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Sample records for acute renal insufficiency

  1. Concomitant renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus as prognostic factors for acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus and renal dysfunction are prognostic factors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, few studies have assessed the effects of renal insufficiency in association with diabetes in the context of AMI. Here, we investigated the clinical outcomes according to the concomitance of renal dysfunction and diabetes mellitus in patients with AMI. Methods From November 2005 to August 2008, 9905 patients (63 ± 13 years; 70% men) with AMI were enrolled in a nationwide prospective Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) and were categorized into 4 groups: Group I (n = 5700) had neither diabetes nor renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), Group II (n = 1730) had diabetes but no renal insufficiency, Group III (n = 1431) had no diabetes but renal insufficiency, and Group IV (n = 1044) had both diabetes and renal insufficiency. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including a composite of all cause-of-death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and coronary artery bypass graft after 1-year clinical follow-up. Results Primary endpoints occurred in 1804 (18.2%) patients. There were significant differences in composite MACE among the 4 groups (Group I, 12.5%; Group II, 15.7%; Group III, 30.5%; Group IV, 36.5%; p < 0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for multiple covariates, the 1-year mortality increased stepwise from Group III to IV as compared with Group I (hazard ratio [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-2.86; p = 0.001; and HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.62-3.62; p < 0.001, respectively). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant difference in probability of death at 1 year between Group III and IV (p = 0.288). Conclusions Renal insufficiency, especially in association with diabetes, is associated with the occurrence of composite MACE and indicates poor prognosis in patients with AMI. Categorization of patients with

  2. Association of renal insufficiency with in-hospital mortality among Japanese patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Masuda, Yuichiro; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Iguchi, Akihisa; Kimata, Takaya; Uemura, Kazumasa

    2006-09-01

    It is not yet clear whether a difference in in-hospital morality between patients with and without renal insufficiency undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) exists. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if such as association exists in Japan. Data from the Tokai Acute Myocardial Infarction Study II were used. This was a prospective study of all 3274 patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to the 15 participating hospitals from 2001 to 2003. We abstracted the baseline and procedural characteristics as well as in-hospital mortality from detailed chart reviews. Patients were stratified into 2 groups according to the estimated creatinine clearance on admission. The creatinine clearance values were available in 2116, 107 of whom had renal insufficiency. The patients with renal insufficiency were more likely to be older, female, not independent in their daily activities, have lower body mass index and higher heart rate values on admission, lower prevalences of hypercholesterolemia and peptic ulcers, greater prevalences of diabetes, angina, previous heart failure, previous renal failure, previous cerebrovascular disease, aortic aneurysm, worse clinical course such as bleeding, and a multivessel coronary disease. Vasopressors, an intra-aortic balloon pump, and mechanical ventilation were frequently used in the patients with renal insufficiency, while thrombolytics were used less frequently. The patients with renal insufficiency had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than those without. Multivariate analysis identified renal insufficiency as an independent predictor of in-hospital death. The results suggest that renal insufficiency is an independent predictor of in-hospital death among AMI patients undergoing PCI. PMID:17106145

  3. Acute effect of high dose (48 mg) of piretanide in advanced renal insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Hadj Aissa, A; Pozet, N; Labeeuw, M; Pellet, M; Traeger, J

    1981-01-01

    1 The acute effects of a high dose of piretanide, a new potent diuretic were studied in eight patients with severely impaired renal function (GFR between 0.09 and 0.17 ml s-1 1.73 m-2). 2 After hydration and following two control periods, a single dose of 48 mg piretanide was ingested. Thereafter, urine was collected every 30 min for 2 h and every hour for the next 4 h. Urinary fluid losses were replaced orally (100 ml of water ever hour) and intravenously (isotonic saline + glucose infusion). 3 The following measurements were made: urine flow rate, clearances of inulin, PAH, urea, creatinine, uric acid, osmolar and free water clearances, excretion rates of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, ammonium, titratable acidity and urine pH. 4 Piretanide (48 mg) appeared to be effective in advanced renal insufficiency, producing a significant increase in urine flow rate, in sodium, chloride, potassium and calcium excretion and in Cosm. 5 There was no significant change in GFR, as measured by inulin clearance, or in the other measured parameters. PMID:7213511

  4. RENAL INSUFFICIENCY FOLLOWING TRYPSIN INJECTION INTO THE RENAL ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Katz, L N

    1938-09-30

    1. The injection of trypsin into both renal arteries of the dog was found to cause an acute necrosis of large sections of the kidney, an immediate excretory insufficiency, and a transient hypertension. 2. Dogs surviving the acute phase of the trypsin injection, developed a chronic renal excretory insufficiency with no hypertension, despite the severity and duration of the renal excretory insufficiency. 3. The application of a Goldblatt clamp to the renal artery of one of the two kidneys, previously injected with trypsin, led to a rise in blood pressure which returned at once to normal when the ischemic kidney was removed, even though the pre-existing renal excretory insufficiency was augmented. This experience demonstrated unequivocally that chronic renal excretory insufficiency and hypertension are not directly related. 4. The application of a Goldblatt clamp to the renal artery of one kidney and the simultaneous injection of trypsin into the other led to a hypertension. The later removal of the ischemic kidney led to a severe renal excretory insufficiency, at the same time the pre-existing hypertension disappeared. This indicated again that renal excretory insufficiency and renal ischemia produced different phenomena and that the former had no direct relation to hypertension. PMID:19870800

  5. [Total parenteral nutrition and dialysis. Complementary importance in the therapy of acute renal insufficiency in aortic surgery].

    PubMed

    Trazzi, R; MArtello, L; Selva, S; Vaghi, G M

    1981-11-01

    The acute renal insufficiency (A.R.I.) consequent on surgical pathology of the aorta is in the Milan School, one of the most important postoperative complications and requires the use of total parenteral feeding (T.P.F.). Parenteral infusion of AAe and hypertonic glucose in patients with A.R.I. has given positive results, not only insofar as it improves the general nutritional state, but also because it facilitates recovery of renal function and improves survival. Reutilisation of endogenous nitrogen gives a synthesis of structural proteins to the benefit of metabolic homoeostasis and the patient's clinical condition. On the basis of recent nephrology studies on uraemic toxicity, the therapeutic problem of A.R.I. in surgical patients has been examined: early peritoneal dialysis associated with T.P.F. and the combination, in the postoperative stage, of parenteral feeding and periodic peritoneal dialysis. The average duration of this treatment has been personally found to be about 8-18 days. The example is given of a clinical case of A.R.I. in a patient operated by aneurysmectomy for rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. PMID:6801545

  6. Suboptimal medical care of patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Renal Insufficiency: results from the Korea acute Myocardial Infarction Registry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are poor in patients with renal insufficiency. This study investigated changes in the likelihood that patients received optimal medical care throughout the entire process of myocardial infarction management, on the basis of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods This study analyzed 7,679 patients (age, 63 ± 13 years; men 73.6%) who had STEMI and were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) from November 2005 to August 2008. The study subjects were divided into 5 groups corresponding to strata used to define chronic kidney disease stages. Results Patients with lower GFR were less likely to present with typical chest pain. The average symptom-to-door time, door-to-balloon time, and symptom-to-balloon time were longer with lower GFR than higher GFR. Primary reperfusion therapy was performed less frequently and the results of reperfusion therapy were poorer in patients with renal insufficiency; these patients were less likely to receive adjunctive medical treatment, such as treatment with aspirin, clopidogrel, β-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB), or statin, during hospitalization and at discharge. Patients who received less intense medical therapy had worse clinical outcomes than those who received more intense medical therapy. Conclusions Patients with STEMI and renal insufficiency had less chance of receiving optimal medical care throughout the entire process of MI management, which may contribute to worse outcomes in these patients. PMID:22966970

  7. Pitfalls in the management of acute adrenocortical insufficiency: discussion paper.

    PubMed Central

    Waise, A; Young, R J

    1989-01-01

    In patients with acute adrenocortical insufficiency prompt recognition and treatment may be life-saving. Treatment should be initiated immediately before confirmation of the diagnosis. As shown by these case reports, junior staff on acute medical and surgical services, to whom these patients usually first present, may not appreciate that (a) hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia, in the absence of renal failure, should immediately suggest the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and (b) treatment should precede confirmation of the diagnosis. Attempts to correct hyperkalaemia due to adrenocortical insufficiency with insulin and infusions of dextrose is inappropriate and potentially dangerous but seems to be a not unusual mistake. PMID:2614769

  8. Renal insufficiency in neonates after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Asfour, B; Bruker, B; Kehl, H G; Fründ, S; Scheld, H H

    1996-07-01

    Renal failure after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is well understood for infants, children and adults. The perioperative risk factors after CPB for immature kidneys in newborns are not well known. This retrospective study investigates perioperative risk factors for renal insufficiency in neonates. I) Preoperative: Age; weight, performed angiography, amount of dye used in angiography, renal disease and creatinine. II) Intraoperative: Duration of operation, duration of MAP < 40 mmHg, use of deep hypothermia, in-out fluid balance, duration of CPB, duration of circulatory arrest and cross-clamp time. III) Postoperative: Creatinine, use of catecholamines, use of nitroglycerine (NG) or phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDI) and additional antibiotics. From Jan. 1990 to Dec. 1994 50 neonates underwent cardiac surgery using CPB (n = 23 transposition of the great arteries; n = 4 pulmonary atresia; n = 6 critical pulmonary stenosis; n = 5 hypoplastic left heart syndrome; n = 3 Ebstein's anomaly; n = 2 interrupted arch with hypoplastic left ventricle; n = 2 single ventricle; n = 1 each: double outlet right ventricle, tricuspid atresia, critical aortic stenosis, rhabdo-myosarkoma, corrected transposition of the great arteries.) Thirty-one patients entered the study. Depending on the postoperative creatinine level two groups (group I: creatinine <1 mg/dl and group II: >1 mg/dl) were created. The diureses between the two groups did not differ. Comparing the patients of group I vs. group II, patients of group I were younger (mean age: 7.7 d. vs. 11.4 d), lighter (mean weight: 3260 g vs. 3430 g), less had angiography (44% vs. 77%), received more dye (mean amount: 14 ml vs. 7 ml), the duration of MAP < 40 mmHg while on CPB was longer (mean duration 3 min vs. 21 min), more patients were operated on using deep hypothermia (55% vs. 27%), the postoperative in-out-fluid balance was more positive (mean balance +413 ml vs. +221 ml), received postop. more frequently high

  9. Adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seung Won; Kim, Tong Yoon; Lee, Sangmin; Jeong, Jeong Yeon; Shim, Hojoon; Han, Yu min; Choi, Kyu Eun; Shin, Seok Joon; Yoon, Hye Eun

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hypercalcemia and not easily considered as an etiology of adrenal insufficiency in clinical practice, as not all cases of adrenal insufficiency manifest as hypercalcemia. We report a case of secondary adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury in a 66-year-old female. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with general weakness and poor oral intake. Hypercalcemia (11.5 mg/dL) and moderate renal dysfunction (serum creatinine 4.9 mg/dL) were shown in her initial laboratory findings. Studies for malignancy and hyperparathyroidism showed negative results. Basal cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. With the administration of oral hydrocortisone, hypercalcemia was dramatically resolved within 3 days. This case shows that adrenal insufficiency may manifest as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury, which implicates that adrenal insufficiency should be considered a cause of hypercalcemia in clinical practice. PMID:27536162

  10. [Chronic renal insufficiency. A permanent public health problem].

    PubMed

    Legrain, M; Jacobs, C

    1999-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency raises an ever-increasing public-health problem due to its permanent growth among the general population and the escalating cost of renal replacement therapies. By the end of 1995 there were close to 33,700 patients with end-stage renal failure maintained alive with renal replacement methods in France. About 11,200 had a functioning kidney graft, whereas 22,500 were treated with various dialysis techniques, in and out-of-center hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. An optimal health policy should contribute both to prevent renal insufficiency and offer each patient his/her best specific mode of treatment at the lowest cost for the community. Renal transplantation should be much more widely promoted and utilized through measures aiming at reducing the too high refusal rates of organ donation in subjects with brain-death. Promotion and extension of out-of-center dialysis techniques are also necessary. Design of reliable epidemiological studies dealing not only with end-stage renal failure patients but with the early stage and time-course of renal insufficiency is also mandatory. A deeper investigation in the area of renal-risk factors and a qualified follow-up of patients with mild/moderate renal insufficiency are essential to avoid or delay an evolution towards end-stage renal failure. Prevention of renal fibrosis has a central role in such a long-term public health-policy. PMID:10371761

  11. Safety and tolerability of voriconazole in patients with baseline renal insufficiency and candidemia.

    PubMed

    Oude Lashof, A M L; Sobel, J D; Ruhnke, M; Pappas, P G; Viscoli, C; Schlamm, H T; Rex, J H; Kullberg, B J

    2012-06-01

    Acutely ill patients with candidemia frequently suffer from renal insufficiency. Voriconazole's intravenous formulation with sulfobutylether beta-cyclodextrin (SBECD) is restricted in patients with renal insufficiency. We evaluated the use of intravenous voriconazole formulated with SBECD in candidemic patients with renal insufficiency and compared treatment outcome and safety to those who received a short course of amphotericin B deoxycholate followed by fluconazole. We reviewed data on treatment outcome, survival, safety, and tolerability from the subset of patients with moderate (creatinine clearance [CrCl], 30 to 50 ml/min) or severe (CrCl, <30 ml/min) renal insufficiency enrolled in a trial of voriconazole compared to amphotericin B deoxycholate followed by fluconazole for treatment of candidemia in 370 patients. Fifty-eight patients with renal impairment were identified: 41 patients on voriconazole and 17 on amphotericin B/fluconazole. The median duration of treatment was 14 days for voriconazole (median, 7 days intravenous) and 11 days for amphotericin B/fluconazole, 3 days of which were for amphotericin B. Despite the short duration of exposure, worsening of renal function or newly emerged renal adverse events were reported in 53% of amphotericin B-treated patients compared to 39% of voriconazole-treated patients. During treatment, median serum creatinine decreased in the voriconazole arm, whereas creatinine increased in the amphotericin B/fluconazole arm, before return to baseline at week 3. All-cause mortality at 14 weeks was 49% in the voriconazole arm compared to 65% in the amphotericin B/fluconazole arm. Intravenous voriconazole formulated with SBECD was effective in patients with moderate or severe renal insufficiency and candidemia and was associated with less acute renal toxicity than amphotericin B/fluconazole. PMID:22450974

  12. [Renal osteodystrophy (2): its treatment in renal insufficiency before dialysis].

    PubMed

    Hottelart, C; Bako, G; Oprisiu, R; Georgita, A; Presne, C; Sarraj, A; Morinière, P; el Esper, N; Fournier, A

    2000-01-01

    1. In the patient with renal insufficiency before dialysis, the phosphocalcic disorders appear insidiously. They are dominated by hyperparathyroidism which will be diagnosed on the initially yearly determination of plasma intact PTH as soon as creatinine clearance decreases below 60 ml/min, eventhough there is still no modification in plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphate. Its diagnosis should lead to initiate the therapeutic measures in order to prevent the irreversible thining of the corticals by endosteal resorption and later the occurrence of histological and radiological osteitis fibrosa favoring fractures. 2. Hyperparathyroidism prevention relies on two main measures: prevention of phosphate retention and hypocalcemia is implemented by progressive phosphate and protein restriction (from 1 g/kg/day when Ccr < 60 ml/min to 0.6 g/kg/day when Ccr < 20 ml/min) and administration of CaCO3 (1.5 g at lunch and dinner to better complex the phosphate) as soon as PTH is above normal; optimal vitamin D repeletion will be implemented by systematic supplementation of native vitamin D or 25OH vitamin D3 in order to bring P25OHD between 30-60 ng/ml (75-150 nmol/l) or more generally around the upper limit of the epidemiologic range of the laboratory; these measures should aim at maintaining plasma intact PTH in its optimal range variable with the degree of renal insufficiency: 0.5-1; 1-2.5 and 2-3 folds the upper limit of normal for creatinine clearance respectively at 60-30; 30-10 and < 10 ml/min. 3. Because of their hyperphosphatemic and hypercalcemic effect, 1 alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D derivatives will be regularly efficient and safe only when non-calcemic non-aluminic phosphate binder will be available and proven to be without side-effects. 4. Instrumental (surgical or by alcohol injection) parathyroidectomy should be considered when plasma intact PTH is > 5 to 7 times the upper limit of normal in the presence of hypercalcemia (> 2.60 mmol/l) and

  13. [Therapeutic education in adrenal insufficiency: A tool insufficiently used to prevent or treat early acute adrenal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Guignat, Laurence

    2014-04-01

    Acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare, unknown, and life-threatening emergency. It seems therefore essential to help patients gain or maintain the skills they need to prevent or treat early acute adrenal insufficiency, which is the goal of therapeutic education. A program has been implemented within the service focused on patient empowerment. PMID:24613067

  14. Aluminium toxicity in chronic renal insufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Savory, J.; Bertholf, R.L.; Wills, M.R.

    1985-08-01

    Aluminium is a ubiquitous element in the environment and has been demonstrated to be toxic, especially in individuals with impaired renal function. Not much is known about the biochemistry of aluminium and the mechanisms of its toxic effects. Most of the interest in aluminium has been in the clinical setting of the hemodialysis unit. Here aluminium toxicity occurs due to contamination of dialysis solutions, and treatment of the patients with aluminium-containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminium has been shown to be the major contributor to the dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and an osteomalacic component of dialysis osteodystrophy. Other clinical disturbances associated with aluminium toxicity are a microcytic anemia and metastatic extraskeletal calcification. Aluminium overload can be treated effectively by chelation therapy with desferrioxamine and hemodialysis. Aluminium is readily transferred from the dialysate to the patient's -bloodstream during hemodialysis. Once transferred, the aluminium is tightly bound to non-dialysable plasma constituents. Very low concentrations of dialysate aluminium in the range of 10-15 micrograms/l are recommended to guard against toxic effects. Very few studies have been directed towards the separation of the various plasma species which bind eluminium. Gel filtration chromatography has been used to identify five major fractions, one of which is of low molecular weight and the others appear to be protein-aluminium complexes. Recommendations on aluminium monitoring have been published and provide safe and toxic concentrations. Also, the frequency of monitoring has been addressed. Major problems exist with the analytical methods for measuring aluminium which result from inaccurate techniques and contamination difficulties. 136 references.

  15. [Acute adrenal insufficiency in the newborn].

    PubMed

    Limal, J-M; Bouhours-Nouet, N; Rouleau, S; Gatelais, F; Coutant, R

    2006-10-01

    Neonatal acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare condition. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with 21-hydroxylase defect appears to be the most frequent cause, but the neonatal screening has improved its potential severe outcome. The other causes and the various clinical presentations have been exposed, with a special reference to the salt-wasting syndrome. Among them, the severity of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) deserves special attention. Two other causes of adrenal hypoplasia have been recently discovered, i.e. a mutation of the SF-1 gene and the syndrome IMAGe. Adrenal insufficiency secondary to ACTH deficiency is often unrecognised despite the risk of severe seizures and hypoglycaemia with brain damage. Finally, the hormonal diagnostic testing and the main therapeutic approach by corticosteroids have been indicated. The aim of this work is to focus the attention of paediatricians who examine a newborn because the risk of delayed diagnosis and fatal outcome may be limited if the clinical symptoms are soon recognized. PMID:16962294

  16. The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Design and Methods.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Harold I; Appel, Lawrence J; Chertow, Glenn M; Cifelli, Denise; Cizman, Borut; Daugirdas, John; Fink, Jeffrey C; Franklin-Becker, Eunice D; Go, Alan S; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang; Hostetter, Tom; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Jamerson, Kenneth; Joffe, Marshall; Kusek, John W; Landis, J Richard; Lash, James P; Miller, Edgar R; Mohler, Emile R; Muntner, Paul; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R; Wright, Jackson T

    2003-07-01

    Insights into end-stage renal disease have emerged from many investigations but less is known about the epidemiology of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and its relationship to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for progression of CRI and CVD among CRI patients and develop models to identify high-risk subgroups, informing future treatment trials, and increasing application of preventive therapies. CRIC will enroll approximately 3000 individuals at seven sites and follow participants for up to 5 yr. CRIC will include a racially and ethnically diverse group of adults aged 21 to 74 yr with a broad spectrum of renal disease severity, half of whom have diagnosed diabetes mellitus. CRIC will exclude subjects with polycystic kidney disease and those on active immunosuppression for glomerulonephritis. Subjects will undergo extensive clinical evaluation at baseline and at annual clinic visits and via telephone at 6 mo intervals. Data on quality of life, dietary assessment, physical activity, health behaviors, depression, cognitive function, health care resource utilization, as well as blood and urine specimens will be collected annually. (125)I-iothalamate clearances and CVD evaluations including a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram, an echocardiogram, and coronary electron beam or spiral CT will be performed serially. Analyses planned in CRIC will provide important information on potential risk factors for progressive CRI and CVD. Insights from CRIC should lead to the formulation of hypotheses regarding therapy that will serve as the basis for targeted interventional trials focused on reducing the burden of CRI and CVD. PMID:12819321

  17. Treatment of IgA nephropathy with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Claudio; Sarcina, Cristina; Ferrario, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    IgA Nephropathy leads young people to dialysis more often than other glomerular diseases, because often diagnosis and therapy are made late. Nephrologists waive to treat IgAN pts with chronic renal insufficiency, believing that treatment may not be effective and safe. Moreover, studies in IgAN pts with reduced renal function are lacking. Small studies seem to indicate a possible utility of RAS blockers and corticosteroids in these patients. Recently, VALIGA study showed that corticosteroids and immunosuppressants were more frequently used in pts with eGFR <30 ml/min than in those with eGFR >30 ml/min (60 vs. 44 %, respectively; p = 0.004). The goal of treating IgAN pts is to obtain a time-average proteinuria <1 g/day, regardless of the degree of renal function and histological damage. RASB and corticosteroids seem to be able to obtain this result. However, it's important to pay attention to the appearance of adverse events of CS. In the literature, major side effects occurred in 29 of 463 (6.2 %) patients enrolled in RCTs. However, scarce informations are obtained about the safety of CS in patients with reduced renal function. To better evaluate this aspect, we considered three studies, that used similar schemes of therapy and included patients with different degrees of renal function (1: GFR 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 2: 81 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 3: 34 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). The occurrence of adverse events increased with the worsening of renal function (2.3, 5.7 and 15.4 % in studies 1, 2 and 3 respectively). The aim of the treatment for a patient with an eGFR <30 is to slow the progression and to delay the need for dialysis. Therefore, in stage CKD 2, 3 and 4 with a proteinuria >1 g/day a 6-month course of corticosteroids could be useful and safe. PMID:26743078

  18. Did Ugo Foscolo suffer from chronic renal insufficiency?

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Sgouridou, Maria; Christopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Ugo Foscolo, was an Italian poet whose works rank among the masterpieces of Italian literature. Talented and well educated in philosophy, classics, and Italian literature, Foscolo gave literary expression to his ideological aspirations and to the numerous amorous experiences in odes, sonnets, plays, poems and an epistolary novel. Concurrent with his rich literary output, Foscolo's correspondence represents a unique perspective from which to monitor his literary and political views and investigate aspects of his everyday life. Among other interesting information, one can find elements of Foscolo's medical history which is generally unknown. Based on his testimonies we suggest that he suffered of longstanding bladder outlet obstruction presumably due to urethral stricture. In the present article we investigate the possibility that chronic bladder outlet obstruction and the consequent renal insufficiency was attributed to the death of Ugo Foscolo. PMID:26885466

  19. Management of acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Fry, A C; Farrington, K

    2006-01-01

    Acute renal failure is a common condition, frequently encountered in both community practice and hospital inpatients. While it remains a heterologous condition, following basic principles makes investigation straightforward, and initial management follows a standard pathway in most patients. This article shows this, advises on therapeutic strategies, including those in special situations, and should help the clinician in deciding when to refer to a nephrologist, and when to consider renal replacement therapy. PMID:16461473

  20. Ceftriaxone-related hemolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, Erkan; Atay, Abdullah Avni; Musabak, Ugur; Sengul, Ali; Gok, Faysal

    2006-05-01

    A 5-year-old girl with no underlying immune deficiency or hematologic disease was treated with a combination of ceftriaxone and ampicilline-sulbactam for pneumonia. On the ninth day of the therapy, she developed oliguria, paleness, malaise, immune hemolytic anemia (IHA) and acute renal failure (ARF). Laboratory studies showed the presence of antibodies against ceftriaxone. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) was diagnosed by renal biopsy. The patient's renal insufficiency was successfully treated with peritoneal dialysis without any complications. The patient recovered without any treatment using steroids or other immunosuppressive agents. PMID:16491410

  1. Transient acute adrenal insufficiency associated with adenovirus serotype 40 infection

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Birendra; Ali, Muhammad; Kumar, Varun; Krebit, Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    We present an instance of a 6-year-old boy who was admitted with adenovirus infection and developed transient acute adrenal insufficiency, which required supplementation with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids for 8 weeks. Adenovirus has got adrenotropic potential and can cause adrenal insufficiency. We could not find any similar reported case in medical literature. We hope our case would add to the existing knowledge of adenoviral complications in paediatric patients. PMID:24928932

  2. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure. PMID:26133372

  3. Anorexia nervosa and chronic renal insufficiency: a prescription for disaster.

    PubMed

    Luthra, M; Davids, M R; Shafiee, M A; Halperin, M L

    2004-03-01

    Our imaginary consultant, Professor McCance, is asked to explain the basis for four major acute electrolyte abnormalities in a young woman with long-standing anorexia nervosa. She has a severe degree of hypokalaemia (2.0 mmol/l) with renal potassium wasting, a contracted extracellular fluid volume with renal NaCl wasting, hyponatraemia (118 mmol/l) while excreting hypoosmolar urine, and metabolic acidosis with a normal plasma anion gap (pH 7.20, bicarbonate 9 mmol/l). McCance begins his discussion by considering the basis for hypokalaemia, as this electrolyte disorder is potentially life-threatening. Its pathophysiology is linked to the other major findings, using principles of integrative physiology together with a deductive and quantitative analysis. Nevertheless, to reach his final diagnosis, he requires information about newer molecular discoveries. Not only is he able to suggest a likely diagnosis, but he also devises a novel long-term plan for therapy. PMID:14976274

  4. Effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence in patients with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Phil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to assess the relationship between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary stone-forming constituents, and to assess the effect of renal insufficiency on stone recurrence risk in first stone formers (SF). Baseline serum creatinine levels were obtained, and renal insufficiency was defined as creatinine clearance ≤60 mL/min (Cockroft-Gault). This retrospective case-control study consists of 342 first SF; 171 SF with normal renal function were selected with 1:1 propensity scores matched to 171 SF with renal insufficiency. Urinary metabolic evaluation was compared to renal function. GFR was positively correlated with urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion. Subjects with renal insufficiency had significantly lower urinary calcium, uric acid, and citrate excretion than those with normal renal function, but not urine volume. With regard to urinary metabolic abnormalities, similar results were obtained. SF with renal insufficiency had lower calcium oxalate supersaturation indexes and stone recurrence rates than SF with normal renal function. Kaplan-Meier curves showed similar results. In conclusion, GFR correlates positively with urinary excretion of stone-forming constituents in SF. This finding implies that renal insufficiency is not a risk factor for stone recurrence. PMID:25120325

  5. Gloriosa superba ingestion: Hair loss and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Khanam, P. S.; Sangeetha, B.; Kumar, B. V.; Kiran, U.; Priyadarshini, P. I.; Ram, R.; Sridhar, M. S.; Kumar, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that grows wild in several parts of South India. Tubers of this plant contain several alkaloids. Acute intoxication following the ingestion of G. superba results in gastrointestinal and haematological abnormalities, hepatic and renal insufficiency, cardiotoxicity and hair loss. We present a case with typical features of G superba toxicity. PMID:26060369

  6. Medical Grand Rounds: refractory hypertension and renal insufficiency in a patient with renal artery stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Huot, S. J.; Scoutt, L. M.; Meier, G. H.

    1996-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis has become increasingly common as a cause of refractory hypertension and renal insufficiency. There is a high prevalence of bilateral disease and the lesions tend to progress over time. Newer, less invasive, imaging modalities such as doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance angiography, and spiral CT scanning are evolving technologies in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. Advances in surgical technique, particularly the development of extra-anatomical procedures such as spleno-renal and hepato-renal by pass, have significantly lowered surgical morbidity and mortality and provides revascularization options for patients with complex vascular disease that would previously not have been considered because of their high surgical risk. Improvements in angioplasty technique and the use of stents are broadening the types of lesions that can be successfully approached with these techniques and may be particularly helpful for patients with more severe cardiac or cerebrovascular disease. The benefits of revascularization may be even greater for preservation of renal function than for control of blood pressure in properly selected patients. It is difficult to predict which patients will benefit from surgical revascularization versus medical management of RAS. Knowledge of the progressive nature of RAS, the high prevalence of bilateral disease, and the clinical characteristics that correlate with progression (e.g., decreasing renal size) are helpful in guiding clinical decisions regarding intervention. Additional studies to determine the predictive value of non-invasive tests such as CRS, doppler ultrasound before and after administration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and other tests, are needed to assist the clinician in identifying who will benefit most from revascularization both in terms of renal function and blood pressure control. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9381740

  7. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after gardening.

    PubMed

    Vucicevic, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    Acute nontraumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis may arise when the energy supply to muscle is insufficient to meet demands, particularly in physically untrained individuals. We report on a psychiatric patient who developed large bruises and hemorrhagic blisters on both hands and arms, rhabdomyolysis of both forearm muscles with a moderate compartment syndrome, and consecutive acute renal failure following excessive work in the garden. Although specifically asked, the patient denied any hard physical work or gardening, and heteroanamnestic data were not available. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was easy to establish, but until reliable anamnestic data were obtained, the etiology remained uncertain. Four days after arrival, the patient recalled working hard in the garden. The etiology of rhabdomyolysis was finally reached, and the importance of anamnestic data was once more confirmed. PMID:25954536

  8. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure after Gardening

    PubMed Central

    Vucicevic, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    Acute nontraumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis may arise when the energy supply to muscle is insufficient to meet demands, particularly in physically untrained individuals. We report on a psychiatric patient who developed large bruises and hemorrhagic blisters on both hands and arms, rhabdomyolysis of both forearm muscles with a moderate compartment syndrome, and consecutive acute renal failure following excessive work in the garden. Although specifically asked, the patient denied any hard physical work or gardening, and heteroanamnestic data were not available. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was easy to establish, but until reliable anamnestic data were obtained, the etiology remained uncertain. Four days after arrival, the patient recalled working hard in the garden. The etiology of rhabdomyolysis was finally reached, and the importance of anamnestic data was once more confirmed. PMID:25954536

  9. The effects of tempol on renal function and hemodynamics in cyclosporine-induced renal insufficiency rats.

    PubMed

    Chia, Tan Y; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdulla, Mohammed H; Rathore, Hassaan A; Ahmad, Fiaz ud Din; Kaur, Gurjeet; Abdullah, Nor A; Johns, Edward J

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of tempol, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic and L-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor on the renal function and hemodynamics in cyclosporine A (CsA) induced renal insufficiency rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either vehicle (C), tempol (T, 1 mmol/L in drinking fluid), L-NAME (L, 1 mmol/L in drinking fluid), CsA (Cs, 25 mg/kg/day via gavage), CsA plus tempol (TCs), CsA plus L-NAME (LCs) or CsA plus a combination of tempol and L-NAME (TLCs) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of treatment regimen, the renal responses to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE), methoxamine and angiotensin II (Ang II) were determined. Cs and LCs rats had lower creatinine clearance (0.7 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.5 vs. 1.3 ± 0.2 mL/min/kg) and fractional excretion of sodium (0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 vs. 0.67 ± 0.04%) but higher systolic blood pressure (145 ± 2 and 178 ± 4 vs. 116 ± 2) compared to the control (all p < 0.05), respectively. Tempol treatment in TCs or TLCs prevented the increase in blood pressure and improved creatinine clearance and sodium excretion compared to untreated Cs. The renal vasoconstriction in Cs or LCs to NA, PE and Ang II were lower than control by ∼35-48% (all p < 0.05). In TCs or TLCs, there was enhanced renal vasoconstriction to all agonist by ∼39-114% compared to Cs. SOD is important to counterbalance the hypertensive effect of a defective NO system and to allow the normal vasoconstrictor response of the renal vasculature to adrenergic agonists and Ang II in a model of CsA-induced renal insufficiency. PMID:23822648

  10. Acute Cardiac Tamponade: An Unusual Cause of Acute Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Gautam; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Markley, John; Rich, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We are reporting a case of acute renal failure after cardiac surgery due to acute pericardial effusion. The patient had normal baseline renal function but developed acute oliguric renal failure with a significant increase in serum creatinine postoperatively. Pericardiotomy led to an improvement in blood pressure, immediate diuresis and quick recovery of renal function back to baseline. Pericardial tamponade should be included in the consideration of causes of the cardiorenal syndrome. PMID:22619656

  11. [Cerebro-oculo-hepato-renal syndrome (Arima's syndrome) with slowly progressive renal insufficiency and epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Kubota, M; Shinozaki, M; Ishizaki, A; Kurata, K

    1991-11-01

    We reported an additional case of Arima's syndrome with slowly progressive renal insufficiency and epilepsy. The patient is a 20-year-old man whose parents are consanguineous. He had a history of mild asphyxia at birth, and unexplained tachypnea developed during the neonatal period. But it disappeared later, and he have had no respiratory problem since then. Physical examination on admission at the age of 19 years revealed bilateral blephaloptosis, narrow palate, searching nystagmoid movement, absence of light reflex, muscle hypotonia and wasting of extremities. Funduscopic study showed optic hypoplasia, choroid coloboma and narrowing of vessels. Head CT scan showed agenesis of cerebellar vermis and hypoplasia of brainstem. CT scan and echography of the kidney disclosed the bilateral multiple cysts. Liver was hyperechoic in echographic study; this finding is consistent with fatty change. EEG showed dysrhythmic slow wave activity with sporadic spike and wave complex. Compared with previously reported cases, the present case has the following features: (1) slowly progressive renal insufficiency, (2) generalized tonic clonic convulsion developing from the age of 11 months, (3) ABR abnormalities including the right-sided shortening of wave I-II interpeak latency and bilateral ill-defined wave V. Slow progress of renal failure in our case may reflect the mild pathological process of the kidney with sparing functional nephrons. It shows the diversity of the kidney pathology in Arima's syndrome. Epilepsy is a less common association in the syndrome, whereas EEG abnormalities were reported. ABR abnormalities may reflect the morphological alteration of the brainstem structure including auditory pathway. In our case it is uncertain whether the neonatal tachypnea was due to birth asphyxia or brainstem malformation responsible for abnormal respiration as suggested in Joubert's syndrome. PMID:1760207

  12. Acute Renal Failure after Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Sachin; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Stavropoulos, S. William

    2004-09-15

    Renal failure is a potential complication of any endovascular procedure using iodinated contrast, including uterine artery embolization (UAE). In this report we present a case of acute renal failure (ARF) following UAE performed as a treatment for uterine fibroids. The likely causes of ARF in this patient are explored and the possible etiologies of renal failure in patients undergoing UAE are reviewed.

  13. Placental Insufficiency Associated with Loss of Cited1 Causes Renal Medullary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, Duncan B.; Boyle, Scott C.; Sams, Rebecca S.; Mazuruk, Bogdan; Zhang, Li; Moeckel, Gilbert W.; Dunwoodie, Sally L.; de Caestecker, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that placental insufficiency affects embryonic patterning of the kidney and leads to a decreased number of functioning nephrons in adulthood; however, there is circumstantial evidence that placental insufficiency may also affect renal medullary growth, which could account for cases of unexplained renal medullary dysplasia and for abnormalities in renal function among infants who had experienced intrauterine growth retardation. We observed that mice with late gestational placental insufficiency associated with genetic loss of Cited1 expression in the placenta had renal medullary dysplasia. This was not caused by lower urinary tract obstruction or by defects in branching of the ureteric bud during early nephrogenesis but was associated with decreased tissue oxygenation and increased apoptosis in the expanding renal medulla. Loss of placental Cited1 was required for Cited1 mutants to develop renal dysplasia, and this was not dependent on alterations in embryonic Cited1 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that renal medullary dysplasia in Cited1 mutant mice is a direct consequence of decreased tissue oxygenation resulting from placental insufficiency. PMID:19297558

  14. Genetic variations in complement factors in patients with congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinping; Kremer Hovinga, Johanna A; Shirotani-Ikejima, Hiroko; Eura, Yuka; Hirai, Hidenori; Honda, Shigenori; Kokame, Koichi; Taleghani, Magnus Mansouri; von Krogh, Anne-Sophie; Yoshida, Yoko; Fujimura, Yoshihiro; Lämmle, Bernhard; Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    The congenital form of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is caused by genetic mutations in ADAMTS13. Some, but not all, congenital TTP patients manifest renal insufficiency in addition to microangiopathic hemolysis and thrombocytopenia. We included 32 congenital TTP patients in the present study, which was designed to assess whether congenital TTP patients with renal insufficiency have predisposing mutations in complement regulatory genes, as found in many patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). In 13 patients with severe renal insufficiency, six candidate complement or complement regulatory genes were sequenced and 11 missense mutations were identified. One of these missense mutations, C3:p.K155Q mutation, is a rare mutation located in the macroglobulin-like 2 domain of C3, where other mutations predisposing for aHUS cluster. Several of the common missense mutations identified in our study have been reported to increase disease-risk for aHUS, but were not more common in patients with as compared to those without renal insufficiency. Taken together, our results show that the majority of the congenital TTP patients with renal insufficiency studied do not carry rare genetic mutations in complement or complement regulatory genes. PMID:26830967

  15. Uteroplacental insufficiency causes a nephron deficit, modest renal insufficiency but no hypertension with ageing in female rats.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Karen M; Mazzuca, Marc Q; Siebel, Andrew L; Mibus, Amy; Arena, Debbie; Tare, Marianne; Owens, Julie A; Wlodek, Mary E

    2009-06-01

    In rats, uteroplacental insufficiency induced by uterine vessel ligation restricts fetal growth and impairs mammary development compromising postnatal growth. In male offspring, this results in a nephron deficit and hypertension which can be reversed by improving lactation and postnatal growth. Here, growth, blood pressure and nephron endowment in female offspring from mothers which underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (Restricted) on day 18 of pregnancy were examined. Sham surgery (Control) and a reduced litter group (Reduced at birth to 5, equivalent to Restricted group) were used as controls. Offspring (Control, Reduced, Restricted) were cross-fostered on postnatal day 1 onto a Control (normal lactation) or Restricted (impaired lactation) mother. Restricted-on-Restricted offspring were born small but were of similar weight to Control-on-Control by postnatal day 35. Blood pressure was not different between groups at 8, 12 or 20 weeks of age. Glomerular number was reduced in Restricted-on-Restricted offspring at 6 months without glomerular hypertrophy. Cross-fostering a Restricted pup onto a Control dam resulted in a glomerular number intermediate between Control-on-Control and Restricted-on-Restricted. Blood pressure, along with renal function, morphology and mRNA expression, was examined in Control-on-Control and Restricted-on-Restricted females at 18 months. Restricted-on-Restricted offspring did not become hypertensive but developed glomerular hypertrophy by 18 months. They had elevated plasma creatinine and alterations in renal mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta(1), collagen IV (alpha1) and matrix matelloproteinase-9. This suggests that perinatally growth restricted female offspring may be susceptible to onset of renal injury and renal insufficiency with ageing in the absence of concomitant hypertension. PMID:19359373

  16. Cholangitis with acute renal failure: priorities in therapeutics.

    PubMed Central

    Bismuth, H; Kuntziger, H; Corlette, M B

    1975-01-01

    Obstructive cholangitis with acute renal failure is a dramatic syndrome which merits individual definition. Twenty-one patients with acute suppurative cholangitis complicated by rapidly developing renal insufficiency were studied, and the severity of the renal failure, an acute interstitial tubulopathy, bore no significant relationship to the serum bilirubin level. The mechanism of renal damage was clearly related to episodes of septicemia. Increasing experience has modified the approach to treatment. The dominant septic problem can often be controlled by vigorous antibiotic and fluid therapy, allowing time for spontaneous improvements in renal function. All patients thus operated at a distance from the septic episode survived. If emergency operation is required because of persistent or recrudescnet sepsis, the necessity for dialysis should be considered first; the circumstances demanding dialysis are defined. The priorities in therapy are then: 1) treatment of the infection, 2) treatment of the renal failure, and finally 3) operation. The amount of the operation depends on the evolution of the sepsis, but should be preceded by dialysis when required. PMID:1138640

  17. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ELEMENTS OF THE MULTIORGAN INSUFFICIENCY SYNDROME AND ESTIMATION OF THE PATIENTS STATE SEVERITY IN ACCORDANCE TO INTEGRAL SCALES IN AN ACUTE NECROTIC PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Khomyak, I V; Rotar, O V; Rotar, V I; Petrovskiy, G G

    2015-09-01

    There were examined 113 patients, in whom an acute necrotic pancreatitis was diagnosed. While admittance to hospital a constant organ insufficiency was revealed in 50 (44%), a transient one--in 63 (56%) patients. In total 31 (27.4%) patients died. Respiratory insufficiency have occurred in 67% patients, and almost with similar rate--cardio-vascular (in 59%), renal (in 56%) and enteral (in 54%), dominating in the lethality structure. The BISAP (Bedcide Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis) scales applied permit with high probability to prognosticate the organ insufficiency and lethality in patients, suffering an acute necrotic pancreatitis. PMID:26817077

  18. Association of Chronic Renal Insufficiency With In-Hospital Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tanush; Paul, Neha; Kolte, Dhaval; Harikrishnan, Prakash; Khera, Sahil; Aronow, Wilbert S; Mujib, Marjan; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Sule, Sachin; Jain, Diwakar; Ahmed, Ali; Cooper, Howard A; Frishman, William H; Bhatt, Deepak L; Fonarow, Gregg C; Panza, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of chronic renal insufficiency with outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the current era of drug-eluting stents and modern antithrombotic therapy has not been well characterized. Methods and Results We queried the 2007–2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients aged ≥18 years who underwent PCI. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital outcomes among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and those without CKD or ESRD. Of 3 187 404 patients who underwent PCI, 89% had no CKD/ESRD; 8.6% had CKD; and 2.4% had ESRD. Compared to patients with no CKD/ESRD, patients with CKD and patients with ESRD had higher in-hospital mortality (1.4% versus 2.7% versus 4.4%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio for CKD 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.19, P<0.001; adjusted odds ratio for ESRD 2.29, 95% CI 2.19 to 2.40, P<0.001), higher incidence of postprocedure hemorrhage (3.5% versus 5.4% versus 6.0%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio for CKD 1.21, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.23, P<0.001; adjusted odds ratio for ESRD 1.27, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.32, P<0.001), longer average length of stay (2.9 days versus 5.0 days versus 6.4 days, respectively; P<0.001), and higher average total hospital charges ($60 526 versus $77 324 versus $97 102, respectively; P<0.001). Similar results were seen in subgroups of patients undergoing PCI for acute coronary syndrome or stable ischemic heart disease. Conclusions In patients undergoing PCI, chronic renal insufficiency is associated with higher in-hospital mortality, higher postprocedure hemorrhage, longer average length of stay, and higher average hospital charges. PMID:26080814

  19. Race and mortality after acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Waikar, Sushrut S; Curhan, Gary C; Ayanian, John Z; Chertow, Glenn M

    2007-10-01

    Black patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease in the United States have lower mortality rates than white patients. Whether racial differences exist in mortality after acute renal failure is not known. We studied acute renal failure in patients hospitalized between 2000 and 2003 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and found that black patients had an 18% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16 to 21%) lower odds of death than white patients after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, and the need for mechanical ventilation. Similarly, among those with acute renal failure requiring dialysis, black patients had a 16% (95% CI 10 to 22%) lower odds of death than white patients. In stratified analyses of patients with acute renal failure, black patients had significantly lower adjusted odds of death than white patients in settings of coronary artery bypass grafting, cardiac catheterization, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, sepsis, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Black patients were more likely than white patients to be treated in hospitals that care for a larger number of patients with acute renal failure, and black patients had lower in-hospital mortality than white patients in all four quartiles of hospital volume. In conclusion, in-hospital mortality is lower for black patients with acute renal failure than white patients. Future studies should assess the reasons for this difference. PMID:17855647

  20. Stratifying Risk for Renal Insufficiency Among Lithium-Treated Patients: An Electronic Health Record Study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Victor M; Roberson, Ashlee M; McCoy, Thomas H; Wiste, Anna; Cagan, Andrew; Smoller, Jordan W; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Ostacher, Michael; Perlis, Roy H

    2016-03-01

    Although lithium preparations remain first-line treatment for bipolar disorder, risk for development of renal insufficiency may discourage their use. Estimating such risk could allow more informed decisions and facilitate development of prevention strategies. We utilized electronic health records from a large New England health-care system between 2006 and 2013 to identify patients aged 18 years or older with a lithium prescription. Renal insufficiency was identified using the presence of renal failure by ICD9 code or laboratory-confirmed glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min. Logistic regression was used to build a predictive model in a random two-thirds of the cohort, which was tested in the remaining one-third. Risks associated with aspects of pharmacotherapy were also examined in the full cohort. We identified 1445 adult lithium-treated patients with renal insufficiency, matched by risk set sampling 1 : 3 with 4306 lithium-exposed patients without renal insufficiency. In regression models, features associated with risk included older age, female sex, history of smoking, history of hypertension, overall burden of medical comorbidity, and diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (p<0.01 for all contrasts). The model yielded an area under the ROC curve exceeding 0.81 in an independent testing set, with 74% of renal insufficiency cases among the top two risk quintiles. Use of lithium more than once daily, lithium levels greater than 0.6 mEq/l, and use of first-generation antipsychotics were independently associated with risk. These results suggest the possibility of stratifying risk for renal failure among lithium-treated patients. Once-daily lithium dosing and maintaining lower lithium levels where possible may represent strategies for reducing risk. PMID:26294109

  1. Effect of renal insufficiency on the active transport of calcium by the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Baerg, Richard D.; Kimberg, Daniel V.; Gershon, Elaine

    1970-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of calcium is often depressed in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Furthermore, the malabsorption of calcium and the osteodystrophy which occur in association with chronic renal disease are often “resistant” to vitamin D; the basis for this resistance remains uncertain however. Recent studies by others have emphasized the role of an abnormality in the metabolism of vitamin D in accounting for the alterations in the calcium absorption and the apparent vitamin D-resistance which accompany the uremic syndrome. The present studies with an experimentally uremic animal model demonstrate a defect in the active transport of calcium by duodenal gut sacs in vitro. This abnormality is not due to the semistarvation associated with renal insufficiency and cannot be corrected by the administration of physiologic amounts of vitamin D3: it is reversed by massive doses of the vitamin. Neither the metabolism of vitamin D3 nor the levels of calcium binding protein activity in the duodenal mucosa are affected by renal insufficiency under the conditions employed in the present studies. The results of the present studies strongly suggest that in addition to the recently proposed mechanism involving an interference with the metabolism of vitamin D renal insufficiency also affects the cellular mechanisms for calcium transport in a manner which, while opposite in direction to that of vitamin D, is independent of a direct interaction with the vitamin or its metabolites. PMID:5422027

  2. The Relation of Erythropoietin Towards Hemoglobin and Hematocrit in Varying Degrees of Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Panjeta, Mirsad; Tahirovic, Ismet; Karamehic, Jasenko; Sofic, Emin; Ridic, Ognjen; Coric, Jozo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hypoxia is a basic stimulant in production of erythropoietin (EPO). The primary function of erythrocytes is the transport of oxygen to tissues. Erythropoietin stimulates erythropoiesis which leads to increased production of erythrocytes- their total mass. This increases the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen, reduces the hypoxic stimulus and provides a negative feedback of stopping EPO production. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between the concentration of erythropoietin, hemoglobin and hematocrit in different values of renal insufficiency. Material and methods: The survey was conducted on 562 subjects divided into two groups: with and without renal insufficiency. EPO, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum creatinine and additional parameters iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid were determined by using immunochemical and spectrophotometric methods and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated as well. Results: EPO values (median) grow to the first degree of renal insufficiency, as compared to EPO values of healthy subjects, this increase is statistically significant, p=0.002. With further deterioration of renal function the values of EPO between all pathological groups are decreasing, and this decrease is statistically significant between first and second degree of renal insufficiency (RI) p<0.001. In the group of healthy subjects EPO is correlated rho = -0.532, p <0.0005 with hematocrit. The correlations are negative and strong and can be predicted by regression line (EP0 = 41.375- Hct * .649; EPO = 61.41–Hb * 0.355). In the group of subjects with the first degree of renal insufficiency EPO is in correlation with hematocrit rho=-0.574, p<0, 0005. It is also correlated with hemoglobin rho=-0.580, p< 0.0005. The correlation is negative (EP0= 42.168- Hct * 0.678). In the group of subjects with the third degree of renal insufficiency EPO is in correlation with hemoglobin rho=0.257, p=0.028. The correlation is medium

  3. Renal Presentation in Pediatric Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sherief, Laila M.; Azab, Seham F.; Zakaria, Marwa M.; Kamal, M.; Elbasset Aly, Maha Abd; Ali, Adel; Alhady, Mohamed Abd

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Renal enlargement at time of diagnosis of acute leukemia is very unusual. We here in report 2 pediatric cases of acute leukemia who had their renal affection as the first presenting symptom with no evidences of blast cells in blood smear and none of classical presentation of acute leukemia. The first case is a 4-year-old girl who presented with pallor and abdominal enlargement. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral symmetrical homogenous enlarged kidneys suggestive of infiltration. Complete blood picture (CBC) revealed white blood count 11 × 109/L, hemoglobin 8.7 g/dL and platelet count 197 × 109/L. Bone marrow aspiration was performed, and diagnosed precursor B-cell ALL was made. The child had an excellent response to modified CCG 1991 standard risk protocol of chemotherapy with sustained remission, but unfortunately relapsed 11 month after the end of therapy. The second child was 13-month old, presented with pallor, vomiting, abdominal enlargement, and oliguria 2 days before admission. Initial CBC showed bicytopenia, elevated blood urea, creatinine, and serum uric acid, while abdominal ultrasonography revealed bilateral renal enlargement. Bone marrow examination was done and showed 92% blast of biphenotypic nature. So, biphynotypic leukemia with bilateral renal enlargement and acute renal failure was subsequently diagnosed. The patients admitted to ICU and received supportive care and prednisolone. Renal function normalized and chemotherapy was started. The child achieved complete remission with marked reduction of kidney size but, unfortunately she died from sepsis in consolidation phase of therapy. This case demonstrates an unusual early renal enlargement in childhood acute leukemia. Renal involvement of acute leukemia should be considered in child presenting with unexplained bilateral renal enlargement with or without renal function abnormalities and bone marrow examination should be included in the workup. PMID:26376384

  4. Acute renal failure in general surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Slapak, M

    1996-01-01

    The high mortality and morbidity can be significantly reduced by three cardinal steps: 1. Early diagnosis of intrinsic renal failure 2. Early institution of fluid restriction and dialysis 3. The identification of patients who are likely to be at high risk from acute renal failure, and the careful planning and institution of available therapeutic measures to prevent it. PMID:9155748

  5. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2002-06-01

    Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication. PMID:12046971

  6. Prognostic factors in neonatal acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, R L; Campbell, F; Brenbridge, A N

    1984-08-01

    Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis. PMID:6462825

  7. Prognostic factors in neonatal acute renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, R.L.; Campbell, F.; Brenbridge, A.N.

    1984-08-01

    Sixteen infants, 2 to 35 days of age, had acute renal failure, a diagnosis based on serum creatinine concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/dL for at least 24 hours. Eight infants were oliguric (urine flow less than 1.0 mL/kg/h) whereas the remainder were nonoliguric. To determine clinical parameters useful in prognosis, urine flow rate, duration of anuria, peak serum creatinine, urea (BUN) concentration, and nuclide uptake by scintigraphy were correlated with recovery. Nine infants had acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia, three had acute renal failure as a result of congenital cardiovascular disease, and four had major renal anomalies. Four oliguric patients died: three of renal failure and one of heart failure. All nonoliguric infants survived with mean follow-up serum creatinine concentration of 0.8 +/- 0.5 (SD) mg/dL whereas that of oliguric survivors was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/dL. Peak serum creatinine concentration did not differ between those patients who were dying and those recovering. All infants who were dying remained anuric at least four days and revealed no renal uptake of nuclide. Eleven survivors were anuric three days or less, and renal perfusion was detectable by scintigraphy in each case. However, the remaining survivor (with bilateral renal vein thrombosis) recovered after 15 days of anuria despite nonvisualization of kidneys by scintigraphy. In neonates with ischemic acute renal failure, lack of oliguria and the presence of identifiable renal uptake of nuclide suggest a favorable prognosis.

  8. Acute renal failure due to falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Habte, B

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-two patients with severe falciparum malaria are described. Twenty-four (33.3%) were complicated by acute renal failure. Comparing patients with renal failure and those without, statistically significant differences occurred regarding presence of cerebral malaria (83% vs 46%), jaundice (92% vs 33%), and death (54% vs 17%). A significantly higher number of patients with renal failure were nonimmune visitors to malaria endemic regions. Renal failure was oliguric in 45% of cases. Dialysis was indicated in 38%, 29% died in early renal failure, and 33% recovered spontaneously. It is concluded that falciparum malaria is frequently complicated by cerebral malaria and renal failure. As nonimmune individuals are prone to develop serious complications, malaria prophylaxis and vigorous treatment of cases is mandatory. PMID:2236718

  9. Guanidino compounds in serum and urine of nondialyzed patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Marescau, B; Nagels, G; Possemiers, I; De Broe, M E; Becaus, I; Billiouw, J M; Lornoy, W; De Deyn, P P

    1997-09-01

    Levels of 15 guanidino compounds and urea were determined in serum and urine of nondialyzed patients with chronic renal insufficiency subdivided according to etiology and creatinine clearances. No significantly different guanidino compound levels in serum and urine were found for the interstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis, nephrangiosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy subgroups. Subdividing the patients according to creatinine clearance yields the following results: (1) Serum guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA) and methylguanidine levels of patients with end-stage renal failure (creatinine clearance < 10 mL/min) are up to 100 and 35 times higher than control levels, while guanidine, creatinine, and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) are increased about 10 times. Serum levels of asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) are only doubled in end-stage renal failure. Serum levels of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and homoarginine are significantly decreased. (2) Urinary excretion levels of most guanidino compounds decrease with decreasing creatinine clearance except for GSA and methylguanidine. (3) Greater than 90% of patients with creatinine clearance ranging from subnormal to 40 mL/min have serum SDMA levels higher than the upper-normal limit; up to 80% have increased GSA levels. (4) The clearance rates of some of the guanidino compounds could be calculated: with the exception of arginine, they decrease with decreasing creatinine clearance. This study shows specific abnormal guanidino compound levels in serum and urine of nondialyzed patients with chronic renal insufficiency that can be used as complementary diagnostic parameters. The best correlation between serum guanidino compound levels and the degree of renal insufficiency is found for GSA, SDMA, methylguanidine, and guanidine. Urinary excretion levels of ADMA correlate best with decreasing creatinine clearance. Serum levels of GSA and especially SDMA are candidate indicators for the onset of renal failure. PMID:9284891

  10. Uremic Leontiasis Ossea in a Patient With Chronic Renal Insufficiency Demonstrated on Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Han, Yeon-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee

    2016-08-01

    A 37-year-old woman with chronic renal insufficiency underwent bone scintigraphy to evaluate renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Markedly increased uptakes were shown in the maxilla and the mandible, which suggested extensive maxillary and mandibular hypertrophy. CT image revealed that diffuse bony thickening and ground-glass appearance in the skull, maxilla, and mandible with poor distinction of the corticomedullary junction. Whole-body bone scintigraphy images also demonstrated various skeletal characteristics of ROD. This case emphasizes the utility of bone scintigraphy for the surveillance of the whole body in ROD. PMID:27276201

  11. Acute renal failure due to ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Allon, M; Lopez, E J; Min, K W

    1990-10-01

    Acute renal failure developed in three patients within a few days of starting ciprofloxacin hydrochloride therapy. An allergic interstitial nephritis was suggested by fever and eosinophiluria in one patient and by erythema multiforme in another. A kidney biopsy specimen confirmed this diagnosis in one patient. Renal function improved shortly after withdrawal of the drug in all three patients. Literature survey revealed an additional three patients with a similar complication. Allergic manifestations, such as fever or rash, were a feature in most reported cases. In view of this potential complication, renal function should be closely monitored in patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy, especially if other potentially nephrotoxic drugs are prescribed concomitantly. PMID:2222106

  12. Prevalence of renal insufficiency in elderly cancer patients in a tertiary cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Lucíola de Barros; Antunes, Yuri Philippe Pimentel Vieira; Bugano, Diogo Diniz Gomes; Karnakis, Theodora; del Giglio, Auro; Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of abnormal glomerular filtration rate in elderly patients with solid tumors. Methods A retrospective study with patients aged >65 years diagnosed with solid tumors between January 2007 and December 2011 in a cancer center. The following data were collected: sex, age, serum creatinine at the time of diagnosis and type of tumor. Renal function was calculated using abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulae and then staged in accordance with the clinical practice guidelines published by the Working Group of the National Kidney Foundation. Results A total of 666 patients were included and 60% were male. The median age was 74.2 years (range: 65 to 99 years). The most prevalent diagnosis in the study population were colorectal (24%), prostate (20%), breast (16%) and lung cancer (16%). The prevalence of elevated serum creatinine (>1.0mg/dL) was 30%. However, when patients were assessed using abbreviated MDRD formulae, 66% had abnormal renal function, stratified as follows: 45% with stage 2, 18% with stage 3, 3% with stage 4 and 0.3% with stage 5. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to estimate the frequency of renal insufficiency in elderly cancer patients in Brazil. The prevalence of abnormal renal function among our cohort was high. As suspected, the absolute creatinine level does underestimate renal function impairment and should not be used as predictor of chemotherapy metabolism, excretion and consequent toxicity. PMID:25295449

  13. Acute renal dysfunction in acetaminophen poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mour, Girish; Feinfeld, Donald A; Caraccio, Thomas; McGuigan, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Although acetaminophen (APAP)-associated liver injury is well recognized, there are few reports describing APAP nephrotoxicity, and most of them are single cases. It has also been suggested that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), used to treat the hepatotoxicity, may be harmful to the kidneys. To examine this contention and to determine whether renal involvement in APAP poisoning is at all common, we analyzed the incidence and outcome of acute renal dysfunction in patients hospitalized for APAP overdose reported to our regional poison center over a year. Eleven APAP-poisoned patients had elevated liver function tests; nine of them had azotemia. Those with higher AST levels tended to be younger and to have lower APAP levels on admission. Two patients with acute renal injury died after admission. The other seven patients with renal dysfunction recovered in 2 to 7 days. Six of these received NAC; their mean serum creatinine fell from 3.2 +/- 2.0 versus 1.7 +/- 0.9 mg/dL (p < 0.05). We conclude that acute renal failure is not uncommon in APAP poisoning and appears to be unrelated to the degree of liver injury. NAC therapy did not seem to worsen nephrotoxicity. PMID:16060123

  14. Association of STAT4 Polymorphism with Severe Renal Insufficiency in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Karin; Sandling, Johanna K.; Zickert, Agneta; Jönsen, Andreas; Sjöwall, Christopher; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Bengtsson, Anders A.; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Rönnblom, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Gunnarsson, Iva; Nordmark, Gunnel

    2013-01-01

    Lupus nephritis is a cause of significant morbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its genetic background has not been completely clarified. The aim of this investigation was to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with lupus nephritis, its severe form proliferative nephritis and renal outcome, in two Swedish cohorts. Cohort I (n = 567 SLE cases, n =  512 controls) was previously genotyped for 5676 SNPs and cohort II (n = 145 SLE cases, n = 619 controls) was genotyped for SNPs in STAT4, IRF5, TNIP1 and BLK. Case-control and case-only association analyses for patients with lupus nephritis, proliferative nephritis and severe renal insufficiency were performed. In the case-control analysis of cohort I, four highly linked SNPs in STAT4 were associated with lupus nephritis with genome wide significance with p = 3.7×10−9, OR 2.20 for the best SNP rs11889341. Strong signals of association between IRF5 and an HLA-DR3 SNP marker were also detected in the lupus nephritis case versus healthy control analysis (p <0.0001). An additional six genes showed an association with lupus nephritis with p <0.001 (PMS2, TNIP1, CARD11, ITGAM, BLK and IRAK1). In the case-only meta-analysis of the two cohorts, the STAT4 SNP rs7582694 was associated with severe renal insufficiency with p  = 1.6×10−3 and OR 2.22. We conclude that genetic variations in STAT4 predispose to lupus nephritis and a worse outcome with severe renal insufficiency. PMID:24386384

  15. Acute Thrombo-embolic Renal Infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haijiang; Yan, Yong; Li, Chunsheng; Guo, Shubin

    2016-07-01

    A 65-year-old woman was admitted for acute onset of right lower abdominal pain. She was taking anticoagulant medication regularly for rheumatic valvular disease and atrial fibrillation. Physical examination revealed no obvious abdominal or flank tenderness. Right thrombo-embolic renal infarction was diagnosed after performing computed tomography angiography (CTA). PMID:27335786

  16. Renal Dysfunction in Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seong Woo

    2011-01-01

    During treatment of acute heart failure (AHF), worsening renal function is often complicated and results in a complex clinical course. Furthermore, renal dysfunction is a strong independent predictor of long-term adverse outcomes in patients with AHF. Traditionally, the predominant cause of renal dysfunction has been attributed to impairment of cardiac output and relative underfilling of arterial perfusion. Recently, emerging data have led to the importance of venous congestion and elevated intra-abdominal pressure rather than confining it to impaired forward cardiac output as the primary driver of renal impairment. Relief of congestion is a major objective of AHF treatment but therapy is still based on the administration of loop diuretics. The results of the recently performed controlled studies for the assessment of new treatments to overcome resistance to diuretic treatment to protect kidneys from untoward effects have been mostly neutral. Better treatment of congestion in heart failure remains a major problem. PMID:22125554

  17. Renal outcome in adults with renal insufficiency and irregular asymmetric kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Neild, Guy H; Thomson, Gill; Nitsch, Dorothea; Woolfson, Robin G; Connolly, John O; Woodhouse, Christopher RJ

    2004-01-01

    Background The commonest cause of end-stage renal failure (ESRF) in children and young adults is congenital malformation of the kidney and urinary tract. In this retrospective review, we examine whether progression to ESRF can be predicted and whether treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) can delay or prevent this. Methods We reviewed 78 patients with asymmetric irregular kidneys as a consequence of either primary vesico-ureteric reflux or renal dysplasia (Group 1, n = 44), or abnormal bladder function (Group 2, n = 34). Patients (median age 24 years) had an estimated GFR (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 with at least 5 years of follow up (median 143 months). 48 patients received ACEI. We explored potential prognostic factors that affect the time to ESRF using Cox-regression analyses. Results At start, mean (SE) creatinine was 189 (8) μmol/l, mean eGFR 41 (1) ml/min 1.73 m2, mean proteinuria 144 (14) mg/mmol creatinine (1.7 g/24 hrs). Of 78 patients, 36 (46%) developed ESRF, but none of 19 with proteinuria less than 50 mg/mmol and only two of 18 patients with eGFR above 50 ml/min did so. Renal outcome between Groups 1 and 2 appeared similar with no evidence for a difference. A benefit in favour of treatment with ACEI was observed above an eGFR of 40 ml/min (p = 0.024). Conclusion The similar outcome of the two groups supports the nephrological nature of progressive renal failure in young men born with abnormal bladders. There is a watershed GFR of 40–50 ml/min at which ACEI treatment can be successful at improving renal outcome. PMID:15462683

  18. Congestive heart failure and converting enzyme inhibition: failure of current prognostic criteria for predicting subsequent renal insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Odum, J.; Carson, P.; Russell, G.

    1991-01-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme inhibitors have an effective and established role in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure. However, a small number of such patients will subsequently develop renal insufficiency. These patients may be identified prior to, or shortly after, commencement of therapy by recognized criteria. This report describes 4 patients with congestive heart failure who developed severe renal insufficiency secondary to either enalapril or captopril therapy in the absence of any currently recognized predisposing factors. One patient died. PMID:2068028

  19. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  20. Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

    1983-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

  1. [Cardiac effects of fenibut in development of experimental chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, A V; Barabanova, T A; Penchul, N A

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fenibut on the mechanical activity of myocardium was studied in vitro and in vivo in rats with experimental chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) in a regime of physiologically alternating load simulating the intact heart function. The administration of fenibut (10 mg/kg) in rats after nephrectomy prevents the development of myocardial hyperfunction (characteristic of the animals with CRI in stage 1). In in vitro experiments on isolated myocardium fenibut also decreased the myocardial hyperfunction and reduced contractility to a control level, which was accompanied by accelerated relaxation in all finite systolic lengths. PMID:14558346

  2. ACUTE HYDRONEPHROSIS MIMICKING RENAL COLIC

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Donald C.; Kaufman, Joseph J.

    1964-01-01

    Hydronephrosis may be acute, recurrent and related to ingestion of fluid. Frequently a lower polar vessel is an etiological factor. The condition is amenable to corrective operation by a variety of surgical techniques, as in the six cases here reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:14154288

  3. Magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate reduces hyperlipidaemia in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, R; Heintz, B; Nelson, K; Sieberth, H G; Oremek, G; Hasford, J; Speck, U

    1988-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency is often accompanied by hyperlipidaemia and subsequent coronary heart disease. Two groups of 15 patients with serum creatinine greater than 2 mg/100 ml and serum cholesterol less than 250 mg/100 ml were given 3 x 50 mg magnesium pyridoxal 5-phosphate glutamate (MPPG) or placebo for 12 weeks in a double-blind, randomised study. Total cholesterol in the MPPG group (282.4 mg.100 ml-1) was lower than in the placebo group (354.3 mg.100 ml-1) after 12 weeks of treatment. Triglycerides in the MPPG group were 265.1 mg.100 ml-1 compared to 361.9 mg.100 ml-1. After 12 weeks on MPPG the LDL/HDL ratio of 3.56 was lower than in the placebo group-6.83. Side effects in the MPPG group were similar to those in the placebo group. Thus, MPPG was an effective antihyperlipidaemic agent in patients with renal insufficiency. PMID:3383985

  4. Peripheral arterial disease in diabetic patients with renal insufficiency: a review.

    PubMed

    Lepäntalo, Mauri; Fiengo, Leslie; Biancari, Fausto

    2012-02-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is common among diabetic patients with renal insufficiency, and most of the diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have peripheral arterial disease. Ischaemia is probably overrepresented as an etiological factor for a diabetic foot ulcer in this group of patients compared with other diabetic patients. ESRD is a strong risk factor for both ulceration and amputation in diabetic patients. It increases the risk of nonhealing of ulcers and major amputation with an OR of 2.5-3. Renal disease is a more important predictor of poor outcome after revascularizations than commonly expected. Preoperative vascular imaging is also affected by a number of limitations, mostly related to side effects of contrast agents poorly eliminated because of kidney dysfunction. Patients with renal failure have high perioperative morbidity and mortality. Persistent ischaemia, extensive infection, forefoot and heel gangrene, poor run-off, poor cardiac function, and the length of dialysis-dependent renal failure all affect the outcome adversely. Despite dismal overall outcome, recent data indicate that by proper selection, favourable results can be obtained even in ESRD patients, with the majority of studies reporting 1-year limb salvage rates of 65-75% after revascularization among survivors. High 1-year mortality of 38% reported in a recent review has to be taken into consideration, though. The preferential use of endovascular-first approach is attractive in this vulnerable multimorbid group of patients, but the evidence for endovascular treatment is very scarce. The need for complete revascularization of the foot may be even more important than in other patients with ischaemic ulcerated diabetic foot because there are a number of factors counteracting healing in these patients. Typically, half of the patients are reported to lose their legs despite open bypass. To control tissue damage and improve chances of ulcer healing, one should understand that

  5. Correlation of Preoperative Renal Insufficiency With Mortality and Morbidity After Aortic Valve Replacement: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Chen, Yung-Chang; Lee, Hsiu-An; Chen, Shao-Wei; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Lin, Pyng-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative end-stage renal disease carries a high mortality and morbidity risk after aortic valve replacement (AVR), but the effect of renal insufficiency remains to be clarified. Through propensity score analysis, we compared the preoperative demographics, perioperative profiles, and outcomes between patients with and without renal insufficiency. From August 2005 to November 2014, 770 adult patients underwent AVR in a single institution. Patients were classified according to their estimated glomerular infiltration rate (eGFR) as renal insufficiency (eGFR: 30–89 mL/min/1.73 m2) or normal (eGFR, ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2). Propensity scoring was performed with a 1:1 ratio, resulting in a matched cohort of 88 patients per group. Demographics, comorbidities, and surgical procedures were well balanced between the 2 groups, except for diabetes mellitus and eGFR. Patients with renal insufficiency had higher in-hospital mortality (19.3% versus 3.4%, P < 0.001), a greater need for postoperative hemodialysis (14.8% versus 3.1%, P = 0.009), and prolonged intubation times (>72 hour; 25% versus 9.1%, P = .008), intensive care unit stays (8.9 ± 9.9 versus 4.9 ± 7.5 days, P = .046), and hospital stays (35.3 ± 31.7 versus 24.1 ± 20.3 days, P = .008), compared with those with normal renal function. Multivariate analysis confirmed that preoperative renal insufficiency was an in-hospital mortality predictor (odds ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.343–4.043; P = .003), as were prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time, intraaortic balloon pump support, and postoperative hemodialysis. The 1-year survival significantly differed between the 2 groups including (normal 87.5% versus renal insufficiency 67.9%, P < .001) or excluding in-hospital mortality (normal 90.7% versus renal insufficiency 82.1%, P = .05). Patients with preoperative renal insufficiency who underwent AVR had higher in-hospital mortality rates and

  6. Acute renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D J; Sherman, W H; Osserman, E F; Appel, G B

    1984-02-01

    In the past, patients with multiple myeloma and acute renal failure have had a poor prognosis. Few patients recovered renal function and fewer still survived for prolonged time periods. This report describes the course of 10 patients with multiple myeloma and true acute renal failure treated during the decade 1970 to 1980, and reviews recent reports concerning this association. The use of radiographic contrast agents is no longer the primary predisposing factor to acute renal failure in the myeloma population. Rather, infection, hypercalcemia, and dehydration in the presence of light chain excretion are the major conditions precipitating the renal failure. Despite severe renal failure requiring dialysis, many patients may regain good renal function. Factors associated with a good or poor prognosis in this population are reviewed. The prognosis in patients with myeloma and acute renal failure has greatly improved in recent years, and prolonged survival may occur. PMID:6695948

  7. Higher serum total bilirubin concentration is associated with lower risk of renal insufficiency in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ang-Tse; Wang, Ya-Yu; Lin, Shih-Yi; Liang, Jiin-Tsae; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Song, Yuh-Min; Chang, Wen-Dau

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammation is proposed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and serum bilirubin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the association between serum total bilirubin (Tb) concentration and renal function in an adult population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study and collected anthropometric measurements, fasting blood tests, lifestyle habits and medical history of 3876 subjects attending a health examination. Renal insufficiency was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 calculated by using the CKD-EPI equation. Results: Serum Tb concentrations were higher in subjects without renal insufficiency than in those with renal insufficiency. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that Tb concentration was positively associated with eGFR after adjusting for important CKD risk factors (P=0.04). Multivariable logistic regression analysis also revealed that higher Tb concentration (each increment of 1.71 μmol/L) (0.1 mg/dL) was associated with a reduced risk of renal insufficiency: odds ratios were 0.94 (P=0.005) for men and 0.90 (P=0.015) for women, respectively. When subjects were divided into quartiles of serum Tb, multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for renal insufficiency comparing the fourth to the first Tb quartile were 0.49 (P=0.001) for men and 0.35 (P=0.003) for women. A stepwise exclusion of subjects, first those with possible liver disease and second, those with CKD stage 4 and 5, showed consistent results. Conclusion: Higher serum Tb concentration was associated with lower risk of renal insufficiency, regardless of other conventional CKD risk factors. PMID:26770557

  8. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  9. [Excruciating flank pain: "acute renal colic"].

    PubMed

    Thomas, A; Andrianne, R

    2004-04-01

    The classic presentation of acute renal colic is the sudden onset of very severe pain in the flank primarily caused by the acute ureteral obstruction. The diagnosis is often made on clinical symptoms only, although confirmatory exams are generally performed because many others significant disorders may present with symptom of flank pain that mimics renal colic. Life threatening emergency such as abdominal aortic aneurysm must be ruled out. While non contrast CT has become the standard imaging modality, in some situations, a plain abdominal radiograph associated with a renal ultrasound or a contrast study such as intravenous pyelogram may be preferred. Hematuria is frequently present on urine analysis. The usual therapy represented by analgesic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be started as soon as possible. Size and location of the stone are the most important predictors of spontaneous passage. Uncontrolled pain by medical therapy, fever, oligo-anuria suggest complicated stone disease. Such conditions require emergency treatment by drainage or stone extraction. Although recurrent stone rate is important, extensive metabolic explorations are not recommended after an uncomplicated first episode. Nevertheless fluid intake is encouraged and a stone chemical analysis should be performed whenever possible. PMID:15182032

  10. Acute kidney injury in the perioperative period and in intensive care units (excluding renal replacement therapies).

    PubMed

    Ichai, Carole; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Souweine, Bertrand; Armando, Fabien; Canet, Emmanuel; Clec'h, Christophe; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Darmon, Michaël; Duranteau, Jacques; Gaillot, Théophille; Garnier, Arnaud; Jacob, Laurent; Joannes-Boyau, Olivier; Juillard, Laurent; Journois, Didier; Lautrette, Alexandre; Muller, Laurent; Legrand, Matthieu; Lerolle, Nicolas; Rimmelé, Thomas; Rondeau, Eric; Tamion, Fabienne; Walrave, Yannick; Velly, Lionel

    2016-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome that has progressed a great deal over the last 20 years. The decrease in urine output and the increase in classical renal biomarkers, such as blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, have largely been used as surrogate markers for decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which defines AKI. However, using such markers of GFR as criteria for diagnosing AKI has several limits including the difficult diagnosis of non-organic AKI, also called "functional renal insufficiency" or "pre-renal insufficiency". This situation is characterized by an oliguria and an increase in creatininemia as a consequence of a reduction in renal blood flow related to systemic haemodynamic abnormalities. In this situation, "renal insufficiency" seems rather inappropriate as kidney function is not impaired. On the contrary, the kidney delivers an appropriate response aiming to recover optimal systemic physiological haemodynamic conditions. Considering the kidney as insufficient is erroneous because this suggests that it does not work correctly, whereas the opposite is occurring, because the kidney is healthy even in a threatening situation. With current definitions of AKI, normalization of volaemia is needed before defining AKI in order to avoid this pitfall. PMID:27230984

  11. [Salivary glands secretory activity in patients with terminal chronic renal insufficiency on programmed dialysis].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, V V; Vavilova, T P; Osokin, M V; Pushkina, A V

    2006-01-01

    Saliva secretion speed and some biochemical mixed saliva characteristics were studied in patients with a terminal stage of chronic renal insufficiency. There was reduction of salivary function by more than 2 times and an increase of urea and creatinine concentrations in mixed saliva before the dialysis start. In case of higher urea content in saliva the speed of salivation was the highest that could evidence for an adequate response of the salivary glands to toxic action of nitrogen metabolism end products. The function restoration after hemodialysis took place not in all the patients. Amino acid catabolism product concentration in mixed saliva fell after hemodialysis and correlated directly with the amount of urea and creatinine in blood plasma. It took place also in "urea ricochet" when its content in blood increased sharply 1 hour after hemodialysis due to urea washout from the tissues. PMID:17159840

  12. Emergency Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Renal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong Liang; Xu, Chun Yang; Wang, Hong Hui; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were to identify arteriographic manifestations of acute renal hemorrhage and to evaluate the efficacy of emergency embolization. Emergency renal artery angiography was performed on 83 patients with acute renal hemorrhage. As soon as bleeding arteries were identified, emergency embolization was performed using gelatin sponge, polyvinyl alcohol particles, and coils. The arteriographic presentation and the effect of the treatment for acute renal hemorrhage were analyzed retrospectively. Contrast extravasation was observed in 41 patients. Renal arteriovenous fistulas were found in 12 of the 41 patients. In all, 8 other patients had a renal pseudoaneurysm, 5 had pseudoaneurysm rupture complicated by a renal arteriovenous fistula, and 1 had pseudoaneurysm rupture complicated by a renal artery-calyceal fistula. Another 16 patients had tumor vasculature seen on arteriography. Before the procedure, 35 patients underwent renal artery computed tomography angiography (CTA). Following emergency embolization, complete hemostasis was achieved in 80 patients, although persistent hematuria was present in 3 renal trauma patients and 1 patient who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (justifying surgical removal of the ipsilateral kidney in this patient). Two-year follow-up revealed an overall effective rate of 95.18 % (79/83) for emergency embolization. There were no serious complications. Emergency embolization is a safe, effective, minimally invasive treatment for renal hemorrhage. Because of the diversified arteriographic presentation of acute renal hemorrhage, proper selection of the embolic agent is a key to successful hemostasis. Preoperative renal CTA plays an important role in diagnosing and localizing the bleeding artery. PMID:26496273

  13. Acute renal failure in the Armenian earthquake.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, G

    1992-01-01

    A destructive earthquake devastated northwestern Armenia on December 7, 1988. The size of the affected area (radius of 50 miles), the time of the day when it occurred (11:41 a.m.), deficiencies in the design and construction of buildings, and inadequate initial rescue and relief capabilities resulted in one of the most lethal and traumatic natural disasters of the century. A large but unknown number (estimated at 225 to 385) of the extricated victims who had sustained crush injury developed myoglobinuric acute renal failure requiring dialytic support. The limited number (8-10 dialysis machines) of antiquated dialysis facilities available locally were overwhelmed. International dialysis relief efforts resulted in meeting the immediate acute needs and provided the motivation and elements of the more efficient system for the future delivery of maintenance dialysis. PMID:1509155

  14. Acute renal failure in the "Comrades Marathon" runners.

    PubMed

    Seedat, Y K; Aboo, N; Naicker, S; Parsoo, I

    This study investigated the clinical and biochemical features of acute renal failure in marathon runners. Over a period of 18 years (1969-1986), 19 patients were admitted to the renal unit. The histories and biochemical data of 4 patients seen in 1986 are described. The pathophysiology of acute renal failure is multifactorial and is the combined effect of rhabdomyolysis, dehydration, hypotension, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and hyperuricaemia. Efforts to correct dehydration have resulted in a decrease in the incidence of acute renal failure. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is to be deprecated and efforts should be made to publicize this harmful effect. PMID:2485484

  15. Computed radionuclide urogram for assessing acute renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, J.U.; Lang, E.K.

    1980-05-01

    The computed radionuclide urogram is advocated as a noninvasive diagnostic method for differentiation of the most common prerenal, renal, and postrenal causes of acute renal failure. On the basis of characteristic changes in the effective renal plasma flow rate, the calculated filtration fraction, and the calculated glomerular filtration rate, prerenal conditions such as renal artery stenosis or thrombosis, renal conditions such as acute rejection or acute tubular necrosis, and postrenal conditions such as obstruction or leakage, which are the most common causes of acute renal failure, can be differentiated. In conjunction with morphologic criteria derived from sonograms, a diagnosis with acceptable confidence can be rendered in most instances. Both the computed radionuclide urogram and sonogram are noninvasive and can be used without adverse effects in the presence of azotemia and even anuria. This also makes feasible reexamination at intervals to assess effect of therapy and offer prognostic information.

  16. X-ray microprobe synchroton radiation X-ray fluorescence application on human teeth of renal insufficiency patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, A. F.; Marques, J. P.; Casaca, C.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2004-10-01

    This work reports on the measurements of elemental profiles in teeth collected from patients with renal insufficiency. Elemental concentrations of Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb Sr and Pb in different parts of teeth from patients with renal insufficiency are discussed and correlated with the corresponding values for healthy citizens. Both situations, patients with and without dialysis treatment were studied. The purpose of this work is to point out the influence of renal insufficiency together with long dialysis treatment, on teeth elemental content. An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the LURE synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination. The resolution of the synchrotron microprobe was 100 μm and the energy of the incident photons was 19 keV. Teeth of citizens with renal insufficiency and those submitted since several years to dialysis treatment show a similar concentration with teeth of healthy subjects in what concerns the elemental distribution for Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr. However, higher levels of Pb were found in pulp region of diseased citizens when compared to values of healthy people. Very low concentrations of Ti, Co, Ni, Se, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed teeth. No difference was found in patients with and without dialysis treatment.

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning and nonoliguric acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Bessoudo, R.; Gray, J.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning in a 37-year-old man was complicated by neurologic damage, skin changes, muscle necrosis and nonoliguric renal failure. The relation between nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Recognition of the acute renal failure in such cases is important, for this complication can be fatal; the prognosis is excellent, however, if proper medical management is provided. PMID:679099

  18. Survival from acute renal failure after severe burns.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Y; Momma, S; Takamizawa, A; Nishida, S

    1984-12-01

    We describe a patient with 50 per cent, third degree flame burns who had a history of paint thinner inhalation for over 10 years. Moreover, chlorpromazine had been administered for the treatment of insomnia caused by chronic thinner intoxication. He developed oliguric acute renal failure soon after the burn injury, although adequate resuscitation therapy was given, and survived following frequent haemodialysis. Although survival from acute renal failure after severe burns is rare, once the diagnosis of acute renal failure has been made, haemodialysis should be instituted as early as possible. Furthermore, in a severely burnt patient with episodes of chronic and acute intoxication from organic chemicals or drugs which may have caused renal damage, acute renal failure may occur, so that careful observation is advised. PMID:6525538

  19. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Mohamed, Saoussen Cheikh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Metastases of solid tumors to the pituitary gland are often asymptomatic or appereas as with diabetes insipid us. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The presentation with an acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare event. A 69-year-old men presented with vomiting, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia. Hormonal exploration confirmed a hypopituitarism. Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays revealed pulmonary opacity. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed a multiples tumors with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated a pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hence we concluded to a lung cancer with multiple pituitary and adrenal gland metastases. This case emphasizes the need for an etiological investigation of acute adrenal insufficiency after treatment of acute phase. PMID:27200139

  20. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Mohamed, Saoussen Cheikh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Metastases of solid tumors to the pituitary gland are often asymptomatic or appereas as with diabetes insipid us. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe. The presentation with an acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare event. A 69-year-old men presented with vomiting, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia. Hormonal exploration confirmed a hypopituitarism. Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays revealed pulmonary opacity. Computed tomography scan of the chest showed a multiples tumors with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated a pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Hence we concluded to a lung cancer with multiple pituitary and adrenal gland metastases. This case emphasizes the need for an etiological investigation of acute adrenal insufficiency after treatment of acute phase. PMID:27200139

  1. Relationship of Estimated GFR and Coronary Artery Calcification in the (CRIC) Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Budoff, Matthew J; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P.; Mohler, Emile R.; Lash, Jim; Yang, Wei; Rosen, Leigh; Glenn, Melanie; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with increased mortality risk in the general population. Although individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased mortality risk, the incidence, prevalence, and prognosis of CAC in CKD is not well-understood. Study Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting and Participants Analysis of 1,908 participants who underwent coronary calcium scanning as part of the multi-ethnic CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Predictor Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) computed using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation, stratified by race, sex and diabetic status. eGFR was treated as a continous variable and a categorical variable compared to the reference range of >60 ml/min/1.73 m2 Measurements CAC detected using CT scans using either an Imatron C-300 electron beam computed tomography scanner or multi-detector CT scanner. CAC was computed using the Agatston score, as a categorical variable. Analyses were performed using ordinal logistic regression. Results We found a strong and graded relationship between lower eGFR and increasing CAC. In unadjusted models, ORs increased from 1.68 (95% CI, 1.23–2.31) for eGFR from 50–59 to 2.82 (95% CI, 2.06–3.85) for eGFR of <30. Multivariable adjustment only partially attenuated the results (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.07–2.20) for eGFR<30. Limitations Use of eGFR rather than measured GFR. Conclusions We demonstrated a graded relationship between severity of CKD and CAC, independent of traditional risk factors. These findings supports recent guidelines that state that if vascular calcification is present, it should be considered as a complementary component to be included in the decision making required for individualizing treatment of CKD. PMID:21783289

  2. Synthetic cannabinoid hyperemesis resulting in rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Argamany, Jacqueline R; Reveles, Kelly R; Duhon, Bryson

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid usage has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, emergency management of associated adverse effects due to synthetic cannabinoid usage has also risen. Reported toxicities include psychosis, seizures, cardiotoxicity, acute kidney injury, and death. While cannabis was first described as a cause of acute hyperemesis in 2004, a more recent case series also describes the association between cannabinoid hyperemesis and risk of acute renal failure. Synthetic cannabinoids have also been reported to cause acute hyperemesis and acute renal failure; however, the risk of rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure has yet to be elucidated. In this article, we report the first known case of synthetic cannabinoid hyperemesis leading to rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. PMID:26422191

  3. Acute renal failure and bilateral kidney infiltration as the first presentation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Monfared, Ali; Orangpoor, Reza Orangpoor; Fakheri, Tabassom Fakheri; Falahatkar, Siavash

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse bilateral infiltration of the kidneys by lymphoma is probably the rarest cause of renal insufficiency. Moreover, acute renal failure as the initial manifestation of the lymphoma is reported only in a few cases. A 44-year-old man complaining of bilateral flank pain and weakness for 2 months was admitted with acute renal failure. Ultraonography revealed hyperechoic bilaterally enlarged kidneys and an enlarged spleen. Fat pad aspiration was negative for amyloidosis and serum protein electrophoresis was normal. Needle biopsy of the kidney and pathologic examination showed diffuse infiltration of the interstitium with lymphocytes and atypical cells. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were negative for malignant cells. Open kidney biopsy was performed and infiltrated cells positive for CD20 and negative for CD3 markers were observed based upon which diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell type non-Hodgkin lymphoma was made. PMID:19377260

  4. Acute renal failure in pregnancy: our experience.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Rohina S; Mishra, Vineet V; Jasani, Anil F; Gumber, Manoj

    2014-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication during pregnancy, and, in the post-partum period, is associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss. The objective of our study is to find the etiology and maternal outcome of ARF during pregnancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Center, Ahmedabad, India from January 2009 to January 2011. Fifty previously healthy patients who developed ARF, diagnosed on oliguria and serum creatinine >2 mg%, were included in the study. Patients with a known history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension were excluded from the study. All patients were followed-up for a period of six months. Patient re-cords, demographic data, urine output on admission and preceding history of antepartum hemorrhage (APH), post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), septicemia, operative interventions and retained product of conception were noted and need for dialysis was considered. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline biochemical investigations and renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were performed in selected patients. The age range was 19-38 years (mean 26 ± 3.8). The first trimester, second trimester and puerperal groups comprised of four (8%), 25 (50%) and 21 patients (42%), respectively. Hemorrhage was the etiology for ARF in 15 (30%), APH in ten (20%) and PPH in five (10%) patients. Eleven (22%) patients had lower segment cesarian section (LSCS) while 36 (78%) patients had normal vaginal delivery. In 20 (40%) patients, puerperal sepsis was the etiological factor, while pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome accounted for 18 (36%) patients. Two (4%) patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation on presentation while one (2%) patient was diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Maternal mortality was 12% (n = 6

  5. Depressive Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Renal Insufficiency Undergoing Chronic Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Edith G.; Loza, Reyner; Vargas, Horacio; Jara, Mercedes F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive study, using the Birleson Scale to determine the frequency of depressive symptomatology in children and adolescents with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). There were 67 patients (40 female and 27 male) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 2.71 years, duration of illness ≥3 months, 43 (64.18%) patients with CPD and 24 (35.82%) undergoing HD. The frequency of high occurrence, low occurrence, and absence of depressive symptomatology was 10.45% (n = 7), 43.28% (n = 29), and 46.27% (n = 31), respectively; all of the seven (100%) patients with high occurrence of depressive symptomatology were female (P = 0.04), and none of these (0%) had a friend to confide in (P = 0.03). Depressive symptomatology in patients with CPD was associated with a lower weekly Kt/V compared to those without depressive symptomatology (2.15 ± 0.68 versus 2.52 ± 0.65; P = 0.01). There was no association with patient age, caregiver, time and dialysis type, anemia, bone disease, nutritional or financial status, origin, schooling, or employment. PMID:21941654

  6. Testicular dysfunction in experimental chronic renal insufficiency: a deficiency of nocturnal pineal N-acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, E. W.; Hojvat, S. A.; Kahn, S. E.; Bermes, E. W.

    1989-01-01

    Biochemical correlates of neuroendocrine/gonadal function and nocturnal levels of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity were determined in partially nephrectomized (PNx), male, Long Evans rats following a 5-week period of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). PNx animals demonstrated two to four-fold elevations in urea nitrogen and three to four-fold reductions (P less than 0.02) in plasma total testosterone concentrations as compared to sham-operated controls. The pituitary LH contents of PNx rats were decreased to approximately 60% of the control value (P less than 0.05). There were no differences in plasma prolactin levels between the control and PNx groups either at mid-day or in the middle of the night. Nocturnal pineal NAT activity in PNx rats was markedly reduced to approximately 20% of the control value (P less than 0.001). Similar evidence of gonadal dysfunction (reduced plasma total testosterone and testes testosterone content) and a significant decrease in night-time levels of pineal NAT activity were also observed after 13 weeks of CRI in PNx rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain that were housed under a different photoperiod. These results suggest that pineal gland dysfunction is a feature of CRI in the PNx model. Such an abnormality might contribute to the pathogenesis of gonadal dysfunction in CRI. PMID:2765391

  7. Acute renal dysfunction following hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Simon J; Berry, Olivia M B; Goddard, Jane; Keating, John F

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the incidence, risk factors and outcome of acute renal dysfunction (ARD) in patients with a fractured neck of femur. 170 consecutive patients were prospectively included in the Scottish Hip Fracture Audit database and retrospectively analysed. Historically, lack of consensus definition has hindered accurate reporting of ARD. ARD was defined using the 'RIFLE' criteria. 27 patients (16%) developed ARD. Risk factors were male sex, vascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and pre-morbid use of nephrotoxic medications (p<0.01). Inpatient, 30- and 120-day mortality was higher in the ARD group 19%, 22% and 41% respectively, versus 0%, 4% and 13% in the non-ARD group (p<0.01). Length of hospital stay was significantly longer in the ARD group. Pre- and post-operative complications were 12 and 5 times more frequent respectively in the ARD group (p<0.01). Awareness of risk factors and serial measurements of renal function allow early identification and focused monitoring of these patients. PMID:19729159

  8. Atrial natriuretic factor in oliguric acute renal failure. Anaritide Acute Renal Failure Study Group.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J; Salem, M M; Chertow, G M; Weisberg, L S; McGrew, F; Marbury, T C; Allgren, R L

    2000-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an endogenous hormone synthesized by the cardiac atria, has been shown to improve renal function in multiple animal models of acute renal failure. In a recent multicenter clinical trial of 504 patients with acute tubular necrosis (oliguric and nonoliguric), ANP decreased the need for dialysis only in the oliguric patients. In the present study, 222 patients with oliguric acute renal failure were enrolled into a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to assess prospectively the safety and efficacy of ANP compared with placebo. Subjects were randomized to treatment with a 24-hour infusion of ANP (anaritide, 0.2 microgram/kg/min; synthetic form of human ANP) or placebo. Dialysis and mortality status were followed up for 60 days. The primary efficacy end point was dialysis-free survival through day 21. Dialysis-free survival rates were 21% in the ANP group and 15% in the placebo group (P = 0.22). By day 14 of the study, 64% and 77% of the ANP and placebo groups had undergone dialysis, respectively (P = 0.054), and 9 additional patients (7 patients, ANP group; 2 patients, placebo group) needed dialysis but did not receive it. Although a trend was present, there was no statistically significant beneficial effect of ANP in dialysis-free survival or reduction in dialysis in these subjects with oliguric acute renal failure. Mortality rates through day 60 were 60% versus 56% in the ANP and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.541). One hundred two of 108 (95%) versus 63 of 114 (55%) patients in the ANP and placebo groups had systolic blood pressures less than 90 mm Hg during the study-drug infusion (P < 0.001). The maximal absolute decrease in systolic blood pressure was significantly greater in the anaritide group than placebo group (33.6 versus 23.9 mm Hg; P < 0.001). This well-characterized population with oliguric acute renal failure had an overall high morbidity and mortality. PMID:11007679

  9. Inconsequence of membrane choice in acute renal failure?

    PubMed

    Mujais, S K; Ivanavich, P

    1996-05-01

    The choice of hemodialysis membrane in acute renal failure has caused a heated debate, principally because of the dogmatism with which the results of preliminary clinical studies have been translated into prescription dictum. The issue, however, is not merely the limitations of these two studies, but rather the shift in emphasis they may have engendered in the approach to dialytic therapy in acute renal failure. Dogmatism based on limited or flawed data does not serve the interests of our patients, and the issue of hemodialysis in acute renal failure is far more complex than the exaggerated importance of membrane choice. PMID:8725627

  10. Acute renal failure following oxalic acid poisoning: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid poisoning is being recognized as an emerging epidemic in the rural communities of Sri Lanka as it is a component of locally produced household laundry detergents. Herein we describe a case of a 32 year old female, presenting after direct ingestion of oxalic acid. She then went on to develop significant metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure, requiring dialysis. Renal biopsy revealed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse moderate acute tubular damage with refractile crystals in some of the tubules. The patient symptomatically improved with haemodialysis and renal functions subsequently returned to normal. PMID:22978510

  11. Change of Both Endocrine and Exocrine Insufficiencies After Acute Pancreatitis in Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Te-Wei; Wu, Jin-Ming; Kuo, Ting-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Hsieh, Su-Hua; Lai, Feipei; Tien, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common pancreatic disease and consists of an acute inflammation of the pancreas. AP can contribute to endocrine and exocrine insufficiencies in survivors as a result of the key role of the pancreas in both glucose metabolism and nutritional digestion. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the endocrine or exocrine insufficiencies in patients after initial AP with biliary or alcohol-associated causes. We conducted a nationwide cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database collected between 2001 and 2010. A total of 12,284 patients with AP were identified. Alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.894; 95% CI, 1.520–2.268; P < 0.001) and ≥2 admissions for AP (odds ratio, 1.937; 95% CI, 1.483–2.391; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus after AP. Further, only alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.215; 95% CI, 1.133–1.297; P < 0.001) was significantly associated with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after AP. Additionally, alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.804; 95% CI, 1.345–2.263; P < 0.001) and ≥2 readmissions for AP (odds ratio, 3.190; 95% CI, 2.317–4.063; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with both exocrine and endocrine insufficiencies after AP. Our data showed that alcohol-associated AP, rather than a biliary cause, contributed to a higher extent to exocrine or endocrine insufficiencies. Furthermore, recurrent AP also led to endocrine insufficiency. PMID:26166112

  12. Acute renal injury after partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Peres, Luis Alberto Batista; Bredt, Luis Cesar; Cipriani, Raphael Flavio Fachini

    2016-07-28

    Currently, partial hepatectomy is the treatment of choice for a wide variety of liver and biliary conditions. Among the possible complications of partial hepatectomy, acute kidney injury (AKI) should be considered as an important cause of increased morbidity and postoperative mortality. Difficulties in the data analysis related to postoperative AKI after liver resections are mainly due to the multiplicity of factors to be considered in the surgical patients, moreover, there is no consensus of the exact definition of AKI after liver resection in the literature, which hampers comparison and analysis of the scarce data published on the subject. Despite this multiplicity of risk factors for postoperative AKI after partial hepatectomy, there are main factors that clearly contribute to its occurrence. First factor relates to large blood losses with renal hypoperfusion during the operation, second factor relates to the occurrence of post-hepatectomy liver failure with consequent distributive circulatory changes and hepatorenal syndrome. Eventually, patients can have more than one factor contributing to post-operative AKI, and frequently these combinations of acute insults can be aggravated by sepsis or exposure to nephrotoxic drugs. PMID:27478539

  13. Acute renal injury after partial hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Luis Alberto Batista; Bredt, Luis Cesar; Cipriani, Raphael Flavio Fachini

    2016-01-01

    Currently, partial hepatectomy is the treatment of choice for a wide variety of liver and biliary conditions. Among the possible complications of partial hepatectomy, acute kidney injury (AKI) should be considered as an important cause of increased morbidity and postoperative mortality. Difficulties in the data analysis related to postoperative AKI after liver resections are mainly due to the multiplicity of factors to be considered in the surgical patients, moreover, there is no consensus of the exact definition of AKI after liver resection in the literature, which hampers comparison and analysis of the scarce data published on the subject. Despite this multiplicity of risk factors for postoperative AKI after partial hepatectomy, there are main factors that clearly contribute to its occurrence. First factor relates to large blood losses with renal hypoperfusion during the operation, second factor relates to the occurrence of post-hepatectomy liver failure with consequent distributive circulatory changes and hepatorenal syndrome. Eventually, patients can have more than one factor contributing to post-operative AKI, and frequently these combinations of acute insults can be aggravated by sepsis or exposure to nephrotoxic drugs. PMID:27478539

  14. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Baseline Characteristics and Associations with Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Go, Alan S.; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L. Lee; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes. PMID:19541818

  15. Cardiovascular Disease Among Hispanics and Non-Hispanics in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Ana C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Lora, Claudia M.; Budoff, Matthew; Keane, Martin G.; Kusek, John W.; Martinez, Monica; Nessel, Lisa; Stamos, Thomas; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Yang, Wei; Feldman, Harold I.; Go, Alan S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States. The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about its prevalence among Hispanics with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted cross-sectional analyses of prevalent self-reported clinical and subclinical measures of CVD among 497 Hispanics, 1638 non-Hispanic Caucasians, and 1650 non-Hispanic African Americans, aged 21 to 74 years, with mild-to-moderate CKD at enrollment in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic CRIC (HCRIC) studies. Measures of subclinical CVD included left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and ankle-brachial index. Results Self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) was lower in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (18% versus 23%, P = 0.02). Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians, Hispanics had a lower prevalence of CAC >100 (41% versus 34%, P = 0.03) and CAC >400 (26% versus 19%, P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, these differences were no longer significant. In adjusted analyses, Hispanics had a higher odds of LVH compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians (odds ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 3.17, P = 0.005), and a higher odds of CAC >400 compared with non-Hispanic African Americans (odds ratio, 2.49, 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.58, P = 0.03). Hispanic ethnicity was not independently associated with any other CVD measures. Conclusions Prevalent LVH was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic Caucasians, and elevated CAC score was more common among Hispanics than non-Hispanic African Americans. Understanding reasons for these racial/ethnic differences and their association with long-term clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:21896829

  16. Estimating GFR Among Participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Yang, Wei; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Joffe, Marshall M.; Leonard, Mary B.; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Jing; Greene, Tom; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kao, Patricia; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Lash, James P.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measure of kidney function, but repeated assessment is not feasible in most research studies. Study Design Cross-sectional study of 1,433 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (i.e., the GFR subcohort) to derive an internal GFR estimating equation using a split sample approach. Setting & Participants Adults from 7 US metropolitan areas with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease; 48% had diabetes and 37% were black. Index Test CRIC GFR estimating equation Reference Test or Outcome Urinary 125I-iothalamate clearance testing (measured GFR) Other Measurements Laboratory measures including serum creatinine and cystatin C, and anthropometrics Results In the validation dataset, the model that included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, age, gender, and race was the most parsimonious and similarly predictive of mGFR compared to a model additionally including bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle, CRIC clinical center, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. Specifically, the root mean square errors for the separate model were 0.207 vs. 0.202, respectively. The performance of the CRIC GFR estimating equation was most accurate among the subgroups of younger participants, men, non-blacks, non-Hispanics, those without diabetes, those with body mass index <30 kg/m2, those with higher 24-hour urine creatinine excretion, those with lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and those with higher mGFR. Limitations Urinary clearance of 125I-iothalamate is an imperfect measure of true GFR; cystatin C is not standardized to certified reference material; lack of external validation; small sample sizes limit analyses of subgroup-specific predictors. Conclusions The CRIC GFR estimating equation predicts measured GFR accurately in the CRIC cohort using serum creatinine and cystatin C, age, gender, and race. Its performance was best among younger and healthier

  17. Nonobstructive Acute Renal Failure with a Large Solitary Fibroid

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Blakele; Yilmaz, Ali; DePasquale, Stephen; Boren, Todd

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old African American woman presenting with acute abdominal pain and nonobstructive renal failure was found to have an enlarged fibroid uterus. A differential for sepsis was considered. Lab evaluation revealed an elevated creatinine and myoglobin level at 3.9 mg/dL and 2140 ng/mL, respectively. Ongoing hemodynamic instability mandated surgery for acute abdomen. A 25 cm fibroid uterus was extirpated through a total abdominal hysterectomy. Immediate improvement of acute nephropathy mirrored the postoperative decline in serum myoglobin levels. Myoglobinemia from a massive degenerating fibroid is associated with nonobstructive acute renal failure. PMID:27375910

  18. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Karnik, ND; Gupta, VA; Hase, NK

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398

  19. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Prevents Acute Renal Failure of Accelerates Renal Regeneration in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaida, Kouichi; Matsumoto, Kunio; Shimazu, Hisaaki; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    1994-05-01

    Although acute renal failure is encountered with administration of nephrotoxic drugs, ischemia, or unilateral nephrectomy, there has been no effective drug which can be used in case of acute renal failure. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent hepatotropic factor for liver regeneration and is known to have mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic activities for various epithelial cells, including renal tubular cells. Intravenous injection of recombinant human HGF into mice remarkably suppressed increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine caused by administration of cisplatin, a widely used antitumor drug, or HgCl_2, thereby indicating that HGF strongly prevented the onset of acute renal dysfunction. Moreover, exogenous HGF stimulated DNA synthesis of renal tubular cells after renal injuries caused by HgCl_2 administration and unilateral nephrectomy and induced reconstruction of the normal renal tissue structure in vivo. Taken together with our previous finding that expression of HGF was rapidly induced after renal injuries, these results allow us to conclude that HGF may be the long-sought renotropic factor for renal regeneration and may prove to be effective treatment for patients with renal dysfunction, especially that caused by cisplatin.

  20. Acute renal failure in children. An ultrasonographic-clinical study.

    PubMed

    Vergesslich, K A; Sommer, G; Wittich, G R; Balzar, E; Weninger, M; Ponhold, W

    1987-11-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) may be due to obstructive uropathy or renal parenchymal disease. Twenty-five children with acute renal failure secondary to renal parenchymal disease underwent ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys. Changes of renal size and cortical echogenicity were correlated with renal function. All patients presented with bilaterally enlarged kidneys with the exception of those in the neonatal age group (12%). Improvement in renal function resulted in normalization of renal size. With regard to cortical echogenicity two groups were formed. Group A comprised 11 patients whose kidneys had the same echogenicity as the liver, while in group B the kidneys were more echogenic (14 patients). Cortical echogenicity was always increased. Determination of creatinine levels showed a statistically significant difference between group A (3.32 mg% +/- 1.40 S.D.) and group B (5.95 mg% +/- 1.96 S.D.), p less than 0.001. Changes in renal function were paralleled by rapid changes in renal size and cortical echogenicity. PMID:3319623

  1. Inhibiting albumin glycation attenuates dysregulation of VEGFR-1 and collagen IV subchain production and the development of renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Margo P; Lautenslager, Gregory T; Hud, Elizabeth; Shea, Elizabeth; Wang, Amy; Chen, Sheldon; Shearman, Clyde W

    2007-02-01

    Glomerular cells in culture respond to albumin containing Amadori glucose adducts (the principal serum glycated protein), with activation of protein kinase C-beta(1), increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, the TGF-beta type II signaling receptor, and the extracellular matrix proteins alpha(1)(IV) collagen and fibronectin and with decreased production of the podocyte protein nephrin. Decreasing the burden of glycated albumin in diabetic db/db mice significantly reduces glomerular overexpression of TGF-beta1 mRNA, restores glomerular nephrin immunofluorescence, and lessens proteinuria, mesangial expansion, renal extracellular matrix protein production, and increased glomerular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunostaining. In the present study, db/db mice were treated with a small molecule, designated 23CPPA, that inhibits the nonenzymatic condensation of glucose with the albumin protein to evaluate whether increased glycated albumin influences the production of VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) and type IV collagen subchains and ameliorates the development of renal insufficiency. Renal levels of VEGF and VEGFR-1 proteins and serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher and renal levels of alpha(3)(IV) collagen and nephrin proteins and endogenous creatinine clearance values were significantly lower in control diabetic than in age-matched nondiabetic (db/m) mice. These changes were significantly attenuated in db/db littermate mice treated from 9 to 18 wk of age with 23CPPA. The findings indicate that inhibiting excess nonenzymatic glycation of serum albumin improves renal molecular biology abnormalities and protects against the development of renal insufficiency in the db/db mouse. PMID:17018845

  2. Acute toxic effects of sustained-release verapamil in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Pritza, D R; Bierman, M H; Hammeke, M D

    1991-10-01

    Four hypertensive patients with chronic renal insufficiency or end-stage renal disease who were treated with sustained-release verapamil hydrochloride subsequently developed acute toxic effects. All four patients developed varying degrees of atrioventricular heart block, hypotension, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and hepatic dysfunction. Supportive treatment consisted of intravenous catecholamines, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, and dialysis, and all patients recovered completely without any residual hepatic or cardiac disease. Patients with renal impairment who are treated with sustained-release verapamil may accumulate verapamil or its metabolites and develop toxic side effects. We conclude that sustained-release verapamil should be used with caution in this patient population and that patients should be closely monitored for adverse cardiovascular, metabolic, and hepatic side effects. PMID:1843183

  3. [Acute renal failure caused by phenazopyridine].

    PubMed

    Vega, Jorge

    2003-05-01

    A 27 years old woman was admitted due to abdominal cramps, jaundice and oligoanuria, starting 48 hours after eating Chinese food. Hepatic biochemical tests, abdominal ultrasound and retrograde pyelography were normal. The urine was intensely orange colored and microscopic analysis was normal. The serum creatinine and urea nitrogen on admission were 4.59 and 42.5 mg/dl and rose to 13.5 and 72.4 mg/dl, respectively, at the 6th hospital day. Oliguria lasted only 48 hours. Dialysis was not used, since the patient was in good general condition and uremic symptoms were absent. On the 7th day, azotemia began to subside and at the 14th day, serum creatinine was 1.0 mg/dl. Before hospital discharge, she confessed the ingestion of 2.000 mg of phenazopyridine, during a nervous breakdown, aiming to sleep deeply. Remarkable was the persistence of the orange color of her urine during several days and the dissociation between the rate of increase of serum creatinine with respect to urea nitrogen. This is an unusual case of acute renal failure caused by an overdose of a drug, commonly prescribed for urinary tract infections. PMID:12879816

  4. [Acute renal failure after participation in high endurance sport].

    PubMed

    Lange, Marie Liva Kjærgaard; Skansing, Terese Bräuner

    2016-01-18

    In two case report Danish men, who were experienced amateur athletes, suffered from severe reversible acute renal failure after participation in a trail run and a long-distance bike race. For both men the treatment was dialysis, diuretics and fluid therapy. The cause of renal failure was never fully clarified. Both men consumed non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs during the race, had high levels of creatinine kinase and were dehydrated. Possibly, these factors together resulted in "the perfect storm" and caused acute reversible renal failure. PMID:26815586

  5. Leptospirosis Presenting with Rapidly Progressing Acute Renal Failure and Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pothuri, Pallavi; Ahuja, Keerat; Kumar, Viki; Lal, Sham; Tumarinson, Taisiya; Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unexplained renal insufficiency combined with hepatic failure is a common problem encountered by clinicians. As with many disease processes involving multi-organ systems, reversible causes are usually not readily identifiable, and for many patients their health deteriorates rapidly. We present a rare cause of acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia occurring simultaneously, with leptospirosis presenting as Weil's disease. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaints of anuria over the past two days. His symptoms started with dark urine, severe cramps in the thighs, and chills. The patient was a visitor to the United States from Guyana. Positive physical examination findings included mild tachycardia and hypotension, scleral icterus, and tenderness over abdomen, costovertebral angles, and thighs. The patient had a high white blood cell count, thrombocytopenia, renal/hepatic insufficiency, and an urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was initially treated under the suspicion of acute kidney injury secondary to rhabdomyolysis and pyelonephritis. The patient continued to deteriorate with decreasing platelet counts, worsening renal function, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress, with no improvement with hemodialysis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered, including doxycycline, due to a high suspicion of leptospirosis. The patient's condition drastically improved after initiation of doxycycline. On subsequent days, the patient's Leptospira antibody results were available, showing titers of more than 1:3200. Hemodialysis was discontinued as the patient started producing urine with improved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS As world travel becomes more economically feasible, we will continue to encounter foreign endemic diseases. Leptospirosis presenting as Weil's disease is a common cause of renal and hyperbilirubinemia in endemic areas. Often, as was the case for our patient where the time from presentation to acute

  6. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria infection, a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadiya, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Sangappa, Jainapur Ravi; Choudhary, Prakash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with 6 days history of intermittent fever with chills, 2 days history of upper abdomen pain, distension of abdomen, and decreased urine output. He was diagnosed to have Plasmodium vivax malaria, acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure. These constellations of complications in P. vivax infection have never been reported in the past. The patient responded to intravenous chloroquine and supportive treatment. For renal failure, he required hemodialysis. Acute pancreatitis, ascites, and acute renal failure form an unusual combination in P. vivax infection. PMID:26629455

  7. Renin and Acute Renal Failure: Studies in Man

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. J.; Gleadle, R. I.; Lawson, D. H.; Lever, A. F.; Linton, A. L.; Macadam, R. F.; Prentice, E.; Robertson, J. I. S.; Tree, M.

    1970-01-01

    Plasma renin concentration was increased, usually appreciably, in 22 out of 25 patients with acute renal failure, the average value being 226 units/litre (mean for normal subjects 8·2 units/1.). The highest renin values were found in the first 10 days of the disease; lower and sometimes normal values were found subsequently. Unequivocal acute tubular necrosis was present in only two of the eight cases examined post mortem. These findings are compatible with Goormaghtigh's proposal that an excess of renin and angiotensin may act within the kidney to produce acute renal failure. PMID:4313590

  8. Acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia associated with metamizole.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Pachon, Maria Dolores; Enriquez, Ricardo; Sirvent, Ana Esther; Millan, Isabel; Romero, Alberto; Amorós, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Metamizole or dipyrone is a pyrazolone derivative that belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Its main side-effect is hematological toxicity. Thrombocytopenia due to metamizole is rare and is usually associated with the involvement of the two other blood series. Drug-induced thrombocytopenia is more frequently related to immune mechanisms, and the diagnosis is still largely made by exclusion of other causes and by correlation of timing of thrombocytopenia with the administration of drug. Metamizole may cause acute renal failure due to hemodynamic renal failure/acute tubular necrosis and/or acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a case of acute renal failure and severe thrombocytopenia after metamizole. As far as we know, this combination of adverse effects from this drug has not been reported previously. PMID:24434395

  9. Imaging in acute renal infection in children

    SciTech Connect

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Starshak, R.J.; Schroeder, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    Infection is the most common disease of the urinary tract in children, and various imaging techniques have been used to verify its presence and location. On retrospective analysis, 50 consecutive children with documented upper urinary tract infection had abnormal findings on renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. The infection involved the renal poles only in 38 and the poles plus other renal cortical areas in eight. Four had abnormalities that spared the poles. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 32 of 50 children. Excretory urograms were abnormal in six of 23 children in whom they were obtained. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 34 of 40 children in whom voiding cystourethrography was performed. These data show the high sensitivity of renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in documenting upper urinary tract infection. The location of the abnormalities detected suggests that renal infections spread via an ascending mode and implies that intrarenal reflux is a major contributing factor.

  10. Renal functional reserve and renal recovery after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aashish; Mucino, Marìa Jimena; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Renal functional reserve (RFR) represents the capacity of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to certain physiological or pathological stimuli or conditions. Once baseline GFR is determined, RFR can be assessed clinically after an oral protein load or intravenous amino acid infusion. In clinical practice, baseline GFR displays variable levels due to diet or other factors. RFR is the difference between peak 'stress' GFR induced by the test (p.o. or i.v.) and the baseline GFR. In clinical scenarios where hyperfiltration is present (high baseline GFR due to pregnancy, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, in solitary kidney or kidney donors), RFR may be fully or partially used to achieve normal or supranormal renal function. Since commonly used renal function markers, such as GFR, may remain within normal ranges until 50% of nephrons are lost or in patients with a single remnant kidney, the RFR test may represent a sensitive and early way to assess the functional decline in the kidney. RFR assessment may become an important tool to evaluate the ability of the kidney to recover completely or partially after a kidney attack. In case of healing with a defect and progressive fibrosis, recovery may appear complete clinically, but a reduced RFR may be a sign of a maladaptive repair or subclinical loss of renal mass. Thus, a reduction in RFR may represent the equivalent of renal frailty or susceptibility to insults. The main aim of this article is to review the concept of RFR, its utility in different clinical scenarios, and future perspective for its use. PMID:25343829

  11. Acute renal failure in four cats treated with paromomycin.

    PubMed

    Gookin, J L; Riviere, J E; Gilger, B C; Papich, M G

    1999-12-15

    Acute renal failure was diagnosed in 4 cats receiving paromomycin orally for treatment of infectious enteritis. All 4 cats responded to fluid therapy and recovered normal or near-normal renal function; however, 3 of the cats subsequently became deaf and developed cataracts. Toxicoses were attributed to a combination of an excessive dosage of paromomycin and absorption of the drug across injured intestinal mucosal epithelium. Pharmacokinetic studies are needed to further define the disposition of paromomycin after oral administration to cats. PMID:10613215

  12. Leptospirosis: an ignored cause of acute renal failure in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, C W; Pan, M J; Wu, M S; Chen, Y M; Tsen, Y T; Lin, C L; Wu, C H; Huang, C C

    1997-12-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by a spirochete, is the most common zoonosis in domestic or wild animals. Animals excrete infected urine in soil or water and may cause human infections through abrased wound, mucosa, conjunctiva, or by swallowing contaminated water. Clinical presentations of leptospirosis are mostly subclinical. Five to ten percent of leptospirosis are fatal, causing fever, hemorrhage, jaundice, and acute renal failure (Weil's syndrome). Leptospirosis has been ignored as a cause of acute renal failure in Taiwan. We report two patients with leptospirosis who presented with high fever, abdominal pain, jaundice, and acute renal failure. Patient 1 died on day 12 of admission of multiple organ failure associated with pancytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and reactive hemophagocytosis. Leptospirosis was recognized after death. Patient 2 was admitted with similar presentations 2 weeks later. Penicillin and doxycycline were given early in the course, and azotemia, jaundice, respiratory failure, and aseptic meningitis gradually improved. Renal biopsy showed interstitial nephritis. Several tubular clearance tests showed proximal tubular defect with severe bicarbonate wasting (FeHCO3- 20.9%) and incomplete type II renal tubular acidosis without affecting the distal nephron. After 80 days of treatment, this patient was discharged with recovery of conscious level and renal function. This is the first leptospirosis patient with detailed tubular functional and morphological studies of the kidney. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was made by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody to leptospira and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for leptospira DNA in blood and urine (interrogans serogroup australis in case 1 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup ballum in case 2). Because active surveillance has resulted in 13 cases diagnosed as leptospirosis islandwide thereafter, underestimation and ignorance of leptospirosis as a cause of acute renal failure may occur in Taiwan

  13. Bone scintigraphy in acute renal failure with severe loin pain and patchy renal vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Han, J S; Kim, Y G; Kim, S; Lee, M C; Lee, J S; Kim, S H

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the patterns of renal images and the diagnostic value as a screening test of the whole-body bone and renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) or -pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP), we performed bone scintigraphy in 6 patients with acute renal failure (ARF) with severe loin pain and patchy renal vasoconstriction on postcontrast renal computed tomography (CT). All 6 patients were young and previously healthy but experienced severe loin pain after track events. Five took analgesics. Postcontrast renal CT showed patchy low-density areas or diffuse enhancement immediately after radiocontrast injection and then patchy wedge-shaped enhancement 24 or 48 h later, which subsequently disappeared 72 h later. On the whole-body bone scintigrams with 99mTc-MDP or 99mTc-PYP before obtaining renal CT, there was no increased uptake of isotope in the soft tissue, and multiple patchy increased accumulations of the isotope in the kidney were observed in 5 patients. In 2 patients, renal scintigraphies with technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinate showed photon-deficient areas in the same areas of patchy isotope accumulation in the whole-body bone scintigraphies. Whole-body image and renal scintigraphy with bone-seeking agents may be useful as a screening test and in the search for the theoretical evidence of ARF with severe loin pain and patchy renal vasoconstriction. PMID:1835520

  14. [Pain therapy in acute renal colic.].

    PubMed

    Tschuschke, C; Müller, S C; Hertle, L

    1993-09-01

    The severe pain of a renal colic is an emergency and requires a fast and sufficient analgesic therapy with few side-effects. The release of the ureteral obstruction is secondary to this initial treatment. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis directly interferes with the mechanism of renal colic pain. Dipyrone, indomethacin and diclofenac are the drugs of choice. They should be administered intravenously if possible. Narcotic agents and their derivatives are the second choice. Spasmolytic agents are unnecessary in the treatment of renal colic. PMID:18415401

  15. [Use of direct magnification technic of the hand radiograph in children with chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Ponhold, W; Balzar, E

    1984-04-01

    The characteristic changes of renal osteopathy in the hand are shown by the X-rays of seven children with end stage renal disease using the direct magnification technique. All children had pathologic conditions in the hands. Most frequently tunnelation , spiculae in the phalanges and metaphyseal translucent bands in the forearm were seen. Less constantly acroosteolyses and generalized osteoporosis could be observed. The X-rays of the hands using the direct magnification technique with rare earth film-screen system and a microfocus X-ray tube are sufficient to determine renal osteopathy. If clinical symptoms are present, X-rays of other parts of the skeleton are necessary. By using the above mentioned radiologic technique the radiographic diagnostic effort could be minimized. PMID:6729094

  16. Acute anuric renal failure following jering bean ingestion.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jin Shyan; Ong, Teng-Aik; Chua, Hock-Hin; Tan, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Djenkol beans or jering (Pithecellobium jeringa) is a traditional delicacy consumed by the local population in Malaysia. Jering poisoning or djenkolism is characterized by spasmodic pain, urinary obstruction and acute renal failure. The underlying pathology is an obstructive nephropathy, which is usually responsive to aggressive hydration and diuretic therapy. We present a case of djenkolism following ingestion of jering. The patient required urgent bilateral ureteric stenting following the failure of conservative therapy. Healthcare providers need to recognize djenkolism as a cause of acute renal failure and the public educated on this potential health hazard. PMID:17337378

  17. [X-ray skeletal changes in children with chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Ponhold, W; Balzar, E

    1983-01-01

    The typical changes of renal osteopathy are shown in the X-rays of 7 children with end-stage renal disease treated with chronic intermittent hemodialysis. The exact evaluation of the granular structural changes of the cranium, the evidence of osteomalacia because of the hazy appearance of the vertebrae and the broadening of the sacroiliac joints depend highly on subjective judgement and the technical X-ray procedures used. Unmistakable radiological diagnoses can be made when a broadening of the metaphyseal zones, epiphysiolysis as well as characteristic changes in the finger phalanges (acro-osteolyses, spicula, tunnelation) are present. PMID:6646792

  18. Immediate financial impact of computerized clinical decision support for long-term care residents with renal insufficiency: a case study.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sujha; Hoover, Sonja; Wagner, Joann L; Donovan, Jennifer L; Kanaan, Abir O; Rochon, Paula A; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Field, Terry S

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized trial of a clinical decision support system for drug prescribing for residents with renal insufficiency in a large long-term care facility, analyses were conducted to estimate the system's immediate, direct financial impact. We determined the costs that would have been incurred if drug orders that triggered the alert system had actually been completed compared to the costs of the final submitted orders and then compared intervention units to control units. The costs incurred by additional laboratory testing that resulted from alerts were also estimated. Drug orders were conservatively assigned a duration of 30 days of use for a chronic drug and 10 days for antibiotics. It was determined that there were modest reductions in drug costs, partially offset by an increase in laboratory-related costs. Overall, there was a reduction in direct costs (US$1391.43, net 7.6% reduction). However, sensitivity analyses based on alternative estimates of duration of drug use suggested a reduction as high as US$7998.33 if orders for non-antibiotic drugs were assumed to be continued for 180 days. The authors conclude that the immediate and direct financial impact of a clinical decision support system for medication ordering for residents with renal insufficiency is modest and that the primary motivation for such efforts must be to improve the quality and safety of medication ordering. PMID:22101906

  19. Chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: lessons from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, G; Solini, A; Bonora, E; Fondelli, C; Orsi, E; Nicolucci, A; Penno, G

    2014-08-01

    The Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study is an ongoing observational survey that examines the role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as an independent predictor of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in 15,773 Italian subjects with type 2 diabetes. The analysis of data collected at the enrollment visit provided a picture of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its association with other complications, risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and treatments in a large contemporary cohort. Main results of this analysis were that (a) non-albuminuric renal impairment is the predominant clinical phenotype in patients, particularly women, with reduced eGFR; (b) concordance between CKD and diabetic retinopathy is low, with only a minority of patients with renal dysfunction presenting with any or advanced retinal lesions; (c) the non-albuminuric form is associated with a significant prevalence of CVD, especially at the level of the coronary vascular bed; (d) CKD is associated with hemoglobin (Hb) A1c variability more than with average HbA1c, whereas retinopathy and CVD are not; (e) in elderly individuals with moderate-to-severe eGFR reduction, use of agents which are not recommended, such as sulphonylureas and metformin, is still frequent; and (f) though complications are generally more prevalent in men (except non-albuminuric renal impairment) women show a less favorable CVD risk profile and achieve therapeutic targets to a lesser extent than men, despite the fact that treatment intensity is not lower. These data update existing information on the natural history of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24780515

  20. Imaging-based diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Kentrup, Dominik; Pawelski, Helga; Reuter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best available treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. Despite the introduction of effective immunosuppressant drugs, episodes of acute allograft rejection still endanger graft survival. Since efficient treatment of acute rejection is available, rapid diagnosis of this reversible graft injury is essential. For diagnosis of rejection, invasive core needle biopsy of the graft is the “gold-standard”. However, biopsy carries the risk of significant graft injury and is not immediately feasible in patients taking anticoagulants. Therefore, a non-invasive tool assessing the whole organ for specific and fast detection of acute allograft rejection is desirable. We herein review current imaging-based state of the art approaches for non-invasive diagnostics of acute renal transplant rejection. We especially focus on new positron emission tomography-based as well as targeted ultrasound-based methods. PMID:27011915

  1. Serum aldosterone and death, end-stage renal disease, and cardiovascular events in blacks and whites: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rajat; Yang, Wei; Khan, Abigail M; Bansal, Nisha; Zhang, Xiaoming; Leonard, Mary B; Keane, Martin G; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond R; Shlipak, Michael G; Feldman, Harold I

    2014-07-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that elevated aldosterone concentrations are an independent risk factor for death in patients with cardiovascular disease. Limited studies, however, have evaluated systematically the association between serum aldosterone and adverse events in the setting of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the association between serum aldosterone and death and end-stage renal disease in 3866 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. We also evaluated the association between aldosterone and incident congestive heart failure and atherosclerotic events in participants without baseline cardiovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate independent associations between elevated aldosterone concentrations and each outcome. Interactions were hypothesized and explored between aldosterone and sex, race, and the use of loop diuretics and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. During a median follow-up period of 5.4 years, 587 participants died, 743 developed end-stage renal disease, 187 developed congestive heart failure, and 177 experienced an atherosclerotic event. Aldosterone concentrations (per SD of the log-transformed aldosterone) were not an independent risk factor for death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-1.12), end-stage renal disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.17), or atherosclerotic events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.18). Aldosterone was associated with congestive heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.35). Among participants with chronic kidney disease, higher aldosterone concentrations were independently associated with the development of congestive heart failure but not for death, end-stage renal disease, or atherosclerotic events. Further studies should evaluate whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may reduce adverse events in individuals with

  2. N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Is a Useful Prognostic Marker in Patients with Pre-Capillary Pulmonary Hypertension and Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lüneburg, Nicole; Griesch, Elisabeth; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Grünig, Ekkehard; Klose, Hans

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a routinely used prognostic parameter in patients with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). As it accumulates in the presence of impaired renal function, the clinical utility of NT-proBNP in PH patients with concomitant renal insufficiency remains unclear. In a retrospective approach, patients with pre-capillary PH (group I or IV) and concomitant renal insufficiency at time of right heart catheterization (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≤60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were identified out of all prevalent pre-capillary PH patients treated at a single center. Forty patients with renal insufficiency (25.8%) were identified and matched regarding hemodynamic parameters with a control group of 56 PH patients with normal renal function (GFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Correlations of NT-proBNP levels with hemodynamic and prognostic parameters (time to clinical worsening and overall survival) were assessed. Overall, GFR correlated inversely with NT-proBNP and had the strongest influence on NT-proBNP levels in a stepwise multiple linear regression model including hemodynamic parameters and age (r2 = 0.167). PH patients with renal insufficiency had significant higher levels of NT-proBNP (median: 1935 ng/l vs. 573 ng/l, p = 0.001). Nevertheless, NT-proBNP correlated with invasive hemodynamic parameters in these patients. Using higher cut-off values than in patients with preserved renal function, NT-proBNP levels were significantly associated with time to clinical worsening (>1660 ng/l, p = 0.001) and survival (>2212 ng/l, p = 0.047) in patients with renal insufficiency. Multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards analysis including established prognostic parameters, age and GFR confirmed NT-proBNP as an independent risk factor for clinical worsening in PH patients with renal insufficiency (hazard ratio 4.8, p = 0.007). Thus, in a retrospective analysis we showed that NT-proBNP levels correlated with hemodynamic

  3. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30-35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes "holy water" green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for "body cleansing" and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  4. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis‑induced acute renal injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti‑inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 were measured with enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor‑κB signal pathway. PMID:27279569

  5. Paeoniflorin ameliorates acute necrotizing pancreatitis and pancreatitis-induced acute renal injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Weixing; Shi, Qiao; Zhao, Liang; Mei, Fangchao; Li, Chen; Zuo, Teng; He, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Acute renal injury caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a common complication that is associated with a high rate of mortality. Paeoniflorin is the active ingredient of paeonia radix and exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, analgesic and immunomodulatory effects. The present study detected the potential treatment effects of paeoniflorin on acute renal injury induced by ANP in a rat model. The optimal dose of paeoniflorin for preventing acute renal injury induced by ANP was determined. Then, the possible protective mechanism of paeoniflorin was investigated. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Renal inflammation and apoptosis were measured by immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The expression of nitric oxide in kidney tissues was also evaluated. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by western blotting. The results shown that paeoniflorin may ameliorate acute renal injury following ANP in rats by inhibiting inflammatory responses and renal cell apoptosis. These effects may be associated with the p38MAPK and nuclear factor-κB signal pathway. PMID:27279569

  6. Secondary adrenal insufficiency after glucocorticosteroid administration in acute spinal cord injury: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiqing; Trbovich, Michelle; Harrow, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Context/background A 61-year-old female with cervical stenosis underwent an elective cervical laminectomy with post-op worsening upper extremity weakness. Over the first 3 weeks post-op, she received two separate courses of intravenous steroids. Two days after cessation of steroids, she presented with non-specific symptoms of adrenal insufficiency (AI). Initial formal diagnostic tests of random cortisol level and 250 µg cosyntropin challenge were non-diagnostic; however, symptoms resolved with the initiation of empiric treatment with hydrocortisone. Ten days later, repeat cosyntropin (adrenocortocotropic hormone stimulation) test confirmed the diagnosis of AI. Findings AI is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), especially in those receiving steroids acutely. Only three cases have been reported to date of AI occurring in ASCI after steroid treatment. The presenting symptoms can be non-specific (as in this patient) and easily confused with other common sequelae of ASCI such as orthostasis and diffuse weakness. The 250 µg cosyntropin simulation test may not the most sensitive test to diagnose AI in ASCI. Conclusion The non-specific presentations and variability of diagnosis criteria make diagnosis more difficult. One microgram cosyntropin simulation test may be more sensitive than higher dose. Clinicians should be aware that AI can be a potential life-threatening complication of ASCI post-steroid treatment. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can reverse symptoms and minimize mortality. PMID:24969098

  7. Acute renal failure: outcomes and risk of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Block, C A; Schoolwerth, A C

    2007-09-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common condition, especially among the critically ill, and confers a high mortality. The incidence of ARF is increasing. Efforts such as the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) are being undertaken to establish a consensus definition of ARF, and to distinguish between varying degrees of acute kidney injury that might confer a different prognosis. Data are emerging to allow comparison of the epidemiology of ARF across institutions internationally. There is ongoing recognition of the important interaction between ARF and chronic kidney disease and more information regarding recovery from ARF is available. Controversy exists regarding the optimal management of ARF. Recent publications emphasize the importance of timing and dose of renal replacement therapy rather than the modality of treatment (intermittent hemodialysis vs continuous therapies). These issues are explored in this review. PMID:17912228

  8. Unilateral Renal Ischemia as a Model of Acute Kidney Injury and Renal Fibrosis in Cats.

    PubMed

    Schmiedt, C W; Brainard, B M; Hinson, W; Brown, S A; Brown, C A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to define the acute and chronic effects of 1-hour unilateral in vivo renal ischemia on renal function and histology in cats. Twenty-one adult purpose-bred research cats were anesthetized, and 1 kidney underwent renal artery and vein occlusion for 1 hour. Serum creatinine and urea concentrations, urine protein:creatinine ratio, urine-specific gravity, glomerular filtration rate, hematocrit, platelet concentration and function, and white blood cell count were measured at baseline and variable time points after ischemia. Renal histopathology was evaluated on days 3, 6, 12, 21, 42, and 70 postischemia; changes in smooth muscle actin and interstitial collagen were examined. Following ischemia, whole animal glomerular filtration rate was significantly reduced (57% of baseline on day 6; P < .05). At the early time points, the ischemic kidneys exhibited severe acute epithelial necrosis accompanied by evidence of regeneration of tubules predominantly within the corticomedullary junction. At later periods, postischemic kidneys had evidence of tubular atrophy and interstitial inflammation with significantly more smooth muscle actin and interstitial collagen staining and interstitial fibrosis when compared with the contralateral control kidneys. This study characterizes the course of ischemic acute kidney injury in cats and demonstrates that ischemic acute kidney injury triggers chronic fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and tubular atrophy in feline kidneys. These late changes are typical of those observed in cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease. PMID:26319781

  9. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and serum nutritional markers after acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Vujasinovic, Miroslav; Tepes, Bojan; Makuc, Jana; Rudolf, Sasa; Zaletel, Jelka; Vidmar, Tjasa; Seruga, Maja; Birsa, Bostjan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate impairment and clinical significance of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in patients after acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Patients with AP were invited to participate in the study. Severity of AP was determined by the Atlanta classification and definitions revised in 2012. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed by the concentration of fecal elastase-1. An additional work-up, including laboratory testing of serum nutritional markers for determination of malnutrition, was offered to all patients with low levels of fecal elastase-1 FE. Hemoglobin A1c or oral glucose tolerance tests were also performed in patients without prior diabetes mellitus, and type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) was diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included in the study: 75% (75/100) of patients had one attack of AP and 25% (25/100) had two or more attacks. The most common etiology was alcohol. Mild, moderately severe and severe AP were present in 67, 15 and 18% of patients, respectively. The mean time from attack of AP to inclusion in the study was 2.7 years. PEI was diagnosed in 21% (21/100) of patients and T3cDM in 14% (14/100) of patients. In all patients with PEI, at least one serologic nutritional marker was below the lower limit of normal. T3cDM was more frequently present in patients with severe AP (P = 0.031), but was also present in some patients with mild and moderately severe AP. PEI was present in all degrees of severity of AP. There were no statistically significantly differences according to gender, etiology and number of AP attacks. CONCLUSION: As exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency can develop after AP, routine follow-up of patients is necessary, for which serum nutritional panel measurements can be useful. PMID:25561813

  10. The pharmacokinetics and diuretic effects of piretanide in chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, K J; Walstad, R A; Bergh, K

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of piretanide, a new loop diuretic, were studied in four patients with GFR 4.7-14.8 ml/min. An oral dose of piretanide 18 mg was given at 08.00 h in two patients and at 08.00 h and 14.00 h in two. Blood samples were drawn after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 h. Serum concentrations of piretanide were estimated by radioimmunoassay. The peak serum concentration of piretanide (1-2 h after drug administration) was 510-880 ng/ml, independent of renal function. Elimination half life (t1/2) was 1.2-4.1 h, area under the curves (AUC(0,24)) 1.63-2.44 micrograms ml-1 h, volume of distribution (Vz) 0.30--0.741#kg, total plasma clearance (CL) 122.8-184.0 ml/min and renal clearance (CLR) 1.5-5.2 ml/min. The clinical effects of oral treatment with piretanide 18 mg twice daily were compared with bumetanide 3 mg twice daily in eight patients with renal failure (GFR 2.2-24.5 ml/min). Both drugs equally increased the 24 h output of urine (delta V), sodium (delta UNaV), chloride (delta UC1V), potassium (delta UKV) and calcium (delta UCaV). Fractional excretion of sodium (ENa%) was doubled by piretanide in patients with GFR less than 8 ml/min while a five fold increase was found in patients with GFR greater than 8 ml/min. The onset of effect was the same for both drugs, but the duration exceeded 6 h only for piretanide. Both drugs were most effective on the first of two consecutive treatment days. Delta UC1V was always greater than delta UNaV and urinary phosphate excretion was unchanged, as expected of a loop diuretic without significant proximal effects. Metabolic or clinical side effects were not noticed. PMID:6342640

  11. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous amdinocillin in healthy subjects and patients with renal insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, I H; Bornemann, L D; Brocks, V M; Fang, L S; Tolkoff-Rubin, N E; Rubin, R H

    1985-01-01

    Five healthy volunteers and 31 patients with various degrees of renal impairment received a 10-mg/kg intravenous dose of amdinocillin by infusion over 15 min to establish the disposition profile of the drug in plasma and urine. Both clearance from plasma and elimination rate constant showed a linear relationship with creatinine clearance. It was noted that in subjects with creatinine clearances of greater than 50 ml/min, the elimination half-life remained relatively constant; however, as the creatinine clearance decreased from 50 to 5 ml/min, there was a progressive rise in the elimination half-life. Despite the removal of the drug by hemodialysis (32 to 72% of the dose), concentrations of amdinocillin in plasma remained in the therapeutic range. In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, less than 4.0% of the infused dose was removed by dialysis during the hourly exchanges over a 14- to 18-h period. Although the clearance from plasma and the half-life of amdinocillin were altered up to fourfold in patients with creatinine clearances of less than 15 ml/min, the amdinocillin dosage per se may not need to be reduced for these patients if the frequency of dosing is reduced from six to three or four times daily. This is based on drug accumulation estimates of 56% from a regimen of 10 mg/kg every 8 h in these patients as compared with less than 10% from a regimen of 10 mg/kg every 4 h in subjects with normal renal function. In addition, supplemental doses may not be necessary during or at the end of hemodialysis for patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:4037777

  12. Leptospirosis Presenting with Rapidly Progressing Acute Renal Failure and Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pothuri, Pallavi; Ahuja, Keerat; Kumar, Viki; Lal, Sham; Tumarinson, Taisiya; Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 53 Final Diagnosis: Leptospirosis Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Unexplained renal insufficiency combined with hepatic failure is a common problem encountered by clinicians. As with many disease processes involving multi-organ systems, reversible causes are usually not readily identifiable, and for many patients their health deteriorates rapidly. We present a rare cause of acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia occurring simultaneously, with leptospirosis presenting as Weil’s disease. Case Report: A 53-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaints of anuria over the past two days. His symptoms started with dark urine, severe cramps in the thighs, and chills. The patient was a visitor to the United States from Guyana. Positive physical examination findings included mild tachycardia and hypotension, scleral icterus, and tenderness over abdomen, costovertebral angles, and thighs. The patient had a high white blood cell count, thrombocytopenia, renal/hepatic insufficiency, and an urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was initially treated under the suspicion of acute kidney injury secondary to rhabdomyolysis and pyelonephritis. The patient continued to deteriorate with decreasing platelet counts, worsening renal function, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress, with no improvement with hemodialysis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered, including doxycycline, due to a high suspicion of leptospirosis. The patient’s condition drastically improved after initiation of doxycycline. On subsequent days, the patient’s Leptospira antibody results were available, showing titers of more than 1:3200. Hemodialysis was discontinued as the patient started producing urine with improved kidney function. Conclusions: As world travel becomes more economically feasible, we will continue to encounter foreign endemic diseases. Leptospirosis

  13. Influence of Renal Insufficiency on the Prescription of Evidence-Based Medicines in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Its Prognostic Significance: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Xia, Tian-Li; Huang, Fang-Yang; Huang, Bao-Tao; Liu, Wei; Chai, Hua; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Zhang, Chen; Liao, Yan-Biao; Pu, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Shi-Jian; Li, Qiao; Xu, Yuan-Ning; Luo, Yang; Chen, Mao; Huang, De-Jia

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to discuss the present situation of discharge medications in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with different levels of renal function and assess the potential impact of these medications on the prognosis of this patient population.A retrospective cohort study was conducted. From July 2008 to Jan 2012, consecutive patients with CAD confirmed by coronary angiography of West China Hospital were enrolled and were grouped into 3 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories: ≥60, 30 to 60, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m. The endpoints were all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality.There are 3002 patients according to the inclusion criteria and follow-up requirement. The mean follow-up time was 29.1 ± 12.5 months. CAD patients with worse renal function included more cardiovascular risk factors (advanced age, history of hypertension or diabetes, and diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction). The cumulative survival curves of the patients according to renal function showed that the eGFR <30 mL/min and 30 mL/min ≤ eGFR <60 mL/min groups had a significantly higher risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death than the group with an eGFR ≥60 mL/min. The prescription of evidence-based medicines (EBMs) at discharge (antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] or angiotensin-receptor blockers [ARBs]) was a factor in reducing the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death. However, EBMs prescribed at discharge revealed an obvious underuse in renal insufficiency (RI) patients. The results of Cox regression showed that irrespective of the eGFR level, greater use of EBMs resulted in a greater reduction in the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death.A higher percentage of patients with CAD and concomitant RI suffered from cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, whereas a lower percentage of these patients used EBMs to prevent CVD events. Strict use of

  14. Influence of Renal Insufficiency on the Prescription of Evidence-Based Medicines in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Its Prognostic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yong; Xia, Tian-li; Huang, Fang-yang; Huang, Bao-tao; Liu, Wei; Chai, Hua; Zhao, Zhen-gang; Zhang, Chen; Liao, Yan-biao; Pu, Xiao-bo; Chen, Shi-jian; Li, Qiao; Xu, Yuan-ning; Luo, Yang; Chen, Mao; Huang, De-jia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to discuss the present situation of discharge medications in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with different levels of renal function and assess the potential impact of these medications on the prognosis of this patient population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. From July 2008 to Jan 2012, consecutive patients with CAD confirmed by coronary angiography of West China Hospital were enrolled and were grouped into 3 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories: ≥60, 30 to 60, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. The endpoints were all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality. There are 3002 patients according to the inclusion criteria and follow-up requirement. The mean follow-up time was 29.1 ± 12.5 months. CAD patients with worse renal function included more cardiovascular risk factors (advanced age, history of hypertension or diabetes, and diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction). The cumulative survival curves of the patients according to renal function showed that the eGFR <30 mL/min and 30 mL/min ≤ eGFR <60 mL/min groups had a significantly higher risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death than the group with an eGFR ≥60 mL/min. The prescription of evidence-based medicines (EBMs) at discharge (antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] or angiotensin-receptor blockers [ARBs]) was a factor in reducing the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death. However, EBMs prescribed at discharge revealed an obvious underuse in renal insufficiency (RI) patients. The results of Cox regression showed that irrespective of the eGFR level, greater use of EBMs resulted in a greater reduction in the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death. A higher percentage of patients with CAD and concomitant RI suffered from cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, whereas a lower percentage of these patients used EBMs to prevent CVD events

  15. [Treatment of acute renal failure--concepts and controversies. 2. Extracorporeal renal replacement and peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Gabriel, A; Müller, E; Tarnow, J

    2001-04-01

    Therapy of prolonged acute renal failure regularly requires a renal replacement therapy. This can be achieved by different extracorporal renal replacement therapies (ERRT) or by peritoneal dialysis. ERRT are classified according to the physical principle underlying toxin elimination as hemodialysis (diffusion) and hemofiltration (convection). Another classification refers to intermittent or continuous application modes. Biocompatibility of membranes is judged according to their activation of the complement system. Prospective randomized studies did not consolidate the assumptions about the benefit of particular modalities proposed on theoretical foundations. Mortality, duration and complication rates of acute renal failure are not significantly decreased by use of biocompatible membranes. Continuous modalities are not generally preferable but optimize treatment in hemodynamically unstable patients, in whom they endorse fluid balancing and maintenance of sufficient arterial blood pressure. The use of demanding hemofiltration techniques for cytokine removal should be limited to clinical studies. The effects of ERRT-"intensity" and the best timing for initiation of ERRT have not been evaluated sufficiently. The choice of the ERRT modality is subject to clinical judgement (criterion: hemodynamic situation), practical aspects (criteria: availability of equipment and handling experience), and costs. Prior to their general use new and expensive technical modalities and membrane types should be thoroughly evaluated in studies with regard to outcome-related aspects such as patient survival and preservation of renal function. PMID:11386089

  16. Overtime work, insufficient sleep, and risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Tanaka, H

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relation between working hours and hours of sleep and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with special reference to the joint effect of these two factors. Method: Case-control study in Japan. Cases were 260 men aged 40–79 admitted to hospitals with AMI during 1996–8. Controls were 445 men free from AMI matched for age and residence who were recruited from the resident registers. Odds ratios of AMI relative to mean weekly working hours and daily hours of sleep in the past year or in the recent past were calculated. Results: Weekly working hours were related to progressively increased odds ratios of AMI in the past year as well as in the past month, with a twofold increased risk for overtime work (weekly working hours ≥61) compared with working hours ≤40. Short time sleep (daily hours of sleep ≤5) and frequent lack of sleep (2 or more days/week with <5 hours of sleep) were also associated with a two to threefold increased risk. Frequent lack of sleep and few days off in the recent past showed greater odds ratios than those in the past year. Conclusions: Overtime work and insufficient sleep may be related to increased risk of AMI. PMID:12107292

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Sitagliptin Versus Glipizide in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Renal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Arjona Ferreira, Juan Camilo; Marre, Michel; Barzilai, Nir; Guo, Hua; Golm, Gregory T.; Sisk, Christine McCrary; Kaufman, Keith D.; Goldstein, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease have an increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, but limited options for antihyperglycemic therapy. We compared the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin with glipizide in patients with T2DM and moderate-to-severe chronic renal insufficiency and inadequate glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients (n = 426) were randomized 1:1 to sitagliptin (50 mg every day [q.d.] for moderate renal insufficiency and 25 mg q.d. for severe renal insufficiency) or glipizide (2.5 mg q.d., adjusted based on glycemic control to a 10-mg twice a day maximum dose). Randomization was stratified by: 1) renal status (moderate or severe renal insufficiency); 2) history of cardiovascular disease; and 3) history of heart failure. RESULTS At week 54, treatment with sitagliptin was noninferior to treatment with glipizide in A1C change from baseline (−0.8 vs. −0.6%; between-group difference −0.11%; 95% CI −0.29 to 0.06) because the upper bound of the 95% CI was less than the prespecified noninferiority margin of 0.4%. There was a lower incidence of symptomatic hypoglycemia adverse events (AEs) with sitagliptin versus glipizide (6.2 and 17.0%, respectively; P = 0.001) and a decrease in body weight with sitagliptin (−0.6 kg) versus an increase (1.2 kg) with glipizide (difference, −1.8 kg; P < 0.001). The incidence of gastrointestinal AEs was low with both treatments. CONCLUSIONS In patients with T2DM and chronic renal insufficiency, sitagliptin and glipizide provided similar A1C-lowering efficacy. Sitagliptin was generally well-tolerated, with a lower risk of hypoglycemia and weight loss versus weight gain, relative to glipizide. PMID:23248197

  18. [Treatment of anemia in patients with chronic renal insufficiency with recombinant human erythropoietin].

    PubMed

    Djukanović, Lj; Lezaić, V

    1996-01-01

    The discovery of recombinant human erythropoietin has enabled treatment of anaemia in patients whose anaemia was primarily caused by the lack of erythropoietin. This agent was most widely used in the treatment of anaemia in chronic renal failure patients. Non-regulated hypertension is considered to be the only absolute contraindication for recombinant human erythropoietin application, but thrombocytosis, predisposition to thromboses of arterio-venous fistulae, and convulsions are regarded as relative contraindications. Recombinant human erythropoietin may be administered intravenously, but the subcutaneous route is considered more rational. The treatment is initiated by low doses with gradual dose increase, what enables gradual anaemia correction and prevents the appearance of adverse effects. Haemoglobin level of around 100 g/l is considered the target haemoglobin level. The majority of patients respond well to treatment by human recombinant erythropoietin and the absence of anaemia improvement may be the result of iron deficiency, occult haemorrhages, chronic infection, inadequate dialysis, secondary hyperparathyroidism, aluminium intoxication. Anaemia improvement during the treatment with recombinant erythropoietin leads to the improvement of function of most organs and the quality of life in general as well as avoidance of blood transfusions and their adverse effects. The most frequent adverse effect of recombinant erythropoietin is the development of iron deficiency or hypertension aggravation. PMID:9102827

  19. Angiotensin and thromboxane in the enhanced renal adrenergic nerve sensitivity of acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Robinette, J B; Conger, J D

    1990-01-01

    The roles of intrarenal angiotensin (A) and thromboxane (TX) in the vascular hypersensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS) and paradoxical vasoconstriction to renal perfusion pressure (RPP) reduction in the autoregulatory range in 1 wk norepinephrine (NE)-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats were investigated. Renal blood flow (RBF) responses were determined before and during intrarenal infusion of an AII and TXA2 antagonist. Saralasin or SQ29548 alone partially corrected the slopes of RBF to RNS and RPP reduction in NE-ARF rats (P less than 0.02). Saralasin + SQ29548 normalized the RBF response to RNS. While combined saralasin + SQ29548 eliminated the vasoconstriction to RPP reduction, similar to the effect of renal denervation, appropriate vasodilatation was not restored. Renal vein norepinephrine efflux during RNS was disproportionately increased in NE-ARF (P less than 0.001) and was suppressed by saralasin + SQ29548 infusion (P less than 0.005). It is concluded that the enhanced sensitivity to RNS and paradoxical vasoconstriction to RPP reduction in 1 wk NE-ARF kidneys are the result of intrarenal TX and AII acceleration of neurotransmitter release to adrenergic nerve activity. PMID:2243129

  20. [Acute oliguric renal failure and haemolytic anaemia following infectious mononucleosis].

    PubMed

    Brkovic, Natasa; Jørgensen, Kit Riegels; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-11-01

    A 19-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain and faint. He was pale and icteric, awake with sufficient respiration and circulation. He had infectious mononucleosis complicated with acute oliguric renal failure and severe haemolytic anaemia with a positive Coombs test. He had a cold agglutinin syndrome. The treatment comprised intermittent haemodialysis, plasmapheresis and heating. He recovered completely after two months. PMID:26573947

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in inherited renal disease and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Emma, Francesco; Montini, Giovanni; Parikh, Samir M; Salviati, Leonardo

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria are increasingly recognized as key players in genetic and acquired renal diseases. Most mitochondrial cytopathies that cause renal symptoms are characterized by tubular defects, but glomerular, tubulointerstitial and cystic diseases have also been described. For example, defects in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis and the mitochondrial DNA 3243 A>G mutation are important causes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children and in adults, respectively. Although they sometimes present with isolated renal findings, mitochondrial diseases are frequently associated with symptoms related to central nervous system and neuromuscular involvement. They can result from mutations in nuclear genes that are inherited according to classic Mendelian rules or from mutations in mitochondrial DNA, which are transmitted according to more complex rules of mitochondrial genetics. Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders involves clinical characterization of patients in combination with biochemical and genetic analyses. In particular, prompt diagnosis of CoQ10 biosynthesis defects is imperative because of their potentially reversible nature. In acute kidney injury (AKI), mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the physiopathology of tissue injury, whereas mitochondrial biogenesis has an important role in the recovery of renal function. Potential therapies that target mitochondrial dysfunction or promote mitochondrial regeneration are being developed to limit renal damage during AKI and promote repair of injured tissue. PMID:26804019

  2. [Cardiovascular impact of end-stage renal insufficiency in children undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Aggoun, Y; Niaudet, P; Laffont, A; Sidi, D; Kachaner, J; Bonnet, D

    2000-08-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy and arterial dysfunction have been described in end-stage renal disease (ESDR) in adults. The incremental elastic modulus (Einc), is a marker of vascular wall material stiffness and an independant predictor of cardiovascular mortality in adults with ESRD on hemodialysis. The relationship between arterial changes and the heart is unknown in the children with ESRD in the same conditions. Using a high-resolution vascular ultrasound and a computerized system of measurement (Iotec), we assessed noninvasively 10 ESRD patients (mean +/- SD, age, 11.5 +/- 4 years; blood pressure [BP], 120 +/- 10/63 +/- 4 mmHg) and 10 age-, sex-, and BP-matched controls (mean +/- SD, age, 11 +/- 4 years; BP, 114 +/- 8/58 +/- 8 mmHg). The systolic and diastolic diameter of the common carotid artery (CCA), the thickness of the wall (intima-media thickness, IMT), the cross sectional compliance (CSC), the cross sectional distensibility (CSD) and the (Einc) were determined. CSC and CSD were evaluated at the same level of pressure. The CCA pressure waveform was obtained by applanation tonometry to assess the reflected wave by the augmentation index (AI). Further the left ventricular mass index was assessed. The flow mediated dilation (FMD) (endothelium-dependent function) and the vasodilation induced by glyceryl-trinitrate (GTNMD) (GTN, an endothelium-independent dilator) were evaluated at the brachial artery site. Compared to control subjects, ESRD patients have mechanical artery dysfunction with lower CSC and CSD (0.11 +/- 0.04 vs 0.18 +/- 0.05 mm2.mmHg-1; p < 0.01; 0.43 +/- 0.10 vs 0.82 +/- 0.20 mmHg-1.10(-2); p < 0.001) and higher Einc (2.60 +/- 1.00 vs 1.40 +/- 0.30 mmHg.10(3); p < 0.001). Furthermore an earlier return of the reflected pulse wave (AI -0.24 +/- 0.08 vs -0.58 +/- 0.06; p < 0.005) is correlated to LV mass index (r = 0.55, P < 0.01) that is significantly increased (134 +/- 63 vs 69 +/- 25 g/m2; p < 0.005). These patients have an impaired FMD (4 +/- 2 vs 7

  3. High Activity of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Is Associated With Renal Insufficiency in Puumala Hantavirus Induced Nephropathia Epidemica

    PubMed Central

    Outinen, Tuula K.; Mäkelä, Satu M.; Ala-Houhala, Ilpo O.; Huhtala, Heini S.A.; Hurme, Mikko; Libraty, Daniel H.; Oja, Simo S.; Pörsti, Ilkka H.; Syrjänen, Jaana T.; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka T.

    2013-01-01

    Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by Puumala hantavirus. The severity of NE varies greatly. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether serum indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity is associated with the severity of NE. A prospectively collected cohort of 102 consecutive patients with acute serologically confirmed NE was examined. Serum kynurenine, tryptophan, creatinine, CRP, and blood cell count were measured for up to 5 consecutive days after admission. The kynurenine to tryptophan (kyn/trp) ratio reflecting IDO activity was calculated. A maximum kyn/trp ratio >202 μmol/mmol had a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 75% for detecting maximum serum creatinine values >250 μmol/L by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A maximum kyn/trp ratio >202 μmol/mmol (high IDO level) was also associated with other parameters reflecting the severity of the disease and renal impairment. Patients with high IDO levels had higher maximum serum creatinine (379 vs. 102 μmol/L, P < 0.001), plasma C-reactive protein (104.1 vs. 72.1 mg/L, P = 0.029), and blood leukocyte values (11.9 vs. 9.0 × 109/L, P < 0.001) compared to patients with kyn/trp ratio ≤202 μmol/mmol. They also had lower minimum urinary output (1,100 vs. 1,900 ml/day, P < 0.001) and longer hospital stays (8 vs. 5 days, P < 0.001). In conclusion, high serum IDO activity was associated with increased disease severity and renal impairment in NE. PMID:21328391

  4. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously. PMID:27032222

  5. A case of anorexia nervosa with acute renal failure resulting from rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Mezaki, T; Hirono, N; Udaka, F; Kameyama, M

    1990-01-01

    Symptoms of acute renal failure were observed in an anorexia patient who had a history of frequent vomiting. The acute renal failure might have resulted from rhabdomyolysis subsequent to a disturbance of electrolyte balance. This acute renal failure might have resulted in death if not treated. We postulate that even a mild case of anorexia nervosa should be carefully observed to prevent such possible tragedy. PMID:2330820

  6. Acute Kidney Injury Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma Complicated by Renal Vein and Inferior Vena Cava Involvement.

    PubMed

    Sugase, Taro; Akimoto, Tetsu; Kubo, Taro; Imai, Toshimi; Otani-Takei, Naoko; Miki, Takuya; Takeda, Shin-Ichi; Nukui, Akinori; Muto, Shigeaki; Morita, Tatsuo; Nagata, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is caused by diverse pathologies, although it may occasionally result from concurrent renal efflux disturbances. We herein describe a case of AKI in a patient complicated by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with renal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement. A neoplastic thrombus which disrupted the blood flow in the renal vein appeared to play a role in the rapid decline in the renal function. Such a scenario has rarely been mentioned in the previous literature describing the cases of RCC complicated by AKI. Concerns regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for RCC are also discussed. PMID:27580548

  7. Cellular localization of uranium in the renal proximal tubules during acute renal uranium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Homma-Takeda, Shino; Kitahara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kyoko; Blyth, Benjamin J; Suya, Noriyoshi; Konishi, Teruaki; Terada, Yasuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2015-12-01

    Renal toxicity is a hallmark of uranium exposure, with uranium accumulating specifically in the S3 segment of the proximal tubules causing tubular damage. As the distribution, concentration and dynamics of accumulated uranium at the cellular level is not well understood, here, we report on high-resolution quantitative in situ measurements by high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in renal sections from a rat model of uranium-induced acute renal toxicity. One day after subcutaneous administration of uranium acetate to male Wistar rats at a dose of 0.5 mg uranium kg(-1) body weight, uranium concentration in the S3 segment of the proximal tubules was 64.9 ± 18.2 µg g(-1) , sevenfold higher than the mean renal uranium concentration (9.7 ± 2.4 µg g(-1) ). Uranium distributed into the epithelium of the S3 segment of the proximal tubules and highly concentrated uranium (50-fold above mean renal concentration) in micro-regions was found near the nuclei. These uranium levels were maintained up to 8 days post-administration, despite more rapid reductions in mean renal concentration. Two weeks after uranium administration, damaged areas were filled with regenerating tubules and morphological signs of tissue recovery, but areas of high uranium concentration (100-fold above mean renal concentration) were still found in the epithelium of regenerating tubules. These data indicate that site-specific accumulation of uranium in micro-regions of the S3 segment of the proximal tubules and retention of uranium in concentrated areas during recovery are characteristics of uranium behavior in the kidney. PMID:25772475

  8. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias.

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Karima; Ounissi, Mondher; Brahmi, Nozha; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Abdellah, Taieb Ben; El Younsi, Fethi; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2013-05-01

    Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six months following the

  9. Early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Tisdale, P.L.; Collier, B.D.; Kauffman, H.M.; Adams, M.B.; Isitman, A.T.; Hellman, R.S.; Rao, S.A.; Joestgen, T.; Krohn, L.

    1985-05-01

    A prospective evaluation of In-111 labeled autologous platelet scintigraphy for the early diagnosis of acute postoperative renal transplant rejection was undertaken. To date, 28 consecutive patients between 7 and 14 days post-op have been injected with 500..mu..Ci of In-111 platelets followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours. Activity within the renal transplant exceeding activity in the adjacent iliac vessels was considered to be evidence of rejection, and both chemical evidence and clinical impression of rejection at 5 days after completion of imaging was accepted as proof of ongoing or incipient rejection at the time of scintigraphy. In addition, to visual inspection, independent quantitative analysis compared the area-normalized activity over the transplant with the adjacent iliac vessels (normal <1.0). For 5 patients, positive In-111 scintigraphy was present before convincing clinical evidence of rejection. In-111 platelet scintigraphy is useful not only to confirm the clinical diagnosis of rejection but also to establish the early, pre-clinical diagnosis of incipient acute postoperative renal transplant rejection.

  10. Percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion improved prognosis in patients with renal insufficiency at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Yuanhui; Li, Hualong; Zhou, Yingling; Guo, Wei; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shiqun; Chen, Pingyan; Tan, Ning; Chen, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether attempted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) would improve the prognosis in patients with renal insufficiency at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We analyzed 2,330 consecutive patients with renal insufficiency with or without CTOs who underwent coronary angiography or PCI from prospectively collected data. The long-term death and risk of CIN were evaluated among three groups: patients without CTOs (group A, n = 1,829), patients with un-attempted PCI for CTOs (group B, n = 142), and patients who underwent attempted PCI for CTOs (group C, n = 359). Overall, group B and group C (successful rate, 89%) patients had similar renal function and were not significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41–1.93, P = 0.758). During a 2.33-year period (median), multivariate analysis demonstrated that attempted PCI for CTOs was independently associated with lower mortality (adjusted hazard ratio for death: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18–0.83; P = 0.015). Attempted PCI for CTOs improved the long-term prognosis in patients with high-risk renal insufficiency and did not increase the risk of CIN. PMID:26899017

  11. Prognostic Implications of Acute Renal Failure after Surgery for Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Fabrizio; Morgante, Alessandro; Ceresa, Fabrizio; Salamone, Giovanni; Patanè, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background “Type A” acute aortic dissection (AAAD) is the most challenging among the emergency operations in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the role of acute renal failure (ARF) in postoperative survival of patients operated for AAAD. Methods From February 2010 to April 2012, 37 consecutive patients were operated at our department for AAAD. We studied our population by subdividing the patients within groups according to the presence of ARF requiring continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) and according to hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) times and degrees. Results The overall 30-day mortality was 27% (50% group A with ARF, 13% group B no ARF). Acute renal failure requiring CVVH was 37.8%. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association with 30-day mortality (odds ratio 6.6 and p = 0.020). Preoperative oliguria [urine output less than 30 ml/h (odds ratio 4.7 p = 0.039)], CPB greater than 180 minutes (odds ratio 6.5 p = 0.023) and postoperative bleeding requiring a surgical reopening (odds ratio 12.2 and p = 0.021) were the variables significantly associated with acute kidney injury. Conclusions The data obtained from our analysis bring out the high incidence of renal injuries after surgery for AAAD, and indicate a negative impact on renal injuries of a preoperative oliguria, longer Cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP)/HCA times, and postoperative bleeding requiring a surgical revision. Our data also suggest a better 30-day survival and better renal outcomes in case of shorter HCA and lesser degree of hypothermia. The option of lesser and shorter hypothermia may be very useful, especially for the elderly patients and octogenarians. PMID:27069938

  12. Acute renal haemodynamic and renin-angiotensin system responses to graded renal artery stenosis in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, W P; Johnston, C I; Korner, P I

    1979-01-01

    1. The acute renal haemodynamic and renin-angiotensin system responses to graded renal artery stenosis were studied in chronically instrumented, unanaesthetized dogs. 2. Stenosis was induced over 30 sec by inflation of a cuff around the renal artery to lower distal pressure to 60, 40 or 20 mmHg, with stenosis maintained for 1 hr. This resulted in an immediate fall in renal vascular resistance, but over the next 5--30 min both resistance and renal artery pressure were restored back towards prestenosis values. Only transient increases in systemic arterial blood pressure and plasma renin and angiotensin levels were seen with the two milder stenoses. Despite restoration of renal artery pressure, renal blood flow remained reduced at all grades of stenosis. 3. Pre-treatment with angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor or sarosine1, isoleucone8 angiotensin II greatly attenuated or abolished the restoration of renal artery pressure and renal vascular resistance after stenosis, and plasma renin and angiotensin II levels remained high. Renal dilatation was indefinitely maintained, but the normal restoration of resistance and pressure could be simulated by infusing angiotensin II into the renal artery. 4. The effective resistance to blood flow by the stenosis did not remain constant but varied with changes in the renal vascular resistance. PMID:219182

  13. Aortic Pulse Pressure Is Associated With Carotid IMT in Chronic Kidney Disease: Report From Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort

    PubMed Central

    DeLoach, S.S.; Appel, L.J.; Chen, J.; Joffe, M.M.; Gadegbeku, C.A.; Mohler, E.R.; Parsa, A.; Perumal, K.; Rafey, M.A.; Steigerwalt, S.P.; Teal, V.; Townsend, R.R.; Rosas, Sylvia E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a disproportionate risk of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to assess the association between two noninvasive measures of cardiovascular risk, pulse wave analysis (PWA), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), in a cohort of CKD patients enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Methods Three hundred and sixty-seven subjects with CKD enrolled in the CRIC study at the University of Pennsylvania site (mean age 59.9 years, blood pressure 129/74 mm Hg, estimated glomerular filtration rate 48 ml/min/1.73 m2, IMT 0.8 mm) had both carotid IMT and PWA measurements. Carotid ultrasound was also used to determine the presence of plaque. PWA was used to determine augmentation index (AI), amplification ratio (AMPR), aortic pulse pressure (C_PP), and central aortic systolic pressure (C_SP). Results IMT was significantly associated with all PWA-derived measures. However, on multivariable linear regression analysis, only AMPR (regression coefficient −0.072, P = 0.006), C_PP (regression coefficient 0.0025, P < 0.001), and C_SP (regression coefficient 0.0017, P < 0.001) remained significantly associated with IMT. The prevalence of carotid plaque in the cohort was 59%. Of the PWA-derived measures, only C_PP was significantly associated with the presence of carotid plaque (P < 0.001). Conclusions PWA-derived measures are associated with carotid IMT and plaque in the CKD. Of these measures, C_PP was most associated with carotid IMT and plaque. PMID:19779470

  14. Candidate Gene Association Study of Coronary Artery Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Jane F; Matthews, Gregory J; Townsend, Raymond R; Raj, Dominic S; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Budoff, Matthew; Fischer, Michael J; Rosas, Sylvia E; Kanthety, Radhika; Rahman, Mahboob; Master, Stephen R; Qasim, Atif; Li, Mingyao; Mehta, Nehal N.; Shen, Haiqing; Mitchell, Braxton D; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Ho, Weang Kee; Young, Robin; Rasheed, Asif; Danesh, John; He, Jiang; Kusek, John W; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Flack, John; Go, Alan S; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Wright, Jackson T; Saleheen, Danish; Feldman, Harold I; Rader, Daniel J; Foulkes, Andrea S; Reilly, Muredach P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify loci for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Background CKD is associated with increased CAC and subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Genetic studies of CAC in CKD may provide a useful strategy for identifying novel pathways in CHD. Methods We performed a candidate gene study (~2,100 genes; ~50,000 SNPs) of CAC within the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (n=1,509; 57% European, 43% African ancestry). SNPs with preliminary evidence of association with CAC in CRIC were examined for association with CAC in PennCAC (n=2,560) and Amish Family Calcification Study (AFCS; n=784) samples. SNPs with suggestive replication were further analyzed for association with myocardial infarction (MI) in the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction study (PROMIS) (n=14,885). Results Of 268 SNPs reaching P <5×10−4 for CAC in CRIC, 28 SNPs in 23 loci had nominal support (P <0.05 and in same direction) for CAC in PennCAC or AFCS. Besides chr9p21 and COL4A1, known loci for CHD, these included SNPs having reported GWAS association with hypertension (e.g., ATP2B1). In PROMIS, four of the 23 suggestive CAC loci (chr9p21, COL4A1, ATP2B1 and ABCA4) had significant associations with MI consistent with their direction of effect on CAC. Conclusions We identified several loci associated with CAC in CKD that also relate to MI in a general population sample. CKD imparts a high risk of CHD and may provide a useful setting for discovery of novel CHD genes and pathways. PMID:23727086

  15. Recruitment of Hispanics into an observational study of chronic kidney disease: the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study experience.

    PubMed

    Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Fischer, Michael J; Rosman, Robert T; Carmona, Eunice; Lopez, Amada; Balaram, Manjunath; Nessel, Lisa; Tao, Kaixiang Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Kusek, John W; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P

    2012-11-01

    Despite the large burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics, this population has been underrepresented in research studies. We describe the recruitment strategies employed by the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, which led to the successful enrollment of a large population of Hispanic adults with CKD into a prospective observational cohort study. Recruitment efforts by bilingual staff focused on community clinics with Hispanic providers in high-density Hispanic neighborhoods in Chicago, academic medical centers, and private nephrology practices. Methods of publicizing the study included church meetings, local Hispanic print media, Spanish television and radio stations, and local health fairs. From October 2005 to July 2008, we recruited 327 Hispanics aged 21-74 years with mild-to-moderate CKD as determined by age-specific estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of 716 individuals completing a screening visit, 49% did not meet eGFR inclusion criteria and 46% completed a baseline visit. The mean age at enrollment was 57.1 and 67.1% of participants were male. Approximately 75% of enrolled individuals were Mexican American, 15% Puerto Rican, and 10% had other Latin American ancestry. Eighty two percent of participants were Spanish-speakers. Community-based and academic primary care clinics yielded the highest percentage of participants screened (45.9% and 22.4%) and enrolled (38.2% and 24.5%). However, academic and community-based specialty clinics achieved the highest enrollment yield from individuals screened (61.9% to 71.4%). A strategy focused on primary care and nephrology clinics and the use of bilingual recruiters allowed us to overcome barriers to the recruitment of Hispanics with CKD. PMID:22841929

  16. Prediction of acute renal failure following soft-tissue injury using the venous bicarbonate concentration.

    PubMed

    Muckart, D J; Moodley, M; Naidu, A G; Reddy, A D; Meineke, K R

    1992-12-01

    Sixty-four patients with soft-tissue injuries were studied prospectively to determine whether an initial venous bicarbonate concentration (VBC) of less than 17 mmol/L would predict the development of myoglobin-induced acute renal failure. The VBC was > 17 mmol/L in 59 patients, seven of whom had myoglobinuria. All recovered without renal complications. The remaining five patients all had VBC < 17 mmol/L and four had myoglobinuria. Acute renal failure developed in four patients (p < 0.001). The VBC on hospital arrival was the most accurate predictor of these patients' risk for the development of acute renal failure following soft-tissue injury. PMID:1474620

  17. Metronidazole pharmacokinetics in patients with acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, A A; Kong, C B; Gurr, F W; Sabto, J; Spicer, W J; McLean, A J

    1984-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of intravenous metronidazole were studied in six patients with acute renal failure. In two of the patients a single dose (500 mg) of metronidazole was administered, whereas in four patients the steady-state pharmacokinetics were studied after four days therapy of 500 mg twice daily. Plasma concentrations of metronidazole and its hydroxy and acetic acid metabolites were measured by a specific and sensitive HPLC method. The volume of distribution was 0.65 +/- 0.13 l/kg (mean +/- S.D.), elimination half-life was 9.9 +/- 2.5 h and total plasma clearance was 55.5 +/- 17.7 ml/min. Renal clearance was almost non-existent (1.4 +/- 1.4 ml/min), whereas non-renal clearance was 54.0 +/- 18.2 ml/min. Steady-state plasma concentrations of metronidazole were 15.3 +/- 3.8 mg/l, the hydroxy metabolite were 17.4 +/- 2.0 mg/l and the acetic acid metabolite were 1.2 +/- 0.8 mg/l. In the patients studied, a dosing regimen of 500 mg twice daily resulted in therapeutically adequate blood levels of metronidazole. PMID:6706889

  18. Acute renal failure after a holiday in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Guron, G; Holmdahl, J; Dotevall, L

    2006-12-01

    A 20-year-old, previously healthy woman, presented with high fever, headache and myalgia 3 days after her return from a holiday in Southeast Asia. Laboratory data on admission demonstrated a pronounced increase in plasma creatinine, marked thrombocytopenia and moderately elevated liver aminotransferases. After having ruled out malaria, dengue fever was primarily suspected and supportive intravenous fluid therapy was initiated. Still, 1 day after admission, platelet counts dropped even further and she became anuric although she did not appear hypovolemic. On day 2 after admission, urine production commenced spontaneously and the patient slowly recovered. All laboratory test results had returned to normal approximately 2 months later. Serological analysis for dengue fever was negative. It turned out that the patient had been trekking in the jungle while in Thailand and we, therefore, analyzed serology for Leptospira spirochetes which was clearly positive. The patient was diagnosed with leptospirosis which is a serious condition associated with a high mortality when complicated by acute renal failure. Differential diagnoses in patients with acute renal failure and tropical infections are reviewed. The importance of early recognition of leptospirosis, and prompt treatment with antibiotics in suspected cases, is emphasized. PMID:17176921

  19. Restoration of renal function by a novel prostaglandin EP4 receptor-derived peptide in models of acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Martin; Hou, Xin; Hamel, David; Sanchez, Melanie; Quiniou, Christiane; Honoré, Jean-Claude; Roy, Olivier; Madaan, Ankush; Lubell, William; Varma, Daya R.; Mancini, Joseph; Duhamel, François; Peri, Krishna G.; Pichette, Vincent; Heveker, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication characterized by an abrupt and sustained decline in renal function. Despite significant advances in supportive care, there is currently no effective treatment to restore renal function. PGE2 is a lipid hormone mediator abundantly produced in the kidney, where it acts locally to regulate renal function; several studies suggest that modulating EP4 receptor activity could improve renal function following kidney injury. An optimized peptidomimetic ligand of EP4 receptor, THG213.29, was tested for its efficacy to improve renal function (glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and urine output) and histological changes in a model of ARF induced by either cisplatin or renal artery occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. THG213.29 modulated PGE2-binding dissociation kinetics, indicative of an allosteric binding mode. Consistently, THG213.29 antagonized EP4-mediated relaxation of piglet saphenous vein rings, partially inhibited EP4-mediated cAMP production, but did not affect Gαi activation or β-arrestin recruitment. In vivo, THG213.29 significantly improved renal function and histological changes in cisplatin- and renal artery occlusion-induced ARF models. THG213.29 increased mRNA expression of heme-oxygenase 1, Bcl2, and FGF-2 in renal cortex; correspondingly, in EP4-transfected HEK293 cells, THG213.29 augmented FGF-2 and abrogated EP4-dependent overexpression of inflammatory IL-6 and of apoptotic death domain-associated protein and BCL2-associated agonist of cell death. Our results demonstrate that THG213.29 represents a novel class of diuretic agent with noncompetitive allosteric modulator effects on EP4 receptor, resulting in improved renal function and integrity following acute renal failure. PMID:23152113

  20. Gitelman’s syndrome complicated by mild renal insufficiency and high anion gap acidosis; a rare presentation in a young female

    PubMed Central

    Hassan Jafry, Nazrul; Ahmed, Ejaz; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gitelman’s syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder that is characterized by episodic clinical manifestations and persistent biochemical abnormalities. The disorder manifests in adolescent or adult age and is characterized by transient episodes of muscle weakness and tetany. Its diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and skillful interpretation of laboratory investigations. Case Presentation: We herein present a case of a 20-year-old female patient who presented with generalized muscle weakness and mild renal insufficiency. Laboratory investigations revealed mild azotemia, high anion gap acidosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. She recovered her renal functions and muscle power with appropriate management and is doing well seven months after her first presentation to our hospital. Conclusions: This case highlights the need to create high index of suspicion among the general practitioners about this syndrome and an early referral of such patients to nephrologists for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:25964887

  1. Analysis of the Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Different States of Renal Function.

    PubMed

    Hu, L-H; Zhang, L-J; Jin, Z-T; Yang, W; Zhang, L-N; Lu, C-Y

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic kidney dysfunction (CKD) on the clinical characteristics of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the degree of coronary arterial stenosis. The study enrolled 368 patients with ACS who underwent coronary angiography. Blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), uric acid (UA), and serum creatinine were examined randomly, and the severity of coronary artery lesions was assessed using the Gensini score. Patients were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate: normal renal function (n = 102), mild renal insufficiency (n = 198), and moderate to severe renal dysfunction (n = 68). The characteristics of patients with coronary artery lesions in the three groups were analysed. Of all patients, 27.7% had normal renal function. In the moderate to severe renal dysfunction group, the majority of patients were women whose average age was older. The ratio of patients with history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was higher, random blood glucose, HbA1c, TG, UA and Gensini score were obviously increased, while HDL-C was significantly decreased; all differences had statistical significance (p < 0.05). Different degrees of CKD occur in patients with ACS. In patients with ACS and CKD, metabolism of glucose and fat are significantly abnormal, and coronary arterial lesions are more serious. PMID:26624587

  2. Neurodiagnostic Abnormalities in Patients with Acute Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jerry D.; Lazarowitz, Virginia C.; Arieff, Allen I.

    1978-01-01

    Neurological abnormalities are a major cause of morbidity in patients with renal failure. The pathophysiology of these neurological changes is unclear, and the effects on them of dialysis and return of renal function have not been well studied. Studies were done in 31 patients who had acute renal failure (ARF), all of whom were either treated with dialysis within 5 days or did not survive. Studies on these patients included the electroencephalogram (EEG), motor nerve conduction velocity, and plasma Ca++ and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Studies were done at the time ARF was diagnosed, after stabilization on dialysis, during the diuretic phase of ARF, and 3 mo after recovery from ARF. In 16 patients with acute or chronic renal failure who did not survive and in nine patients without renal disease who died, measurements were made in brain of content of Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca++, Mg++, and water. In patients with ARF for less than 48 h, despite the fact that there were only modest increases in plasma urea and creatinine, there were striking abnormalities in the EEG. The percent EEG power < 5 Hz±SE was 41±8% (normal = 2±1%), whereas the percent of frequencies > 9 Hz was only 22±6% (normal = 62±3%). These changes were unaffected by dialysis, but became normal with return of renal function and remained normal at 3 mo follow-up. The motor nerve conduction velocity was unaffected by either ARF or dialysis. In patients with ARF, the brain Ca++ was 46.5±3.2 meq/kg dry wt, almost twice the normal value of 26.9±1.0 meq/kg dry wt (P < 0.001). The plasma PTH level was 3.2±0.6 ng/ml (normal < 1.5 ng/ml, P < 0.01). The increased brain Ca++ was not related to an increased plasma (Ca++) (PO4−−−) product (r2 = 0.14, P > 0.05). There was a small but significant decrement in brain Na+ (P < 0.05), but brain water, K+, and Mg++ were unaffected by ARF. Thus, in patients with ARF for less than 48 h, the EEG is grossly abnormal and there are elevated levels of PTH in plasma

  3. Djenkol bean poisoning (djenkolism): an unusual cause of acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Segasothy, M; Swaminathan, M; Kong, N C; Bennett, W M

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a patient with acute renal failure that resulted from the ingestion of djenkol beans. Features of acute djenkolism include nausea, vomiting, bilateral loin pain, gross hematuria, and oliguria. The blood urea level was 16.2 mmol/L and the serum creatinine was 460 mumol/L. Phase contrast microscopy of the urinary sediment indicated that the hematuria was nonglomerular. Ultrasound of the kidneys showed slightly enlarged kidneys with no features of obstruction. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis similar to the single animal study reported in the literature. With conservative therapy, which included rehydration with normal saline and alkalinization of the urine with sodium bicarbonate, the acute renal failure resolved. Based on its chemistry, djenkol bean-associated acute renal failure may be analogous to acute uric acid nephropathy. PMID:7810535

  4. CKD in Hispanics: Baseline Characteristics From the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Go, Alan; Lora, Claudia M.; Ackerson, Lynn; Cohan, Janet; Kusek, John; Mercado, Alejandro; Ojo, Akinlolu; Ricardo, Ana C.; Rosen, Leigh; Tao, Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold; Lash, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics. We compared baseline characteristics of Hispanic participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies with non-Hispanic CRIC participants. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis Setting and Participants Participants were aged 21–74 years with CKD using age-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at enrollment into the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies. H-CRIC included Hispanics recruited at the University of Illinois from 2005–2008 while CRIC included Hispanics and non-Hispanics recruited at seven clinical centers from 2003–2007. Factor Race/ethnicity Outcomes Blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, CKD-associated complications Measurements Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, blood pressure, and medications were assessed using standard techniques and protocols Results Among H-CRIC/ CRIC participants, 497 were Hispanic, 1650 non-Hispanic Black, and 1638 non-Hispanic White. Low income and educational attainment were nearly twice as prevalent in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics (p<0.01). Hispanics had self-reported diabetes (67%) more frequently than non-Hispanic Blacks (51%) and Whites (40%) (p<0.01). Blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg was more common in Hispanics (62%) compared with Blacks (57%) and Whites (35%) (p<0.05), and abnormalities in hematologic, metabolic, and bone metabolism parameters were more prevalent in Hispanics (p<0.05), even after stratifying by entry eGFR. Hispanics had the lowest receipt of ACE inhibitor/ARB among high-risk subgroups, including participants with diabetes, proteinuria, and blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR (ml/min/m2) was lower in Hispanics (39.6) than in Blacks (43.7) and Whites (46.2), while median proteinuria was higher in Hispanics (0.72 g/d) than in Blacks (0.24 g/d) and Whites (0.12 g/d) (p<0.01). Limitations Generalizability; observed

  5. Francisella philomiragia Bacteremia in a Patient with Acute Respiratory Insufficiency and Acute-on-Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Romney M.; Mattison, H. Reid; Miles, Jessica E.; Simpson, Edward R.; Corbett, Ian J.; Schmitt, Bryan H.; May, M.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella philomiragia is a very uncommon pathogen of humans. Diseases caused by it are protean and have been reported largely in near-drowning victims and those with chronic granulomatous disease. We present a case of F. philomiragia pneumonia with peripheral edema and bacteremia in a renal transplant patient and review the diverse reports of F. philomiragia infections. PMID:26400786

  6. A retrospective study of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Etiological diagnosis is an important part of the diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis. Hantavirus infection is a rare cause of acute pancreatitis, which is easy to ignore. There is a need to analyze clinical features of acute pancreatitis caused by Hantavirus. Methods This is a retrospective study conducted from May 1, 2006 to May 31, 2012 on patients diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome at our hospital. We reviewed these patients medical records, laboratory results and radiologic examinations to determine the prevalence and summarize clinical features of acute pancreatitis in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Results A total of 218 patients were diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome during the 6-year study period. Only 2.8% (6/218) of the total hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients were diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. The first symptom for all six of the patients with acute pancreatitis was fever. All six patients experienced hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia during the disease course, which was different from general acute pancreatitis. In addition, we presented two misdiagnosed clinical cases. Conclusions Acute pancreatitis is not a frequent complication in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome when acute pancreatitis patients with epidemiological data have high fever before abdominal pain. PMID:24345089

  7. Renal extracellular matrix accumulation in acute puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. L.; Buch, S.; Post, M.; McCulloch, L.; Liu, E.; Eddy, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    Progressive renal fibrosis is considered to be the final common pathway leading to chronic renal insufficiency. In this study, the authors examined some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the renal accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins using rats with puromycin amino-nucleoside (PAN) nephrosis as an acute model system. Puromycin aminonucleoside rats developed reversible nephrotic syndrome accompanied by an interstitial infiltrate of monocytes. The number of interstitial fibroblasts expressing ST4 antigen did not increase. During the first 4 days, steady-state mRNA levels for all genes examined remained at or below control levels. At 1 week, nephrotic syndrome and interstitial inflammation were established, and a period of renal cell proliferation occurred, identified by increased histone mRNA levels and localized by tritiated thymine autoradiography to tubular epithelial cells and occasional interstitial cells. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) steady-state mRNA levels were increased eightfold, but returned to control levels by 3 weeks. At week 1, there was a 10- to 20-fold increase in kidney steady-state mRNA levels for genes encoding interstitial matrix proteins collagen I and fibronectin and basement membrane collagen IV. By in situ hybridization, alpha 1(I) procollagen mRNA was localized to interstitial cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated focal accumulation of ECM proteins in the tubulointerstitial compartment at 2 and 3 weeks, but by 6 weeks, kidney immunohistology was normal again. Steady-state mRNA levels for the matrix degrading metalloproteinase stromelysin remained at control values, whereas the levels for interstitial collagenase were normal at week 1 and increased twofold to threefold at 2 and 3 weeks. Steady-state mRNA levels for the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) increased fivefold at 1 week and returned to baseline values over the next 2 weeks. The results of this study suggest that

  8. Acute renal failure and intravascular hemolysis following henna ingestion.

    PubMed

    Qurashi, Hala E A; Qumqumji, Abbas A A; Zacharia, Yasir

    2013-05-01

    The powder of henna plant (Lawsonia inermis Linn.) is extensively used as a decorative skin paint for nail coloring and as a hair dye. Most reports of henna toxicity have been attributed to adding a synthetic dye para-phenylenediamine (PPD). PPD is marketed as black henna added to natural henna to accentuate the dark color and shorten the application time. PPD toxicity is well known and extensively reported in medical literature. We report a case of a young Saudi male who presented with characteristic features of acute renal failure and intravascular hemolysis following ingestion of henna mixture. Management of PPD poisoning is only supportive and helpful only if instituted early. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion, as the clinical features are quite distinctive. PMID:23640630

  9. CT appearance of acute inflammatory disease of the renal interstitium

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.P.; McClennan, B.L.; Rottenberg, R.R.

    1983-08-01

    Today, infection remains the most common disease of the urinary tract and constitutes almost 75% of patient problems requiring urologic evaluation. There have been several major factors responsible for our better understanding of the nature and pathophysiology of urinary tract infection. One has been quantitated urine bacteriology and another, the discovery that a significant part of the apparently healthy adult female population has asymptomatic bacteriuria. Abnormal conditions such as neurogenic bladder, bladder malignancy, prolonged catheter drainage and reflux, altered host resistance, diabetes mellitus, and urinary tract obstruction, as well as pregnancy, may either predispose to or be implicated in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. There is a wide range of conditions that result in acute renal inflammation and those under discussion affect primarily the interstitium. This term refers to the connective tissue elements separating the tubules in the cortex and medulla. Hence, the interstitial nephritides are to be distinguished from the glomerulonephritides and fall into two general etiologic categories: infectious and noninfectious.

  10. Influence of acute renal failure on the mononuclear phagocytic system.

    PubMed

    Sousa, V R; Sousa, A A; Petroianu, A; Simal, C J; Barbosa, A J

    2001-09-01

    Several studies show the ability of macrophages to remove particles injected into the bloodstream. This function seems to be increased in the presence of acute renal failure. The objective of the present study was to assess the phagocytic function of the main organs (spleen, liver and lung) of the mononuclear phagocytic system in renal and postrenal failures. Fifteen rats (250-350 g) were divided into three groups (N = 5): group I - control; group II - ligature of both ureters, and group III - bilateral nephrectomy. On the third postoperative day, all animals received an iv injection of 1 ml/kg 99mTc sulfur colloid. Blood samples were collected for the assessment of plasma urea, creatinine, sodium, and potassium concentrations and arterial gasometry. Samples of liver, spleen, lung and blood clots were obtained and radioactivity was measured. Samples of liver, spleen, lung and kidney were prepared for routine histopathological analysis. Plasma urea, creatinine and potassium concentrations in groups II and III were higher than in group I (P<0.05). Plasma sodium concentrations in groups II and III were lower than in group I (P<0.05). Compensated metabolic acidosis was observed in the presence of postrenal failure. Group II animals showed a lower level of radioactivity in the spleen (0.98) and lung (2.63), and a higher level in the liver (105.51) than control. Group III animals showed a lower level of radioactivity in the spleen (11.94) and a higher level in the liver (61.80), lung (11.30) and blood clot (5.13) than control. In groups II and III liver steatosis and bronchopneumonia were observed. Renal and postrenal failures seem to interfere with blood clearance by the mononuclear phagocytic system. PMID:11514841

  11. Acute kidney injury: Renal disease in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Seller-Pérez, G; Más-Font, S; Pérez-Calvo, C; Villa-Díaz, P; Celaya-López, M; Herrera-Gutiérrez, M E

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the ICU frequently requires costly supportive therapies, has high morbidity, and its long-term prognosis is not as good as it has been presumed so far. Consequently, AKI generates a significant burden for the healthcare system. The problem is that AKI lacks an effective treatment and the best approach relies on early secondary prevention. Therefore, to facilitate early diagnosis, a broader definition of AKI should be established, and a marker with more sensitivity and early-detection capacity than serum creatinine - the most common marker of AKI - should be identified. Fortunately, new classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN or KDIGO) have been developed to solve these problems, and the discovery of new biomarkers for kidney injury will hopefully change the way we approach renal patients. As a first step, the concept of renal failure has changed from being a "static" disease to being a "dynamic process" that requires continuous evaluation of kidney function adapted to the reality of the ICU patient. PMID:27388683

  12. Shotgun Proteomics Identifies Proteins Specific for Acute Renal Transplant Rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Kaushal, Amit; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Qian, Weijun; Xiao, Wenzhong; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2010-01-04

    Acute rejection (AR) remains the primary risk factor for renal transplant outcome; development of non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for AR is an unmet need. We used shotgun proteomics using LC-MS/MS and ELISA to analyze a set of 92 urine samples, from patients with AR, stable grafts (STA), proteinuria (NS), and healthy controls (HC). A total of 1446 urinary proteins were identified along with a number of NS specific, renal transplantation specific and AR specific proteins. Relative abundance of identified urinary proteins was measured by protein-level spectral counts adopting a weighted fold-change statistic, assigning increased weight for more frequently observed proteins. We have identified alterations in a number of specific urinary proteins in AR, primarily relating to MHC antigens, the complement cascade and extra-cellular matrix proteins. A subset of proteins (UMOD, SERPINF1 and CD44), have been further cross-validated by ELISA in an independent set of urine samples, for significant differences in the abundance of these urinary proteins in AR. This label-free, semi-quantitative approach for sampling the urinary proteome in normal and disease states provides a robust and sensitive method for detection of urinary proteins for serial, non-invasive clinical monitoring for graft rejection after

  13. Prognostics factors for mortality and renal recovery in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gaião, Sérgio Mina; Gomes, André Amaral; Paiva, José Artur Osório de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Identify prognostic factors related to mortality and non-recovery of renal function. Methods A prospective single-center study was conducted at the intensive care medicine department of a university hospital between 2012 and 2015. Patients with acute kidney injury receiving continuous renal replacement therapy were included in the study. Clinical and analytical parameters were collected, and the reasons for initiation and discontinuation of renal replacement therapy were examined. Results A total of 41 patients were included in the study, of whom 43.9% had sepsis. The median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPSII) was 56 and the mortality was 53.7%, with a predicted mortality of 59.8%. The etiology of acute kidney injury was often multifactorial (56.1%). Survivors had lower cumulative fluid balance (median = 3,600mL, interquartile range [IQR] = 1,175 - 8,025) than non-survivors (median = 12,000mL, IQR = 6,625 - 17,875; p = 0.004). Patients who recovered renal function (median = 51.0, IQR = 45.8 - 56.2) had lower SAPS II than those who do not recover renal function (median = 73, IQR = 54 - 85; p = 0.005) as well as lower fluid balance (median = 3,850, IQR = 1,425 - 8,025 versus median = 11,500, IQR = 6,625 - 16,275; p = 0.004). Conclusions SAPS II at admission and cumulative fluid balance during renal support therapy were risk factors for mortality and non-recovery of renal function among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury needing renal replacement therapy. PMID:27096679

  14. Peri-portal lymphedema in association with an acute adrenal insufficiency: case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We report the case of a patient with peri-portal lymphedema in association with severe adrenal insufficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this association was not previously reported in the literature. Peri-portal lymphedema is usually seen in cases such as blunt abdominal trauma, hepatic congestion and post–liver transplantation. Case presentation We present the case of a 28-year-old Indian man who presented to our hospital with adrenal crisis and was treated accordingly. Computed tomography of his abdomen showed evidence of peri-portal lymphedema (edema) with some free fluid collection. We excluded other causes of this pathology and followed the patient’s condition after steroid replacement therapy. We found no other contributing factors to the patient’s peri-portal lymphedema apart from the adrenal crisis, which was more consolidated when we followed the patient after steroid replacement therapy, during which follow-up computed tomography showed complete resolution of the pathology. Conclusions We conclude following an extensive MEDLINE® search that this is the first case to be reported for the association between peri-portal lymphedema and adrenal insufficiency, after having excluded all other causes of peri-portal lymphedema. This signifies reporting of this case as the first one in the medical literature. PMID:24661563

  15. Comparative study of the efficacy of lysine acetylsalicylate, indomethacin and pethidine in acute renal colic.

    PubMed

    al-Sahlawi, K S; Tawfik, O M

    1996-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of intravenous lysine acetylsalicylate 1.8 g, indomethacin 100 mg and pethidine 100 mg in acute renal colic in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. One hundred and fifty patients with acute renal colic were divided into three groups. The first group received lysine acetylsalicylate 1.8 g, the second group received indomethacin 100 mg and the third group received pethidine 100 mg. The degree of pain relief was recorded 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after intravenous administration of the drugs. There was no statistically significant difference between the degree of analgesia provided by pethidine and indomethacin. Lysine acetylsalicylate was less effective than indomethacin and pethidine. It is concluded that intravenous indomethacin is an effective alternative to intravenous pethidine in the treatment of acute renal colic. Intravenous lysine acetylsalicylate is inferior to intravenous indomethacin in treatment of acute renal colic. PMID:9023498

  16. Acute renal failure due to phenazopyridine (Pyridium) overdose: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Onder, Ali Mirza; Espinoza, Veronica; Berho, Mariana E; Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gaston; Abitbol, Carolyn

    2006-11-01

    Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) is a commonly used urinary tract analgesic. It has been associated with yellow skin discoloration, hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, and acute renal failure, especially in patients with preexisting kidney disease. We report a 17-year-old female with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, presenting with acute renal failure and methemoglobinemia following a suicidal attempt with a single 1,200 mg ingestion of Pyridium. She had no prior evidence of HIV nephropathy. The patient had a progressive nonoliguric renal failure on the 3rd day following the ingestion. She was treated with N-acetylcysteine, intravenous carnitine, and alkalinization of the urine. Her kidney biopsy revealed acute tubular necrosis with no glomerular changes. After 7 days of conservative management, she was discharged home with normal kidney function. To our knowledge, this is the second smallest amount of Pyridium overdose resulting in acute renal failure with no previous history of kidney disease. PMID:16897003

  17. Treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xin; Zhang, Kaiwei; Zhong, Gang; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo; Lv, Jingtong; Xiang, Zhou

    2012-04-01

    Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare emergency often treated operatively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonoperative treatment for compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Nonoperative treatment, which primarily involves continuous renal replacement therapy, was performed in 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) who presented with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure. The mean mangled extremity severity score (MESS) and laboratory data regarding renal function were analyzed before and after treatment, and the clinical outcome was evaluated at 17-month follow-up. Laboratory data regarding renal function showed improvements. All 6 patients survived with the affected lower limbs intact after nonoperative treatment. Follow-up revealed active knee range of motion and increased muscle strength, as well as a recovery of sensation. A positive linear correlation was found between MESS and the time required to achieve a reduction in swelling, as well as the time required for the recovery of sensation and knee range of motion (r>0.8; P<.05). Satisfactory clinical outcomes were obtained in patients with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.Urine alkalization, electrolyte and water balance, and continuous renal replacement therapy have played an important role in saving lives and extremities. Nonoperative treatment should be considered in the treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure. PMID:22495847

  18. Ureteritis Cystica: Important Consideration in the Differential Diagnosis of Acute Renal Colic

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Fernández, B.; Díaz-Alférez, FJ.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Martín-Izquierdo, M.; Silva-Abuín, JM.; Lorenzo-Gómez, MF.

    2012-01-01

    Ureteritis cystica is an uncommon cause of acute renal pain. The aetiology remains unclear and the diagnosis may be difficult to establish. We report the case of a 29 year old woman with a history of repeated urinary tract infections presenting with acute renal colic in the absence of lithiasis. We review the diagnostic tools available to make the diagnosis and the recent pertinent literature. PMID:22474406

  19. [Acute post-traumatic aortic insufficiency: transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis and therapy of the lesions].

    PubMed

    Brandstätt, P; Carlioz, R; Fontaine, B; Hémery, Y; Pats, B; Chapuis, O; Lang-Lazdunsky, L; Jancovici, R; Burlaton, J P; Hvass, U

    1998-10-01

    A 58-year-old car driver suffered a road accident responsible for severe blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma. Transoephageal echocardiography, performed following the secondary development of a diastolic murmur, confirmed the presence of aortic incompetence due to commissural avulsion and guided the surgical treatment, which consisted of commissural suspension under cardiopulmonary bypass via a mini transverse trans-sternal incision. The rarity of acute aortic valve incompetence following non-penetrating thoracic trauma is illustrated by the data of the literature. This lesion is due to either avulsion of a sigmoid cusp or commissure, or laceration of the valvular tissue. Transthoracic echocardiography confirms the reality of aortic incompetence suggested clinically by appearance of a diastolic murmur, but confirmation of the mechanism of the lesions is based on transoesophageal echocardiography which allows perfectly safe and rapid visualization of the mechanism of the valvular lesion, investigation of associated lesions and guidance of therapeutic management. PMID:9809140

  20. Renal impairment and worsening of renal function in acute heart failure: can new therapies help? The potential role of serelaxin.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Mitrovic, Veselin; Hengstenberg, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Renal dysfunction is a frequent finding in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and an important prognostic factor for adverse outcomes. Worsening of renal function occurs in 30-50% of patients hospitalised for AHF, and is associated with increased mortality, prolonged hospital stay and increased risk of readmission. Likely mechanisms involved in the decrease in renal function include impaired haemodynamics and activation of neurohormonal factors, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system and the arginine-vasopressin system. Additionally, many drugs currently used to treat AHF have a detrimental effect on renal function. Therefore, pharmacotherapy for AHF should carefully take into account any potential complications related to renal function. Serelaxin, currently in clinical development for the treatment of AHF is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, identical in structure to the naturally occurring human relaxin-2 peptide hormone that mediates cardiac and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Data from both pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate a potentially beneficial effect of serelaxin on kidney function. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and impact of impairment of renal function in AHF, and the potential benefits of new therapies, such as serelaxin, in this context. PMID:25787721

  1. The Prognostic Importance of Changes in Renal Function during Treatment for Acute Heart Failure Depends on Admission Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ryan; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Brown, Paul M.; McAlister, Finlay A.; Rowe, Brian H.; Braam, Branko

    2015-01-01

    Background Worsening and improving renal function during acute heart failure have been associated with adverse outcomes but few studies have considered the admission level of renal function upon which these changes are superimposed. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate definitions that incorporate both admission renal function and change in renal function. Methods 696 patients with acute heart failure with calculable eGFR were classified by admission renal function (Reduced [R, eGFR<45 ml/min] or Preserved [P, eGFR≥45 ml/min]) and change over hospital admission (worsening [WRF]: eGFR ≥20% decline; stable [SRF]; and improving [IRF]: eGFR ≥20% increase). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The prevalence of Pres and Red renal function was 47.8% and 52.2%. The frequency of R-WRF, R-SRF, and R-IRF was 11.4%, 28.7%, and 12.1%, respectively; the incidence of P-WRF, P-SRF, and P-IRF was 5.7%, 35.3%, and 6.8%, respectively. Survival was shorter for patients with R-WRF compared to R-IRF (median survival times 13.9 months (95%CI 7.7–24.9) and 32.5 months (95%CI 18.8–56.1), respectively), resulting in an acceleration factor of 2.3 (p = 0.016). Thus, an increase compared with a decrease in renal function was associated with greater than two times longer survival among patients with Reduced renal function. PMID:26380982

  2. Pathophysiology of protracted acute renal failure in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, S.M.; Myers, B.D.

    1985-10-01

    Postischemic acute renal failure (ARF) induced by cardiac surgery is commonly prolonged and may be irreversible. To examine whether persistence of postischemic, tubular cell injury accounts for delayed recovery from ARF, we studied 10 patients developing protracted (36 +/- 4 d) ARF after cardiac surgery. The differential clearance and excretion dynamics of probe solutes of graded size were determined. Inulin clearance was depressed (5.0 +/- 1.7 ml/min), while the fractional urinary clearance of dextrans (radii 17-30 A) were elevated above unity. Employing a model of conservation of mass, we calculated that 44% of filtered inulin was lost via transtubular backleak. The clearance and fractional backleak of technetium-labeled DTPA ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA, radius = 4 A) were identical to those of inulin (radius 15 A). The time at which inulin or DTPA excretion reached a maximum after an intravenous bolus injection was markedly delayed when compared with control subjects with ARF of brief duration, 102 vs. 11 min. Applying a three-compartment model of inulin/DTPA kinetics (which takes backleak into account) revealed the residence time of intravenously administered inulin/DTPA in the compartment occupied by tubular fluid and urine to be markedly prolonged, 20 vs. 6 min in controls, suggesting reduced velocity of tubular fluid flow.

  3. [Definition and biomarkers of acute renal damage: new perspectives].

    PubMed

    Seijas, M; Baccino, C; Nin, N; Lorente, J A

    2014-01-01

    The RIFLE and AKIN criteria have definitely help out to draw attention to the relationship between a deterioration of renal function that produces a small increase in serum creatinine and a worse outcome. However, the specific clinical utility of using these criteria remains to be well-defined. It is believed that the main use of these criteria is for the design of epidemiological studies and clinical trials to define inclusion criteria and objectives of an intervention. AKI adopting term, re-summoning former ARF terminology, it is appropriate to describe the clinical condition characterized by damage to kidney, in the same way as the term is used to describe acute lung damage where the lung injury situation still has not increased to a situation of organ failure (dysfunction). The serum and urine biomarkers (creatinine, urea, and diuresis) currently in use are not sensitive or specific for detecting kidney damage, limiting treatment options and potentially compromising the outcome. New biomarkers are being studied in order to diagnose an earlier and more specific AKI, with the potential to change the definition criteria of AKI with different stages, currently based in diuresis and serum creatinine. PMID:24880198

  4. Acute renal infarct without apparent cause: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Decoste, Ryan; Himmelman, Jeffrey G.; Grantmyre, John

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal infarction is a rare clinical entity most commonly occurring as a result of a thromboembolic event in patients with predisposing risk factors. Its non-specific presentation can lead to delayed or missed diagnosis. However, modern imaging technology has allowed for the diagnosis of renal infarction to be made earlier in its clinical course. Due to its rare nature, treatment guidelines do not exist. We report a case of acute renal infarction identified on computed tomography scan in a patient with no known predisposing factors to thromboembolism that was treated through suction thrombectomy. PMID:26085895

  5. [Current approaches to the treatment of severe hypoxic respiratory insufficiency (acute lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Kluge, S; Müller, T; Pfeifer, M

    2011-02-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with a low tidal volume, plateau pressure < 30 cm H(2)O. oxygen saturation > 90% and permissive hypercapnia results in reduction of the mortality rate in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The level of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) must be chosen in relation to oxygen requirement. High frequency oscillatory ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist are promising methods. However, further studies with firm end-points have to be awaited before a final judgment is possible. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can ensure life-sustaining gas exchange in patients with severe vitally compromised pulmonary failure, to provide time for lung tissue to heal and reduce ventilatory stress. The latest guidelines for analgesia and sedation in intensive care medicine demand consistent monitoring of the level of sedation and the intensity of pain. The sedation should be interrupted daily, with phases of awakenings and, if possible, spontaneous breathing. Methods of supportive treatment: Positional treatment (prone position) and inhalation of vasodilators can improve ventilation/perfusion mismatch and thus oxygenation. However, administration of surfactant is currently not advised in adult respiratory failure. PMID:21271478

  6. Convergence Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Convergence Insufficiency En Español Read in Chinese What is convergence insufficiency? Convergence insufficiency is the ...

  7. [Data collection about the case management of end-stage renal insufficiency. Feasibility study. Nephrology Epidemiologic and information Network (REIN)].

    PubMed

    Stengel, B; Landais, P

    1999-01-01

    End-stage renal failure (ESRD) is an important public health issue, because of both the increasing number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy and the cost of treatment. The need for a reliable data system, capable of describing the patient care network as a whole, including dialysis or transplantation, has often been reiterated. The Direction Générale de la Santé (the French Department of Health) commissioned INSERM (the National Institute of Health and Medical Research) to "study the feasibility of different scenarios of data collection about ESRD patient care in order to meet the priority needs of health care administration, physicians, and researchers". Analysis of these needs allowed the goals to be defined: to provide an accurate picture of ESRD patient care in order to guide and evaluate health care policy, to inform clinicians, and to provide a tool for more focused special studies in renal research issues. Three scenarios were studied: the first would use data systems of both the government and the National Health Insurance system for planning health care services, upon EfG (The French Transplant Agency) network to evaluate transplantation, and upon a few regional registries for epidemiology and research; the second is based on repeated cross-sectional surveys; the third would rely upon the organization of an information system, the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN). Regional centers and a national coordinating office would register and follow-up ESRD patients, principally to evaluate health care supply and quality. The REIN database would also be a resource for research. The advantage of the first scenario is its low cost; its principal drawback is that evaluations will not be possible in the regions without registries. The second suggestion is inadequate. The last project would fulfil the goals that were defined. The REIN data system would be a true public health project of interest to all the participants and institutions

  8. Low renal oximetry correlates with acute kidney injury after infant cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gabe E; King, Karen; Gurney, James G; Charpie, John R

    2011-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery during infancy. Standard methods for evaluating renal function are not particularly sensitive nor are proximate indicators of renal dysfunction that allow intervention in real time. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a newer noninvasive technology that continuously evaluates regional oximetry and may correlate with renal injury and adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in infants. This prospective observational study enrolled 40 infants (age, <12 months) undergoing biventricular repair. Continuous renal oximetry data were collected for the first 48 postoperative hours and correlated with postoperative course, standard laboratory data, and the occurrence of acute renal injury. Subjects with low renal oximetry (below 50% for >2 h) had significantly higher postoperative peak creatinine levels by 48 h (0.8 ± 0.4 vs. 0.52 ± 0.2; p = 0.003) and a higher incidence of AKI (50 vs. 3.1%; p = 0.003) than those with normal renal oximetry. These subjects also required more ventilator days and greater vasoactive support, and they had elevated lactate levels. Prolonged low renal near-infrared oximetry appears to correlate with renal dysfunction, decreased systemic oxygen delivery, and the overall postoperative course in infants with congenital heart disease undergoing biventricular repair. PMID:21085945

  9. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  10. Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) induced acute renal failure (ARF): attempts at amelioration.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S; Kaufman, J; Flamenbaum, W

    1983-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting feature of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP) cancer chemotherapy. We have previously developed a model of DDP induced acute renal failure in the rat, which is characterized by non oliguric progressive azotemia. Protocols have been established in humans to prevent or diminish DDP associated renal alterations during the course of cancer chemotherapy. The present studies were designed to evaluate the effect of prior diuretic therapy, with furosemide, and enhanced solute diuresis, using dextrose and water as the sole source of drinking fluid, on DDP induced acute renal failure in the rat. As compared to water drinking controls neither the diuretic nor the enhancement of osmotic excretion effected DDP associated mortality. The courses of the acute renal failure observed in all three study groups were similar; however, there was a suggestion in the surviving animals that these maneuvers may have contributed to a more rapid return in renal function among rats not dying of DDP induced acute renal failure. PMID:6684010

  11. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Methods Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient’s condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Results Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. Discussion In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Conclusion Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission. PMID:24180319

  12. Angiopoietin-2 Is an Early Indicator of Acute Pancreatic-Renal Syndrome in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sporek, Mateusz; Dumnicka, Paulina; Gala-Bladzinska, Agnieszka; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembinski, Artur; Stepien, Ewa; Walocha, Jerzy; Drozdz, Ryszard; Kuzniewski, Marek; Kusnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Within the first week of the disease, acute kidney injury (AKI) is among the most common causes of mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP). Recently, serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) has been associated with hyperdynamic state of the systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between Ang-2 and the clinical AP severity during the first 72 hours of the disease, and organ disfunction, including AKI. Methods. Study included patients admitted to the surgery ward, diagnosed with AP. AKI was diagnosed according to KDIGO guidelines and renal failure according to modified Marshall scoring system. Ang-2 was determined in serum with ELISA. Results. AP was classified as mild (MAP) in 71% of patients, moderately severe (MSAP) in 22%, and severe (SAP) in 8%. During the first 72 hours of AP, 11 patients developed AKI and 6 developed renal failure. Ang-2 at 24, 48, and 72 hours following the onset of AP symptoms significantly predicted SAP and MSAP, as well as AKI and renal failure. Also, Ang-2 significantly correlated with acute phase proteins as well as with the indicators of renal disfunction. Conclusions. Serum Ang-2 may be a relevant predictor of AP severity, in particular of the development of AP-renal syndrome. PMID:27022209

  13. Stem cell technology for the treatment of acute and chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Pino, Christopher J.; Humes, H. David

    2010-01-01

    Acute and chronic renal failure are disorders with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current treatment is based upon conventional dialysis to provide volume regulation and small solute clearance. There is growing recognition that renal failure is a complex disease state requiring a multifactorial therapy to address the short-comings of the conventional monofactorial approach. Kidney transplantation remains the most effective treatment, however, organ availability lags far behind demand. Many key kidney functions including gluconeogenesis, ammoniagenesis, metabolism of glutathione, catabolism of important peptide hormones, growth factors, and cytokines critical to multiorgan homeostasis and immunomodulation are provided by renal tubule cells. Therefore, cell-based therapies are promising multifactorial treatment approaches. In this review, current stem cell technologies including adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells will be discussed as cell sources for the treatment of acute and chronic renal failure. PMID:20801413

  14. Renal and urological diseases of the newborn neonatal acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Kirtida

    2014-01-01

    Survival of critically ill neonates in the intensive care unit has improved over the past decades reflecting improvements in obstetric, delivery room and neonatal intensive care, however, morbidity remains significant. Acute kidney injury is a common occurrence in these neonates and despite improved understanding of the pathophysiology and management of acute kidney injury in full term and preterm infants, the mortality remains as high as 61%. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that despite recovery from the acute injury, these infants are at risk for developing hypertension and chronic kidney disease later in life. Emphasis on improving our capability to detect renal insult and injury early, before renal failure occurs, and identification of novel therapeutic agents to prevent and treat acute kidney injury may impact mortality and morbidity. This review focuses on our current knowledge of acute kidney injury in the newborn, approaches to investigating and managing this complication and what future trends in this field may bring. PMID:25088261

  15. [Effect of various methods of treatment in chronic renal insufficiency on the quality of life in patients].

    PubMed

    Trbojević, J; Nesić, D; Stojimirović, B

    1998-01-01

    Interest in measuring the quality of life (QL) in relation to health care has increased enormously in recent years. This is also true for end-stage renal failure where it is important not only to provide a better survival but also the quality of that survival. The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of different kinds of treatment on end-stage renal disease after the patients' evaluation of their overall QL. We studied 167 patients receiving conservative treatment (45), haemodialysis (44), haemodialysis and erythropoieth (36), and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (42). The patients completed an original questionnaire consisting of 37 questions divided in five groups and generating 15 QL variables: personal data (name, gender, age, basic kidney disease); sociodemographic data influenced by the illness (family history, working ability, employment status); general health characteristics (fatigue, appetite, wound healing, sleep, resistance to cold); aspects of private life that are mostly influenced by the disease (social interaction, traveling, mood, sports, sexual life), and patients subjective assessment of their condition (self care and happiness). Patients on haemodialysis showed lower levels of QL than that on peritoneal dialysis related to fatigue (p < 0.01), working ability (p < 0.05), wound healing (p < 0.05), and appetite (p < 0.01) compared to the conservative treatment. Peritoneal dialysis had also a statistically significant positive influence on fatigue (p < 0.05) compared to conservative treatment. However, erythropoletin treatment showed better results with regard to traveling (p < 0.05), resistance to cold (p < 0.01), self care (p < 0.05) and mood (p < 0.05) compared to peritoneal dialysis, and working ability (p < 0.05), fatigue (p < 0.05) and mood (p < 0.05) compared to conservative treatment and haemodialysis. PMID:9863410

  16. Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Apparent Treatment Resistant Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease: Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Anderson, Amanda H; Appel, Lawrence J; Bodana, Shirisha; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Drawz, Paul; Flack, John M; Miller, Edgar R; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-02-01

    The association between apparent treatment resistant hypertension (ATRH) and clinical outcomes is not well studied in chronic kidney disease. We analyzed data on 3367 hypertensive participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) to determine prevalence, associations, and clinical outcomes of ATRH in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. ATRH was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensives, or use of ≥4 antihypertensives with blood pressure at goal at baseline visit. Prevalence of ATRH was 40.4%. Older age, male sex, black race, diabetes mellitus, and higher body mass index were independently associated with higher odds of having ATRH. Participants with ATRH had a higher risk of clinical events than participants without ATRH-composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.38 [1.22-1.56]); renal events (1.28 [1.11-1.46]); CHF (1.66 [1.38-2.00]); and all-cause mortality (1.24 [1.06-1.45]). The subset of participants with ATRH and blood pressure at goal on ≥4 medications also had higher risk for composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, CHF, and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], (1.30 [1.12-1.51]) and CHF (1.59 [1.28-1.99]) than those without ATRH. ATRH was associated with significantly higher risk for CHF and renal events only among those with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Our findings show that ATRH is common and associated with high risk of adverse outcomes in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease. This underscores the need for early identification and management of patients with ATRH and chronic kidney disease. PMID:26711738

  17. Acute hepatitis C infection in a renal transplant recipient: primacy of the liver or kidney?

    PubMed Central

    Althaf, Mohammed Mahdi; Abdelsalam, Mohamed Said; Rashwan, Mohamed; Nadri, Quaid

    2014-01-01

    We present a case where a renal transplant recipient contracted chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection post-transplantation. The disease progressed and deteriorated leading to fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis that mandated treatment. Treatment with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin was successful in salvaging the liver and eradicating the virus but as a consequence lead to treatment-resistant acute rejection and loss of the renal allograft. PMID:24907214

  18. Renovascular acute renal failure precipitated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for pancreatic stones

    PubMed Central

    Cecere, Nicolas; Goffette, Pierre; Deprez, Pierre; Jadoul, Michel; Morelle, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic stones is considered a safe and efficient method to facilitate fragmentation and stone removal. We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with a solitary functioning kidney who presented an acute-onset anuria and renovascular renal failure the day after ESWL. We speculate that vascular calcifications in the area targeted by shock waves played a critical role in renal artery obstruction in the present case. PMID:26251710

  19. Acute Renal Failure due to Leukaemic Infiltration in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Kayar, Yusuf; Ekinci, Iskender; Bay, Ilker; Bayram Kayar, Nuket; Hamdard, Jamshid; Kazancıoğlu, Rumeyza

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy characterized by clonal proliferation and accumulation of B lymphocytes. Although leukaemic infiltration of the kidney is well recognized in CLL, acute renal failure (ARF) due to leukaemic infiltration is extremely rare. Here we present a case of ARF as the initial manifestation of CLL. The diagnosis was made by a kidney biopsy. Treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone resulted in a completely improved renal function. PMID:26146503

  20. Acute renal transplant rejection in children: assessment by Duplex Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Vergesslich, K A; Khoss, A E; Balzar, E; Schwaighofer, B; Ponhold, W

    1988-01-01

    Over a two year period 74 consecutive Duplex Doppler scans were performed in 23 children with renal allografts and were compared to the Doppler sonographic findings in orthotopic kidneys of 25 age matched healthy controls. The Doppler waveforms of renal arterial flow were analyzed qualitatively assessing systolic and diastolic flow amplitudes, for quantitation the Pourcelot index (PI) was used. There was no variation between the Doppler waveforms in recipients with normal allograft function and healthy controls. In 12 patients with biopsy proven acute rejection a decrease or absence of the diastolic flow amplitude was noted, resulting in increased pulsatility of the Doppler waveform. The mean PI in acute rejection differed significantly from the mean PI in normal allograft function. Duplex Doppler sonography is a useful imaging modality in the differentiation between acute rejection and normal allograft function and should therefore be integrated in the screening of children after renal transplantation. PMID:3054768

  1. [Unexpected cause of acute renal failure in an 85-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Fabbian, F; Stabellini, N; Catizone, L

    2008-01-01

    Acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis (APIGN) is usually diagnosed in young people, while in elderly people rapidly progressive forms appear to be the most important glomerular disease causing acute renal failure. We report on a 85-year-old woman with acute renal failure due to APIGN. An 85-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease was hospitalized because of diarrhea and syncope associated with atrial fibrillation. She was found to have left lower lobe pneumonia. Serum creatinine was over 2 mg/dL. Fluids were given, without improvement in renal function but leading to volume overload instead. Within a few days serum creatinine reached a level of 5.4 mg/dL with reduction of urine output despite administration of diuretics. The patient developed hematuria and purpura of the feet. Serum IgA was high and the urine sediment showed casts. Methylprednisolone 125 mg i.v. was given for three days followed by prednisone 50 mg daily. The patient's clinical condition gradually improved and serum creatinine decreased to 1.9 mg/dL. Renal biopsy showed APIGN. During hospitalization, three major complications occurred: hemodynamic instability due to atrial fibrillation, Clostridium difficile colitis and urinary tract infections due to Enterococcus faecalis and Candida tropicans, all successfully treated. APIGN should be taken into account as a cause of acute renal failure in hospitalized elderly patients with many comorbidities. PMID:19048577

  2. Convergence Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... insufficiency? Symptoms of convergence insufficiency include diplopia (double vision) and headaches when reading. Many patients will complain that they have difficulty concentrating on near work (computer, reading, etc.) and that the written word blurs ...

  3. Potential Reparative Role of Resident Adult Renal Stem/Progenitor Cells in Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sallustio, Fabio; Serino, Grazia; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human kidney is particularly susceptible to ischemia and toxins with consequential tubular necrosis and activation of inflammatory processes. This process can lead to the acute renal injury, and even if the kidney has a great capacity for regeneration after tubular damage, in several circumstances, the normal renal repair program may not be sufficient to achieve a successful regeneration. Resident adult renal stem/progenitor cells could participate in this repair process and have the potentiality to enhance the renal regenerative mechanism. This could be achieved both directly, by means of their capacity to differentiate and integrate into the renal tissues, and by means of paracrine factors able to induce or improve the renal repair or regeneration. Recent genetic fate-tracing studies indicated that tubular damage is instead repaired by proliferative duplication of epithelial cells, acquiring a transient progenitor phenotype and by fate-restricted clonal cell progeny emerging from different nephron segments. In this review, we discuss about the properties and the reparative characteristics of high regenerative CD133+/CD24+ cells, with a view to a future application of these cells for the treatment of acute renal injury. PMID:26309808

  4. Vitamin D3 pretreatment regulates renal inflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Yu, De-Xin; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in human and mouse kidneys. Nevertheless, its functions remain obscure. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VitD3) pretreatment on renal inflammation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS. In VitD3 + LPS group, mice were pretreated with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 48, 24 and 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, an obvious reduction of renal function and pathological damage was observed in LPS-treated mice. VitD3 pretreatment significantly alleviated LPS-induced reduction of renal function and pathological damage. Moreover, VitD3 pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced renal inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In addition, pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of VitD3, alleviated LPS-induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human HK-2 cells, a renal tubular epithelial cell line, in a VDR-dependent manner. Further analysis showed that VitD3, which activated renal VDR, specifically repressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in the renal tubules. LPS, which activated renal NF-κB, reciprocally suppressed renal VDR and its target gene. Moreover, VitD3 reinforced the physical interaction between renal VDR and NF-κB p65 subunit. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for VitD3-mediated anti-inflammatory activity during LPS-induced acute kidney injury. PMID:26691774

  5. Vitamin D3 pretreatment regulates renal inflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Yu, De-Xin; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in human and mouse kidneys. Nevertheless, its functions remain obscure. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VitD3) pretreatment on renal inflammation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS. In VitD3 + LPS group, mice were pretreated with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 48, 24 and 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, an obvious reduction of renal function and pathological damage was observed in LPS-treated mice. VitD3 pretreatment significantly alleviated LPS-induced reduction of renal function and pathological damage. Moreover, VitD3 pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced renal inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In addition, pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of VitD3, alleviated LPS-induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human HK-2 cells, a renal tubular epithelial cell line, in a VDR-dependent manner. Further analysis showed that VitD3, which activated renal VDR, specifically repressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in the renal tubules. LPS, which activated renal NF-κB, reciprocally suppressed renal VDR and its target gene. Moreover, VitD3 reinforced the physical interaction between renal VDR and NF-κB p65 subunit. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for VitD3-mediated anti-inflammatory activity during LPS-induced acute kidney injury. PMID:26691774

  6. Ciliopathies with Skeletal Anomalies and Renal Insufficiency due to Mutations in the IFT-A Gene WDR19

    PubMed Central

    Bredrup, Cecilie; Saunier, Sophie; Oud, Machteld M.; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Hoischen, Alexander; Brackman, Damien; Leh, Sabine M.; Midtbø, Marit; Filhol, Emilie; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschké, Patrick; Gilissen, Christian; Haugen, Olav H.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Mans, Dorus A.; Steenbergen, Eric J.; Hamel, Ben C.J.; Matignon, Marie; Pfundt, Rolph; Jeanpierre, Cécile; Boman, Helge; Rødahl, Eyvind; Veltman, Joris A.; Knappskog, Per M.; Knoers, Nine V.A.M.; Roepman, Ronald; Arts, Heleen H.

    2011-01-01

    A subset of ciliopathies, including Sensenbrenner, Jeune, and short-rib polydactyly syndromes are characterized by skeletal anomalies accompanied by multiorgan defects such as chronic renal failure and retinitis pigmentosa. Through exome sequencing we identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR19 in a Norwegian family with Sensenbrenner syndrome. In a Dutch family with the clinically overlapping Jeune syndrome, a homozygous missense mutation in the same gene was found. Both families displayed a nephronophthisis-like nephropathy. Independently, we also identified compound heterozygous WDR19 mutations by exome sequencing in a Moroccan family with isolated nephronophthisis. WDR19 encodes IFT144, a member of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex A that drives retrograde ciliary transport. We show that IFT144 is absent from the cilia of fibroblasts from one of the Sensenbrenner patients and that ciliary abundance and morphology is perturbed, demonstrating the ciliary pathogenesis. Our results suggest that isolated nephronophthisis, Jeune, and Sensenbrenner syndromes are clinically overlapping disorders that can result from a similar molecular cause. PMID:22019273

  7. Flank pain and acute renal failure after binge drinking: a growing concern?

    PubMed

    Calviño, Jesús; Bravo, Juan; Millán, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Tabares, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    We describe two cases of acute renal failure (ARF) after heavy alcohol intake. Remarkable features included a few days latency period after binge drinking, acute flank pain resembling pyelonephritis, lack of rhabdomyolysis or liver injury, and concomitant intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Renal function improved with conservative treatment, and despite NSAIDs use, hyperkalemia was not clinically significant. Since binge drinking is common in the Western population, early recognition of this syndrome may be helpful when examining a patient with flank pain and ARF of unclear etiology. PMID:23477481

  8. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Villa, Gianluca; Ricci, Zaccaria; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a cornerstone in the clinical management of patients with acute kidney injury. Results from different studies agree that early renal support therapy (aimed to support the residual kidney function during early phases of organ dysfunction) may reduce mortality with respect to late RRT (aimed to substitute the complete loss of function during the advanced kidney insufficiency). Although it seems plausible that a timely initiation of RRT may be associated with improved renal and nonrenal outcomes in these patients, there is scarce evidence in literature to exactly identify the most adequate onset timing for RRT. PMID:26410148

  9. Percutaneous Access: Acute Effects on Renal Function and Structure in a Porcine Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, Rajash K.; Willis, Lynn R.; Evan, Andrew P.; Connors, Bret A.; Ying, Jun; Fat-Anthony, William; Wind, Kelli R.; Johnson, Cynthia D.; Blomgren, Philip M.; Estrada, Mark C.; Paterson, Ryan F.; Kuo, Ramsay L.; Kim, Samuel C.; Matlaga, Brian R.; Miller, Nicole L.; Watkins, Stephanie L.; Handa, Shelly E.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) involves gaining access into the urinary collecting system to remove kidney stones. Animal studies demonstrated that a reduction in renal filtration and perfusion in both kidneys, and a decline in tubular organic anion transport in the treated kidney characterizes the acute (hours) functional response to unilateral percutaneous access. The acute morphologic and histological changes in the treated kidney were consistent with blunt trauma and ischemia. Only tubular organic anion transport remained depressed during the late (3-day) response to the access procedure. Human studies revealed an acute decline in glomerular function and bilateral renal vasoconstriction following unilateral PCNL. Therefore, percutaneous access is not a benign procedure, but is associated with acute functional and structural derangements.

  10. Compensatory renal hypertrophy and the handling of an acute nephrotoxicant in a model of aging.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudia S; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K; Bridges, Christy C

    2016-03-01

    Aging often results in progressive losses of functioning nephrons, which can lead to a significant reduction in overall renal function. Because of age-related pathological changes, the remaining functional nephrons within aged kidneys may be unable to fully counteract physiological and/or toxicological challenges. We hypothesized that when the total functional renal mass of aged rats is reduced by 50%, the nephrons within the remnant kidney do not fully undergo the functional and physiological changes that are necessary to maintain normal fluid and solute homeostasis. We also tested the hypothesis that the disposition and handling of a nephrotoxicant are altered significantly in aged kidneys following an acute, 50% reduction in functional renal mass. To test these hypotheses, we examined molecular indices of renal cellular hypertrophy and the disposition of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), a model nephrotoxicant, in young control, young uninephrectomized (NPX), aged control and aged NPX Wistar rats. We found that the process of aging reduces the ability of the remnant kidney to undergo compensatory renal growth. In addition, we found that an additional reduction in renal mass in aged animals alters the disposition of Hg(2+) and potentially alters the risk of renal intoxication by this nephrotoxicant. To our knowledge, this study represents the first report of the handling of a nephrotoxicant in an aged animal following a 50% reduction in functional renal mass. PMID:26768998

  11. Change of Both Endocrine and Exocrine Insufficiencies After Acute Pancreatitis in Non-Diabetic Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Te-Wei; Wu, Jin-Ming; Kuo, Ting-Chun; Yang, Ching-Yao; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Hsieh, Su-Hua; Lai, Feipei; Tien, Yu-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common pancreatic disease and consists of an acute inflammation of the pancreas. AP can contribute to endocrine and exocrine insufficiencies in survivors as a result of the key role of the pancreas in both glucose metabolism and nutritional digestion. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the endocrine or exocrine insufficiencies in patients after initial AP with biliary or alcohol-associated causes.We conducted a nationwide cohort study using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database collected between 2001 and 2010. A total of 12,284 patients with AP were identified.Alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.894; 95% CI, 1.520-2.268; P < 0.001) and ≥2 admissions for AP (odds ratio, 1.937; 95% CI, 1.483-2.391; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus after AP. Further, only alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.215; 95% CI, 1.133-1.297; P < 0.001) was significantly associated with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after AP. Additionally, alcohol-associated AP (odds ratio, 1.804; 95% CI, 1.345-2.263; P < 0.001) and ≥2 readmissions for AP (odds ratio, 3.190; 95% CI, 2.317-4.063; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with both exocrine and endocrine insufficiencies after AP.Our data showed that alcohol-associated AP, rather than a biliary cause, contributed to a higher extent to exocrine or endocrine insufficiencies. Furthermore, recurrent AP also led to endocrine insufficiency. PMID:26166112

  12. Kielin/Chordin-Like Protein Attenuates both Acute and Chronic Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Soofi, Abdul; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The secreted kielin/chordin-like (KCP) protein, one of a family of cysteine-rich proteins, suppresses TGF-β signaling by sequestering the ligand from its receptor, but it enhances bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling by promoting ligand-receptor interactions. Given the critical roles for TGF-β and BMP proteins in enhancing or suppressing renal interstitial fibrosis, respectively, we examined whether secreted KCP could attenuate renal fibrosis in mouse models of chronic and acute disease. Transgenic mice that express KCP in adult kidneys showed significantly less expression of collagen IV, α-smooth muscle actin, and other markers of disease progression in the unilateral ureteral obstruction model of renal interstitial fibrosis. In the folic acid nephrotoxicity model of acute tubular necrosis, mice expressing KCP survived high doses of folic acid that were lethal for wild-type mice. With a lower dose of folic acid, mice expressing KCP exhibited improved renal recovery compared with wild-type mice. Thus, these data suggest that extracellular regulation of the TGF-β/BMP signaling axis by KCP, and by extension possibly other cysteine-rich domain proteins, can attenuate both acute and chronic renal injury. PMID:23539757

  13. Expanding the pool of kidney donors: use of kidneys with acute renal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    de Matos, Ana Cristina Carvalho; Requião-Moura, Lúcio Roberto; Clarizia, Gabriela; Durão, Marcelino de Souza; Tonato, Eduardo José; Chinen, Rogério; de Arruda, Érika Ferraz; Filiponi, Thiago Corsi; Pires, Luciana Mello de Mello Barros; Bertocchi, Ana Paula Fernandes; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the shortage of organs transplantation, some strategies have been adopted by the transplant community to increase the supply of organs. One strategy is the use of expanded criteria for donors, that is, donors aged >60 years or 50 and 59 years, and meeting two or more of the following criteria: history of hypertension, terminal serum creatinine >1.5mg/dL, and stroke as the donor´s cause of death. In this review, emphasis was placed on the use of donors with acute renal failure, a condition considered by many as a contraindication for organ acceptance and therefore one of the main causes for kidney discard. Since these are well-selected donors and with no chronic diseases, such as hypertension, renal disease, or diabetes, many studies showed that the use of donors with acute renal failure should be encouraged, because, in general, acute renal dysfunction is reversible. Although most studies demonstrated these grafts have more delayed function, the results of graft and patient survival after transplant are very similar to those with the use of standard donors. Clinical and morphological findings of donors, the use of machine perfusion, and analysis of its parameters, especially intrarenal resistance, are important tools to support decision-making when considering the supply of organs with renal dysfunction. PMID:26154553

  14. Expanding the pool of kidney donors: use of kidneys with acute renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Cristina Carvalho de; Requião-Moura, Lúcio Roberto; Clarizia, Gabriela; Durão Junior, Marcelino de Souza; Tonato, Eduardo José; Chinen, Rogério; Arruda, Érika Ferraz de; Filiponi, Thiago Corsi; Pires, Luciana Mello de Mello Barros; Bertocchi, Ana Paula Fernandes; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Given the shortage of organs transplantation, some strategies have been adopted by the transplant community to increase the supply of organs. One strategy is the use of expanded criteria for donors, that is, donors aged >60 years or 50 and 59 years, and meeting two or more of the following criteria: history of hypertension, terminal serum creatinine >1.5mg/dL, and stroke as the donor´s cause of death. In this review, emphasis was placed on the use of donors with acute renal failure, a condition considered by many as a contraindication for organ acceptance and therefore one of the main causes for kidney discard. Since these are well-selected donors and with no chronic diseases, such as hypertension, renal disease, or diabetes, many studies showed that the use of donors with acute renal failure should be encouraged, because, in general, acute renal dysfunction is reversible. Although most studies demonstrated these grafts have more delayed function, the results of graft and patient survival after transplant are very similar to those with the use of standard donors. Clinical and morphological findings of donors, the use of machine perfusion, and analysis of its parameters, especially intrarenal resistance, are important tools to support decision-making when considering the supply of organs with renal dysfunction. PMID:26154553

  15. Acute mental status change as the presenting feature of adrenal insufficiency in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II and stroke.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sara; Raj, Shekar; Eugster, Erica; Sanchez, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency (AI) in children usually presents with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Here, we report an unusual case of a 15 year old girl who presented with acute mental status change and was ultimately diagnosed with AI due to autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II (APS2). Central nervous system imaging revealed a cerebral infarction. To our knowledge, the constellation of APS2, stroke and acute mental status change has not been previously reported. We review the literature with regard to the presentation of AI as well as the association between vasculitis and APS2. PMID:24259239

  16. New Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury and the Cardio-renal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Changes in renal function are one of the most common manifestations of severe illness. There is a clinical need to intervene early with proven treatments in patients with potentially deleterious changes in renal function. Unfortunately progress has been hindered by poor definitions of renal dysfunction and a lack of early biomarkers of renal injury. In recent years, the definitional problem has been addressed with the establishment of a new well-defined diagnostic entity, acute kidney injury (AKI), which encompasses the wide spectrum of kidney dysfunction, together with clearer definition and sub-classification of the cardio-renal syndromes. From the laboratory have emerged new biomarkers which allow early detection of AKI, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C. This review describes the new concepts of AKI and the cardio-renal syndromes as well as novel biomarkers which allow early detection of AKI. Panels of AKI biomarker tests are likely to revolutionise the diagnosis and management of critically ill patients in the coming years. Earlier diagnosis and intervention should significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with acute kidney damage. PMID:21474979

  17. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2: Its Contribution to Acute Cellular Rejection and Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Al-Lamki, Rafia S.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and one of the two receptors that orchestrate the complex biological functions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, also designed TNF-α). Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that TNFR2 plays an important role in renal disorders associated with acute cellular rejection and clear cell renal carcinoma but its exact role in these settings is still not completely understood. This papers reviews the factors that may mediate TNFR2 induction in acute cellular rejection and clear cell renal carcinoma and its contribution to these conditions and discusses its therapeutic implications. A greater understanding of the function of TNFR2 may lead to the development of new anti-TNF drugs. PMID:24350291

  18. Diclofenac versus dipyrone in acute renal colic: a double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miralles, R; Camí, J; Gutiérrez, J; Torné, J; Garcés, J M; Badenas, J M

    1987-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind clinical trial in 50 patients was done to compare the efficacy and tolerance of single doses of intramuscular diclofenac 75 mg and dipyrone 2 g in acute renal colic. Both drugs were equally effective, but diclofenac was better in terms of complete relief of pain. Vital signs were affected according to the stress and pain. PMID:3322848

  19. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  20. [Acute kidney failure and renal replacement therapy after colonoscopy in a 63-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Bös, D

    2015-11-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with intestinal disorder, alternating between obstipation and diarrhoea. Sodium phosphate/diphosphate (Fleet®) was used in preparation for colonoscopy. Within 24 h the patient developed severe hyperphosphatemia and oliguric acute kidney failure with the need of renal replacement therapy. This case illustrates the rare event of phosphate nephropathy after colonoscopy. PMID:26482077

  1. Acute renal failure in 2 adult llamas after exposure to Oak trees (Quercus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Manuel F.; Passler, Thomas; Joiner, Kellye; Poppenga, Robert H.; Bayne, Jenna; Walz, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    Two adult llamas (Lama glama) previously exposed to oak trees (Quercus spp.) were presented with a history of depression and anorexia. Clinicopathological abnormalities included severe gastroenteritis, acute renal failure, and increased liver enzymes. This is believed to be the first report of oak toxicosis in South American camelids. PMID:23814303

  2. Combined iron sucrose and protoporphyrin treatment protects against ischemic and toxin-mediated acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Zager, Richard A; Johnson, Ali C M; Frostad, Kirsten B

    2016-07-01

    Tissue preconditioning, whereby various short-term stressors initiate organ resistance to subsequent injury, is well recognized. However, clinical preconditioning of the kidney for protection against acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been established. Here we tested whether a pro-oxidant agent, iron sucrose, combined with a protoporphyrin (Sn protoporphyrin), can induce preconditioning and protect against acute renal failure. Mice were pretreated with iron sucrose, protoporphyrin, cyanocobalamin, iron sucrose and protoporphyrin, or iron sucrose and cyanocobalamin. Eighteen hours later, ischemic, maleate, or glycerol models of AKI were induced, and its severity was assessed the following day (blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine concentrations; post-ischemic histology). Agent impact on cytoprotective gene expression (heme oxygenase 1, hepcidin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, α1-antitrypsin, α1-microglobulin, IL-10) was assessed as renal mRNA and protein levels. AKI-associated myocardial injury was gauged by plasma troponin I levels. Combination agent administration upregulated multiple cytoprotective genes and, unlike single agent administration, conferred marked protection against each tested model of acute renal failure. Heme oxygenase was shown to be a marked contributor to this cytoprotective effect. Preconditioning also blunted AKI-induced cardiac troponin release. Thus, iron sucrose and protoporphyrin administration can upregulate diverse cytoprotective genes and protect against acute renal failure. Associated cardiac protection implies potential relevance to both AKI and its associated adverse downstream effects. PMID:27165818

  3. Acute venous thrombosis of a renal transplant: early detection with color Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Danse, E; Malaise, J; Mourad, M; Cosyns, J P

    2009-01-01

    The observation of a recent case of an acute venous thrombosis of a renal transplant is the opportunity to review and present the role of color Doppler sonography for the early detection of such a severe and uncommon complication. PMID:19534237

  4. Distribution of cardiovascular disease and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes according to different classification systems for chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional analysis of the renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Kidney Foundation’s Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF’s KDOQI) staging system for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is based primarily on estimated GFR (eGFR). This study aimed at assessing whether reclassification of subjects with type 2 diabetes using two recent classifications based on both eGFR and albuminuria, the Alberta Kidney Disease Network (AKDN) and the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), provides a better definition of burden from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) than the NKF’s KDOQI classification. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 15,773) from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events Italian Multicenter Study, consecutively visiting 19 Diabetes Clinics throughout Italy in years 2007-2008. Exclusion criteria were dialysis or renal transplantation. CKD was defined based on eGFR, as calculated from serum creatinine by the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation, and albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry. DR was assessed by dilated fundoscopy. Prevalent CVD, total and by vascular bed, was assessed from medical history by recording previous documented major acute events. Results Though prevalence of complications increased with increasing CKD severity with all three classifications, it differed significantly between NKF’s KDOQI stages and AKDN or KDIGO risk categories. The AKDN and KDIGO systems resulted in appropriate reclassification of uncomplicated patients in the lowest risk categories and a more graded independent association with CVD and DR than the NKF’s KDOQI classification. However, CVD, but not DR prevalence was higher in the lowest risk categories of the new classifications than in the lowest stages of the NKF’s KDOQI, due to the inclusion of subjects with reduced eGFR without albuminuria. CVD prevalence differed also among eGFR and albuminuria

  5. Multi-factor analysis of failure of renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure developed after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Szwedo, Ireneusz; Tyc, Joanna; Hawrysz, Anna; Janiak, Kamila; Cichoń, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rare (2-15%), but severe complication of cardiac surgery with overall mortality reaching 40-80%. In order to save patients’ lives they are treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT). The aim of our study was to assess the impact of different perioperative factors on mortality among patients treated with RRT because of acute renal failure, which occurred as a complication of a heart surgery. Material and methods Retrospective analysis included 45 patients, operated in the years 2009-2013, who underwent renal replacement therapy in order to treat postoperative ARF. The perioperative factors were analysed in two groups: group 1 – patients who died before discharge; and group 2 – those who survived until hospital discharge. Results Forty-five of 3509 cardiac surgical patients (1.25%) required RRT after the surgery. A total of 23 (51.11%) died before discharge (group 1). Patients in group 1 were characterised by older age (70.21 vs. 67 years), higher mean EuroSCORE value (9.28 vs. 7.15) (p < 0.05), higher percentage of concomitant surgery (63.63% vs. 28.57%) (p < 0.05) and of admission of catecholamines in the postoperative period (100% vs. 68.42%) (p < 0.005), and higher mean urea blood level prior to RRT initiation (156.65 vs. 102.54 mg/dl) (p < 0.05). Conclusions The statistically relevant death predictors proved to be: high EuroSCORE, concomitant surgery, and high urea level at RRT initiation and admission of catecholamines in the postoperative period. After conformation in further studies, those factors may prove useful in stratification of death risk among surgical patients requiring RRT. PMID:26702273

  6. Time-updated systolic blood pressure and the progression of chronic kidney disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Amanda H; Yang, Wei; Townsend, Raymond R; Pan, Qiang; Chertow, Glenn M; Kusek, John W; Charleston, Jeanne; He, Jiang; Kallem, RadhaKrishna; Lash, James P; Miller, Edgar R; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Weir, Matthew; Wright, Jackson T; Feldman, Harold I

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) is often inadequately controlled in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous reports of the longitudinal association between achieved level of BP and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have not incorporated time-updated BP with appropriate adjustment for known confounders. Objective To assess the association between baseline and time-updated systolic BP (SBP) with the progression of CKD. Design Observational, prospective cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00304148) Setting Seven US clinical centers Patients Participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (N=3,708) followed for a median (25th, 75th percentiles) of 5.7 (4.6, 6.7) years Measurements The mean of three seated SBP measurements were used as the visit-specific SBP. SBP was time-updated as the mean of that visit and all prior visits. Outcomes were ESRD and the composite renal endpoint of ESRD (dialysis or transplantation) or halving of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses investigating baseline and time-updated SBP utilized traditional Cox proportional hazards models and marginal structural models, respectively. Results SBP was ≥130 mmHg at all study visits in 19.2% of participants, and ≥140 mmHg in 10.6%. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for ESRD among participants with SBP 130–139 mmHg, compared to SBP <120 mmHg, was 1.46 (1.13–1.88) using only baseline data, and was 2.37 (1.48–3.80) using all available time-updated data. Among those with SBP ≥140 mmHg, corresponding hazard ratios were 1.46 (1.18–1.88) and 3.37 (2.26–5.03), respectively. Limitations SBP was measured once annually, and the CRIC Study cohort is not a random sample. Conclusions Among participants in the CRIC Study, time-updated SBP over 130 mmHg was more strongly associated with progression of CKD than analyses based on baseline SBP. Funding The CRIC Study is funded under cooperative agreements from the National Institute of

  7. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  8. Effect of sedation on short-term and long-term outcomes of critically ill patients with acute respiratory insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xue-zhong; Gao, Yong; Wang, Hai-jun; Qu, Shi-ning; Huang, Chu-lin; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Hao; Xiao, Qing-ling; Sun, Ke-lin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the short-term and long-term outcomes of critically ill patients with acute respiratory insufficiency who had received sedation or no sedation. METHODS: The data of 91 patients who had received mechanical ventilation in the first 24 hours between November 2008 and October 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into two groups: a sedation group (n=28) and a non-sedation group (n=63). The patients were also grouped in two groups: deep sedation group and daily interruption and /or light sedation group. RESULTS: Overall, the 91 patients who had received ventilation ≥48 hours were analyzed. Multivariate analysis demonstrated two independent risk factors for in-hospital death: sequential organ failure assessment score (P=0.019, RR 1.355, 95%CI 1.051–1.747, B=0.304, SE=0.130, Wald=50483) and sedation (P=0.041, RR 5.015, 95%CI 1.072–23.459, B=1.612, SE=0.787, Wald=4.195). Compared with the patients who had received no sedation, those who had received sedation had a longer duration of ventilation, a longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital, and an increased in-hospital mortality rate. The Kaplan-Meier method showed that patients who had received sedation had a lower 60-month survival rate than those who had received no sedation (76.7% vs. 88.9%, Log-rank test=3.630, P=0.057). Compared with the patients who had received deep sedation, those who had received daily interruption or light sedation showed a decreased in-hospital mortality rate (57.1% vs. 9.5%, P=0.008). The 60-month survival of the patients who had received deep sedation was significantly lower than that of those who had daily interruption or light sedation (38.1% vs. 90.5%, Log-rank test=6.783, P=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Sedation was associated with in-hospital death. The patients who had received sedation had a longer duration of ventilation, a longer stay in intensive care unit and in hospital, and an increased in

  9. Modelling acute renal failure using blood and breath biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, Katherine T; Hill, Jonathan V; Chase, J Geoffrey; Hann, Christopher E; Scotter, Jennifer M; Storer, Malina K; Endre, Zoltan H

    2011-02-01

    This paper compares three methods for estimating renal function, as tested in rats. Acute renal failure (ARF) was induced via a 60-min bilateral renal artery clamp in 8 Sprague-Dawley rats and renal function was monitored for 1 week post-surgery. A two-compartment model was developed for estimating glomerular filtration via a bolus injection of a radio-labelled inulin tracer, and was compared with an estimated creatinine clearance method, modified using the Cockcroft-Gault equation for rats. These two methods were compared with selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) monitoring of breath analytes. Determination of renal function via SIFT-MS is desirable since results are available non-invasively and in real time. Relative decreases in renal function show very good correlation between all 3 methods (R²=0.84, 0.91 and 0.72 for breath-inulin, inulin-creatinine, and breath-creatinine correlations, respectively), and indicate good promise for fast, non-invasive determination of renal function via breath testing. PMID:20728235

  10. Cost-effectiveness of sevelamer versus calcium carbonate plus atorvastatin to reduce LDL in patients with chronic renal insufficiency with dyslipidemia and hyperphosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Brophy, D F; Wallace, J F; Kennedy, D T; Gehr, T W; Holdford, D A

    2000-08-01

    We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare costs and clinical outcomes of sevelamer versus calcium carbonate plus atorvastatin for treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. The model was from the third-party payer perspective. Efficacy and adverse event rates for each regimen were obtained from published clinical trials. Drug costs were based on average wholesale prices; monitoring costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates. Our model suggests that the combination of calcium carbonate plus atorvastatin is substantially more cost-effective than sevelamer in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in these patients. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to assess if 25% and 50% price reductions in sevelamer affected overall cost-effectiveness results. A 50% sevelamer price reduction was less expensive than combination therapy but remained less cost-effective. A two-way sensitivity analysis on the probability that a patient achieves the goal of a 35% LDL reduction resulted in calcium carbonate plus atorvastatin remaining more cost-effective. Further cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to corroborate our data. PMID:10939556

  11. A case of anorexia nervosa with acute renal failure induced by rhabdomyolysis; possible involvement of hypophosphatemia or phosphate depletion.

    PubMed

    Wada, S; Nagase, T; Koike, Y; Kugai, N; Nagata, N

    1992-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl with anorexia nervosa first presented with malnutrition, liver dysfunction, and rhabdomyolysis. Administration of fluid and nutrition saved her from the initial critical state, but acute renal failure followed. Laboratory examination revealed intrinsic renal failure induced by rhabdomyolysis. Latent phosphate depletion and refeeding-induced hypophosphatemia was implicated as the cause of rhabdomyolysis; however coexisting hypotension, dehydration, and liver dysfunction may have contributed to the renal failure. The patient recovered from azotemia by hemodialysis. This is the first reported case of anorexia nervosa with acute renal failure resulting from rhabdomyolysis induced by hypophosphatemia or phosphate depletion. PMID:1633352

  12. Role of mitochondria in ischemic acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Burke, T J; Wilson, D R; Levi, M; Gordon, J A; Arnold, P E; Schrier, R W

    1983-01-01

    Ischemic ARF is characterized by progressive mitochondrial accumulation of Ca++ which is inversely correlated with the level of oxidative phosphorylation. At least two possibilities exist which would be compatible with these data 1) depressed respiration leads to Ca++ accumulation or 2) increased mitochondrial Ca++ leads to reduced mitochondrial respiration. We favor the latter hypothesis for the reasons outlined above; furthermore, this conclusion is supported by the observations of Lehninger, made some 20 years ago: first, that either oxidative phosphorylation or mitochondrial Ca++ accumulation can be accomplished by intact mitochondria but that these events cannot occur simultaneously and second, that Ca++ accumulation takes precedence over oxidative phosphorylation. Our observation made during post-ischemic reflow that mitochondrial Ca++ accumulation occurs to a significant degree, strongly suggest a potential role for mitochondrial Ca++ overload in the pathogenesis of ARF. Nevertheless, this is not an irreversible pathogenetic process. Clearly, impermeant solutes, vasodilators and Ca++ membrane blockers will alter the natural history of this injury and prevent the severity of the functional defect. A common mechanism of action may involve direct or indirect modification of cellular Ca++ overload in renal vascular and epithelial tissue. The vascular smooth muscle may then revert to a less constricted state with a subsequent more rapid recovery of renal blood flow and that the renal epithelial cell death may be minimized thereby reducing tubular obstruction. PMID:6883804

  13. A case of fulminant type 1 diabetes associated with acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Deng, Datong; Xia, Li; Chen, Mingwei; Xu, Min; Wang, Youmin; Wang, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old man suffered from severe diabetic ketoacidosis which was complicated by acute renal failure and rhabdomyolysis. Before admission the patient had had flu-like symptoms for 5 days and had developed polyuria and polydipsia. The clinical examination on admission showed his plasma glucose level was 80.65 mmol/L while the HbA1c was 7.4%. His amylase concentration was high without any signs of pancreatitis. The islet-associated autoantibodies (GAD antibody, islet cell antibody) were absent. These data were compatible with the diagnosis of fulminant type 1 diabetes. A continuous intravenous insulin infusion therapy was given during the acute phase to control hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. This patient remained dependent on continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVHF) for 5 days, followed by regular kidney dialysis for three times, before his renal function was finally recovered. To conclude, this is a rare case of abrupt onset fulminant type 1 diabetes with the onset of acute renal failure. Hence, early detection, quick diagnosis and immediate treatment are very important. In particular, prompt CVVHF and kidney dialysis are required and useful for rescuing the renal function. PMID:26071577

  14. Acute renal failure and type B lactic acidosis as first manifestation of extranodal T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seongseok; Walker, Courtney N; Vincelette, Nicole D; Anwer, Faiz

    2014-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a 19-year-old male patient with a history of epilepsy and developmental delay who presented with acute renal failure (ARF) and lactic acidosis (LA) as the first manifestation of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Renal ultrasound and CT of the abdomen showed renal parenchymal infiltration, and renal biopsy demonstrated T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. LA, ARF and electrolyte abnormalities were refractory to the initial treatment of bicarbonate infusion and hydration. However, these abnormalities rapidly normalised after the initiation of chemotherapy, suggesting that the LA and ARF were secondary to lymphomatous renal infiltration. PMID:24913086

  15. Differentiation of acute renal failure and chronic renal failure by 2-dimensional analysis of urinary dipeptidase versus serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Kang, B Y; We, J S; Park, S K; Park, H S

    1999-03-01

    The differential diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) may be possible by measuring urinary dipeptidase (Udpase) activity and serum creatinine (Scr) concentration. When the mass test of 246 individuals was examined on a 2-dimensional plot of Udpase (y-axis) versus Scr (x-axis) with the data obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 189), ARF (n = 19) and CRF (n = 38) patients, the characteristic distribution of each group was obvious. It is summarized by the mean values of healthy volunteers (1.44 +/- 0.39 mg/dL, 1.19 (0.59 mU/mL), ARF (6.04 +/- 5.04 mg/dL, 0.12 +/- 0.08 mU/mL), and CRF patients (8.72 +/- 2.93 mg/dL, 0.81 +/- 0.44 mU/mL). The healthy volunteers are distributed along the y-axis and the ARF patients the x-axis, thus separating the two groups 90 degrees apart. The CRF patients are scattered away from both x-, and y-axis. This 2-dimensional approach is thought to be very useful for the differential diagnosis of ARF suggesting Udpase as a new member of the marker enzymes of renal disease. PMID:10088177

  16. Acute renal failure in pregnancy: Tertiary centre experience from north Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Munna Lal; Sachan, Rekha; Radheshyam; Sachan, Pushpalata

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obstetrical acute renal failure ARF is now a rare entity in the developed countries but still a common occurrence in developing countries. Delay in the diagnosis and late referral is associated with increased mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the contributing factors responsible for pregnancy-related acute kidney failure, its relation with mortality and morbidity and outcome measures in these patients. Materials and Methods: Total 520 patients of ARF of various aetiology were admitted, out of these 60 (11.5%) patients were pregnancy-related acute renal failure. Results: ARF Acute renal failure occurred in 32 (53.3%) cases in early part of their pregnancy, whereas in 28 (46.7%) cases in later of the pregnancy. Thirty-two (53.3%) patients had not received any antenatal visit, and had home delivery, 20 (33.4%) patients had delivered in hospitals but without antenatal care and eight (13.3%) patients received antenatal care and delivered in the hospitals. Anuria was observed in 23 (38.3%) cases, remaining 37 (61.7%) cases presented with oliguria. Septicemia was present in 25 (41.7%), hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in 20 (33.3%), haemorrhage in eight (13.3%), abortion in 5 (8.3%), haemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelets counts (HELLP) syndrome in one (1.67%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation in one (1.67%). (61.7%) patients were not dialyzed, 33 (55%) recovered normal renal function with conservative treatment. Complete recovery was observed in 45 (75%) patients, five (8.4%) patients developed irreversible renal failure. Maternal mortality was nine (15%) and foetal loss was 25 (41.7%). Conclusion: Pregnancy-related ARF is usually a consequence of obstetric complications; it carries very high morbidity and mortality. PMID:23900700

  17. Prognostic indicators of adverse renal outcome and death in acute kidney injury hospital survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hamzić-Mehmedbašić, Aida; Rašić, Senija; Balavac, Merima; Rebić, Damir; Delić-Šarac, Marina; Durak-Nalbantić, Azra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Data regarding prognostic factors of post-discharge mortality and adverse renal function outcome in acute kidney injury (AKI) hospital survivors are scarce and controversial. Objectives: We aimed to identify predictors of post-discharge mortality and adverse renal function outcome in AKI hospital survivors. Patients and Methods: The study group consisted of 84 AKI hospital survivors admitted to the tertiary medical center during 2-year period. Baseline clinical parameters, with renal outcome 3 months after discharge and 6-month mortality were evaluated. According survival and renal function outcome, patients were divided into two groups. Results: Patients who did not recover renal function were statistically significantly older (P < 0.007) with higher Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score (P < 0.000) and more likely to have anuria and oliguria (P = 0.008) compared to those with recovery. Deceased AKI patients were statistically significantly older (P < 0.000), with higher CCI score (P < 0.000), greater prevalence of sepsis (P =0.004), higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (P < 0.017) and ferritin (P < 0.051) and lower concentrations of albumin (P<0.01) compared to survivors. By multivariate analysis, independent predictors of adverse renal outcome were female gender (P =0.033), increasing CCI (P =0.000), presence of pre-existing chronic kidney disease (P =0.000) and diabetes mellitus (P =0.019) as well as acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) (P =0.032), while protective factor for renal function outcome was higher urine output (P =0.009). Independent predictors of post-discharge mortality were female gender (P =0.04), higher CCI score (P =0.001) and sepsis (P =0.034). Conclusion: Female AKI hospital survivors with increasing burden of comorbidities, diagnosis of sepsis and ADHF seem to be at high-risk for poor post-discharge outcome. PMID:27471736

  18. McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome: a rare case report of acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    MOIS, EMIL IOAN; GRAUR, FLORIN; SECHEL, ROXANA; AL-HAJJAR, NADIM

    2016-01-01

    Giant tubular-villous adenoma of the rectum can determine secretory diarrhea, associated with a depleting syndrome of prerenal acute renal failure, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypoproteinemia. These symptoms are known as the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome, and there are about 50 cases reported in literature. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with abdominal pain, prerenal azotemia, and electrolyte disturbances with a background of chronic diarrhea, caused by a giant rectal tumor. Conservative therapy initially improved and normalized renal function, and made surgical resection of the tumor possible. PMID:27152085

  19. Hemin Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kahtani, Mohamed A.; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M.; Elmenshawy, Omar M.; El-Kersh, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of hemin (the heme oxygenase-1 [OH-1] inducer) against nephrotoxic effects induced by cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (CP)] in male rats. Methods. The evaluation was performed through monitoring renal redox parameters: lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and reduced glutathione (GSH). The work also examined renal function tests (urea and creatinine), tissue proinflammatory mediator like nitric oxide (NO), and kidney cytopathology. Results. A single intraperitoneal dose of CP (10 mg/kg b.w.) caused significant elevation of blood urea, serum creatinine, and renal LPO and NO, along with significant decline of the activities of GPx and GR, but renal SOD activity and GSH level were statistically insignificant as compared to control group. Subcutaneous injection of hemin (40 µmol/kg b.w.) partially ameliorated CP-induced renal damage, based on suppression of blood urea, serum creatinine, the renal MDA and NO levels, and increased antioxidant capacity in CP-treated rats. The results of histopathological and ultrastructural investigations supported the renoprotective effect of hemin against CP-induced acute toxicity. Conclusion. The induction of HO-1 by hemin is a promising approach in the treatment of CP-induced nephrotoxicity. However, further preclinical studies are warranted to test effectiveness of CP/hemin on the outcome of tumor chemotherapy. PMID:25332751

  20. Açai berry extract attenuates glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Unis, Amina

    2015-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most common problems encountered in hospitalized critically ill patients. In recent years great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of ARF. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of Açai berry extract (ABE) on glycerol-induced ARF in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral ABE in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days before or 7 days after induction of ARF by a single intramuscular glycerol injection reported a significant improvement in kidney functions tests [decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] when compared to the ARF model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers [renal catalase (CAT), renal reduced glutathione (GSH)] and renal histopathological changes in the ABE-treated groups when compared to ARF model groups. The most significant improvement was reported in the groups where ABE was administered in a dose 200 mg/kg/day. These results indicate that ABE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in ARF. PMID:25524621

  1. Hyperaluminemia associated with liver transplantation and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, R T; Kusnir, J; Stevenson, W C; Lobo, P; Herman, M M; Wills, M R; Savory, J

    1995-08-01

    Iatrogenic aluminium toxicity is reported in a patient who underwent an orthotopic liver transplant and who had concomitant renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Following transplantation the patient developed a metabolic encephalopathy with only mildly elevated blood ammonia concentrations. During the period following transplantation the patient received massive infusions of albumin and was on oral feeding (vivonexten), both of which contained aluminium, as did the dialysis fluid. Hyperaluminemia and profoundly elevated liver tissue aluminium concentrations were observed. Treatment with desferrioxamine, a trivalent ion chelator, decreased the plasma aluminium concentrations with an improvement in the patient's mental status. PMID:7579738

  2. Adrenal Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is adrenal insufficiency? Did you know? The adrenal glands, located on top of the kidneys, make hormones ... body functions. The outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands makes three types of steroid hormones. In adrenal ...

  3. Venous insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ankles Skin color changes around the ankles Varicose veins on the surface (superficial) Thickening and hardening of ... skin on the legs and ankles (lipodermatosclerosis) Surgery ( varicose vein stripping ) to treat chronic venous insufficiency has been ...

  4. Aortic insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart valve - aortic regurgitation; Valvular disease - aortic regurgitation; AI - aortic insufficiency ... BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  5. The efficacy of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Chen, Wenbo; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Methods We searched PubMed, Medline and the Cochrane Library from 1 January 2004 to 1 August 2014. The effect estimate was expressed as a pooled OR with 95% CI, using the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results 20 randomised controlled trials (n=4280) were identified. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in CIN among patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96; p=0.027). However, moderate heterogeneity was noted across trials (I2=48%; p=0.008). Subgroup analyses indicated a better effect of sodium bicarbonate in studies using low-osmolar (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93; p=0.024) compared with iso-osmolar contrast agents (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.34; p=0.351). The odds of CIN with sodium bicarbonate were lower in studies including only patients undergoing emergency (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.51; p=0.002) compared with elective procedures (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.06; p=0.105). Sodium bicarbonate was more beneficial in patients given a bolus injection before procedures (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.54; p=0.004) compared with continuous infusion (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.05; p=0.091). Sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.79; p=0.024) was better than sodium bicarbonate alone (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.03; p=0.071). The effect of sodium bicarbonate was considered greater in papers published before (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.41; p=0.000) compared with after 2008 (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.16; p=0.302). However, no significant differences were found in mortality (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.32; p=0.263) or requirement for dialysis (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.25; p=0.841). Conclusions Sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing CIN among patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. However, it fails to lower the risks of

  6. Serum metabolomics study of the acute graft rejection in human renal transplantation based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinjie; Chen, Jihong; Ye, Lei; Xu, Guowang

    2014-05-01

    Acute graft rejection is one of the most common and serious postcomplications in renal transplantation. A noninvasive method is needed to specifically monitor acute graft rejection. We investigated metabolic alterations of acute graft rejection in human renal transplantation by applying a metabolomics approach. Sera from 11 acute graft rejection subjects and 16 nonacute graft rejection subjects were analyzed by a nontargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics approach including both hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography separations. Discriminative metabolites of acute graft rejection after transplantation were detected, including creatinine, kynurenine, uric acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, lysophosphatidylcholines, etc. The lower level of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was found in the acute graft rejection group before transplantation. The results revealed comprehensive metabolic abnormalities in acute graft rejection. The findings are valuable for the clinic noninvasive diagnosis or therapy of acute graft rejection. PMID:24641727

  7. Acute renal failure after cardiac transplantation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, D. N.; Perazella, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a relatively frequent complication associated with heart transplantation. It develops in the first few days postoperatively and is characterized by oliguria with laboratory and urinary indices typical of pre-renal azotemia. Cyclosporine, especially with higher doses, is one of the many factors which play an integral part in the nephrotoxicity following cardiac transplant. Poor preoperative renal function and perioperative hemodynamic compromise may also contribute to ARF. The actual incidence of ARF now encountered by transplant centers may be lower than previously reported, the result of lower cyclosporine doses. Currently, management is entirely supportive, but novel therapeutic approaches with atrial natriuretic peptide-like substances are being explored. A case illustrating the typical clinical presentation of ARF after heart transplant will be presented and the clinical features will be reviewed. PMID:9381741

  8. Infection related renal impairment: a major cause of acute allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nampoory, Mangalathillam R N; Johny, Kaivilayil V; Costandy, Jamal N; Nair, Madhavan P; Said, Tarek; Homoud, Hani; Al-Muzairai, Ibrahim; Samhan, Mohmoud; Al-Moussawi, Mustafa

    2003-06-01

    We prospectively analyzed the impact of post-transplant infections on the renal function in 532 stable renal transplant recipients (M=340; F=192) over a period of 5 years. Their age ranged from 3-75 years (40+14 years). During the follow-up period, 52 patients expired and 64 lost on followup. We defined renal impairment (RI) as a persistent rise in serum creatinine above 20% from baseline value. 495 episodes of RI occurred in 269 recipients. This included 180-36% episodes of acute rejection, 53-10.7% Cyclosporine toxicity, 236-47.7% infection related renal impairment [IRRI] and 26-5.3% others. The severity of renal failure is less in IRRI (100+90.2) than that of acute rejection (166+127.1), but was more than that in cyclosporine toxicity (50+42.2). Sites of infection in IRRI were urinary (33%), respiratory (26.3%), septicemia (15.7%) and others (25.4%). Episode of IRRI occurred more frequently in LURD (159-67.4%) compared to LRD-RTR (50-21.2%). Occurrence of IRRI is more significantly higher in patients on triple drug immunosuppression (IS) (34.3%) than those on two drug IS (13.2%) (P=or<0.01). Ecoli (23.1%), Pseudomonas (11.1%), Salmonella (8.8%), Klebsiella (8.8%) and Staphylococai (8.3%) were the major organisms producing IRRI. IRRI is frequent (27.8%) during the first six months. Present study denotes that IRRI is a major cause of acute failure in RTR. PMID:15859909

  9. Mechanisms of renal repair and survival following acute injury.

    PubMed

    Safirstein, R; DiMari, J; Megyesi, J; Price, P

    1998-09-01

    The reaction of the renal epithelium to injury is heterogenous. Some cells die, others survive apparently intact, while others commit to repair. The determinants of these responses appear to depend on signal transduction pathways and molecular responses that is segment specific and interactive. The kidney, as do cells in culture exposed to various noxious stimuli, react in a typical manner referred to as the stress response. The response is comprised of kinases and their molecular targets as well as cell cycle-specific factors that determine whether a cell survives the injury or not. We propose that this response can be modified by survival factors which upregulate those aspects of the response that are cytoprotective and which downregulate those that are cytoreductive. Preliminary data will be presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:9754604

  10. SPECT- and PET-Based Approaches for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Acute Renal Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Pawelski, Helga; Schnöckel, Uta; Kentrup, Dominik; Grabner, Alexander; Schäfers, Michael; Reuter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography are promising tools for noninvasive diagnosis of acute allograft rejection (AR). Given the importance of renal transplantation and the limitation of available donors, detailed analysis of factors that affect transplant survival is important. Episodes of acute allograft rejection are a negative prognostic factor for long-term graft survival. Invasive core needle biopsies are still the “goldstandard” in rejection diagnostics. Nevertheless, they are cumbersome to the patient and carry the risk of significant graft injury. Notably, they cannot be performed on patients taking anticoagulant drugs. Therefore, a noninvasive tool assessing the whole organ for specific and fast detection of acute allograft rejection is desirable. We herein review SPECT- and PET-based approaches for noninvasive molecular imaging-based diagnostics of acute transplant rejection. PMID:24804257