasgow scoring and computerized tomography severity index (SI). The 158 cases with mild and 29 cases with severe AP had a similar age and sex distribution.Although none of the cases with mild AP developed morbidity and death, of the cases with severe AP, 16 developed serious morbidities and 5 died. On EUS examination, we looked for parenchymal findings, peripancreatic inflammatory signs, free or loculated fluid collections, and abnormalities of the common bile duct and the pancreatic channel. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between the severity of AP with diffuse parenchymal edema, periparenchymal plastering, and/or diffuse retroperitoneal free fluid accumulation, and peri-pancreatic edema. We also defined an EUSSI and found that the EUSSI had sensitivity of 89.7%, specificity of 84.2%, positive predictivity value (PPV) of 88.9%, negative predictivity value (NPV) of 91.2%, and an accuracy of 87.9% in the differentiation of mild and severe AP. We found that the EUSSI had an accuracy of 72.4%, sensitivity of 75.4%, specificity of 65.1%, PPV of 69.3%, and NPV of 73.1% for determining mortality.Our data suggest that EUS allowed us to accurately predict the severity and mortality in nearly 90% of cases with AP. PMID:26817865

  10. Gastrointestinal Fistulas in Acute Pancreatitis With Infected Pancreatic or Peripancreatic Necrosis: A 4-Year Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Tong, Zhihui; Yang, Dongliang; Ke, Lu; Shen, Xiao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Gang; Li, Weiqin; Li, Jieshou

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) fistula is a well-recognized complication of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, it has been reported in limited literature. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and outcome of GI fistulas in AP patients complicated with infected pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis (IPN).Between 2010 and 2013 AP patients with IPN who diagnosed with GI fistula in our center were analyzed in this retrospective study. And we also conducted a comparison between patients with and without GI fistula regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes.Over 4 years, a total of 928 AP patients were admitted into our center, of whom 119 patients with IPN were diagnosed with GI fistula and they developed 160 GI fistulas in total. Colonic fistula found in 72 patients was the most common form of GI fistula followed with duodenal fistula. All duodenal fistulas were managed by nonsurgical management. Ileostomy or colostomy was performed for 44 (61.1%) of 72 colonic fistulas. Twenty-one (29.2%) colonic fistulas were successfully treated by percutaneous drainage or continuous negative pressure irrigation. Mortality of patients with GI fistula did not differ significantly from those without GI fistula (28.6% vs 21.9%, P = 0.22). However, a significantly higher mortality (34.7%) was observed in those with colonic fistula.GI fistula is a common finding in patients of AP with IPN. Most of these fistulas can be successfully managed with different procedures depending on their sites of origin. Colonic fistula is related with higher mortality than those without GI fistula. PMID:27057908

  11. Epiplakin Deficiency Aggravates Murine Caerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Favors the Formation of Acinar Keratin Granules

    PubMed Central

    Wögenstein, Karl L.; Szabo, Sandra; Lunova, Mariia; Wiche, Gerhard; Haybaeck, Johannes; Strnad, Pavel; Boor, Peter; Wagner, Martin; Fuchs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epiplakin, a member of the plakin protein family, is exclusively expressed in epithelial tissues and was shown to bind to keratins. Epiplakin-deficient (EPPK−/−) mice showed no obvious spontaneous phenotype, however, EPPK−/− keratinocytes displayed faster keratin network breakdown in response to stress. The role of epiplakin in pancreas, a tissue with abundant keratin expression, was not yet known. We analyzed epiplakin’s expression in healthy and inflamed pancreatic tissue and compared wild-type and EPPK−/− mice during caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We found that epiplakin was expressed primarily in ductal cells of the pancreas and colocalized with apicolateral keratin bundles in murine pancreatic acinar cells. Epiplakin’s diffuse subcellular localization in keratin filament-free acini of K8-deficient mice indicated that its filament-associated localization in acinar cells completely depends on its binding partner keratin. During acute pancreatitis, epiplakin was upregulated in acinar cells and its redistribution closely paralleled keratin reorganization. EPPK−/− mice suffered from aggravated pancreatitis but showed no obvious regeneration phenotype. At the most severe stage of the disease, EPPK−/− acinar cells displayed more keratin aggregates than those of wild-type mice. Our data propose epiplakin to be a protective protein during acute pancreatitis, and that its loss causes impaired disease-associated keratin reorganization. PMID:25232867

  12. Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the abdomen. In 1 out of 4 childhood cases, a cause is never found. What are the symptoms of pancreatitis? Inflammation of the pancreas is often associated with pain in the upper abdomen and/or the back which may develop slowly, ...

  13. Characterization and Predictive Value of Near Infrared 2-Deoxyglucose Optical Imaging in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane; Patel, Krutika; Mishra, Vivek; Trivedi, Ram N.; Noel, Pawan; Singh, Abhilasha; Yaron, Jordan R.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studying the uptake of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) analogs such as 2-Deoxy-2-[18F] fluoroglucose (FDG) is a common approach to identify and monitor malignancies and more recently chronic inflammation. While pancreatitis is a common cause for false positive results in human studies on pancreatic cancer using FDG, the relevance of these findings to acute pancreatitis (AP) is unknown. FDG has a short half-life. Thus, with an aim to accurately characterize the metabolic demand of the pancreas during AP in real-time, we studied the uptake of the non-radioactive, near infrared fluorescence labelled 2-deoxyglucose analog, IRDye® 800CW 2-DG probe (NIR 2-DG; Li-Cor) during mild and severe biliary AP. Methods Wistar rats (300 g; 8–12/group) were administered NIR 2-DG (10 nM; I.V.). Mild and severe biliary AP were respectively induced by biliopancreatic duct ligation (DL) alone or along with infusing glyceryl trilinoleate (GTL; 50 μL/100 g) within 10 minutes of giving NIR 2-DG. Controls (CON) only received NIR 2-DG. Imaging was done every 5–10 minutes over 3 hrs. Average Radiant Efficiency [p/s/cm²/sr]/[μW/cm²] was measured over the pancreas using the IVIS 200 in-vivo imaging system (PerkinElmer) using the Living Image® software and verified in ex vivo pancreata. Blood amylase, lipase and pancreatic edema, necrosis were measured over the course of AP. Results NIR 2-DG uptake over the first hour was not influenced by AP induction. However, while the signal declined in controls and rats with mild AP, there was significantly higher retention of NIR 2-DG in the pancreas after 1 hour in those with GTL pancreatitis. The increase was > 3 fold over controls in the GTL group and was verified to be in the pancreas ex vivo. In vitro, pancreatic acini exposed to GTL had a similar increase in NIR 2-DG uptake which was followed by progressively worse acinar necrosis. Greater retention of NIR 2-DG in vivo was associated with worse pancreatic necrosis, reduced ATP

  14. Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Following Olanzapine Treatment and 759C/T Polymorphism of HTR2C Gene: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rizos, Emmanouil; Tournikioti, Kalliopi; Alevyzakis, Evangelos; Peppa, Melpomeni; Papazaxos, Konstantinos; Zorbas, Georgios; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Liappas, Ioannis; Papageorgiou, Charalampos; Douzenis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can be attributed to numerous potential causes, such as alcohol abuse, chololithiasis, infection, lesions, tumors, hypercalcemia, hyperlipidemia, and medications. Among psychotropic medications, the use of some atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone, has been implicated in the development of acute pancreatitis, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. We describe the case of a young man with no other major medical problems, alcohol abuse or predisposing factors, who developed acute necrotizing pancreatitis following olanzapine administration, possibly through severe elevation of serum triglycerides. A pharmacogenomic analysis revealed the presence of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C, G protein-coupled (HTR2C) -759C genotype which is related to increased risk for metabolic syndrome. PMID:26359410

  15. Continuous regional arterial infusion for acute pancreatitis: a propensity score analysis using a nationwide administrative database

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) of a protease inhibitor and an antibiotic may be effective in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, CRAI has not yet been validated in large patient populations. We therefore evaluated the effectiveness of CRAI based on data from a national administrative database covering 1,032 Japanese hospitals. Methods In-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs were compared in the CRAI and non-CRAI groups, using propensity score analysis to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results A total of 17,415 eligible patients with acute pancreatitis were identified between 1 July and 30 September 2011, including 287 (1.6%) patients who underwent CRAI. One-to-one propensity-score matching generated 207 pairs with well-balanced baseline characteristics. In-hospital mortality rates were similar in the CRAI and non-CRAI groups (7.7% vs. 8.7%; odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.44–1.78, P = 0.720). CRAI was associated with significantly longer median hospital stay (29 vs. 18 days, P < 0.001), significantly higher median total cost (21,800 vs. 12,600 United States dollars, P < 0.001), and a higher rate of interventions for infectious complications, such as endoscopic/surgical necrosectomy or percutaneous drainage (2.9% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.061). Conclusions CRAI was not effective in reducing in-hospital mortality rate in patients with acute pancreatitis, but was associated with longer hospital stay and higher costs. Randomized controlled trials in large numbers of patients are required to further evaluate CRAI for this indication. PMID:24088324

  16. A systematic review of acute pancreatitis as an adverse event of type 2 diabetes drugs: from hard facts to a balanced position.

    PubMed

    Giorda, C B; Nada, E; Tartaglino, B; Marafetti, L; Gnavi, R

    2014-11-01

    The question whether antidiabetes drugs can cause acute pancreatitis dates back to the 1970s. Recently, old concerns have re-emerged following claims that use of incretins, a new class of drugs for type 2 diabetes, might increase the relative risk of acute pancreatitis up to 30-fold. Given that diabetes is per se a potent risk factor for acute pancreatitis and that drug-related acute pancreatitis is rare and difficult to diagnose, we searched the medical databases for information linking acute pancreatitis and type 2 diabetes drugs. Among the biguanides, both phenformin and metformin (the latter in patients with renal insufficiency) have been cited in case reports as a potential cause of acute pancreatitis. Sulphonylureas, as both entire class and single compound (glibenclamide), have also been found in cohort studies to increase its risk. No direct link was found between pancreatic damage and therapy with metaglinide, acarbose, pramlintide or SGLT-2 inhibitors. In animal models, thiazolinediones have demonstrated proprieties to attenuate pancreatic damage, opening perspectives for their use in treating acute pancreatitis in humans. Several case reports and the US Food and Drug Administration pharmacovigilance database indicate an association between acute pancreatitis and incretins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. To date, however, a clear-cut odds ratio for this association has been reported in only one of eight pharmacoepidemiological studies. Finally, none of the intervention trials investigating these compounds, including two large randomized controlled trials with cardiovascular endpoints, confirmed the purportedly increased risk of acute pancreatitis with incretin use. PMID:24702687

  17. Anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody ameliorates the damage of acute experimental pancreatitis by attenuating the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaohui; Shen, Jiaqing; Jia, Zhengyu; Wu, Airong; Xu, Ting; Shi, Yuqi; Xu, Chunfang

    2016-06-01

    B7-H3, a recently discovered B7 family member, is documented as a regulator in the inflammatory response as well as T cell-mediated immune responses. In this paper, we find that patients with acute pancreatitis revealed overwhelming levels of serum soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) associated with the clinical outcomes. Furthermore, B7-H3 protein was marked increased in l-arginine-induced acute experimental pancreatitis. Anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody treatment attenuated the proinflammatory cytokine production, downregulated the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and ameliorated the pancreas disruption in l-arginine-induced pancreatitis. In addition, although l-arginine alone failed to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokine and anti-B7-H3 mAb had no effect on the proinflammatory cytokine production of acinar cells, administration of anti-B7-H3 mAb in the coculture model of acinar cells and macrophages stimulated by l-arginine displayed the similar effects. On the whole, B7-H3 participates in the development of acute pancreatitis, and anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody ameliorates severity of acute experimental pancreatitis via attenuation of the inflammatory response. PMID:27003113

  18. Evidence for a role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the treatment of experimental acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Irrera, Natasha; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by acute inflammation and necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma. AP is often associated with organ failure, sepsis, and high mortality. The pathogenesis of AP is still not well understood. In recent years several papers have highlighted the cellular and molecular events of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is initiated by activation of digestive enzymes within the acinar cells that are involved in autodigestion of the gland, followed by a massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and release of inflammatory mediators, responsible for the local and systemic inflammatory response. The hallmark of AP is parenchymal cell necrosis that represents the cause of the high morbidity and mortality, so that new potential therapeutic approaches are indispensable for the treatment of patients at high risk of complications. However, not all factors that determine the onset and course of the disease have been explained. Aim of this article is to review the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469021

  19. [The role of multidetector computer tomography in diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Lohanikhina, K Iu; Hordiienko, K P; Kozarenko, T M

    2014-10-01

    With the objective to improve the diagnostic semiotics of an acute pancreatitis (AP) 35 patients were examined, using 64-cut computeric tomograph Lightspeed VCT (GE, USA) with intravenous augmentation in arterial and portal phases. Basing on analysis of the investigations conducted, using multidetector computeric tomography (MDCT), the AP semiotics was systematized, which is characteristic for oedematous and destructive forms, diagnosed in 19 (44.2%) and 16 (45.8%) patients, accordingly. The procedure for estimation of preservation of the organ functional capacity in pancreonecrosis pres- ence was elaborated, promoting rising of the method diagnostic efficacy by 5.3 - 9.4%. PMID:25675779

  20. Interleukin-10 -1082A/G polymorphism is associated with the development of acute pancreatitis in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Feng; Cui, Ning; Ma, Hongyan; Wang, Xueli; Qiao, Guihong; Liu, Danping

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between IL-10 gene polymorphism (-1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C) and risk of acute pancreatitis in a Chinese population. A total of 240 patients with proven acute pancreatitis and 240 control subjects were collected between May 2012 and January 2015. Genotyping of the IL-10-1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C gene polymorphisms was conducted by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. By univariate logistic regression analysis, patients with acute pancreatitis were more likely to have higher BMI (OR=2.12, 95% CI=1.45-3.12; P<0.001) and have a habit of alcohol drinking (OR=2.01, 95% CI=1.37-2.95; P<0.001). There were significant differences in the genotype distributions of IL-10-1082A/G between patients with acute pancreatitis and control subjects (χ2=9.97, P=0.007). By multiple logistic regression analysis, we found that individuals with the GG genotype of IL-10-1082A/G were associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis when compared with the AA genotype (OR=2.32, 95% CI=1.20-4.59; P=0.007). In dominant and recessive models, the IL-10-1082A/G gene polymorphism was significantly correlated with an elevated risk of acute pancreatitis, and the adjusted Ors (95% CI) were 1.50 (1.03-2.20) and 1.99 (1.06-3.79), respectively. However, no significant different was found between IL-10-819T/C and -592A/C gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to acute pancreatitis. In conclusion, we suggest that IL-10-1082A/G gene polymorphisms contribute to the development of acute pancreatitis in codominant, dominant and recessive models. PMID:26823862

  1. [Pancreatic Diseases].

    PubMed

    Schöfl, Rainer

    2016-06-22

    The author presents his personal choice of practical relevant papers of pancreatic diseases from 2014 to 2015. Nutritional factors and hypertriglycidemia are discussed as causes of acute pancreatitis. Tools to avoid post-ERCP(endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) pancreatitis are described and the natural course of fluid collections and pseudocysts is demonstrated. The value of secretin-MRCP(magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is illustrated. Data help to choose the minimally effective prednisolone dose in autoimmune pancreatitis. The increased prevalence of fractures in patients with chronic pancreatitis highlights the necessity of screening for bone density loss. The association of vitamin D intake with pancreatic cancer is described. The probability of cancer in IPNM is shown and innovative surgical concepts to reduce the loss of pancreatic function are presented. Finally neoadjuvant concepts for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are highlighted. PMID:27329710

  2. Effect of biologically active fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Gi-Sang; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Koo, Bon Soon; Jo, Il-Joo; Choi, Sun Bok; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Seo, Sang-Wan; Shin, Yong Kook; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine if the fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) has the potential to ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Mice were administered the biologically active fraction of NJ, i.e., the 4th fraction (NJ4), intraperitoneally, and then injected with the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein hourly for 6 h. Six hours after the last cerulein injection, the pancreas, lung, and blood were harvested for morphological examination, measurement of cytokine expression, and examination of neutrophil infiltration. RESULTS: NJ4 administration attenuated the severity of AP and lung injury associated with AP. It also reduced cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration and resulted in the in vivo up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, NJ4 and its biologically active fraction, NJ4-2 inhibited the cerulein-induced death of acinar cells by inducing HO-1 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NJ4 may be a candidate fraction offering protection in AP and NJ4 might ameliorate the severity of pancreatitis by inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:22783046

  3. Quantitative organellar proteomics analysis of rough endoplasmic reticulum from normal and acute pancreatitis rat pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuequn; Sans, Maria Dolors; Strahler, John R.; Karnovsky, Alla; Ernst, Stephen A.; Michailidis, George; Andrews, Philip C.; Williams, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is a central organelle for synthesizing and processing digestive enzymes and alteration of ER functions may participate in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). To comprehensively characterize the normal and diseased RER subproteome, this study quantitatively compared the protein compositions of pancreatic RER between normal and AP animals using isobaric tags (iTRAQ) and 2D LC-MALDI-MS/MS. A total of 469 unique proteins were revealed from four independent experiments using two different AP models. These proteins belong to a large number of functional categories including ribosomal proteins, translocon subunits, chaperones, secretory proteins, and glyco- and lipid-processing enzymes. 37 RER proteins (25 unique in arginine-induced, 6 unique in caerulein-induced and 6 common in both models of AP) showed significant changes during AP including translational regulators and digestive enzymes whereas only mild changes were found in some ER chaperones. The six proteins common to both AP models including a decrease in pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase precursor, Erp27, and prolyl 4-hydroxylase beta polypeptide as well as a dramatic increase in fibrinogen alpha, beta and gamma chains. These results suggest that the early stages of AP involve changes of multiple RER proteins that may affect the synthesis and processing of digestive enzymes. PMID:19954227

  4. ß-cell Subcellular Localization of Glucose Stimulated Mn Uptake By X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy: Implications for Pancreatic MRI

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Lara; Dhyani, Anita; La Riviere, Patrick; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Roman, B.B.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a calcium (Ca) analog that has long been used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for investigating cardiac tissue functionality, for brain mapping and for neuronal tract tracing studies. Recently, we have extended its use to investigate pancreatic β-cells and showed that, in the presence of MnCl2, glucose activated pancreatic islets yield significant signal enhancement in T1-weigheted MR images. In this study, we exploited for the first time the unique capabilities of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to both visualize and quantify the metal in pancreatic β-cells at cellular and sub-cellular levels. MIN-6 insulinoma cells grown in standard tissue culture conditions had only a trace amount of Mn, 1.14 ± 0.03 ×10-11 μg/μm2, homogenously distributed across the cell. Exposure to 2mM glucose and 50 μM MnCl2 for 20 minutes resulted in non-glucose dependent Mn uptake and the overall cell concentration increased to 8.99 ± 2.69 ×10-11 μg/μm2. When cells were activated by incubation in 16mM glucose in the presence of 50 μM MnCl2, a significant increase in cytoplasmic Mn was measured reaching 2.57 ± 1.34 ×10-10 μg/μm2. A further rise in intracellular concentration was measured following KCl induced depolarization, with concentrations totaling 1.25 ± 0.33 ×10-9 and 4.02 ± 0.71 ×10-10 μg/μm2 in the cytoplasm and nuclei respectively. In both activated conditions Mn was prevalent in the cytoplasm and localized primarily in a perinuclear region, possibly corresponding to the Golgi apparatus and involving the secretory pathway. These data are consistent with our previous MRI findings confirming that Mn can be used as a functional imaging reporter of pancreatic β-cell activation and also provide a basis for understanding how subcellular localization of Mn will impact MRI contrast PMID:22144025

  5. Quantitative MRI and DTI Abnormalities During the Acute Period Following CCI in the Ferret

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B.; Schwerin, Susan C.; Radomski, Kryslaine L.; Irfanoglu, Mustafa O.; Juliano, Sharon L.; Pierpaoli, Carlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During the acute time period following traumatic brain injury (TBI), noninvasive brain imaging tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide important information about the clinical and pathological features of the injury and may help predict long-term outcomes. In addition to standard imaging approaches, several quantitative MRI techniques including relaxometry and diffusion MRI have been identified as promising reporters of cellular alterations after TBI and may provide greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying brain abnormalities especially in mild TBI. However, for these imaging tools to be useful, it is crucial to define their relationship with the neurophysiological response to brain injury. Recently, a model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) has been developed in the ferret which has many advantages compared with rodent models (e.g., gyrencephalic cortex and high white matter volume). The objective of this study was to evaluate quantitative MRI metrics in the ferret CCI model, including T2 values and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, during the acute time period. Longitudinal quantitative comparisons of in vivo MRI and DTI metrics were evaluated to identify abnormalities and characterize their spatial patterns in the ferret brain. Ex vivo MRI and DTI maps were then compared with histological staining for glial and neuronal abnormalities. The main findings of this article describe T2, diffusivity, and anisotropy markers of tissue change during the acute time period following mild TBI, and ex vivo analyses suggest that MRI and DTI markers are sensitive to subtle cellular alterations in this model. This was confirmed by comparison with immunohistochemistry, also showing altered markers in regions of MRI and DTI change. PMID:27294688

  6. Quantitative MRI and DTI Abnormalities During the Acute Period Following CCI in the Ferret.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B; Schwerin, Susan C; Radomski, Kryslaine L; Irfanoglu, Mustafa O; Juliano, Sharon L; Pierpaoli, Carlo M

    2016-09-01

    During the acute time period following traumatic brain injury (TBI), noninvasive brain imaging tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide important information about the clinical and pathological features of the injury and may help predict long-term outcomes. In addition to standard imaging approaches, several quantitative MRI techniques including relaxometry and diffusion MRI have been identified as promising reporters of cellular alterations after TBI and may provide greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying brain abnormalities especially in mild TBI. However, for these imaging tools to be useful, it is crucial to define their relationship with the neurophysiological response to brain injury. Recently, a model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) has been developed in the ferret which has many advantages compared with rodent models (e.g., gyrencephalic cortex and high white matter volume). The objective of this study was to evaluate quantitative MRI metrics in the ferret CCI model, including T2 values and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, during the acute time period. Longitudinal quantitative comparisons of in vivo MRI and DTI metrics were evaluated to identify abnormalities and characterize their spatial patterns in the ferret brain. Ex vivo MRI and DTI maps were then compared with histological staining for glial and neuronal abnormalities. The main findings of this article describe T2, diffusivity, and anisotropy markers of tissue change during the acute time period following mild TBI, and ex vivo analyses suggest that MRI and DTI markers are sensitive to subtle cellular alterations in this model. This was confirmed by comparison with immunohistochemistry, also showing altered markers in regions of MRI and DTI change. PMID:27294688

  7. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Michael, E S; Kuliopulos, A; Covic, L; Steer, M L; Perides, G

    2013-03-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2(-/-) mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP. PMID:23275617

  8. Roles of Cav3.2 and TRPA1 channels targeted by hydrogen sulfide in pancreatic nociceptive processing in mice with or without acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuka; Fujimura, Mayuko; Nishimura, Sachiyo; Tsubota, Maho; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2015-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), formed by multiple enzymes, including cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), targets Ca(v)3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels (T channels) and transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), facilitating somatic pain. Pancreatitis-related pain also appears to involve activation of T channels by H(2)S formed by the upregulated CSE. Therefore, this study investigates the roles of the Ca(v)3.2 isoform and/or TRPA1 in pancreatic nociception in the absence and presence of pancreatitis. In anesthetized mice, AP18, a TRPA1 inhibitor, abolished the Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn caused by injection of a TRPA1 agonist into the pancreatic duct. As did mibefradil, a T-channel inhibitor, in our previous report, AP18 prevented the Fos expression following ductal NaHS, an H(2)S donor. In the mice with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis, the referred hyperalgesia was suppressed by NNC 55-0396 (NNC), a selective T-channel inhibitor; zinc chloride; or ascorbic acid, known to inhibit Ca(v)3.2 selectively among three T-channel isoforms; and knockdown of Ca(v)3.2. In contrast, AP18 and knockdown of TRPA1 had no significant effect on the cerulein-induced referred hyperalgesia, although they significantly potentiated the antihyperalgesic effect of NNC at a subeffective dose. TRPA1 but not Ca(v)3.2 in the dorsal root ganglia was downregulated at a protein level in mice with cerulein-induced pancreatitis. The data indicate that TRPA1 and Ca(v)3.2 mediate the exogenous H(2)S-induced pancreatic nociception in naïve mice and suggest that, in the mice with pancreatitis, Ca(v)3.2 targeted by H(2)S primarily participates in the pancreatic pain, whereas TRPA1 is downregulated and plays a secondary role in pancreatic nociceptive signaling. PMID:25267397

  9. Patients with non-diagnostic hyperamylasaemia must be investigated and managed as per acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Huw G; Jardine, Nicky; Williamson, Jeremy; Puntis, Malcolm CA; Morris-Stiff, Gareth J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The identification of hyperamylasaemia insufficient to confidently diagnose acute pancreatitis in patients with epigastric pain poses a clinical dilemma. The aim of this study was to identify a cohort of such patients and review their presentation, investigation and outcome. Design Patients admitted through the emergency surgical intake during a 12-month period with serum amylase levels of 100–400 IU/L were identified and case notes reviewed to confirm those presenting with upper abdominal pain. Subsequent radiological and biochemical investigations were recorded. Participants A total of 25 patients with non-diagnostic hyperamylasaemia. Setting Ward patients in a University Hospital. Main outcome measures Amylase level, eventual diagnosis, drug history. Results Twenty-five patients were identified with a mean age of 46.7 years. The median serum amylase level was 230 IU/L (range 102–358 IU/L). Twenty-two patients underwent transabdominal ultrasound at presentation, with gallstones identified in nine cases. The remaining three had documented gallstones and were awaiting elective cholecystectomy. Of the 13 patients with no evidence of cholelithiasis, six were taking medications known to cause pancreatitis, seven patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scans that identified chronic pancreatitis in three, and were non-diagnostic in four cases. These four patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evaluation of the biliary tree identifying microlithiasis in one but no pathology in the remaining three cases. Conclusions Patients with hyperamylasaemia not diagnostic of pancreatitis should be carefully investigated, as gallstones will be identified in at least 50%. An accurate drug history is also invaluable. PMID:22299073

  10. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Han; Sun, Yan Ping; Li, Yang; Liu, Wen Wu; Xiang, Hong Gang; Fan, Lie Ying; Sun, Qiang; Xu, Xin Yun; Cai, Jian Mei; Ruan, Can Ping; Su, Ning; Yan, Rong Lin; Sun, Xue Jun; Wang, Qiang

    2010-03-05

    Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of L-Arg, each at concentrations of 250 mg/100 g body weight, with an interval of 1 h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 ml/kg) or saline (6 ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15 min after each L-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of L-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-{kappa}B activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-{kappa}B activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

  11. Effect of tiron on remote organ injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis induced by L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Ateyya, Hayam; Wagih, Heba M; El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory disorder of the pancreas that can be complicated by involvement of other remote organs. Oxidative stress is known to have a crucial role in the development of pancreatic acinar damage and one of the main causes in multisystem organ failure in experimental AP. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of tiron on pancreas and remote organ damage in L-arginine (L-Arg) induced AP rat model. Thirty-two male rats were divided in random into four groups: control, tiron, L-Arg, and tiron with L-Arg. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were withdrawn for biochemical analysis. The pancreas, lung, kidney, and liver were collected for histopathological examination. Estimation of pancreatic water content was done. Analysis of pulmonary, hepatic, renal, and pancreatic lipid peroxide levels (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were carried out. Finally, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression in pancreatic tissue was determined. Results indicated that treatment with tiron significantly decreased lipid peroxide levels and markedly increased both SOD activity and GSH level. Moreover, histopathological analysis further confirmed that administration of tiron relatively ameliorates pancreatic acinar cells and remote organ damage. Increased immunoreactivity of NF-κB and TGF-β1 were reduced also by tiron treatment. These findings pointed out the protective role of the mitochondrial antioxidant, tiron against AP induced by L-Arg. PMID:27118662

  12. Intestinal hypoperfusion contributes to gut barrier failure in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sakhawat H; Ammori, Basil J; Holmfield, John; Larvin, Michael; McMahon, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal barrier failure and subsequent bacterial translocation have been implicated in the development of organ dysfunction and septic complications associated with severe acute pancreatitis. Splanchnic hypoperfusion and ischemia/reperfusion injury have been postulated as a cause of increased intestinal permeability. The urinary concentration of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) has been shown to be a sensitive marker of intestinal ischemia, with increased levels being associated with ischemia/reperfusion. The aim of the current study was to assess the relationship between excretion of IFABP in urine, gut mucosal barrier failure (intestinal hyperpermeability and systemic exposure to endotoxemia), and clinical severity. Patients with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were studied within 72 hours of onset of pain. Polyethylene glycol probes of 3350 kDa and 400 kDa were administered enterally, and the ratio of the percentage of retrieval of each probe after renal excretion was used as a measure of intestinal macromolecular permeability. Collected urine was also used to determine the IFABP concentration (IFABP-c) and total IFABP (IFABP-t) excreted over the 24-hour period, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The systemic inflammatory response was estimated from peak 0 to 72-hour plasma C-reactive protein levels, and systemic exposure to endotoxins was measured using serum IgM endotoxin cytoplasmic antibody (EndoCAb) levels. The severity of the attack was assessed on the basis of the Atlanta criteria. Sixty-one patients with acute pancreatitis (severe in 19) and 12 healthy control subjects were studied. Compared to mild attacks, severe attacks were associated with significantly higher urinary IFABP-c (median 1092 pg/ml vs. 84 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and IFABP-t (median 1.14 microg vs. 0.21 microg; P = 0.003). Furthermore, the control group had significantly lower IFABP-c (median 37 pg/ml; P = 0.029) and IFABP-t (median

  13. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Yovino, Susannah; Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma; David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael; Pandya, Naimesh; Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader; Regine, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  14. Change of Both Endocrine and Exocrine Insufficiencies After Acute Pancreatitis in Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Te-Wei; Wu, Jin-Ming; Kuo, Ting-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Hsieh, Su-Hua; Lai, Feipei; Tien, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common pancreatic disease and consists of an acute inflammation of the pancreas. AP can contribute to endocrine and exocrine insufficiencies in survivors as a result of the key role of the pancreas in both glucose metabolism and nutritional digestion. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the endocrine or exocrine insufficiencies in patients after initial AP with biliary or alcohol-associated causes. We conducted a nationwide cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database collected between 2001 and 2010. A total of 12,284 patients with AP were identified. Alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.894; 95% CI, 1.520–2.268; P < 0.001) and ≥2 admissions for AP (odds ratio, 1.937; 95% CI, 1.483–2.391; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus after AP. Further, only alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.215; 95% CI, 1.133–1.297; P < 0.001) was significantly associated with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after AP. Additionally, alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.804; 95% CI, 1.345–2.263; P < 0.001) and ≥2 readmissions for AP (odds ratio, 3.190; 95% CI, 2.317–4.063; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with both exocrine and endocrine insufficiencies after AP. Our data showed that alcohol-associated AP, rather than a biliary cause, contributed to a higher extent to exocrine or endocrine insufficiencies. Furthermore, recurrent AP also led to endocrine insufficiency. PMID:26166112

  15. Acute pancreatitis with gradient echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meng Yue; Chen, Tian Wu; Huang, Xiao Hua; Li, Xing Hui; Wang, Si Yue; Liu, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Background To study gradient recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted imaging (T2*WI) for normal pancreas and acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods Fifty-one patients without any pancreatic disorders (control group) and 117 patients with AP were recruited. T2* values derived from T2*WI of the pancreas were measured for the two groups. The severity of AP was graded by the magnetic resonance severity index (MRSI) and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Healthy Evaluation II (APACHE II) scoring system. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the T2* values and AP severity. The usefulness of the T2* value for diagnosing AP and the relationship between the T2* values and the severity of AP were analyzed. Results On GRE-T2*WI, the normal pancreas showed a well-marinated and consistently homogeneous isointensity. Edematous AP, as well as the non-necrotic area in necrotizing AP, showed ill-defined but homogeneous signal intensity. AP with pancreatic hemorrhage showed a decreased T2* value and a signal loss on the signal decay curve. The T2* value of pancreas in the AP group was higher than that of the control group (t=−8.20, P<0.05). The T2* value tended to increase along with the increase in MRSI scores but not with the APACHE II scores (P>0.05). AP was associated with a one standard deviation increment in the T2* value (OR =1.37; 95% CI: 1.216–1.532). Conclusions T2*WI demonstrates a few characteristics of the normal pancreas and AP, which could potentially be helpful for detecting hemorrhage, and contributes to diagnosing AP and its severity. PMID:27190768

  16. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients' prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  17. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rashmi; Duncalf, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7) revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known. PMID:26904307

  18. Chronic diarrhea, eosinophilic ascites, acute pancreatitis and deep venous thrombosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Javid Bhat, Khalid; Bhat, Sanjay; Dutt, Kalyan; Gupta, Sakul; Jeelani Samoon, Hamaad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is rare and is characterized by recurrent eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract and chronic diarrhea. In this report we present a case of EG with acute pancreatitis and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Case presentation: A 30 years old male was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of epigastric pain, vomitting and swelling of his left limb for the past six days. He was also having diarrhea for the last several months. He had been evaluated for chronic diarrhea and ascites before he sought the current consultation. Duplex color doppler of left limb showed DVT of distal calf vein. Contrast enhanced CT imaging of abdomen revealed thickening of duodenum, proximal jejunal wall and presence of ascites. Duodenal biopsy showed normal villous pattern with mild inflammation and eosinophilic infiltration. The constellation of clinical presentation, hypereosinophilia, CT and biopsy findings all is in consistence to EG. The patient was treated with prednisolone 20 mg/day for four weeks and tapered slowly. Acute pancreatitis was managed conservatively while DVT was treated with heparin and oral anticoagulants. The patient’s diarrhea settled and ascites resolved completely. At follow up, the absolute eosinophil count was 300/μl and the patient was doing well. Conclusion: This case report emphasizes that one should consider these rare disorders during the differential diagnosis of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms in the presence of hypereosinophilia. PMID:25202449

  19. Azathioprine-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Prospective Study on Incidence and Severity

    PubMed Central

    Mohl, Wolfgang; Bokemeyer, Bernd; Bündgens, Burkhard; Büning, Jürgen; Miehlke, Stephan; Hüppe, Dietrich; Maaser, Christian; Klugmann, Tobias; Kruis, Wolfgang; Siegmund, Britta; Helwig, Ulf; Weismüller, Joseph; Drabik, Attyla; Stallmach, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Azathioprine [AZA] is recommended for maintenance of steroid-free remission in inflammatory bowel disease IBD. The aim of this study has been to establish the incidence and severity of AZA-induced pancreatitis, an idiosyncratic and major side effect, and to identify specific risk factors. Methods: We studied 510 IBD patients [338 Crohn’s disease, 157 ulcerative colitis, 15 indeterminate colitis] with initiation of AZA treatment in a prospective multicentre registry study. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in accordance with international guidelines. Results: AZA was continued by 324 [63.5%] and stopped by 186 [36.5%] patients. The most common cause of discontinuation was nausea [12.2%]. AZA-induced pancreatitis occurred in 37 patients [7.3%]. Of these: 43% were hospitalised with a median inpatient time period of 5 days; 10% had peripancreatic fluid collections; 24% had vomiting; and 14% had fever. No patient had to undergo nonsurgical or surgical interventions. Smoking was the strongest risk factor for AZA-induced acute pancreatitis [p < 0.0002] in univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions: AZA-induced acute pancreatitis is a common adverse event in IBD patients, but in this study had a mild course in all patients. Smoking is the most important risk factor. PMID:26468141

  20. Rosmarinic Acid Attenuates Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Ting; Yin, Guo-Jian; Xiao, Wen-Qin; Qiu, Lei; Yu, Ge; Hu, Yan-Ling; Xing, Miao; Wu, De-Qing; Cang, Xiao-Feng; Wan, Rong; Wang, Xing-Peng; Hu, Guo-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinic Acid (RA), a caffeic acid ester, has been shown to exert anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and antiallergic effects. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of RA in sodium taurocholate ( NaTC )-induced acute pancreatitis, both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, RA (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 2 h before sodium taurocholate injection. Rats were sacrificed 12 h, 24 h or 48 h after sodium taurocholate injection. Pretreatment with RA significantly ameliorated pancreas histopathological changes, decreased amylase and lipase activities in serum, lowered myeloperoxidase activity in the pancreas, reduced systematic and pancreatic interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and inhibited NF-κB translocation in pancreas. In vitro, pretreating the fresh rat pancreatic acinar cells with 80 μ mol/L RA 2 h before 3750 nmol/L sodium taurocholate or 10 ng/L TNF-α administration significantly attenuated the reduction of isolated pancreatic acinar cell viability and inhibited the nuclear activation and translocation of NF-κB. Based on our findings, RA appears to attenuate damage in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and reduce the release of inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. These findings might provide a basis for investigating the therapeutic role of RA in managing acute pancreatits. PMID:26364660

  1. Fisetin attenuates cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis through down regulation of JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jo, Il-Joo; Bae, Gi-Sang; Choi, Sun Bok; Kim, Dong-Goo; Shin, Joon-Yeon; Seo, Seung-Hee; Choi, Mee-Ok; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2014-08-15

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a complicated disease which is largely undiscovered. Fisetin, a natural flavonoid from fruits and vegetables, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer activities in various disease models. However, the effects of fisetin on AP have not been determined. Pre- and post- treatment of mice with fisetin reduced the severity of AP and pancreatitis-associated lung injury and inhibited several biochemical parameters (pancreatic weight to body weight ratio, amylase, lipase, and myeloperoxidase activity) and production of inflammatory cytokines. In pancreatic acinar cells, fisetin also inhibited cell death and production of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, fisetin inhibited activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, these results suggest that fisetin exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on AP and could be a beneficial agent in the treatment of AP and its pulmonary complications. PMID:24861022

  2. /sup 111/In-platelet and /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition in the lungs in experimental acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Goulbourne, I.A.; Watson, H.; Davies, G.C.

    1987-12-01

    An experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats has been used to study intrapulmonary /sup 125/I-fibrinogen and /sup 111/In-platelet deposition. Pancreatitis caused a significant increase in wet lung weight compared to normal, and this could be abolished by heparin or aspirin pretreatment. /sup 125/I-fibrinogen was deposited in the lungs of animals to a significantly greater degree than in controls (P less than 0.01). /sup 125/I-fibrinogen deposition was reduced to control levels by pretreatment with aspirin or heparin (P less than 0.05). The uptake of radiolabeled platelets was greater in pancreatitis than in controls (P less than 0.001). Pancreatitis appears to be responsible for platelet entrapment in the lungs. Platelet uptake was reduced by heparin treatment but unaffected by aspirin therapy.

  3. The role of MRI in the diagnosis of acute radiation reaction in breast cancer patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startseva, Zh A.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Usova, AV; Frolova, I. G.; Simonov, K. A.; Velikaya, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    A clinical case with acute radiation reaction of the left breast after organ-preserving surgery with 10 Gy IORT (24.8 Gy) conventional radiation therapy has been presented. Comprehensive MRI examination showed signs of radiation- induced damage to skin, soft tissues and vessels of the residual breast.

  4. Blockade of bradykinin B2 receptor suppresses acute pancreatitis induced by obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary duct in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Mitsuhiro; Hayashi, Izumi; Yoshimura, Kuniko; Ishii, Ken-ichiro; Soma, Kazui; Ohwada, Takashi; Kakita, Akira; Majima, Masataka

    2002-01-01

    The involvement of bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor in acute pancreatitis induced by pancreaticobiliary duct ligation was investigated in rats.The activities of amylase and lipase in the serum, the water content of the pancreas, and vacuolization of the acinar cells were significantly increased 2 h after obstruction of the duct in Sprague-Dawley rats.Elevated serum amylase activity, increased pancreatic oedema, and damage of the pancreatic tissue were significantly less marked in plasma kininogen-deficient, B/N-Katholiek rats than in the normal strain, B/N-Kitasato rats 2 h after the ligation.Obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary duct augmented the level of (1-5)-BK (Arg1-Pro2-Pro3-Gly4-Phe5), a stable BK metabolite, in the blood from 73.0±21.7 pg ml−1 at 0 h to 149.8±38.0 pg ml−1 at 2 h after the induction of pancreatitis in SD rats.Administration of a BK B2 receptor antagonist, FR173657 (100 mg kg−1, p.o.) or Hoe140 (100 nmol kg−1, s.c.), reduced the elevation of amylase and lipase activities in the serum and of pancreatic water content in a dose-dependent manner. The effective attenuation of oedema formation and vacuolization by the antagonists was also confirmed light-microscopically. In contrast, treatment with gabexate mesilate or indomethacin did not cause significant suppression of the pancreatitis.These findings suggest a possible involvement of kinin B2 receptor in the present pancreatitis model. Furthermore, they point to the potential usefulness of the B2 receptor in clinical acute pancreatitis. PMID:11786477

  5. Protective effect of Mimosa pudica L. in an L-arginine model of acute necrotising pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Sidhu, Shabir; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Khan, M U

    2016-07-01

    Mimosa pudica is used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders such as inflammatory conditions, diarrhoea, insomnia, alopecia, urogenital infections and wounds. The present study investigated the effect of M. pudica extract (MPE) on L-arginine-induced acute necrotising pancreatitis in rats. The ethanolic extract of M. pudica leaves was studied for the presence of quercetin and gallic acid using high-performance liquid chromatography. Four groups were employed-normal control rats, L-arginine control rats (two intraperitoneal [i.p.] injections of 2 g/kg at an interval of 1 h), MPE-treated rats (400 mg/kg orally) and melatonin-treated rats (positive control 10 mg/kg i.p.), which were further divided into subgroups according to time points (24 h, 3 days and 14 days). Serum amylase, lipase, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), pancreatic amylase, nucleic acid content, protein, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), thiobarbituric reactive substances, glutathione, nitrite/nitrate, collagen content and histopathological examination were carried out. MPE significantly improved acute necrotising pancreatitis by modulating diagnostic markers of pancreatitis such as serum lipase and pancreatic amylase, inflammation (TNF-α), and oxidative and nitrosative stress. Moreover, MPE administration induced regenerative changes in the pancreas evidenced by increased levels of pancreatic proteins, nucleic acid content and histopathology report. In addition, MPE improved TGF-β1 and collagen levels thereby preventing fibrosis. The current investigation indicates the novel role of MPE in reducing the severity of acute necrotising pancreatitis by plausible mechanisms such as anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity and by promoting repair and regeneration of the pancreas. PMID:27164910

  6. Endoscopic sphincterotomy of the major duodenal papilla in acute relapsing pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Spaziani, E; Trentino, P; Picchio, M; Di Filippo, A; Briganti, M; Pietricola, G; Elisei, W; Ceci, F; Coda, S; Pattaro, G; Parisella, F; De Angelis, F; Pecchia, M; Stagnitti, F

    2010-05-01

    We report a case of acute relapsing pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum, who underwent major papilla sphincterotomy after failed minor papilla cannulation. Long-term results were satisfactory. The possible explanations of the efficacy of major papilla endoscopic resection in this particular case are discussed. PMID:20615366

  7. Revisiting the reported signal of acute pancreatitis with rasburicase: an object lesson in pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Hauben, Manfred; Hung, Eric Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is an interest in methodologies to expeditiously detect credible signals of drug-induced pancreatitis. An example is the reported signal of pancreatitis with rasburicase emerging from a study [the ‘index publication’ (IP)] combining quantitative signal detection findings from a spontaneous reporting system (SRS) and electronic health records (EHRs). The signal was reportedly supported by a clinical review with a case series manuscript in progress. The reported signal is noteworthy, being initially classified as a false-positive finding for the chosen reference standard, but reclassified as a ‘clinically supported’ signal. Objective: This paper has dual objectives: to revisit the signal of rasburicase and acute pancreatitis and extend the original analysis via reexamination of its findings, in light of more contemporary data; and to motivate discussions on key issues in signal detection and evaluation, including recent findings from a major international pharmacovigilance research initiative. Methodology: We used the same methodology as the IP, including the same disproportionality analysis software/dataset for calculating observed to expected reporting frequencies (O/Es), Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Term, and O/E metric/threshold combination defining a signal of disproportionate reporting. Baseline analysis results prompted supplementary analyses using alternative analytical choices. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify additional published case reports of rasburicase and pancreatitis. Results: We could not replicate positive findings (e.g. a signal or statistic of disproportionate reporting) from the SRS data using the same algorithm, software, dataset and vendor specified in the IP. The reporting association was statistically highlighted in default and supplemental analysis when more sensitive forms of disproportionality analysis were used. Two of three reports in the FAERS database were

  8. Incretin-based drugs and risk of acute pancreatitis: A nested-case control study within a healthcare database.

    PubMed

    Soranna, Davide; Bosetti, Cristina; Casula, Manuela; Tragni, Elena; Catapano, Alberico L; Vecchia, Carlo L A; Merlino, Luca; Corrao, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    To assess the association between use of incretin-based drugs for diabetes mellitus and the occurrence of acute pancreatitis. A population-based, nested case-control study was performed within a cohort of 166,591 patients from the Lombardy region (Italy) aged 40 years or older who were newly treated with oral antihyperglycaemic agents between 2004 and 2007. Cases were 666 patients who experienced acute pancreatitis from April 1, 2008 until December 31, 2012. For each case patient, up to 20 controls were randomly selected from the cohort and matched on gender, age at cohort entry, and date of index prescription. Conditional logistic regression was used to model the risk of acute pancreatitis associated with use of incretin-based drugs within 30 days before hospitalization, after adjustment for several risk factors, including the use of other antihyperglycaemic agents. Sensitivity analyses were performed in order to account for possible sources of systematic uncertainty. Use of incretin-based drugs within 30 days was reported by 17 (2.6%) cases of acute pancreatitis versus 193 (1.5%) controls. The corresponding multivariate odds ratio was 1.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.99). Slightly lower and no significant excess risks were observed by shortening (15 days) and increasing (60 and 90 days) the time-window at risk. This study supports a possible increased risk of acute pancreatitis in relation to use of incretin-based drugs reported in a few previous studies. However, given the potential for bias and the inconsistency with other studies, additional investigations are needed to clarify the safety of incretin-based-drugs. PMID:25748827

  9. A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-05-28

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0·97; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P interaction=0·77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association. PMID:26987519

  10. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ELEMENTS OF THE MULTIORGAN INSUFFICIENCY SYNDROME AND ESTIMATION OF THE PATIENTS STATE SEVERITY IN ACCORDANCE TO INTEGRAL SCALES IN AN ACUTE NECROTIC PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Khomyak, I V; Rotar, O V; Rotar, V I; Petrovskiy, G G

    2015-09-01

    There were examined 113 patients, in whom an acute necrotic pancreatitis was diagnosed. While admittance to hospital a constant organ insufficiency was revealed in 50 (44%), a transient one--in 63 (56%) patients. In total 31 (27.4%) patients died. Respiratory insufficiency have occurred in 67% patients, and almost with similar rate--cardio-vascular (in 59%), renal (in 56%) and enteral (in 54%), dominating in the lethality structure. The BISAP (Bedcide Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis) scales applied permit with high probability to prognosticate the organ insufficiency and lethality in patients, suffering an acute necrotic pancreatitis. PMID:26817077

  11. 19F MRI detection of acute allograft rejection with in vivo perfluorocarbon labeling of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Hitchens, T Kevin; Ye, Qing; Eytan, Danielle F; Janjic, Jelena M; Ahrens, Eric T; Ho, Chien

    2011-04-01

    Current diagnosis of organ rejection following transplantation relies on tissue biopsy, which is not ideal due to sampling limitations and risks associated with the invasive procedure.We have previously shown that cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of iron-oxide labeled immune-cell infiltration can provide a noninvasive measure of rejection status by detecting areas of hypointensity on T 2*-weighted images. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using a fluorine-based cellular tracer agent to detect macrophage accumulation in rodent models of acute allograft rejection by fluorine-19 ((19) F) MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This study used two rat models of acute rejection, including abdominal heterotopic cardiac transplant and orthotopic kidney transplant models. Following in vivo labeling of monocytes and macrophages with a commercially available agent containing perfluoro-15-crown-5-ether, we observed (19) F-signal intensity in the organs experiencing rejection by (19) F MRI, and conventional (1) H MRI was used for anatomical context. Immunofluorescence and histology confirmed macrophage labeling. These results are consistent with our previous studies and show the complementary nature of the two cellular imaging techniques. With no background signal, (19) F MRI/magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide unambiguous detection of fluorine labeled cells, and may be a useful technique for detecting and quantifying rejection grade in patients. PMID:21305593

  12. Changes of serum amylase, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in dogs with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akuzawa, M; Morizono, M; Nagata, K; Hayano, S; Sakamoto, H; Yasuda, N; Okamoto, K; Kawasaki, Y; Deguchi, E

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the diagnostic application of amylase to canine pancreatic diseases, serum amylase activities, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) were analyzed in normal intact dogs and dogs experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. There was no statistic difference between normal male and female dogs. Amylase specific activities in pancreatic tissue extracts were more than 2,300 times higher than that in serum, and were also higher than those in other tissues; parotid and mandibular salivary glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and kidney. Following the chloroform injection into the pancreatic tissue, WBC increased from 6 to 240 hr and serum glucose significantly increased at 72 and 96 hr, and no urine glucose was detected. BUN as well as serum and urine creatinine showed normal levels. ACCR increased until 96 hr without statistic significance. Serum amylase activities increased significantly after 3 hr and its isozyme was separated into 4 fractions (Amy1-Amy4) in contrast to 3 fractions (Amy2-Amy4) in intact dogs. Since this extra Amy1 seen from 1 hr increasing after 6 hr similarly to other 3 fractions, the evaluation of serum amylase and its isozyme fractions was indicated to be useful for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs. PMID:7521216

  13. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase gene silencing with siRNA in monocytes/macrophages protects mice against acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Badiei, A; Chambers, S T; Gaddam, R R; Fraser, R; Bhatia, M

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous inflammatory mediator produced by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in monocytes/macrophages. To determine the role of H2S and macrophages in inflammation, we used small interference RNA (siRNA) to target the CSE gene and investigated its effect in a mouse model of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis is characterised by increased levels of plasma amylase, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the pancreas and lung. SiRNA treatment attenuated inflammation in the pancreas and lungs of mice following caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. MPO activity increased in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (16.21 ± 3.571 SD fold increase over control) and treatment with siRNA significantly reduced this (mean 3.555 ± 2.522 SD fold increase over control) (p < 0.0001). Similarly, lung MPO activity increased following treatment with caerulein (3.56 ± 0.941 SD fold increase over control) while siRNA treatment significantly reduced MPO activity (0.8243 ± 0.4353 SD fold increase over control) (p < 0.0001). Caerulein treatment increased plasma amylase activity (7094 ± 207 U/l) and this significantly decreased following siRNA administration (5895 ± 115 U/l) (p < 0.0001). Cytokine and chemokine levels in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis reduced following treatment with siRNA. For example, siRNA treatment significantly decreased pancreatic and lung monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (169.8 ± 59.75 SD; 90.01 ± 46.97 SD pg/ml, respectively) compared to caerulein-treated mice (324.7 ± 103.9 SD; 222.8 ± 85.37 SD pg/ml, pancreas and lun,g respectively) (p < 0.0001). These findings show a crucial pro-inflammatory role for H2S synthesised by CSE in macrophages in acute pancreatitis and suggest CSE gene silencing with siRNA as a potential therapeutic approach for this condition. PMID:26411454

  14. Simvastatin is associated with reduced risk of acute pancreatitis: findings from a regional integrated healthcare system

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bechien U; Pandol, Stephen J; Liu, In-Lu Amy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterise the relationship between simvastatin and risk of acute pancreatitis (AP). Design We conducted a retrospective cohort study (2006–2012) on data from an integrated healthcare system in southern California. Exposure to simvastatin was calculated from time of initial dispensation until 60 days following prescription termination. AP cases were defined by ICD-9 CM 577.0 and serum lipase≥3 times normal. Patients were censored at death, last follow-up, and onset of AP or end-of-study. Incidence rate of pancreatitis among simvastatin users was compared with the adult reference population. Robust Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratio (RR) estimates for simvastatin use adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, gallstone-related disorders, hypertriglyceridaemia, smoking and alcohol dependence. Analysis was repeated for atorvastatin. Results Among 3 967 859 adult patients (median duration of follow-up of 3.4 years), 6399 developed an initial episode of AP. A total of 707 236 patients received simvastatin during the study period. Patients that received simvastatin were more likely to have gallstone-related disorders, alcohol dependence or hypertriglyceridaemia compared with the reference population. Nevertheless, risk of AP was significantly reduced with simvastatin use, crude incidence rate ratio 0.626 (95% CL 0.588, 0.668), p<0.0001. In multivariate analysis, simvastatin was independently associated with reduced risk of pancreatitis, adjusted RR 0.29 (95% CL 0.27, 0.31) after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, gallstone disorders, alcohol dependence, smoking and hypertriglyceridaemia. Similar results were noted with atorvastatin, adjusted RR 0.33 (0.29, 0.38). Conclusions Use of simvastatin was independently associated with reduced risk of AP in this integrated healthcare setting. Similar findings for atorvastatin suggest a possible class effect. PMID:24742713

  15. Carvacrol modulates oxidative stress and decreases cell injury in pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Yeliz; Geyikoglu, Fatime; Çolak, Suat; Turkez, Hasan; Bakır, Murat; Hsseinigouzdagani, Mirkhalil

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is considered as major problem around the world and the incidence of AP is increasing. Carvacrol (CAR), a monoterpenic phenol, has good antioxidant activity. This in vivo study was designed to evaluate whether CAR provide protection against AP that developed by pancreas injury. The rats were randomised into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 µg/kg cerulein at 1 h intervals by four intraperitonally (i.p.) injections; (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p. injection; and (IV) cerulein plus CAR after 2 h of cerulein administration. 12 h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function, the lipase and amylase values. The oxidative stress markers were evaluated by changes in the amount of lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) and changes in main tissue antioxidant enzyme levels including SOD, CAT and GSH-PX. Histopathological examination was performed using scoring systems. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring the increases of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) formations. We found that the increasing doses of CAR decreased AP-induced MDA and 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the pancreas antioxidant enzyme activities were higher than that of the rats in the AP group when compared to the AP plus CAR group. In the treatment groups, the lipase and amylase were reduced. Besides, histopathological findings in the pancreatic tissue were alleviated (p < 0.05). We suggest that CAR could be a safe and potent new drug candidate for treating AP through its antioxidative mechanism of action for the treatment of a wide range of disorders related to pancreas. PMID:26093481

  16. Prospective evaluation of the cause of acute pancreatitis, with special attention to medicines

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Mitra; Røkke, Ola

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cause of acute pancreatitis (AP) by conducting a thorough investigation of drugs and their possible etiological role. METHODS: We investigated the cause of AP in a large retrospective cohort of 613 adult patients admitted with AP at the Akershus University Hospital, Norway, from 2000 until 2009, who were evaluated with standard ward investigations. This group was compared with a prospectively evaluated group (n = 57) admitted from January 2010 until September 2010 who investigated more extensively using medical history and radiological assessment. RESULTS: The groups were comparable with regards to gender, age, comorbidity and severity. The most common etiology was bile stones and alcohol, occurring in 60% in both groups. The prospective group was examined more thoroughly with regards to the use of alcohol and medicines. An increased number of radiological investigations during hospital stay and at follow-up were also performed. A more extensive use of radiological evaluation did not increase the detection frequency of bile stones. In the prospective group, more than half of the patients had two or more possible causes of pancreatitis, being mostly a combination of bile stones and drugs. No possible cause was found in only 3.5% of these patients, compared with 29.7% in the retrospective group. CONCLUSION: A detailed medical history and extensive radiological evaluation may determine a possible etiology in almost all cases of AP. Many patients have several possible risk factors, and uncertainty remains in establishing the definitive etiology. PMID:26877614

  17. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Attenuates Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Jin, Wei-Hua; Wu, Juan; Fan, Kai-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces oxidative stress and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS), a well-known ROS scavenger, has been shown to possess therapeutic benefit on AP in many animal experiments. Recent findings have indicated that the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, an intracellular multiprotein complex required for the maturation of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, may probably be a potential target of HRS in the treatment of AP. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and meanwhile assessed the degree of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades, as well as the histological alterations in mice suffering from cerulein-induced AP after the treatment of HRS. The results showed that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in AP mice was substantially inhibited following the administration of HRS, which was paralleled with the decreased NF-κB activity and cytokines production, attenuated oxidative stress and the amelioration of pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our study has, for the first time, revealed that inhibition of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome probably contributed to the therapeutic potential of HRS in AP. PMID:25214720

  18. Intra-abdominal pressure: Time ripe to revise management guidelines of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Jaipuria, Jiten; Bhandari, Vimal; Chawla, Avneet Singh; Singh, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To systematically review evidence on pathophysiology of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) in acute pancreatitis (AP) with its clinical correlates. METHODS: Systematic review of available evidence in English literature with relevant medical subject heading terms on PubMed, Medline and Scopus with further search from open access sources on internet as suggested by articles retrieved. RESULTS: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is increasingly gaining recognition as a point of specific intervention with potential to alter disease outcome and improve mortality in AP. IAH can be expected in at least 17% of patients presenting with diagnosis of AP to a typical tertiary care hospital (prevalence increasing to 50% in those with severe disease). Abdominal compartment syndrome can be expected in at least 15% patients with severe disease. Recent guidelines on management of AP do not acknowledge utility of surveillance for IAP other than those by Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. We further outline pathophysiologic mechanisms of IAH; understanding of which advances our knowledge and helps to coherently align common observed variations in management related conundrums (such as fluid therapy, nutrition and antibiotic prophylaxis) with potential to further individualize treatment in AP. CONCLUSION: We suggest that IAP be given its due place in future practice guidelines and that recommendations be formed with help of a broader panel with inclusion of clinicians experienced in management of IAH. PMID:26909242

  19. Compliance with Evidence-Based Guidelines in Acute Pancreatitis: an Audit of Practices in University of Toronto Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Hsu, J; Bawazeer, M; Marshall, J; Friedrich, J O; Nathens, A; Coburn, N; Huang, H; McLeod, R S

    2016-02-01

    Despite existing evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, clinical compliance with recommendations is poor. We conducted a retrospective review of 248 patients admitted between 2010 and 2012 with acute pancreatitis at eight University of Toronto affiliated hospitals. We included all patients admitted to ICU (52) and 25 ward patients from each site (196). Management was compared with the most current evidence used in the Best Practice in General Surgery Management of Acute Pancreatitis Guideline. Fifty-six patients (22.6 %) had only serum lipase tested for biochemical diagnosis. Admission ultrasound was performed in 174 (70.2 %) patients, with 69 (27.8 %) undergoing ultrasound and CT. Of non-ICU patients, 158 (80.6 %) were maintained nil per os, and only 18 (34.6 %) ICU patients received enteral nutrition, commencing an average 7.5 days post-admission. Fifty (25.5 %) non-ICU patients and 25 (48.1 %) ICU patients received prophylactic antibiotics. Only 24 patients (22.6 %) with gallstone pancreatitis underwent index admission cholecystectomy. ERCP with sphincterotomy was under-utilized among patients with biliary obstruction (16 [31 %]) and candidates for prophylactic sphincterotomy (18 [22 %]). Discrepancies exist between the most current evidence and clinical practice within the University of Toronto hospitals. A guideline, knowledge translation strategy, and assessment of barriers to clinical uptake are required to change current clinical practice. PMID:26621675

  20. Association between remote organ injury and tissue polyamine homeostasis in acute experimental pancreatitis - treatment with a polyamine analogue bismethylspermine.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai-Tao; Lämsä, Teemu; Nordback, Panu H; Hyvönen, Mervi T; Grigorenko, Nikolay; Khomutov, Alex R; Nordback, Isto; Räty, Sari; Pörsti, Ilkka; Alhonen, Leena; Sand, Juhani

    2011-01-01

    Experimental pancreatitis is associated with activation of polyamine catabolism. The polyamine analog bismethylspermine (Me(2)Spm) can ameliorate pancreatic injury. We investigated the roles of polyamine catabolism in remote organs during pancreatitis and explored the mechanism of polyamine catabolism by administering Me(2)Spm. Acute pancreatitis was induced by an infusion of 2 or 6% taurodeoxycholate before Me(2)Spm administration. Blood, urine and tissues were sampled at 24 and 72 h to assess multi-organ injury and polyamine catabolism. The effect of Me(2)Spm on mortality in experimental pancreatitis was tested separately. Liver putrescine levels were elevated following liver injury. Me(2)Spm increased the activity of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and depleted the spermidine, spermine or putrescine levels. Lung putrescine levels increased, and SSAT and spermine decreased following lung injury. Me(2)Spm enhanced the activity of SSAT and decreased the spermidine and spermine levels. Renal injury was manifested as an increase in creatinine or a decrease in urine output. Decreases in kidney SSAT, spermidine or spermine and an increase in putrescine were found during pancreatitis. In the 2% taurodeoxycholate model, Me(2)Spm decreased urine output and raised plasma creatinine levels. Me(2)Spm increased SSAT and decreased polyamines. Excessive Me(2)Spm accumulated in the kidney, and greater amounts were found in the 6% taurodeoxycholate model in which this mortality was not reduced by Me(2)Spm. In the 2% taurodeoxycholate model, Me(2)Spm dose-dependently induced mortality at 72 h. Like pancreatic injury, remote organ injury in pancreatitis is associated with increased putrescine levels. However, Me(2)Spm could not ameliorate multi-organ injury. Me(2)Spm administration was associated with significant renal toxicity and induced mortality, suggesting that the current dose is too high and needs to be modified. PMID:22001988

  1. TRPV1 and TRPA1 antagonists prevent the transition of acute to chronic inflammation and pain in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Erica S.; La, Jun-Ho; Scheff, Nicole N.; Davis, Brian M.; Albers, Kathryn M.; Gebhart, G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Visceral afferents expressing transient receptor potential channels TRPV1 and TRPA1 are thought to be required for neurogenic inflammation and development of inflammatory hyperalgesia. In a mouse model of chronic pancreatitis (CP) produced by repeated episodes (twice/wk) of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP), we studied involvement of these TRP channels in pancreatic inflammation and pain-related behaviors. Antagonists of the two TRP channels were administered at different times to block the neurogenic component of AP. Six bouts of AP (over 3 wks) increased pancreatic inflammation and pain-related behaviors, produced fibrosis, sprouting of pancreatic nerve fibers and increased TRPA1 and TRPV1 gene transcripts and a nociceptive marker, pERK, in pancreas afferent somata. Treatment with TRP antagonists, when initiated prior to week 3, decreased pancreatic inflammation and pain-related behaviors and also blocked development of histopathological changes in the pancreas and upregulation of TRPV1, TRPA1 and pERK in pancreatic afferents. Continued treatment with TRP antagonists blocked development of CP and pain behaviors even when mice were challenged with seven more weeks of twice/wk caerulein. When started after week 3, however, treatment with TRP antagonists was ineffective in blocking the transition from AP to CP and the emergence of pain behaviors. These results suggest 1) an important role for neurogenic inflammation in pancreatitis and pain-related behaviors, 2) there is transition from AP to CP, after which TRP channel antagonism is ineffective, and thus 3) that early intervention with TRP channel antagonists may effectively attenuate the transition to and development of CP. PMID:23536075

  2. Rosiglitazone attenuates the severity of hyperlipidemic severe acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    NIYAZ, BATUR; ZHAO, KAI-LIANG; LIU, LI-MIN; CHEN, CHEN; DENG, WEN-HONG; ZUO, TENG; SHI, QIAO; WANG, WEI-XING

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligand regulates adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity, and exerts antihyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms by which PPAR-γ ligands affect hyperlipidemia with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have not been fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ ligand, on hyperlipidemia with SAP in a rat model. The hyperlipidemia was induced with a high-fat diet and SAP was induced by the administration of sodium taurocholate (TCA). The hyperlipidemia was shown to aggravate the severity of the sodium taurocholate-induced SAP. However, rosiglitazone demonstrated significant antihyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects in the rats with high-lipid diet-induced hyperlipidemia and SAP. PMID:24137303

  3. [CT-guided percutaneous drainage in the treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Szentkereszty, Z; Kerekes, L; Hallay, J; Péter, M; Sápy, P

    2001-02-01

    The authors analysed the results of the treatment of 24 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Besides intensive and operative treatment prophylactic antibiotics, early naso-jejunal feeding, CT guided percutaneous peripancreatic drainage are favourable to avoid septic complications and to postpone the first operation. In 11 patients percutaneous drainage was performed. Using percutaneous drainage three patients (33.3%) recovered without operation, the mean drainage time was 23.4 days. The first operation could be postponed in the other 8 patients after percutaneous drainage. No complications occurred as result of the interventions, although in one patient the drain slipped out spontaneously. Due to the complex treatment the total mortality rate was 12.5%. PMID:11299857

  4. [APPLICATION OF PRESEPSIN IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF PURULENT-SEPTIC COMPLICATIONS OF ACUTE NECROTIC PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Rotar, O V

    2016-01-01

    In 70 patients, suffering an acute necrotic pancreatitis (ANP), and 10 practically healthy persons a content of presepsin in a blood plasm, using immunochemiluminescent method and conducted bacteriological investigations, were analyzed. The infection occurrence is accompanied by plausible upgrading of a presepsin level in a blood plasm, depending on activity and severity of a septic process: in local infection--up to (677 ± 30) pg/ml, sepsis--up to (988 ± 47) pg/ml, severe sepsis--up to 2668 pg/ml; in an ANP without infection it have constituted (332 ± 38) pg/mI at average, in practically healthy persons--(184 ± 16) pg/mI. A presepsin level correlates with a state severity in accordance to APACHE I scale, what permits to estimate the patients state severity objectively, to prognosticate a favorable and unfavorable consequences of treatment, rapidly changing, depending on efficacy of treatment. PMID:27249919

  5. Protective Effect of Tetrandrine on Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xian-lin; Li, Jie-xing; Li, Zhen-dong; Liu, Da-sheng; Lu, Su-hong; Liu, Kang-li; Duan, Hong-yan; Luo, Yu-hong

    2015-01-01

    Tet is a type of alkaloid extracted from Stephania tetrandra, and it has recently been demonstrated that Tet can protect against inflammation and free radical injury and inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators. The present study was designed to observe the protective effect of Tet on sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The rat model of SAP was induced by retrograde bile duct injection of sodium taurocholate and then treated with Verapamil and Tet. The results showed that Tet can reduce NF-κB activation in pancreas issue, inhibit the SAP cascade, and improve SAP through inducing pancreas acinar cell apoptosis and stabilizing intracellular calcium in the pancreas, thus mitigating the damage to the pancreas. Our study revealed that Tet may reduce systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS) to protect against damage, and these roles may be mediated through the NF-κB pathway to improve the proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory imbalance. PMID:26557854

  6. Protective Effect of Tetrandrine on Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Lin; Li, Jie-Xing; Li, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Da-Sheng; Lu, Su-Hong; Liu, Kang-Li; Duan, Hong-Yan; Luo, Yu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Tet is a type of alkaloid extracted from Stephania tetrandra, and it has recently been demonstrated that Tet can protect against inflammation and free radical injury and inhibit the release of inflammatory mediators. The present study was designed to observe the protective effect of Tet on sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). The rat model of SAP was induced by retrograde bile duct injection of sodium taurocholate and then treated with Verapamil and Tet. The results showed that Tet can reduce NF-κB activation in pancreas issue, inhibit the SAP cascade, and improve SAP through inducing pancreas acinar cell apoptosis and stabilizing intracellular calcium in the pancreas, thus mitigating the damage to the pancreas. Our study revealed that Tet may reduce systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS) to protect against damage, and these roles may be mediated through the NF-κB pathway to improve the proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory imbalance. PMID:26557854

  7. Protective effects of sivelestat in a caerulein-induced rat acute pancreatitis model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Liu, Quanyan

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of sivelestat on acute pancreatitis (AP) in a rat model. Sivelestat is a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, which has been developed in Japan in 1991. Varying doses of sivelestat in normal saline were infused continuously in sivelestat-treated groups through osmotic pumps. Blood and pancreas samples were collected for serological and histopathological studies, and ten rats in each group were taken for survival observation. Increasing doses of sivelestat inhibits the expression of lipase, amylase, corticosterone, IL-1β, TNF-α, and nuclear factor-κB. Furthermore, sivelestat reduces the inflammatory cells infiltration, histological damage, and mortality rate. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant power and serum level of IL-4 in high-dose sivelestat-treated groups were increased. Our findings suggest that the increasing doses of sivelestat protect against caerulein-induced AP in rats, and this protection is possibly associated with the anti-inflammatory ability of sivelestat. PMID:23794035

  8. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas: applications to acute alcoholic pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, N.; Clemens, J.A.; Glickson, J.D.; Cameron, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The first nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of the canine pancreas is described. Both in-vivo, ex-vivo protocols and NMR observables are discussed. The stability of the ex-vivo preparation based on the NMR observables is established for at least four hours. The spectra obtained from the in-vivo and ex-vivo preparations exhibited similar metabolite ratios, further validating the model. Metabolite levels were unchanged by a 50% increase in perfusion rate. Only trace amounts of phosphocreatine were observed either in the intact gland or in extracts. Acute alcoholic pancreatitis was mimicked by free fatty acid infusion. Injury resulted in hyperamylasemia, edema (weight gain), increased hematocrit and perfusion pressure, and depressed levels of high energy phosphates.

  9. Management of acute pancreatitis in Japan: Analysis of nationwide epidemiological survey

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas. In Japan, nationwide epidemiological surveys have been conducted every 4 to 5 years by the Research Committee of Intractable Pancreatic Diseases, under the support of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan. We reviewed the results of the nationwide surveys focusing on the severity assessment and changes in the therapeutic strategy for walled-off necrosis. The severity assessment system currently used in Japan consists of 9 prognostic factors and the imaging grade on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. By univariate analysis, all of the 9 prognostic factors were associated with AP-related death. A multivariate analysis identified 4 out of the 9 prognostic factors (base excess or shock, renal failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and age) that were associated with AP-related death. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis showed that the area under the curve was 0.82 for these 4 prognostic factors and 0.84 for the 9 prognostic factors, suggesting the comparable utility of these 4 factors in the severity assessment. We also examined the temporal changes in treatment strategy for walled-off necrosis in Japan according to the 2003, 2007, and 2011 surveys. Step-up approaches and less-invasive endoscopic therapies were uncommon in 2003 and 2007, but became popular in 2011. Mortality has been decreasing in patients who require intervention for walled-off necrosis. In conclusion, the nationwide survey revealed the comparable utility of 4 prognostic factors in the severity assessment and the increased use of less-invasive, step-up approaches with improved clinical outcomes in the management of walled-off necrosis.

  10. Management of acute pancreatitis in Japan: Analysis of nationwide epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-07-28

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas. In Japan, nationwide epidemiological surveys have been conducted every 4 to 5 years by the Research Committee of Intractable Pancreatic Diseases, under the support of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan. We reviewed the results of the nationwide surveys focusing on the severity assessment and changes in the therapeutic strategy for walled-off necrosis. The severity assessment system currently used in Japan consists of 9 prognostic factors and the imaging grade on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. By univariate analysis, all of the 9 prognostic factors were associated with AP-related death. A multivariate analysis identified 4 out of the 9 prognostic factors (base excess or shock, renal failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria, and age) that were associated with AP-related death. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis showed that the area under the curve was 0.82 for these 4 prognostic factors and 0.84 for the 9 prognostic factors, suggesting the comparable utility of these 4 factors in the severity assessment. We also examined the temporal changes in treatment strategy for walled-off necrosis in Japan according to the 2003, 2007, and 2011 surveys. Step-up approaches and less-invasive endoscopic therapies were uncommon in 2003 and 2007, but became popular in 2011. Mortality has been decreasing in patients who require intervention for walled-off necrosis. In conclusion, the nationwide survey revealed the comparable utility of 4 prognostic factors in the severity assessment and the increased use of less-invasive, step-up approaches with improved clinical outcomes in the management of walled-off necrosis. PMID:27605870

  11. NF-κB in acute pancreatitis: Mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Jakkampudi, Aparna; Jangala, Ramaiah; Reddy, B Ratnakar; Mitnala, Sasikala; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Talukdar, Rupjyoti

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) is increasing globally and mortality could be high among patients with organ failure and infected necrosis. The predominant factors responsible for the morbidity and mortality of AP are systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction. Even though preclinical studies have shown antisecretory agents (somatostatin), antioxidants (S-adenosyl methionine [SAM], selenium), protease inhibitors, platelet activating factor inhibitor (Lexipafant), and anti-inflammatory immunomodulators (eg. prostaglandin E, indomethacin) to benefit AP in terms of reducing the severity and/or mortality, most of these agents have shown heterogeneous results in clinical studies. Several years of experimental studies have implicated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation as an early and central event in the progression of inflammation in AP. In this manuscript, we review the literature on the role of NF-κB in the pathogenesis of AP, its early intraacinar activation, and how it results in progression of the disease. We also discuss why anti-protease, antisecretory, and anti-inflammatory agents are unlikely to be effective in clinical acute pancreatitis. NF-κB, being a central molecule that links the initial acinar injury to systemic inflammation and perpetuate the inflammation, we propose that more studies be focussed towards targeted inhibition of NF-κB activity. Direct NF-κB inhibition strategies have already been attempted in patients with various cancers. So far, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) ligand, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), proteasome inhibitor and calpain I inhibitor have been shown to have direct inhibitory effects on NF-κB activation in experimental AP. PMID:27282980

  12. Imaging Oxygen Metabolism In Acute Stroke Using MRI

    PubMed Central

    An, Hongyu; Ford, Andria L.; Vo, Katie D.; Liu, Qingwei; Chen, Yasheng; Lee, Jin-Moo; Lin, Weili

    2014-01-01

    The ability to image the ischemic penumbra during hyper-acute stroke promises to identify patients who may benefit from treatment intervention beyond population-defined therapeutic time windows. MR blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging has been explored in ischemic stroke. This review provides an overview of several BOLD-based methods, including susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), R2, R2*, R2′, R2* under oxygen challenge, MR_OEF and MROMI approaches to assess cerebral oxygen metabolism in ischemic stroke. We will review the underlying pathophysiological basis of the imaging approaches, followed by a brief introduction of BOLD contrast. Finally, we will discuss the applications of the BOLD approaches in patients with ischemic stroke. BOLD-based methods hold promise for imaging tissue oxygenation during acute ischemia. Further technical refinement and validation studies in stroke patients against positron emission tomography (PET) measurements are needed. PMID:24707451

  13. Effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on survival and microcirculation in severe acute pancreatitis: a randomized experimental trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Severe acute pancreatitis is still a potentially life threatening disease with high mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of thoracic epidural anaesthesia (TEA) on survival, microcirculation, tissue oxygenation and histopathologic damage in an experimental animal model of severe acute pancreatitis in a prospective animal study. Methods In this study, 34 pigs were randomly assigned into 2 treatment groups. After severe acute pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of glycodesoxycholic acid in Group 1 (n = 17) bupivacaine (0.5%; bolus injection 2 ml, continuous infusion 4 ml/h) was applied via TEA. In Group 2 (n = 17) no TEA was applied. During a period of 6 hours after induction, tissue oxygen tension (tpO2) in the pancreas and pancreatic microcirculation was assessed. Thereafter animals were observed for 7 days followed by sacrification and histopathologic examination. Results Survival rate after 7 days was 82% in Group 1 (TEA) versus 29% in Group 2: (Control) (P <0.05). Group 1 (TEA) also showed a significantly superior microcirculation (1,608 ± 374 AU versus 1,121 ± 510 AU; P <0.05) and tissue oxygenation (215 ± 64 mmHg versus 138 ± 90 mmHG; P <0.05) as compared to Group 2 (Control). Consecutively, tissue damage in Group 1 was reduced in the histopathologic scoring (5.5 (3 to 8) versus 8 (5.5 to 10); P <0.05). Conclusions TEA led to improved survival, enhanced microcirculatory perfusion and tissue oxygenation and resulted in less histopathologic tissue-damage in an experimental animal model of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:24314012

  14. Socs1 and Socs3 degrades Traf6 via polyubiquitination in LPS-induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Cheng, X; Zheng, Y; Zeng, F; He, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in inflammatory development during acute pancreatitis (AP) are largely vague, especially in the transformation of acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) into acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). This current study aims to investigate the functions of Traf6 in different AP models in vitro and in vivo, and to identify the possible regulatory mechanism in the progression of inflammation from mild to severe. Our data revealed that the level of Traf6 expression was significantly increased in the mild AP induced by caerulein, and the upregulation of Traf6 played a protective role in acinar cells against caerulein-induced apoptosis. In contrast, only Traf6 protein but not mRNA was downregulated in the severe ANP induced by combination treatment of caerulein and LPS. Mechanistic studies showed that LPS upregulated the levels of Socs1 and Socs3 expressions in acinar cells, Socs1 and Socs3 interacted Traf6 directly and degraded Traf6 protein via polyubiquitination, thereby counteracted the protective function of Traf6. In vivo study further showed that combination treatment of caerulein and LPS failed to induce an ANP model in the TLR4 knockout mice, and the level of Traf6 expression in the pancreatic tissues remained the same as that from the acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) mouse. Taken together, our study reveals that Traf6 functioned as a protective factor in the progression of AP, and LPS-induced Socs1 and Socs3 exacerbate mild AP to severe AP, which provides evidence for developing a new therapeutic target to combat AP. PMID:26633718

  15. Blockade of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins Aggravates Acute Pancreatitis and Blunts Atrial Natriuretic Factor’s Beneficial Effect in Rats: Role of MRP4 (ABCC4)

    PubMed Central

    Ventimiglia, María Silvia; Najenson, Ana Clara; Perazzo, Juan Carlos; Carozzo, Alejandro; Vatta, Marcelo S; Davio, Carlos A; Bianciotti, Liliana G

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) stimulates secretin-evoked cAMP efflux through multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) in the exocrine pancreas. Here we sought to establish in vivo whether this mechanism was involved in acute pancreatitis onset in the rat. Rats pretreated with or without probenecid (MRPs general inhibitor) were infused with secretin alone or with ANF. A set of these animals were given repetitive cerulein injections to induce acute pancreatitis. Plasma amylase and intrapancreatic trypsin activities were measured and histological examination of the pancreas performed. Secretin alone activated trypsinogen but induced no pancreatic histological changes. Blockade by probenecid in secretin-treated rats increased trypsin and also induced vacuolization, a hallmark of acute pancreatitis. ANF prevented the secretin response but in the absence of probenecid. In rats with acute pancreatitis, pretreatment with secretin aggravated the disease, but ANF prevented secretin-induced changes. Blockade of MRPs in rats with acute pancreatitis induced trypsinogen activation and larger cytoplasmic vacuoles as well as larger areas of necrosis and edema that were aggravated by secretin but not prevented by ANF. The temporal resolution of intracellular cAMP levels seems critical in the onset of acute pancreatitis, since secretin-evoked cAMP in a context of MRP inhibition makes the pancreas prone to injury in normal rats and aggravates the onset of acute pancreatitis. Present findings support a protective role for ANF mediated by cAMP extrusion through MRP4 and further suggest that the regulation of MRP4 by ANF would be relevant to maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis. PMID:25569802

  16. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Use Is Not Associated With Acute Pancreatitis in High-Risk Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ting; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the association between use of DPP-4 inhibitors and acute pancreatitis in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients. A retrospective nationwide cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claim database. The risk associated with sitagliptin was compared to that with acarbose, a second-line antidiabetic drug prescribed for patients with similar diabetes severity and with a known neutral effect on pancreatitis. Between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010, a total of 8526 sitagliptin initiators and 8055 acarbose initiators who had hypertriglyceridemia or prior hospitalization history for acute pancreatitis were analyzed for the risk of hospitalization due to acute pancreatitis stratified for baseline propensity score. In the crude analysis, sitagliptin was associated with a decreased risk of acute pancreatitis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.88) compared to acarbose in diabetic patients with prior history of hospitalization for pancreatitis or hypertriglyceridemia. The association was abolished after stratification for propensity score quintiles (adjusted HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.79-1.16). Similar results were found separately in both patients' histories of prior hospitalization of acute pancreatitis (adjusted HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.76-1.24) and those with hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65-1.13). No significant association was found for different durations or accumulative doses of sitagliptin. In the stratified analysis, no significant effect modification was found in relation to patients' characteristics. Use of sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis in high-risk diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia or with history of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26886601

  17. Applications of intraoperative ultrasound in the treatment of complicated cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer – own experience

    PubMed Central

    Solecki, Michał; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Both acute and chronic inflammation of the pancreas often lead to complications that nowadays can be resolved using endoscopic and surgical procedures. In many cases, intraoperative ultrasound examination (IOUS) enables correct assessment of the extent of the lesion, and allows for safe surgery, while also shortening its length. Aim of the research At the authors’ clinic, intraoperative ultrasound is performed in daily practice. In this paper, we try to share our experiences in the application of this particular imaging technique. Research sample and methodology Intraoperative examination conducted by a surgeon who has assessed the patient prior to surgery, which enabled the surgeon to verify the initial diagnosis. The material presented in this paper includes 145 IOUS procedures performed during laparotomy due to lesions of the pancreas, 57 of which were carried out in cases of inflammatory process. Results and conclusions IOUS is a reliable examination tool in the evaluation of acute inflammatory lesions in the pancreas, especially during the surgery of chronic, symptomatic inflammation of the organ. The procedure allows for a correct determination of the necessary scope of the planned surgery. The examination allows for the differentiation between cystic lesions and tumors of cystic nature, dictates the correct strategy for draining, as well as validates the indications for the lesion's surgical removal. IOUS also allows the estimation of place and scope of drainage procedures in cases of overpressure in the pancreatic ducts caused by calcification of the parenchyma or choledocholitiasis in chronic pancreatitis. In pancreatic cancer, IOUS provides a verification of the local extent of tumor-like lesions, allowing for the assessment of pancreatic and lymph nodes metastasis, and indicating the presence of distant and local metastases, including the liver. IOUS significantly improves the effectiveness of intraoperative BAC aspiration or drainage of fluid

  18. Enhanced expression of TGF-betas and their receptors in human acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Friess, H; Lu, Z; Riesle, E; Uhl, W; Bründler, A M; Horvath, L; Gold, L I; Korc, M; Büchler, M W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine which mechanisms are involved in pancreatic remodeling, repair, and fibrosis after acute necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) in humans. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) are multifunctional polypeptides that have been implicated in the regulation and formation of extracellular matrix and fibrosis. They exert their functions by binding to specific receptors. In this study, we analyze the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 and their receptors type I (Tbeta-RI [ALK5]), type II (Tbeta-RII), and type III (Tbeta-RIII) in NP. PATIENTS: Pancreatic tissue samples were obtained from 6 female and 8 male patients with a median age of 65 years (range, 37 to 77 years) undergoing surgery for NP. The median Ranson score of the patients was 6 (range, 2 to 9). The operation was performed a median 5.5 days (range, 4 to 17 days) after the onset of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic tissue obtained from 12 previously healthy organ donors (6 male, 6 female; median age of 43 years) served as controls. METHODS: The expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, Tbeta-RI (ALK5), Tbeta-RII, Tbeta-RIII, and collagen type I mRNA was analyzed by Northern blot analysis. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antibodies was performed to detect TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, Tbeta-RI (ALK5), and Tbeta-RII. RESULTS: Northern blot analysis showed an increase in TGF-betas and their receptors in NP tissue samples compared with samples from normal controls. The increase was 3.5-fold for TGF-beta1 (p < 0.05), 2.7-fold for TGF-beta2 (p < 0.05), 3.5-fold for TGF-beta3 (p < 0.05), 10-fold for Tbeta-RI (ALK5) (p < 0.05), 5.7-fold for Tbeta-RII (p < 0.05), and 1.4-fold for Tbeta-RIII (not significant). Collagen type I mRNA was also markedly increased in NP samples and correlated with the level of TGF-betas. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated intense TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, Tbeta-RI (ALK5), and Tbeta

  19. Long-term aspirin pretreatment in the prevention of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Akyazi, Ibrahim; Eraslan, Evren; Gülçubuk, Ahmet; Ekiz, Elif Ergül; Çırakli, Zeynep L; Haktanir, Damla; Bala, Deniz Aktaran; Özkurt, Mete; Matur, Erdal; Özcan, Mukaddes

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of long term pretreatment with low-, medium- and high-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) on a model of acute pancreatitis (AP) induced in rats. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were used. Three experimental groups, each consisting of eight animals, received low- (5 mg/kg per day), medium- (150 mg/kg per day) and high-dose (350 mg/kg per day) ASA in supplemented pellet chow for 100 d. Eight animals, serving as the AP-control group, and another eight, serving as reference value (RV) group, were fed with standard pellet chow for the same period. After pretreatment, AP was induced in the experimental animals by intraperitoneal administration of cerulein (2 × 50 μg/kg), while the RV group received saline in the same way. Twelve hours after the second injection, the animals were sacrificed. Pancreatic tissue and plasma samples were collected. One part of the collected pancreatic tissues was used for histopathological evaluation, and the remaining portion was homogenized. Cytokine levels [tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6], hemogram parameters, biochemical parameters (amylase and lipase), nuclear factor-κB, aspirin triggered lipoxins and parameters related to the antioxidant system (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, hemeoxygenase-1, catalase and superoxide dismutase) were measured. RESULTS: Cerulein administration induced mild pancreatitis, characterized by interstitial edema (total histopathological score of 5.88 ± 0.44 vs 0.25 ± 0.16, P < 0.001). Subsequent pancreatic tissue damage resulted in an increase in amylase (2829.71 ± 772.48 vs 984.57 ± 49.22 U/L, P = 0.001) and lipase (110.14 ± 75.84 U/L vs 4.71 ± 0.78 U/L, P < 0.001) in plasma, and leucocytes (6.89 ± 0.48 vs 4.36 ± 0.23, P = 0.001) in peripheral blood. Cytokines, IL-1β (18.81 ± 2.55 pg/μg vs 6.65 ± 0.24 pg/μg, P = 0.002) and IL-6 (14.62 ± 1.98 pg/μg vs 9.09 ± 1.36 pg/μg, P = 0.04) in pancreatic tissue also increased. Aspirin pretreatment

  20. Can antiosteoporotic therapy reduce mortality in MRI-proved acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures?

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chou; Su, Fu-Mei; Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Lin, Wei-Che; Lui, Chun-Chung

    2016-05-01

    Patients with MRI-proved acute painful vertebral fractures in whom conservative pain management fails are frequently referred for vertebroplasty. This study investigated the effects of treating osteoporosis on the mortality rate of patients with MRI-proved acute osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures who had undergone vertebroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of osteoporosis patients with MRI-proved acute vertebral fractures who had been treated with vertebroplasty from January 2001 to December 2007. The long-term outcomes of the patients who received antiosteoporotic therapy were compared with those of patients who received no therapy. A total of 304 patients (247 female patients and 57 male patients; mean age, 74.1 ± 7.7 years) were enrolled in the study. The patients who received antiosteoporotic therapy had a significantly lower mortality rate than did patients who did not receive antiosteoporotic therapy (P = 0.001; hazard ratio, 0.396, 95 % confidence interval, 0.273-0.575). At the end of the study, 183 patients were alive, and 121 had died. Effective treatment for osteoporosis may improve survival in patients with osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures after vertebroplasty. PMID:26040410

  1. Secretin-Stimulated Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of the Benign Pancreatic Disorders: Systematic Review and Proposal for a Standardized Protocol.

    PubMed

    Madzak, Adnan; Olesen, Søren Schou; Wathle, Gaute Kjellevold; Haldorsen, Ingfrid Salvesen; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum

    2016-09-01

    This systemic review summarizes the current literature and general consensus on secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) of the benign pancreatic disorders and discusses important aspects on how s-MRI is optimally performed. The aim is to provide an overview, for clinicians and radiologist, of the s-MRI protocols and the range of clinical applications. Furthermore, the review will summarize the criteria for evaluation of pancreatic morphology and function based on s-MRI.The literature search indentified 69 original articles and 15 reviews. Chronic pancreatitis was the disease that was most frequently assessed by s-MRI (33%), followed by acute pancreatitis (9%). Dynamic thick-slab 2-dimensional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was the most used imaging sequence (86%). The diameter of the main pancreatic duct (75%) and pancreatic exocrine function based on visual grading of duodenal filling (67%) were the most evaluated pancreatic features. Sufficient similarities between studies were identified to propose the most agreeable standardized s-MRI protocol for morphological and functional assessment of the pancreas. In the future, more research and increased collaboration between centers is necessary to achieve more consensus and optimization of s-MRI protocols. PMID:27171509

  2. Clinical characteristics and management of patients with early acute severe pancreatitis: Experience from a medical center in China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hou-Quan; Zhang, Jing-Xia; Zou, Shou-Chun

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study clinical characteristics and management of patients with early severe acute pancreatitis (ESAP). METHODS: Data of 297 patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) admitted to our hospital within 72 h after onset of symptoms from January 1991 to June 2003 were reviewed for the occurrence and development of early severe acute pancreatitis (ESAP). ESAP was defined as presence of organ dysfunction within 72 h after onset of symptoms. Sixty-nine patients had ESAP, 228 patients without organ dysfunction within 72 h after onset of symptoms had SAP. The clinical characteristics, incidence of organ dysfunction during hospitalization and prognosis between ESAP and SAP were compared. RESULTS: Impairment degree of pancreas (Balthazar CT class) in ESAP was more serious than that in SAP (5.31 ± 0.68 vs 3.68 ± 0.29, P < 0.01). ESAP had a higher mortality than SAP (43.4% vs 2.6%, P < 0.01), and a higher incidence of hypoxemia (85.5% vs 25%, P < 0.01), pancreas infection (15.9% vs 7.5%, P < 0.05), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) (78.3% vs 23.2%, P < 0.01) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)(78.3% vs 10.1%, P < 0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the main predisposing factors to ESAP were higher APACHE II score, Balthazar CT class, MODS and hypoxemia. CONCLUSION: ESAP is characterised by MODS, severe pathological changes of pancreas, early hypoxemia and abdominal compartment syndrome. Given the poor prognosis of ESAP, these patients should be treated in specialized intensive care units with special measures such as close supervision, fluid resuscitation, improvement of hypoxemia, reduction of pancreatic secretion, elimination of inflammatory mediators, prevention and treatment of pancreatic infections. PMID:15040047

  3. Early multi-system organ failure associated with acute pancreatitis: a plea for a conservative therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Dugernier, T; Reynaert, M; Laterre, P F

    2003-01-01

    The mortality of severe acute pancreatitis still ranges between 10 and 20%. Nowadays, infected pancreatic necrosis is the leading cause of death. Despite advances in intensive care therapy, however, early and worsening multi-system organ failure remains a source of substantial morbidity and still accounts for 20 to 50% of the deaths. In recent years, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the relevant cascades of inflammatory mediators have been implicated as the key factor in the emergence of remote tissue damage. Early multi-system organ failure that supervenes in the first week is typically associated with a sterile necrotizing process. There are no pathophysiological, clinical or economical data to support the practice of debridement of sterile necrosis to prevent or to control early multi-system organ failure. This issue has never been addressed in a controlled study. Besides intensive care support, non-surgical therapeutic modalities including urgent endoscopic sphincterotomy for impacted stones, antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of pancreatic infection and early jejunal nutrition have been specifically developed hopefully to attenuate multiple organ failure, to obviate the need of surgical drainage and to improve survival. Fine needle aspiration of necrotic areas must be incorporated in any conservative therapeutic strategy in order to identify and not to jeopardize those with infected necrosis that remains an absolute indication for drainage. A specific treatment of acute pancreatitis is still lacking, so far. However, there is ample experimental and pathophysiological evidence in favour of immunomodulatory therapy in severe acute pancreatitis. The administration of one or several antagonists of inflammatory mediators possibly combined with a protease inhibitor may at last provide the opportunity to interfere with the two major determinants of prognosis: the severity of multiple organ failure and the extent of necrotic areas that creates

  4. Kynurenine–3–monooxygenase inhibition prevents multiple organ failure in rodent models of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Damian J; Webster, Scott P; Uings, Iain; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Binnie, Margaret; Wilson, Kris; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Mirguet, Olivier; Walker, Ann; Beaufils, Benjamin; Ancellin, Nicolas; Trottet, Lionel; Bénéton, Véronique; Mowat, Christopher G; Wilkinson, Martin; Rowland, Paul; Haslam, Carl; McBride, Andrew; Homer, Natalie ZM; Baily, James E; Sharp, Matthew GF; Garden, O James; Hughes, Jeremy; Howie, Sarah EM; Holmes, Duncan S; Liddle, John; Iredale, John P

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and devastating inflammatory condition of the pancreas that is considered to be a paradigm of sterile inflammation leading to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death1,2 Acute mortality from AP-MODS exceeds 20%3 and for those who survive the initial episode, their lifespan is typically shorter than the general population4. There are no specific therapies available that protect individuals against AP-MODS. Here, we show that kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme of tryptophan metabolism5, is central to the pathogenesis of AP-MODS. We created a mouse strain deficient for Kmo with a robust biochemical phenotype that protected against extrapancreatic tissue injury to lung, kidney and liver in experimental AP-MODS. A medicinal chemistry strategy based on modifications of the kynurenine substrate led to the discovery of GSK180 as a potent and specific inhibitor of KMO. The binding mode of the inhibitor in the active site was confirmed by X-ray co-crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. Treatment with GSK180 resulted in rapid changes in levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites in vivo and afforded therapeutic protection against AP-MODS in a rat model of AP. Our findings establish KMO inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AP-MODS and open up a new area for drug discovery in critical illness. PMID:26752518

  5. 1H NMR global metabolic phenotyping of acute pancreatitis in the emergency unit.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Alma; Kinross, James M; Li, Jia V; Penney, Nicholas; Barton, Richard H; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Darzi, Ara; Barbas, Coral; Holmes, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the urinary and plasma metabolic phenotype of acute pancreatitis (AP) patients presenting to the emergency room at a single center London teaching hospital with acute abdominal pain using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate modeling. Patients were allocated to either the AP (n = 15) or non-AP patients group (all other causes of abdominal pain, n = 21) on the basis of the national guidelines. Patients were assessed for three clinical outcomes: (1) diagnosis of AP, (2) etiology of AP caused by alcohol consumption and cholelithiasis, and (3) AP severity based on the Glasgow score. Samples from AP patients were characterized by high levels of urinary ketone bodies, glucose, plasma choline and lipid, and relatively low levels of urinary hippurate, creatine and plasma-branched chain amino acids. AP could be reliably identified with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity (OPLS-DA model R(2) = 0.76 and Q(2)Y = 0.59) using panel of discriminatory biomarkers consisting of guanine, hippurate and creatine (urine), and valine, alanine and lipoproteins (plasma). Metabolic phenotyping was also able to distinguish between cholelithiasis and colonic inflammation among the heterogeneous non-AP group. This work has demonstrated that combinatorial biomarkers have a strong diagnostic and prognostic potential in AP with relevance to clinical decision making in the emergency unit. PMID:25160714

  6. Kynurenine-3-monooxygenase inhibition prevents multiple organ failure in rodent models of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mole, Damian J; Webster, Scott P; Uings, Iain; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Binnie, Margaret; Wilson, Kris; Hutchinson, Jonathan P; Mirguet, Olivier; Walker, Ann; Beaufils, Benjamin; Ancellin, Nicolas; Trottet, Lionel; Bénéton, Véronique; Mowat, Christopher G; Wilkinson, Martin; Rowland, Paul; Haslam, Carl; McBride, Andrew; Homer, Natalie Z M; Baily, James E; Sharp, Matthew G F; Garden, O James; Hughes, Jeremy; Howie, Sarah E M; Holmes, Duncan S; Liddle, John; Iredale, John P

    2016-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and devastating inflammatory condition of the pancreas that is considered to be a paradigm of sterile inflammation leading to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Acute mortality from AP-MODS exceeds 20% (ref. 3), and the lifespans of those who survive the initial episode are typically shorter than those of the general population. There are no specific therapies available to protect individuals from AP-MODS. Here we show that kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), a key enzyme of tryptophan metabolism, is central to the pathogenesis of AP-MODS. We created a mouse strain that is deficient for Kmo (encoding KMO) and that has a robust biochemical phenotype that protects against extrapancreatic tissue injury to the lung, kidney and liver in experimental AP-MODS. A medicinal chemistry strategy based on modifications of the kynurenine substrate led to the discovery of the oxazolidinone GSK180 as a potent and specific inhibitor of KMO. The binding mode of the inhibitor in the active site was confirmed by X-ray co-crystallography at 3.2 Å resolution. Treatment with GSK180 resulted in rapid changes in the levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites in vivo, and it afforded therapeutic protection against MODS in a rat model of AP. Our findings establish KMO inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of AP-MODS, and they open up a new area for drug discovery in critical illness. PMID:26752518

  7. [Diagnostic importance of pentraxins at the early phase of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Meryk, Piotr; Dumnicka, Paulina; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kapusta, Maria; Gurda-Duda, Anna; Goebels, Marek; Pawlica-Gosiewska, Dorota; Kulig, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pentraxins are among the main acute phase reactants. There are two types of pentraxins, i.e., long, including pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and short, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA). The aim of the study was to assess the increase in serum concentrations of pentraxins (ex- pressed as the multiplicity of the upper reference limits) and their usefulness in prognosing severe course of acute pancreatitis (AP) in the early phase of the disease. Forty patients admitted to Ist Department of Surgery, Jagiel-Ionian University Medical College with the diagnosis of AP were recruited for the study. In the early phase of AP, the concentrations of PTX3 achieved maximum earlier than CRP or SAA, enabling to differentiate between mild and moderate or severe AP in the first day of the disease. Also, during the first 24 hours from beginning of AP, SAA achieved its best prognostic value. Of all pentraxins studied, SAA was characterized by the most significant increase as compared to the upper reference limit. The prognostic utility of CRP increased later, after 48 hours of AP. PMID:25344970

  8. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Radenkovic, Dejan V.; Johnson, Colin D.; Milic, Natasa; Gregoric, Pavle; Ivancevic, Nenad; Bezmarevic, Mihailo; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Cijan, Vladimir; Antic, Andrija; Bajec, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment. PMID:26839539

  9. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Dejan V; Johnson, Colin D; Milic, Natasa; Gregoric, Pavle; Ivancevic, Nenad; Bezmarevic, Mihailo; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Cijan, Vladimir; Antic, Andrija; Bajec, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment. PMID:26839539

  10. Diffusion fMRI detects white-matter dysfunction in mice with acute optic neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsen-Hsuan; Spees, William M.; Chiang, Chia-Wen; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Cross, Anne H.; Song, Sheng-Kwei

    2014-01-01

    Optic neuritis is a frequent and early symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) techniques provide means to assess multiple MS-related pathologies, including axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation. A method to directly and non-invasively probe white-matter function could further elucidate the interplay of underlying pathologies and functional impairments. Previously, we demonstrated a significant 27% activation-associated decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient of water perpendicular to the axonal fibers (ADC⊥) in normal C57BL/6 mouse optic nerve with visual stimulation using diffusion fMRI. Here we apply this approach to explore the relationship between visual acuity, optic nerve pathology, and diffusion fMRI in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of optic neuritis. Visual stimulation produced a significant 25% (vs. baseline) ADC⊥ decrease in sham EAE optic nerves, while only a 7% (vs. baseline) ADC⊥ decrease was seen in EAE mice with acute optic neuritis. The reduced activation-associated ADC⊥ response correlated with post-MRI immunohistochemistry determined pathologies (including inflammation, demyelination, and axonal injury). The negative correlation between activation-associated ADC⊥ response and visual acuity was also found when pooling EAE-affected and sham groups under our experimental criteria. Results suggest that reduction in diffusion fMRI directly reflects impaired axonal-activation in EAE mice with optic neuritis. Diffusion fMRI holds promise for directly gauging in vivo white-matter dysfunction or therapeutic responses in MS patients. PMID:24632420

  11. Excellent reliability for MRI grading and prognostic parameters in acute hamstring injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, B; Whiteley, R; Almusa, E; Roger, B; Geertsema, C; Tol, Johannes L

    2014-01-01

    Background Categorical grading and other measurable MRI parameters are frequently utilised for predicting the outcome of hamstring injuries. However, the reliability and smallest detectable difference (SDD) have not been previously evaluated. It therefore remains unclear if the variability in previously reported results reflects reporting variation or actual injury status. Methods 25 hamstring injuries were scored by two experienced radiologists using the Peetrons grading and specific prognostic MRI parameters: distance from ischial tuberosity (cm), extent (cranio to caudal, anterior to posterior, medial to lateral; (cm)), maximum cross-sectional area (%), volume (cm3) of the oedema. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability was calculated along with the SDDs for each scale variable. Results There were 3 Grade 0 (12%), 11 grade 1 (44%), 9 grade 2 (36%) and 2 grade 3 (8%) injuries. Cronbach's α values for grading were 1.00 (inter) and 0.96 (intra), respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the prognostic MRI parameters were between 0.77 and 1.0. The SDDs varied between each parameter. Conclusions Excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability was found for grading and prognostic MRI parameters in acute hamstring injuries. In daily practice and research, we can be confident that scoring hamstring injuries by experienced radiologists is reproducible. The documented SDDs allow meaningful clinical inferences to be made when assessing observed and reported changes in MRI status. PMID:24037670

  12. Sterile Fluid Collections in Acute Pancreatitis: Catheter Drainage Versus Simple Aspiration

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, Eric M. Nealon, William H.; Marroquin, Santiago; Raza, Syed; Hernandez, J. Alberto; Vasek, James

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To compare the clinical outcome of needle aspiration versus percutaneous catheter drainage of sterile fluid collections in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods. We reviewed the clinical and imaging data of patients with acute pancreatic fluid collections from 1998 to 2003. Referral for fluid sampling was based on elevated white blood cell count and fevers. Those patients with culture-negative drainages or needle aspirations were included in the study. Fifteen patients had aspiration of 10-20 ml fluid only (group A) and 22 patients had catheter placement for chronic evacuation of fluid (group C). We excluded patients with grossly purulent collections and chronic pseudocysts. We also recorded the number of sinograms and catheter changes and duration of catheter drainage. The CT severity index, Ranson scores, and maximum diameter of abdominal fluid collections were calculated for all patients at presentation. The total length of hospital stay (LOS), length of hospital stay after the drainage or aspiration procedure (LOS-P), and conversions to percutaneous and/or surgical drainage were recorded as well as survival. Results. The CT severity index and acute Ransom scores were not different between the two groups (p = 0.15 and p = 0.6, respectively). When 3 crossover patients from group A to group C were accounted for, the duration of hospitalization did not differ significantly, with a mean LOS and LOS-P of 33.8 days and 27.9 days in group A and 41.5 days and 27.6 days in group C, respectively (p = 0.57 and 0.98, respectively). The 60-day mortality was 2 of 15 (13%) in group A and 2 of 22 (9.1%) in group C. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different (p 0.3). Surgical or percutaneous conversions occurred significantly more often in group A (7/15, 47%) than surgical conversions in group C (4/22, 18%) (p 0.03). Patients undergoing catheter drainage required an average of 2.2 sinograms/tube changes and kept catheters in for

  13. Effects of early enteral nutrition on immune function of severe acute pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Kui; Mu, Xin-Wei; Li, Wei-Qin; Tong, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zheng, Shu-Yun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on the immune function and clinical outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated to receive EEN or delayed enteral nutrition (DEN). Enteral nutrition was started within 48 h after admission in EEN group, whereas from the 8th day in DEN group. All the immunologic parameters and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were collected on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after admission. The clinical outcome variables were also recorded. RESULTS: Sixty SAP patients were enrolled to this study. The CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the CRP levels in EEN group became significantly lower than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. In contrast, the immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels and human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in EEN group became significantly higher than in DEN group from the 7th day after admission. No difference of CD8+ T-lymphocyte percentage, IgM and IgA levels was found between the two groups. The incidences of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and pancreatic infection as well as the duration of intensive care unit stay were significantly lower in EEN group than in DEN group. However, there was no difference of hospital mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSION: EEN moderates the excessive immune response during the early stage of SAP without leading to subsequent immunosuppression. EEN can improve the clinical outcome, but not decrease the hospital mortality of SAP patients. PMID:23431120

  14. The carvacrol ameliorates acute pancreatitis-induced liver injury via antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Bakır, Murat; Geyikoglu, Fatime; Colak, Suat; Turkez, Hasan; Bakır, Tulay Ozhan; Hosseinigouzdagani, Mirkhalil

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) may cause significant persistent multi-organ dysfunction. Carvacrol (CAR) possesses a variety of biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to analyze the hepatic protection of CAR on AP induced by cerulein and to explore the underlying mechanism using in vivo studies. The rats were randomized into groups to receive (1) no therapy; (2) 50 µg/kg cerulein at 1-h intervals by four intraperitoneal injection (i.p.); (3) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p.; and (4) cerulein + CAR after 2 h of cerulein injection. 12 h later, serum was provided to assess the blood AST, ALT and LDH values. Also, liver tissues were obtained for histological and biochemical measurements. Liver oxidative stress markers were evaluated by changes in the amount of lipid peroxides measured as MDA and changes in tissue antioxidant enzyme levels, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px. Histopathological examination was performed using scoring systems. Oxidative damage to DNA was quantitated in studied tissues of experimental animals by measuring the increase in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formations. We found that the increasing doses of CAR decreased pancreatitis-induced MDA and 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the liver SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities in the AP + CAR group were higher than that of the rats in the AP group. In the treatment groups, AST, ALT and LDH were reduced. Besides, necrosis, coagulation and inflammation in the liver were alleviated (p < 0.05). We suggest that CAR could be a safe and potent new drug candidate for treating AP through its antioxidative mechanism of action for the treatment of a wide range of disorders related to hepatic dysfunction. PMID:26350272

  15. Treatment of necrotizing acute pancreatitis with peritoneal lavage and dialysis by a new simplified technique insert catheters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Zhu, Bai; Zhu, Xueyan; Piao, Chenglin; Cui, Wenpeng; Wang, Yangwei; Sun, Jing; Chen, Wenguo; Miao, Lining

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peritoneal lavage and dialysis is an approach to treat necrotizing acute pancreatitis as it removes dialyzable toxins and reduces severe metabolic disturbances. Successful catheter implantation is important for delivering adequate peritoneal lavage and dialysis. The aim of the present study was to describe a new modified percutaneous technique for the placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters and assess the effectiveness and safety of peritoneal lavage and dialysis used for treatment of necrotizing acute pancreatitis. We conducted a retrospective data review of 35 patients of necrotizing acute pancreatitis from January 2010 to December 2014 in Jilin City Central Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital of ZheJiang University. In total, 18 patients underwent peritoneal lavage and dialysis after inserting catheters by our new technique (group A), whereas 17 patients underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (group B). By analyzing the patients’ data, the drainage days and mean number of hours between the debut of the symptoms and the hospital admission were lower in group A (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). The complication rate of 5.6 and 17.6%, respectively (P = 0.261), and a mortality rate of 16.7 and 5.9% for each group, respectively (P = 0.316). Likewise, hospitalization time was similar for the group A: 31 ± 25.3 days compared with 42.8 ± 29.4 days in the group B (P = 0.211). Peritoneal lavage and dialysis can be used in necrotizing acute pancreatitis, and our new modified percutaneous technique offers the same complication and mortality rate as ultrasound-guided drainage but with a shorter drainage days. PMID:27281083

  16. Treatment of necrotizing acute pancreatitis with peritoneal lavage and dialysis by a new simplified technique insert catheters: One retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Zhu, Bai; Zhu, Xueyan; Piao, Chenglin; Cui, Wenpeng; Wang, Yangwei; Sun, Jing; Chen, Wenguo; Miao, Lining

    2016-06-01

    Peritoneal lavage and dialysis is an approach to treat necrotizing acute pancreatitis as it removes dialyzable toxins and reduces severe metabolic disturbances. Successful catheter implantation is important for delivering adequate peritoneal lavage and dialysis. The aim of the present study was to describe a new modified percutaneous technique for the placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters and assess the effectiveness and safety of peritoneal lavage and dialysis used for treatment of necrotizing acute pancreatitis. We conducted a retrospective data review of 35 patients of necrotizing acute pancreatitis from January 2010 to December 2014 in Jilin City Central Hospital and The First Affiliated Hospital of ZheJiang University. In total, 18 patients underwent peritoneal lavage and dialysis after inserting catheters by our new technique (group A), whereas 17 patients underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage (group B). By analyzing the patients' data, the drainage days and mean number of hours between the debut of the symptoms and the hospital admission were lower in group A (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively). The complication rate of 5.6 and 17.6%, respectively (P = 0.261), and a mortality rate of 16.7 and 5.9% for each group, respectively (P = 0.316). Likewise, hospitalization time was similar for the group A: 31 ± 25.3 days compared with 42.8 ± 29.4 days in the group B (P = 0.211). Peritoneal lavage and dialysis can be used in necrotizing acute pancreatitis, and our new modified percutaneous technique offers the same complication and mortality rate as ultrasound-guided drainage but with a shorter drainage days. PMID:27281083

  17. New Insights into the Methodology of L-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kui, Balázs; Balla, Zsolt; Vasas, Béla; Végh, Eszter T.; Pallagi, Petra; Kormányos, Eszter S.; Venglovecz, Viktória; Iványi, Béla; Takács, Tamás; Hegyi, Péter; Rakonczay, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are ideal to study the pathomechanism and therapy of acute pancreatitis (AP). The use of L-arginine-induced AP model is nowadays becoming increasingly popular in mice. However, carefully looking through the literature, marked differences in disease severity could be observed. In fact, while setting up the L-arginine (2×4 g/kg i.p.)-induced AP model in BALB/c mice, we found a relatively low rate (around 15%) of pancreatic necrosis, whereas others have detected much higher rates (up to 55%). We suspected that this may be due to differences between mouse strains. We administered various concentrations (5–30%, pH = 7.4) and doses (2×4, 3×3, or 4×2.5 g/kg) of L-arginine-HCl in BALB/c, FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice. The potential gender-specific effect of L-arginine was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The fate of mice in response to the i.p. injections of L arginine followed one of three courses. Some mice (1) developed severe AP or (2) remained AP-free by 72 h, whereas others (3) had to be euthanized (to avoid their death, which was caused by the high dose of L-arginine and not AP) within 12 h., In FVB/n and C57BL/6 mice, the pancreatic necrosis rate (about 50%) was significantly higher than that observed in BALB/c mice using 2×4 g/kg 10% L–arginine, but euthanasia was necessary in a large proportion of animals, The i.p. injection of lower L-arginine concentrations (e.g. 5–8%) in case of the 2×4 g/kg dose, or other L-arginine doses (3×3 or 4×2.5 g/kg, 10%) were better for inducing AP. We could not detect any significant differences between the AP severity of male and female mice. Taken together, when setting up the L-arginine-induced AP model, there are several important factors that are worth consideration such as the dose and concentration of the administered L arginine-HCl solution and also the strain of mice. PMID:25688985

  18. Interleukin-22 ameliorates acute severe pancreatitis-associated lung injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Xu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential protective effect of exogenous recombinant interleukin-22 (rIL-22) on L-arginine-induced acute severe pancreatitis (SAP)-associated lung injury and the possible signaling pathway involved. METHODS: Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with L-arginine to induce SAP. Recombinant mouse IL-22 was then administered subcutaneously to mice. Serum amylase levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the lung tissue were measured after the L-arginine administration. Histopathology of the pancreas and lung was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Expression of B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-xL and IL-22RA1 mRNAs in the lung tissue was detected by real-time PCR. Expression and phosphorylation of STAT3 were analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: Serum amylase levels and MPO activity in the lung tissue in the SAP group were significantly higher than those in the normal control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the animals in the SAP group showed significant pancreatic and lung injuries. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL mRNAs in the SAP group was decreased markedly, while the IL-22RA1 mRNA expression was increased significantly relative to the normal control group (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with PBS did not significantly affect the serum amylase levels, MPO activity or expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL or IL-22RA1 mRNA (P > 0.05). Moreover, no significant differences in the degrees of pancreatic and lung injuries were observed between the PBS and SAP groups. However, the serum amylase levels and lung tissue MPO activity in the rIL-22 group were significantly lower than those in the SAP group (P < 0.05), and the injuries in the pancreas and lung were also improved. Compared with the PBS group, rIL-22 stimulated the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and IL-22RA1 mRNAs in the lung (P < 0.05). In addition, the ratio of p-STAT3 to STAT3 protein in the rIL-22 group was significantly higher than that in the PBS group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION

  19. Acute Pancreatitis Induced by Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine Proven by Single and Low Dose Challenge Testing in a Child with Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Yi, Geum-Chae-Won; Yoon, Ka-Hyun; Hwang, Jin-Bok

    2012-12-01

    We report here a case of drug-induced acute pancreatitis proved by elimination and single, low dose challenge test in a child with Crohn disease. A 14-year-old boy with moderate/severe Crohn disease was admitted due to high fever and severe epigastric pain during administration of mesalazine and azathioprine. Blood test and abdominal ultrasonography revealed acute pancreatitis. After discontinuance of the medication and supportive care, the symptoms and laboratory findings improved. A single, low dose challenge test was done to confirm the relationship of the adverse drug reaction and acute pancreatitis, and to discriminate the responsible drug. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine showed positive responses, and mesalazine showed a negative response. We introduce the method of single, low dose challenge test and its interpretation for drug-induced pancreatitis. PMID:24010098

  20. Identification of the interaction of VP1 with GM130 which may implicate in the pathogenesis of CVB3-induced acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiuzhen; Xia, Yanhua; Huang, Shengping; Liu, Fadi; Ying, Ying; Xu, Qiufang; Liu, Xin; Jin, Guili; Papasian, Christopher J.; Chen, Jack; Fu, Mingui; Huang, Xiaotian

    2015-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a causative agent of viral myocarditis, pancreatitis, and meningitis in humans. Although the susceptibility of CVB3-induced acute pancreatitis is age-dependent, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we identified the host factor Golgi matrix protein 130 (GM130) as a novel target of CVB3 during CVB3-induced acute pancreatitis. The viral protein VP1 interacted with GM130, disrupted GM130-GRASP65 complexes, and caused GM130 degradation, which may lead to disruption of the Golgi ribbon and development of acute pancreatitis in mice. Interestingly, the expression level of GM130 in mouse pancreas was age-dependent, which was nicely correlated with the age-associated susceptibility of CVB3-induced acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, interference RNA-mediated knockdown of GM130 significantly reduced CVB3 replication in HeLa cells. Taken together, the study identified GM130 as a novel target of CVB3, which may implicate in the pathogenesis of CVB3-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26314804

  1. Acute astrocyte activation in brain detected by MRI: new insights into T(1) hypointensity.

    PubMed

    Sibson, Nicola R; Lowe, John P; Blamire, Andrew M; Martin, Matthew J; Obrenovitch, Tiho P; Anthony, Daniel C

    2008-03-01

    Increases in the T(1) of brain tissue, which give rise to dark or hypointense areas on T(1)-weighted images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are common to a number of neuropathologies including multiple sclerosis (MS) and ischaemia. However, the biologic significance of T(1) increases remains unclear. Using a multiparametric MRI approach and well-defined experimental models, we have experimentally induced increases in tissue T(1) to determine the underlying cellular basis of such changes. We have shown that a rapid acute increase in T(1) relaxation in the brain occurs in experimental models of both low-flow ischaemia induced by intrastriatal injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1), and excitotoxicity induced by intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). However, there appears to be no consistent correlation between increases in T(1) relaxation and changes in other MRI parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient, T(2) relaxation, or magnetisation transfer ratio of tissue water). Immunohistochemically, one common morphologic feature shared by the ET-1 and NMDA models is acute astrocyte activation, which was detectable within 2 h of intracerebral ET-1 injection. Pretreatment with an inhibitor of astrocyte activation, arundic acid, significantly reduced the spatial extent of the T(1) signal change induced by intrastriatal ET-1 injection. These findings suggest that an increase in T(1) relaxation may identify the acute development of reactive astrocytes within a central nervous system lesion. Early changes in T(1) may, therefore, provide insight into acute and reversible injury processes in neurologic patients, such as those observed before contrast enhancement in MS. PMID:17851455

  2. Identification and Acute Targeting of Gaps in Atrial Ablation Lesion Sets using a Real Time MRI System

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Ravi; Kholmovski, Eugene G.; Blauer, Joshua; Vijayakumar, Sathya; Volland, Nelly A.; Salama, Mohamed E.; Parker, Dennis L.; MacLeod, Rob; Marrouche, Nassir F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiofrequency ablation is routinely used to treat cardiac arrhythmias, but gaps remain in ablation lesion sets, as there is no direct visualization of ablation related changes. In this study we describe using a real time MRI (RT-MRI) system to acutely identify and target gaps leading to a complete and transmural ablation in the atrium. Methods and Results A swine model was used for these studies (n=12). Ablation lesions with a gap were created in the atrium using fluoroscopy and an electro-anatomical system in the first group (n=5). The animal was then moved to a 3 Tesla MRI system where high-resolution late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI was used to identify the gap. Using a RT-MRI catheter navigation and visualization system the gap area was ablated in the MR scanner. In a second group (n=7) ablation lesions with varying gaps in between were created under RT-MRI guidance and gap lengths determined using LGE MR images were correlated with gap length measured from gross pathology. Gaps up to 1.0 mm were identified using gross pathology and 1.4 mm using LGE MRI. Using a RT-MRI system with active catheter navigation gaps can be targeted acutely, leading to lesion sets with no gaps. The correlation coefficient (R2) between gap length identified using MRI and gross pathology was 0.95. Conclusions Real time MRI system can be used to identify and acutely target gaps in atrial ablation lesion sets. Acute targeting of gaps in ablation lesion sets can potentially lead to significant improvement in clinical outcomes. PMID:23071143

  3. Visibility and artifacts of gold fiducial markers used for image guided radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer on MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney-Champion, Oliver J.; Lens, Eelco; Horst, Astrid van der; Houweling, Antonetta C.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan; Klaassen, Remy; Hooft, Jeanin E. van; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: In radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer, tumor alignment prior to each treatment fraction is improved when intratumoral gold fiducial markers (from here onwards: markers), which are visible on computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT, are used. Visibility of these markers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might improve image registration between CT and magnetic resonance (MR) images for tumor delineation purposes. However, concomitant image artifacts induced by markers are undesirable. The extent of visibility and artifact size depend on MRI-sequence parameters. The authors’ goal was to determine for various markers their potential to be visible and to generate artifacts, using measures that are independent of the MRI-sequence parameters. Methods: The authors selected ten different markers suitable for endoscopic placement in the pancreas and placed them into a phantom. The markers varied in diameter (0.28–0.6 mm), shape, and iron content (0%–0.5%). For each marker, the authors calculated T{sub 2}{sup ∗}-maps and ΔB{sub 0}-maps using MRI measurements. A decrease in relaxation time T{sub 2}{sup ∗} can cause signal voids, associated with visibility, while a change in the magnetic field B{sub 0} can cause signal shifts, which are associated with artifacts. These shifts inhibit accurate tumor delineation. As a measure for potential visibility, the authors used the volume of low T{sub 2}{sup ∗}, i.e., the volume for which T{sub 2}{sup ∗} differed from the background by >15 ms. As a measure for potential artifacts, the authors used the volume for which |ΔB{sub 0}| > 9.4 × 10{sup −8} T (4 Hz). To test whether there is a correlation between visibility and artifact size, the authors calculated the Spearman’s correlation coefficient (R{sub s}) between the volume of low T{sub 2}{sup ∗} and the volume of high |ΔB{sub 0}|. The authors compared the maps with images obtained using a clinical MR-sequence. Finally, for the best visible marker

  4. Cholecystectomy and sphincterotomy in patients with mild acute biliary pancreatitis in Sweden 1988 - 2003: a nationwide register study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gallstones represent the most common cause of acute pancreatitis in Sweden. Epidemiological data concerning timing of cholecystectomy and sphincterotomy in patients with first attack of mild acute biliary pancreatitis (MABP) are scarce. Our aim was to analyse readmissions for biliary disease, cholecystectomy within one year, and mortality within 90 days of index admission for MABP. Methods Hospital discharge and death certificate data were linked for patients with first attack acute pancreatitis in Sweden 1988-2003. Mortality was calculated as case fatality rate (CFR) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR). MABP was defined as acute pancreatitis of biliary aetiology without mortality during an index stay of 10 days or shorter. Patients were analysed according to four different treatment policies: Cholecystectomy during index stay (group 1), no cholecystectomy during index stay but within 30 days of index admission (group 2), sphincterotomy but not cholecystectomy within 30 days of index admission (group 3), and neither cholecystectomy nor sphincterotomy within 30 days of index admission (group 4). Results Of 11636 patients with acute biliary pancreatitis, 8631 patients (74%) met the criteria for MABP. After exclusion of those with cholecystectomy or sphincterotomy during the year before index admission (N = 212), 8419 patients with MABP remained for analysis. Patients in group 1 and 2 were significantly younger than patients in group 3 and 4. Length of index stay differed significantly between the groups, from 4 (3-6) days, (representing median, 25 and 75 percentiles) in group 2 to 7 (5-8) days in groups 1. In group 1, 4.9% of patients were readmitted at least once for biliary disease within one year after index admission, compared to 100% in group 2, 62.5% in group 3, and 76.3% in group 4. One year after index admission, 30.8% of patients in group 3 and 47.7% of patients in group 4 had undergone cholecystectomy. SMR did not differ between the four

  5. Salutary and prophylactic effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute pancreatitis and concomitant gastroduodenal lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Jurina, L; Konjevoda, P; Hanzevacki, M; Ljubanović, D; Separović, J; Gjurasin, M; Bratulić, M; Artuković, B; Jelovac, N; Buljat, G

    1996-07-01

    The superior effectiveness of a new pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on gastrointestinal and liver lesions, in conjunction with an antiinflammatory and analgetic activity was recently noted. In the present study, BPC 157 was tested as either a protective or healing agent in bile duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. In addition, the positive influence of BPC 157 on concomitantly developed gastric and duodenal lesions was simultaneously investigated. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng/kg body wt, intraperitoneally or intragastrically) was given prophylactically 1 hr before ligation, whereas the therapy was given once daily beginning with the 24 hr following ligation (last application 24 hr before killing). The effect was investigated at daily intervals until the end of the fifth day after ligation. In the pretreatment regimen, a strong pancreas protection was obtained. When applied in the condition of already established severe acute pancreatitis, an obvious salutory effect was consistently noted. Assessing the appearance of the necrosis, edema, neutrophils, and mononuclears, consistently less necrosis, edema, and neutrophils, but more mononuclears, were found in BPC-treated rats. Likewise, in studies of the serum amylase values, relative to control data, a markedly lower rise (BPC pretreatment regimen) as well as a worsening of the already raised values (BPC therapy regimen) was noted. Along with its beneficial effect on pancreatitis, a positive influence of BPC 157 on the gastric and duodenal lesion course in bile duct-ligated rats was noted in both the pre- and posttreatment regimen. Taken together, in further studies of acute pancreatitis therapy, BPC could be an interesting and useful agent with an additional positive impact on concomitant gastroduodenal pathology. PMID:8689934

  6. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Patients With Advanced Breast or Pancreatic Cancer With Metastases to the Liver or Lung

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-28

    Acinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Liver Metastases; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  7. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  8. Steroids do not alter pancreatic blood supply in hypovolemic dogs: implications on steroid action in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Robert, J H; Toledano, A E; Toth, L S; Premus, G; Dreiling, D A

    1988-12-01

    A recent report from our laboratory showed that pancreatic inflammation induced by hypovolemic shock can be explained to some extent by spoliation in pancreatic perfusion as revealed by electromagnetic flow determinations on the gastroduodenal artery (GDA). On the other hand, when given early in the course of hypovolemic shock, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) alleviated pancreatic inflammation as evidenced by gross and histological findings. Five dogs (18-23 kg) were submitted to a 3-hour hypovolemic shock (mean arterial blood pressure, MABP = 50 mm Hg) and received during bleeding 35 mg/kg of MPSS over a 30 min period. Recordings of cardiac output (CO), MABP, regional blood flows in the GDA and superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries were taken every 15 min. The effect of MPSS was appreciated by comparing GDA flow variations in this group with those previously published of a control group comprised of 12 dogs submitted to 3 hours of hypovolemic shock without steroids; operative protocol was in all points similar in both groups. At no time were any significant changes noted when MPSS was added as far as CO and GDA flows were concerned. In other words, the beneficial action of steroids on hypovolemic pancreases cannot be explained by alteration in regional blood flow. PMID:3065417

  9. Mechanisms of interleukin-22’s beneficial effects in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Chongmin; Kim, Daniel; Ou, Peiqi; Alfonso, Antonio; Stanek, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a disorder characterized by parenchymal injury of the pancreas controlled by immune cell-mediated inflammation. AP remains a significant challenge in the clinic due to a lack of specific and effective treatment. Knowledge of the complex mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response in AP is needed for the development of new approaches to treatment, since immune cell-derived inflammatory cytokines have been recognized to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine secreted by leukocytes, when applied in the severe animal models of AP, protects against the inflammation-mediated acinar injury. In contrast, in a mild AP model, endogenous IL-22 has been found to be a predominantly anti-inflammatory mediator that inhibits inflammatory cell infiltration via the induction of Reg3 proteins in acinar cells, but does not protect against acinar injury in the early stage of AP. However, constitutively over-expressed IL-22 can prevent the initial acinar injury caused by excessive autophagy through the induction of the anti-autophagic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Thus IL-22 plays different roles in AP depending on the severity of the AP model. This review focuses on these recently reported findings for the purpose of better understanding IL-22’s regulatory roles in AP which could help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:26909233

  10. Ca2+ toxicity and mitochondrial damage in acute pancreatitis: translational overview

    PubMed Central

    Maléth, József; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a leading cause of hospitalization among non-malignant gastrointestinal disorders. The mortality of severe AP can reach 30–50%, which is most probably owing to the lack of specific treatment. Therefore, AP is a major healthcare problem, which urges researchers to identify novel drug targets. Studies from the last decades highlighted that the toxic cellular Ca2+ overload and mitochondrial damage are key pathogenic steps in the disease development affecting both acinar and ductal cell functions. Moreover, recent observations showed that modifying the cellular Ca2+ signalling might be beneficial in AP. The inhibition of Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum or the activity of plasma membrane Ca2+ influx channels decreased the severity of AP in experimental models. Similarly, inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening also seems to improve the outcome of AP in in vivo animal models. At the moment MPTP blockers are under detailed clinical investigation to test whether interventions in MPTP openings and/or Ca2+ homeostasis of the cells can be specific targets in prevention or treatment of cell damage in AP. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolution brings Ca2+ and ATP together to control life and death’. PMID:27377719

  11. [Early jejunal feeding in acute pancreatitis: prevention of septic complications and multiorgan failure].

    PubMed

    Oláh, A; Pardavi, G; Belágyi, T

    2000-02-01

    Authors evaluate the effect of early jejunal feeding on septic complications and mortality in acute pancreatitis, based on the results of a two-phase, prospective, randomized study. In the first part of the study they compared the conventional parenteral nutrition with early (started within 24 hours) enteral nutrition in a prospective, randomized trial on 89 patients. Forty-eight patients were randomized into the parenteral group "A" (Rindex 10, Infusamin S, Intralipid 10%: 30 kcal/kg) and 41 patients into the enteral group "B" (fed by nasogastric jejunal tube Survimed OPD, 30 kcal/kg). The rate of septic complications (infected necrosis, abscess, infected pseudocyst) were significantly lower in the enteral group (p = 0.08 chi-square test). In the second phase of the study early jejunal feeding was combined with imipenem prophylaxis (Tienam, 2 x 500 mg i.v.) in the necrotizing cases detected by CT scan. According to the results of 92 patients the rate of septic complications (p = 0.03), multiple organ failure (p = 0.14), and mortality (p = 0.13) were further reduced in this group. Authors believe that combination of early enteral nutrition and a selective, adequate antibiotic therapy may give a chance for prevention of multiple organ failure. PMID:11299593

  12. Corticosteroid therapy for severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhong-Min; Wang, Shi-Ji; Zhao, Shu-Jie; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Yu-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent reports about the benefits of corticosteroid therapy in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have shown conflicting results. We aimed to explore the effects of corticosteroid therapy in SAP patients on patient outcomes by performing a meta-analysis. Methods: Databases (Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedicine Database, and China Academic Journal Full-Text Database) were queried for all relevant, randomized, controlled trials investigating corticosteroid therapy in patients with SAP. Results: Six randomized, controlled trials including 430 SAP patients were identified. Corticosteroid therapy for SAP was associated with reductions in the length of hospital stay, the need for surgical intervention, and the mortality rate (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -9.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -16.91 to -2.04, P = 0.01; odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18-0.67, P = 0.002; OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.94, P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the complication rates or Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores in patients with or without corticosteroid therapy. Conclusion: Corticosteroid therapy may improve outcomes in patients with SAP. PMID:26339332

  13. Ca2+ toxicity and mitochondrial damage in acute pancreatitis: translational overview.

    PubMed

    Maléth, József; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a leading cause of hospitalization among non-malignant gastrointestinal disorders. The mortality of severe AP can reach 30-50%, which is most probably owing to the lack of specific treatment. Therefore, AP is a major healthcare problem, which urges researchers to identify novel drug targets. Studies from the last decades highlighted that the toxic cellular Ca(2+) overload and mitochondrial damage are key pathogenic steps in the disease development affecting both acinar and ductal cell functions. Moreover, recent observations showed that modifying the cellular Ca(2+) signalling might be beneficial in AP. The inhibition of Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum or the activity of plasma membrane Ca(2+) influx channels decreased the severity of AP in experimental models. Similarly, inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening also seems to improve the outcome of AP in in vivo animal models. At the moment MPTP blockers are under detailed clinical investigation to test whether interventions in MPTP openings and/or Ca(2+) homeostasis of the cells can be specific targets in prevention or treatment of cell damage in AP.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377719

  14. The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Activates the AIM2 Inflammasome in Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Rui; Chen, Ruochan; Xie, Min; Cao, Lizhi; Lotze, Michael T; Tang, Daolin; Zeh, Herbert J

    2016-05-15

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, no specific treatments for AP exist, primarily due to the lack of a mechanistic understanding of sterile inflammation and the resultant multisystem organ dysfunction, the pathologic response of AP linked to early death. In this study, we demonstrate that the class III major histocompatibility region III receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) contributes to AP by modulating inflammasome activation in macrophages. RAGE mediated nucleosome-induced absent in melanoma 2 (but not NLRP3) inflammasome activation by modulating dsRNA-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation in macrophages. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of the RAGE-dsRNA-dependent protein kinase pathway attenuated the release of inflammasome-dependent exosomal leaderless cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and high-mobility group box 1) in vitro. RAGE or absent in melanoma 2 depletion in mice limited tissue injury, reduced systemic inflammation, and protected against AP induced by l-arginine or cerulein in experimental animal models. These findings define a novel role for RAGE in the propagation of the innate immune response with activation of the nucleosome-mediated inflammasome and will help guide future development of therapeutic strategies to treat AP. PMID:27045109

  15. Functionalized milk-protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles for MRI-monitored targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Qian, Weiping; Wang, Liya; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Hongyu; Wang, Andrew Yongqiang; Chen, Hongbo; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Engineered nanocarriers have emerged as a promising platform for cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic efficacy is limited by low drug loading efficiency, poor passive targeting to tumors, and severe systemic side effects. Herein, we report a new class of nanoconstructs based on milk protein (casein)-coated magnetic iron oxide (CNIO) nanoparticles for targeted and image-guided pancreatic cancer treatment. The tumor-targeting amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator and the antitumor drug cisplatin (CDDP) were engineered on this nanoplatform. High drug loading (~25 wt%) and sustained release at physiological conditions were achieved through the exchange and encapsulation strategy. These ATF-CNIO-CDDP nanoparticles demonstrated actively targeted delivery of CDDP to orthotopic pancreatic tumors in mice. The effective accumulation and distribution of ATF-CNIO-CDDP was evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging, based on the T2-weighted contrast resulting from the specific accumulation of ATF-CNIO-CDDP in the tumor. Actively targeted delivery of ATF-CNIO-CDDP led to improved therapeutic efficacy in comparison with free CDDP and nontargeted CNIO-CDDP treatment. Meanwhile, less systemic side effects were observed in the nanocarrier-treated groups than that in the group treated with free CDDP. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Sirius Red staining of tumor sections revealed the possible disruption of stroma during the treatment with ATF-CNIO-CDDP. Overall, our results suggest that ATF-CNIO-CDDP can be an effective theranostic platform for active targeting-enhanced and image-guided cancer treatment while simultaneously reducing the systemic toxicity. PMID:27462153

  16. Functionalized milk-protein-coated magnetic nanoparticles for MRI-monitored targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Qian, Weiping; Wang, Liya; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Hongyu; Wang, Andrew Yongqiang; Chen, Hongbo; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Engineered nanocarriers have emerged as a promising platform for cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic efficacy is limited by low drug loading efficiency, poor passive targeting to tumors, and severe systemic side effects. Herein, we report a new class of nanoconstructs based on milk protein (casein)-coated magnetic iron oxide (CNIO) nanoparticles for targeted and image-guided pancreatic cancer treatment. The tumor-targeting amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator and the antitumor drug cisplatin (CDDP) were engineered on this nanoplatform. High drug loading (~25 wt%) and sustained release at physiological conditions were achieved through the exchange and encapsulation strategy. These ATF-CNIO-CDDP nanoparticles demonstrated actively targeted delivery of CDDP to orthotopic pancreatic tumors in mice. The effective accumulation and distribution of ATF-CNIO-CDDP was evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging, based on the T2-weighted contrast resulting from the specific accumulation of ATF-CNIO-CDDP in the tumor. Actively targeted delivery of ATF-CNIO-CDDP led to improved therapeutic efficacy in comparison with free CDDP and nontargeted CNIO-CDDP treatment. Meanwhile, less systemic side effects were observed in the nanocarrier-treated groups than that in the group treated with free CDDP. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Sirius Red staining of tumor sections revealed the possible disruption of stroma during the treatment with ATF-CNIO-CDDP. Overall, our results suggest that ATF-CNIO-CDDP can be an effective theranostic platform for active targeting-enhanced and image-guided cancer treatment while simultaneously reducing the systemic toxicity. PMID:27462153

  17. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coenzyme Q10 on L-Arginine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mirmalek, Seyed Abbas; Gholamrezaei Boushehrinejad, Ala; Yavari, Hassan; Kardeh, Bahareh; Parsa, Yekta; Salimi-Tabatabaee, Seyed Alireza; Yadollah-Damavandi, Soheila; Parsa, Tina; Shahverdi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats regarding biomarkers and morphologic changes. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups. Control group received intraperitoneal normal saline, while in sham and experimental groups 1 and 2 pancreatitis was induced with L-arginine. E1 and E2 groups were treated with a single dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg Q10, respectively. Serum lipase and amylase, along with pancreas IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α, were measured. For evaluation of oxidative stress, pancreatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were assessed. Histopathological examination for morphologic investigation was conducted. Serum amylase and lipase, as well as TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines, reverted with administration of Q10 in consistence with dosage. In contrast, Q10 assisted in boosting of IL-10 with higher dosage (200 mg/kg). A similar pattern for oxidative stress markers was noticed. Both MDA and MPO levels declined with increased dosage, contrary to elevation of SOD and GSH. Histopathology was in favor of protective effects of Q10. Our findings proved the amelioration of pancreatic injury by Q10, which suggest the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property of Q10 and its potential therapeutic role. PMID:27190575

  18. Inhibition of SOCs Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Induced by Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Rats and PMVECs Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanyu; Zhang, Jingwen; Xu, Caiming; Han, Xiao; Gao, Yanyan; Chen, Hailong

    2016-06-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a critical complication of the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), characterized by increased pulmonary permeability with high mortality. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) injury and apoptosis play a key role in ALI. Previous studies indicated that store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) could regulate a variety of cellular processes. The present study was to investigate the effects of SOCE inhibition on ALI induced by SAP in Sprague-Dawley rats, and PMVECs injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rat model of SAP-associated ALI were established by the retrograde infusion of sodium deoxycholate. Serum levels of amylase, TNF-α, and IL-6, histological changes, water content of the lung, oxygenation index, and ultrastructural changes of PMVECs were examined in ALI rats with or without store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) pharmacological inhibitor (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, 2-APB) pretreatment. For in vitro studies, PMVECs were transiently transfected with or without small interfering RNA (siRNA) against calcium release-activated calcium channel protein1 (Orai1) and stromal interaction molecule1 (STIM1), the two main molecular constituents of SOCs, then exposed to LPS. The viability of PMVECs was determined. The expression of STIM1, Orai1, Bax, and caspase3, both in lung tissue and in PMVECs, were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Administration of sodium deoxycholate upregulated the expression of SOCs proteins in lung tissue. Similarly, the SOCs proteins were increased in PMVECs induced by LPS. 2-APB reduced the serum levels of amylase, TNF-α, and IL-6, and attenuated lung water content and histological findings. In addition, the decreased oxygenation index and ultrastructural damage in PMVECs associated with SAP were ameliorated after administration of 2-APB. Knockdown of STIM1 and Orai1 inhibited LPS-induced PMVECs death. Furthermore, blockade of SOCE significantly suppressed Orai1, STIM1, Bax

  19. Value of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MRI in the Acute Phase of Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Alex; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Kerl, Hans U.; Böhme, Johannes; Mürle, Bettina; Groden, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) in TGA in the acute phase. Methods From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV)) were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN). CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB) Software Library (FSL). Results Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women). On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus. Conclusions Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in

  20. Comparison of Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, BISAP, APACHE-II, CTSI Scores, IL-6, CRP, and Procalcitonin in Predicting Severity, Organ Failure, Pancreatic Necrosis, and Mortality in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ajay K.; Meher, Susanta; Prakash, Shashi; Tiwary, Satyendra Kumar; Singh, Usha; Srivastava, Arvind; Dixit, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Multifactorial scorings, radiological scores, and biochemical markers may help in early prediction of severity, pancreatic necrosis, and mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods. BISAP, APACHE-II, MOSS, and SIRS scores were calculated using data within 24 hrs of admission, whereas Ranson and Glasgow scores after 48 hrs of admission; CTSI was calculated on day 4 whereas IL-6 and CRP values at end of study. Predictive accuracy of scoring systems, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of various markers in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis, organ failure, pancreatic necrosis, admission to intensive care units and mortality were calculated. Results. Of 72 patients, 31 patients had organ failure and local complication classified as severe acute pancreatitis, 17 had pancreatic necrosis, and 9 died (12.5%). Area under curves for Ranson, Glasgow, MOSS, SIRS, APACHE-II, BISAP, CTSI, IL-6, and CRP in predicting SAP were 0.85, 0.75, 0.73, 0.73, 0.88, 0.80, 0.90, and 0.91, respectively, for pancreatic necrosis 0.70, 0.64, 0.61, 0.61, 0.68, 0.61, 0.75, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively, and for mortality 0.84, 0.83, 0.77, 0.76, 0.86, 0.83, 0.57, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively. Conclusion. CRP and IL-6 have shown a promising result in early detection of severity and pancreatic necrosis whereas APACHE-II and Ranson score in predicting AP related mortality in this study. PMID:24204087

  1. Reverse-migrated neutrophils regulated by JAM-C are involved in acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Deqing; Zeng, Yue; Fan, Yuting; Wu, Jianghong; Mulatibieke, Tunike; Ni, Jianbo; Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Wang, Xingpeng; Hu, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) plays a key role in the promotion of the reverse transendothelial migration (rTEM) of neutrophils, which contributes to the dissemination of systemic inflammation and to secondary organ damage. During acute pancreatitis (AP), systemic inflammatory responses lead to distant organ damage and typically result in acute lung injury (ALI). Here, we investigated the role of rTEM neutrophils in AP-associated ALI and the molecular mechanisms by which JAM-C regulates neutrophil rTEM in this disorder. In this study, rTEM neutrophils were identified in the peripheral blood both in murine model of AP and human patients with AP, which elevated with increased severity of lung injury. Pancreatic JAM-C was downregulated during murine experimental pancreatitis, whose expression levels were inversely correlated with both increased neutrophil rTEM and severity of lung injury. Knockout of JAM-C resulted in more severe lung injury and systemic inflammation. Significantly greater numbers of rTEM neutrophils were present both in the circulation and pulmonary vascular washout in JAM-C knockout mice with AP. This study demonstrates that during AP, neutrophils that are recruited to the pancreas may migrate back into the circulation and then contribute to ALI. JAM-C downregulation may contribute to AP-associated ALI via promoting neutrophil rTEM. PMID:26841848

  2. Reverse-migrated neutrophils regulated by JAM-C are involved in acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Deqing; Zeng, Yue; Fan, Yuting; Wu, Jianghong; Mulatibieke, Tunike; Ni, Jianbo; Yu, Ge; Wan, Rong; Wang, Xingpeng; Hu, Guoyong

    2016-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) plays a key role in the promotion of the reverse transendothelial migration (rTEM) of neutrophils, which contributes to the dissemination of systemic inflammation and to secondary organ damage. During acute pancreatitis (AP), systemic inflammatory responses lead to distant organ damage and typically result in acute lung injury (ALI). Here, we investigated the role of rTEM neutrophils in AP-associated ALI and the molecular mechanisms by which JAM-C regulates neutrophil rTEM in this disorder. In this study, rTEM neutrophils were identified in the peripheral blood both in murine model of AP and human patients with AP, which elevated with increased severity of lung injury. Pancreatic JAM-C was downregulated during murine experimental pancreatitis, whose expression levels were inversely correlated with both increased neutrophil rTEM and severity of lung injury. Knockout of JAM-C resulted in more severe lung injury and systemic inflammation. Significantly greater numbers of rTEM neutrophils were present both in the circulation and pulmonary vascular washout in JAM-C knockout mice with AP. This study demonstrates that during AP, neutrophils that are recruited to the pancreas may migrate back into the circulation and then contribute to ALI. JAM-C downregulation may contribute to AP-associated ALI via promoting neutrophil rTEM. PMID:26841848

  3. Impact of a clinical pathway on treatment outcome in patients with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Makuc, Jana; Tepes, Bojan; Marolt, Apolon; Kikec, Zdenko; Robac, Nace

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact of a clinical pathway (CP) on acute pancreatitis (AP) treatment outcome. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records was performed. We compared the results of AP treatment outcome over two time periods in our centre, before (2006-2007) and after (2010-2012) the implementation of a CP. The CP comprised the following indicators of quality: performance of all laboratory tests on admission (including lipids and carbohydrate deficient transferrin), determination of AP aetiology, abdomen ultrasound (US) within the first 24 h after admission, contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen in all cases of suspected pancreatic necrosis, appropriately selected and sufficiently used antibiotic therapy (if necessary), pain control, adequate hydration, control of haemodynamic parameters and transfer to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (if necessary), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in biliary AP, surgical treatment (if necessary), and advice on outpatient follow-up after discharge. A comparison of the length of stay with that in other Slovenian hospitals was also performed. RESULTS: There were 139 patients treated in the three-year period after the introduction of a CP, of which 81 (58.3%) were male and 58 (41.7%) female. The patients’ mean age was 59.6 ± 17.3 years. The most common aetiologies were alcoholism and gallstones (38.8% each), followed by unexplained (11.5%), drug-induced, hypertriglyceridemia, post ERCP (2.9% each) and tumours (2.2%). Antibiotic therapy was prescribed in 72 (51.8%) patients. Abdominal US was performed in all patients within the first 24 h after admission. Thirty-two (23.0%) patients were treated in the ICU. Four patients died (2.9%). In comparison to 2006-2007, we found an increased number of alcoholic and biliary AP and an associated decrease in the number of unexplained aetiology cases. The use of antibiotics also significantly decreased after the implementation of a CP (from 70

  4. Emergency abdominal MRI: current uses and trends.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hei S; Gupta, Avneesh; Soto, Jorge A; LeBedis, Christina

    2016-05-01

    When evaluating the abdomen in the emergency setting, CT and ultrasound are the imaging modalities of choice, mainly because of accessibility, speed and lower relative cost. CT has the added benefit of assessing the whole abdomen for a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal disease, whereas ultrasound has the benefit of avoiding ionizing radiation. MRI is another tool that has demonstrated increasing utility in the emergency setting and also avoids the use of ionizing radiation. MRI also has the additional advantage of excellent soft-tissue contrast. However, widespread use of MRI in the emergency setting is limited by availability and relative cost. Despite such limitations, advances in MRI technology, including improved pulse sequences and coil technology and increasing clinician awareness of MRI, have led to an increased demand in abdominal MRI in the emergency setting. This is particularly true in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis; choledocholithiasis with or without cholecystitis; acute appendicitis, particularly in pregnant patients; and, in some cases, Crohn's disease. In cases of pancreatitis and Crohn's disease, MRI also plays a role in subsequent follow-up examinations. PMID:26514590

  5. Preventive Effect of Three Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seeds Fractions on Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zolfaghari, Behzd; Taheri, Diana; Gomarian, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) refers to afflicted inflammation of pancreas with unfavorable adverse effects and developed multiple organ failures. Unfortunately, there is not a certain therapeutic method for this disease. Oxidative stress has a serious role in the pathogenesis of AP. Thus, decreasing of oxidative stress may prevent induction and progression of AP. Punica granatum L. has been extensively used in traditional medicine and possesses various active biological elements. Due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate, it could be considered as a good candidate alternative medicine with beneficial effects on AP. In this study, we decided to study the protective effect of three fractions of pomegranate seeds on cerulein-induced AP. Methods: AP was induced in male Syrian mice by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) with 1 h intervals. Treatments with pomegranate freeze-dried powder (PFDP) and hydroalcoholic pomegranate seeds extract (PSE) at doses of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg (i.p.) were started 30 min before pancreatitis induction. Pomegranate seed oil fraction (PSOF) was orally administered (50, 100, 200 μL/kg) and continued for 10 days. Pancreatic tissue was evaluated for histopathological parameters and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as lipase and amylase levels were measured in plasma. Results: The higher doses of three fractions (250 and 500 mg/kg for PFDP and PSE and doses of 100, 200 μL/kg for PSOF) significantly reduced amylase and lipase activity in serum (at least P < 0.01), pancreatic MPO activity (P < 0.001), edema, leukocyte infiltration and vacuolization in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results propose that pomegranate seeds fractions can prevent and/or treat the AP. PMID:24829726

  6. MRI with hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate detects advanced pancreatic preneoplasia prior to invasive disease in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Eva M; Kettunen, Mikko I; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Dzien, Piotr; Wright, Alan J; Gopinathan, Aarthi; Gallagher, Ferdia A; Lewis, David Y; Frese, Kristopher K; Almeida, Jaime; Howat, William J; Tuveson, David A; Brindle, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatic cancer (PCa) is treatable by surgery when detected at an early stage. Non-invasive imaging methods able to detect both established tumours and their precursor lesions are needed to select patients for surgery. We investigated here whether pancreatic preneoplasia could be detected prior to the development of invasive cancers in genetically engineered mouse models of PCa using metabolic imaging. Design The concentrations of alanine and lactate and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in extracts prepared from the pancreas of animals at different stages of disease progression; from pancreatitis, through tissue with predominantly low-grade and then high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and then tumour. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (13C-MRSI) was used to measure non-invasively changes in 13C labelling of alanine and lactate with disease progression, following injection of hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate. Results Progressive decreases in the alanine/lactate concentration ratio and ALT/LDH activity ratio with disease progression were accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the [1-13C]alanine/[1-13C]lactate signal ratio observed in 13C-MRSI images of the pancreas. Conclusions Metabolic imaging with hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate enables detection and monitoring of the progression of PCa precursor lesions. Translation of this MRI technique to the clinic has the potential to improve the management of patients at high risk of developing PCa. PMID:26347531

  7. MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan is an imaging test that uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  8. Sporadic Burkitt Lymphoma Presenting as Acute Pancreatitis, Concurrent Sinusitis, and Enlarged Adenoids

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vasudha; Qian, You-Wen; Blake, Brooke; Rojas-Khalil, Yesenia; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Muthukumar, Akila

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatitis and sinusitis as presentations of Burkitt lymphoma are uncommon and rarely described in children. We describe here the case of a child who presented with symptoms suggestive of sinusitis unresponsive to antibiotics, with subsequent development of abdominal symptoms due to pancreatitis. He was eventually diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma. PMID:27213067

  9. MRI Findings of Syndrome of Acute Bilateral Symmetrical Basal Ganglia Lesions in Diabetic Uremia: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xin; Fang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions is an uncommon clinical occurrence exhibiting acute onset of movement abnormalities, which can be seen almost exclusively among patients with chronic renal failure, especially in the setting of concurrent diabetes mellitus. Symmetrical lesions located in basal ganglia demonstrated in MRI are typical manifestation of this syndrome. Our study includes routine MRI examination, MRS, 3D-ASL, and SWI findings, which have been rarely reported and will contribute to diagnosing more cases about this syndrome. PMID:27493824

  10. Comparison of laparoscopy and open surgery in treating severe acute pancreatitis and its relative aftercare.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Jiang, M X; Zheng, Y; Shu, M; Sun, S B

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects and compare laparoscopic intervention and open surgery in treating severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and its relative aftercare, to improve the overall treatment of SAP. Ninety patients with SAP were enrolled from the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from 2008 to 2014 and divided into a laparoscopic intervention group (25 cases) and an open surgery group (65 cases). Patients were asked for clinical symptoms, general hospital information, laboratory inspection, imageological examination, local and systemic complications, treatment and outcome. SAP patients’ relevant clinical indicators were compared between the two groups before and after the operation. Results revealed that there was no statistical significance in lesion range and main scoring indexes for reflecting the severity of the disease. For both groups statistical significance was found in blood loss (285.3±79.8 mL vs 362±91.6 mL), intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring time (9.04±6.35 d vs 12.48±8.34 d) and service time of breathing machine (9.47±6.24 d vs 12.98±8.25 d), and the laparoscopic operation group was superior to the open surgery group (p < 0.05). Besides, the laparoscopic operation group was also superior to the open surgery group in demand for main analgesics one week after the operation, as well as for recovery rate and incidence of complications (p < 0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that patients undergoing laparoscopic intervention are less likely to develop pulmonary infection and more likely to be cured in comparison with patients who receive open surgery. In addition, laparoscopic intervention results in less damage, lighter pain and fewer complications compared with open surgery. PMID:27049091

  11. Bidirectional Relationship Between Diabetes and Acute Pancreatitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The proposed bidirectional relationship between acute pancreatitis (AP) and diabetes has never been examined with the same source of data. Furthermore, the effects of disease severity on this relationship have not been fully evaluated. The present study employed the findings from a single database to measure the strength of the association between AP and diabetes.Findings from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were utilized. Two cohort studies with this database were selected to evaluate the linkage between diabetes and AP. The first cohort analysis addressed the risk of AP among diabetic patients and was comprised of 42,080 diabetic patients and 672,146 unexposed subjects. The second cohort analysis considered the risk of diabetes among patients with AP and enrolled 3187 patients with AP and 709259 unexposed subjects. All adult beneficiaries were followed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2012 to identify outcomes of interest. Cox regression models were applied to compare hazards adjusted for potential confounders.For the first cohort, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of AP was significantly increased by the presence of diabetes (1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-1.96). In diabetic patients with a history of hyperglycemic crisis episodes (HCEs), the HR was even higher (6.32; 95% CI, 4.54-8.81). For the second cohort, the adjusted HR of diabetes in patients with AP was increased compared to the general population (2.15; 95% CI, 1.92-2.41). For patients with severe AP, the HR was also higher (2.22; 95% CI, 1.50-3.29) but did not differ significantly from that for patients with nonsevere AP.The 2 cohort studies provided evidence for the bidirectional relationship between diabetes and AP. Moreover, diabetic patients with history of HCEs may be associated with higher risk of AP. PMID:26765434

  12. Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ming-Tse; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chung, Wei-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic inflammation may promote development of coronary heart disease. Studies on the relationship between chronic pancreatitis (CP) and cardiovascular diseases are scant. We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study to determine the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with CP. We randomly selected a comparison cohort of individuals without CP from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (N = 23.74 million) and frequency-matched them with patients with CP from 2000 to 2010 in a 1:4 ratio according to age, sex, and index year. The follow-up period lasted from the index date of the new CP diagnosis to the date of ACS diagnosis, censoring, or the end of 2011. We analyzed the risk of ACS by using Cox proportional-hazard models. In total, 17,405 patients with CP and 69,620 individuals without CP were followed for 84,430 and 417,426 person-years. Most patients with CP were men, and the mean age of the patients was 48.3 ± 15.0 years. The overall ACS incidence was 2.15-fold higher in the CP cohort than in the non-CP cohort (4.89 vs 2.28 per 10,000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.64). Compared with individuals without CP, patients with CP aged ≤39 years exhibited the highest risk of ACS (aHR 2.14, 95% CI 1.13–4.02), followed by those aged 40 to 54 years (aHR 1.66, 95% CI 1.23–2.24) and those aged 55 to 69 years (aHR 1.53, 95% CI 1.15–2.03). CP may become an independent risk factor for ACS. PMID:27196450

  13. Hypocalcemic tetany: a simple bedside marker of poor outcome in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Puneet; Rana, Surinder S.; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Ravi; Bhasin, Deepak K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypocalcemia is a marker of poor prognosis in acute pancreatitis (AP) but the prognostic significance of hypocalcemic tetany in patients with AP has not been studied. We aimed to determine the prognostic significance of hypocalcemic tetany in patients with AP. Methods Consecutive patients of AP who presented within 7 days of symptoms were included. Serum calcium levels were measured on admission and the patients were divided into two groups based on the presence (group 1) or absence of hypocalcemia (group 2). Chvostek and Trousseau signs were sought in all patients with hypocalcemia and the outcome measures were compared between patients with normocalcemia, asymptomatic and symptomatic hypocalcemia (tetany). The outcome parameters assessed were persistent organ failure (POF), need for intervention, and mortality. Results Of 105 patients (53 male; mean age 37.34±12.62 years), 37 (35.2%) had hypocalcemia (group 1) and 68 (64.8%) had normal corrected serum calcium levels (group 2). Patients with hypocalcemia had significantly higher frequency of POF, mortality and need for intervention (P<0.05). Twelve of 37 (32.4%) patients with hypocalcemia had tetany. Patients with tetany had significantly lower serum corrected calcium and ionized calcium levels compared with patients with asymptomatic hypocalcemia (P<0.05). Patients with tetany had significantly higher mortality rates compared with patients with asymptomatic hypocalcemia (100% vs. 8%; P=0.00001) as well as POF (100% vs. 32%; P=0.000006). Conclusion Presence of hypocalcemic tetany in AP patients bears a poor prognosis and is associated with increased mortality. PMID:27065735

  14. Association between red cell distribution width and acute pancreatitis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jinmei; Lv, Guocai

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether red cell distribution width (RDW) was associated with mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Patients with AP were recruited in the emergency department and healthy individuals were recruited in healthcare centre in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. Participants A total of 106 patients with AP and 204 healthy individuals were enrolled. Primary and secondary outcome measures Haematology and biochemistry results of the first test after admission were collected. The significance of the differences in RDW values among healthy individuals, non-survivors of patients with AP, and survivors of patients with AP was determined using one-way analysis of variance. Patients with AP were divided into three groups according to RDW tertiles. All patients with AP were followed up for at least 3 months. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to evaluate RDW values to predict mortality of patients with AP. Results The RDW values were non-survivors of patients with AP>healthy individuals>survivors of patients with AP. Patients with AP with the highest RDW tertiles had the lowest levels of Ca, total protein, albumin, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count, but the highest mortalit