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Sample records for acute progressive feed

  1. Genome-wide effects of acute progressive feed restriction in liver and white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo Boutros, Paul C.; Moffat, Ivy D.; Linden, Jere; Wendelin, Dominique; Okey, Allan B.

    2008-07-01

    Acute progressive feed restriction (APFR) represents a specific form of caloric restriction in which feed availability is increasingly curtailed over a period of a few days to a few weeks. It is often used for control animals in toxicological and pharmacological studies on compounds causing body weight loss to equalize weight changes between experimental and control groups and thereby, intuitively, to also set their metabolic states to the same phase. However, scientific justification for this procedure is lacking. In the present study, we analyzed by microarrays the impact on hepatic gene expression in rats of two APFR regimens that caused identical diminution of body weight (19%) but differed slightly in duration (4 vs. 10 days). In addition, white adipose tissue (WAT) was also subjected to the transcriptomic analysis on day-4. The data revealed that the two regimens led to distinct patterns of differentially expressed genes in liver, albeit some major pathways of energy metabolism were similarly affected (particularly fatty acid and amino acid catabolism). The reason for the divergence appeared to be entrainment by the longer APFR protocol of peripheral oscillator genes, which resulted in derailment of circadian rhythms and consequent interaction of altered diurnal fluctuations with metabolic adjustments in gene expression activities. WAT proved to be highly unresponsive to the 4-day APFR as only 17 mRNA levels were influenced by the treatment. This study demonstrates that body weight is a poor proxy of metabolic state and that the customary protocols of feed restriction can lead to rhythm entrainment.

  2. Acute Glucose Response Properties Beyond Feeding.

    PubMed

    Burnett, C Joseph; Krashes, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Hypothalamic AgRP neurons potently coordinate feeding behavior to ensure an organism's viability. However, their acute role in glucose-regulatory function remains to be addressed. Steculorum et al. now report that activation of a specific set of AgRP neurons results in an impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in brown fat through a myogenic signature program. PMID:27052261

  3. Acute phase proteins response to feed deprivation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Najafi, P; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Goh, Y M

    2016-04-01

    Feed deprivation in poultry farming imposes some degree of stress to the birds, and adversely affects their well -being. Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) are potential physiological indicators of stress attributed to feed deprivation. However, it has not been determined how long it takes for a measurable APP response to stressors to occur in avian species. An experiment was designed to delineate the APP and circulating levels of corticosterone responses in commercial broiler chickens to feed deprivation for 30 h. It was hypothesized that feed deprivation would elicit both APP and corticosterone (CORT) reactions within 30 h that is probably associated with stress of hunger. Twenty-one day old birds were subjected to one of 5 feed deprivation periods: 0 (ad libitum, AL), 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Upon completion of the deprivation period, blood samples were collected to determine serum CORT, ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations. Results showed that feed deprivation for 24 h or more caused a marked elevation in CORT (P=0.002 and P<0.0001, respectively) when compared to AL. However, increases in AGP (P=0.0005), CP (P=0.0002), and OVT (P=0.0003) were only noted following 30 h of feed deprivation. It is concluded that elicitation of AGP, CP, and OVT response may represent a more chronic stressful condition than CORT response in assessing the well-being of broiler chickens. PMID:26908886

  4. Acute Pancreatitis—Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Afghani, Elham; Pandol, Stephen J.; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Sutton, Robert; Wu, Bechien U.; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Gorelick, Fred; Hirota, Morihisa; Windsor, John; Lo, Simon K.; Freeman, Martin L.; Lerch, Markus M.; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Melmed, Gil Y.; Wassef, Wahid; Mayerle, Julia

    2016-01-01

    An international symposium entitled “Acute pancreatitis: progress and challenges” was held on November 5, 2014 at the Hapuna Beach Hotel, Big Island, Hawaii, as part of the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and the Japanese Pancreas Society. The course was organized and directed by Drs. Stephen Pandol, Tooru Shimosegawa, Robert Sutton, Bechien Wu, and Santhi Swaroop Vege. The symposium objectives were to: (1) highlight current issues in management of acute pancreatitis, (2) discuss promising treatments, (3) consider development of quality indicators and improved measures of disease activity, and (4) present a framework for international collaboration for development of new therapies. This article represents a compilation and adaptation of brief summaries prepared by speakers at the symposium with the purpose of broadly disseminating information and initiatives. PMID:26465949

  5. Early Nasogastric Feeding in Predicted Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Eckerwall, Gunilla E.; Axelsson, Jakob B.; Andersson, Roland G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early, nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Summary Background Data: In SAP, the magnitude of the inflammatory response as well as increased intestinal permeability correlates with outcome. Enteral feeding has been suggested superior to parenteral feeding due to a proposed beneficial effect on the gut barrier. Methods: Fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomized to TPN or EN groups. The nutritional regimen was started within 24 hours from admission and EN was provided through a nasogastric tube. The observation period was 10 days. Intestinal permeability was measured by excretion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and concentrations of antiendotoxin core antibodies (Endocab). Interleukins (IL)-6 IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were used as markers of the systemic inflammatory response. Morbidity and feasibility of the nutritional route were evaluated by the frequency of complications, gastrointestinal symptoms, and abdominal pain. Results: PEG, Endocab, CRP, IL-6, APACHE II score, severity according to the Atlanta classification (22 patients), and gastrointestinal symptoms or abdominal pain did not significantly differ between the groups. The incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN patients (21 of 26 vs. 7 of 23; P < 0.001). Total complications (25 vs. 52; P = 0.04) and pulmonary complications (10 vs. 21; P = 0.04) were significantly more frequent in EN patients, although complications were diagnosed dominantly within the first 3 days. Conclusion: In predicted SAP, nasogastric early EN was feasible and resulted in better control of blood glucose levels, although the overall early complication rate was higher in the EN group. No beneficial effects on intestinal permeability or the inflammatory response were seen by EN treatment. PMID:17122621

  6. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  7. Initial Trophic vs Full Enteral Feeding in Patients With Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context The amount of enteral nutrition patients with acute lung injury need is unknown. Objective To determine if initial lower-volume trophic enteral feeding would increase ventilator-free days and decrease gastrointestinal intolerances compared with initial full enteral feeding. Design, Setting, and Participants The EDEN study, a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through April 12, 2011. Participants were 1000 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network. Interventions Participants were randomized to receive either trophic or full enteral feeding for the first 6 days. After day 6, the care of all patients who were still receiving mechanical ventilation was managed according to the full feeding protocol. Main Outcome Measures Ventilator-free days to study day 28. Results Baseline characteristics were similar between the trophic-feeding (n=508) and full-feeding (n=492) groups. The full-feeding group received more enteral calories for the first 6 days, about 1300 kcal/d compared with 400 kcal/d (P<.001). Initial trophic feeding did not increase the number of ventilator-free days (14.9 [95% CI, 13.9 to 15.8] vs 15.0 [95% CI, 14.1 to 15.9]; difference, −0.1 [95% CI, −1.4 to 1.2]; P=.89) or reduce 60-day mortality (23.2% [95% CI, 19.6% to 26.9%] vs 22.2% [95% CI, 18.5% to 25.8%]; difference, 1.0% [95% CI, −4.1% to 6.3%]; P=77) compared with full feeding. There were no differences in infectious complications between the groups. Despite receiving more prokinetic agents, the full-feeding group experienced more vomiting (2.2% vs 1.7% of patient feeding days; P=.05), elevated gastric residual volumes (4.9% vs 2.2% of feeding days; P<.001), and constipation (3.1% vs 2.1% of feeding days; P=.003). Mean plasma glucose values and average hourly

  8. Feeding infants and toddlers study 2008: progress, continuing concerns, and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Survey (FITS) 2008 reveals both progress and some continuing concerns about feeding American infants and toddlers in the 21st century. This summary integrates these findings and suggests possible implications for re-evaluating or clarifying dietary recommendations....

  9. Progress Toward Corrugated Feed Horn Arrays in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J.; Yoon, K. W.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Cho, H. M.; Hilton, G. C.; Niemack, M. D.; Irwin, K. D.

    2009-12-16

    We are developing monolithic arrays of corrugated feed horns fabricated in silicon for dual-polarization single-mode operation at 90, 145 and 220 GHz. The arrays consist of hundreds of platelet feed horns assembled from gold-coated stacks of micro-machined silicon wafers. As a first step, Au-coated Si waveguides with a circular, corrugated cross section were fabricated; their attenuation was measured to be less than 0.15 dB/cm from 80 to 110 GHz at room temperature. To ease the manufacture of horn arrays, electrolytic deposition of Au on degenerate Si without a metal seed layer was demonstrated. An apparatus for measuring the radiation pattern, optical efficiency, and spectral band-pass of prototype horns is described. Feed horn arrays made of silicon may find use in measurements of the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  10. Preemptive mechanical ventilation can block progressive acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Jain, Sumeet; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Gatto, Louis A; Nieman, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unacceptable, approaching 45% in certain high-risk patient populations. Treating fulminant ARDS is currently relegated to supportive care measures only. Thus, the best treatment for ARDS may lie with preventing this syndrome from ever occurring. Clinical studies were examined to determine why ARDS has remained resistant to treatment over the past several decades. In addition, both basic science and clinical studies were examined to determine the impact that early, protective mechanical ventilation may have on preventing the development of ARDS in at-risk patients. Fulminant ARDS is highly resistant to both pharmacologic treatment and methods of mechanical ventilation. However, ARDS is a progressive disease with an early treatment window that can be exploited. In particular, protective mechanical ventilation initiated before the onset of lung injury can prevent the progression to ARDS. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a novel mechanical ventilation strategy for delivering a protective breath that has been shown to block progressive acute lung injury (ALI) and prevent ALI from progressing to ARDS. ARDS mortality currently remains as high as 45% in some studies. As ARDS is a progressive disease, the key to treatment lies with preventing the disease from ever occurring while it remains subclinical. Early protective mechanical ventilation with APRV appears to offer substantial benefit in this regard and may be the prophylactic treatment of choice for preventing ARDS. PMID:26855896

  11. Preemptive mechanical ventilation can block progressive acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Jain, Sumeet; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Gatto, Louis A; Nieman, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unacceptable, approaching 45% in certain high-risk patient populations. Treating fulminant ARDS is currently relegated to supportive care measures only. Thus, the best treatment for ARDS may lie with preventing this syndrome from ever occurring. Clinical studies were examined to determine why ARDS has remained resistant to treatment over the past several decades. In addition, both basic science and clinical studies were examined to determine the impact that early, protective mechanical ventilation may have on preventing the development of ARDS in at-risk patients. Fulminant ARDS is highly resistant to both pharmacologic treatment and methods of mechanical ventilation. However, ARDS is a progressive disease with an early treatment window that can be exploited. In particular, protective mechanical ventilation initiated before the onset of lung injury can prevent the progression to ARDS. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a novel mechanical ventilation strategy for delivering a protective breath that has been shown to block progressive acute lung injury (ALI) and prevent ALI from progressing to ARDS. ARDS mortality currently remains as high as 45% in some studies. As ARDS is a progressive disease, the key to treatment lies with preventing the disease from ever occurring while it remains subclinical. Early protective mechanical ventilation with APRV appears to offer substantial benefit in this regard and may be the prophylactic treatment of choice for preventing ARDS. PMID:26855896

  12. A randomised prospective comparison of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding after acute dysphagic stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, B.; Homer-Ward, M.; Donnelly, M. T.; Long, R. G.; Holmes, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding after acute dysphagic stroke. DESIGN--Randomised prospective study of inpatients with acute stroke requiring enteral nutrition. SETTING--One university hospital (Nottingham) and one district general hospital (Derby). SUBJECTS--30 patients with persisting dysphagia at 14 days after acute stroke: 16 patients were randomised to gastrostomy tube feeding and 14 to nasogastric tube feeding. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Six week mortality; amount of feed administered; change in nutritional state; treatment failure; and length of hospital stay. RESULTS--Mortality at 6 weeks was significantly lower in the gastrostomy group with two deaths (12%) compared with eight deaths (57%) in the nasogastric group (P < 0.05). All gastrostomy fed patients (16) received the total prescribed feed whereas 10/14 (71%) of nasogastric patients lost at least one day's feed. Nasogastric patients received a significantly (P < 0.001) smaller proportion of their prescribed feed (78%; 95% confidence interval 63% to 94%) compared with the gastrostomy group (100%). Patients fed via a gastrostomy tube showed greater improvement in nutritional state, according to several different criteria at six weeks compared with the nasogastric group. In the gastrostomy group the mean albumin concentration increased from 27.1 g/l (24.5 g/l to 29.7 g/l) to 30.1 g/l (28.3 g/l to 31.9 g/l). In contrast, among the nasogastric group there was a reduction from 31.4 g/l (28.6 g/l to 34.2 g/l) to 22.3 g/l (20.7 g/l to 23.9 g/l) (P < 0.003). In addition, there were fewer treatment failures in the gastrostomy group (0/16 versus 3/14). Six patients from the gastrostomy group were discharged from hospital within six weeks of the procedure compared with none from the nasogastric group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION--This study indicates that early gastrostomy tube feeding is greatly superior to nasogastric tube feeding and should be the nutritional

  13. Is Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease a Slow Acute Kidney Injury?

    PubMed

    Cowgill, Larry D; Polzin, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Nabity, Mary B; Segev, Gilad; Grauer, Gregory F; Brown, Scott; Langston, Cathy; van Dongen, Astrid M

    2016-11-01

    International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease Stage 1 and acute kidney injury Grade I categorizations of kidney disease are often confused or ignored because patients are nonazotemic and generally asymptomatic. Recent evidence suggests these seemingly disparate conditions may be mechanistically linked and interrelated. Active kidney injury biomarkers have the potential to establish a new understanding for traditional views of chronic kidney disease, including its early identification and possible mediators of its progression, which, if validated, would establish a new and sophisticated paradigm for the understanding and approach to the diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of urinary disease in dogs and cats. PMID:27593574

  14. Biomarkers in Acute Lung Injury – Marking Forward Progress

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Nicolas; Ware, Lorraine B.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we review the ‘state of the art’ with regards to biomarkers for prediction, diagnosis and prognosis in acute lung injury (ALI). We begin by defining biomarkers and the goals of biomarker research in ALI including their ability to define more homogenous populations for recruitment into trials of novel therapies as well as to identify important biological pathways in the pathogenesis of ALI. Progress along four general routes is then examined. First the results of wide-ranging existing protein biomarkers are reported. Secondly, we describe newer biomarkers awaiting or with strong potential for validation. Thirdly, we report progress in the fields of genomics and proteomics. Finally given the complexity and number of potential biomarkers, we examine the results of combining clinical predictors with protein and other biomarkers to produce better prognostic and diagnostic indices. PMID:21742222

  15. Acute and chronic effects of atmospheric oxygen on the feeding behavior of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Manoush; Albert, Todd; Pierce, Nicholas; VandenBrooks, John M; Dodge, Tahnee; Harrison, Jon F

    2014-09-01

    All insects studied to date show reduced growth rates in hypoxia. Drosophila melanogaster reared in moderate hypoxia (10 kPa PO2) grow more slowly and form smaller adults, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear, as metabolic rates are not oxygen-limited. It has been shown that individual fruit flies do not grow larger in hyperoxia (40 kPa PO2), but populations of flies evolve larger size. Here we studied the effect of acute and chronic variation in atmospheric PO2 (10, 21, 40 kPa) on feeding behavior of third instar larvae of D.melanogaster to assess whether oxygen effects on growth rate can be explained by effects on feeding behavior. Hypoxic-reared larvae grew and developed more slowly, and hyperoxic-rearing did not affect growth rate, maximal larval mass or developmental time. The effect of acute exposure to varying PO2 on larval bite rates matched the pattern observed for growth rates, with a 22% reduction in 10 kPa PO2 and no effect of 40 kPa PO2. Chronic rearing in hypoxia had few effects on the responses of feeding rates to oxygen, but chronic rearing in hyperoxia caused feeding rates to be strongly oxygen-dependent. Hypoxia produced similar reductions in bite rate and in the volume of tunnels excavated by larvae, supporting bite rate as an index of feeding behavior. Overall, our data show that reductions in feeding rate can explain reduced growth rates in moderate hypoxia for Drosophila, contributing to reduced body size, and that larvae cannot successfully compensate for this level of hypoxia with developmental plasticity. PMID:25008193

  16. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zwaan, C Michel; Kolb, Edward A; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S J M; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E S; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Smith, Owen P; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J L

    2015-09-20

    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML--supportive care--and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects. PMID:26304895

  17. Oxytocin in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus reduces feeding and acutely increases energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Emily E.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Central oxytocin reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is associated with energy balance and contains a high density of oxytocin receptors. We hypothesized that oxytocin in the VMN is a negative regulator of energy balance acting to reduce feeding and increase energy expenditure. To test this idea, oxytocin or vehicle was injected directly into the VMN of Sprague-Dawley rats during fasted and nonfasted conditions. Energy expenditure (via indirect calorimetry) and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) were recorded simultaneously. Animals were also exposed to a conditioned taste aversion test, to determine whether oxytocin's effects on food intake were associated with malaise. When food was available during testing, oxytocin-induced elevations in energy expenditure lasted for 1 h, after which overall energy expenditure was reduced. In the absence of food during the testing period, oxytocin similarly increased energy expenditure during the first hour, but differences in 12-h energy expenditure were eliminated, implying that the differences may have been due to the thermic effects of feeding (digestion, absorption, and metabolic processing). Oxytocin acutely elevated SPA and reduced feeding at doses that did not cause a conditioned taste aversion during both the fed and fasted states. Together, these data suggest that oxytocin in the VMN promotes satiety and acutely elevates energy expenditure and SPA and implicates the VMN as a relevant site for the antiobesity effects of oxytocin. PMID:24990860

  18. Oxytocin in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus reduces feeding and acutely increases energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Noble, Emily E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, ChuanFeng

    2014-09-15

    Central oxytocin reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is associated with energy balance and contains a high density of oxytocin receptors. We hypothesized that oxytocin in the VMN is a negative regulator of energy balance acting to reduce feeding and increase energy expenditure. To test this idea, oxytocin or vehicle was injected directly into the VMN of Sprague-Dawley rats during fasted and nonfasted conditions. Energy expenditure (via indirect calorimetry) and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) were recorded simultaneously. Animals were also exposed to a conditioned taste aversion test, to determine whether oxytocin's effects on food intake were associated with malaise. When food was available during testing, oxytocin-induced elevations in energy expenditure lasted for 1 h, after which overall energy expenditure was reduced. In the absence of food during the testing period, oxytocin similarly increased energy expenditure during the first hour, but differences in 12-h energy expenditure were eliminated, implying that the differences may have been due to the thermic effects of feeding (digestion, absorption, and metabolic processing). Oxytocin acutely elevated SPA and reduced feeding at doses that did not cause a conditioned taste aversion during both the fed and fasted states. Together, these data suggest that oxytocin in the VMN promotes satiety and acutely elevates energy expenditure and SPA and implicates the VMN as a relevant site for the antiobesity effects of oxytocin. PMID:24990860

  19. Evidence for links between feeding inhibition, population characteristics, and sensitivity to acute toxicity for Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Agatz, Annika; Brown, Colin D

    2013-08-20

    A population experiment with Daphnia magna tested the hypothesis that short-term feeding inhibition provokes a shift in population structure that will vary with conspecific pressure (e.g., pressure occurring from individuals of the same species due to competition for food and space) and increases population sensitivity to a xenobiotic exposure due to size-dependent toxicity (e.g., decreasing sensitivity with increasing body length). Populations were exposed for one week to a feeding inhibitor (imidacloprid, 0.15 or 12.0 mg/L) followed by one week of recovery and one day of exposure to an acute toxin (carbaryl, 0.0098 mg/L). Identical exposure under low and high conspecific pressure was studied by delaying the start of exposure for half of the populations by two weeks; thus populations were in a different stage of population development when exposure occurred. Feeding inhibition of 97% (12.0 mg/L imidacloprid) caused a shift in population structure toward smaller individuals but also reduced population abundance by up to 56 ± 7% with a strong influence of conspecific pressure. Increased population sensitivity to carbaryl was observed after feeding inhibition of 97% as hypothesized. Carbaryl exposure for one day resulted in population decline of up to 23 ± 6% when populations were not previously exposed to imidacloprid. Identical carbaryl exposure provoked a four times stronger decline in population abundance when exposure occurred following feeding inhibition of 97%. In conflict with the hypothesis, this was at least in part due to changes in the reproductive strategy of daphnids following exposure to imidacloprid rather than driven by the shift in population structure. The differences in population sensitivity to additional stress (carbaryl) occurring one week after feeding inhibition caused by exposure to imidacloprid adds a further challenge to understanding potential impacts from multiple stressors as occurring in the field at the population level. PMID

  20. Early enteral feeding in severe acute pancreatitis: can it prevent secondary pancreatic (super) infection?

    PubMed

    Lehocky, P; Sarr, M G

    2000-01-01

    Sepsis continues to account for a second peak in mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The prevention of these septic complications and subsequent development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome remains a major focus for investigators, yet despite considerable clinical and experimental work addressing its etiology, septic complications remain high. Several studies have been designed to demonstrate the mechanism of origin of these septic complications with an attempt to define strategies for their prevention to improve patient outcomes. There is clear evidence that the origin of this secondary bacterial infection arises from enteric bacterial translocation secondary to disruption of the gut mucosal barrier during acute pancreatitis. Strategies designed to prevent secondary pancreatic infection include aggressive fluid resuscitation to maximize organ perfusion, early systemic antibiotic treatment or selective gut decontamination, and recently attempts to block mediators of the systemic inflammatory response. This discussion will summarize our present understanding of the etiopathogenesis of secondary bacterial 'superinfection' of necrotizing pancreatitis and how the initiation of enteral feeding early in the course of acute pancreatitis may prove to be an effective means of preventing and/or reversing the breakdown of the gut mucosal defense barrier. PMID:11155001

  1. Progress and perspectives in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rotta, Alexandre Tellechea; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a disease of acute onset characterized by hypoxemia and infiltrates on chest radiographs that affects both adults and children of all ages. It is an important cause of respiratory failure in pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, until recently, the definitions and diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome have focused on the adult population. In this article, we review the evolution of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome over nearly five decades, with a special focus on the new pediatric definition. We also discuss recommendations for the implementation of mechanical ventilation strategies in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and the use of adjuvant therapies. PMID:26331971

  2. Progress and perspectives in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rotta, Alexandre Tellechea; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a disease of acute onset characterized by hypoxemia and infiltrates on chest radiographs that affects both adults and children of all ages. It is an important cause of respiratory failure in pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, until recently, the definitions and diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome have focused on the adult population. In this article, we review the evolution of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome over nearly five decades, with a special focus on the new pediatric definition. We also discuss recommendations for the implementation of mechanical ventilation strategies in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and the use of adjuvant therapies. PMID:26331971

  3. [Early jejunal feeding in acute pancreatitis: prevention of septic complications and multiorgan failure].

    PubMed

    Oláh, A; Pardavi, G; Belágyi, T

    2000-02-01

    Authors evaluate the effect of early jejunal feeding on septic complications and mortality in acute pancreatitis, based on the results of a two-phase, prospective, randomized study. In the first part of the study they compared the conventional parenteral nutrition with early (started within 24 hours) enteral nutrition in a prospective, randomized trial on 89 patients. Forty-eight patients were randomized into the parenteral group "A" (Rindex 10, Infusamin S, Intralipid 10%: 30 kcal/kg) and 41 patients into the enteral group "B" (fed by nasogastric jejunal tube Survimed OPD, 30 kcal/kg). The rate of septic complications (infected necrosis, abscess, infected pseudocyst) were significantly lower in the enteral group (p = 0.08 chi-square test). In the second phase of the study early jejunal feeding was combined with imipenem prophylaxis (Tienam, 2 x 500 mg i.v.) in the necrotizing cases detected by CT scan. According to the results of 92 patients the rate of septic complications (p = 0.03), multiple organ failure (p = 0.14), and mortality (p = 0.13) were further reduced in this group. Authors believe that combination of early enteral nutrition and a selective, adequate antibiotic therapy may give a chance for prevention of multiple organ failure. PMID:11299593

  4. The effect of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus heifers (n = 22; 292 ± 9.0 kg body weight) were paired by body weight and randomly placed on either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine the influence of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the physiological and acute phase responses of beef heifers ...

  5. Feeding acutely stimulates fibrinogen synthesis in healthy young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Caso, Giuseppe; Mileva, Izolda; Kelly, Patricia; Ahn, Hongshik; Gelato, Marie C; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2009-11-01

    Fibrinogen is a positive acute-phase protein and its hepatic synthesis is enhanced following inflammation and injury. However, it is not clear whether fibrinogen synthesis is also responsive to oral nutrients and whether the response to a meal may be affected by age. Our aim in this study was to investigate the acute effect of oral feeding on fibrinogen synthesis in both young and elderly men and women. Fibrinogen synthesis was determined in 3 separate occasions from the incorporation of l[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine (43 mg/kg body weight) in 8 young (21-35 y) and 8 elderly (>60 y) participants following the ingestion of water (control), a complete liquid meal (15% protein, 30% fat, and 55% carbohydrate), or only the protein component of the meal. The ingestion of the complete meal enhanced fibrinogen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) by 17 +/- 6% in the young and by 38 +/- 10% in the elderly participants compared with the water meal (P < 0.02). A comparable stimulation of FSR occurred with only the protein component of the meal in both young (29 +/- 7%) and elderly participants (41 +/- 9%) compared with the water meal (P < 0.005). Similar results were obtained when fibrinogen synthesis was expressed as absolute synthesis rates (i.e. mg.kg(-1).d(-1)). The results demonstrate that fibrinogen synthesis is acutely stimulated after ingestion of a meal and that this effect can be reproduced by the protein component of the meal alone, both in young and elderly adults. PMID:19759246

  6. Feeding Acutely Stimulates Fibrinogen Synthesis in Healthy Young and Elderly Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Caso, Giuseppe; Mileva, Izolda; Kelly, Patricia; Ahn, Hongshik; Gelato, Marie C.; McNurlan, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrinogen is a positive acute-phase protein and its hepatic synthesis is enhanced following inflammation and injury. However, it is not clear whether fibrinogen synthesis is also responsive to oral nutrients and whether the response to a meal may be affected by age. Our aim in this study was to investigate the acute effect of oral feeding on fibrinogen synthesis in both young and elderly men and women. Fibrinogen synthesis was determined in 3 separate occasions from the incorporation of l[2H5]phenylalanine (43 mg/kg body weight) in 8 young (21–35 y) and 8 elderly (>60 y) participants following the ingestion of water (control), a complete liquid meal (15% protein, 30% fat, and 55% carbohydrate), or only the protein component of the meal. The ingestion of the complete meal enhanced fibrinogen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) by 17 ± 6% in the young and by 38 ± 10% in the elderly participants compared with the water meal (P < 0.02). A comparable stimulation of FSR occurred with only the protein component of the meal in both young (29 ± 7%) and elderly participants (41 ± 9%) compared with the water meal (P < 0.005). Similar results were obtained when fibrinogen synthesis was expressed as absolute synthesis rates (i.e. mg·kg−1·d−1). The results demonstrate that fibrinogen synthesis is acutely stimulated after ingestion of a meal and that this effect can be reproduced by the protein component of the meal alone, both in young and elderly adults. PMID:19759246

  7. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. PMID:27037621

  8. Research Progress on Regulatory T Cells in Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yamei; Tao, Yuhong

    2015-01-01

    Immune inflammation is crucial in mediating acute kidney injury (AKI). Immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems substantially contribute to overall renal damage in AKI. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key regulator of immunological function and have been demonstrated to ameliorate injury in several murine experimental models of renal inflammation. Recent studies have illuminated the renal-protective function of Tregs in AKI. Tregs appear to exert beneficial effects in both the acute injury phase and the recovery phase of AKI. Additionally, Tregs-based immunotherapy may represent a promising approach to ameliorate AKI and promote recovery from AKI. This review will highlight the recent insights into the role of Tregs and their therapeutic potential in AKI. PMID:26273681

  9. [Progress in molecularly targeted therapies for acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akihiro

    2015-02-01

    Genetic abnormalities including specific point mutations have recently been confirmed by applying comprehensive genome sequencing analyses. Molecular targeting therapies, which focus on the mutated proteins and over-expressed proteins in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, are now being developed in clinical studies and/or based on in vitro analyses. This manuscript summarizes the genetic abnormalities in AML cells and some of the current molecular targeting therapies including FLT3 inhibitors (e.g. AC220; Quizartinib), Polo like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitors (e.g. BI-6727; Volasertib), IDH2 inhibitors (e.g. AG-221), and XPO1 inhibitors (e.g. KPT-330; Selinexor). PMID:25765792

  10. Evolving Therapies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Progress at Last?

    PubMed

    DeAngelo, Daniel J; Stein, Eytan M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an acquired disease characterized by chromosomal translocations and somatic mutations that lead to leukemogenesis. Systemic combination chemotherapy with an anthracycline and cytarabine remains the standard induction regimen for "fit" adults. Patients who achieve complete remission generally receive postinduction therapy with cytarabine-based chemotherapy or an allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Those unfit for induction chemotherapy are treated with hypomethylating agents (HMAs), low-dose cytarabine, or they are offered supportive care alone with transfusions and prophylactic antimicrobials. The revolution in understanding the genetics of AML, facilitated by next-generation sequencing, has led to many new drugs against driver mutations. Better methods of identification of leukemic blasts have provided us with better means to detect the disease left behind after cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. This measurable residual disease has been correlated with poorer relapse-free survival, demonstrating the need for novel strategies to eradicate it to improve the outcome of patients with acute leukemias. In this article, we discuss adapting and improving AML therapy by age and comorbidities, emerging targeted therapies in AML, and minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in AML. PMID:27249736

  11. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  12. Increased tubuloglomerular feed-back mediated suppression of glomerular filtration during acute volume expansion in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J M; Häberle, D A; Kawata, T; Schmitt, E; Takabatake, T; Wohlfeil, S

    1988-01-01

    1. Volume expansion is currently believed to change the intrinsic properties of the juxtaglomerular apparatus such that the sensitivity of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism is reduced, thus allowing glomerular filtration rate, and hence salt and water excretion, to rise. Recent studies conflict with this view and indeed the older literature reveals that the rise in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) under these conditions is far more modest than would be expected if TGF control were eliminated. 2. To investigate this problem, TGF control of filtration rate was examined by measuring single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) during loop of Henle perfusion at varying rates in rats under control conditions, after acute, moderate (4% of body weight), iso-oncotic volume expansion and in rats treated with antibodies to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) prior to the acute volume expansion. 3. With TGF control of filtration interrupted by filtrate collection from the proximal tubule, SNGFR in the expanded rats was massively increased compared with controls, although SNGFR measured in the distal tubule, and hence with TGF control intact, was only modestly increased, as was whole-kidney filtration rate. Loop perfusion at increasing rates up to 30 nl min-1 progressively decreased SNGFR in controls, and in the expanded rats the range over which control was exerted extended up to 60-80 nl min-1. For changes in loop flow around the spontaneous operating point, the sensitivity of the TGF mechanism, defined as delta SNGFR/delta loop flow, was similar in both groups. Treatment of rats with ANP antibodies prior to volume expansion substantially blunted the changes in renal salt and water excretion and the increase in SNGFR seen in the absence of loop perfusion. 4. These results are not consistent with a diminution of TGF function after volume expansion, rather with an enhancement. The latter is best accounted for by vasodilation of preglomerular resistance vessels on

  13. Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song unit and phrase repertoire progression on a subarctic feeding ground.

    PubMed

    Magnúsdóttir, Edda E; Miller, Patrick J O; Lim, Rangyn; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Lammers, Marc O; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2015-11-01

    The songs of the male humpback whales have traditionally been associated with breeding activities at low latitude breeding grounds during winter. This study provides the first detailed analysis of humpback whale songs recorded in the subarctic waters of Iceland using passive acoustic recorders. Recordings were collected during three winter seasons: 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2011 during which singing was detected in all seasons. Peak song occurrence was during January-February in all years; this coincides with the timing of the peak breeding season of humpback whales in the Northern hemisphere. A total of 2810 song units from all years were measured and statistically divided into 14 groups, which constructed 25 phrases. The song unit repertoires included stable song unit types that occurred frequently in songs during all years while the occurrence of other song unit types varied more between years. Around 60% of the phrases were conserved between the first two study seasons, while the majority of phrases found during the last study season had not been observed before. This study indicates the importance of a subarctic feeding ground for song progression and song exchange and possibly as an opportunistic mating ground for migrating or overwintering humpback whales. PMID:26627808

  14. Hierarchy in Gene Expression is Predictive of Risk, Progression, and Outcome in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shubham; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer progresses with a change in the structure of the gene network in normal cells. We define a measure of organizational hierarchy in gene networks of affected cells in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. With a retrospective cohort analysis based on the gene expression profiles of 116 acute myeloid leukemia patients, we find that the likelihood of future cancer relapse and the level of clinical risk are directly correlated with the level of organization in the cancer related gene network. We also explore the variation of the level of organization in the gene network with cancer progression. We find that this variation is non-monotonic, which implies the fitness landscape in the evolution of AML cancer cells is nontrivial. We further find that the hierarchy in gene expression at the time of diagnosis may be a useful biomarker in AML prognosis. PMID:25685944

  15. One year outcomes in patients with acute lung injury randomised to initial trophic or full enteral feeding: prospective follow-up of EDEN randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Dinglas, Victor D; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Wozniak, Amy W; Rice, Todd W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of initial low energy permissive underfeeding (“trophic feeding”) versus full energy enteral feeding (“full feeding”) on physical function and secondary outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Design Prospective longitudinal follow-up evaluation of the NHLBI ARDS Clinical Trials Network’s EDEN trial Setting 41hospitals in the United States. Participants 525 patients with acute lung injury. Interventions Randomised assignment to trophic or full feeding for up to six days; thereafter, all patients still receiving mechanical ventilation received full feeding. Measurements Blinded assessment of the age and sex adjusted physical function domain of the SF-36 instrument at 12 months after acute lung injury. Secondary outcome measures included survival; physical, psychological, and cognitive functioning; quality of life; and employment status at six and 12 months. Results After acute lung injury, patients had substantial physical, psychological, and cognitive impairments, reduced quality of life, and impaired return to work. Initial trophic versus full feeding did not affect mean SF-36 physical function at 12 months (55 (SD 33) v 55 (31), P=0.54), survival to 12 months (65% v 63%, P=0.63), or nearly all of the secondary outcomes. Conclusion In survivors of acute lung injury, there was no difference in physical function, survival, or multiple secondary outcomes at 6 and 12 month follow-up after initial trophic or full enteral feeding. Trial Registration NCT No 00719446 PMID:23512759

  16. Feeding response in marine copepods as a measure of acute toxicity of four anti-sea lice pesticides.

    PubMed

    Van Geest, Jordana L; Burridge, Les E; Fife, Frederick J; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-10-01

    Anti-sea lice pesticides used in salmon aquaculture are released directly into the environment where non-target organisms, including zooplankton, may be exposed. The toxicity of four pesticides to field-collected copepods was examined in 1-h exposures with lethality and feeding endpoints determined 5-h post-exposure using staining techniques. Copepods were immobilized within 1 h, at aquaculture treatment concentrations of deltamethrin (AlphaMax), cypermethrin (Excis), and hydrogen peroxide (InteroxParamove50). All organisms showed vital staining, indicating immobilized organisms were still alive, thus LC50s were not determined. Feeding on carmine particles was inhibited and EC50s ranged from 0.017 to 0.067 μg deltamethrin/L, 0.098-0.36 μg cypermethrin/L, and 2.6-10 mg hydrogen peroxide/L, representing 30- to 117-fold, 13- to 51-fold, and 120- to 460-fold dilutions of the respective aquaculture treatments. No effects were observed in copepods exposed to azamethiphos (Salmosan) at 5-times the aquaculture treatment. Acute exposure to three of the four pesticides affected feeding and mobility of copepods at environmentally-realistic concentrations. PMID:25440784

  17. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  18. Acute Pancreatitis-Progress and Challenges: A Report on an International Symposium.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Elham; Pandol, Stephen J; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Sutton, Robert; Wu, Bechien U; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Gorelick, Fred; Hirota, Morihisa; Windsor, John; Lo, Simon K; Freeman, Martin L; Lerch, Markus M; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Melmed, Gil Y; Wassef, Wahid; Mayerle, Julia

    2015-11-01

    An international symposium entitled "Acute pancreatitis: progress and challenges" was held on November 5, 2014 at the Hapuna Beach Hotel, Big Island, Hawaii, as part of the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and the Japanese Pancreas Society. The course was organized and directed by Drs. Stephen Pandol, Tooru Shimosegawa, Robert Sutton, Bechien Wu, and Santhi Swaroop Vege. The symposium objectives were to: (1) highlight current issues in management of acute pancreatitis, (2) discuss promising treatments, (3) consider development of quality indicators and improved measures of disease activity, and (4) present a framework for international collaboration for development of new therapies. This article represents a compilation and adaptation of brief summaries prepared by speakers at the symposium with the purpose of broadly disseminating information and initiatives. PMID:26465949

  19. Acute liver failure due to primary amyloidosis in a nephrotic syndrome: a swiftly progressive course.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Brigite Aguiar; Leal, Rita; Sá, Helena; Campos, Mário

    2016-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is a clonal plasma cell proliferative disorder characterised by extracellular tissue deposits of insoluble fibrils derived from κ or λ immunoglobulin light chains. The most common organs affected by AL amyloidosis are the kidney, presenting with nephrotic syndrome and/or progressive renal dysfunction, and the heart, with restrictive cardiomyopathy. Hepatic deposition of fibrils occurs in half the cases but the liver is rarely the predominantly affected organ. The most common presentation of hepatic amyloidosis is hepatomegaly with elevated alkaline phosphatase. Acute liver failure with cholestasis and jaundice is a rare complication, with a prevalence of approximately 5%, and is usually associated with a worse prognosis. We report a case of a 39-year-old man admitted to our nephrology department with an unusual presentation of primary amyloidosis with nephrotic syndrome and acute liver failure, complicated by obstructive cholestasis resulting in death 2 months after diagnosis. PMID:26965175

  20. Controversy and progress for treatment of acute cholangitis after Tokyo Guidelines (TG13).

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhipeng; Zhu, Yubing; Zhu, Bin; Xu, Guangzhong; Zhang, Nengwei

    2016-01-01

    Tokyo Guideline 2013 (TG13) is an international guideline for the diagnosis, classification and treatment of acute cholangitis. Progress and controversy for the two years after TG13 was summarized. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are both effective imaging tests for common bile duct (CBD) stones. More factors e.g. obesity may be involved in severity assessment. Initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics addressing the typical Gram-negative enteric bacteria spectrum and early biliary drainage are the mainstay therapeutic options. Early laparoscopic exploration is also an option for stone-related nonsevere acute cholangitis besides endoscopic retrograde cholangial or percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage. Surgical biliary drainage should be avoided in severe cholangitis. PMID:26961212

  1. Moderate (2%, v/v) Ethanol Feeding Alters Hepatic Wound Healing after Acute Carbon Tetrachloride Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Krutika T.; Liu, Shinlan; McCracken, Jennifer M.; Jiang, Lu; Gaw, Ta Ehpaw; Kaydo, Lindsey N.; Richard, Zachary C.; O’Neil, Maura F.; Pritchard, Michele T.

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing consists of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and matrix synthesis and remodeling. Prolonged alcohol abuse can cause liver fibrosis due to deregulated matrix remodeling. Previous studies demonstrated that moderate ethanol feeding enhances liver fibrogenic markers and frank fibrosis independent of differences in CCl4-induced liver injury. Our objective was to determine whether or not other phases of the hepatic wound healing response were affected by moderate ethanol after CCl4 exposure. Mice were fed moderate ethanol (2% v/v) for two days and then were exposed to CCl4 and euthanized 24–96 h later. Liver injury was not different between pair- and ethanol-fed mice; however, removal of necrotic tissue was delayed after CCl4-induced liver injury in ethanol-fed mice. Inflammation, measured by TNFα mRNA and protein and hepatic Ly6c transcript accumulation, was reduced and associated with enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis after ethanol feeding. Hepatocytes entered the cell cycle equivalently in pair- and ethanol-fed mice after CCl4 exposure, but hepatocyte proliferation was prolonged in livers from ethanol-fed mice. CCl4-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was increased and matrix remodeling was prolonged in ethanol-fed mice compared to controls. Taken together, moderate ethanol affected each phase of the wound healing response to CCl4. These data highlight previously unknown effects of moderate ethanol exposure on hepatic wound healing after acute hepatotoxicant exposure. PMID:26751492

  2. [ASSOCIATED RESPIRATORY AND HEMODYNAMICS RESPONSE TO ACUTE NORMOBARIC PROGRESSIVE HYPOXIA IN ANESTHETIZED RATS].

    PubMed

    Donina, Zh A; Baranova, E V; Aleksandrova, N P

    2015-10-01

    The interdependent reactions of the cardiorespiratory system during experimental simulation of progressive acute hypoxia were studied in anesthetized Wistar rats. The results indicate that the extremely low oxygen content in the inhaled gas mixture to less than 6% lead to terminal sedation and apnea. After the cessation of hypoxic exposure were observed spontaneous autoresuscitation. Effects of progressive hypoxia, is an example of a multi-component interdependent reactions of the cardiorespiratory system, which are based on the respiratory and vasomotor center function disturbance and the predominance of parasympathetic influences on the heart. The obtained data can be used as a model of hypoxic apnea to examine the influence of physiologically active substances on the cardiorespiratory system at disease pathology. PMID:26827496

  3. Hierarchy in gene expression is predictive of risk, progression, and outcome in adult acute myeloid leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Shubham; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-02-01

    Cancer progresses with a change in the structure of the gene network in normal cells. We define a measure of organizational hierarchy in gene networks of affected cells in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. With a retrospective cohort analysis based on the gene expression profiles of 116 AML patients, we find that the likelihood of future cancer relapse and the level of clinical risk are directly correlated with the level of organization in the cancer related gene network. We also explore the variation of the level of organization in the gene network with cancer progression. We find that this variation is non-monotonic, which implies the fitness landscape in the evolution of AML cancer cells is non-trivial. We further find that the hierarchy in gene expression at the time of diagnosis may be a useful biomarker in AML prognosis.

  4. Vasoactive mediators and the progression from oedematous to necrotising experimental acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Weidenbach, H; Lerch, M M; Gress, T M; Pfaff, D; Turi, S; Adler, G

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiological factors that determine the clinical severity of acute pancreatitis. Because impairment of pancreatic circulation and oxygenation is associated with greater disease severity and morphological damage in experimental pancreatitis it has been suggested that various vasoactive mediators might participate in the progression from the oedematous to the necrotising variety of the disease. This study used an animal model of acute pancreatitis induced by intravenous caeruleint (10 micrograms/kg/h for up to six hours), which does not entail either haemorrhage or significant necrosis of the pancreas. This study considered whether the administration or the inhibition of either nitric oxide, bradykinin, or adrenergic mediators can convert this mild variety into haemorrhagic and necrotising pancreatitis. Neither nitric oxide nor catecholamines were involved in the progression from oedematous to haemorrhagic pancreatitis. Their substitution, activation, and inhibition all failed to change the severity of the disease process. Bradykinin alone seemed to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic haemorrhage and necrosis. However, the inhibition of bradykinin and not its activation or substitution increased the severity of the disease. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7590444

  5. No evidence of real progress in treatment of acute pain, 1993–2012: scientometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Darin J; Vlassakov, Kamen V; Kissin, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, many new techniques and drugs for the treatment of acute pain have achieved widespread use. The main aim of this study was to assess the progress in their implementation using scientometric analysis. The following scientometric indices were used: 1) popularity index, representing the share of articles on a specific technique (or a drug) relative to all articles in the field of acute pain; 2) index of change, representing the degree of growth in publications on a topic compared to the previous period; and 3) index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed. Publications on specific topics (ten techniques and 21 drugs) were assessed during four time periods (1993–1997, 1998–2002, 2003–2007, and 2008–2012). In addition, to determine whether the status of routine acute pain management has improved over the past 20 years, we analyzed surveys designed to be representative of the national population that reflected direct responses of patients reporting pain scores. By the 2008–2012 period, popularity index had reached a substantial level (≥5%) only with techniques or drugs that were introduced 30–50 years ago or more (epidural analgesia, patient-controlled analgesia, nerve blocks, epidural analgesia for labor or delivery, bupivacaine, and acetaminophen). In 2008–2012, promising (although modest) changes of index of change and index of expectations were found only with dexamethasone. Six national surveys conducted for the past 20 years demonstrated an unacceptably high percentage of patients experiencing moderate or severe pain with not even a trend toward outcome improvement. Thus, techniques or drugs that were introduced and achieved widespread use for acute pain management within the past 20 years have produced no changes in scientometric indices that would indicate real progress and

  6. Clinical and radiological factors affecting progressive collapse of acute osteoporotic compression spinal fractures.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Sergei; Smorgick, Yossi; Mirovsky, Yigal; Anekstein, Yoram; Blecher, Ronen; Tal, Sigal

    2016-09-01

    Osteoporotic compression spine fractures have a different clinical course and outcomes when compared to spinal fractures occurring in the younger population. Only a few studies have investigated the risk factors for progressive osteoporotic compression spine fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and radiological factors related to progressive collapse following acute osteoporotic compression spine fractures. We retrospectively identified all patients treated for thoracolumbar fractures in our institution between January 2008 and July 2013. Included cases were examined by plain radiographs and CT scans. For each patient we classified the fracture according to the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. The difference between initial and final height loss and initial and final local kyphosis was documented as height loss difference and kyphotic angle difference. The presence of old fractures and intravertebral cleft were also documented. The study included 153 patients, comprising 102 women and 51 men. The mean patient age was 68.9years. The mean length of follow up was 15months. A statistically significant correlation was found between patient age, final height loss, height loss difference and kyphotic angle difference. Height loss difference and kyphotic angle difference were significantly correlated to type of fracture according to the AO classification system. The height loss difference was 18.1% in A1 type fractures, 27.1% in A2 type fractures, 24.2% in A3 type fractures and 25.7% in A4 type fractures. During a minimum 3-month follow up of conservative treatment for acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, age and the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System were predictive factors for progressive collapse. PMID:27387197

  7. The Nature of Naming Errors in Primary Progressive Aphasia Versus Acute Post-Stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Maggi A.; Kortte, Kathleen; Cloutman, Lauren; Newhart, Melissa; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Seay, Margaret W.; Hillis, Argye E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the distribution of error types across subgroups of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia in different vascular locations. Method We analyzed naming errors in 49 individuals with acute left hemisphere ischemic stroke and 55 individuals with three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Location of atrophy or ischemic stroke was characterized using MRI. Results We found that distribution of error types was very similar across all subgroups, irrespective of the site or etiology of the lesion. The only significant difference across groups was the percentage of circumlocutions (F(7, 96) = 3.02, p = .005). Circumlocution errors were highest among logopenic variant PPA (24%) and semantic variant PPA (24%). Semantic coordinate errors were common in all groups, probably because they can arise from disruption of different cognitive processes underlying naming and, therefore, from different locations of brain damage. Conclusions Semantic errors are common among all types of primary progressive aphasia and poststroke aphasia, and the type of error depends in part on the location of damage. PMID:20804246

  8. Effects of acute intermittent hypoxia on energy balance and hypothalamic feeding pathways.

    PubMed

    Moreau, J M; Ciriello, J

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to investigate the effects of acute intermittent hypoxia (IH) on metabolic factors associated with energy balance and body weight, and on hypothalamic satiety-inducing pathways. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 8h IH or normoxic control conditions. Food intake, locomotion and body weights were examined after IH. Additionally, plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin corticosterone, insulin and blood glucose were measured following exposure to IH. Furthermore, adipose tissue was removed and analyzed for leptin and adiponectin content. Finally, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) was assessed for alterations in protein signaling associated with satiety. IH reduced body weight, food intake and active cycle locomotion without altering adipose tissue mass. Leptin protein content was reduced while adiponectin content was elevated in adipose tissue after IH. Plasma concentration of leptin was significantly increased while adiponectin decreased after IH. No changes were found in plasma corticosterone, insulin and blood glucose. In ARC, phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression were elevated. In addition, POMC-expressing neurons were activated as determined by immediate early gene FRA-1/2 expression. Finally, ERK1/2 and its phosphorylation were reduced in response to IH. These data suggest that IH induces significant alterations to body energy balance through changes in the secretion of leptin which exert effects on satiety-inducing pathways within the hypothalamus. PMID:24042039

  9. Acute Versus Progressive Onset of Diabetes in NOD Mice: Potential Implications for Therapeutic Interventions in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Clayton E; Xue, Song; Posgai, Amanda; Lightfoot, Yaima L; Li, Xia; Lin, Andrea; Wasserfall, Clive; Haller, Michael J; Schatz, Desmond; Atkinson, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Most natural history models for type 1 diabetes (T1D) propose that overt hyperglycemia results after a progressive loss of insulin-secreting β-cell mass and/or function. To experimentally address this concept, we prospectively determined morning blood glucose measurements every other day in multiple cohorts (total n = 660) of female NOD/ShiLtJ mice starting at 8 weeks of age until diabetes onset or 26 weeks of age. Consistent with this notion, a majority of mice that developed diabetes (354 of 489 [72%]) displayed a progressive increase in blood glucose with transient excursions >200 mg/dL, followed by acute and persistent hyperglycemia at diabetes onset. However, 135 of the 489 (28%) diabetic animals demonstrated normal glucose values followed by acute (i.e., sudden) hyperglycemia. Interestingly, diabetes onset occurred earlier in mice with acute versus progressive disease onset (15.37 ± 0.3207 vs. 17.44 ± 0.2073 weeks of age, P < 0.0001). Moreover, the pattern of onset (i.e., progressive vs. acute) dramatically influenced the ability to achieve reversal of T1D by immunotherapeutic intervention, with increased effectiveness observed in situations of a progressive deterioration in euglycemia. These studies highlight a novel natural history aspect in this animal model, one that may provide important guidance for the selection of subjects participating in human trials seeking disease reversal. PMID:26216853

  10. Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-ping; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    Study on the action mechanism of inflammatory mediators generated by the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in multiple organ injury is a hotspot in the surgical field. In clinical practice, the main complicated organ dysfunctions are shock, respiratory failure, renal failure, encephalopathy, with the rate of hepatic diseases being closely next to them. The hepatic injury caused by SAP cannot only aggravate the state of pancreatitis, but also develop into hepatic failure and cause patient death. Its complicated pathogenic mechanism is an obstacle in clinical treatment. Among many pathogenic factors, the changes of vasoactive substances, participation of inflammatory mediators as well as OFR (oxygen free radical), endotoxin, etc. may play important roles in its progression. PMID:17444596

  11. Influence of H-HOPE Intervention for Premature Infants on Growth, Feeding Progression, and Length of Stay during Initial Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    White-Traut, Rosemary C.; Rankin, Kristin M.; Yoder, Joseph C.; Liu, Li; Vasa, Rohitkumar; Geraldo, Victoria; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether premature infants receiving the maternally administered H-HOPE intervention had more rapid weight gain and growth, improved feeding progression, and reduced length of hospital stay, compared to controls. Study Design Premature infants born at 29–34 GA and their mothers with at least 2 social-environmental risk factors, were randomly assigned to H-HOPE intervention (n = 88) or an attention control (n = 94) groups. H-HOPE consists of a 15-minute multisensory intervention (auditory, tactile, visual and vestibular stimuli) performed twice daily prior to feeding plus maternal participatory guidance on preterm infant behavioral cues. Results H-HOPE group infants gained weight more rapidly over time than infants in the control group and grew in length more rapidly than control infants, especially during the latter part of the hospital stay. Conclusions For healthy preterm infants, the H-HOPE intervention appears to improve weight gain and length over time from birth to hospital discharge. PMID:25742287

  12. Diet-induced obesity accelerates acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression in two murine models*

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jason P.; Behan, James W.; Heisterkamp, Nora; Butturini, Anna; Klemm, Lars; Ji, Lingyun; Groffen, John; Müschen, Markus; Mittelman, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of many cancers, including leukemia, though it is unknown whether leukemia incidence is increased directly by obesity, or rather by associated genetic, lifestyle, health, or socio-economic factors. We developed animal models of obesity and leukemia to test whether obesity could directly accelerate acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using BCR/ABL transgenic and AKR/J mice weaned onto a high-fat diet. Mice were observed until development of progressive ALL. Although obese and control BCR/ABL mice had similar median survival, older obese mice had accelerated ALL onset, implying a time-dependent effect of obesity on ALL. Obese AKR mice developed ALL significantly earlier than controls. The effect of obesity was not explained by WBC count, thymus/spleen weight, or ALL phenotype. However, obese AKR mice had higher leptin, insulin, and IL-6 levels than controls, and these obesity-related hormones all have potential roles in leukemia pathogenesis. In conclusion, obesity directly accelerates presentation of ALL, likely by increasing the risk of an early event in leukemogenesis. This is the first study to demonstrate that obesity can directly accelerate the progression of ALL. Thus, the observed associations between obesity and leukemia incidence are likely to be directly related to biological effects of obesity. PMID:20823291

  13. Recent Research and Progress in Food, Feed and Nutrition with Advanced Synchrotron-based SR-IMS and DRIFT Molecular Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-04-25

    Ultraspatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy is able to detect the structure features of a food or feed tissue at cellular and molecular levels. However, to date, this advanced synchrotron-based technique is almost unknown to food and feed scientists. The objective of this article was to introduce this novel analytical technology, ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) to food, feed, conventional nutrition, and molecular nutrition scientists. The emphasis of this review focused on the following areas: (1) Principles of molecular spectroscopy for food and feed structure research, such as protein molecular structure, carbohydrate conformation, heating induced protein structure changes, and effect of gene-transformation on food and feed structure; (2) Molecular spectral analysis methodology; (3) Biological applications of synchrotron SR-IMS and DRIFT spectroscopy; and (4) Recent progress in food, feed and nutrition research program. The information described in this article gives better insight in food structure research progress and update. PMID:25148108

  14. Feasibility studies to control acute diarrhoea in children by feeding fermented milk preparations Actimel and Indian Dahi.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, K N; Bhasin, S K

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study feasibility of diarrhoea control in children (6 months to 5 y of age) by feeding fermented milk preparations. The design used was a randomized controlled clinical trial and the study was carried out at the Delhi University College Hospital providing tertiary care, and a nearby community centre Nand Nagri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi. Children suffering from acute diarrhoea (75 patients from the hospital and 75 from the community) were allocated to three groups by double-blind technique. Group 1 was given a fermented milk, Actimel, containing 10(8) of each Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus per gram. Group 2 was given Indian Dahi (Lf 40) containing 10(8) of each Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus lactis cremoris and Leuconostac mesenteroides cremoris per gram. Group 3 was given ultra-heat-treated yoghurt preparation (no live bacteria). Actimel was also used as a starter to prepare the curd in order to study the preventive effect of diarrhoea in children in a community. In the hospital study Indian Dahi and Actimel administration reduced mean duration of diarrhoea by 0.3 and 0.6 day (P<0.001), respectively. The corresponding figures in the community study were 0.2 and 0.5 day (P<0.05), respectively. The families using Actimel as a starter showed a reduction in diarrhoeal morbidity episodes by 40% of the children tested in a 3 month follow-up. In conclusion, Actimel, fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, and Indian Dahi can significantly reduce the duration of diarrhoea in children; the former preparation being superior. PMID:12556949

  15. Role of chromosomal aberrations in clonal diversity and progression of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bochtler, T; Fröhling, S; Krämer, A

    2015-06-01

    Genetic abnormalities are a hallmark of cancer. Hereby, cytogenetic aberrations and small-scale abnormalities, such as single-nucleotide variations and insertion/deletion mutations, have emerged as two alternative modes of genetic diversification. Both mechanisms are at work in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), in which conventional karyotyping and molecular studies demonstrate that gene mutations occur predominantly in cytogenetically normal AML, whereas chromosomal changes are a driving force of development and progression of disease in aberrant karyotype AML. All steps of disease evolution in AML, ranging from the transformation of preleukemic clones into overt leukemia to the expansion and recurrence of malignant clones, are paralleled by clonal evolution at either the gene mutation or chromosome aberration level. Preleukemic conditions, such as Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome, demonstrate that the acquisition of chromosomal aberrations can contribute to leukemic transformation. Similar to what has been shown at the mutational level, expansion and recurrence of AML clones goes along with increasing genetic diversification. Hereby, cytogenetically more evolved subclones are at a proliferative advantage and outgrow ancestor clones or have evolved toward a more aggressive behavior with additional newly acquired aberrations as compared with the initial leukemic clone, respectively. PMID:25673237

  16. Progress in Treatment of Viral Infections in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Moschovi, Maria; Adamaki, Maria; Vlahopoulos, Spiros A.

    2016-01-01

    In children, the most commonly encountered type of leukemia is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). An important source of morbidity and mortality in ALL are viral infections. Even though allogeneic transplantations, which are often applied also in ALL, carry a recognized risk for viral infections, there are multiple factors that make ALL patients susceptible to viral infections. The presence of those factors has an influence in the type and severity of infections. Currently available treatment options do not guarantee a positive outcome for every case of viral infection in ALL, without significant side effects. Side effects can have very serious consequences for the ALL patients, which include nephrotoxicity. For this reason a number of strategies for personalized intervention have been already clinically tested, and experimental approaches are being developed. Adoptive immunotherapy, which entails administration of ex vivo grown immune cells to a patient, is a promising approach in general, and for transplant recipients in particular. The ex vivo grown cells are aimed to strengthen the immune response to the virus that has been identified in the patients’ blood and tissue samples. Even though many patients with weakened immune system can benefit from progress in novel approaches, a viral infection still poses a very significant risk for many patients. Therefore, preventive measures and supportive care are very important for ALL patients. PMID:27471584

  17. Acute progression of untreated incidental WHO Grade II glioma to glioblastoma in an asymptomatic patient.

    PubMed

    Cochereau, Jérôme; Herbet, Guillaume; Rigau, Valérie; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    WHO Grade II glioma (low-grade glioma [LGG]) is increasingly diagnosed as an incidental finding in patients undergoing MRI for many conditions. Recent data have demonstrated that such incidental LGGs are progressive tumors that undergo clinical transformation and ultimately become malignant. Although asymptomatic LGG seems to represent an earlier step in the natural course of a glioma than the symptomatic LGG, it is nonetheless impossible to predict at the individual level when the tumor will become malignant. The authors report the case of a 43-year-old woman with a right operculo-insular LGG that was incidentally diagnosed because of headaches. No treatment was proposed, and repeated MRI scans were performed for 6 years in another institution. Due to a slow but continuous growth of the lesion, the patient was finally referred to our center to undergo surgery. Interestingly, objective calculation of the velocity of the tumor's diametric expansion demonstrated a sudden acceleration of the growth rate within the 5 months preceding surgery, with the development of contrast enhancement. Remarkably, the patient was still asymptomatic. An awake resection was performed with intraoperative electrical mapping. There was no functional worsening following surgery, as assessed on postoperative neuropsychological examination. Removal of 92% of signal abnormality on FLAIR MRI was achieved, with complete resection of the area of contrast enhancement. Neuropathological examination revealed a glioblastoma, and the patient was subsequently treated with concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although a "wait and see" attitude has been advocated by some authors with respect to incidental LGG, our original case demonstrates that acute transformation to glioblastoma may nonetheless occur, even before the onset of any symptoms. Therefore, because the lack of symptoms does not protect from malignant transformation, we propose consideration of earlier resection in a more systematic

  18. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  19. Acute Q fever presenting as fever of unknown origin with rapidly progressive hepatic failure in a patient with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Han; Lo, Yi-Chun; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2008-11-01

    We report a case of fulminant acute Q fever presenting as fever of unknown origin with rapidly progressive hepatic failure in a patient with alcoholism. A 51-year-old electrician, who was a habitual drinker, presented with a 2-week history of intermittent high fever, acute hepatomegaly and rapidly progressive jaundice after being accidentally exposed to dust from bird nests when he was repairing electrical equipment and circuitry at an abandoned factory in Taipei County. Ascites and prolonged prothrombin time were noted at admission. Transjugular liver biopsy and bone marrow biopsy found multiple small fibrinoid-ring granulomas in liver parenchyma and bone marrow. Doxycycline therapy was empirically started. The fever gradually subsided over a 2-week period, along with the recovery of liver function. The diagnosis of acute Q fever was confirmed by high titers of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (phase I IgM 1:160 and IgG 1:2560, phase II IgM > 1:320 and IgG 1:5120) and a four-fold elevation of phase II IgG titer in the paired serum. The experience of this case shows that the possibility of Q fever should not be overlooked in patients who have an unexplained febrile illness and severe liver function impairment following exposure to a contaminated environment in Taiwan. PMID:18971160

  20. Rapidly Progressing Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reaction With Acute Kidney Injury After Drug Exposure: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Bradley K; Kumar, Avinash B

    2016-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome (TEN) is a rare severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction that involves skin and mucous membranes. We describe a case of TEN presenting with stage III acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, and acute respiratory failure likely triggered by allopurinol for recently diagnosed gout. Prompt diagnosis, multidisciplinary management, including aggressive resuscitation, cardiorespiratory support, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, and daily wound care resulted in a positive outcome despite a predicted mortality greater than 60%. Although allopurinol is a known triggering agent, TEN presenting with rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury is rare. PMID:24832386

  1. Physical and Cognitive Performance of Patients with Acute Lung Injury 1 Year after Initial Trophic versus Full Enteral Feeding. EDEN Trial Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dinglas, Victor D.; Morris, Peter E.; Jackson, James C.; Hough, Catherine L.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Wozniak, Amy W.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Ely, E. Wesley; Rice, Todd W.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that providing patients with acute lung injury two different protein/calorie nutritional strategies in the intensive care unit may affect longer-term physical and cognitive performance. Objectives: To assess physical and cognitive performance 6 and 12 months after acute lung injury, and to evaluate the effect of trophic versus full enteral feeding, provided for the first 6 days of mechanical ventilation, on 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment, and secondary outcomes. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal ancillary study of the ARDS Network EDEN trial evaluating 174 consecutive survivors from 5 of 12 centers. Blinded assessments of patients’ arm anthropometrics, strength, pulmonary function, 6-minute-walk distance, and cognitive status (executive function, language, memory, verbal reasoning/concept formation, and attention) were performed. Measurements and Main Results: At 6 and 12 months, respectively, the mean (SD) percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance was 64% (22%) and 66% (25%) (P = 0.011 for difference between assessments), and 36 and 25% of survivors had cognitive impairment (P = 0.001). Patients performed below predicted values for secondary physical tests with small improvement from 6 to 12 months. There was no significant effect of initial trophic versus full feeding for the first 6 days after randomization on survivors’ percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment status, and all secondary outcomes. Conclusions: EDEN trial survivors performed below predicted values for physical and cognitive performance at 6 and 12 months, with some improvement over time. Initial trophic versus full enteral feeding for the first 6 days after randomization did not affect physical and cognitive performance. PMID:23805899

  2. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge. PMID:26122279

  3. Early treatment of hypertension in acute ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke: progress achieved, challenges, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of stroke. Additionally, high blood pressure (BP) in the acute cerebrovascular event is associated with poor outcome, and a high percentage of stroke survivors have inadequate control of hypertension. The present is a systematic review of prospective, randomized, and controlled trials carried out on safety and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of both subtypes of acute stroke. Six trials involving 7512 patients were included, which revealed controversies on the speed and the goals of treatment. These controversies could be due at least in part, from the fact that some studies analyzed the results of antihypertensive treatment in ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of acute stroke together, and from a different prevalence of past-stroke in the randomized groups. Further research is necessary to establish whether standard antihypertensive treatment provides greater benefit than simple observation in patients with ischemic acute stroke and Stage 2 hypertension of JNC 7, albeit they were not candidates for acute reperfusion. In that case, the target reduction in BP could be 10% to 15% within 24 hours. The recently published INTERACT 2 has provided evidence that patients with hemorrhagic stroke may receive intensive antihypertensive treatment safely with the goal of reducing systolic BP to levels no lower than 130 mm Hg. It is important to take into account that marked BP lowering in acute stroke increases the risk of poor outcome by worsening cerebral ischemia from deterioration of cerebral blood flow autoregulation. PMID:24220549

  4. Extending supplementary feeding for children younger than 5 years with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Rural Malawian children 6 to 59 months old with MAM, defin...

  5. FLT3 and NPM1 mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes: Frequency and potential value for predicting progression to acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bains, Ashish; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Zuo, Zhuang

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed FLT3 and NPM1 mutation data in a large cohort of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The frequencies of FLT3 and NPM1 mutation were 2.0% and 4.4%, respectively, and mutations were restricted to cases of intermediate- and high-risk MDS. Cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in 46.9% of cases. FLT3 mutations were associated with a complex karyotype (P = .009), whereas NPM1 mutations were associated with a diploid karyotype (P < .001). FLT3 mutation (P < .001) was associated with progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as were a higher bone marrow (BM) blast count (P < .001) and complex cytogenetics (P = .039). No patient with an NPM1 mutation alone had disease that progressed to AML. Cox proportional regression multivariate analysis indicated that FLT3 mutation, NPM1 mutation, complex cytogenetics, BM blast count, pancytopenia, and age were independent factors that correlated with progression-free survival. We conclude that FLT3 and NPM1 mutations are rare in MDS, but assessment of mutation status is potentially useful for predicting progression to AML. PMID:21173125

  6. Acute retroviral syndrome and high baseline viral load are predictors of rapid HIV progression among untreated Argentinean seroconverters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of primary HIV infection (PHI) has important clinical and public health implications. HAART initiation at this stage remains controversial. Methods Our objective was to identify predictors of disease progression among Argentinean seroconverters during the first year of infection, within a multicentre registry of PHI-patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Cox regression was used to analyze predictors of progression (LT-CD4 < 350 cells/mm3, B, C events or death) at 12 months among untreated patients. Results Among 134 subjects, 74% presented with acute retroviral syndrome (ARS). Seven opportunistic infections (one death), nine B events, and 10 non-AIDS defining serious events were observed. Among the 92 untreated patients, 24 (26%) progressed at 12 months versus three (7%) in the treated group (p = 0.01). The 12-month progression rate among untreated patients with ARS was 34% (95% CI 22.5-46.3) versus 13% (95% CI 1.1-24.7) in asymptomatic patients (p = 0.04). In univariate analysis, ARS, baseline LT-CD4 < 350 cells/mm3, and baseline and six-month viral load (VL) > 100,000 copies/mL were associated with progression. In multivariate analysis, only ARS and baseline VL > 100,000 copies/mL remained independently associated; HR: 8.44 (95% CI 0.97-73.42) and 9.44 (95% CI 1.38-64.68), respectively. Conclusions In Argentina, PHI is associated with significant morbidity. HAART should be considered in PHI patients with ARS and high baseline VL to prevent disease progression. PMID:21831310

  7. A Case Report on the Progression of Myeloid Sarcoma to Form Multiple Metastatic Deposits without Developing Acute Myeloid Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Sunita; Lee, Mark; Marshall, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Myeloid sarcomas (MS) are rare tumours occurring at extramedullary sites. They are usually associated with other haematology disorders such as acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. They frequently occur with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or with relapse of preexisting disease. Patients with myeloid sarcomas without history or evidence of myeloid leukaemia typically progress to form AML. Case Presentation. A case report of a patient diagnosed with an isolated myeloid sarcoma that rarely did not transform to AML but instead spread to form multiple myeloid sarcomas throughout the body. Discussion. This case identifies the risk of metastatic spread of these tumours rather than the development of AML which is poorly documented in the literature, due to the rarity of cases, and may be significant in the investigation and management of isolated myeloid sarcomas. This case highlights the need for clinicians to consider repeat cross-sectional imaging to investigate unexplained clinical decline or symptoms, when there is no sign of AML progression and to consider radiotherapy treatment early. PMID:26491577

  8. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  9. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  10. [Research Progress on the Role of Chromatin Remodeling Factor BRG1 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuo; Xu, Xue-Jing; Zhang, Kui

    2016-06-01

    BRG1 (Brahma-related gene 1, BRG1) is the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and tumor development. Unlike the evidence as tumor suppressor genes in the past reports, latest researches show that BRG1 plays an important role in sustaining the growth of leukemia cells in acute myeloid leukemia, and these effects on normal hematopoietic stem cells are dispensable. Further studies of the role and mechanism of BRG1 in acute myeloid leukemia will contribute to the development of a new and promising targeted therapy strategy. This article reviews the role of BRG1 on leukemia cells and leukemia stem cells in AML and discusses the related mechanism, which providing some reference for the targeted treatment strategy of AML. PMID:27342536

  11. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 aggravates secretory phospholipase A{sub 2}-mediated progression of acute liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Vishakha S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-04-15

    Our previous study [Bhave, V. S., Donthamsetty, S., Latendresse, J. R., Muskhelishvili, L., and Mehendale, H. M. 2008-this issue. Secretory phospholipase A{sub 2} mediates progression of acute liver injury in the absence of sufficient COX-2. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol] showed that in the absence of sufficient induction and co-presence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), secretory phospholipase A{sub 2} (sPLA{sub 2}) appearing in the intercellular spaces for cleanup of post-necrotic debris seems to contribute to the progression of toxicant-initiated liver injury, possibly by hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids of hepatocytes in the perinecrotic areas. To further test our hypothesis on the protective role of COX-2, male Fisher-344 rats were administered a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, and then challenged with a moderately toxic dose of CCl{sub 4}. This led to a 5-fold increase in the susceptibility of the COX-2 inhibited rats to CCl{sub 4} hepatotoxicity and mortality. The CCl{sub 4} bioactivating enzyme CYP2E1 protein, CYP2E1 enzyme activity, and the {sup 14}CCl{sub 4}-derived radiolabel covalently bound to the liver proteins were unaffected by the COX-2 inhibitor suggesting that the increased hepatotoxic sensitivity of the COX-2 inhibited rats was not due to higher bioactivation of CCl{sub 4}. Further investigation showed that this increased mortality was due to higher plasma and hepatic sPLA{sub 2} activities, inhibited PGE{sub 2} production, and progression of liver injury as compared to the non-intervened rats{sub .} In conclusion, inhibition of COX-2 mitigates the tissue protective mechanisms associated with COX-2 induction, which promotes sPLA{sub 2}-mediated progression of liver injury in an acute liver toxicity model. Because increased sPLA{sub 2} activity in the intercellular space is associated with increased progression of injury, and induced COX-2 is associated with hepatoprotection, ratios of hepatic COX-2 and sPLA{sub 2} activities may turn out to be a

  12. Endogenous opioids and feeding behavior: A decade of further progress (2004-2014). A Festschrift to Dr. Abba Kastin.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    Functional elucidation of the endogenous opioid system temporally paralleled the creation and growth of the journal, Peptides, under the leadership of its founding editor, Dr. Abba Kastin. He was prescient in publishing annual and uninterrupted reviews on Endogenous Opiates and Behavior that served as a microcosm for the journal under his stewardship. This author published a 2004 review, "Endogenous opioids and feeding behavior: a thirty-year historical perspective", summarizing research in this field between 1974 and 2003. The present review "closes the circle" by reviewing the last 10 years (2004-2014) of research examining the role of endogenous opioids and feeding behavior. The review summarizes effects upon ingestive behavior following administration of opioid receptor agonists, in opioid receptor knockout animals, following administration of general opioid receptor antagonists, following administration of selective mu, delta, kappa and ORL-1 receptor antagonists, and evaluating opioid peptide and opioid receptor changes in different food intake models. PMID:25843025

  13. Clinical characteristics and long-term progression of young patients with acute coronary syndrome in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Fernandes, Felipe Lourenço; Soeiro, Maria Carolina Feres de Almeida; Serrano, Carlos Vicente; de Oliveira, Múcio Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Objective In Brazil, there are few descriptions in the literature on the angiographic pattern and clinical characteristics of young patients with acute coronary syndrome, despite the evident number of cases in the population. The objective of this study was to evaluate which clinical characteristics are most closely related to the acute coronary syndrome in young patients, and what long-term outcomes are in this population. Methods This is a prospective observational study with 268 patients aged under 55 years with acute coronary syndrome, carried out between May 2010 and May 2013. Data were obtained on demographics, laboratory test and angiography results, and the coronary treatment adopted. Statistical analysis was presented as percentages and absolute values. Results Approximately 57% were men and the median age was 50 years (30 to 55). The main risk factors were arterial hypertension (68%), smoking (67%), and dyslipidemia (43%). Typical pain was present in 90% of patients. In young individuals, 25.7% showed ST segment elevation. Approximately 56.5% of patients presented with a single-vessel angiographic pattern. About 7.1% were submitted to coronary bypass surgery, and 42.1% to percutaneous coronary angioplasty. Intrahospital mortality was 1.5%, and the combined event rate (cerebrovascular accident/stroke, cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, and arrhythmias) was 13.8%. After a mean follow-up of 10 months, mortality was 9.8%, while 25.4% of the patients had new ischemic events, and 37.3% required readmission to hospital. Conclusion In the short-term, young patients presented with mortality rates below what was expected when compared to the rates noted in other studies. However, there was a significant increase in the number of events in the 10-month follow-up. PMID:26466059

  14. Leptospirosis Presenting with Rapidly Progressing Acute Renal Failure and Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pothuri, Pallavi; Ahuja, Keerat; Kumar, Viki; Lal, Sham; Tumarinson, Taisiya; Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unexplained renal insufficiency combined with hepatic failure is a common problem encountered by clinicians. As with many disease processes involving multi-organ systems, reversible causes are usually not readily identifiable, and for many patients their health deteriorates rapidly. We present a rare cause of acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia occurring simultaneously, with leptospirosis presenting as Weil's disease. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaints of anuria over the past two days. His symptoms started with dark urine, severe cramps in the thighs, and chills. The patient was a visitor to the United States from Guyana. Positive physical examination findings included mild tachycardia and hypotension, scleral icterus, and tenderness over abdomen, costovertebral angles, and thighs. The patient had a high white blood cell count, thrombocytopenia, renal/hepatic insufficiency, and an urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was initially treated under the suspicion of acute kidney injury secondary to rhabdomyolysis and pyelonephritis. The patient continued to deteriorate with decreasing platelet counts, worsening renal function, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress, with no improvement with hemodialysis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered, including doxycycline, due to a high suspicion of leptospirosis. The patient's condition drastically improved after initiation of doxycycline. On subsequent days, the patient's Leptospira antibody results were available, showing titers of more than 1:3200. Hemodialysis was discontinued as the patient started producing urine with improved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS As world travel becomes more economically feasible, we will continue to encounter foreign endemic diseases. Leptospirosis presenting as Weil's disease is a common cause of renal and hyperbilirubinemia in endemic areas. Often, as was the case for our patient where the time from presentation to acute

  15. Leptospirosis Presenting with Rapidly Progressing Acute Renal Failure and Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pothuri, Pallavi; Ahuja, Keerat; Kumar, Viki; Lal, Sham; Tumarinson, Taisiya; Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 53 Final Diagnosis: Leptospirosis Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Unexplained renal insufficiency combined with hepatic failure is a common problem encountered by clinicians. As with many disease processes involving multi-organ systems, reversible causes are usually not readily identifiable, and for many patients their health deteriorates rapidly. We present a rare cause of acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia occurring simultaneously, with leptospirosis presenting as Weil’s disease. Case Report: A 53-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaints of anuria over the past two days. His symptoms started with dark urine, severe cramps in the thighs, and chills. The patient was a visitor to the United States from Guyana. Positive physical examination findings included mild tachycardia and hypotension, scleral icterus, and tenderness over abdomen, costovertebral angles, and thighs. The patient had a high white blood cell count, thrombocytopenia, renal/hepatic insufficiency, and an urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was initially treated under the suspicion of acute kidney injury secondary to rhabdomyolysis and pyelonephritis. The patient continued to deteriorate with decreasing platelet counts, worsening renal function, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress, with no improvement with hemodialysis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered, including doxycycline, due to a high suspicion of leptospirosis. The patient’s condition drastically improved after initiation of doxycycline. On subsequent days, the patient’s Leptospira antibody results were available, showing titers of more than 1:3200. Hemodialysis was discontinued as the patient started producing urine with improved kidney function. Conclusions: As world travel becomes more economically feasible, we will continue to encounter foreign endemic diseases. Leptospirosis

  16. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with β-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.

    PubMed

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave

    2014-08-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of β-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the β-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed β-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of β-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial β-glucan immunostimulant properties. PMID:24830773

  17. Fluoxetine exposure during pregnancy and lactation: Effects on acute stress response and behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding are age and gender-dependent in rats.

    PubMed

    Francis-Oliveira, José; Ponte, Bianca; Barbosa, Ana Paula Moreno; Veríssimo, Luiz Fernando; Gomes, Marcus Vinícius; Pelosi, Gislaine Garcia; Britto, Luiz Roberto Giorgetti de; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello

    2013-09-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX) is commonly used to treat anxiety and depressive disorders in pregnant women. Since FLX crosses the placenta and is excreted in milk, maternal treatment with this antidepressant may expose the fetus and neonate to increased levels of serotonin (5-HT). Long-term behavioral abnormalities have been reported in rodents exposed to higher levels of 5-HT during neurodevelopment. In this study we evaluated if maternal exposure to FLX during pregnancy and lactation would result in behavioral and/or stress response disruption in adolescent and adult rats. Our results indicate that exposure to FLX influenced restraint stress-induced Fos expression in the amygdala in a gender and age-specific manner. In male animals, a decreased expression was observed in the basolateral amygdala at adolescence and adulthood; whereas at adulthood, a decrease was also observed in the medial amygdala. A lack of FLX exposure effect was observed in females and also in the paraventricular nucleus of both genders. Regarding the behavioral evaluation, FLX exposure did not induce anhedonia in the sucrose preference test but decreased the latency to feed of both male and female adolescent rats evaluated in the novelty-suppressed feeding test. In conclusion, FLX exposure during pregnancy and lactation decreases acute amygdalar stress response to a psychological stressor in males (adolescents and adults) as well as influences the behavior of adolescents (males and females) in a model that evaluates anxiety and/or depressive-like behavior. Even though FLX seems to be a developmental neurotoxicant, the translation of these findings to human safe assessment remains to be determined since it is recognized that not treating a pregnant or lactating woman may also impact negatively the development of the descendants. PMID:23764459

  18. Acute exercise increases feeding latency in healthy normal weight young males but does not alter energy intake.

    PubMed

    King, James A; Wasse, Lucy K; Stensel, David J

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the acute influence of exercise on eating behaviour in an ecologically valid setting whereby healthy active males were permitted complete ad libitum access to food. Ten healthy males completed two, 8h trials (exercise and control) in a randomised-crossover design. In the exercise trials participants consumed a breakfast snack and then rested for 1h before undertaking a 60 min run (72% of VO(2)max) on a treadmill. Participants then rested in the laboratory for 6h during which time they were permitted complete ad libitum access to a buffet meal. The timing of meals, energy/macronutrient intake and eating frequency were assessed. Identical procedures were completed in the control trial except no exercise was performed. Exercise increased the length of time (35 min) before participants voluntarily requested to eat afterwards. Despite this, energy intake at the first meal consumed, or at subsequent eating episodes, was not influenced by exercise (total trial energy intake: control 7426 kJ, exercise 7418 kJ). Neither was there any difference in macronutrient intake or meal frequency between trials. These results confirm that food intake remains unaffected by exercise in the immediate hours after but suggest that exercise may invoke a delay before food is desired. PMID:23137828

  19. Gene expression profiling of the short-term adaptive response to acute caloric restriction in liver and adipose tissues of pigs differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, where low RFI denotes high feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and relevant to human health benefits such as longevity and cancer prevention. We generated transcript profiles of ...

  20. Acute encephalitis in children: Progress and priorities from an Australasian perspective.

    PubMed

    Britton, Philip N; Dale, Russell C; Booy, Robert; Jones, Cheryl A

    2015-02-01

    Encephalitis is a complex neurological syndrome caused by inflammation of the brain that occurs with highest incidence in children. It is challenging to diagnose and manage due to the variety of aetiologies and non-specific clinical presentations. We discuss the recent progress in clinical case definitions; review recent, large, prospective epidemiological studies; and describe aetiologies. We emphasise infectious causes relevant to children in Australasia but also consider emerging immune-mediated syndromes responsive to immune therapies. We identify priorities for future research in children, given the potential for climate change and international travel to influence the emergence of infectious agents in our region. PMID:24953748

  1. Effect of an acute necrotic bacterial gill infection and feed deprivation on the metabolic rate of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Jones, M A; Powell, M D; Becker, J A; Carter, C G

    2007-10-31

    In this study, experiments were conducted to examine the effect of an acute necrotic bacterial gill infection on the metabolic rate (M(O2)) of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Fed and unfed Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to a high concentration (5 x 10(12) CFU ml(-1)) of the bacteria Tenacibaculum maritimum, their routine and maximum metabolic rates (M(O2rout) and M(O2max), respectively) were measured, and relative metabolic scope determined. A significant decrease in metabolic scope was found for both fed and unfed infected groups. Fed infected fish had a mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM) decrease of 2.21 +/- 0.97 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1), whilst unfed fish a mean +/- SEM decrease of 3.16 +/- 1.29 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1). The decrease in metabolic scope was a result of significantly increased M(O2rout) of both fed and unfed infected salmon. Fed infected fish had a mean +/- SEM increase in M(O2rout) of 1.86 +/- 0.66 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1), whilst unfed infected fish had a mean +/- SEM increase of 2.16 +/- 0.72 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1). Interestingly, all groups maintained M(O2max) regardless of infection status. Increases in M(O2rout) corresponded to a significant increase in blood plasma osmolality. A decrease in metabolic scope has implications for how individuals allocate energy; fish with smaller metabolic scope will have less energy to allocate to functions such as growth, reproduction and immune response, which may adversely affect the efficiency of fish growth. PMID:18159670

  2. Novel management options for adult patients with progressive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: introduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eunice S

    2015-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy characterized by highly proliferative immature lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. In adults, ALL accounts for approximately 20% of all adult leukemias. ALL carries a poor prognosis in adults. The 5-year overall survival is 24% in patients ages 40 to 59 years and 18% in patients ages 60 to 69 years. ALL can be grouped into different categories according to its cell lineage (B cell or T cell), the presence or absence of the Philadelphia chromosome, and various cytogenetic and molecular classifications. A main goal of treatment is to allow the patient to achieve a complete remission and to consolidate this remission with either a maintenance regimen or an allogeneic stem cell transplant. Although the overall rate of complete remission following frontline therapy for newly diagnosed ALL is high, the majority of patients experience a disease relapse. In general, the duration of initial complete remission impacts the patient’s prognosis and response to further therapies. Subsequent treatments must balance the goal of achieving a remission with the need for the patient to maintain or improve quality of life. Recently approved agents, such as blinatumomab and vincristine sulfate liposome injection, offer the promise of a second remission that can serve as a bridge to allogeneic stem cell transplant while still maintaining quality of life. A novel approach using adoptive cellular immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells is associated with extremely robust responses. PMID:26431322

  3. Impact of mechanical ventilation on the pathophysiology of progressive acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Nieman, Gary F; Gatto, Louis A; Habashi, Nader M

    2015-12-01

    The earliest description of what is now known as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was a highly lethal double pneumonia. Ashbaugh and colleagues (Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL, Levine BE Lancet 2: 319-323, 1967) correctly identified the disease as ARDS in 1967. Their initial study showing the positive effect of mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on ARDS mortality was dampened when it was discovered that improperly used mechanical ventilation can cause a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), thereby greatly exacerbating ARDS mortality. This Synthesis Report will review the pathophysiology of ARDS and VILI from a mechanical stress-strain perspective. Although inflammation is also an important component of VILI pathology, it is secondary to the mechanical damage caused by excessive strain. The mechanical breath will be deconstructed to show that multiple parameters that comprise the breath-airway pressure, flows, volumes, and the duration during which they are applied to each breath-are critical to lung injury and protection. Specifically, the mechanisms by which a properly set mechanical breath can reduce the development of excessive fluid flux and pulmonary edema, which are a hallmark of ARDS pathology, are reviewed. Using our knowledge of how multiple parameters in the mechanical breath affect lung physiology, the optimal combination of pressures, volumes, flows, and durations that should offer maximum lung protection are postulated. PMID:26472873

  4. [Progress in reperfusion after acute myocardial infarction. The situation in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Mele, Eduardo F

    2010-06-01

    Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction has dramatically reduced mortality. Coronary angioplasty and thrombolysis are the most effective reperfusion techniques. The controversy about which of the two methods is best has been superseded by a search for the most rapid and effective way of inducing reperfusion, given the overriding importance of time for saving myocardial tissue. Consequently, pharmaco-invasive strategies, prehospital thrombolysis and rapid patient transport systems have all been implemented. Typically, a certain percentage of patients do not undergo reperfusion for a range of reasons, one of the most important being treatment delay. Trends in Latin America are similar to those in other parts of the world: there is an increasing use of angioplasty instead of thrombolysis and a significant number of patients do not undergo reperfusion. Some patient registries indicate that hospital mortality tends to be higher than in Europe or the United States. There are numerous reasons for the difference, among which are a delay in presentation and a lack of access to properly equipped hospitals because of social inequality. Scientific societies have a key role to play in promoting awareness about the importance of early diagnosis and treatment throughout the health-care community, health authorities, and society in general. PMID:20540897

  5. The Progression of Bone Mineral Density Abnormalities After Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vitanza, Nicholas A; Hogan, Laura E; Zhang, Guangxiang; Parker, Robert I

    2015-07-01

    Although reduced bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is well documented, the degree of demineralization and relation to age are not well described. This is a retrospective chart analysis of 58 patients consecutively treated for ALL without relapse, cranial irradiation, or transplantation. Bone mineral densities were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and patients were divided by sex and age (≤5, 6 to 10, and >10 y) at diagnosis. Serial scans for 6 years after therapy were analyzed as Z-scores. Over 6 years after therapy, 93.1% of patients exhibited a decreased Z-score in at least 1 anatomic site. The difference in Z-score among the age cohorts was significant at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Patients older than 10 years at diagnosis had the lowest Z-scores: -2.78 and -2.87 for boys and -2.39 and -2.91 for girls at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. Children after ALL therapy exhibit a significant bone mineral deficit shortly after completion of therapy that persists for at least 6 years. The degree of bone demineralization can be followed up by a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan and is most severe in patients older than 10 years at the initiation of therapy. PMID:25222061

  6. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  7. Plasma Hsp90 Level as a Marker of Early Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Engraftment and Progression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Milani, Mateus; Laranjeira, Angelo Brunelli Albertoni; de Vasconcellos, Jaíra Ferreira; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; Nowill, Alexandre Eduardo; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Current monitoring of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in living mice is based on FACS analysis of blood hCD45+ cells. In this work, we evaluated the use of human IGFBP2, B2M or Hsp90 as soluble markers of leukemia. ELISA for B2M and IGFBP2 resulted in high background levels in healthy animals, precluding its use. Conversely, plasma levels of Hsp90 showed low background and linear correlation to FACS results. In another experiment, we compared Hsp90 levels with percentage of hCD45+ cells in blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen of animals weekly sacrificed. Hsp90 levels proved to be a superior method for the earlier detection of ALL engraftment and correlated linearly to ALL burden and progression in all compartments, even at minimal residual disease levels. Importantly, the Hsp90/hCD45+ ratio was not altered when animals were treated with dexamethasone or a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that chemotherapy does not directly interfere with leukemia production of Hsp90. In conclusion, plasma Hsp90 was validated as a soluble biomarker of ALL, useful for earlier detection of leukemia engraftment, monitoring leukemia kinetics at residual disease levels, and pre-clinical or mouse avatar evaluations of anti-leukemic drugs. PMID:26068922

  8. MiR-146b negatively regulates migration and delays progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Nádia C.; Fragoso, Rita; Carvalho, Tânia; Enguita, Francisco J.; Barata, João T.

    2016-01-01

    Previous results indicated that miR-146b-5p is downregulated by TAL1, a transcription factor critical for early hematopoiesis that is frequently overexpressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) where it has an oncogenic role. Here, we confirmed that miR-146b-5p expression is lower in TAL1-positive patient samples than in other T-ALL cases. Furthermore, leukemia T-cells display decreased levels of miR-146b-5p as compared to normal T-cells, thymocytes and other hematopoietic progenitors. MiR-146b-5p silencing enhances the in vitro migration and invasion of T-ALL cells, associated with increased levels of filamentous actin and chemokinesis. In vivo, miR-146b overexpression in a TAL1-positive cell line extends mouse survival in a xenotransplant model of human T-ALL. In contrast, knockdown of miR-146b-5p results in leukemia acceleration and decreased mouse overall survival, paralleled by faster tumor infiltration of the central nervous system. Our results suggest that miR-146b-5p is a functionally relevant microRNA gene in the context of T-ALL, whose negative regulation by TAL1 and possibly other oncogenes contributes to disease progression by modulating leukemia cell motility and disease aggressiveness. PMID:27550837

  9. MiR-146b negatively regulates migration and delays progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Correia, Nádia C; Fragoso, Rita; Carvalho, Tânia; Enguita, Francisco J; Barata, João T

    2016-01-01

    Previous results indicated that miR-146b-5p is downregulated by TAL1, a transcription factor critical for early hematopoiesis that is frequently overexpressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) where it has an oncogenic role. Here, we confirmed that miR-146b-5p expression is lower in TAL1-positive patient samples than in other T-ALL cases. Furthermore, leukemia T-cells display decreased levels of miR-146b-5p as compared to normal T-cells, thymocytes and other hematopoietic progenitors. MiR-146b-5p silencing enhances the in vitro migration and invasion of T-ALL cells, associated with increased levels of filamentous actin and chemokinesis. In vivo, miR-146b overexpression in a TAL1-positive cell line extends mouse survival in a xenotransplant model of human T-ALL. In contrast, knockdown of miR-146b-5p results in leukemia acceleration and decreased mouse overall survival, paralleled by faster tumor infiltration of the central nervous system. Our results suggest that miR-146b-5p is a functionally relevant microRNA gene in the context of T-ALL, whose negative regulation by TAL1 and possibly other oncogenes contributes to disease progression by modulating leukemia cell motility and disease aggressiveness. PMID:27550837

  10. Plasma Hsp90 Level as a Marker of Early Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Engraftment and Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos, Jaíra Ferreira; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; Nowill, Alexandre Eduardo; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Current monitoring of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in living mice is based on FACS analysis of blood hCD45+ cells. In this work, we evaluated the use of human IGFBP2, B2M or Hsp90 as soluble markers of leukemia. ELISA for B2M and IGFBP2 resulted in high background levels in healthy animals, precluding its use. Conversely, plasma levels of Hsp90 showed low background and linear correlation to FACS results. In another experiment, we compared Hsp90 levels with percentage of hCD45+ cells in blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen of animals weekly sacrificed. Hsp90 levels proved to be a superior method for the earlier detection of ALL engraftment and correlated linearly to ALL burden and progression in all compartments, even at minimal residual disease levels. Importantly, the Hsp90/hCD45+ ratio was not altered when animals were treated with dexamethasone or a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that chemotherapy does not directly interfere with leukemia production of Hsp90. In conclusion, plasma Hsp90 was validated as a soluble biomarker of ALL, useful for earlier detection of leukemia engraftment, monitoring leukemia kinetics at residual disease levels, and pre-clinical or mouse avatar evaluations of anti-leukemic drugs. PMID:26068922

  11. Acute Progression of Adult-Onset Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome due to CFH Mutation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sikorska, Dorota; Hoppe, Krzysztof; Schwermer, Krzysztof; Oko, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS), unlike typical HUS, is not due to bacteria but rather to an idiopathic or genetic cause that promotes dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. It leads to hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal impairment. Although aHUS secondary to a genetic mutation is relatively rare, when occurring due to a mutation in Factor H (CFH), it usually presents with younger onset and has a more severe course, which in the majority ends with end-stage renal failure. Paradoxically to most available data, our case features acute aHUS due to a CFH mutation with late onset (38-year-old) and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease. Due to current data indicating a high risk of graft failure in such patients, the diagnosis of aHUS secondary to a genetic cause has disqualified our patient from a living (family) donor renal transplantation and left her with no other option but to begin permanent renal replacement therapy. PMID:24558625

  12. Impact of Gentamicin Coadministration along with High Fructose Feeding on Progression of Renal Failure and Metabolic Syndrome in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ibraheem, Zaid O.; Basir, Rusliza; Aljobory, Ahmad Kh.; Ibrahim, Omar E.; Alsumaidaee, Ajwad; Yam, Mun Fee

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluates the impact of high fructose feeding in rat model of gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180–200 g were randomized into four groups; (C) received standard rodents chow with free access to ad libitum drinking water for 8 weeks and was considered as control, (F) received standard rodents chow with free access to drinking water supplemented with 20% (W/V) fructose for the same abovementioned period, (FG) was fed as group F and was given 80 mg/kg (body weight)/day gentamicin sulphate intraperitoneally during the last 20 days of the feeding period, and (G) was given gentamicin as above and fed as group C. Renal function was assessed at the end of the treatment period through measuring serum creatinine, uric acid and albumin, creatinine clearance, absolute and fractional excretion of both sodium and potassium, twenty-four-hour urinary excretion of albumin, and renal histology. For metabolic syndrome assessment, fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured and oral glucose tolerance test was performed throughout the treatment period. Results showed that gentamicin enhances progression of fructose induced metabolic syndrome. On the other hand, fructose pretreatment before gentamicin injection produced a comparable degree of renal dysfunction to those which were given fructose-free water but the picture of nephrotoxicity was somewhat altered as it was characterized by higher extent of glomerular congestion and protein urea. Overall, more vigilance is required when nephrotoxic drugs are prescribed for patients with fructose induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:25045706

  13. Acute colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6 but not in BALB/c mice: correlation between symptoms and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Melgar, Silvia; Karlsson, Agneta; Michaëlsson, Erik

    2005-06-01

    Exposure to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induces acute colitis, which is normally resolved after DSS removal. To study chronicity, mice are typically subjected to three to five cycles of weekly DSS exposures, each followed by a 1- to 2-wk rest period. Here, we describe a novel and convenient way of inducing chronic, progressive colitis by a single exposure to DSS. C57BL/6 mice exposed to DSS for 5 days developed acute colitis that progressed to severe chronic inflammation. The plasma haptoglobin levels remained high during the chronic phase, showing that the inflammation was active. Surprisingly, the mice regained their original weight along with the progression of colitis, and the only apparent symptom was loose feces. Histopathological changes 4 wk after DSS removal were dense infiltrates of mononuclear cells, irregular epithelial structure, and persistent deposits of collagen. A progressive production of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-12 p70, and IL-17 correlated with the extensive cellular infiltration, whereas high IFN-gamma production was mainly found late in the chronic phase. Similar to C57BL/6 mice, BALB/c mice exposed to 5 days of DSS developed acute colitis as previously described. The acute colitis was accompanied by elevated plasma levels of haptoglobin and increased colonic levels of IL-1alpha/beta, IL-6, IL-18, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. However, soon after DSS removal, BALB/c mice recovered and were symptom free within 2 wk and completely recovered 4 wk after DSS removal in terms of histopathology, haptoglobin levels, and local cytokine production. In summary, these data stress the effect of genetic background on the outcome of DSS provocation. We believe that the present protocol to induce chronic colitis in C57BL/6 mice offers a robust model for validating future therapies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:15637179

  14. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 rs12252-C is associated with rapid progression of acute HIV-1 infection in Chinese MSM cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghong; Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Qin, Ling; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Lili; Repapi, Emmanouela; Taylor, Stephen; McMichael, Andrew; Li, Ning; Dong, Tao; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein-3 (IFITM3) is a protein that restricts multiple pathogenic viruses such as influenza virus. The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12252-C, which is rare in Caucasian populations, but much more common in the Han Chinese population, has been found in much higher homozygous frequency in patients with severe acute influenza. Until now, there has been no study on the effect of this genetic variant on the clinical control of other viral infections. Objectives: To investigate the impact of IFITM3-rs12252 genotypes on primary HIV-1 infection progression in an acute HIV-1-infected cohort in Beijing (PRIMO), China. Design and methods: We identified IFITM3-rs12252 genotypes of 178 acute HIV-1-infected patients and 196 HIV-negative candidates from the PRIMO cohort. HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ T-cell counts were monitored at multiple time points during the first year of infection, and the association between IFITM3-rs12252 genotype and disease progression was evaluated. Results: The current study shows that the IFITM3-rs12252 genetic variant affects the progression of HIV-1 infection, but not the acquisition. A significantly higher frequency of the CC/CT genotypes was found in rapid progressors compared to nonprogressors. Patients with CC/CT genotypes showed an elevated peak viremia level and significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count at multiple time points during the first year of primary infection, and a significantly higher risk of rapid decline of the CD4+ T-cell count to below 350 cells/μl. Conclusion: A novel association between IFITM3 gene polymorphism and rapid disease progression is reported in an acute HIV-1-infected MSM cohort in China. PMID:25784441

  15. Acute Pancreatitis: Landmark Studies, Management Decisions, and the Future.

    PubMed

    Banks, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the last 50 years in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Many landmark studies have been published and have focused on the classification of acute pancreatitis, markers of severity, important roles of imaging and endoscopy, and improvements in our treatment. This report will review several landmark studies, describe ongoing controversies in management decisions including standards of early fluid resuscitation and appropriate use of enteral feeding, and outline what will be required in the future to improve the care of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27077712

  16. Hemodynamic variables and progression of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients with severe sepsis: data from the prospective observational FINNAKI study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge of the association of hemodynamics with progression of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited. However, some recent data suggest that mean arterial pressure (MAP) exceeding current guidelines (60–65 mmHg) may be needed to prevent AKI. We hypothesized that higher MAP during the first 24 hours in the intensive care unit (ICU), would be associated with a lower risk of progression of AKI in patients with severe sepsis. Methods We identified 423 patients with severe sepsis and electronically recorded continuous hemodynamic data in the prospective observational FINNAKI study. The primary endpoint was progression of AKI within the first 5 days of ICU admission defined as new onset or worsening of AKI by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We evaluated the association of hemodynamic variables with this endpoint. We included 53724 10-minute medians of MAP in the analysis. We analysed the ability of time-adjusted MAP to predict progression of AKI by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Of 423 patients, 153 (36.2%) had progression of AKI. Patients with progression of AKI had significantly lower time-adjusted MAP, 74.4 mmHg [68.3-80.8], than those without progression, 78.6 mmHg [72.9-85.4], P < 0.001. A cut-off value of 73 mmHg for time-adjusted MAP best predicted the progression of AKI. Chronic kidney disease, higher lactate, higher dose of furosemide, use of dobutamine and time-adjusted MAP below 73 mmHg were independent predictors of progression of AKI. Conclusions The findings of this large prospective multicenter observational study suggest that hypotensive episodes (MAP under 73 mmHg) are associated with progression of AKI in critically ill patients with severe sepsis. PMID:24330815

  17. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  18. Homocysteine is associated with the progression of non-culprit coronary lesions in elderly acute coronary syndrome patients after percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tian-Wen; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Li, Jian-Tao; Tian, Feng; Mu, Yang; Jing, Jing; Han, Yun-Feng; Chen, Yun-Dai

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of homocysteine (Hcy) on the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells has been well established. However, the impact of Hcy levels on the progression of non-culprit coronary lesions (NCCLs) is controversial. This study aims to evaluate whether the plasma level of Hcy is related to the progression of NCCLs after percutaneous coronary stent implantation in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods A total of 223 elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) with ACS undergoing stent implantation and follow-up coronary angiography were enrolled. Laboratory determination comprised of blood sample evaluation for Hcy was carried out before baseline coronary intervention. The patients were classified into two groups according to the blood Hcy tertiles (≥ 15 mmol/L or < 15 mmol/L). Patients were followed up for 12.2 months. NCCL progression was assessed by three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography. Results A significantly higher ratio of NCCL progression was observed in the group with baseline Hcy concentrations above 15 mmol/L compared to the group with concentrations below 15 mmol/L (41/127, 32.3% vs. 14/96, 14.6%, P = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Hcy and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for NCCL progression. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of NCCL progression for Hcy level was 1.056 (95% CI: 1.01–1.104, P = 0.015). The adjusted HR of NCCL progression for Hcy level was 1.024 (95% CI: 1.007–1.042, P = 0.007). The adjusted HR of NCCL progression for diabetes mellitus was 1.992 (95% CI: 1.15–3.44, P = 0.013). Conclusions Hcy is an independent risk factor for NCCL progression after 12 months of follow-up in elderly patients with ACS who has undergone percutaneous coronary stenting. PMID:27403138

  19. POEMS syndrome with Guillan-Barre syndrome-like acute onset: a case report and review of neurological progression in 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Isose, S; Misawa, S; Kanai, K; Shibuya, K; Sekiguchi, Y; Nasu, S; Fujimaki, Y; Noto, Y; Nakaseko, C; Kuwabara, S

    2011-06-01

    POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes) syndrome is a rare cause of demyelinating neuropathy with monoclonal plasma cell proliferation, and POEMS neuropathy is usually chronically progressive. Herein, the authors report a 34-year-old woman with POEMS syndrome presenting as acute polyneuropathy. Within 2 weeks of disease onset, she became unable to walk with electrodiagnostic features of demyelination and was initially diagnosed as having Guillan-Barré syndrome. Other systemic features (oedema and skin changes) developed later, and an elevated serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor led to the diagnosis of POEMS syndrome. She received high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, resulting in good recovery. The authors also reviewed patterns and speed of progression of neuropathy in the 30 patients with POEMS syndrome; 22 (73%) of them were unable to walk independently with the median period of 9.5 months from POEMS onset (range 0.5-51 months). Whereas the speed of neuropathy progression varies considerably among patients, some POEMS patients can show acute or subacute polyneuropathy. The early diagnosis and treatment could result in rapid improvement as shown in the present patient. PMID:20562460

  20. Hypothalamic agouti-related protein expression is affected by both acute and chronic experience of food restriction and re-feeding in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dunn, I C; Wilson, P W; Smulders, T V; Sandilands, V; D'Eath, R B; Boswell, T

    2013-10-01

    The central melanocortin system is conserved across vertebrates. However, in birds, little is known about how energy balance influences orexigenic agouti-related protein (AGRP) and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression, despite the fact that commercial food restriction is critical to the efficient production of poultry meat. To enable contrasts to be made, in broiler-breeder chickens, between levels of food restriction, between birds with the same body weight but different feeding experience, and between birds moved from restricted feeding to ad lib. feeding for different periods, five groups of hens were established between 6 and 12 weeks of age with different combinations of food restriction and release from restriction. AGRP and neuropeptide Y expression in the basal hypothalamus was significantly increased by chronic restriction but only AGRP mRNA levels reflected recent feeding experience: hens at the same body weight that had recently been on ad lib. feeding showed lower expression than restricted birds. AGRP expression also distinguished between hens released from restriction to ad lib. feeding for different periods. By contrast, POMC and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA levels were not different. These results showed that AGRP mRNA not only reflected differences between a bird's weight and its potential weight or set point, but also discriminated between differing feeding histories of birds at the same body weight. Therefore, AGRP expression potentially provides an integrated measure of food intake experience and an objective tool to assess a bird's perception of satiety in feeding regimes for improved poultry welfare. PMID:23957836

  1. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Orestis; Lavrentieva, Athina; Botsios, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    In the majority (80%) of patients with acute pancreatitis, the disease is self limiting and, after a few days of withholding feeding and intravenous administration of fluids, patients can again be normally fed orally. In a small percentage of patients, the disease progresses to severe necrotic pancreatitis, with an intense systemic inflammatory response and often with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. As mortality is high in patients with severe disease and as mortality and morbidity rates are directly related to the failure of establishing a positive nitrogen balance, it is assumed that feeding will improve survival in patients with severe disease. The aim of nutritional support is to cover the elevated metabolic demands as much as possible, without stimulating pancreatic secretion and maximizing self-digestion. The administration of either total parenteral nutrition or jejunal nutrition does not stimulate pancreatic secretion. Recently, a series of controlled clinical studies has been conducted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of enteral nutrition with jejunal administration of the nutritional solution. The results have shown that enteral nutrition, as compared to total parenteral nutrition, was cheaper, safer and more effective as regards the suppression of the immunoinflammatory response, the decrease of septic complications, the need for surgery for the management of the complications of acute pancreatitis and the reduction of the total hospitalization period. It did not seem to affect mortality or the rate of non-septic complications. In conclusion, enteral nutrition should be the preferred route of nutritional support in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:18648127

  2. Rapidly progressing, fatal and acute promyelocytic leukaemia that initially manifested as a painful third molar: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Acute promyelocytic leukaemia, an uncommon and devastating subtype of leukaemia, is highly prevalent in Latin American populations. The disease may be detected by a dentist since oral signs are often the initial manifestation. However, despite several cases describing oral manifestations of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and genetic analysis, reports of acute promyelocytic leukaemia in Hispanic populations are scarce. The identification of third molar pain as an initial clinical manifestation is also uncommon. This is the first known case involving these particular features. Case presentation A 24-year-old Latin American man without relevant antecedents consulted a dentist for pain in his third molar. After two dental extractions, the patient experienced increased pain, poor healing, jaw enlargement and bleeding. A physical examination later revealed that the patient had pallor, jaw enlargement, ecchymoses and gingival haemorrhage. Laboratory findings showed pancytopaenia, delayed coagulation times, hypoalbuminaemia and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Splenomegaly was detected on ultrasonography. Peripheral blood and bone marrow analyses revealed a hypercellular infiltrate of atypical promyelocytic cells. Cytogenetic analysis showing genetic translocation t(15;17) further confirmed acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Despite early chemotherapy, the patient died within one week due to intracranial bleeding secondary to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Conclusion The description of this unusual presentation of acute promyelocytic leukaemia, the diagnostic difficulties and the fatal outcome are particularly directed toward dental surgery practitioners to emphasise the importance of clinical assessment and preoperative evaluation as a minimal clinically-oriented routine. This case may also be of particular interest to haematologists, since the patient's cytogenetic analysis, clinical course and therapeutic response are well documented. PMID:19946580

  3. DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION IN THE INITIATION AND PROGRESSION OF NICKEL-INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY. (U915732)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. [The role of radiation and non-radiation factors in the development and progression of acute leukemia in children].

    PubMed

    Bebeshko, V H; Bruslova, K M; Kuznietsova, O É; Tsvietkova, N M; Honchar, L O; Iatsemyrs'kyĭ, S M; Samson, Iu M; Pushkar'ova, T I

    2012-12-01

    At 278 ALL and AML patients the kind of hereditary pathology in the family; clinikal-laboratory features and a course of acute leukemia and terms of longevity of children were studied. Degree of integrated pollution of territory (air, water, soil) by heavy metals and radionuclides and also the irradiation doses have been considered. Results which have been received testify about the certain contribution of genetic components and adverse factors of environment in of development of acute leukemia and their course at children. The definition of different leukemogenic factors action on the condition of hemopoietic system gives the chance to generate the abnormally high risk groups of oncological hematological pathologies among the children's population and to improve the diagnostic and treatment-and-prophylactic actions. PMID:23786007

  5. Quantitative analysis of performance on a progressive-ratio schedule: effects of reinforcer type, food deprivation and acute treatment with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

    PubMed Central

    Olarte-Sánchez, C.M.; Valencia-Torres, L.; Cassaday, H.J.; Bradshaw, C.M.; Szabadi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rats’ performance on a progressive-ratio schedule maintained by sucrose (0.6 M, 50 μl) and corn oil (100%, 25 μl) reinforcers was assessed using a model derived from Killeen’s (1994) theory of schedule-controlled behaviour, ‘Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement’. When the rats were maintained at 80% of their free-feeding body weights, the parameter expressing incentive value, a, was greater for the corn oil than for the sucrose reinforcer; the response-time parameter, δ, did not differ between the reinforcer types, but a parameter derived from the linear waiting principle (T0), indicated that the minimum post-reinforcement pause was longer for corn oil than for sucrose. When the rats were maintained under free-feeding conditions, a was reduced, indicating a reduction of incentive value, but δ was unaltered. Under the food-deprived condition, the CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0.3, 1 and 3 mg kg−1) increased the value of a for sucrose but not for corn oil, suggesting a selective enhancement of the incentive value of sucrose; none of the other parameters was affected by THC. The results provide new information about the sensitivity of the model’s parameters to deprivation and reinforcer quality, and suggest that THC selectively enhances the incentive value of sucrose. PMID:25637881

  6. Acute Chlorine Gas Exposure Produces Transient Inflammation and a Progressive Alteration in Surfactant Composition with Accompanying Mechanical Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Christopher B; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L; Gow, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Acute Cl2 exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl2 inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl2 dose, and were sacrificed 3, 24 and 48 hours later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 hours, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 hours. Cl2 exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO3− or NO2−. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl2 exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 hours, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl2 inhalation. PMID:24582687

  7. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Massa, Christopher B; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L; Gow, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl2 exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl2 inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60ppm-hour Cl2 dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24h. Cl2 exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO3(-) or NO2(-). Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl2 exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl2 inhalation. PMID:24582687

  8. Readmission for Acute Exacerbation within 30 Days of Discharge Is Associated with a Subsequent Progressive Increase in Mortality Risk in COPD Patients: A Long-Term Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Mónica; Crisafulli, Ernesto; Liapikou, Adamantia; Huerta, Arturo; Gabarrús, Albert; Chetta, Alfredo; Soler, Nestor; Torres, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Twenty per cent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are readmitted for acute exacerbation (AECOPD) within 30 days of discharge. The prognostic significance of early readmission is not fully understood. The objective of our study was to estimate the mortality risk associated with readmission for acute exacerbation within 30 days of discharge in COPD patients. Methods The cohort (n = 378) was divided into patients readmitted (n = 68) and not readmitted (n = 310) within 30 days of discharge. Clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity data were evaluated at admission and during hospital stay, and mortality data were recorded at four time points during follow-up: 30 days, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years. Results Patients readmitted within 30 days had poorer lung function, worse dyspnea perception and higher clinical severity. Two or more prior AECOPD (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.51–4.05) was the only variable independently associated with 30-day readmission. The mortality risk during the follow-up period showed a progressive increase in patients readmitted within 30 days in comparison to patients not readmitted; moreover, 30-day readmission was an independent risk factor for mortality at 1 year (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.10–5.59). In patients readmitted within 30 days, the estimated absolute increase in the mortality risk was 4% at 30 days (number needed to harm NNH, 25), 17% at 6-months (NNH, 6), 19% at 1-year (NNH, 6) and 24% at 3 years (NNH, 5). Conclusion In conclusion a readmission for AECOPD within 30 days is associated with a progressive increased long-term risk of death. PMID:26943928

  9. An experimental model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium from acute progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6: correlation between conditions of mice and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Niloofar; Molaei, Mahsa; Mosaffa, Nariman; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Anissian, Ali; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To induce acute colitis progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6 mice by dextran sulfate sodium. Background: Murine models are essential tools to understand IBD pathogenesis. Among different types of chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most common model of IBD, due to its simplicity. Patients and methods: Male C57BL/6 mice 6–8 weeks old, were collected and matched by age with controls. C57BL/6 mice treated with 2 cycles of 3.5% DSS for 4 days and 4 days of pure water between each cycle. After that, mice were sacrificed and the entire colon was removed. Small sections of the colon were fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and sectioned with a microtome. Sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin to analyses the degree of inflammation. Results: After the first cycle oral administration of DSS, mice with severe and visible rectal bleeding and diarrhea entered into the acute phase. After day 4-5, bleeding and diarrhea were improved and mice entered into the chronic phase with peak levels of weight loss. Macroscopically, the inflammation was predominantly located in the distal colon. Microscopically, examination of the distal colon sections showed a decrease number of goblet cells, loss of crypts, signs of surface epithelial regeneration and moderate to severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: In order to achieve an experimental colitis model, our protocol is recommended for future therapies in IBD experimental modeling. PMID:26744614

  10. Calpastatin overexpression prevents progression of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC)-initiated acute renal injury and renal failure (ARF) in diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Lock, Edward A.; Latendresse, John R.; Warbritton, Alan A.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-09-01

    Previously we have shown that 90% of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetic (DB) mice survive from acute renal failure (ARF) and death induced by a normally LD{sub 9} dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.) of the nephrotoxicant S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC). This remarkable protection is due to a combination of slower progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury and increased compensatory nephrogenic tissue repair in the DB kidneys. BRDU immunohistochemistry revealed that the DB condition led to 4-fold higher number of proximal tubular cells (PTC) entering S-phase of cell cycle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that DB-induced augmentation of PTC into S-phase is accompanied by overexpression of the calpain-inhibitor calpastatin, which endogenously prevents the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury mediated by the calpain escaping out of damaged PTCs. Immunohistochemical detection of renal calpain and its activity in the urine, over a time course after treatment with the LD{sub 9} dose of DCVC, indicated progressive increase in leakage of calpain into the extracellular spaces of the injured PTCs of the non-diabetic (NDB) kidneys as compared to the DB kidneys. Calpastatin expression was minimally detected in the NDB kidneys, using immunohistochemistry, over the time course. On the other hand, consistently higher number of tubules in the DB kidney showed calpastatin expression over the time course. The lower leakage of calpain in the DB kidneys was commensurate with constitutively higher expression of calpastatin in the S-phase-laden PTCs of these mice. To test the protective role of newly divided/dividing PTCs, DB mice were given the anti-mitotic agent colchicine (CLC) (2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, i.p., on days 8 and 10 after STZ injection) prior to challenge with a LD{sub 9} dose of DCVC, which led to 100% mortality by 48 h. Mortality was due to rapid progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury, suggesting that newly divided/dividing cells are instrumental

  11. Quality improvement for neonatal nurses, part II: using a PDSA quality improvement cycle approach to implement an oral feeding progression guideline for premature infants.

    PubMed

    Marcellus, Lenora; Harrison, Adele; Mackinnon, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The development of clinical practice guidelines involving multiple health care providers presents a challenge in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Implementation and evaluation of the guideline is as important as the development of the guideline itself. We explored the use of a quality improvement approach in the implementation of a feeding framework. A Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) quality improvement cycle model was used to implement and evaluate a stepwise oral infant feeding guideline with emphasis on parent and care provider satisfaction. Three PDSA cycles were conducted, with each cycle resulting in modifications to use of the framework and development of knowledge translation and parent education techniques and tools. A PDSA cycle approach can be used effectively in guideline implementation and evaluation involving multidisciplinary health care professionals. This is Part II of a two-part series. Part I introduced the concept of quality improvement and tools for advancing practice changes. PMID:22763248

  12. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J.

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  13. Effects of acute feed restriction combined with targeted use of increasing luteinizing hormone content of follicle-stimulating hormone preparations on ovarian superstimulation, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Hackbart, K S; Dresch, A R; Carvalho, P D; Vieira, L M; Crump, P M; Guenther, J N; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Combs, D K; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    Multiple metabolic and hormonal factors can affect the success of protocols for ovarian superstimulation. In this study, the effect of acute feed restriction and increased LH content in the superstimulatory FSH preparation on numbers of ovulations, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Two experiments were performed using a Latin square design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial: feed restriction (FR; 25% reduction in dry matter intake) compared with ad libitum (AL) feeding, combined with high (H) versus low (L) LH in the last 4 injections of the superstimulatory protocol. As expected, FR decreased circulating insulin concentrations (26.7 vs. 46.0 μU/mL). Two analyses were performed: one that evaluated the complete Latin square in experiment 2 and a second that evaluated only the first periods of experiments 1 and 2. For both analyses, follicle numbers, ovulation rates, and corpora lutea on d 7 were not different. In the first period analysis of experiments 1 and 2, we observed an interaction between feed allowance and amount of LH on fertilization rates, percentage of embryos or oocytes that were quality 1 and 2 embryos, and number of embryos or oocytes that were degenerate. Fertilization rates were greater for the AL-L (89.4%) and FR-H (80.1%) treatments compared with the AL-H (47.9%) and FR-L (59.9%) treatments. Similarly, the proportion of total embryos or oocytes designated as quality 1 and 2 embryos was greater for AL-L (76.7%) and FR-H (73.4%) treatments compared with AL-H (35.6%) and FR-L (47.3%) treatments. In addition, the number of degenerate embryos was decreased for AL-L (1.3) and FR-H (0.4) treatments compared with the AL-H (2.6) and FR-L (2.3) treatments. Thus, cows with either too low (FR-L) or too high (AL-H) insulin and LH stimulation had lesser embryo production after superstimulation because of reduced fertilization rate and increased percentage of degenerate embryos. Therefore, interaction of the

  14. Secretory phospholipase A{sub 2} mediates progression of acute liver injury in the absence of sufficient cyclooxygenase-2

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Vishakha S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Latendresse, John R.; Muskhelishvili, Levan; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that injury initiated by toxicants progresses even after most of the toxicant is eliminated from the body. One mechanism of progression of injury is the extracellular appearance of hydrolytic enzymes following leakage or upon cell lyses. Under normal conditions, after exposure to low to moderate doses of toxicants, secretory phospholipase A{sub 2} (sPLA{sub 2}) and other hydrolytic enzymes are known to appear in the extracellular spaces in order to cleanup the post-necrotic debris in tissues. We tested the hypothesis that sPLA{sub 2} contributes to progression of toxicant-initiated liver injury because of hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids of hepatocytes in the perinecrotic areas in the absence of sufficient cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either a moderately hepatotoxic dose (MD, 2 ml CCl{sub 4}/kg, ip) or a highly hepatotoxic dose (HD, 3 ml CCl{sub 4}/kg, ip) of CCl{sub 4}. After MD, liver sPLA{sub 2} and COX-2 were co-localized in the necrotic and perinecrotic areas and their activities in plasma and liver increased before decreasing in tandem with liver injury (ALT and histopathology) leading to 100% survival. In contrast, after the HD, high extracellular and hepatic sPLA{sub 2} activities were accompanied by minimal COX-2 activity and localization in the liver throughout the time course. This led to progression of liver injury and 70% mortality. These data suggested a destructive role of sPLA{sub 2} in the absence of sufficient COX-2. Time- and dose-dependent destruction of hepatocytes by sPLA{sub 2} in isolated hepatocyte incubations confirmed the destructive ability of sPLA{sub 2} when present extracellularly, suggesting its ability to spread injury in vivo. These findings suggest that sPLA{sub 2}, secreted for cleanup of necrotic debris upon initiation of hepatic necrosis, requires the co-presence of sufficiently induced COX-2 activity to prevent the run-away destructive action of sPLA{sub 2

  15. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  16. Sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma/acute B-cell leukaemia presenting with progressive proptosis and orbital mass in a child.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Daniela; Borreggine, Carmela; Ladogana, Saverio; De Santis, Raffaela; Delle Noci, Nicola; Grilli, Gianpaolo; Macarini, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is found predominantly in children, with the highest incidence occurring in Africa. The sporadic form occurs in non-endemic areas and typically involves the ileo-caecum and the bowel, whereas orbital and paranasal sinus involvement is rare. Here, we present an unusual case of sporadic BL in a Caucasian male child with rapidly progressive painful proptosis of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an oval-shaped, extraconal mass in the supero-lateral part of the right orbit that deformed and dislocated the eyeball antero-inferiorly. The patient underwent anterior orbitotomy, and a biopsy of the excised tissue revealed a starry-sky appearance characteristic of BL. Postoperative aggressive chemotherapy was initiated with a good response after one week. PMID:27006106

  17. Depression of Complement Regulatory Factors in Rat and Human Renal Grafts Is Associated with the Progress of Acute T-Cell Mediated Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Kazuaki; Kakuta, Yoichi; Miyagawa, Shuji; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Kato, Taigo; Abe, Toyofumi; Imamura, Ryoichi; Okumi, Masayoshi; Maeda, Akira; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Mizuno, Masashi; Nonomura, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of complement with the progression of acute T cell mediated rejection (ATCMR) is not well understood. We investigated the production of complement components and the expression of complement regulatory proteins (Cregs) in acute T-cell mediated rejection using rat and human renal allografts. Methods We prepared rat allograft and syngeneic graft models of renal transplantation. The expression of Complement components and Cregs was assessed in the rat grafts using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescent staining. We also administered anti-Crry and anti-CD59 antibodies to the rat allograft model. Further, we assessed the relationship between the expression of membrane cofactor protein (MCP) by immunohistochemical staining in human renal grafts and their clinical course. Results qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of Cregs, CD59 and rodent-specific complement regulator complement receptor 1-related gene/protein-y (Crry), was diminished in the rat allograft model especially on day 5 after transplantation in comparison with the syngeneic model. In contrast, the expression of complement components and receptors: C3, C3a receptor, C5a receptor, Factor B, C9, C1q, was increased, but not the expression of C4 and C5, indicating a possible activation of the alternative pathway. When anti-Crry and anti-CD59 mAbs were administered to the allograft, the survival period for each group was shortened. In the human ATCMR cases, the group with higher MCP expression in the grafts showed improved serum creatinine levels after the ATCMR treatment as well as a better 5-year graft survival rate. Conclusions We conclude that the expression of Cregs in allografts is connected with ATCMR. Our results suggest that controlling complement activation in renal grafts can be a new strategy for the treatment of ATCMR. PMID:26928779

  18. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    PubMed

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  19. Feeding guilt.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  20. Effects of preoperative feeding with a whey protein plus carbohydrate drink on the acute phase response and insulin resistance. A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged preoperative fasting increases insulin resistance and current evidence recommends carbohydrate (CHO) drinks 2 hours before surgery. Our hypothesis is that the addition of whey protein to a CHO-based drink not only reduces the inflammatory response but also diminish insulin resistance. Methods Seventeen patients scheduled to cholecystectomy or inguinal herniorraphy were randomized and given 474 ml and 237 ml of water (CO group) or a drink containing CHO and milk whey protein (CHO-P group) respectively, 6 and 3 hours before operation. Blood samples were collected before surgery and 24 hours afterwards for biochemical assays. The endpoints of the study were the insulin resistance (IR), the prognostic inflammatory and nutritional index (PINI) and the C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio. A 5% level for significance was established. Results There were no anesthetic or postoperative complications. The post-operative IR was lower in the CHO-P group when compared with the CO group (2.75 ± 0.72 vs 5.74 ± 1.16; p = 0.03). There was no difference between the two groups in relation to the PINI. The CHO-P group showed a decrease in the both CRP elevation and CRP/albumin ratio (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients who showed CRP/albumin ratio considered normal was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the CHO-P group (87.5%) than in the CO group (33.3%). Conclusions Shortening the pre-operative fasting using CHO and whey protein is safe and reduces insulin resistance and postoperative acute phase response in elective moderate operations. Trial registration ClinicalTrail.gov NCT01354249 PMID:21668975

  1. A complex MLL rearrangement identified five years after initial MDS diagnosis results in out-of-frame fusions without progression to acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Claus; Kowarz, Eric; Yip, Sze-Fai; Wan, Thomas Shek-Kong; Chan, Tai-Kwong; Dingermann, Theo; Chan, Li-Chong; Marschalek, Rolf

    2011-10-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL gene are uncommon in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), and few studies of their molecular structures and oncogenic mechanisms exist. Here, we present a case of de novo MDS with a normal karyotype at initial diagnosis and a mild clinical course. Five years after the initial diagnosis, investigators identified a complex rearrangement of the MLL gene without progression to acute leukemia. The 5' part of the MLL gene is fused out of frame with the LOC100131626 gene, and the 3' part of the MLL gene out of frame with the TCF12 gene. Rapid amplification of complementary DNA 3' ends yielded two main fusion transcripts, which is in concordance with the two described isoforms of the LOC100131626 gene. For both isoform-fusion transcripts, the open reading frame terminates shortly after the breakpoint that is predicted to form two de facto truncated MLL proteins and disrupts the open reading frame of the LOC100131626, TCF12, and UBE4A genes. Neither dimerization nor a transcriptional activation domain, each of which is causally linked to MLL protein-mediated transformation, is present. This and other unusual MLL rearrangements probably represent a subclass of MLL gene abnormalities that have intrinsically no ability or only a weak ability to transform hematopoeitic cells and are identified only in the context of other hematopoetic malignancies. PMID:22137486

  2. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  3. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  4. Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition with No Access to Supplementary Feeding Programmes Experience High Rates of Deterioration and No Improvement: Results from a Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    James, Philip; Sadler, Kate; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Argaw, Alemayehu; Luo, Hanqi; Geleta, Benti; Kedir, Kiya; Getnet, Yilak; Belachew, Tefera; Bahwere, Paluku

    2016-01-01

    Background Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have an increased risk of mortality, infections and impaired physical and cognitive development compared to well-nourished children. In parts of Ethiopia not considered chronically food insecure there are no supplementary feeding programmes (SFPs) for treating MAM. The short-term outcomes of children who have MAM in such areas are not currently described, and there remains an urgent need for evidence-based policy recommendations. Methods We defined MAM as mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of ≥11.0cm and <12.5cm with no bilateral pitting oedema to include Ethiopian government and World Health Organisation cut-offs. We prospectively surveyed 884 children aged 6–59 months living with MAM in a rural area of Ethiopia not eligible for a supplementary feeding programme. Weekly home visits were made for seven months (28 weeks), covering the end of peak malnutrition through to the post-harvest period (the most food secure window), collecting anthropometric, socio-demographic and food security data. Results By the end of the study follow up, 32.5% (287/884) remained with MAM, 9.3% (82/884) experienced at least one episode of SAM (MUAC <11cm and/or bilateral pitting oedema), and 0.9% (8/884) died. Only 54.2% of the children recovered with no episode of SAM by the end of the study. Of those who developed SAM half still had MAM at the end of the follow up period. The median (interquartile range) time to recovery was 9 (4–15) weeks. Children with the lowest MUAC at enrolment had a significantly higher risk of remaining with MAM and a lower chance of recovering. Conclusions Children with MAM during the post-harvest season in an area not eligible for SFP experience an extremely high incidence of SAM and a low recovery rate. Not having a targeted nutrition-specific intervention to address MAM in this context places children with MAM at excessive risk of adverse outcomes. Further preventive and curative approaches

  5. Effects of valproic acid and pioglitazone on cell cycle progression and proliferation of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells

    PubMed Central

    Jazi, Marie Saghaeian; Mohammadi, Saeed; Yazdani, Yaghoub; Sedighi, Sima; Memarian, Ali; Aghaei, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematologic malignant tumor. Administration of chemical compounds influencing apoptosis and T cell development has been discussed as promising novel therapeutic strategies. Valproic acid (VPA) as a recently emerged anti-neoplastic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and pioglitazone (PGZ) as a high-affinity peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist have been shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in different studies. Here, we aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in anti-proliferative effects of these compounds on human Jurkat cells. Materials and Methods: Treated cells were evaluated for cell cycle progression and apoptosis using flowcytometry and MTT viability assay. Real-time RT-PCR was carried out to measure the alterations in key genes associated with cell death and cell cycle arrest. Results: Our findings illustrated that both VPA and PGZ can inhibit Jurkat E6.1 cells in vitro after 24 hr; however, PGZ 400 μM presents the most anti-proliferative effect. Interestingly, treated cells have been arrested in G2/M with deregulated cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A) phosphatase and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B or p27) expression. Expression of cyclin D1 gene was inhibited when DNA synthesis entry was declined. Cell cycle deregulation in PGZ and VPA-exposed cells generated an increase in the proportion of aneuploid cell population, which has not reported before. Conclusion: These findings define that anti-proliferative effects of PGZ and VPA on Jurkat cell line are mediated by cell cycle deregulation. Thus, we suggest PGZ and VPA may relieve potential therapeutic application against apoptosis-resistant malignancies.

  6. CDKN2 Gene Deletion as Poor Prognosis Predictor Involved in the Progression of Adult B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Na; Li, Yu-ling; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Rui; Li, Huan; Lu, Qi-si; Li, Lin; Lu, Zi-yuan; Huang, Ji-xian; Sun, Jing; Liu, Qi-fa; Du, Qing-feng; Liu, Xiao-li

    2015-01-01

    Deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/B (CDKN2A/B) is well known in many hematologic malignancies, but only few reports have investigated this deletion effect on clinical prognosis. This study performed analysis of the CDKN2 deletion in 215 adult B- lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients, and related cytogenetic prognostic factors (BCR/ABL; E2A/PBXl; TEL/AML1; Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) rearrangement; MYC, Immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH) translocation). The prevalence of CDKN2 deletions in all study populations was 28.4%. There is no difference between patients with CDKN2 deletion and wild-type patients in sex, age, white blood cells (WBC) count, BM blast percentage, extra infiltration and induction complete remission (CR) rate. Analysis in relapse patients revealed that the distribution of CDKN2 deletion is higher in relapse patients (44.6%) than all patients (28.4%, P=0.006). Deletion of CDKN2 was significantly associated with poor outcomes including decreased overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), lower disease free-survival (DFS) (P<0.001), and increased cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.002); Also, CDKN2 deletion was strongly associated with IGH translocation (P=0.021); and had an adverse effect on patients with BCR-ABL fusion gene or with MLL rearrangement. Patients with CDKN2 gene deletion benefited from allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT). Deletion of CDKN2 gene was commonly observed through leukemia progression and was poor prognostic marker in long-term outcomes. PMID:26516359

  7. Sterigmatocystin in dairy cattle feed contaminated with Aspergillus versicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Vesonder, R F; Horn, B W

    1985-01-01

    Sterigmatocystin (7.75 micrograms/g of feed) and a high-propagule-density of Aspergillus versicolor were detected in feed associated with acute clinical symptoms of bloody diarrhea and death in dairy cattle. Nine isolates of A. versicolor from the feed produced 13 to 89 micrograms of sterigmatocystin per g on cracked corn and lower amounts in liquid culture. This is the first report of sterigmatocystin in dairy cattle feed in the United States. PMID:3977312

  8. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  9. USMARC expands feed-efficiency research program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed efficiency is not a new topic to the beef industry. Historically, this topic has been revisited by the industry every 10 to 15 years providing some benefit to the producer. The lack of progress in understanding the genetics of feed efficiency stems from the difficulty in trying to accurately ...

  10. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  11. Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered. PMID:24050257

  12. Feeds for reflector antennas - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarricoats, P. J. B.

    A review of progress made in feed modes for satellite broadcasting is presented. Hybrid mode feeds are discussed in terms of performance characteristics and current usage. They feature both electric and magnetic longitudinal field components, thus allowing radiation pattern symmetry and low cross polarization in the 45 deg planes. The most common hybrid mode antenna is presently the corrugated horn, such as on COMSTAR. It is noted that hybrid modes have azimuthal dependence, while circularly symmetric fields are constrained to pure modes. Cylindrical or conical wave guides are employed to receive and transmit pure modes. Component characteristics of pure and mixed mode feeds are described, and advantages which array feeds hold over single element feeds are outlined, as are projections of future improvements in feed designs.

  13. Immediate Postsession Feeding Reduces Operant Responding in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smethells, John R.; Fox, Andrew T.; Andrews, Jennifer J.; Reilly, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of immediate and delayed postsession feeding on progressive-ratio and variable-interval schedule performance in rats. During Experiments 1 and 2, immediate postsession feeding decreased the breakpoint, or largest completed ratio, under progressive-ratio schedules. Experiment 3 was conducted to extend the…

  14. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  15. Effects of anti-phospholipase A(2) antibody supplementation on dry matter intake feed efficiency, acute phase response, and blood differentials of steers fed forage- and grain-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether supplementation of anti-phospholipase A antibody (aPLA) would alter voluntary DMI, feed efficiency (FE), acute-phase protein concentration, and blood differentials (BD) due to a change in diet from a forage-based to a grain-based diet, individual daily DMI was measured on 80 cross-bred steers during a 141-d period. On d 0, steers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to receive a growing forage diet containing 1) no additive (CON; = 20), 2) inclusion of 30 mg of monensin and 8.8 mg of tylosin per kg of diet DM (MT; = 20), 3) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.4% of the diet DM (0.4% aPLA; = 20), and 4) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.2% of the diet DM (0.2% aPLA; = 20). On d 60, steers were transitioned into a grain-based diet (90% concentrate) over a 21-d "step-up" period while continuing to receive their supplement treatments and were maintained on the high-grain diet until the end of the trial on d 141. On d 0, 60, 81, and 141, individual shrunk BW was recorded. Blood samples were collected on d 60, 63, 65, 67, 70, 72, 74, 77, 79, 81, and 84 for determination of concentration of plasma ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and BD. During the growing forage-diet period, steers from the 0.2% aPLA and 0.4% aPLA treatments had lower ( < 0.05) residual feed intake (RFI; -0.12 ± 0.13 and -0.22 ± 0.13 kg/d, respectively) than steers from the CON treatment (0.31 ± 0.13 kg/d). During the grain-based diet period, the 0.2% aPLA (-0.12 ± 0.10 kg/d), 0.4% aPLA (0.36 ± 0.10 kg/d), and MT (0.10 ± 0.10 kg/d) steers had greater ( = 0.04) RFI than CON steers (-0.37 ± 0.10 kg/d). During the transition phase, white blood cell counts were greater ( = 0.04) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (13.61 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/μL) than the 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments (12.16 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 and 12.37 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/μL, respectively) and concentrations of lymphocytes also were greater ( = 0.01) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (7.66 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10

  16. Progress Towards the Development of a Fathead Minnow Embryo Test and Comparison to the Zebrafish Embryo Test for Assessing Acute Fish Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Zebrafish Embryo Test (ZFET) for acute fish toxicity is a well developed method nearing adoption as an OECD Test Guideline. Early drafts of the test guideline (TG) envisioned a suite of potential test species to be covered including zebrafish, fathead minnow, Japanese Medaka...

  17. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. PMID:22748607

  18. Acute Hepatic Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, D. Montgomery; Wang, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The porphyrias comprise a set of diseases, each representing an individual defect in one of the eight enzymes mediating the pathway of heme synthesis. The diseases are genetically distinct but have in common the overproduction of heme precursors. In the case of the acute (neurologic) porphyrias, the cause of symptoms appears to be overproduction of a neurotoxic precursor. For the cutaneous porphyrias, it is photosensitizing porphyrins. Some types have both acute and cutaneous manifestations. The clinical presentation of acute porphyria consists of abdominal pain, nausea, and occasionally seizures. Only a small minority of those who carry a mutation for acute porphyria have pain attacks. The triggers for an acute attack encompass certain medications and severely decreased caloric intake. The propensity of females to acute attacks has been linked to internal changes in ovarian physiology. Symptoms are accompanied by large increases in delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in plasma and urine. Treatment of an acute attack centers initially on pain relief and elimination of inducing factors such as medications; glucose is administered to reverse the fasting state. The only specific treatment is administration of intravenous hemin. An important goal of treatment is preventing progression of the symptoms to a neurological crisis. Patients who progress despite hemin administration have undergone liver transplantation with complete resolution of symptoms. A current issue is the unavailability of a rapid test for urine porphobilinogen in the urgent-care setting. PMID:26357631

  19. [Acute blood pressure elevations].

    PubMed

    Chamontin, B; Amar, J; Chollet, F; Rouge, P; Bonetti-d'Esteve, L; Guittard, J; Salvador, M

    2000-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) elevations may correspond to different clinical situations. Hypertensives emergencies are situations that require immediate reduction in BP because of acute or rapidly progressing target organ damage: accelerated malignant hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute myocardial infarction, acute aortic dissection, acute left ventricular failure, and eclampsia. Hypertensive urgencies are those with marked elevated BP in which it is desirable to reduce BP progressively within few hours, such as severe hypertension, progressive target organ damage, perioperative hypertension. Cerebrovascular accidents have to be individualized. In most patients in the immediate post-stroke period, BP should not be lowered. Caution is advised in lowering BP in these patients because excessive falls may precipitate cerebral ischemia. In situations without symptoms or progressive target organ it is necessary to exclude proximate causes of elevated BP such as pain and elevated BP alone rarely requires antihypertensive treatment. Among parenteral antihypertensive (AH) drugs labetalol, nicardipine, urapidil, and nitroprussiate are generally used, and the choice of AH drug depends on the clinical situation. It is not required to normalize BP immediately but to reduce mean BP no more than 25%, then toward 160/100 mmHg as recommended by JNC VI, in order to avoid an impairment of renal, cerebral or coronary ischemia. Oral long-acting dihydropyridines are often subsequently administrated, except in myocardial ischemia. Therapeutic attitudes vary considerably according to the clinical situation: abstention, immediate decrease or progressive decrease in BP have to be decided. PMID:11190294

  20. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or though physical contact (for example, on unwashed hands). Being exposed to tobacco smoke, air pollution, dusts, vapors, and fumes can also cause acute bronchitis. Less often, bacteria can also cause acute bronchitis. To diagnose acute ...

  1. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  2. [Acute myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Combes, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent-onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:22515999

  3. [Acute myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Combes, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:23789482

  4. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  5. Parvovirus B19 infection presenting as pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a transient and progressive course in two children.

    PubMed

    Yetgin, Sevgi; Cetin, Mualla; Aslan, Deniz; Ozyurek, Emel; Oyürek, Emel; Anlar, Banu; Uçkan, Duygu

    2004-10-01

    Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of various forms of hematologic diseases such as aplastic crisis in patients with hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In addition, parvovirus B19 infection may precede or be associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The authors present two cases of parvovirus B19 infection and bone marrow infiltration with pre-B-cell lymphoblasts; one patients was diagnosed as having ALL, and the other patient, with neurologic findings, showed total resolution of the blastic morphology and phenotype. PMID:15454845

  6. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  7. The voluntary feed intake of pigs given feeds based on wheat bran, dried citrus pulp and grass meal, in relation to measurements of feed bulk.

    PubMed

    Kyriazakis, I; Emmans, G C

    1995-02-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the capacities of pigs for bulky feeds. In Expt 1 fifteen pigs were offered, from 12 to 25 kg live weight, ad lib. access to one of five feeds which were made by progressively diluting a high-quality feed with wheat bran. Intake initially increased, and then declined, as the proportion of wheat bran was increased. The pigs became better able to accommodate to the more bulky feeds over time. In Expt 2 thirty-six pigs, initially of 12 kg live weight, were used. The feeds were the same high-quality basal feed as in Expt 1 and three others made almost entirely of either wheat bran, dried grass or dried citrus pulp, respectively. The equal-parts mixtures of each of these three bulky feeds with the basal feed were also made to give three series of feeds each comprising the basal, the mixture and the bulky feed. The three feeds in each series were given ad lib. to twelve pigs in a design of two replicated Latin squares with three time-periods. Within each series, and across periods, the intakes of the feeds that were limiting intake were directly proportional to live weight and so a scaled intake, expressed as g/kg live weight per d, was calculated. Across the six limiting feeds, scaled intakes in the final 5 d of each period, when the pigs were in equilibrium with their feeds, were directly proportional to the reciprocal of the water-holding capacities (WHC) of the feeds, as measured by a centrifugation method. There were large effects of feed changes on intake, in the short term, with previous experience of a bulky feed leading to higher intakes of another bulky feed. The intake of the basal feed was not affected by the feed given previously. It was concluded that: (a) the time of adaptation to bulky feeds needs to be considered when attempting to measure, or predict, the rates of intake on different bulky feeds and, (b) the WHC of the feeds could be an appropriate measurement of 'bulk' responsible for limiting their

  8. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  9. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... jaw muscles. Feeding Your Child with the Gravity Method Your provider will show you the best way ... the button. Feeding Your Child with the Syringe Method Your provider will teach you the best way ...

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  11. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  12. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding ... drip chamber, roller clamp, and long tube) Extension set, for a Bard Button or MIC-KEY (this ...

  13. Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xu; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Kun-Qi; Yang, Yan-Kun; Zhou, Xian-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS. PMID:27463723

  14. ORF5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a target of diversifying selection as infection progresses from acute infection to virus rebound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhua; Trible, Benjamin R; Kerrigan, Maureen A; Tian, Kegong; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2016-06-01

    Genetic variation in both structural and nonstructural genes is a key factor in the capacity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evade host defenses and maintain within animals, farms and metapopulations. However, the exact mechanisms by which genetic variation contribute to immune evasion remain unclear. In a study to understand the role of host genetics in disease resistance, a population of pigs were experimentally infected with a type 2 PRRSV isolate. Four pigs that showed virus rebound at 42days post-infection (dpi) were analyzed by 454 sequencing to characterize the rebound quasispecies. Deep sequencing of variable regions in nsp1, nsp2, ORF3 and ORF5 showed the largest number of nucleotide substitutions at day 28 compared to days 4 and 42 post-infection. Differences were also found in genetic variations when comparing tonsil versus serum. The results of dN/dS ratios showed that the same regions evolved under negative selection. However, eight amino acid sites were identified as possessing significant levels of positive selection, including A27V and N32S substitutions in the GP5 ectodomain region. These changes may alter GP5 peptide signal sequence processing and N-glycosylation, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest genetic diversity occurs during the transition between acute and rebound stages of infection, and the introduction of mutations that may result in a gain of fitness provides a potential mechanism for persistence. PMID:26961593

  15. Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xu; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Kun-Qi; Yang, Yan-Kun; Zhou, Xian-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS. PMID:27463723

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  17. Identifying risk factors for progression to critical care admission and death among individuals with acute pancreatitis: a record linkage analysis of Scottish healthcare databases

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Damian J; Gungabissoon, Usha; Johnston, Philip; Cochrane, Lynda; Hopkins, Leanne; Wyper, Grant M A; Skouras, Christos; Dibben, Chris; Sullivan, Frank; Morris, Andrew; Ward, Hester J T; Lawton, Andrew M; Donnan, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Acute pancreatitis (AP) can initiate systemic complications that require support in critical care (CC). Our objective was to use the unified national health record to define the epidemiology of AP in Scotland, with a specific focus on deterministic and prognostic factors for CC admission in AP. Setting Health boards in Scotland (n=4). Participants We included all individuals in a retrospective observational cohort with at least one episode of AP (ICD10 code K85) occurring in Scotland from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2012. 3340 individuals were coded as AP. Methods Data from 16 sources, spanning general practice, community prescribing, Accident and Emergency attendances, hospital in-patient, CC and mortality registries, were linked by a unique patient identifier in a national safe haven. Logistic regression and gamma models were used to define independent predictive factors for severe AP (sAP) requiring CC admission or leading to death. Results 2053 individuals (61.5% (95% CI 59.8% to 63.2%)) met the definition for true AP (tAP). 368 patients (17.9% of tAP (95% CI 16.2% to 19.6%)) were admitted to CC. Predictors of sAP were pre-existing angina or hypertension, hypocalcaemia and age 30–39 years, if type 2 diabetes mellitus was present. The risk of sAP was lower in patients with multiple previous episodes of AP. In-hospital mortality in tAP was 5.0% (95% CI 4.1% to 5.9%) overall and 21.7% (95% CI 19.9% to 23.5%) in those with tAP necessitating CC admission. Conclusions National record-linkage analysis of routinely collected data constitutes a powerful resource to model CC admission and prognosticate death during AP. Mortality in patients with AP who require CC admission remains high. PMID:27311912

  18. [Alternative Splicing Detection as a Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis: A Novel Progressive Mechanism of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with Alternative Splicing as a Biomarker Candidate].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kouichi; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Souhei; Ishige, Takayuki; Semba, Toshihisa; Kimura, Asako; Kazami, Takahiro; Ohyama, Masayuki; Itoga, Sakae; Beppu, Minako; Nishimura, Motoi; Satoh, Mamoru; Nomura, Fumio

    2015-09-01

    Alternative splicing is an important mechanism that links to transcription and contributes to protein diversity. Disturbed alternative splicing is frequently observed in cancers, but its precise mechanism remains largely unknown. FUSE-binding protein (FBP) -interacting repressor (FIR) is a transcriptional repressor of the c-myc gene. Previous studies indicated that a splice variant of FIR, FIRΔexon2, that lacks exon2 in the transcriptional repressor domain, was increased in colorectal cancers, hepatocellular carcinomas, and leukemia cells. Furthermore, FIRΔexon2 activated c-myc transcription by disabling wild-type FIR as a dominant-negative form of FIR. Recently, somatic mutations of the SF3B1 (SAP155) gene, a subunit of the SF3B spliceosome complex, were found in myelodysplastic leukemia. In this study, FIR heterozygous knockout (FIR(+/-)) was established as a dominant-negative model of FIR in the C57BL/6 mouse. FIR(+/-) mice showed an increased c-myc mRNA expression level, particularly in peripheral blood, although FIR(+/-) mice had no apparent pathogenic phenotype. Therefore, an increased c-myc mRNA expression level alone is not enough for leukemogenesis. Nevertheless, FIR(+/-)TP53(-/-) mice generated acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with increased organ and/or bone marrow invasion. In conclusion, alternative splicing of FIR, generating FIRΔexon2, contributes to not only colorectal carcinogenesis but also leukemogenesis independent of the c-Myc activation pathway. Finally, we will discuss our hypothesis that FIRΔexon2 interferes with FBW7, that FIRΔexon2 inhibits PP1 in the EGFR pathway, and that FIR haploinsufficiency is potentially associated with protein expression through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:26731899

  19. Viral Dose and Immunosuppression Modulate the Progression of Acute BVDV-1 Infection in Calves: Evidence of Long Term Persistence after Intra-Nasal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Rebecca; La Rocca, Severina Anna; Paton, David; Bensaude, Emmanuelle; Sandvik, Torstein; Davis, Leanne; Turner, Jane; Drew, Trevor; Raue, Rudiger; Vangeel, Ilse; Steinbach, Falko

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection of cattle causes a diverse range of clinical outcomes from being asymptomatic, or a transient mild disease, to producing severe cases of acute disease leading to death. Four groups of calves were challenged with a type 1 BVDV strain, originating from a severe outbreak of BVDV in England, to study the effect of viral dose and immunosuppression on the viral replication and transmission of BVDV. Three groups received increasing amounts of virus: Group A received 102.55TCID50/ml, group B 105.25TCID50/ml and group C 106.7TCID 50/ml. A fourth group (D) was inoculated with a medium dose (105.25TCID50/ml) and concomitantly treated with dexamethasone (DMS) to assess the effects of chemically induced immunosuppression. Naïve calves were added as sentinel animals to assess virus transmission. The outcome of infection was dose dependent with animals given a higher dose developing severe disease and more pronounced viral replication. Despite virus being shed by the low-dose infection group, BVD was not transmitted to sentinel calves. Administration of dexamethasone (DMS) resulted in more severe clinical signs, prolonged viraemia and virus shedding. Using PCR techniques, viral RNA was detected in blood, several weeks after the limit of infectious virus recovery. Finally, a recently developed strand-specific RT-PCR detected negative strand viral RNA, indicative of actively replicating virus, in blood samples from convalescent animals, as late as 85 days post inoculation. This detection of long term replicating virus may indicate the way in which the virus persists and/or is reintroduced within herds. PMID:25955849

  20. Pleiotropic effects of spongean alkaloids on mechanisms of cell death, cell cycle progression and DNA damage response (DDR) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.

    PubMed

    Stuhldreier, Fabian; Kassel, Stefanie; Schumacher, Lena; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Proksch, Peter; Fritz, Gerhard

    2015-05-28

    We investigated cytotoxic mechanisms evoked by the spongean alkaloids aaptamine (Aa) and aeroplysinin-1 (Ap), applied alone and in combination with daunorubicin, employing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Aa and Ap reduced the viability of AML cells in a dose dependent manner with IC50 of 10-20 µM. Ap triggered apoptotic cell death more efficiently than Aa. Both alkaloids increased the protein level of S139-phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), which however was independent of the induction of DNA damage. Expression of the senescence markers p21 and p16 was increased, while the phosphorylation level of p-Chk-2 was reduced following Aa treatment. As a function of dose, Aa and Ap protected or sensitized AML cells against daunorubicin. Protection by Aa was paralleled by reduced formation of ROS and lower level of DNA damage. Both Aa and Ap attenuated daunorubicin-stimulated activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) as reflected on the levels of γH2AX, p-Kap-1 and p-Chk-1. Specifically Ap restored the decrease in S10 phosphorylation of histone H3 resulting from daunorubicin treatment. The cytoprotective effects of Aa and Ap were independent of daunorubicin import/export. Both Aa and Ap abrogated daunorubicin-induced accumulation of cells in S-phase. Inhibition of DNA synthesis was specific for Ap. The data show that Aa and Ap have both congruent and agent-specific pleiotropic effects that are preferential for anticancer drugs. Since Ap showed a broader spectrum of anticancer activities, this compound is suggested as novel lead compound for forthcoming in vivo studies elucidating the usefulness of spongean alkaloids in AML therapy. PMID:25697484

  1. Acute Cocaine Induces Fast Activation of D1 Receptor and Progressive Deactivation of D2 Receptor Strial Neurons: In Vivo Optical Microprobe [Ca(superscript)2+]subscript)i Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Du, C.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Heintz, N.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.

    2011-09-14

    Cocaine induces fast dopamine increases in brain striatal regions, which are recognized to underlie its rewarding effects. Both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are involved in cocaine's reward but the dynamic downstream consequences of cocaine effects in striatum are not fully understood. Here we used transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of either the D1 receptor (D1R) or the D2 receptor (D2R) gene and microprobe optical imaging to assess the dynamic changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} ) responses (used as marker of neuronal activation) to acute cocaine in vivo separately for D1R- versus D2R-expressing neurons in striatum. Acute cocaine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) rapidly increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in D1R-expressing neurons (10.6 {+-} 3.2%) in striatum within 8.3 {+-} 2.3 min after cocaine administration after which the increases plateaued; these fast [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases were blocked by pretreatment with a D1R antagonist (SCH23390). In contrast, cocaine induced progressive decreases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in D2R-expressing neurons (10.4 {+-} 5.8%) continuously throughout the 30 min that followed cocaine administration; these slower [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} decreases were blocked by pretreatment with a D2R antagonist (raclopride). Since activation of striatal D1R-expressing neurons (direct-pathway) enhances cocaine reward, whereas activation of D2R expressing neurons suppresses it (indirect-pathway) (Lobo et al., 2010), this suggests that cocaine's rewarding effects entail both its fast stimulation ofD1R (resulting in abrupt activation of direct-pathway neurons) and a slower stimulation of D2R (resulting in longer-lasting deactivation of indirect-pathway neurons). We also provide direct in vivo evidence of D2R and D1R interactions in the striatal responses to acute cocaine administration.

  2. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  3. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  4. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  5. Binge Eating Leading to Acute Gastric Dilatation, Ischemic Necrosis and Rupture -A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Manish; Khare, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Sumanta; Marhual, Jogesh Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rarely encountered clinical scenario in our day to day practice. This is very rapidly progressing condition and can lead to ischemic necrosis and perforation/rupture of the stomach. It could be fatal if not timely intervened. We report such a case of a 17-year-old, otherwise healthy boy, who presented with pain and distension of abdomen following binge eating episode after 24 hours of prolonged fasting. On exploration, stomach was dilated with necrosis and perforation at fundus near greater curvature. He was managed with excision of all the devitalized area and primary repair with feeding jejunostomy. The case is presented due to its rarity. Acute gastric dilatation (AGD) leading to ischemic necrosis and perforation because of binge eating episode in an otherwise healthy person is an exceptional occurrence with only few cases reported in literature. The clinician should be aware of this condition for prompt and appropriate management. PMID:27134932

  6. Neonatal acute lymphocytic leukaemia: an unusual presentation of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Palman, Jason; Karam, Maria; Chee, Ying; Kandala, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Infantile acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) seldom presents within the first month of life. Most are diagnosed before birth. Postnatal diagnoses are easily recognisable when characteristic features are present, namely hepatosplenomegaly, leukaemia cutis or infiltrative disease of the extramedullar and central nervous system. However, some children present with vague and non-specific symptoms masquerading as other diseases. We report an unusual presentation of infantile ALL in a 19-day-old infant, who struggled with feeding after a diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease since birth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case report of neonatal ALL, presenting with vomiting, lethargy and dehydration. The neonate presented to our paediatric assessment unit acutely due to progression of her symptoms. General physical examination was unremarkable apart from signs of lethargy and dehydration. Blood investigation revealed an incidental finding of high white cells, including 90% blast cells. Early diagnosis in this case meant early treatment and a good prognosis. PMID:26178003

  7. Binge Eating Leading to Acute Gastric Dilatation, Ischemic Necrosis and Rupture –A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Sumanta; Marhual, Jogesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rarely encountered clinical scenario in our day to day practice. This is very rapidly progressing condition and can lead to ischemic necrosis and perforation/rupture of the stomach. It could be fatal if not timely intervened. We report such a case of a 17-year-old, otherwise healthy boy, who presented with pain and distension of abdomen following binge eating episode after 24 hours of prolonged fasting. On exploration, stomach was dilated with necrosis and perforation at fundus near greater curvature. He was managed with excision of all the devitalized area and primary repair with feeding jejunostomy. The case is presented due to its rarity. Acute gastric dilatation (AGD) leading to ischemic necrosis and perforation because of binge eating episode in an otherwise healthy person is an exceptional occurrence with only few cases reported in literature. The clinician should be aware of this condition for prompt and appropriate management. PMID:27134932

  8. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  9. Mortality in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material or with purified fumonisin B1 and moniliformin.

    PubMed

    Javed, T; Bennett, G A; Richard, J L; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M A; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    1993-09-01

    Two hundred twenty-eight male chicks (Columbia x New Hampshire) were given feed amended with autoclaved culture material (CM) of Fusarium proliferatum Containing fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and moniliformin in 3 separate feeding trials. Purified FB1 and moniliformin were given separately and in combination in a fourth feeding trial. Birds were given amended rations at day 1 (Trial 1 and 4), day 7 (Trial 2), and day 21 (Trial 3) and their respective ration was given for 28 days (Trial 1), 21 days (Trial 2), 7 days (Trial 3), and 14 days (Trial 4). FB1 concentrations were 546, 193, and 61 ppm; FB2 were 98, 38 and 14 ppm; and moniliformin were 367, 193, and 66 ppm in the first 3 feeding trial regimens. Chicks in Trial 4 were given dietary concentrations of purified FB1 at 274 and 125 ppm, and moniliformin at 154 and 27 ppm. FB1 and moniliformin, both alone and in combination, produced dose-responsive clinical signs, reduced weight gains and mortality in chicks. Age of birds given amended feeds had little difference in the clinical response; however, those given the rations from days 7 or 21 were slightly less susceptible than those given rations beginning at 1 day of age. Additive effects were noted when the toxins were given in combination. When toxins were given separately, adverse effects took longer to occur. A system to monitor pattern and rate of defecation (RD) was developed for assessing the chicks' approach to feed, water and heat source as illness progressed. Our results indicate that chicks fed corn heavily infected with F. proliferatum under field conditions could suffer acute death similar to that described for 'spiking mortality syndrome' during the first 3 weeks of age. PMID:8302366

  10. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  11. 17{alpha}-Estradiol arrests cell cycle progression at G{sub 2}/M and induces apoptotic cell death in human acute leukemia Jurkat T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Do Youn; Park, Hae Sun; Kim, Jun Seok; Kim, Jong Sik; Park, Wan; Song, Bang Ho; Kim, Hee-Sook; Taub, Dennis; Kim, Young Ho

    2008-09-15

    A pharmacological dose (2.5-10 {mu}M) of 17{alpha}-estradiol (17{alpha}-E{sub 2}) exerted a cytotoxic effect on human leukemias Jurkat T and U937 cells, which was not suppressed by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780. Along with cytotoxicity in Jurkat T cells, several apoptotic events including mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9, -3, and -8, PARP degradation, and DNA fragmentation were induced. The cytotoxicity of 17{alpha}-E{sub 2} was not blocked by the anti-Fas neutralizing antibody ZB-4. While undergoing apoptosis, there was a remarkable accumulation of G{sub 2}/M cells with the upregulatoin of cdc2 kinase activity, which was reflected in the Thr56 phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Dephosphorylation at Tyr15 and phosphorylation at Thr161 of cdc2, and significant increase in the cyclin B1 level were underlying factors for the cdc2 kinase activation. Whereas the 17{alpha}-E{sub 2}-induced apoptosis was completely abrogated by overexpression of Bcl-2 or by pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, the accumulation of G{sub 2}/M cells significantly increased. The caspase-8 inhibitor z-IETD-fmk failed to influence 17{alpha}-E{sub 2}-mediated caspase-9 activation, but it markedly reduced caspase-3 activation and PARP degradation with the suppression of apoptosis, indicating the contribution of caspase-8; not as an upstream event of the mitochondrial cytochrome c release, but to caspase-3 activation. In the presence of hydroxyurea, which blocked the cell cycle progression at the G{sub 1}/S boundary, 17{alpha}-E{sub 2} failed to induce the G{sub 2}/M arrest as well as apoptosis. These results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of 17{alpha}-E{sub 2} toward Jurkat T cells is attributable to apoptosis mainly induced in G{sub 2}/M-arrested cells, in an ER-independent manner, via a mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway regulated by Bcl-2.

  12. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  13. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  14. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  15. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  16. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  17. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples’ relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  18. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  19. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapy of cancer may represent a successful example in translational research, in which progress in knowledge and technology in immunology has lead to new strategies of immunotherapy, and even past failure in many clinical trials have led to a better understanding of basic cancer immunobiology. This article reviews the latest concepts in antitumor immunology and its application in the treatment of cancer, with particular focus on acute leukemia. PMID:19100371

  20. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  1. Acute nephritic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes ...

  2. GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED CANAL (LEFT) INTERSECTION. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  3. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  4. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  5. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  6. A good start in life: breast-feeding in hospital.

    PubMed

    de Boer, A S; Darnton-Hill, I

    1994-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF introduced the Baby- Friendly Hospital Initiative in 1992 to foster breast feeding in hospitals. The balanced composition of breast milk fulfills the 4-6 month old infant's nutrient requirements. Colostrum is rich in antibodies and immunoglobulins, which protect the newborn against infection. As economic development progresses, more mothers use infant formulas while fewer mothers breast feed. Between 1960 and 1985 in Japan, the proportion of mothers breast feeding 1-2 month old infants fell from 68% to 50%. Between 1975 and 1968 in Western Samoa, it fell from 69% to 48% in urban areas and 78% to 59% in rural areas. Hospital practices that discourage breast feeding include separation of mother and newborn, prelacteal feedings, and free samples of infant formula. These practices occur even in areas, such as the Western Pacific Region, where most mothers deliver at home. Hospital baby-friendly criteria include a written breast-feeding policy, training of all health care staff in skills needed to implement this policy, informing all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breast feeding, assisting mothers to begin breast feeding within 30 minutes of delivery, demonstrating to mothers how to breast feed and to maintain lactation, no prelacteal feeds, newborn rooming-in with mother, promoting breast feeding on demand, no artificial teats or pacifiers, and breast-feeding support groups. The Western Pacific Region supports the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Between March 1991 and March 1993, the number of baby-friendly hospitals in the Philippines rose from 4 to 103. Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital in Manila is a model baby-friendly hospital for other hospitals in the region. It does not release mothers until milk flow has been established. By late 1992, 21 Chinese hospitals were baby-friendly. The WHO Western Pacific Region distributes information about breast feeding and the Initiative and provides breast

  7. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  8. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  9. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  10. Acute sacroiliitis.

    PubMed

    Slobodin, Gleb; Rimar, Doron; Boulman, Nina; Kaly, Lisa; Rozenbaum, Michael; Rosner, Itzhak; Odeh, Majed

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the data on the etiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, and diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis. A Pubmed search utilizing the indexing term "acute sacroiliitis" was conducted and the data pertinent to the aim of the review was extracted and organized in accordance with the preplanned structure of the manuscript. The diagnosis of acute sacroiliitis is often challenging because of both the relative rarity of this presentation and diverse character of acute sacroiliac pain, frequently mimicking other, more prevalent disorders. Technetium bone scintigraphy can localize the disease process to the sacroiliac joint, while computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used for the detailed characterization and the extent of the disease as well as the diagnosis of complications. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is by far the most common cause of acute sacroiliitis. Brucellosis, acute sacroiliitis in the course of reactive arthritis, and crystalline-induced sacroiliitis frequently imitate pyogenic sacroiliitis. Acute sacroiliitis can rarely be also related to hematological malignancies or treatment with isotretinoin. Awareness to the possibility of acute sacroiliitis and a thorough physical examination are the necessary prerequisites to its timely diagnosis, while the appropriate laboratory and imaging studies should confirm the precise diagnosis and direct the appropriate treatment strategy. PMID:26847855

  11. Acute surgical management in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zaitun; Fenton, Eoin; Sattar, Muhammad Taufiq

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a headache syndrome with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Most commonly, it is a slow process where surveillance and medical management are the main treatment modalities. We describe herein an acute presentation with bilateral sixth nerve palsies, papilloedema and visual deterioration, where acute surgical intervention was a vision-saving operation. PMID:23239783

  12. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  13. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  14. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  15. Acute malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Dupont, John S

    2006-01-01

    Acute malocclusion can result from disturbances in the maxillary/mandibular tooth relationship. These alterations in the occlusal position can result from high fillings, sinus problems, abscesses, periodontal disease, and moving or erupting teeth. Conditions seen less frequently include acute malocclusions secondary to an event (such as trauma) that make a stable dental relationship an unstable one. Patients can demonstrate any of a number of clinical conditions that interfere with their comfort and ability to function. This article provides information on some of the less familiar causes of acute malocclusion. PMID:16689064

  16. Complementary feeding practices in South Asia: analyses of recent national survey data by the South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network.

    PubMed

    Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    South Asian region has the highest global burden of child undernutrition, with almost 41% of children stunted, 16% wasted and 33% underweight. Improved feeding of children less than 2 years of age is particularly important because they experience rapid growth and development, and are vulnerable to illnesses such as acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases. The present supplement aimed to describe complementary feeding practices in five South Asian countries - Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka - using the new and updated global complementary feeding indicators and to identify determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices. The South Asia Infant Feeding Research Network held a series of workshops to study and discuss the operational guidelines for the new complementary feeding indicators in consultation with regional and international experts. The latest Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and the National Family Health Survey of India were used as data sources. Four key indicators were calculated: introduction of solid, semisolid or soft foods in 6-8 months aged, minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet in 6-23-month-aged children. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of poor complementary feeding practices. The papers in this supplement present results of these analyses for each individual country and a comparison between countries. The results have important implications for policies, programmes and research on infant and young child feeding in the region, especially for targeting groups at high risk for suboptimal practices. PMID:22168515

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchitis? Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree ... infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is produced. ...

  18. Acute Pericarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... large pericardial effusions). Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen ) taken ... reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. ...

  19. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  20. ASDC RSS Feeds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-08

    ... having to visit each one of them to see what's new. When you sign up, you receive breaking news on your computer as soon as it is released. How can I sign up? Select the link(s) above to view our "raw" RSS feed. In ...

  1. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  2. Feeding DDGS to Finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, aquaculture has been growing at a rapid pace (currently 8.5% per year) over the past two decades, and is recognized as the fastest growing food production sector of agriculture in the U.S. Growth of aquaculture and other industries (e.g., other monogastric and ruminant livestock feed appl...

  3. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  4. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  5. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  6. Plasma betathromboglobulin and serum fragment E in acute partial stroke.

    PubMed

    de Boer, A C; Turpie, A G; Butt, R W; Duke, R J; Bloch, R F; Genton, E

    1982-02-01

    Plasma betathromboglobulin (BTG) and serum fragment E (FgE) were measured serially by radioimmunoassay for 7 d in 67 patients admitted with acute partial stroke. Twelve patients progressed within 7 d of admission. Plasma BTG was not different from normal in patients with acute partial stroke and did not increase significantly with stroke progression. Serum FgE was elevated in patients with acute partial stroke compared with normal values, and was significantly higher in patients who progressed compared with those who remained stable. The results indicate that fibrin formation may be more important in the process of stroke progression than activation of platelets. PMID:6174141

  7. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  8. Enteral nutrition and immune modulation of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Refaat A; DeWitt, Tiffany

    2014-11-21

    Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modulate the immune responses. Despite this consistent evidence of early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis, clinical practice continues to vary due to individual clinician preference. Achieving the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition heavily depend on proper placement of the feeding tube and managing any tube feeding associated complications. The current article reviews the immune modulating effects of enteral nutrition and pro- and prebiotics and suggests some practical tools that help improve the patient adherence and tolerance to the tube feeding. Proper selection of the type of the tube, close monitoring of the tube for its placement, patency and securing its proper placement and routine checking the gastric residual volume could all help improve the outcome. Using peptide-based and high medium chain triglycerides feeding formulas help improving feeding tolerance. PMID:25473161

  9. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    MedlinePlus

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  10. Triheptanoin in acute mouse seizure models.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nicola K; Willis, Sarah; Sweetman, Lawrence; Borges, Karin

    2012-05-01

    Triheptanoin, the triglyceride of heptanoate, is used to treat certain hereditary metabolic diseases in USA because of its anaplerotic potential. In two chronic mouse seizure models this clear tasteless oil was found to be reproducibly anticonvulsant. Here we investigated the effects of triheptanoin feeding in C3H and CD1 mice using standard acute seizure models. Feeding 30-40% triheptanoin (caloric intake) consistently elevated blood propionyl-carnitines, but inconsistent anticonvulsant effects were observed in the fluorothyl, pentylenetetrazole and 6Hz seizure models. A 2mA consistent increase in the maximal electroshock threshold was found after 3 weeks of 35% triheptanoin feeding (p=0.018). In summary, triheptanoin shows a unique anticonvulsant profile in seizure models, compared to other treatments that are in the clinic. Therefore, despite small and/or inconsistent effects of triheptanoin in acute seizure models, triheptanoin remains of interest as a potential add-on treatment for patients with medically refractory epilepsy. PMID:22260920

  11. Hypothalamic POMC neurons promote cannabinoid-induced feeding

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Marco; Varela, Luis; Kim, Jae Geun; Kim, Jung Dae; Hernandez, Francisco; Simonds, Stephanie E; Castorena, Carlos M; Vianna, Claudia R; Elmquist, Joel K; Morozov, Yury M; Rakic, Pasko; Bechmann, Ingo; Cowley, Michael A; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Diano, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons promote satiety. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is critical for central regulation of food intake. We interrogated whether CB1R-controlled feeding is paralleled by decreased activity of POMC neurons. Chemical promotion of CB1R activity increased feeding, and strikingly, CB1R activation also promoted neuronal activity of POMC cells. This paradoxical increase in POMC activity was crucial for CB1R-induced feeding, because Designer-Receptors-Exclusively-Activated-by-Designer-Drugs (DREADD)-mediated inhibition of POMC neurons diminished, while DREADD-mediated activation of POMC neurons enhanced CB1R-driven feeding. The Pomc gene encodes both the anorexigenic peptide, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and the peptide, β-endorphin. CB1R activation selectively increased β-endorphin but not α-MSH release in the hypothalamus, and, systemic or hypothalamic administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, blocked acute CB1R-induced feeding. These processes involved mitochondrial adaptations, which, when blocked, abolished CB1R-induced cellular responses and feeding. Together, these results unmasked a previously unsuspected role of POMC neurons in promotion of feeding by cannabinoids. PMID:25707796

  12. Acute and persistent diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Grimwood, Keith; Forbes, David A

    2009-12-01

    Socially disadvantaged Indigenous infants and children living in western industrialized countries experience high rates of infectious diarrhea, no more so than Aboriginal children from remote and rural regions of Northern Australia. Diarrheal disease, poor nutrition, and intestinal enteropathy reflect household crowding, inadequate water and poor sanitation and hygiene. Acute episodes of watery diarrhea are often best managed by oral glucose-electrolyte solutions with continuation of breastfeeding and early reintroduction of feeding. Selective use of lactose-free milk formula, short-term zinc supplementation and antibiotics may be necessary for ill children with poor nutrition, persistent symptoms, or dysentery. Education, high standards of environmental hygiene, breastfeeding, and immunization with newly licensed rotavirus vaccines are all needed to reduce the unacceptably high burden of diarrheal disease encountered in young children from Indigenous communities. PMID:19962025

  13. Nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lodewijkx, Piet J; Besselink, Marc G; Witteman, Ben J; Schepers, Nicolien J; Gooszen, Hein G; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Bakker, Olaf J; On Behalf Of The Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group

    2016-05-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis poses unique nutritional challenges. The optimal nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis has been a subject of debate for decades. This review provides a critical review of the available literature. According to current literature, enteral nutrition is superior to parenteral nutrition, although several limitations should be taken into account. The optimal route of enteral nutrition remains unclear, but normal or nasogastric tube feeding seems safe when tolerated. In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis an on-demand feeding strategy is advised and when patients do not tolerate an oral diet after 72 hours, enteral nutrition can be started. The use of supplements, both parenteral as enteral, are not recommended. Optimal nutritional support in severe cases often requires a tailor-made approach with day-to-day evaluation of its effectiveness. PMID:26823272

  14. Nutritional support for acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pisters, P W; Ranson, J H

    1992-09-01

    The current review has summarized current data relevant to the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis. Selection of the most appropriate form of nutritional support for patients with acute pancreatitis is intimately linked to a thorough understanding of the effects of various forms of enteral and parenteral nutrition on physiologic exocrine secretory mechanisms. Two basic concepts have emerged from the multiple studies that have addressed these issues to date: 1, enteral feeds should have low fat composition and be delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz to minimize exocrine pancreatic secretion and 2, parenteral substrate infusions, alone or in combinations similar to those administered during TPN, do not stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion. From a practical standpoint, most patients with acute pancreatitis are diagnosed by nonoperative means and will manifest some degree of paralytic ileus during the early phase of the disease. Therefore, jejunal feeds are usually not a therapeutic option early in the course of this disease. On the basis of the clinical studies reviewed herein we propose general guidelines for the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis: 1, most patients with mild uncomplicated pancreatitis (one to two prognostic signs) do not benefit from nutritional support; 2, nutritional support should begin early in the course of patients with moderate to severe disease (as soon as hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory stability permit); 3, initial nutritional support should be through the parenteral route and include fat emulsion in amounts sufficient to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency (no objective data exist to recommend specific amino acid formulations); 4, patients requiring operation for diagnosis or complications of the disease should have a feeding jejunostomy placed at the time of operation for subsequent enteral nutrition using a low fat formula, such as Precision HN (Sandoz, 1.3 percent calories as fat

  15. Acute Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Hammad; Fasanya, Adebayo; Cheema, Tariq; Singh, Anil C

    2016-01-01

    Acute pneumonia is an active infection of the lungs that results when an individual at risk gets exposed to a particular microbiological pathogen. Acute pneumonia is the leading cause of death in the United States that is attributable to an infection. The risk factors, pathogenesis, and microbiological organisms involved differ if the pneumonia develops in the community versus health care-associated environment. The development of concise and comprehensive guidelines has led to an improvement in the management of the problem. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms and the increase in the percentage of elderly population keep mortality risk very substantial. PMID:26919676

  16. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-12-15

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  17. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  18. Complementary Feeding: Critical Considerations to Optimize Growth, Nutrition, and Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Young, Bridget E.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on complementary feeding (CF) in westernized settings where primary health concerns are risk of obesity and micronutrient inadequacy. The current evidence is reviewed for: (1) when CF should be introduced, (2) what foods (nutrients and food types) should be prioritized and avoided, and (3) how the infant should be fed. Special attention is paid to the underlying physiological differences between breast- and formula-fed infants that often result in distinctly different nutritional and health risks. This difference is particularly acute in the case of micronutrient inadequacy, specifically iron and zinc, but is also relevant to optimal energy and macronutrient intakes. Emphasis is placed on the complex interplay among infants’ early dietary exposures; relatively high energy and nutrient requirements; rapid physical, social and emotional development; and the feeding environment—all of which interact to impact health outcomes. This complexity needs to be considered at both individual and population levels and in both clinical and research settings. PMID:25105082

  19. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  20. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  1. Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Geokas, Michael C.

    1972-01-01

    For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary α-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

  2. Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Anna; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global public health concern associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Other than dialysis, no therapeutic interventions reliably improve survival, limit injury, or speed recovery. Despite recognized shortcomings of in vivo animal models, the underlying pathophysiology of AKI and its consequence, chronic kidney disease (CKD), is rich with biological targets. We review recent findings relating to the renal vasculature and cellular stress responses, primarily the intersection of the unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and the innate immune response. Maladaptive repair mechanisms that persist following the acute phase promote inflammation and fibrosis in the chronic phase. Here macrophages, growth-arrested tubular epithelial cells, the endothelium, and surrounding pericytes are key players in the progression to chronic disease. Better understanding of these complex interacting pathophysiological mechanisms, their relative importance in humans, and the utility of biomarkers will lead to therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat AKI or impede progression to CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). PMID:26768243

  3. Deferred feeding and body weight responses to short-term interruption of fuel acquisition: impact of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2015-07-01

    Short-term abstinence from food intake, planned or unplanned, is unavoidable in modern life, but negatively correlated with appetite control and obesity. This study investigated the role of estradiol in feeding and body weight (BW) reactions to short-span cessation of feeding. During acute 1-6-h re-feeding, 12-h food-deprived (FD), estradiol benzoate (EB)-implanted ovariectomized rats ate less food and gained less weight than FD animals implanted with oil (O). Full fed (FF)- and FD-EB consumed equal amounts of food over 24 h, but weight gain was greater in the latter; 24-h food intake and BW gain in FD-O exceeded FD-EB. Caudal fourth ventricular administration of the AMPK activator AICAR increased dorsal vagal complex AMPK activity in FD-EB and FD-O, but elicited dissimilar adjustments in hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide transmitter expression, while respectively enhancing or reducing acute re-feeding in these animals and reversing FD-O weight gain. Drug-treated FD-EB and FD-O exhibited respective feeding and weight gain increases between 6-24 h. AICAR enhanced 24-h consumption in FD-EB vs. FF-EB, but cumulative intake and BW gain were greater in AICAR-treated FD-O vs. FD-EB. Results show that estradiol limits acute re-feeding after short-term feeding suspension, but augments acute re-feeding when energy depletion coincides with suspended feeding. This compound metabolic stress exerts steroid-dependent effects during later resumption of circadian-induced feeding, for example, increased consumption vs. weight gain in the presence vs. absence of estradiol. These studies provide novel evidence that estrogen mitigates acute and post-acute adverse effects of disrupted fuel acquisition on energy balance. PMID:25230326

  4. Breast-feeding: A commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    This medical position article by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition summarises the current status of breast-feeding practice, the present knowledge on the composition of human milk, advisable duration of exclusive and partial breast-feeding, growth of the breast-fed infant, health benefits associated with breast-feeding, nutritional supplementation for breast-fed infants, and contraindications to breast-feeding. This article emphasises the important role of paediatricians in the implementation of health policies devised to promote breast-feeding.The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recognises breast-feeding as the natural and advisable way of supporting the healthy growth and development of young children. This article delineates the health benefits of breast-feeding, reduced risk of infectious diarrhoea and acute otitis media being the best documented. Exclusive breast-feeding for around 6 months is a desirable goal, but partial breast-feeding as well as breast-feeding for shorter periods of time are also valuable. Continuation of breast-feeding after the introduction of complementary feeding is encouraged as long as mutually desired by mother and child.The role of health care workers, including paediatricians, is to protect, promote, and support breast-feeding. Health care workers should be trained in breast-feeding issues and counselling, and they should encourage practices that do not undermine breast-feeding. Societal standards and legal regulations that facilitate breast-feeding should be promoted, such as providing maternity leave for at least 6 months and protecting working mothers. PMID:19502997

  5. Adaptive feed-forward loop connection based on error signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Koichi

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate effect of changing the connection of feed-forward loop based on error signal. Our motivation of this work is solution to progress of human skill. For the skill model, we study a human simple action such as arm motion. Many models that describe the human arm dynamics have been proposed in recent year. While one type does not need an inverse model of human dynamics, the system based on the model does not include feed-forward loop. On the other hand, another type model has a feed-forward loop and feedback loop systems. This type assumes feed-forward element includes an internal model by repeating action or training and this loop progress our skill. Then we usually have to exercise to get a good performance. This says that we design the internal motion model by training and we move on prediction for motion. Under the assumption, Kawato model is well known. The model proposed that learning of feed-forward element is promoted in brain so that the error of feedback loop decreases. Furthermore, we assume the connections in feedback loop and feed-forward loop are changed. We show numerical simulations and consider that the position error given by our vision changes the skill element and we confirm that the position error is the one of the estimate function for the improvement in our skill.

  6. Current trends in infant feeding.

    PubMed

    van der Elst, C W; Pick, W; Isaacs, S; Malan, A F

    1989-10-21

    This study examined aspects of newborn feeding in a maternity hospital and also investigated feeding practices during the first 6 months of life. Four hundred and fifty mothers were interviewed while in the maternity hospital. The majority (93%) had booked for their confinement and had attended antenatal clinics regularly. Most had had early contact with the baby at birth and stated that they thought breast-milk was best for the baby. Despite this only 54.6% had given breast-milk as the first feed and only 10% had done so within the first hour. Most mothers (54%) stated that they preferred a timed feeding routine to demand-feeding, while 86% planned to give water between feeds. The majority indicated they would change to formula feeds should they experience problems with breast-feeding. A follow-up visit of 78 mothers 6 months later showed that 50% breast-fed exclusively for 3 - 4 months and 23% for 6 - 7 months. When feeding problems occurred only 27% of the mothers utilised the local authority baby clinic for help. The main reasons given for stopping breast-feeds were insufficient milk, the need for employment and feeding problems. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2799597

  7. Ontogenetic differences in the feeding biomechanics of oviparous and viviparous caecilians (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Caecilians have a unique dual jaw-closing system in that jaw closure is driven by the ancestral jaw-closing muscles (mm. levatores mandibulae) plus a secondarily recruited hyobranchial muscle (m. interhyoideus posterior). There is a variety of feeding habits (suction feeding, skin feeding, intrauterine scraping, and biting) during ontogeny that relate to reproductive modes in different caecilian species. This study examines the cranial biomechanics of caecilians in the suction-feeding larva of Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, in the embryo and juvenile of the skin-feeding Boulengerula taitana, and in a newborn of the intrauterine feeder Typhlonectes natans. A lever arm model was applied to calculate effective mechanical advantages of jaw-closing muscles over gape angles and to predict total bite force in developing caecilians. In I. cf. kohtaoensis, Notable differences were found in the larval jaw-closing system compared to that of the adult. The suction-feeding larva of I. cf. kohtaoensis has comparatively large mm. levatores mandibulae that insert with an acute muscle fiber angle to the lower jaw and a m. interhyoideus posterior that has its optimal leverage at small gape angles. Conversely, the skin-feeding juvenile of B. taitana and the neonate T. natans are very similar in the feeding parameters considered herein compared to adult caecilians. Some ontogenetic variation in the feeding system of B. taitana before the onset of feeding was present. This study contributes to our understanding of the functional demands that feeding habits put on the development of cranial structures. PMID:20952171

  8. Hydrocracker feeds olefin unit

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, A.G.

    1986-11-01

    An ethylene plant integrated with a selective hydrocracker in a complex refinery can give an attractive payout, bearing in mind that results depend on the refinery's configuration and business environment. Feedstock and operating conditions are more flexible from only a moderate investment, particularly that to modify the steam cracker. Total product upgrading is high. Low grade vacuum-flashed distillates passed through a selective hydrocracker produce hydrogenated residue (hydrowax) having a value close to a naphtha as a feed to a steam cracker. The technology and economics of the concept are confirmed in a large industrial installations.

  9. Feeding Children with Disabilities: An Overview of Strategies and Specialized Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    During the first years of life, children progress through a number of developmental stages related to feeding. By the age of five, a child typically has the skills, behaviors and habits that will be used throughout their lives. However, data indicates that 60 to 70% of children with disabilities have one or more feeding difficulties. Importantly,…

  10. Acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barr, Wendy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examination evaluating for risk factors and signs of inflammatory diarrhea and/or severe dehydration can direct any needed testing and treatment. Most patients do not require laboratory workup, and routine stool cultures are not recommended. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating dehydration. Diagnostic investigation should be reserved for patients with severe dehydration or illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak. Oral rehydration therapy with early refeeding is the preferred treatment for dehydration. Antimotility agents should be avoided in patients with bloody diarrhea, but loperamide/simethicone may improve symptoms in patients with watery diarrhea. Probiotic use may shorten the duration of illness. When used appropriately, antibiotics are effective in the treatment of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, traveler's diarrhea, and protozoal infections. Prevention of acute diarrhea is promoted through adequate hand washing, safe food preparation, access to clean water, and vaccinations. PMID:24506120

  11. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  12. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and in people with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid [co-amoxiclav], doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides; different doses, long-course regimens), antihistamines, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intranasal). PMID:22189346

  13. Acute glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, N

    2000-09-01

    Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) is a representative disease of acute nephritic syndrome characterized by the sudden appearance of edema, hematuria, proteinuria, and hypertension. The prototype of AGN is acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN). "Nephritogenic streptococci" are defined as organisms that are cultured from a patient who develops AGN. Although only a limited number of M-types of streptococci have been recognized as "nephritogenic streptococci", all M-types of streptococci may have nephritogenic potential because the genes for major putative nephritogenic antigens such as SPEB and NAPIr are found to be present in all group A streptococci thus far examined. Pathogenic mechanisms for APSGN involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity have been recently proposed. The role of humoral immunity is presumed to be mediated by the in situ formation of nephritogenic streptococcal antigen-antibody complexes and circulating immune complexes. While in the cellular immune component a role for delayed-type hypersensitivity has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of APSGN. PMID:10969898

  14. Liver transplantation in acute-on-chronic liver failure: lessons learnt from acute liver failure setting.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Rajalingam, Rajesh; Rela, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a clinical entity with high risk of mortality. These patients can have severe liver dysfunction complicated with multiple organ failure. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for these patients. Literature regarding management of acute liver failure with special emphasis on liver transplantation was reviewed. Lessons learnt from the management of patients with acute liver failure which could be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure are discussed. Significant improvement in outcomes of acute liver failure has been reported across the world. Several aspects in transplantation for acute liver failure were found to be relevant to the management of acute-on-chronic liver failure. These include defining criteria to identify patients needing early liver transplantation, prioritizing patients with acute liver failure on the waiting list, defining when to abandon transplantation in acute liver failure, emphasis on graft quality and the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to manage multiple organ dysfunction. Useful lessons can be learnt from the progress made in the management of acute liver failure and these can be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. PMID:25788191

  15. Four GABAergic interneurons impose feeding restraint in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Kvello, Pal; Mann, Kevin; Cheung, Samantha K.; Gordon, Michael D.; Wang, Liming; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Feeding is dynamically regulated by the palatability of the food source and the physiological needs of the animal. How consumption is controlled by external sensory cues and internal metabolic state remains under intense investigation. Here, we identify four GABAergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain that establish a central feeding threshold which is required to inhibit consumption. Inactivation of these cells results in indiscriminate and excessive intake of all compounds, independent of taste quality or nutritional state. Conversely, acute activation of these neurons suppresses consumption of water and nutrients. The output from these neurons is required to gate activity in motor neurons that control meal initiation and consumption. Thus, our study reveals a new layer of inhibitory control in feeding circuits that is required to suppress a latent state of unrestricted and non-selective consumption. PMID:24991960

  16. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  17. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: a review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Attila; Romics, Laszlo

    2014-11-21

    The use of enteral feeding as part of the management of acute pancreatitis dates back almost two decades. This review describes the indications for and limitations of enteral feeding for the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. A systematic review was carried out to analyse current data on the use of enteral nutrition in the management of acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature was analysed from the viewpoints of enteral vs parenteral feeding, early vs delayed enteral nutrition, nasogastric vs nasojejunal feeding, and early oral diet and immunonutrition, particularly glutamine and probiotic supplementation. Finally, current applicable guidelines and the effects of these guidelines on clinical practice are discussed. The latest meta-analyses suggest that enteral nutrition significantly reduces the mortality rate of severe acute pancreatitis compared to parenteral feeding. To maintain gut barrier function and prevent early bacterial translocation, enteral feeding should be commenced within the first 24 h of hospital admission. Also, the safety of nasogastric feeding, which eases the administration of enteral nutrients in the clinical setting, is likely equal to nasojejunal feeding. Furthermore, an early low-fat oral diet is potentially beneficial in patients with mild pancreatitis. Despite the initial encouraging results, the current evidence does not support the use of immunoenhanced nutrients or probiotics in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:25473164

  18. Recent Advances in Managing Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Janisch, Nigeen; Gardner, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This article will review the recent advances in managing acute pancreatitis. Supportive care has long been the standard of treatment for this disease despite extensive, but ultimately unsuccessful, efforts to develop disease-specific pharmacologic therapies. The primary interventions center on aggressive fluid resuscitation, initiation of early enteral nutrition, targeted antibiotic therapy, and the management of complications. In this article, we will detail treatment of acute pancreatitis with a focus on intravenous fluid resuscitation, enteral feeding, and the current evidence behind the use of antibiotics and other pharmacologic therapies. PMID:26918139

  19. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  20. How to Feed Cleft Patient?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saima Yunus

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleft lip and palate patients have all rights like other normal individuals, to enjoy the benefits of nourishment. Knowledge has to be there about the different feeding positions like straddle, dancer hand position along with the use of specially designed bottles and nipples. Parent's should be trained about the correct positions of feeding, in extreme of the cases in which parents are not able to follow these instructions, feeding obturators can be given. How to cite this article: Jindal MK, Khan SY. How to Feed Cleft Patient? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):100-103. PMID:25206201

  1. Organic and Nonorganic Feeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Feeding is one of the most important interactions between caregiver and child in the first few years of life and even later on in handicapped children. Feeding disorders can present as food refusal or low quantity of food intake due to behavioral issues or underlying organic conditions. This situation concerns mostly infants and children below 6 years of age; however, feeding problems can appear also later on in life. Feeding disorders are a concern for over 10-25% of parents of otherwise healthy children below 3 years of age, but only 1-5% of infants and toddlers suffer from severe feeding problems resulting in failure to thrive. In case of premature infants or neurologically disabled children, this rate is much higher. Feeding disorders may appear as an isolated problem, mainly due to negative behaviors during feeding, or as a concomitant disorder with an underlying organic disease or structural anomaly. The newest classification also includes the feeding style presented by the caregiver (responsive, controlling, indulgent or neglectful) as a separate cause of feeding disorders. PMID:26226993

  2. Inflammation: a trigger for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sager, Hendrik B; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis' most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes. PMID:27273431

  3. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  4. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  5. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  6. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost. PMID:12348766

  7. Beneficial uses program. Progress report ending December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Progress is reported in research on uses of irradiated sewage sludge, particularly as a cattle feed supplement and commercial fertilizer additive, on potential sites for irradiator demonstration plants, and on the inactivation of enteric bacteria by radiation treatment. (LCL)

  8. [Acute retinal necrosis].

    PubMed

    Lucke, K; Reinking, U; el-Hifnawi, E; Dennin, R H; Laqua, H

    1988-12-01

    The authors report on three patients with acute retinal necrosis who were treated with the virostatic agent Acyclovir and who underwent vitreoretinal surgery with silicone oil filling for total retinal detachment. In two eyes the retina was reattached, but useful vision was only preserved in one patient. Titers from blood and the vitreous, as well as microscopic findings in retinal biopsies, support the view that the necrosis is caused by a herpes simplex virus infection. After therapy with Acyclovir was instituted no further progression on the necrosis was observed. However, the development of retinal detachment could not be prevented. Early diagnosis and antiviral therapy are essential to improve the otherwise poor prognosis in this rare syndrome. PMID:3221657

  9. Acute Management of Nutritional Demands after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Casha, Steven; Singer, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A systematic review of the literature was performed to address pertinent clinical questions regarding nutritional management in the setting of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Specific metabolic challenges are present following spinal cord injury. The acute stage is characterized by a reduction in metabolic activity, as well as a negative nitrogen balance that cannot be corrected, even with aggressive nutritional support. Metabolic demands need to be accurately monitored to avoid overfeeding. Enteral feeding is the optimal route following SCI. When oral feeding is not possible, nasogastric, followed by nasojejunal, then by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, if necessary, is suggested. PMID:20373845

  10. Severe acute pancreatitis: nutritional management in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Neeraj; O'Keefe, Stephen J D

    2004-02-01

    Patients with acute pancreatitis have elevated nutritional needs due to increased energy expenditure and catabolism. It is a clinical challenge to provide adequate nutrition to these patients while maintaining gut function, preventing pancreatic stimulation, and minimizing the risk of septic and metabolic complications associated with nutritional support. We present the case of a patient who had severe acute pancreatitis and was initially given total parenteral nutrition. After a period of initial improvement, he developed hyperglycemia, bacteremia, and sepsis. Parenteral nutrition was discontinued and infection was treated with antibiotics. Subsequent nutritional support consisted of enteral feeding with an elemental diet infused via a nasojejunal feeding tube. His condition improved gradually and he made a full recovery. This case illustrates the difficulties encountered while managing a case of severe acute pancreatitis and provides an evidence based approach to the nutritional management of severe acute pancreatitis in the intensive care unit setting. PMID:16215093