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Sample records for acyl-coa cholesterol acyltransferase

  1. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Li, Bo-Liang; Chang, Catherine C. Y.; Urano, Yasuomi

    2009-01-01

    The enzymes acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) are membrane-bound proteins that utilize long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and cholesterol as substrates to form cholesteryl esters. In mammals, two isoenzymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, encoded by two different genes, exist. ACATs play important roles in cellular cholesterol homeostasis in various tissues. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge on ACAT-related research in two areas: 1) ACAT genes and proteins and 2) ACAT enzymes as drug targets for atherosclerosis and for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19141679

  2. Human plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Jauhiainen, M.; Stevenson, K.J.; Dolphin, P.J.

    1988-05-15

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a plasma enzyme which catalyzes the transacylation of the fatty acid at the sn-2 position of lecithin to cholesterol forming lysolecithin and cholesteryl ester. The substrates for and products of this reaction are present within the plasma lipoproteins upon which the enzyme acts to form the majority of cholesteryl ester in human plasma. The authors proposed a covalent catalytic mechanism of action for LCAT in which serine and histidine residues mediate lecithin cleavage and two cysteine residues cholesterol esterification. With the aid of sulfhydryl reactive trivalent organoarsenical compounds which are specific for vicinal thiols they have probed the geometry of the catalytic site. They conclude that the two catalytic cysteine residues of LCAT (Cys/sup 31/ and Cys /sup 184/) are vicinal with a calculated distance between their sulfur atoms of 3.50-3.62 A. The additional residue alkylated by teh bifunctional reagent is within the catalytic site and may represent a previously identified catalytic serine or histidine residue.

  3. Lipoprotein products of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesteryl ester transfer.

    PubMed

    Rose, H G; Ellerbe, P

    1982-09-14

    High-density lipoprotein substrates and products of human plasma lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase have been labelled with radioisotopic cholesteryl esters in order to facilitate identification. [3H]Cholesteryl esters were formed by endogenous HDL3/VHDL enzyme (d greater than 1.125 g/ml) following incubation with mixed vesicles of phosphatidylcholine, unesterified cholesterol and 3H-labelled unesterified cholesterol. Transfer of labelled esters to acceptor lipoproteins (VLDL+LDL, d less than 1.063 g/ml) was employed to distinguish a hypothetical transfer complex. Separation of labelled HDL3/VHDL was by gel-permeation chromatography. The results indicate that a subpopulation of labelled HDL3/VHDL cholesteryl esters (43-61% of total) were removed by VLDL/LDL during a 3 h transfer period and these derive from the smaller lipoproteins of the spectrum. HDL carrying non-transferable [3H]cholesteryl esters localize to the larger HDL3. Transfer rates were proportional to ratios of acceptor to donor lipoproteins. Net transfer of cholesteryl esters from the smaller HDL3 also occurred, but was smaller in magnitude (about 10.5% of total). Acyltransferase assays indicated that enzyme distribution is skewed to larger-sized HDL3, suggesting that the non-transferable components might be lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-containing parent complexes, while the smaller transfer products contain little acyltransferase. The results fit the hypothesis that a parent HDL3-lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase complex generates a smaller-sized lipoprotein product which is active in cholesteryl ester transport. PMID:7126623

  4. High-Density Lipoprotein, Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase, and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ossoli, Alice; Pavanello, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data clearly show the existence of a strong inverse correlation between plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and the incidence of coronary heart disease. This relation is explained by a number of atheroprotective properties of HDL, first of all the ability to promote macrophage cholesterol transport. HDL are highly heterogeneous and are continuously remodeled in plasma thanks to the action of a number of proteins and enzymes. Among them, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a crucial role, being the only enzyme able to esterify cholesterol within lipoproteins. LCAT is synthetized by the liver and it has been thought to play a major role in reverse cholesterol transport and in atheroprotection. However, data from animal studies, as well as human studies, have shown contradictory results. Increased LCAT concentrations are associated with increased HDL-C levels but not necessarily with atheroprotection. On the other side, decreased LCAT concentration and activity are associated with decreased HDL-C levels but not with increased atherosclerosis. These contradictory results confirm that HDL-C levels per se do not represent the functionality of the HDL system. PMID:27302716

  5. High-Density Lipoprotein, Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase, and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ossoli, Alice; Pavanello, Chiara; Calabresi, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data clearly show the existence of a strong inverse correlation between plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and the incidence of coronary heart disease. This relation is explained by a number of atheroprotective properties of HDL, first of all the ability to promote macrophage cholesterol transport. HDL are highly heterogeneous and are continuously remodeled in plasma thanks to the action of a number of proteins and enzymes. Among them, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a crucial role, being the only enzyme able to esterify cholesterol within lipoproteins. LCAT is synthetized by the liver and it has been thought to play a major role in reverse cholesterol transport and in atheroprotection. However, data from animal studies, as well as human studies, have shown contradictory results. Increased LCAT concentrations are associated with increased HDL-C levels but not necessarily with atheroprotection. On the other side, decreased LCAT concentration and activity are associated with decreased HDL-C levels but not with increased atherosclerosis. These contradictory results confirm that HDL-C levels per se do not represent the functionality of the HDL system. PMID:27302716

  6. Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency Protects against Cholesterol-induced Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Lauren; Li, Lixin; Pun, Henry; Liu, Lu; Hossain, Mohammad A.; Maguire, Graham F.; Naples, Mark; Baker, Chris; Magomedova, Lilia; Tam, Jonathan; Adeli, Khosrow; Cummins, Carolyn L.; Connelly, Philip W.; Ng, Dominic S.

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) knock-out mice, particularly in the LDL receptor knock-out background, are hypersensitive to insulin and resistant to high fat diet-induced insulin resistance (IR) and obesity. We demonstrated that chow-fed Ldlr−/−xLcat+/+ mice have elevated hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which promotes IR, compared with wild-type controls, and this effect is normalized in Ldlr−/−xLcat−/− mice. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hepatic ER cholesterol metabolism differentially regulates ER stress using these models. We observed that the Ldlr−/−xLcat+/+ mice accumulate excess hepatic total and ER cholesterol primarily attributed to increased reuptake of biliary cholesterol as we observed reduced biliary cholesterol in conjunction with decreased hepatic Abcg5/g8 mRNA, increased Npc1l1 mRNA, and decreased Hmgr mRNA and nuclear SREBP2 protein. Intestinal NPC1L1 protein was induced. Expression of these genes was reversed in the Ldlr−/−xLcat−/− mice, accounting for the normalization of total and ER cholesterol and ER stress. Upon feeding a 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD), Ldlr−/−xLcat−/− mice accumulated a similar amount of total hepatic cholesterol compared with the Ldlr−/−xLcat+/+ mice, but the hepatic ER cholesterol levels remained low in conjunction with being protected from HCD-induced ER stress and IR. Hepatic ER stress correlates strongly with hepatic ER free cholesterol but poorly with hepatic tissue free cholesterol. The unexpectedly low ER cholesterol seen in HCD-fed Ldlr−/−xLcat−/− mice was attributable to a coordinated marked up-regulation of ACAT2 and suppressed SREBP2 processing. Thus, factors influencing the accumulation of ER cholesterol may be important for the development of hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:22500017

  7. Metabolism of low-density lipoprotein free cholesterol by human plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, P.E.; Miida, Takashi; Fielding, C.J. )

    1991-09-03

    The metabolism of cholesterol derived from ({sup 3}H) cholesterol-labeled low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was determined in human blood plasma. LDL-derived free cholesterol first appeared in large {alpha}-migrating HDL (HDL{sub 2}) and was then transferred to small {alpha}-HDL (HDL{sub 3}) for esterification. The major part of such esters was retained within HDL of increasing size in the course of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity; the balance was recovered in LDL. Transfer of preformed cholesteryl esters within HDL contributed little to the labeled cholesteryl ester accumulating HDL{sub 2}. When cholesterol for esterification was derived instead from cell membranes, a significantly smaller proportion of this cholesteryl ester was subsequently recovered in LDL. These data suggest compartmentation of cholesteryl esters within plasma that have been formed from cell membrane or LDL free cholesterol, and the role for HDL{sub 2} as a relatively unreactive sink for LCAT-derived cholesteryl esters.

  8. Acute Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) Knockdown Rapidly Mobilizes Hepatic Cholesterol for Fecal Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stephanie M.; Gromovsky, Anthony D.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Lee, Richard G.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Graham, Mark J.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is LDL cholesterol, which can be reduced by increasing cholesterol excretion from the body. Fecal cholesterol excretion can be driven by a hepatobiliary as well as a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE). We previously showed that chronic knockdown of the hepatic cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) increased fecal cholesterol loss via TICE. To elucidate the initial events that stimulate TICE, C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce hepatic cholesterol accumulation and were then treated for 1 or 2 weeks with an antisense oligonucleotide targeting SOAT2. Within 2 weeks of hepatic SOAT2 knockdown (SOAT2HKD), the concentration of cholesteryl ester in the liver was reduced by 70% without a reciprocal increase in hepatic free cholesterol. The rapid mobilization of hepatic cholesterol stores resulted in a ∼2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol loss but no change in biliary cholesterol concentration. Acute SOAT2HKD increased plasma cholesterol carried primarily in lipoproteins enriched in apoB and apoE. Collectively, our data suggest that acutely reducing SOAT2 causes hepatic cholesterol to be swiftly mobilized and packaged onto nascent lipoproteins that feed cholesterol into the TICE pathway for fecal excretion. PMID:24901470

  9. A review on lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Ramesh; Li, Min; Frohlich, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    Lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) is a plasma enzyme which esterifies cholesterol, and plays a key role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Genetic disorders of LCAT are associated with lipoprotein abnormalities including low levels of HDL-C and presence of lipoprotein X, and clinical features mainly corneal opacities, changes in erythrocyte morphology and renal failure. Recombinant LCAT is being developed for the treatment of patients with LCAT deficiency. PMID:25172171

  10. Isolation of Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor from Persicaria vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye Young; Rho, Mun-Chual; Lee, Seung Woong; Kwon, Oh Eok; Chang, Young-Duck; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young-Kook

    2002-09-01

    In the course of our search for Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors from natural sources, a new type of ACAT inhibitor was isolated from the methanol extract of Persicaria vulgaris. On the basis of spectral evidence, the structure of the active compound was identified as pheophorbide A. Pheophorbide A inhibited ACAT activity with an IC 50 value of 1.1 microg/ml in an enzyme assay using rat liver microsomes with a dose dependent fashion. PMID:12357403

  11. Some kinetic properties of plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in hyper-alphalipoproteinemia in man

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforova, A.A.; Alksnis, E.G.; Ivanova, E.M.

    1985-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study some kinetic properties of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the blood plasma of patients with hyper-alpha-lipoproteinemia, enabling the presence of LCAT isozymes in the blood to be detected. The velocity of the LCAT reaction was judged by determining labeled CHE formed from /sup 14/C-nonesterified CH and lecithin of HDL on incubation of the latter with the enzyme. Dependence of the velocity of the LCAT reaction on concentration of substrate (nonesterified HDL cholesterol) in four subjects with hyper-alpha-lipoproteinemia is shown.

  12. BacMam production of active recombinant lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase: Expression, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Romanow, William G; Piper, Derek E; Fordstrom, Preston; Thibault, Stephen; Zhou, Mingyue; Walker, Nigel P C

    2016-09-01

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a key enzyme in the esterification of cholesterol and its subsequent incorporation into the core of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. It is also involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the mechanism by which cholesterol is removed from peripheral cells and transported to the liver for excretion. These processes are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) and may have therapeutic implications. This work describes the use of baculovirus as a transducing vector to express LCAT in mammalian cells, expression of the recombinant protein as a high-mannose glycoform suitable for deglycosylation by Endo H and its purification to homogeneity and characterization. The importance of producing underglycosylated forms of secreted glycoproteins to obtain high-resolution crystal structures is discussed. PMID:26363122

  13. Selectivity of pyripyropene derivatives in inhibition toward acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 isozyme.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Taichi; Ohte, Satoshi; Matsuda, Daisuke; Ohtawa, Masaki; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Rudel, Lawrence L; Omura, Satoshi; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    Selectivity of 96 semisynthetic derivatives prepared from fungal pyripyropene A, originally isolated as a potent inhibitor of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), toward ACAT1 and ACAT2 isozymes was investigated in the cell-based assay using ACAT1- and ACAT2-expressing CHO cells. Eighteen derivatives including PR-71 (7-O-isocaproyl derivative) showed much more potent ACAT2 inhibition (IC50: 6.0 to 62 nM) than pyripyropene A (IC50: 70 nM). Among them, however, natural pyripyropene A showed the highest selectivity toward ACAT2 with a selectivity index (SI) of >1000, followed by PR-71 (SI, 667). PMID:18997389

  14. Overexpression of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in transgenic rabbits prevents diet-induced atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeg, J M; Santamarina-Fojo, S; Bérard, A M; Cornhill, J F; Herderick, E E; Feldman, S H; Haudenschild, C C; Vaisman, B L; Hoyt, R F; Demosky, S J; Kauffman, R D; Hazel, C M; Marcovina, S M; Brewer, H B

    1996-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a key plasma enzyme in cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Transgenic rabbits overexpressing human LCAT had 15-fold greater plasma LCAT activity that nontransgenic control rabbits. This degree of overexpression was associated with a 6.7-fold increase in the plasma HDL cholesterol concentration in LCAT transgenic rabbits. On a 0.3% cholesterol diet, the HDL cholesterol concentrations increased from 24 +/- 1 to 39 +/- 3 mg/dl in nontransgenic control rabbits (n = 10; P < 0.05) and increased from 161 +/- 5 to 200 +/- 21 mg/dl (P < 0.001) in the LCAT transgenic rabbits (n = 9). Although the baseline non-HDL concentrations of control (4 +/- 3 mg/dl) and transgenic rabbits (18 +/- 4 mg/dl) were similar, the cholesterol-rich diet raised the non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, reflecting the atherogenic very low density, intermediate density, and low density lipoprotein particles observed by gel filtration chromatography. The non-HDL cholesterol rose to 509 +/- 57 mg/dl in controls compared with only 196 +/- 14 mg/dl in the LCAT transgenic rabbits (P < 0.005). The differences in the plasma lipoprotein response to a cholesterol-rich diet observed in the transgenic rabbits paralleled the susceptibility to developing aortic atherosclerosis. Compared with nontransgenic controls, LCAT transgenic rabbits were protected from diet-induced atherosclerosis with significant reductions determined by both quantitative planimetry (-86%; P < 0.003) and quantitative immunohistochemistry (-93%; P < 0.009). Our results establish the importance of LCAT in the metabolism of both HDL and apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein particles with cholesterol feeding and the response to diet-induced atherosclerosis. In addition, these findings identify LCAT as a new target for therapy to prevent atherosclerosis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8876155

  15. Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT) Deficiency Promotes Differentiation of Satellite Cells to Brown Adipocytes in a Cholesterol-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Nesan, Dinushan; Tavallaee, Ghazaleh; Koh, Deborah; Bashiri, Amir; Abdin, Rawand; Ng, Dominic S

    2015-12-18

    Our laboratory previously reported that lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and LDL receptor double knock-out mice (Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(-/-) or DKO) spontaneously develop functioning ectopic brown adipose tissue (BAT) in skeletal muscle, putatively contributing to protection from the diet-induced obesity phenotype. Here we further investigated their developmental origin and the mechanistic role of LCAT deficiency. Gene profiling of skeletal muscle in DKO newborns and adults revealed a classical lineage. Primary quiescent satellite cells (SC) from chow-fed DKO mice, not in Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(+/+) single-knock-out (SKO) or C57BL/6 wild type, were found to (i) express exclusively classical BAT-selective genes, (ii) be primed to express key functional BAT genes, and (iii) exhibit markedly increased ex vivo adipogenic differentiation into brown adipocytes. This gene priming effect was abrogated upon feeding the mice a 2% high cholesterol diet in association with accumulation of excess intracellular cholesterol. Ex vivo cholesterol loading of chow-fed DKO SC recapitulated the effect, indicating that cellular cholesterol is a key regulator of SC-to-BAT differentiation. Comparing adipogenicity of Ldlr(+/+)xLcat(-/-) (LCAT-KO) SC with DKO SC identified a role for LCAT deficiency in priming SC to express BAT genes. Additionally, we found that reduced cellular cholesterol is important for adipogenic differentiation, evidenced by increased induction of adipogenesis in cholesterol-depleted SC from both LCAT-KO and SKO mice. Taken together, we conclude that ectopic BAT in DKO mice is classical in origin, and its development begins in utero. We further showed complementary roles of LCAT deficiency and cellular cholesterol reduction in the SC-to-BAT adipogenesis. PMID:26494623

  16. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A; Tesmer, John J G

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25727495

  17. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A.; Tesmer, John J. G.

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid-metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high-resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low-resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome.

  18. Structure and function of lysosomal phospholipase A2 and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Glukhova, Alisa; Hinkovska-Galcheva, Vania; Kelly, Robert; Abe, Akira; Shayman, James A; Tesmer, John JG

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal phospholipase A2 (LPLA2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) belong to a structurally uncharacterized family of key lipid metabolizing enzymes responsible for lung surfactant catabolism and for reverse cholesterol transport, respectively. Whereas LPLA2 is predicted to underlie the development of drug-induced phospholipidosis, somatic mutations in LCAT cause fish eye disease and familial LCAT deficiency. Here we describe several high resolution crystal structures of human LPLA2 and a low resolution structure of LCAT that confirms its close structural relationship to LPLA2. Insertions in the α/β hydrolase core of LPLA2 form domains that are responsible for membrane interaction and binding the acyl chains and head groups of phospholipid substrates. The LCAT structure suggests the molecular basis underlying human disease for most of the known LCAT missense mutations, and paves the way for rational development of new therapeutics to treat LCAT deficiency, atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25727495

  19. A Lipolytic Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Secreted by Toxoplasma Facilitates Parasite Replication and Egress.

    PubMed

    Pszenny, Viviana; Ehrenman, Karen; Romano, Julia D; Kennard, Andrea; Schultz, Aric; Roos, David S; Grigg, Michael E; Carruthers, Vern B; Coppens, Isabelle

    2016-02-19

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii develops within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in mammalian cells, where it scavenges cholesterol. When cholesterol is present in excess in its environment, the parasite expulses this lipid into the PV or esterifies it for storage in lipid bodies. Here, we characterized a unique T. gondii homologue of mammalian lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a key enzyme that produces cholesteryl esters via transfer of acyl groups from phospholipids to the 3-OH of free cholesterol, leading to the removal of excess cholesterol from tissues. TgLCAT contains a motif characteristic of serine lipases "AHSLG" and the catalytic triad consisting of serine, aspartate, and histidine (SDH) from LCAT enzymes. TgLCAT is secreted by the parasite, but unlike other LCAT enzymes it is cleaved into two proteolytic fragments that share the residues of the catalytic triad and need to be reassembled to reconstitute enzymatic activity. TgLCAT uses phosphatidylcholine as substrate to form lysophosphatidylcholine that has the potential to disrupt membranes. The released fatty acid is transferred to cholesterol, but with a lower transesterification activity than mammalian LCAT. TgLCAT is stored in a subpopulation of dense granule secretory organelles, and following secretion, it localizes to the PV and parasite plasma membrane. LCAT-null parasites have impaired growth in vitro, reduced virulence in animals, and exhibit delays in egress from host cells. Parasites overexpressing LCAT show increased virulence and faster egress. These observations demonstrate that TgLCAT influences the outcome of an infection, presumably by facilitating replication and egress depending on the developmental stage of the parasite. PMID:26694607

  20. Identification of the active-site serine in human lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Farooqui, J.; Wohl, R.C.; Kezdy, F.J.; Scanu, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) from human plasma reacts stoichiometrically with diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) resulting in the complete loss of transacylase activity. Purified LCAT was covalently labeled with (TH) DFP and the labeled protein was reduced and carboxymethylated. Cyanogen bromide cleavage followed by gel permeation chromatography yielded a peptide of 4-5 KDa (LCAT CNBr-III) containing most of the radioactive label. Preliminary studies comparing the amino acid composition of the LCAT-CNBr-III with the sequence of LCAT indicate that this peptide corresponds to fragment 168-220. Automated Edman degradation of the radioactive peptide recovered a radioactive PTC-amino acid at cycle 14. Of all predicted CNBr fragments only peptide 168-220 contained a serine at residue 14 from the amino terminus of the peptide. The authors conclude that serine 181 is the active site serine of LCAT.

  1. Catalytic center of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase: isolation and sequence of diisopropyl fluorophosphate-labeled peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.B.; Yueksel, U.G.; Gracy, R.W.; Lacko, A.G.

    1987-02-27

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was purified from hog plasma and subsequently reacted with (/sup 3/H)-Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). The labeled enzyme was digested with pepsin and the peptides separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two radioactive peptides were isolated, subjected to automated amino acid sequencing and yielded the following data: A) Ile-Ser-Leu-Gly-Ala-Pro-Trp-Gly-Gly-Ser, and B) Tyr-Ile-Phe-Asp-x-Gly-Phe-Pro-Tyr-x-Asp-Pro-Val. Both of these sequences represent very highly conserved regions of the enzyme when compared to the sequence of human LCAT. Peptide (A) is considered to represent the catalytic center of LCAT based on comparisons with data reported in the literature.

  2. Severe high-density lipoprotein deficiency associated with autoantibodies against lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Sara; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Mombelli, Giuliana; Bondioli, Alighiero; Ferraro, Giovanni; Penco, Silvana; Sirtori, Cesare R; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2012-01-23

    An antibody against the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) enzyme, which negates cholesterol esterification in plasma, causing severe high-density lipoprotein deficiency (HD), was identified in a woman with a large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Successful treatment of the lymphoma resulted in clearance of the antibody and complete correction of the defective cholesterol esterification and HD. To our knowledge, an acquired LCAT deficiency leading to severe HD has not been reported previously in association with a malignant disease, and this patient represents the first such documented case. PMID:22271127

  3. Apolipoprotein A-I Helsinki promotes intracellular acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Juan D; Garda, Horacio A; Cabaleiro, Laura V; Cuellar, Angela; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R; Gonzalez, Marina C

    2013-05-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport is a process of high antiatherogenic relevance in which apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) plays an important role. The interaction of apoA-I with peripheral cells produces through mechanisms that are still poorly understood the mobilization of intracellular cholesterol depots toward plasma membrane. In macrophages, these mechanisms seem to be related to the modulation of the activity of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular cholesterol ester biosynthesis that is stored in lipid droplets. The activation of ACAT and the accumulation of lipid droplets play a key role in the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, leading to the formation of atheroma or atherosclerotic plaque. ApoA-I Helsinki (or ∆K107) is a natural apoA-I variant with a lysine deletion in the central protein region, carriers of which have increased atherosclerosis risk. We herein show that treatment of cultured RAW macrophages or CHOK1 cells with ∆K107, but not with wild-type apoA-I or a variant containing a similar deletion at the C-terminal region (∆K226), lead to a marked increase (more than 10 times) in the intracellular ACAT1 protein level as detected by western blot analysis. However, we could only detect a slight increase in cholesteryl ester produced by ∆K107 mainly when Chol loading was supplied by low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although a similar choline-phospholipid efflux is evoked by these apoA-I variants, the change in phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin distribution produced by wild-type apoA-I is not observed with either ∆K107 or ∆K226. PMID:23456478

  4. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase is not identical to liver microsomal carboxylesterase.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, M A; Björkhem, I; Einarsson, K; Alexson, S E

    1996-04-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) is responsible for esterification of cholesterol in the cell. The enzyme has never been purified, but two cDNA sequences coding for this enzyme were recently reported. One of the sequences was identical to human liver carboxylesterase. We have used inhibitors to elucidate the relation between microsomal carboxylesterase, acyl-CoA hydrolase (ACH), and ACAT activities in rat liver. Low concentrations of serine esterase inhibitors strongly inhibited carboxylesterase and acyl-CoA hydrolase activities but stimulated ACAT activity. At higher concentrations, ACAT activity was also inhibited. A sulfhydryl-modifying agent was found to be a potent inhibitor of ACAT without affecting carboxylesterase activity. Similarly, two specific ACAT inhibitors, DL-melinamide and PD 138142-15, inhibited ACAT activity but did not affect carboxylesterase or ACH activities. Our data thus exclude ACAT as a liver microsomal carboxylesterase. The complex inhibition patterns observed with serine esterase inhibitors indicate that carboxylesterases and ACHs may interfere with ACAT activity by competing for the substrate. It is obvious that final identification of ACAT requires demonstration of an active homogenous protein. PMID:8624784

  5. Identification of genetic variants of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase in individuals with high HDL‑C levels.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mohsen; Hedayati, Mehdi; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-07-01

    Among the most common lipid abnormalities, a low level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL‑C) is one of the first risk factors identified for coronary heart disease. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) has a pivotal role in the formation and maturation of HDL-C and in reverse cholesterol transport. To identify genetic loci associated with low HDL-C in a population-based cohort in Tehran, the promoter, coding regions and exon/intron boundaries of LCAT were amplified and sequenced in consecutive individuals (n=150) who had extremely low or high HDL-C levels but no other major lipid abnormalities. A total of 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, of which 10 were found to be novel; the L393L, S232T and 16:67977696 C>A polymorphisms have been previously reported in the SNP Database (as rs5923, rs4986970 and rs11860115, respectively) and the non-synonymous R47M mutation has been reported in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSM972635). Three of the SNPs identified in the present study (position 6,531 in exon 5, position 6,696 in exon 5 and position 5,151 in exon 1) led to an amino acid substitution. The most common variants were L393L (4886C/T) in exon 6 and Q177E, a novel mutation, in exon 5, and the prevalence of the heterozygous genotype of these two SNPs was significantly higher in the low HDL-C groups. Univariate conditional logistic regression odds ratios (ORs) were nominally significant for Q177E (OR, 5.64; P=0.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.2‑26.2). However, this finding was attenuated following adjustment for confounders. Further studies using a larger sample size may enhance the determination of the role of these SNPs. PMID:24789697

  6. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, S.; Pinna, C.; Busnelli, M.; Cinquanta, P.; Rigamonti, E.; Ganzetti, G.S.; Dellera, F.; Sala, A.; Calabresi, L.; Franceschini, G.; Parolini, C.; Chiesa, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcatwt) and LCAT knockout (LcatKO) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in LcatKO mice (P < 0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in LcatKO mice (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in LcatKO mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcatwt and LcatKO mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  7. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Manzini, S; Pinna, C; Busnelli, M; Cinquanta, P; Rigamonti, E; Ganzetti, G S; Dellera, F; Sala, A; Calabresi, L; Franceschini, G; Parolini, C; Chiesa, G

    2015-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcat(wt)) and LCAT knockout (Lcat(KO)) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in Lcat(KO) mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcat(wt) and Lcat(KO) mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  8. Hyperspectral Imaging and Spectroscopy of Fluorescently Coupled Acyl-CoA: Cholesterol Acyltransferase in Insect Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malak, H.; Mahtani, H.; Herman, P.; Vecer, J.; Lu, X.; Chang, T. Y.; Richmond, Robert C.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A high-performance hyperspectral imaging module with high throughput of light suitable for low-intensity fluorescence microscopic imaging and subsequent analysis, including single-pixel-defined emission spectroscopy, was tested on Sf21 insect cells expressing green fluorescence associated with recombinant green fluorescent protein linked or not with the membrane protein acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase. The imager utilized the phenomenon of optical activity as a new technique providing information over a spectral range of 220-1400 nm, and was inserted between the microscope and an 8-bit CCD video-rate camera. The resulting fluorescence image did not introduce observable image aberrations. The images provided parallel acquisition of well resolved concurrent spatial and spectral information such that fluorescence associated with green fluorescent protein alone was demonstrated to be diffuse within the Sf21 insect cell, and that green fluorescence associated with the membrane protein was shown to be specifically concentrated within regions of the cell cytoplasm. Emission spectra analyzed from different regions of the fluorescence image showed blue shift specific for the regions of concentration associated with the membrane protein.

  9. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in brain: Does oxidative stress influence the 24-hydroxycholesterol esterification?

    PubMed

    La Marca, Valeria; Maresca, Bernardetta; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Cigliano, Luisa; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Abrescia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    24-Hydroxycholesterol (24OH-C) is esterified by the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We report here that the level of 24OH-C esters was lower in CSF of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis than in healthy subjects (54% vs 68% of total 24OH-C, p=0.0005; n=8). Similarly, the level of 24OH-C esters in plasma was lower in patients than in controls (62% vs 77% of total 24OH-C; p=0.0076). The enzyme amount in CSF, as measured by densitometry of the protein band revealed by immunoblotting, was about 4-fold higher in patients than in controls (p=0.0085). As differences in the concentration of the LCAT stimulator Apolipoprotein E were not found, we hypothesized that the reduced 24OH-C esterification in CSF of patients might depend on oxidative stress. We actually found that oxidative stress reduced LCAT activity in vitro, and 24OH-C effectively stimulated the enzyme secretion from astrocytoma cells in culture. Enhanced LCAT secretion from astrocytes might represent an adaptive response to the increase of non-esterified 24OH-C percentage, aimed to avoid the accumulation of this neurotoxic compound. The low degree of 24OH-C esterification in CSF or plasma might reflect reduced activity of LCAT during neurodegeneration. PMID:26454063

  10. Rimonabant is a dual inhibitor of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Netherland, Courtney; Thewke, Douglas P

    2010-08-01

    Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the intracellular synthesis of cholesteryl esters (CE). Both ACAT isoforms, ACAT1 and ACAT2, play key roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and ACAT inhibition retards atherosclerosis in animal models. Rimonabant, a type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) antagonist, produces anti-atherosclerotic effects in humans and animals by mechanisms which are not completely understood. Rimonabant is structurally similar to two other cannabinoid receptor antagonists, AM251 and SR144528, recently identified as potent inhibitors of ACAT. Therefore, we examined the effects of Rimonabant on ACAT using both in vivo cell-based assays and in vitro cell-free assays. Rimonabant dose-dependently reduced ACAT activity in Raw 264.7 macrophages (IC(50)=2.9+/-0.38 microM) and isolated peritoneal macrophages. Rimonabant inhibited ACAT activity in intact CHO-ACAT1 and CHO-ACAT2 cells and in cell-free assays with approximately equal efficiency (IC(50)=1.5+/-1.2 microM and 2.2+/-1.1 microM for CHO-ACAT1 and CHO-ACAT2, respectively). Consistent with ACAT inhibition, Rimonabant treatment blocked ACAT-dependent processes in macrophages, oxysterol-induced apoptosis and acetylated-LDL induced foam cell formation. From these results we conclude that Rimonabant is an ACAT1/2 dual inhibitor and suggest that some of the atherosclerotic beneficial effects of Rimonabant are, at least partly, due to inhibition of ACAT. PMID:20609360

  11. Selectivity of microbial acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitors toward isozymes.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Taichi; Rudel, Lawrence L; Omura, Satoshi; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The selectivity of microbial inhibitors of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) toward the two isozymes, ACAT1 and ACAT2, was assessed in cell-based assays. Purpactin A (IC50 values of ACAT1 vs. IC50 values of ACAT2; 2.5 microM vs. 1.5 microM), terpendole C (10 microM vs. 10 microM), glisoprenin A (4.3 microM vs. 10 microM), spylidone (25 microM vs. 5.0 microM) and synthetic CL-283,546 (0.1 microM vs. 0.09 microM) inhibited ACAT1 and ACAT2 to similar extents. Beauveriolides I (0.6 microM vs. 20 microM) and III (0.9 microM vs. >20 microM) inhibited ACAT1 rather selectively, while pyripyropenes A (>80 microM vs. 0.07 microM), B (48 microM vs. 2.0 microM), C (32 microM vs. 0.36 microM) and D (38 microM vs. 1.5 microM) showed selective inhibition against ACAT2. In particular, pyripyropene A was found to be the most selective ACAT2 inhibitor with a selective index of more than 1,000. PMID:17390588

  12. Ldl modified by hypochlorous acid is a potent inhibitor of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    McCall, M R; Carr, A C; Forte, T M; Frei, B

    2001-06-01

    Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by myeloperoxidase-generated HOCl has been implicated in human atherosclerosis. Incubation of LDL with HOCl generates several reactive intermediates, primarily N-chloramines, which may react with other biomolecules. In this study, we investigated the effects of HOCl-modified LDL on the activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an enzyme essential for high density lipoprotein maturation and the antiatherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. We exposed human LDL (0.5 mg protein/mL) to physiological concentrations of HOCl (25 to 200 micromol/L) and characterized the resulting LDL modifications to apolipoprotein B and lipids; the modified LDL was subsequently incubated with apolipoprotein B-depleted plasma (density >1.063 g/mL fraction), which contains functional LCAT. Increasing concentrations of HOCl caused various modifications to LDL, primarily, loss of lysine residues and increases in N-chloramines and electrophoretic mobility, whereas lipid hydroperoxides were only minor products. LCAT activity was extremely sensitive to HOCl-modified LDL and was reduced by 23% and 93% by LDL preincubated with 25 and 100 micromol/L HOCl, respectively. Addition of 200 micromol/L ascorbate or N-acetyl derivatives of cysteine or methionine completely prevented LCAT inactivation by LDL preincubated with

  13. Agonistic Human Antibodies Binding to Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Modulate High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gunawardane, Ruwanthi N; Fordstrom, Preston; Piper, Derek E; Masterman, Stephanie; Siu, Sophia; Liu, Dongming; Brown, Mike; Lu, Mei; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Richard; Cheng, Janet; Gates, Andrew; Meininger, David; Chan, Joyce; Carlson, Tim; Walker, Nigel; Schwarz, Margrit; Delaney, John; Zhou, Mingyue

    2016-02-01

    Drug discovery opportunities where loss-of-function alleles of a target gene link to a disease-relevant phenotype often require an agonism approach to up-regulate or re-establish the activity of the target gene. Antibody therapy is increasingly recognized as a favored drug modality due to multiple desirable pharmacological properties. However, agonistic antibodies that enhance the activities of the target enzymes are rarely developed because the discovery of agonistic antibodies remains elusive. Here we report an innovative scheme of discovery and characterization of human antibodies capable of binding to and agonizing a circulating enzyme lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Utilizing a modified human LCAT protein with enhanced enzymatic activity as an immunogen, we generated fully human monoclonal antibodies using the XenoMouse(TM) platform. One of the resultant agonistic antibodies, 27C3, binds to and substantially enhances the activity of LCAT from humans and cynomolgus macaques. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the 2.45 Å LCAT-27C3 complex shows that 27C3 binding does not induce notable structural changes in LCAT. A single administration of 27C3 to cynomolgus monkeys led to a rapid increase of plasma LCAT enzymatic activity and a 35% increase of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol that was observed up to 32 days after 27C3 administration. Thus, this novel scheme of immunization in conjunction with high throughput screening may represent an effective strategy for discovering agonistic antibodies against other enzyme targets. 27C3 and other agonistic human anti-human LCAT monoclonal antibodies described herein hold potential for therapeutic development for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26644477

  14. Regulation of plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. II. Activation during alimentary lipemia.

    PubMed

    Rose, H G; Juliano, J

    1977-03-01

    The effect of dietary fat on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity has been investigated in 14 normal male subjects. After determination of postabsorptive lipid and LCAT levels, a high-fat liquid test meal (1 to 2 gm./kg. body weight) was fed, followed by lipid and LCAT determinations at 2.5 hour intervals. Plasma triglycerides were elevated by 2.5 hours, peaked at 5.0 hours, fell at 7.5 hours, and were normalized by 10 hours. LCAT was unchanged at 2.5 hours but was elevated by 5.0 hours, exhibiting a broad plateau through 10 hours. Most subjects manifested peak responses at 7.5 hours. The mean maximal increase in individual subjects was 37.2 +/- 13.3 (S.D.) percent. LCAT changes similarly followed the elevation and recession of chylomicrons (Sf greater than 400) and very-low-density lipoprotein triglycerides, both of which closely paralleled plasma triglycerides. Enzyme responses were proportional to percentage elevations of plasma triglycerides (r = 0.93, p less than 0.01) and related to quantity of fat in the test diet. Three subjects who ingested the test diet devoid of the fat component showed no significant change in enzyme activity. Enzyme progress curves revealed linearity for 3 hours for both postabsorptive and lipemic (7.5 hour) plasma from the same subjects, supporting the validity of the assay as a measure of enzyme rate. These studies demonstrate an increase in cholesterol esterifying activity temporally related to the clearance of alimentary particles, suggesting a physiologic role in the clearance process. PMID:839110

  15. Agonistic Human Antibodies Binding to Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Modulate High Density Lipoprotein Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardane, Ruwanthi N.; Fordstrom, Preston; Piper, Derek E.; Masterman, Stephanie; Siu, Sophia; Liu, Dongming; Brown, Mike; Lu, Mei; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Richard; Cheng, Janet; Gates, Andrew; Meininger, David; Chan, Joyce; Carlson, Tim; Walker, Nigel; Schwarz, Margrit; Delaney, John; Zhou, Mingyue

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery opportunities where loss-of-function alleles of a target gene link to a disease-relevant phenotype often require an agonism approach to up-regulate or re-establish the activity of the target gene. Antibody therapy is increasingly recognized as a favored drug modality due to multiple desirable pharmacological properties. However, agonistic antibodies that enhance the activities of the target enzymes are rarely developed because the discovery of agonistic antibodies remains elusive. Here we report an innovative scheme of discovery and characterization of human antibodies capable of binding to and agonizing a circulating enzyme lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Utilizing a modified human LCAT protein with enhanced enzymatic activity as an immunogen, we generated fully human monoclonal antibodies using the XenoMouseTM platform. One of the resultant agonistic antibodies, 27C3, binds to and substantially enhances the activity of LCAT from humans and cynomolgus macaques. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the 2.45 Å LCAT-27C3 complex shows that 27C3 binding does not induce notable structural changes in LCAT. A single administration of 27C3 to cynomolgus monkeys led to a rapid increase of plasma LCAT enzymatic activity and a 35% increase of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol that was observed up to 32 days after 27C3 administration. Thus, this novel scheme of immunization in conjunction with high throughput screening may represent an effective strategy for discovering agonistic antibodies against other enzyme targets. 27C3 and other agonistic human anti-human LCAT monoclonal antibodies described herein hold potential for therapeutic development for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26644477

  16. Pyripyropenes, novel inhibitors of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase produced by Aspergillus fumigatus. I. Production, isolation, and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, H; Kim, Y K; Nishida, H; Masuma, R; Omura, S

    1994-02-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus FO-1289, a soil isolate, was found to produce a series of novel inhibitors of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). Four active compounds, named pyripyropenes A, B, C and D, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the producing strain by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography, ODS column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Pyripyropenes A, B, C and D show very potent ACAT inhibitory activity in an enzyme assay system using rat liver microsomes with IC50 values of 58, 117, 53 and 268 nM, respectively. PMID:8150709

  17. Estrogen Decreases Atherosclerosis In Part By Reducing Hepatic Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) In Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Davis, Matthew A.; Zhang, Li; Wilson, Martha D.; Register, Thomas C.; Adams, Michael R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Wagner, Janice D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Estrogens decrease atherosclerosis progression, mediated in part through changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins. This study aimed to determine estrogen-induced changes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism, plasma lipoproteins, and the relationship of these changes to atherosclerosis extent. Methods and Results Ovariectomized monkeys (n=34) consumed atherogenic diets for 30 months which contained either no hormones (control, n=17) or conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, n=17) at a human dose equivalent of 0.625 mg/d. Hepatic cholesterol content, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and expression levels were determined. CEE treatment resulted in lower plasma concentrations of very-low- and intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (V+IDLC; p=0.01), smaller LDL particles (p=0.002) and 50% lower hepatic cholesterol content (total, free and esterified; p<0.05 for all). Total ACAT activity was significantly lower (p=0.01), explained primarily by reductions in the activity of ACAT2. Estrogen regulation of enzymatic activity was at the protein level as both ACAT1 and 2 protein, but not mRNA levels, were lower (p=0.02 and <0.0001, respectively). ACAT2 activity was significantly associated with hepatic total cholesterol, plasma V+IDLC cholesterol, and atherosclerosis. Conclusions Atheroprotective effects of estrogen therapy may be related to reduced hepatic secretion of ACAT2-derived cholesteryl esters in plasma lipoproteins. Condensed Abstract Estrogen inhibits atherogenesis. We demonstrate in ovariectorized monkeys that estrogen therapy led to lower hepatic and circulating lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower ACAT2 protein and associated activity levels as compared to controls. Hepatic ACAT2 activity was highly correlated with, and was an independent predictor of coronary artery atherosclerosis extent. PMID:19759374

  18. Plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and carotid intima-media thickness in European individuals at high cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Calabresi, Laura; Baldassarre, Damiano; Simonelli, Sara; Gomaraschi, Monica; Amato, Mauro; Castelnuovo, Samuela; Frigerio, Beatrice; Ravani, Alessio; Sansaro, Daniela; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Humphries, Steve E.; Giral, Philippe; Veglia, Fabrizio; Sirtori, Cesare R.; Franceschini, Guido; Tremoli, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the enzyme responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. LCAT is a major factor in HDL remodeling and metabolism, and it has long been believed to play a critical role in macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The effect of LCAT on human atherogenesis is still controversial. In the present study, the plasma LCAT concentration was measured in all subjects (n = 540) not on drug treatment at the time of enrollment in the multicenter, longitudinal, observational IMPROVE study. Mean and maximum intima-media thickness (IMT) of the whole carotid tree was measured by B-mode ultrasonography in all subjects. In the entire cohort, LCAT quartiles were not associated with carotid mean and maximum IMT (P for trend 0.95 and 0.18, respectively), also after adjustment for age, gender, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. No association between carotid IMT and LCAT quartiles was observed in men (P=0.30 and P=0.99 for mean and maximum IMT, respectively), whereas carotid IMT increased with LCAT quartiles in women (P for trend 0.14 and 0.019 for mean and maximum IMT, respectively). The present findings support the concept that LCAT is not required for an efficient reverse cholesterol transport and that a low plasma LCAT concentration and activity is not associated with increased atherosclerosis. PMID:21596929

  19. Regulation of high density lipoprotein receptors in cultured macrophages: role of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, G; Niemann, R; Brennhausen, B; Krause, R; Assmann, G

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of human serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) with mouse peritoneal macrophages and human blood monocytes was studied. Saturation curves for binding of apolipoprotein E-free [125I]HDL3 showed at least two components: non-specific binding and specific binding that saturated at approximately 40 micrograms HDL protein/ml. Scatchard analysis of specific binding of apo E-free [125I]-HDL3 to cultured macrophages yielded linear plots indicative of a single class of specific binding sites. Pretreatment of [125I]HDL3 with various apolipoprotein antibodies (anti apo A-I, anti apo A-II, anti apo C-II, anti apo C-III and anti apo E) and preincubation of the cells with anti-idiotype antibodies against apo A-I and apo A-II prior to the HDL binding studies revealed apolipoprotein A-I as the ligand involved in specific binding of HDL. Cellular cholesterol accumulation via incubation with acetylated LDL led to an increase in HDL binding sites as well as an increase in the activity of the cytoplasmic cholesterol esterifying enzyme acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). Incubation of the cholesterol-loaded cells in the presence of various ACAT inhibitors (Sandoz 58.035, Octimibate-Nattermann, progesterone) revealed a time- and dose-dependent amplification in HDL binding and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. It is concluded that the homeostasis of cellular cholesterol in macrophages is regulated in part by the number of HDL binding sites and that ACAT inhibitors enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2998754

  20. Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2-Driven Cholesterol Esterification Opposes Liver X Receptor-Stimulated Fecal Neutral Sterol Loss.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Bura, Kanwardeep; Kelley, Kathryn; Wilson, Martha D; Rudel, Lawrence L; Brown, J Mark

    2016-02-01

    Statin drugs have proven a successful and relatively safe therapy for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even with the substantial low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol lowering achieved with statin treatment, CVD remains the top cause of death in developed countries. Selective inhibitors of the cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol-O acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) hold great promise as effective CVD therapeutics. In mouse models, previous work has demonstrated that either antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) or small molecule inhibitors of SOAT2 can effectively reduce CVD progression, and even promote regression of established CVD. Although it is well known that SOAT2-driven cholesterol esterification can alter both the packaging and retention of atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins, here we set out to determine whether SOAT2-driven cholesterol esterification can also impact basal and liver X receptor (LXR)-stimulated fecal neutral sterol loss. These studies demonstrate that SOAT2 is a negative regulator of LXR-stimulated fecal neutral sterol loss in mice. PMID:26729489

  1. Association of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate and low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity with cardiovascular risk: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tani, Shigemasa; Takahashi, Atsuhiko; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    The cholesterol-esterifying enzyme, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), is believed to play a key role in reverse cholesterol transport. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that higher LCAT activity levels increase the formation of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and atherogenesis. We hypothesized that higher LCAT activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate by the endogenous substrate method might increase the formation of TRLs and thereby alter low-density lipoprotein (LDL) heterogeneity. The estimated LDL particle size [relative LDL migration (LDL-Rm)] was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the LipoPhor system (Joko, Tokyo, Japan) in 538 consecutive patients with at least risk factor for atherosclerosis. Multivariate regression analysis after adjustments for traditional risk factors identified elevated TRL-related marker (TG, remnant-like particle cholesterol, apolipoprotein C-II, and apolipoprotein C-III) levels as independent predictors of smaller-sized LDL particle size, both in the overall subject population and in the subset of patients with serum LDL cholesterol levels of <100 mg/dL. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the LCAT activity (0.79; sensitivity 60 %; specificity 84.8 %) was observed for the evaluation of the indicators of an LDL-Rm value of ≥0.40, which suggests the presence of large amounts of small-dense LDL. The results lend support to the hypothesis that increased LCAT activity may be associated with increased formation of TRLs, leading to a reduction in LDL particle size. Therefore, to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, it may be of importance to pay attention not only to a quantitative change in the serum LDL-C, but also to the LCAT activity which is possibly associated with LDL heterogeneity. PMID:25894629

  2. Cloning and functional analysis of human acyl coenzyme A: Cholesterol acyltransferase1 gene P1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Qi, Benling; Peng, Wen; Wen, Hui; Bai, Lijuan; Liu, Yun; Zhai, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) catalyzes the conversion of free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol ester. The human ACAT1 gene P1 promoter has been cloned. However, the activity and specificity of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter in diverse cell types remains unclear. The P1 promoter fragment was digested with KpnI/XhoI from a P1 promoter cloning vector, and was subcloned into the multiple cloning site of the Firefly luciferase vector pGL3‑Enhancer to obtain the construct P1E‑1. According to the analysis of biological information, the P1E‑1 plasmid was used to generate deletions of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter with varying 5' ends and an identical 3' end at +65 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the 5'‑deletion constructs of the P1 promoter were identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion mapping and DNA sequencing. The transcriptional activity of each construct was detected after transient transfection into THP‑1, HepG2, HEK293 and Hela cells using DEAE‑dextran and Lipofectamine 2000 liposome transfection reagent. Results showed that the transcriptional activity of the ACAT1 gene P1 promoter and deletions of P1 promoter in THP‑1 and HepG2 cells was higher than that in HEK293 and HeLa cells. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of P1E‑9 was higher compared with those of other deletions in THP‑1, HepG2, HEK293 and HeLa cells. These findings indicate that the transcriptional activity of the P1 promoter and the effects of deletions vary with different cell lines. Thus, the P1 promoter may drive ACAT1 gene expression with cell‑type specificity. In addition, the core sequence of ACAT1 gene P1 promoter was suggested to be between -125 and +65 bp. PMID:27220725

  3. Myeloid Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase 1 Deficiency Reduces Lesion Macrophage Content and Suppresses Atherosclerosis Progression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Hao; Melton, Elaina M; Li, Haibo; Sohn, Paul; Rogers, Maximillian A; Mulligan-Kehoe, Mary Jo; Fiering, Steven N; Hickey, William F; Chang, Catherine C Y; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-03-18

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (Acat1) converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and is considered a drug target for treating atherosclerosis. However, in mouse models for atherosclerosis, global Acat1 knockout (Acat1(-/-)) did not prevent lesion development. Acat1(-/-) increased apoptosis within lesions and led to several additional undesirable phenotypes, including hair loss, dry eye, leukocytosis, xanthomatosis, and a reduced life span. To determine the roles of Acat1 in monocytes/macrophages in atherosclerosis, we produced a myeloid-specific Acat1 knockout (Acat1(-M/-M)) mouse and showed that, in the Apoe knockout (Apoe(-/-)) mouse model for atherosclerosis, Acat1(-M/-M) decreased the plaque area and reduced lesion size without causing leukocytosis, dry eye, hair loss, or a reduced life span. Acat1(-M/-M) enhanced xanthomatosis in apoe(-/-) mice, a skin disease that is not associated with diet-induced atherosclerosis in humans. Analyses of atherosclerotic lesions showed that Acat1(-M/-M) reduced macrophage numbers and diminished the cholesterol and cholesteryl ester load without causing detectable apoptotic cell death. Leukocyte migration analysis in vivo showed that Acat1(-M/-M) caused much fewer leukocytes to appear at the activated endothelium. Studies in inflammatory (Ly6C(hi)-positive) monocytes and in cultured macrophages showed that inhibiting ACAT1 by gene knockout or by pharmacological inhibition caused a significant decrease in integrin β 1 (CD29) expression in activated monocytes/macrophages. The sparse presence of lesion macrophages without Acat1 can therefore, in part, be attributed to decreased interaction between inflammatory monocytes/macrophages lacking Acat1 and the activated endothelium. We conclude that targeting ACAT1 in a myeloid cell lineage suppresses atherosclerosis progression while avoiding many of the undesirable side effects caused by global Acat1 inhibition. PMID:26801614

  4. Pyripyropenes, novel inhibitors of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase produced by Aspergillus fumigatus. II. Structure elucidation of pyripyropenes A, B, C and D.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Tomoda, H; Nishida, H; Sunazuka, T; Obata, R; Omura, S

    1994-02-01

    The structures of pyripyropenes A, B, C and D, novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors, were determined mainly by spectroscopic studies including various NMR measurements. Pyripyropenes have a common structure which consists of pyridine, alpha-pyrone and sesquiterpene moieties. One of the three O-acetyl residues in the sesquiterpene moiety of pyripyropene A is replaced with an O-propionyl residue in pyripyropenes B, C and D. PMID:8150710

  5. High Pre-β1 HDL Concentrations and Low Lecithin: Cholesterol Acyltransferase Activities Are Strong Positive Risk Markers for Ischemic Heart Disease and Independent of HDL-Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Amar A.; Sampson, Maureen; Warnick, Russell; Muniz, Nehemias; Vaisman, Boris; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We hypothesized that patients with high HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) may have dysfunctional HDL or unrecognized nonconventional risk factors. METHODS Individuals with IHD (Copenhagen University Hospital) and either high HDL-C (n = 53; women ≥735 mg/L; men ≥619 mg/L) or low HDL-C (n = 42; women ≤387 mg/L; men ≤341 mg/L) were compared with individuals without IHD (Copenhagen City Heart Study) matched by age, sex, and HDL-C concentrations (n = 110). All participants had concentrations within reference intervals for LDL-C (<1600 mg/L) and triglyceride (<1500 mg/L), and none were treated with lipid-lowering medications. Pre-β1 HDL and phospholipid transfer protein concentrations were measured by using commercial kits and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity by using a proteoliposome cholesterol esterification assay. RESULTS Pre-β1 HDL concentrations were 2-fold higher in individuals with IHD vs no IHD in both the high [63 (5.7) vs 35 (2.3) mg/L; P < 0.0001] and low HDL-C [49 (5.0) vs 27 (1.5) mg/L; P = 0.001] groups. Low LCAT activity was also associated with IHD in the high [95.2 (6.7) vs 123.0 (5.3) μmol · L−1 · h−1; P = 0.002] and low [93.4 (8.3) vs 113.5 (4.9) μmol · L−1 · h−1; P = 0.03] HDL-C groups. ROC curves for pre-β1 HDL in the high–HDL-C groups yielded an area under the curve of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.81) for predicting IHD, which increased to 0.92 (0.87–0.97) when LCAT was included. Similar results were obtained for low HDL-C groups. An inverse correlation between LCAT activity and pre-β1 HDL was observed (r2 = 0.30; P < 0.0001) in IHD participants, which was stronger in the low HDL-C group (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS IHD was associated with high pre-β1 HDL concentrations and low LCAT levels, yielding correct classification in more than 90% of the IHD cases for which both were measured, thus making pre-β1 HDL concentration and LCAT activity level potentially

  6. Penicillium griseofulvum F1959, high-production strain of pyripyropene a, specific inhibitor of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase 2.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Ho; Rho, Mun-Chual; Lee, Seung Woong; Choi, Ji Na; Lee, Hee Jeong; Bae, Kyung Sook; Kim, Koanhoi; Kim, Young Kook

    2008-10-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes cholesterol esterification and plays an important role in the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, hepatic production of lipoproteins, and accumulation of cholesteryl ester within cells. During the course of screening to find ACAT inhibitors from microbial sources, the present authors isolated pyripyropene A from Penicillium griseofulvum F1959. Pyripyropene A, an ACAT2-specific inhibitor, has already been produced from Aspergillus fumigatus. Yet, Aspergillus fumigatus is a pathogen and only produces a limited amount of pyripyropene A, making the isolation of pyripyropene A troublesome. In contrast, Penicillium griseofulvum F1959 was found to produce approximately 28 times more pyripyropene A than Aspergillus fumigatus, plus this report also describes the ideal conditions for the production of pyripyropene A by Penicillium griseofulvum F1959 and its subsequent purification. PMID:18955816

  7. Plasma lipoproteins and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase distribution in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    McLeod, R; Reeve, C E; Frohlich, J

    1984-04-01

    Plasma lipoproteins and LCAT activity were studied using a single spin density gradient separation and an exogenous substrate enzyme assay in 41 patients on chronic hemodialysis and in 11 normal subjects. The plasma HDL cholesterol was markedly decreased (33 vs. 63 mg/dl, P less than 0.001) while total and LDL-cholesterol were unchanged in the patients. Plasma LCAT activity was significantly lower in the patient group (42 vs. 59 nmoles/4 hr/ml, P less than 0.001), but the distribution of activity (studied in 13 dialysis patients and 12 control subjects) was not different between the two groups: 90% being associated with HDL and VHDL lipoprotein fractions. To examine the possible genetic influence on the development of hypertriglyceridemia in the patient group, we examined the ratio of apolipoproteins E3/E2 and CII/CIII in ten of the patients and another group of 13 control subjects. The frequency of heterozygotes for E3 deficiency was not different between the patient (one of ten) and the control (two of 13) groups. While the patient group had lower CII/CIII ratio, the figures did not reach statistical significance. The low LCAT activity in the face of higher plasma triglycerides and low HDL may contribute to impaired lipolysis previously documented in uremic patients. A follow-up study performed 1 year after the initial study confirmed the decreased HDL (51 vs. 71 mg/dl, P less than 0.01) and LCAT activity (50 vs. 59 nmoles/hr/ml, P less than 0.02) in an exogenous substrate system (N = 20). LCAT measured using the endogenous substrate was not significantly different from the control group (49 vs. 55 nmoles/hr/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6482172

  8. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase esterifies cerebrosterol and limits the toxic effect of this oxysterol on SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Valeria; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Cigliano, Luisa; Marasco, Daniela; Abrescia, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Cholesterol is mostly removed from the CNS by its conversion to cerebrosterol (24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)OH-C), which is transported to the circulation for bile formation in liver. A neurotoxic role of this oxysterol was previously demonstrated in cell culture. Here, we provide evidence that the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, long known to esterify cholesterol, also produces monoesters of 24(S)OH-C. Proteoliposomes containing apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E were used to stimulate the enzyme activity and entrap the formed esters. Proteoliposomes with apolipoprotein A-I were found to be more active than those with apolipoprotein E in stimulating the production of oxysteryl esters. Cholesterol and 24(S)OH-C were found to compete for enzyme activity. High levels of haptoglobin, as those circulating during the acute inflammatory phase, inhibited 24(S)OH-C esterification. When highly neurotoxic 24(S)OH-C was treated with enzyme and proteoliposomes before incubation with differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, the neuron survival improved. The esters of 24(S)OH-C, embedded into proteoliposomes by the enzyme and isolated from unesterified 24(S)OH-C by gel filtration chromatography, did not enter the neurons in culture. These results suggest that the enzyme, in the presence of the apolipoproteins, converts 24(S)OH-C into esters restricted to the extracellular environment, thus preventing or limiting oxysterol-induced neurotoxic injuries to neurons in culture. 24-hydroxycholesterol (24(S)OH-C) is neurotoxic. The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) synthesizes monoesters of 24(S)OH-C in reaction mixtures with proteoliposomes containing phospholipids and apolipoprotein A-I or apolipoprotein E. The esters, also produced by incubation of cerebrospinal fluid only with tritiated 24(S)OH-C, are embedded into lipoproteins that do not enter neurons in culture. The enzyme activity limits the toxicity of 24-hydroxycholesterol in neuron culture. PMID

  9. Expression of the Acyl-Coenzyme A: Cholesterol Acyltransferase GFP Fusion Protein in Sf21 Insect Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahtani, H. K.; Richmond, R. C.; Chang, T. Y.; Chang, C. C. Y.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The enzyme acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an important contributor to the pathological expression of plaque leading to artherosclerosis n a major health problem. Adequate knowledge of the structure of this protein will enable pharmaceutical companies to design drugs specific to the enzyme. ACAT is a membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum.t The protein has never been purified to homogeneity.T.Y. Chang's laboratory at Dartmouth College provided a 4-kb cDNA clone (K1) coding for a structural gene of the protein. We have modified the gene sequence and inserted the cDNA into the BioGreen His Baculovirus transfer vector. This was successfully expressed in Sf2l insect cells as a GFP-labeled ACAT protein. The advantage to this ACAT-GFP fusion protein (abbreviated GCAT) is that one can easily monitor its expression as a function of GFP excitation at 395 nm and emission at 509 nm. Moreover, the fusion protein GCAT can be detected on Western blots with the use of commercially available GFP antibodies. Antibodies against ACAT are not readily available. The presence of the 6xHis tag in the transfer vector facilitates purification of the recombinant protein since 6xHis fusion proteins bind with high affinity to Ni-NTA agarose. Obtaining highly pure protein in large quantities is essential for subsequent crystallization. The purified GCAT fusion protein can readily be cleaved into distinct GFP and ACAT proteins in the presence of thrombin. Thrombin digests the 6xHis tag linking the two protein sequences. Preliminary experiments have indicated that both GCAT and ACAT are expressed as functional proteins. The ultimate aim is to obtain large quantities of the ACAT protein in pure and functional form appropriate for protein crystal growth. Determining protein structure is the key to the design and development of effective drugs. X-ray analysis requires large homogeneous crystals that are difficult to obtain in the gravity environment of earth

  10. Discovery of a potent and orally available acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor as an anti-atherosclerotic agent: (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Masaki; Fukui, Seiji; Nakada, Yoshihisa; Tokunoh, Ryosuke; Itokawa, Shigekazu; Kakoi, Yuichi; Nishimura, Satoshi; Sanada, Tsukasa; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Kazuki; Wada, Takeo; Marui, Shogo

    2011-01-01

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes cholesterol esterification. ACAT inhibitors are expected to be potent therapeutic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis. A series of potent ACAT inhibitors based on an (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide scaffold was identified. Evaluation of the structure-activity relationships of a substituent on this scaffold, with an emphasis on improving the pharmacokinetic profile led to the discovery of 2-[7-chloro-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl]-N-[4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acetamide (23), which exhibited potent ACAT inhibitory activity (IC50=12 nM) and good pharmacokinetic profile in mice. Compound 23 also showed regressive effects on atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein (apo)E knock out (KO) mice at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg per os (p.o.). PMID:21963637

  11. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) catalyzes transacylation of intact cholesteryl esters. Evidence for the partial reversal of the forward LCAT reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sorci-Thomas, M.; Babiak, J.; Rudel, L.L. )

    1990-02-15

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) catalyzes the intravascular synthesis of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters by converting cholesterol and lecithin to cholesteryl ester and lysolecithin. LCAT is unique in that it catalyzes sequential reactions within a single polypeptide sequence. In this report we find that LCAT mediates a partial reverse reaction, the transacylation of lipoprotein cholesteryl oleate, in whole plasma and in a purified, reconstituted system. As a result of the reverse transacylation reaction, a linear accumulation of (3H)cholesterol occurred during incubations of plasma containing high density lipoprotein labeled with (3H)cholesteryl oleate. When high density lipoprotein labeled with cholesteryl (14C)oleate was also included in the incubation the labeled fatty acyl moiety remained in the cholesteryl (14C)oleate pool showing that the formation of labeled cholesterol did not result from hydrolysis of the doubly labeled cholesteryl esters. The rate of release of (3H)cholesterol was only about 10% of the forward rate of esterification of cholesterol using partially purified human LCAT and was approximately 7% in whole monkey plasma. Therefore, net production of cholesterol via the reverse LCAT reaction would not occur. (3H)Cholesterol production from (3H)cholesteryl oleate was almost completely inhibited by a final concentration of 1.4 mM 5,5'-dithiobis(nitrobenzoic acid) during incubation with either purified LCAT or whole plasma. Addition of excess lysolecithin to the incubation system did not result in the formation of (14C)oleate-labeled lecithin, showing that the reverse reaction found here for LCAT was limited to the last step of the reaction. To explain these results we hypothesize that LCAT forms a (14C)oleate enzyme thioester intermediate after its attack on the cholesteryl oleate molecule.

  12. Modulation Peroxisome Proliferators Activated Receptor alpha (PPAR α) and Acyl Coenzyme A: Cholesterol Acyltransferase1 (ACAT1) Gene expression by Fatty Acids in Foam cell

    PubMed Central

    Zavvar Reza, Javad; Doosti, Mahmoud; salehipour, Masoud; PackneJad, Malehieh; Mojarrad, Majed; Heidari, Mansour; Emamian, Effat S

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the most important factors in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis is the default in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. Many genes and transcription factors such as Peroxisome Proliferators Activated Receptors (PPARs) and Acyl Coenzyme A: Cholesterol Acyltransferase1 (ACAT1) are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Fatty Acids are important ligands of PPARα and the concentration of them can effect expression of ACAT1. So this study designed to clarified on the role of these genes and fatty acids on the lipid metabolism in foam cells. Methods This study examined effects of c9, t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid(c9, t11-CLA), Alpha Linolenic Acid (LA), Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) on the PPARα and ACAT1 genes expression by using Real time PCR and cholesterol homeostasis in THP-1 macrophages derived foam cells. Results Incubation of c9, t11-CLA, LA cause a significant reduction in intracellular Total Cholesterol, Free Cholesterol, cellular and Estrified Cholesterol concentrations (P ≤ 0.05). CLA and LA had no significant effect on the mRNA levels of ACAT1, but EPA increased ACAT1 mRNA expression (P = 0.003). Treatment with EPA increased PPARα mRNA levels (P ≤ 0.001), although CLA, LA had no significant effect on PPARα mRNA expression. Conclusion In conclusion, it seems that different fatty acids have different effects on gene expression and lipid metabolism and for complete conception study of the genes involved in lipid metabolism in foam cell all at once maybe is benefit. PMID:19725980

  13. Case report: A novel apolipoprotein A-I missense mutation apoA-I (Arg149Ser)Boston associated with decreased lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activation and cellular cholesterol efflux.

    PubMed

    Anthanont, Pimjai; Asztalos, Bela F; Polisecki, Eliana; Zachariah, Benoy; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel heterozygous apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) missense mutation (c.517C>A, p.Arg149Ser, designated as apoA-IBoston) in a 67-year-old woman and her 2 sons, who had mean serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, apoA-I, and apoA-I in very large α-1 HDL that were 10%, 35%, and 16% of normal, respectively (all P < .05). The percentage of HDL cholesterol in the esterified form was also significantly (P < .05) reduced to 52% of control values. Cholesteryl ester tranfer protein (CETP) activity was normal. The mean global, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter A1 and scavenger receptor B type I-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux capacity in apoB-depleted serum from affected family members were 41%, 37%, 47%, 54%, and 48% of control values, respectively (all P < .05). lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in plasma was 71% of controls, whereas in the cell-based assay, it was 73% of control values (P < .05). The data indicate that this novel apoA-I missense is associated with markedly decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and very large α-1 HDL, as well as decreased serum cellular cholesterol efflux and LCAT activity, but not with premature coronary heart disease, similar to other apoA-I mutations that have been associated with decreased LCAT activity. PMID:26073399

  14. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats. PMID:26507559

  15. Essential oil of Pinus koraiensis leaves exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important factor to induce metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, some antihyperlipidemic agents from herbal medicines have been in the spotlight in the medical science field. Thus, the present study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Pinus koraiensis SIEB (EOPK) that has been used as a folk remedy for heart disease. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that EOPK up-regulated low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the mRNA level as well as negatively suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, SREBP-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) involved in lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. Also, western blotting showed that EOPK activated LDLR and attenuated the expression of FAS at the protein level in the cells. Consistently, EOPK significantly inhibited the level of human acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (hACAT)1 and 2 and reduced the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation activity. Furthermore, chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that EOPK, an essential oil mixture, contained camphene (21.11%), d-limonene (21.01%), α-pinene (16.74%) and borneol (11.52%). Overall, the findings suggest that EOPK can be a potent pharmaceutical agent for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia. PMID:22275303

  16. The solid phase synthesis of a protein activator for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase corresponding to human plasma apoC-I.

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, G F; Soutar, A K; Smith, L C; Gotto, A M; Sparrow, J T

    1976-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-I, a protein constituent of the very low density lipoproteins of human plasma, consists of a single chain of 57 amino acids. The total synthesis of a protein corresponding to apolipoprotein C-I in physical properties and compositions was accomplished by solid phase techniques employing a modified polystrene incorporating spacer groups between the point of attachment of the first residue and the polymer matrix. The synthetic apoprotein was shown to activate lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase to the same extent as the native protein. Comparative lipid-binding studies with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine gave complexes for native and synthetic apoprotein which floated at the same density after ultracentrifugation in KBr gradients and had virtually the same lipid:protein ratios. Images PMID:179085

  17. The solid phase synthesis of a protein activator for lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase corresponding to human plasma apoC-I.

    PubMed

    Sigler, G F; Soutar, A K; Smith, L C; Gotto, A M; Sparrow, J T

    1976-05-01

    Apolipoprotein C-I, a protein constituent of the very low density lipoproteins of human plasma, consists of a single chain of 57 amino acids. The total synthesis of a protein corresponding to apolipoprotein C-I in physical properties and compositions was accomplished by solid phase techniques employing a modified polystrene incorporating spacer groups between the point of attachment of the first residue and the polymer matrix. The synthetic apoprotein was shown to activate lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase to the same extent as the native protein. Comparative lipid-binding studies with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine gave complexes for native and synthetic apoprotein which floated at the same density after ultracentrifugation in KBr gradients and had virtually the same lipid:protein ratios. PMID:179085

  18. The role of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and organic substances from coal in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A new hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.M.; Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Bunnell, J.E.; Feder, G.L.; Kostic, E.N.; Ordodi, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. BEN has been characterized as a chronic, slowly progressive renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study, we examined the influence of soluble organic compounds in drinking water leached from Pliocene lignite from BEN-endemic areas on plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. We found that changes for all samples were the most prominent for the dilution category containing 90% plasma and 10% of diluting media. Water samples from BEN villages from Serbia and Romania showed higher LCAT inhibiting activity (p = 0.02) and (p = 0.003), respectively, compared to deionised water and non-endemic water. A secondary LCAT deficiency could result from this inhibitory effect of the organic compounds found in endemic water supplies and provide an ethiopathogenic basis for the development of BEN in the susceptible population. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Defective activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase in Niemann-Pick type C and type D fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, D M; Rastogi, S R; Cook, H W; Palmer, F B; Spence, M W

    1989-01-01

    The activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT; EC 2.3.1.26) was measured in fibroblast homogenates from Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) and Type D (NPD) patients to determine whether these cells exhibit similar defects in the regulation of cholesterol esterification. ACAT activity in normal cells cultured in the absence of serum lipoproteins responded rapidly (within 6 h) to the addition of serum and reached peak levels at 12-24 h, whereas little stimulation of activity in NPC cells was observed. In contrast, ACAT activity in NPD fibroblasts (cell lines from four different patients) began to increase between 6 and 12 h after serum addition, reaching levels up to 50% of normal values at 24 h. ACAT activity in NPC and NPD cell extracts could not be stimulated by preincubation with normal cell homogenates, nor was complementation between NPC and NPD homogenates observed. Addition of 25-hydroxycholesterol to fibroblasts cultured in delipidated serum increased ACAT activity for all three cell types, although stimulation in NPD cells was less than that observed in NPC cells. ACAT activity of deoxycholate-solubilized homogenates reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles was independent of the presence of serum lipoproteins during culture and dependent on cholesterol present in the vesicles for all cell types. However, ACAT activities of mutant fibroblasts in vesicles plus cholesterol were significantly (about 40%) lower than control levels. These results suggest that the metabolic lesions in NPC and NPD cells are biochemically distinct and that both may involve factors in addition to the availability of cholesterol substrate for the ACAT enzyme. PMID:2590161

  20. Premature and severe cardiovascular disease in a Mexican male with markedly low high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and a mutation in the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase gene: a family study.

    PubMed

    Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Ocampo-Arcos, Wendy Angélica; Villarreal-Molina, María Teresa; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Antúnez-Argüelles, Erika; Mendoza-Pérez, Enrique; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; Martínez-Alvarado, Rocío; Medina-Urrutia, Aída; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that a low plasma high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a key enzyme in the formation, maturation and function of HDL. Therefore impaired LCAT function may enhance atherosclerosis because of defective cholesterol transport. In this study, we examined a 34-year old LCAT‑deficient patient and eight first-degree family members. There was a strong family history for CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The proband was found homozygous for a previously reported LCAT gene mutation (Thr37Met). A sister and two sons of the proband were heterozygous for the same mutation. The proband had DM2 and showed severe multivessel coronary artery disease, corneal opacification and extremely low HDL-C levels. Large HDL particles were absent while small HDL particles were increased. The HDL of the patient had a reduced ability to promote cell cholesterol efflux, and the low‑density lipoproteins (LDL) were more susceptible to oxidation. Among his family members, two heterozygotes and one non-carrier had early carotid or coronary atherosclerosis. In conclusion, as the increased LDL oxidability and structural and functional abnormalities of HDL particles have been reported in patients with obesity and diabetes, the results suggested that the adverse coronary risk profile, and not being LCAT deficient, may be responsible for the CVD found in our proband, and for the early atherosclerosis observed in the two heterozygotes and in the wild‑type family members. PMID:24715031

  1. The Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Inhibitor CI-1011 Reverses Diffuse Brain Amyloid Pathology in Aged Amyloid Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Henri J.; Havas, Daniel; Peach, Camilla; Barren, Cory; Duller, Stephan; Xia, Weiming; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Windisch, Manfred; Kovacs, Dora M.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is characteristic of Alzheimer disease and of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. Here, we assessed the efficacy of CI-1011, an inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase, which is suitable for clinical use, in reducing amyloid pathology in both young (6.5 months old) and aged (16 months old) hAPP transgenic mice. Treatment of young animals with CI-1011 decreased amyloid plaque load in the cortex and hippocampus and reduced the levels of insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 and C-terminal fragments of APP in brain extracts. In aged mice, CI-1011 specifically reduced diffuse amyloid plaques with a minor effect on thioflavin S+ dense-core plaques. Reduced diffusible amyloid was accompanied by suppression of astrogliosis and enhanced microglial activation. Collectively, these data suggest that CI-1011 treatment reduces amyloid burden in hAPP mice by limiting generation and increasing clearance of diffusible Aβ. PMID:20613640

  2. Trimerized apolipoprotein A-I (TripA) forms lipoproteins, activates lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase, elicits lipid efflux, and is transported through aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohnsorg, Pascale M; Mary, Jean-Luc; Rohrer, Lucia; Pech, Michael; Fingerle, Jürgen; von Eckardstein, Arnold

    2011-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) exerts many potentially anti-atherogenic properties and is therefore attractive for prevention and therapy of coronary heart disease. Since induction of apoA-I production by small molecules has turned out as difficult, application of exogenous apoA-I is pursued as an alternative therapeutic option. To counteract fast renal filtration of apoA-I, a trimeric high-molecular weight variant of apoA-I (TripA) was produced by recombinant technology. We compared TripA and apoA-I for important properties in reverse cholesterol transport. Reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) containing TripA or apoA-I together with palmitoyl-2-oleyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) differed slightly by size. Compared to apoA-I, TripA activated lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) with similar maximal velocity but concentration leading to half maximal velocity was slightly reduced (K(m)=2.1±0.3μg/mL vs. 0.59±0.06μg/mL). Both in the lipid-free form and as part of rHDL, TripA elicited cholesterol efflux from THP1-derived macrophages with similar kinetic parameters and response to liver-X-receptor activation as apoA-I. Lipid-free TripA is bound and transported by aortic endothelial cells through mechanisms which are competed by apoA-I and TripA and inhibited by knock-down of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1. Pre-formed TripA/POPC particles were bound and transported by endothelial cells through mechanisms which are competed by excess native HDL as well as reconstituted HDL containing either apoA-I or TripA and which involve ABCG1 and scavenger receptor B1 (SR-BI). In conclusion, apoA-I and TripA show similar in vitro properties which are important for reverse cholesterol transport. These findings are important for further development of TripA as an anti-atherosclerotic drug. PMID:21930241

  3. Role of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in the metabolism of oxidized phospholipids in plasma: studies with platelet-activating factor-acetyl hydrolase-deficient plasma.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, V S; Goyal, J; Miwa, M; Sugatami, J; Akiyama, M; Liu, M; Subbaiah, P V

    1999-07-01

    To determine the relative importance of platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the hydrolysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines (OXPCs) to lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), we studied the formation and metabolism of OXPCs in the plasma of normal and PAF-AH-deficient subjects. Whereas the loss of PC following oxidation was similar in the deficient and normal plasmas, the formation of lyso-PC was significantly lower, and the accumulation of OXPC was higher in the deficient plasma. Isolated LDL from the PAF-AH-deficient subjects was more susceptible to oxidation, and stimulated adhesion molecule synthesis in endothelial cells, more than the normal LDL. Oxidation of 16:0-[1-14C]-18:2 PC, equilibrated with plasma PC, resulted in the accumulation of labeled short- and long-chain OXPCs, in addition to the labeled aqueous products. The formation of the aqueous products decreased by 80%, and the accumulation of short-chain OXPC increased by 110% in the deficient plasma, compared to the normal plasma, showing that PAF-AH is predominantly involved in the hydrolysis of the truncated OXPCs. Labeled sn-2-acyl group from the long-chain OXPC was not only hydrolyzed to free fatty acid, but was preferentially transferred to diacylglycerol, in both the normal and deficient plasmas. In contrast, the acyl group from unoxidized PC was transferred only to cholesterol, showing that the specificity of LCAT is altered by OXPC. It is concluded that, while PAF-AH carries out the hydrolysis of mainly truncated OXPCs, LCAT hydrolyzes and transesterifies the long-chain OXPCs. PMID:10395969

  4. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  5. The selectivity of beauveriolide derivatives in inhibition toward the two isozymes of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Taichi; Matsuda, Daisuke; Nagai, Kenichiro; Doi, Takayuki; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Takashi; Rudel, Lawrence Lee; Omura, Satoshi; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    The selectivity of synthetic beauveriolide derivatives in inhibition toward the two isozymes of acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltrasferase (ACAT), ACAT1 and ACAT2, was studied in cell-based assays using ACAT1- or ACAT2-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. NBV274, 285 and 300 showed ACAT1 selective inhibition similar to that of natural beauveriolides I and III, NBV345 inhibited both isozymes with similar potency, but NBV281, 331 and 249 were found to selectively inhibit the ACAT2 isozyme. The structure-activity relationships indicated that a subtle structural difference in beauveriolide derivatives can affect the selectivity of inhibition of the ACAT isozymes. PMID:19336931

  6. A Salmonella typhimurium-translocated Glycerophospholipid:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Promotes Virulence by Binding to the RhoA Protein Switch Regions

    SciTech Connect

    LaRock, Doris L.; Brzovic, Peter S.; Levin, Itay; Blanc, Marie-Pierre; Miller, Samuel I.

    2012-08-24

    Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium translocates a glycerophospholipid: cholesterol acyltransferase (SseJ) into the host cytosol after its entry into mammalian cells. SseJ is recruited to the cytoplasmic face of the host cell phagosome membrane where it is activated upon binding the small GTPase, RhoA. SseJ is regulated similarly to cognate eukaryotic effectors, as only the GTP-bound form of RhoA family members stimulates enzymatic activity. Using NMR and biochemistry, this work demonstrates that SseJ competes effectively with Rhotekin, ROCK, and PKN1 in binding to a similar RhoA surface. The RhoA surface that binds SseJ includes the regulatory switch regions that control activation of mammalian effectors. These data were used to create RhoA mutants with altered SseJ binding and activation. This structure-function analysis supports a model in which SseJ activation occurs predominantly through binding to residues within switch region II. We further defined the nature of the interaction between SseJ and RhoA by constructing SseJ mutants in the RhoA binding surface. These data indicate that SseJ binding to RhoA is required for recruitment of SseJ to the endosomal network and for full Salmonella virulence for inbred susceptible mice, indicating that regulation of SseJ by small GTPases is an important virulence strategy of this bacterial pathogen. The dependence of a bacterial effector on regulation by a mammalian GTPase defines further how intimately host pathogen interactions have coevolved through similar and divergent evolutionary strategies.

  7. The effect of inhibition of acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) on exercise performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, William R; Klepack, Ellen; Nehler, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G; Blue, John; Imus, James; Criqui, Michael H

    2004-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that avasimibe, an inhibitor of acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), would improve treadmill exercise performance in patients with claudication secondary to peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Four hundred and forty-two patients with PAD (ankle-brachial index in the index leg of < or =0.90 with a > or =20% reduction post-exercise) were enrolled from 39 centers in the USA. Patients were randomized to receive oral avasimibe 50 mg, 250 mg, 750 mg or placebo for a treatment period of 12 months. Changes from baseline in peak walking time (PWT) using a graded treadmill protocol were compared among groups after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Individual group comparisons were considered statistically significant if p < 0.0245 for the 50 mg and 250 mg groups and p < 0.001 for the 750 mg group. Patients randomized to the 50 mg group experienced a 0.76 min net increase over placebo in PWT, but this did not reach the pre-specified level of statistical significance (Hochberg procedure p = 0.027) using ANCOVA after 12 months of treatment after adjusting for multiple comparisons. This trend in PWT was supported by the changes in treadmill initial claudication time (ICT) (p = 0.026) and Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) walking distance score (p = 0.058). The 250 mg and 750 mg avasimibe dose groups failed to demonstrate an improvement in PWT over placebo after 6 months of treatment. In conclusion, while the ACAT inhibitor avasimibe did not show clear evidence of benefit on treadmill exercise performance in patients with PAD, the results add to our knowledge of the impact of treatments directed at atherosclerosis on functional endpoints. PMID:15678619

  8. Hypertriglyceridemia in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-deficient mice is associated with hepatic overproduction of triglycerides, increased lipogenesis, and improved glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ng, Dominic S; Xie, Chunhui; Maguire, Graham F; Zhu, Xianghong; Ugwu, Francisca; Lam, Eric; Connelly, Philip W

    2004-02-27

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency is frequently associated with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) in animal models and humans. We investigated the mechanism of HTG in the ldlr-/- x lcat-/- (double knockout (dko)) mice using the ldlr-/- x lcat+/+ (knock-out (ko)) littermates as control. Mean fasting triglyceride (TG) levels in the dko mice were elevated 1.75-fold compared with their controls (p < 0.002). Both the very low density lipoprotein and the low density lipoprotein/intermediate density lipoprotein fractions separated by fast protein liquid chromatography were TG-enriched in the dko mice. In vitro lipolysis assay revealed that the dko mouse very low density lipoprotein (d < 1.019 g/ml) fraction separated by ultracentrifugation was a more efficient substrate for lipolysis by exogenous bovine lipoprotein lipase. Post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity was reduced by 61% in the dko mice. Hepatic TG production rate, determined after intravenous Triton WR1339 injection, was increased 8-fold in the dko mice. Hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (srebp-1) and its target genes acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (acc-1), fatty acid synthase (fas), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (scd-1) were significantly elevated in the dko mice compared with the ko control. The hepatic mRNA levels of LXRalpha (lxralpha) and its target genes including angiopoietin-like protein 3 (angptl-3) in the dko mice were unchanged. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were reduced by 31 and 42%, respectively in the dko mice, in conjunction with a 49% reduction in hepatic pepck-1 mRNA (p = 0.014). Both the HTG and the improved fasting glucose phenotype seen in the dko mice are at least in part attributable to an up-regulation of the hepatic srebp-1c gene. PMID:14668345

  9. Effects of hypothyroidism and high-fat feeding on mRNA concentrations for the low-density-lipoprotein receptor and on acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activities in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Salter, A M; Hayashi, R; al-Seeni, M; Brown, N F; Bruce, J; Sorensen, O; Atkinson, E A; Middleton, B; Bleackley, R C; Brindley, D N

    1991-01-01

    1. Induction of hypothyroidism in rats by feeding propylthiouracil (PTU) significantly increased serum cholesterol concentrations, and the effect was more pronounced for cholesterol in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) rather than high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The concentrations of serum triacylglycerol were decreased in hypothyroidism. These effects on serum lipids were also seen when the normal rats were pair-fed with the PTU-treated group. 2. Feeding a diet rich in saturated fat and cholesterol further increased cholesterol concentrations in LDL and also elevated that in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) of hypothyroid rats. In euthyroid rats such a diet resulted in a relatively small increase in VLDL cholesterol, whereas LDL cholesterol was decreased. 3. Steady-state concentrations of mRNA for the hepatic LDL receptor were significantly decreased in the livers of hypothyroid rats, but were not significantly changed by high-fat feeding in euthyroid or hypothyroid rats. 4. The expression of the LDL receptor in hepatocytes cultured from hypothyroid rats was decreased relative to the euthyroid controls. 5. Whereas the esterification of cholesterol with oleate in hepatocytes cultured from hypothyroid rats was decreased, the activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in the livers of these animals was not changed. 6. High-fat feeding increased the hepatic ACAT activity in normal and hypothyroid rats. 7. Incubation of rat hepatocytes with 10 nM-tri-iodothyronine for 4 h increased the relative concentration of the mRNA for the LDL receptor by 25%. 8. It is therefore concluded that thyroid hormones stimulate the synthesis and expression of the hepatic LDL receptor. Elevated cholesterol concentrations in LDL in hypothyroidism probably result from a primary defect in the expression of the hepatic receptor, rather than indirectly via changes in ACAT activity. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2064617

  10. A Systematic Investigation of Structure/Function Requirements for the Apolipoprotein A-I/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase Interaction Loop of High-density Lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaodong; Wu, Zhiping; Huang, Ying; Wagner, Matthew A; Baleanu-Gogonea, Camelia; Mehl, Ryan A; Buffa, Jennifer A; DiDonato, Anthony J; Hazen, Leah B; Fox, Paul L; Gogonea, Valentin; Parks, John S; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2016-03-18

    The interaction of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) plays a critical role in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) maturation. We previously identified a highly solvent-exposed apoA-I loop domain (Leu(159)-Leu(170)) in nascent HDL, the so-called "solar flare" (SF) region, and proposed that it serves as an LCAT docking site (Wu, Z., Wagner, M. A., Zheng, L., Parks, J. S., Shy, J. M., 3rd, Smith, J. D., Gogonea, V., and Hazen, S. L. (2007) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 14, 861-868). The stability and role of the SF domain of apoA-I in supporting HDL binding and activation of LCAT are debated. Here we show by site-directed mutagenesis that multiple residues within the SF region (Pro(165), Tyr(166), Ser(167), and Asp(168)) of apoA-I are critical for both LCAT binding to HDL and LCAT catalytic efficiency. The critical role for possible hydrogen bond interaction at apoA-I Tyr(166) was further supported using reconstituted HDL generated from apoA-I mutants (Tyr(166) → Glu or Asn), which showed preservation in both LCAT binding affinity and catalytic efficiency. Moreover, the in vivo functional significance of NO2-Tyr(166)-apoA-I, a specific post-translational modification on apoA-I that is abundant within human atherosclerotic plaque, was further investigated by using the recombinant protein generated from E. coli containing a mutated orthogonal tRNA synthetase/tRNACUA pair enabling site-specific insertion of the unnatural amino acid into apoA-I. NO2-Tyr(166)-apoA-I, after subcutaneous injection into hLCAT(Tg/Tg), apoA-I(-/-) mice, showed impaired LCAT activation in vivo, with significant reduction in HDL cholesteryl ester formation. The present results thus identify multiple structural features within the solvent-exposed SF region of apoA-I of nascent HDL essential for optimal LCAT binding and catalytic efficiency. PMID:26797122

  11. Identification of the interaction site within acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 for the isoform-specific inhibitor pyripyropene A.

    PubMed

    Das, Akash; Davis, Matthew A; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2008-04-18

    Targeted deletion of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) (A2), especially in the liver, protects hyperlipidemic mice from diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, whereas the deletion of ACAT1 (A1) is not as effective, suggesting ACAT2 may be the more appropriate target for treatment of atherosclerosis. Among the numerous ACAT inhibitors known, pyripyropene A (PPPA) is the only compound that has high selectivity (>2000-fold) for inhibition of ACAT2 compared with ACAT1. In the present study we sought to determine the PPPA interaction site of ACAT2. To achieve this goal we made several chimeric proteins where parts of ACAT2 were replaced by the analogous region of ACAT1. Differences in the amino acid sequence and the membrane topology were utilized to design the chimeras. Among chimeras, A2:1-428/A1:444-550 had 50% reduced PPPA selectivity, whereas C-terminal-truncated ACAT2 mutant A2:1-504 (C-terminal last 22 amino acids were deleted) remained selectively inhibited, indicating the PPPA-sensitive site is located within a region between amino acids 440 and 504. Three additional chimeras within this region helped narrow down the PPPA-sensitive site to a region containing amino acids 480-504, representing the fifth putative transmembrane domain of ACAT2. Subsequently, for this region we made single amino acid mutants where each amino acid in ACAT2 was individually changed to its ACAT1 counterpart. Mutation of Q492L, V493L, S494A resulted in only 30, 50, and 70% inhibition of the activity by PPPA, respectively (as opposed to greater than 95% with the wild type enzyme), suggesting these three residues are responsible for the selective inhibition by PPPA of ACAT2. Additionally, we found that PPPA non-covalently interacts with ACAT2 apparently without altering the oligomeric structure of the protein. The present study provides the first evidence for a unique motif in ACAT2 that can be utilized for making an ACAT2-specific drug. PMID:18285335

  12. Identification of the Interaction Site within Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase 2 for the Isoform-specific Inhibitor Pyripyropene A*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Das, Akash; Davis, Matthew A.; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Ômura, Satoshi; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted deletion of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) (A2), especially in the liver, protects hyperlipidemic mice from diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, whereas the deletion of ACAT1 (A1) is not as effective, suggesting ACAT2 may be the more appropriate target for treatment of atherosclerosis. Among the numerous ACAT inhibitors known, pyripyropene A (PPPA) is the only compound that has high selectivity (>2000-fold) for inhibition of ACAT2 compared with ACAT1. In the present study we sought to determine the PPPA interaction site of ACAT2. To achieve this goal we made several chimeric proteins where parts of ACAT2 were replaced by the analogous region of ACAT1. Differences in the amino acid sequence and the membrane topology were utilized to design the chimeras. Among chimeras, A2:1–428/A1:444–550 had 50% reduced PPPA selectivity, whereas C-terminal-truncated ACAT2 mutant A2:1–504 (C-terminal last 22 amino acids were deleted) remained selectively inhibited, indicating the PPPA-sensitive site is located within a region between amino acids 440 and 504. Three additional chimeras within this region helped narrow down the PPPA-sensitive site to a region containing amino acids 480–504, representing the fifth putative transmembrane domain of ACAT2. Subsequently, for this region we made single amino acid mutants where each amino acid in ACAT2 was individually changed to its ACAT1 counterpart. Mutation of Q492L, V493L, S494A resulted in only 30, 50, and 70% inhibition of the activity by PPPA, respectively (as opposed to greater than 95% with the wild type enzyme), suggesting these three residues are responsible for the selective inhibition by PPPA of ACAT2. Additionally, we found that PPPA non-covalently interacts with ACAT2 apparently without altering the oligomeric structure of the protein. The present study provides the first evidence for a unique motif in ACAT2 that can be utilized for making an ACAT2-specific drug. PMID:18285335

  13. Purification of Recombinant Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol Acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) from H293 Cells and Binding Studies Between the Enzyme and Substrates Using Difference Intrinsic Fluorescence Spectroscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Catherine CY; Miyazaki, Akira; Dong, Ruhong; Kheirollah, Alireza; Yu, Chunjiang; Geng, Yong; Higgs, Henry N; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) is a membrane bound enzyme utilizing long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A and cholesterol to form cholesteryl esters and coenzyme A. Previously, we had expressed tagged human ACAT1 (hACAT1) in CHO cells and purified it to homogeneity; however, only a sparse amount of purified protein could be obtained. Here we report that the hACAT1 expression level in H293 cells is 18-fold higher than that in CHO cells. We have developed a milder purification procedure to purify the enzyme to homogeneity. The abundance of the purified protein enabled us to conduct difference intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy to study the binding between the enzyme and its substrates in CHAPS/phospholipid mixed micelles. The results show that oleoyl CoA binds to ACAT1 with Kd=1.9 μM, and elicits significant structural changes of the protein as manifested by the significantly positive changes in its fluorescence spectrum; stearoyl CoA elicits a similar spectrum change with much lower in magnitude. Previously, kinetic studies had shown that cholesterol is an efficient substrate and an allosteric activator of ACAT1, while its diastereomer epicholesterol is neither a substrate nor an activator. Here we show that both cholesterol and epicholesterol induce positive changes in the ACAT1 fluorescence spectrum; however, the magnitude of spectrum changes induced by cholesterol is much larger than epicholesterol. These results show that stereospecificity, governed by the 3beta-OH moiety in steroid ring A, plays an important role in the binding of cholesterol to ACAT1. PMID:20964445

  14. The myocardial infarct size-limiting and antiarrhythmic effects of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor VULM 1457 protect the hearts of diabetic-hypercholesterolaemic rats against ischaemia/reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Adameová, Adriana; Ravingerová, Tána; Svec, Pavel; Faberová, Viera; Kuzelová, Magdaléna

    2007-12-01

    The study was designed to characterise the influence of a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, VULM 1457, on the severity of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in a model of diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia induced by co-administration of streptozotocin and a high fat-cholesterol diet. We used Langendorff-perfused rat hearts to measure the size of myocardial infarction after 30 min of regional ischaemia, followed by a 2-h reperfusion period, and open-chest rats were exposed to 6 min of ischaemia and 10 min of reperfusion to analyse ventricular arrhythmias. In addition to the high fat-cholesterol diet, VULM 1457 was administered to the diabetic-hypercholesterolaemic rats for 5 days. Decreased plasma and liver cholesterol levels and a significantly reduced occurrence of ventricular fibrillation (29% vs. 100%, P<0.01), determined via the mean number and duration of episodes (0.6+/-0.4 and 2.1+/-1.4 s vs. 2.8+/-0.8 and 53.5+/-14.4 s in diabetic-hypercholesterolaemic rats, both P<0.01), were observed in these animals. Lethal ventricular fibrillation was suppressed, and arrhythmia severity was also significantly decreased in these animals as compared to the non-treated animals (2.9+/-0.6 vs. 4.9+/-0.2; P<0.05). A smaller infarct size, normalised to the size of area at risk, was observed in the treated diabetic-hypercholesterolaemic group as compared to the non-treated group (16.3+/-1.9% vs. 37.3+/-3.1%; P<0.01). Aside from remarkable hypolipidaemic activity, VULM 1457 improved the overall myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury outcomes in the diabetic-hypercholesterolaemic rats by suppressing arrhythmogenesis as well as by reducing myocardial necrosis. PMID:17764671

  15. Deletion of sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) function in mice deficient in lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) dramatically reduces esterified cholesterol sequestration in the small intestine and liver

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Adam M.; Posey, Kenneth S.; Turley, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2), also known as ACAT2, is the major cholesterol esterifying enzyme in the liver and small intestine (SI). Esterified cholesterol (EC) carried in certain classes of plasma lipoproteins is hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) when they are cleared from the circulation. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes LAL, result in Wolman disease (WD) or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). Hepatomegaly and a massive increase in tissue EC levels are hallmark features of both disorders. While these conditions can be corrected with enzyme replacement therapy, the question arose as to what effect the loss of SOAT2 function might have on tissue EC sequestration in LAL-deficient mice. When weaned at 21 days, Lal−/−:Soat2+/+ mice had a whole liver cholesterol content (mg/organ) of 24.7 mg vs. 1.9 mg in Lal+/+:Soat2+/+ littermates, with almost all the excess sterol being esterified. Over the next 31 days, liver cholesterol content in the Lal−/−:Soat2+/+ mice increased to 145 ± 2 mg but to only 29 ± 2 mg in their Lal−/−:Soat2−/− littermates. The level of EC accumulation in the SI of the Lal−/−:Soat2−/− mice was also much less than in their Lal−/−:Soat2+/+ littermates. In addition, there was a >70% reduction in plasma transaminase activities in the Lal−/−:Soat2−/− mice. These studies illustrate how the severity of disease in a mouse model for CESD can be substantially ameliorated by elimination of SOAT2 function. PMID:25450374

  16. Discovery of a novel acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor: the synthesis, biological evaluation, and reduced adrenal toxicity of (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide derivatives with a carboxylic acid moiety.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Masaki; Nakada, Yoshihisa; Negoro, Nobuyuki; Itokawa, Shigekazu; Nishimura, Satoshi; Sanada, Tsukasa; Satomi, Tomoko; Kita, Shunbun; Kubo, Kazuki; Marui, Shogo

    2011-01-01

    As a part of our research for novel potent and orally available acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors that can be used as anti-atherosclerotic agents, we recently reported the discovery of the (4-phenylcoumarine)acetanilide derivative 1. However, compound 1 showed adrenal toxicity in animal models. In order to search for safer ACAT inhibitors that do not have adrenal toxicity, we examined the inhibitory activity of ACAT in human macrophage and adrenal cells. The introduction of a carboxylic acid moiety on the pendant phenyl ring and the adjustment of the lipophilicity led to the discovery of (2E)-3-[7-chloro-3-[2-[[4-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino]-2-oxoethyl]-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl]phenyl]acrylic acid (21e), which showed potent ACAT inhibitory activity in macrophages and a selectivity of around 30-fold over adrenal cells. In addition, compound 21e showed high adrenal safety in guinea pigs. PMID:22041073

  17. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 blockage enhances autophagy in the neurons of triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse and reduces human P301L-tau content at the presymptomatic stage.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Yohei; Niu, Zhaoyang; Bryleva, Elena Y; Harris, Brent T; Murphy, Stephanie R; Kheirollah, Alireza; Bowen, Zachary D; Chang, Catherine C Y; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) display amyloidopathy and tauopathy. In mouse models of AD, pharmacological inhibition using small molecule enzyme inhibitors or genetic inactivation of acyl-coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA):cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) diminished amyloidopathy and restored cognitive deficits. In microglia, ACAT1 blockage increases autophagosome formation and stimulates amyloid β peptide1-42 degradation. Here, we hypothesize that in neurons ACAT1 blockage augments autophagy and increases autophagy-mediated degradation of P301L-tau protein. We tested this possibility in murine neuroblastoma cells ectopically expressing human tau and in primary neurons isolated from triple transgenic AD mice that express mutant forms of amyloid precursor protein, presenilin-1, and human tau. The results show that ACAT1 blockage increases autophagosome formation and decreases P301L-tau protein content without affecting endogenous mouse tau protein content. In vivo, lacking Acat1 decreases P301L-tau protein content in the brains of young triple transgenic AD mice but not in those of old mice, where extensive hyperphosphorylations and aggregation of P301L-tau take place. These results suggest that, in addition to ameliorating amyloidopathy in both young and old AD mice, ACAT1 blockage may benefit AD by reducing tauopathy at early stage. PMID:25930235

  18. Haptoglobin binding to apolipoprotein A-I prevents damage from hydroxyl radicals on its stimulatory activity of the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyl-transferase.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Alfonso; Cigliano, Luisa; Bucci, Enrico M; Corpillo, Davide; Velasco, Silvia; Carlucci, Alessandro; Pedone, Carlo; Abrescia, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), a major component of HDL, binds haptoglobin, a plasma protein transporting to liver or macrophages free Hb for preventing hydroxyl radical production. This work aimed to assess whether haptoglobin protects ApoA-I against this radical. Human ApoA-I structure, as analyzed by electrophoresis and MS, was found severely altered by hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Lower alteration of ApoA-I was found when HDL was oxidized in the presence of haptoglobin. ApoA-I oxidation was limited also when the complex of haptoglobin with both high-density lipoprotein and Hb, immobilized on resin beads, was exposed to hydroxyl radicals. ApoA-I function to stimulate cholesterol esterification was assayed in vitro by using ApoA-I-containing liposomes. Decreased stimulation was observed when liposomes oxidized without haptoglobin were used. Conversely, after oxidative stress in the presence of haptoglobin (0.5 microM monomer), the liposome activity did not change. Plasma of carrageenan-treated mice was analyzed by ELISA for the levels of haptoglobin and ApoA-I, and used to isolate HDL for MS analysis. Hydroxyproline-containing fragments of ApoA-I were found associated with low levels of haptoglobin (18 microM monomer), whereas they were not detected when the haptoglobin level increased (34-70 microM monomer). Therefore haptoglobin, when circulating at enhanced levels with free Hb during the acute phase of inflammation, might protect ApoA-I structure and function against hydroxyl radicals. PMID:17824618

  19. Bioengineering recombinant diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. At least 115 DGAT sequences are identified from 69 organisms in the GenBank databases. Only a few papers have been published in the last 28 years on the exp...

  20. Acyltransferases in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Röttig, Annika; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Long-chain-length hydrophobic acyl residues play a vital role in a multitude of essential biological structures and processes. They build the inner hydrophobic layers of biological membranes, are converted to intracellular storage compounds, and are used to modify protein properties or function as membrane anchors, to name only a few functions. Acyl thioesters are transferred by acyltransferases or transacylases to a variety of different substrates or are polymerized to lipophilic storage compounds. Lipases represent another important enzyme class dealing with fatty acyl chains; however, they cannot be regarded as acyltransferases in the strict sense. This review provides a detailed survey of the wide spectrum of bacterial acyltransferases and compares different enzyme families in regard to their catalytic mechanisms. On the basis of their studied or assumed mechanisms, most of the acyl-transferring enzymes can be divided into two groups. The majority of enzymes discussed in this review employ a conserved acyltransferase motif with an invariant histidine residue, followed by an acidic amino acid residue, and their catalytic mechanism is characterized by a noncovalent transition state. In contrast to that, lipases rely on completely different mechanism which employs a catalytic triad and functions via the formation of covalent intermediates. This is, for example, similar to the mechanism which has been suggested for polyester synthases. Consequently, although the presented enzyme types neither share homology nor have a common three-dimensional structure, and although they deal with greatly varying molecule structures, this variety is not reflected in their mechanisms, all of which rely on a catalytically active histidine residue. PMID:23699259

  1. Acyltransferases in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Röttig, Annika

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Long-chain-length hydrophobic acyl residues play a vital role in a multitude of essential biological structures and processes. They build the inner hydrophobic layers of biological membranes, are converted to intracellular storage compounds, and are used to modify protein properties or function as membrane anchors, to name only a few functions. Acyl thioesters are transferred by acyltransferases or transacylases to a variety of different substrates or are polymerized to lipophilic storage compounds. Lipases represent another important enzyme class dealing with fatty acyl chains; however, they cannot be regarded as acyltransferases in the strict sense. This review provides a detailed survey of the wide spectrum of bacterial acyltransferases and compares different enzyme families in regard to their catalytic mechanisms. On the basis of their studied or assumed mechanisms, most of the acyl-transferring enzymes can be divided into two groups. The majority of enzymes discussed in this review employ a conserved acyltransferase motif with an invariant histidine residue, followed by an acidic amino acid residue, and their catalytic mechanism is characterized by a noncovalent transition state. In contrast to that, lipases rely on completely different mechanism which employs a catalytic triad and functions via the formation of covalent intermediates. This is, for example, similar to the mechanism which has been suggested for polyester synthases. Consequently, although the presented enzyme types neither share homology nor have a common three-dimensional structure, and although they deal with greatly varying molecule structures, this variety is not reflected in their mechanisms, all of which rely on a catalytically active histidine residue. PMID:23699259

  2. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O

    2016-06-01

    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell. PMID:26719944

  3. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G.; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O.

    2016-06-01

    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell.

  4. Sequence analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotes. DGATs esterify sn-1,2-diacylglycerol with a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG and over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knock...

  5. Rapid labeling of lipoproteins in plasma with radioactive cholesterol. Application for measurement of plasma cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.T.; Nishida, T. )

    1990-02-01

    In order to efficiently and rapidly label lipoproteins in plasma with ({sup 3}H)cholesterol, micelles consisting of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and ({sup 3}H)cholesterol (molar ratio, 50:1) were prepared. When trace amounts of these micelles were injected into plasma, ({sup 3}H)cholesterol rapidly equilibrated among the plasma lipoproteins, as compared to ({sup 3}H)cholesterol from an albumin-stabilized emulsion. The distributions of both ({sup 3}H)cholesterol and unlabeled free cholesterol in plasma lipoproteins were similar in labeled plasma samples. This method of labeling can be used for the measurement of cholesterol esterification, or lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in small amounts (20-40 microliters) of plasma samples.

  6. Membrane topology of hedgehog acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Matevossian, Armine; Resh, Marilyn D

    2015-01-23

    Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) is a multipass transmembrane enzyme that mediates the covalent attachment of the 16-carbon fatty acid palmitate to the N-terminal cysteine of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Palmitoylation of Shh by Hhat is critical for short and long range signaling. Knowledge of the topological organization of Hhat transmembrane helices would enhance our understanding of Hhat-mediated Shh palmitoylation. Bioinformatics analysis of transmembrane domains within human Hhat using 10 different algorithms resulted in highly consistent predictions in the C-terminal, but not in the N-terminal, region of Hhat. To empirically determine the topology of Hhat, we designed and exploited Hhat constructs containing either terminal or 12 different internal epitope tags. We used selective permeabilization coupled with immunofluorescence as well as a protease protection assay to demonstrate that Hhat contains 10 transmembrane domains and 2 re-entrant loops. The invariant His and highly conserved Asp residues within the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) homology domain are segregated on opposite sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The localization of His-379 on the lumenal membrane surface is consistent with a role for this invariant residue in catalysis. Analysis of the activity and stability of the Hhat constructs revealed that the C-terminal MBOAT domain is especially sensitive to manipulation. Moreover, there was remarkable similarity in the overall topological organization of Hhat and ghrelin O-acyltransferase, another MBOAT family member. Knowledge of the topological organization of Hhat could serve as an important tool for further design of selective Hhat inhibitors. PMID:25488661

  7. What's Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Most cholesterol is LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is more likely to clog blood vessels because ... Here's a way to remember the difference: the LDL cholesterol is the bad kind, so call it "lousy" ...

  8. Serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases from plants.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sam T; Milkowski, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) acyltransferases facilitate transacylation reactions using energy-rich 1-O-β-glucose esters in the synthesis of an array of bioactive compounds and are associated with the diversification of plant natural products. SCPL acyltransferases have evolved from a hydrolytic ancestor by adapting functional elements of the proteases such as the catalytic triad, oxyanion hole, and substrate recognition H-bond network to their new function. As vacuolar proteins, SCPL acyltransferases define an alternative cellular route of transacylation spatially separated from the cytoplasmic enzymes of the BAHD acyltransferase family named according to the first characterized members (BEAT, AHCT, HCBT, and DAT). Recent efforts in cloning and characterization led to the identification of diagnostic peptides for SCPL acyltransferases, enabling the detection of candidate genes in several plant genomes. Detailed biochemical analysis of SCPL acyltransferases is strongly dependent on comprehensive heterologous expression systems, efficient protein purification protocols, and the supply of appropriate substrates. This chapter describes some useful techniques and strategies for identification and characterization of SCPL acyltransferases. PMID:23034234

  9. Topological Analysis of Hedgehog Acyltransferase, a Multipalmitoylated Transmembrane Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Konitsiotis, Antonio D.; Jovanović, Biljana; Ciepla, Paulina; Spitaler, Martin; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Tate, Edward W.; Magee, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog proteins are secreted morphogens that play critical roles in development and disease. During maturation of the proteins through the secretory pathway, they are modified by the addition of N-terminal palmitic acid and C-terminal cholesterol moieties, both of which are critical for their correct function and localization. Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT) is the enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum that palmitoylates Hedgehog proteins, is a member of a small subfamily of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase proteins that acylate secreted proteins, and is an important drug target in cancer. However, little is known about HHAT structure and mode of function. We show that HHAT is comprised of ten transmembrane domains and two reentrant loops with the critical His and Asp residues on opposite sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We further show that HHAT is palmitoylated on multiple cytosolic cysteines that maintain protein structure within the membrane. Finally, we provide evidence that mutation of the conserved His residue in the hypothesized catalytic domain results in a complete loss of HHAT palmitoylation, providing novel insights into how the protein may function in vivo. PMID:25505265

  10. Topological analysis of Hedgehog acyltransferase, a multipalmitoylated transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Konitsiotis, Antonio D; Jovanović, Biljana; Ciepla, Paulina; Spitaler, Martin; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Tate, Edward W; Magee, Anthony I

    2015-02-01

    Hedgehog proteins are secreted morphogens that play critical roles in development and disease. During maturation of the proteins through the secretory pathway, they are modified by the addition of N-terminal palmitic acid and C-terminal cholesterol moieties, both of which are critical for their correct function and localization. Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT) is the enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum that palmitoylates Hedgehog proteins, is a member of a small subfamily of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase proteins that acylate secreted proteins, and is an important drug target in cancer. However, little is known about HHAT structure and mode of function. We show that HHAT is comprised of ten transmembrane domains and two reentrant loops with the critical His and Asp residues on opposite sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We further show that HHAT is palmitoylated on multiple cytosolic cysteines that maintain protein structure within the membrane. Finally, we provide evidence that mutation of the conserved His residue in the hypothesized catalytic domain results in a complete loss of HHAT palmitoylation, providing novel insights into how the protein may function in vivo. PMID:25505265

  11. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion in the rat. Role of hepatic cholesterol esterification.

    PubMed Central

    Nervi, F; Bronfman, M; Allalón, W; Depiereux, E; Del Pozo, R

    1984-01-01

    Although the significance of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in the solubilization and biliary excretion of cholesterol is well established, little is known about the intrahepatic determinants of biliary cholesterol output. Studies were undertaken to elucidate some of these determinants in the rat. Feeding 1% diosgenin for 1 wk increased biliary cholesterol output and saturation by 400%. Bile flow, biliary bile salt, phospholipid and protein outputs remained in the normal range. When ethynyl estradiol (EE) was injected into these animals, biliary cholesterol output decreased to almost normal levels under circumstances of minor changes in the rates of biliary bile salt and phospholipid outputs. Similarly, when chylomicron cholesterol was intravenously injected into diosgenin-fed animals, biliary cholesterol output significantly decreased as a function of the dose of chylomicron cholesterol administered. Relative rates of hepatic cholesterol synthesis and esterification were measured in isolated hepatocytes. Although hepatic cholesterogenesis increased 300% in diosgenin-fed animals, the contribution of newly synthesized cholesterol to total biliary cholesterol output was only 19 +/- 9%, compared with 12 +/- 6% in control and 15 +/- 5% in diosgenin-fed and EE-injected rats. The rate of oleate incorporation into hepatocytic cholesterol esters was 30% inhibited in diosgenin-fed rats. When EE was injected into these animals, the rate of cholesterol esterification increased to almost 300%. To investigate further the interrelationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and biliary cholesterol output, we studied 21 diosgenin-fed rats. Six of them received in addition EE and 10 received chylomicron cholesterol. The relationships between biliary cholesterol output as a function of both microsomal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and hepatic cholesterol ester concentration were significantly correlated in a reciprocal manner. From these

  12. About Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More About Cholesterol Updated:Aug 10,2016 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  13. Cholesterol absorption.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Richard E

    2002-03-01

    Cholesterol absorption is a key regulatory point in human lipid metabolism because it determines the amount of endogenous biliary as well as dietary cholesterol that is retained, thereby influencing whole body cholesterol balance. Plant sterols (phytosterols) and the drug ezetimibe reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in clinical trials, complementing the statin drugs, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. The mechanism of cholesterol absorption is not completely known but involves the genes ABC1, ABCG5, and ABCG8, which are members of the ATP-binding cassette protein family and appear to remove unwanted cholesterol and phytosterols from the enterocyte. ABC1 is upregulated by the liver X (LXR) and retinoid X (RXR) nuclear receptors. Acylcholesterol acytransferase-2 is an intestinal enzyme that esterifies absorbed cholesterol and increases cholesterol absorption when dietary intake is high. New clinical treatments based on better understanding of absorption physiology are likely to substantially improve clinical cholesterol management in the future. PMID:17033296

  14. Macrophage-mediated cholesterol handling in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Formation of foam cells is a hallmark at the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Monocytes attracted by pro-inflammatory stimuli attach to the inflamed vascular endothelium and penetrate to the arterial intima where they differentiate to macrophages. Intimal macrophages phagocytize oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). Several scavenger receptors (SR), including CD36, SR-A1 and lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), mediate oxLDL uptake. In late endosomes/lysosomes of macrophages, oxLDL are catabolysed. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) hydrolyses cholesterol esters that are enriched in LDL to free cholesterol and free fatty acids. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) in turn catalyses esterification of cholesterol to store cholesterol esters as lipid droplets in the ER of macrophages. Neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolases nCEH and NCEH1 are involved in a secondary hydrolysis of cholesterol esters to liberate free cholesterol that could be then out-flowed from macrophages by cholesterol ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 and SR-BI. In atherosclerosis, disruption of lipid homoeostasis in macrophages leads to cholesterol accumulation and formation of foam cells. PMID:26493158

  15. Synthesis of Novel Acylglycerol Substrates for Acyltransferases.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1,2-Diacylglycerols (DG) are the native substrates for the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). It is difficult to chemically synthesize DG containing hydroxy fatty acids in specific positions on the glycerol backbone. An alternate approach is to start from acylglycerols containing hydroxy fatty...

  16. Bioengineering recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding plant oil biosynthesis will help to create new oilseed crops with value-added properties to replace petroleum-based compounds. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are key enzymes catalyzing the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Plants and animals defici...

  17. Expression and purification of diacylglycerol acyltransferases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG and over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to ...

  18. Cholesterol (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  19. Regulation of cholesterol esterification by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-03-05

    They have recently identified acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase as the key enzyme for cholesterol esterification in the central nervous system. They found that the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase could be controlled by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism. However, repeated attempts to identify cyclic AMP as the bioregulator for this reaction failed. Recently, they have studied the possible involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of glial cholesterol esterification. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can activate cellular cholesterol esterification in a complex, time-dependent manner. Phorbol analogues inactive toward protein kinase C are also ineffective in this assay. Furthermore, oleoyl-acetyl-glycerol mimics the effect of PMA, confirming the proposal that protein kinase C mediates the effect of these compounds and that the natural bioregulator is probably diacylglycerol. Receptor-mediated polyphosphatidyl-inositol cleavage often produces diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate. The synergic effects of these two compounds are known to be necessary to elicit other biological responses. Their preliminary studies using calcium ionophore A23187 indicates that Ca/sup + +/ is not required for cellular cholesterol esterification. In sum, glial cholesterol esterification is probably regulated by a calcium-independent and protein kinase C-dependent reaction.

  20. Membrane bound O-acyltransferases and their inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Naoko; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Rodgers, Ursula R; Konitsiotis, Antonios D; Magee, Anthony I; Tate, Edward W

    2015-04-01

    Since the identification of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOATs) protein family in the early 2000s, three distinct members [porcupine (PORCN), hedgehog (Hh) acyltransferase (HHAT) and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT)] have been shown to acylate specific proteins or peptides. In this review, topology determination, development of assays to measure enzymatic activities and discovery of small molecule inhibitors are compared and discussed for each of these enzymes. PMID:25849925

  1. High fat fed heart failure animals have enhanced mitochondrial function and acyl-coa dehydrogenase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that administration of high fat in heart failure (HF) increased mitochondrial respiration and did not alter left ventricular (LV) function. PPARalpha is a nuclear transcription factor that activates expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and utilization. We hypoth...

  2. EXPRESSION OF TURKEY TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND ACYL COA OXIDASE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES AND GENETIC POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several transcription factors are involved in regulating lipid metabolism in various animal tissues. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPAR alpha regulate both lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. Gene fragments for PPAR gamma, PPAR alpha, and acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) have b...

  3. BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE FUNCTION IN SHORT-CHAIN ACYL-COA DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Skilling, Helen; Coen, Paul M.; Fairfull, Liane; Ferrell, Robert E.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Vockley, Jerry; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a highly specialized organ that uses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation to fuel nonshivering thermogenesis. In mice, mutations in the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of fatty acid oxidation genes are associated with sensitivity to cold. Brown adipose tissue function has not previously been characterized in these knockout strains. Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficient mice were found to have increased brown adipose tissue mass as well as modest cardiac hypertrophy. Uncoupling protein-1 was reduced by 70% in brown adipose tissue and this was not due to a change in mitochondrial number, nor was it due to decreased signal transduction through protein kinase A which is known to be a major regulator of uncoupling protein-1 expression. PKA activity and in vitro lipolysis were normal in brown adipose tissue, although in white adipose tissue a modest increase in basal lipolysis was seen in SCAD−/ − mice. Finally, an in vivo norepinephrine challenge of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis revealed normal heat production in SCAD−/− mice. These results suggest that reduced brown adipose tissue function is not the major factor causing cold sensitivity in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout strains. We speculate that other mechanisms such as shivering capacity, cardiac function, and reduced hepatic glycogen stores are involved. PMID:20727852

  4. Protein kinase activators alter glial cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-05-01

    Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.

  5. Effect of clofibrate on cholesterol metabolism in rats treated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, M.; Shimokawa, T.; Noguchi, A.; Ishihara, N.; Kojima, S.

    1986-02-01

    Serum and hepatic cholesterol content in rats treated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, KC-400) were increased compared to those of control rats. This increase of cholesterol content was reduced to control level by simultaneous administration of ethyl p-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate (CPIB). Also, when lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was expressed as the net cholesterol esterification, the acyltransferase activity in rats treated with PCBs was elevated, while the elevated acyltransferase activity was brought to control level by simultaneous administration of CPIB. On the other hand, the amount of bile of rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB was increased, but free and total cholesterol content in bile of these treated rats was decreased to 40-60% of those of control rats. Moreover, cytochrome P-450 content in liver microsomes of rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB was increased. At the same time, cholesterol-metabolizing activity in liver microsomes of rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB also was elevated. Similar results were obtained for drug metabolizing (aniline hydroxylation and aminopyrine N-demethylation) activity. In addition, the amount of bile acids excreted from rats treated with CPIB, PCBs and PCBs-CPIB was increased compared to that of control rats. These results suggest that hypercholesterolemia induced by oral ingestion of PCBs is recovered by CPIB treatment and that this hypocholesterolemic effect of CPIB may be related partly to the elevation of hepatic mixed function oxidase activity for cholesterol catabolism.

  6. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    SciTech Connect

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-03-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using /sup 14/C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD.

  7. TG-interacting factor 1 acts as a transcriptional repressor of sterol O-acyltransferase 2[S

    PubMed Central

    Pramfalk, Camilla; Melhuish, Tiffany A.; Wotton, David; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Eriksson, Mats; Parini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Acat2 [gene name: sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2)] esterifies cholesterol in enterocytes and hepatocytes. This study aims to identify repressor elements in the human SOAT2 promoter and evaluate their in vivo relevance. We identified TG-interacting factor 1 (Tgif1) to function as an important repressor of SOAT2. Tgif1 could also block the induction of the SOAT2 promoter activity by hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α and 4α. Women have ∼30% higher hepatic TGIF1 mRNA compared with men. Depletion of Tgif1 in mice increased the hepatic Soat2 expression and resulted in higher hepatic lipid accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels. Tgif1 is a new player in human cholesterol metabolism. PMID:24478032

  8. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. PMID:26710098

  9. Regulation of cholesterol esterification by micellar cholesterol in CaCo-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Field, F J; Albright, E; Mathur, S N

    1987-09-01

    The regulation of acylcoenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity by cholesterol was studied in an established enterocyte cell line. CaCo-2 cells were grown in culture to confluency and dome formation. They were characterized morphologically by light and transmission electron microscopy. During the culture period, ACAT activity remained stable while the activities of the brush border enzymes sucrase and alkaline phosphatase progressively increased with time and plateaued 12 days after plating. As determined by the rate of incorporation of oleic acid into the individual lipid classes, the rate of triglyceride synthesis was twice that of phospholipid and 15 times that of cholesteryl ester synthesis in these cells. Incubating CaCo-2 cells with cholesterol solubilized in taurocholate micelles resulted in a significant increase in ACAT activity (149 +/- 5 pmol/dish per 2 hr vs. 366 +/- 5, (P less than 0.001) without changing the rates of triglyceride or phospholipid synthesis. The stimulation of ACAT activity by micellar cholesterol was rapid, occurring within 5 min and reaching a maximal effect by 2 hr. The regulation of ACAT activity by cholesterol was directly dependent upon the concentration of cholesterol solubilized in the micelle and was independent of protein synthesis. Incubating CaCo-2 cells with micellar cholesterol did not increase the esterification of, nor did the cholesterol enter the pool of, newly synthesized or performed cholesterol within 2 hr. The micellar cholesterol that was taken up by the cells was esterified within 5 min after starting the incubation. Progesterone, a known ACAT inhibitor, significantly decreased the rate of esterification of intracellular micellar cholesterol proving that the cholesterol taken up by CaCo-2 cells was indeed entering the ACAT pool. Despite increasing amounts of unesterified cholesterol entering the cells via micelles, the percent of cholesterol that was esterified at any one time remained constant at 1

  10. Structural Basis for the Acyltransferase Activity of Lecithin: Retinol Acyltransferase-like Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Golczak, Marcin; Kiser, Philip D.; Sears, Avery E.; Lodowski, David T.; Blaner, William S.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2012-10-10

    Lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-like proteins, also referred to as HRAS-like tumor suppressors, comprise a vertebrate subfamily of papain-like or NlpC/P60 thiol proteases that function as phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes. HRAS-like tumor suppressor 3, a representative member of this group, plays a key role in regulating triglyceride accumulation and energy expenditure in adipocytes and therefore constitutes a novel pharmacological target for treatment of metabolic disorders causing obesity. Here, we delineate a catalytic mechanism common to lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-like proteins and provide evidence for their alternative robust lipid-dependent acyltransferase enzymatic activity. We also determined high resolution crystal structures of HRAS-like tumor suppressor 2 and 3 to gain insight into their active site architecture. Based on this structural analysis, two conformational states of the catalytic Cys-113 were identified that differ in reactivity and thus could define the catalytic properties of these two proteins. Finally, these structures provide a model for the topology of these enzymes and allow identification of the protein-lipid bilayer interface. This study contributes to the enzymatic and structural understanding of HRAS-like tumor suppressor enzymes.

  11. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation. PMID:23322364

  12. Allostery and conformational dynamics in cAMP-binding acyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Siddiqui, Nida; Rebolj, Katja; Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Merzel, Franci; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2014-06-01

    Mycobacteria harbor unique proteins that regulate protein lysine acylation in a cAMP-regulated manner. These lysine acyltransferases from Mycobacterium smegmatis (KATms) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KATmt) show distinctive biochemical properties in terms of cAMP binding affinity to the N-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding domain and allosteric activation of the C-terminal acyltransferase domain. Here we provide evidence for structural features in KATms that account for high affinity cAMP binding and elevated acyltransferase activity in the absence of cAMP. Structure-guided mutational analysis converted KATms from a cAMP-regulated to a cAMP-dependent acyltransferase and identified a unique asparagine residue in the acyltransferase domain of KATms that assists in the enzymatic reaction in the absence of a highly conserved glutamate residue seen in Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase-like acyltransferases. Thus, we have identified mechanisms by which properties of similar proteins have diverged in two species of mycobacteria by modifications in amino acid sequence, which can dramatically alter the abundance of conformational states adopted by a protein. PMID:24748621

  13. Thematic Review Series: Glycerolipids. Acyltransferases in bacterial glycerophospholipid synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Mei; Rock, Charles O.

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipid biosynthesis is a vital facet of bacterial physiology that begins with the synthesis of the fatty acids by a soluble type II fatty acid synthase. The bacterial glycerol-phosphate acyltransferases utilize the completed fatty acid chains to form the first membrane phospholipid and thus play a critical role in the regulation of membrane biogenesis. The first bacterial acyltransferase described was PlsB, a glycerol-phosphate acyltransferase. PlsB is a key regulatory point that coordinates membrane phospholipid formation with cell growth and macromolecular synthesis. Phosphatidic acid is then produced by PlsC, a 1-acylglycerol-phosphate acyltransferase. These two acyltransferases use thioesters of either CoA or acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the acyl donors and have homologs that perform the same reactions in higher organisms. However, the most prevalent glycerol-phosphate acyltransferase in the bacterial world is PlsY, which uses a recently discovered acyl-phosphate fatty acid intermediate as an acyl donor. This unique activated fatty acid is formed from the acyl-ACP end products of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway by PlsX, an acyl-ACP:phosphate transacylase. PMID:18369234

  14. Effect of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol on activity of rat liver enzymes for synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesterol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, Yu.P.; Dushkin, M.I.; Dolgov, A.V.; Gordienko, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Administration of estrogens is known to lower the concentration of cholesterol esters in the blood vessel wall and may delay the development of arteriosclerosis. It is also known that under the influence of estrogens the redistribution of concentrations of free cholesterol and cholesterol esters takes place in rats between the blood and liver as a result of the intensification of receptor-dependent uptake of low-density lipoproteins by the hepatocytes. The mechanisms of this intracellular redistribution, however, have been inadequately studied. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol on the activity of lysosomal and cytoplasmic cholesterol esterases, acyl-CoA-cholesterol-O-acyltransferase, lysosomal acid phosphatase, and beta-D-galactosidase. The activity was measured by using cholesterol (1-C 14)-oleate as the substrate. The influence of the estradiol is found to be based on cholesterol redistribution between the blood and liver. Accumulation of free cholesterol in the liver under these conditions stimulates bile acid formation. Depression of cholesterol ester synthesis as a result of direct inhibition of the acyltransferase by the estradiol is found to possibly contribute to the fall in the cholesterol level in the body. Liquid scintillation counting was used to measure distribution and accumulation.

  15. Women and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... Glossary Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  16. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  17. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells.

    PubMed

    Mulas, Maria Franca; Mandas, Antonella; Abete, Claudia; Dessì, Sandra; Mocali, Alessandra; Paoletti, Francesco

    2011-08-31

    Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3) and acylCoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol export (caveolin-1) in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC), in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells. PMID:22184540

  18. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells

    PubMed Central

    Mulas, Maria Franca; Mandas, Antonella; Abete, Claudia; Dessì, Sandra; Mocali, Alessandra; Paoletti, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3) and acylCoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol export (caveolin-1) in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC), in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells. PMID:22184540

  19. Lecithin retinol acyltransferase forms functional homodimers.

    PubMed

    Jahng, Wan Jin; Cheung, Eric; Rando, Robert R

    2002-05-21

    Membrane-bound lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), an essential enzyme in vitamin A processing, catalyzes the formation of retinyl esters from vitamin A and lecithin. Cloned and expressed LRAT has a molecular mass of 25.3 kDa. The enzyme is not homologous to known enzymes and is, therefore, of substantial interest mechanistically. Along these lines, the functional protomeric state of LRAT is of importance. Gel electrophoretic studies on LRAT in the presence of SDS and disulfide reducing agents show the expected 25 kDa monomer. However, gel electrophoresis in the absence of a reducing agent and/or strong denaturing conditions reveals substantial dimer formation. LRAT monomers can be efficiently and irreversibly cross-linked by thiol reactive bismaleimides in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) membranes generating LRAT homodimers. Cross-linked LRAT homodimers are fully active catalytically. The experiments suggest that LRAT monomers interact in membranes and form functional homodimers through protein-protein interactions and disulfide bond formation. PMID:12009892

  20. Evolution of serine carboxypeptidase-like acyltransferases in the monocots

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sam T

    2010-01-01

    The serine carboxypeptidases are a large family of proteases. in higher plants some members of this family have diversified and adopted new functions as acyltransferases required for the synthesis of natural products. we recently reported the first serine carboxypeptidase-like (scpl) acyltransferase enzyme to be characterized from monocotyledonous plants.1 This enzyme, AsSCPL1, is required for acylation of antimicrobial terpenes (avenacins) that are produced in the roots of oat (Avena spp.) and that provide protection against soil-borne pathogens. The SCPL acyltransferase enzyme family has undergone substantial expansion following the divergence of monocots and dicots. Here we discuss the evolution of this SCPL enzyme family in monocots, their contribution to metabolic diversity, and the roles of these enzymes in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:20173416

  1. Guar gum effects on plasma low-density lipoprotein and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in guinea pigs fed low- and high-cholesterol diets: a dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M L; Sun, D M; Tosca, M; McNamara, D J

    1995-01-01

    Guinea pigs were fed semipurified diets containing either 0% or 12.5% guar gum (GG) with 0.04% cholesterol or increasing concentrations of GG (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 12.5%) with 0.25% cholesterol (by wt). Compared to the 0% GG diet with 0.04% cholesterol, intake of the 12.5% GG diet with 0.04% cholesterol lowered plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations, the ratio of LDL cholesteryl ester to protein, hepatic cholesterol concentrations, and the activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), and increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase activity and hepatic apo B/E receptor number (P < 0.01). Intake of GG by animals fed 0.25% cholesterol diets resulted in modest effects on hepatic cholesterol pools and plasma LDL concentrations; however, significant negative correlations were found between both plasma LDL cholesterol and hepatic free cholesterol concentrations with the amount of dietary GG (P < 0.05). Hepatic HMG-CoA reductase was suppressed by the 0.25% cholesterol intake, and GG did not reverse this suppression. In contrast, ACAT activity was negatively correlated with the amount of dietary GG (P < 0.05), and GG intake increased the number of hepatic apo B/E receptors at all intakes with the 0.25% cholesterol diets. These results demonstrate that intake of GG significantly alters endogenous cholesterol metabolism by decreasing hepatic cholesterol pools, altering hepatic cholesterol homeostasis, and reducing plasma LDL concentrations. PMID:7825524

  2. Characterization of a Novel Intestinal Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase Pathway and Its Role in Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Irani; Clark, Ronald W; Vera, Nicholas B; Kou, Kou; Erion, Derek M; Coskran, Timothy; Bobrowski, Walter F; Okerberg, Carlin; Goodwin, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Dietary triglycerides (TG) are absorbed by the enterocytes of the small intestine after luminal hydrolysis into monacylglycerol and fatty acids. Before secretion on chylomicrons, these lipids are reesterified into TG, primarily through the monoacylglycerol pathway. However, targeted deletion of the primary murine monoacylglycerol acyltransferase does not quantitatively affect lipid absorption, suggesting the existence of alternative pathways. Therefore, we investigated the role of the glycerol 3-phosphate pathway in dietary lipid absorption. The expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT3) was examined throughout the small intestine. To evaluate the role for GPAT3 in lipid absorption, mice harboring a disrupted GPAT3 gene (Gpat3(-/-)) were subjected to an oral lipid challenge and fed a Western-type diet to characterize the role in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis. Additional mechanistic studies were performed in primary enterocytes. GPAT3 was abundantly expressed in the apical surface of enterocytes in the small intestine. After an oral lipid bolus, Gpat3(-/-) mice exhibited attenuated plasma TG excursion and accumulated lipid in the enterocytes. Electron microscopy studies revealed a lack of lipids in the lamina propria and intercellular space in Gpat3(-/-) mice. Gpat3(-/-) enterocytes displayed a compensatory increase in the synthesis of phospholipid and cholesteryl ester. When fed a Western-type diet, hepatic TG and cholesteryl ester accumulation was significantly higher in Gpat3(-/-) mice compared with the wild-type mice accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, a marker of liver injury. Dysregulation of bile acid metabolism was also evident in Gpat3-null mice. These studies identify GPAT3 as a novel enzyme involved in intestinal lipid metabolism. PMID:26644473

  3. Role of Cholesterol Pathways in Norovirus Replication▿

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2009-01-01

    Norwalk virus (NV) is a prototype strain of the noroviruses (family Caliciviridae) that have emerged as major causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. I have developed NV replicon systems using reporter proteins such as a neomycin-resistant protein (NV replicon-bearing cells) and a green fluorescent protein (pNV-GFP) and demonstrated that these systems were excellent tools to study virus replication in cell culture. In the present study, I first performed DNA microarray analysis of the replicon-bearing cells to identify cellular factors associated with NV replication. The analysis demonstrated that genes in lipid (cholesterol) or carbohydrate metabolic pathways were significantly (P < 0.001) changed by the gene ontology analysis. Among genes in the cholesterol pathways, I found that mRNA levels of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase, squalene epoxidase, and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), ACAT2, small heterodimer partner, and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related proteins were significantly changed in the cells. I also found that the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis using statins (an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) significantly increased the levels of NV proteins and RNA, whereas inhibitors of ACAT significantly reduced the replication of NV in replicon-bearing cells. Up- or downregulation of virus replication with these agents significantly correlated with the mRNA level of LDLR in replicon-bearing cells. Finally, I found that the expression of LDLR promoted NV replication in trans by transfection study with pNV-GFP. I conclude that the cholesterol pathways such as LDLR expression and ACAT activity may be crucial in the replication of noroviruses in cells, which may provide potential therapeutic targets for viral infection. PMID:19515767

  4. Cholesterol testing and results

    MedlinePlus

    ... lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol) High density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol) Triglycerides (another type of fat in your blood) Very ... made of fat and protein. They carry cholesterol, triglycerides, and other fats, called lipids, in the blood ...

  5. All about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... are several kinds of fats in your blood. • LDL cholesterol is sometimes called “bad” cholesterol. It can narrow ... medicine to manage blood fats. They help lower LDL cholesterol. They also help lower your risk for a ...

  6. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features on this page, ... called "bad" cholesterol For many people, abnormal cholesterol levels are partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. This ...

  7. Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) and Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) Interact to Promote Triacylglycerol Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Youzhi; McFie, Pamela J.; Banman, Shanna L.; Brandt, Curtis; Stone, Scot J.

    2014-01-01

    Acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. DGAT2 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but when cells are incubated with fatty acids, DGAT2 interacts with lipid droplets presumably to catalyze localized TG synthesis for lipid droplet expansion. Previous studies have shown that DGAT2 interacts with proteins that synthesize its fatty acyl CoA substrates. In this study, we provide additional evidence that DGAT2 is present in a protein complex. Using a chemical cross-linker, disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), we demonstrated that DGAT2 formed a dimer and was also part of a protein complex of ∼650 kDa, both in membranes and on lipid droplets. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and an in situ proximity ligation assay, we found that DGAT2 interacted with monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)-2, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the interaction with MGAT2 was dependent on the two transmembrane domains of DGAT2. No significant interaction of DGAT2 with lipin1, another enzyme that synthesizes diacylglycerol, could be detected. When co-expressed in cells, DGAT2 and MGAT2 co-localized in the ER and on lipid droplets. Co-expression also resulted in increased TG storage compared with expression of DGAT2 or MGAT2 alone. Incubating McArdle rat hepatoma RH7777 cells with 2-monoacylglycerol caused DGAT2 to translocate to lipid droplets. This also led to the formation of large cytosolic lipid droplets, characteristic of DGAT2, but not DGAT1, and indicated that DGAT2 can utilize monoacylglycerol-derived diacylglycerol. These findings suggest that the interaction of DGAT2 and MGAT2 serves to channel lipid substrates efficiently for TG biosynthesis. PMID:25164810

  8. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) and monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) interact to promote triacylglycerol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Youzhi; McFie, Pamela J; Banman, Shanna L; Brandt, Curtis; Stone, Scot J

    2014-10-10

    Acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. DGAT2 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but when cells are incubated with fatty acids, DGAT2 interacts with lipid droplets presumably to catalyze localized TG synthesis for lipid droplet expansion. Previous studies have shown that DGAT2 interacts with proteins that synthesize its fatty acyl CoA substrates. In this study, we provide additional evidence that DGAT2 is present in a protein complex. Using a chemical cross-linker, disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), we demonstrated that DGAT2 formed a dimer and was also part of a protein complex of ∼ 650 kDa, both in membranes and on lipid droplets. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and an in situ proximity ligation assay, we found that DGAT2 interacted with monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)-2, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the interaction with MGAT2 was dependent on the two transmembrane domains of DGAT2. No significant interaction of DGAT2 with lipin1, another enzyme that synthesizes diacylglycerol, could be detected. When co-expressed in cells, DGAT2 and MGAT2 co-localized in the ER and on lipid droplets. Co-expression also resulted in increased TG storage compared with expression of DGAT2 or MGAT2 alone. Incubating McArdle rat hepatoma RH7777 cells with 2-monoacylglycerol caused DGAT2 to translocate to lipid droplets. This also led to the formation of large cytosolic lipid droplets, characteristic of DGAT2, but not DGAT1, and indicated that DGAT2 can utilize monoacylglycerol-derived diacylglycerol. These findings suggest that the interaction of DGAT2 and MGAT2 serves to channel lipid substrates efficiently for TG biosynthesis. PMID:25164810

  9. Expression and purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and lack milk secr...

  10. Expression and purification of membrane protein diacylglycerol acyltransferase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG in seeds and other tissues. DGAT knockout mice are resista...

  11. Expression and purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are responsible for the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Different forms of DGATs have nonredundant functions in TAG biosynthesis in species such as tung tree (Vernicia fordii), which contains approximately 80% high-valu...

  12. Purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferases from E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding plant oil biosynthesis will help to create new oilseed crops with value-added properties to replace petroleum-based compounds. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are key enzymes catalyzing the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotes. Over-expression of DGATs ...

  13. Expression of tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 in E. coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT isoforms have nonredundant functions in TAG biosynthesis in species such as tung tree (Vernicia fordii) which contains 80% high-value eleostearic acid in its seed oils. ...

  14. Serum Opacity Factor Enhances HDL-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux, Esterification and Anti Inflammatory Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tchoua, Urbain; Rosales, Corina; Tang, Daming; Gillard, Baiba K.; Vaughan, Ashley; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S.

    2011-01-01

    Serum opacity factor (SOF) is a streptococcal protein that disrupts the structure of human high density lipoproteins (HDL) releasing lipid-free apo A-I while forming a large cholesteryl ester-rich particle and a small neo HDL. Given its low cholesterol and high phospholipid contents, we tested the hypotheses that neo HDL is a better substrate for cholesterol esterification via lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), better than HDL as an acceptor of THP-1 macrophage cholesterol efflux, and improves reduction of oxidized LDL-induced production of inflammatory markers. We observed that both cholesterol efflux and esterification were improved by recombinant (r)SOF treatment of whole plasma and that the underlying cause of the improved cholesterol esterification in plasma and macrophage cholesterol efflux to rSOF-treated plasma was due to the rSOF-mediated conversion of HDL to neo HDL. Moreover, the reduction of secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 by THP-1 cells by neo HDL was twice that of HDL. Studies in BHK cells overexpressing cholesterol transporters showed that efflux to neo HDL occurred primarily via ABCA1 not ABCG1. Thus, rSOF improves two steps in reverse cholesterol transport with a concomitant reduction in the release of macrophage markers of inflammation. We conclude that rSOF catalyzes a novel reaction that might be developed as a new therapy that prevents or reverses atherosclerosis via improved reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:20972840

  15. Luminol electrochemiluminescence for the analysis of active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guangzhong; Zhou, Junyu; Tian, Chunxiu; Jiang, Dechen; Fang, Danjun; Chen, Hongyuan

    2013-04-16

    A luminol electrochemiluminescence assay was reported to analyze active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells. The cellular membrane cholesterol was activated by the exposure of the cells to low ionic strength buffer or the inhibition of intracellular acyl-coA/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). The active membrane cholesterol was reacted with cholesterol oxidase in the solution to generate a peak concentration of hydrogen peroxide on the electrode surface, which induced a measurable luminol electrochemiluminescence. Further treatment of the active cells with mevastatin decreased the active membrane cholesterol resulting in a drop in luminance. No change in the intracellular calcium was observed in the presence of luminol and voltage, which indicated that our analysis process might not interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Single cell analysis was performed by placing a pinhole below the electrode so that only one cell was exposed to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). Twelve single cells were analyzed individually, and a large deviation on luminance ratio observed exhibited the cell heterogeneity on the active membrane cholesterol. The smaller deviation on ACAT/HMGCoA inhibited cells than ACAT inhibited cells suggested different inhibition efficiency for sandoz 58035 and mevastatin. The new information obtained from single cell analysis might provide a new insight on the study of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. PMID:23527944

  16. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies have been linked to AD, CVD, and cancer. Results Using plasmalogen deficient (NRel-4) and plasmalogen sufficient (HEK293) cells we investigated the effect of species-dependent plasmalogen restoration/augmentation on membrane cholesterol processing. The results of these studies indicate that the esterification of cholesterol is dependent upon the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-containing ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn) present in the membrane. We further elucidate that the concentration-dependent increase in esterified cholesterol observed with PUFA-PlsEtn was due to a concentration-dependent increase in sterol-O-acyltransferase-1 (SOAT1) levels, an observation not reproduced by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibition. Conclusion The present study describes a novel mechanism of cholesterol regulation that is consistent with clinical and epidemiological studies of cholesterol, aging and disease. Specifically, the present study describes how selective membrane PUFA-PlsEtn enhancement can be achieved using 1-alkyl-2-PUFA glycerols and through this action reduce levels of total and free cholesterol in cells. PMID:20546600

  17. Casein kinase II stimulates rat liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Onorato, Thomas M; Haldar, Dipak

    2002-09-01

    Rat liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase (mtGAT) possesses 14 consensus sites for casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylation. To study the functional relevance of phosphorylation to the activity of mtGAT, we treated isolated rat liver mitochondria with CKII and found that CKII stimulated mtGAT activity approximately 2-fold. Protein phosphatase-lambda treatment reversed the stimulation of mtGAT by CKII. Labeling of both solubilized and non-solubilized mitochondria with CKII and [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in a 32P-labeled protein of 85kDa, the molecular weight of mtGAT. Our findings suggest that CKII stimulates mtGAT activity by phosphorylation of the acyltransferase. The significance of this observation with respect to hormonal control of the enzyme is discussed. PMID:12207885

  18. The amount of dietary cholesterol changes the mode of effects of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid on lipoprotein cholesterol in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huei; Lu, Shao-Chun; Huang, Po-Chao; Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the interaction between dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and different dietary cholesterol content on plasma and liver cholesterol in hamsters. Male Syrian hamsters consumed diets containing an incremental increase in dietary cholesterol content (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%, w/w) with either (n-3) PUFA (21 g/100 g fatty acids) or (n-6) PUFA (37.4 g/100 g fatty acids) fat for 6 weeks. In hamsters fed the nonatherogenic diet (0 or 0.025% dietary cholesterol), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were not significantly different from those in the (n-6) PUFA group, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were significantly lower than those in the (n-6) PUFA group. In contrast, in hamsters fed the atherogenic diet (0.1 or 0.2% dietary cholesterol), VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were significantly higher than those in the (n-6) PUFA group, in a dose-dependent manner. When the hamsters were fed with 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2% (w/w) dietary cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in the (n-3) PUFA group than those in the (n-6) PUFA group. Hepatic cholesteryl esters were significantly lower, while hepatic microsomal acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity and VLDL-cholesteryl esters were significantly higher in hamsters fed (n-3) PUFA with the atherogenic diet (0.1 or 0.2% dietary cholesterol) than in those fed (n-6) PUFA with the atherogenic diet. Our results demonstrate that the amount of dietary cholesterol is an important factor in determining the mode and extent of effects of dietary (n-3) PUFA, especially on VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels. When dietary cholesterol intake was above 0.1% (w/w), the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of (n-3) PUFA disappeared, and instead, it showed a cholesterol-increasing effect. However, the

  19. Inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase block Sonic Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Elissaveta; Rios-Esteves, Jessica; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Glickman, J Fraser; Resh, Marilyn D

    2013-04-01

    Inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is of great clinical interest. Here we exploit Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat)-mediated Shh palmitoylation, a modification critical for Shh signaling, as a new target for Shh pathway inhibition. A target-oriented high-throughput screen was used to identify small-molecule inhibitors of Hhat. In cells, these Hhat inhibitors specifically block Shh palmitoylation and inhibit autocrine and paracrine Shh signaling. PMID:23416332

  20. Mechanistic analysis of ghrelin-O-acyltransferase using substrate analogs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Martin S; Dempsey, Daniel R; Hwang, Yousang; Chen, Zan; Chu, Nam; Boeke, Jef D; Cole, Philip A

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin-O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) is an 11-transmembrane integral membrane protein that octanoylates the metabolism-regulating peptide hormone ghrelin at Ser3 and may represent an attractive target for the treatment of type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Protein octanoylation is unique to ghrelin in humans, and little is known about the mechanism of GOAT or of related protein-O-acyltransferases HHAT or PORC. In this study, we explored an in vitro microsomal ghrelin octanoylation assay to analyze its enzymologic features. Measurement of Km for 10-mer, 27-mer, and synthetic Tat-peptide-containing ghrelin substrates provided evidence for a role of charge interactions in substrate binding. Ghrelin substrates with amino-alanine in place of Ser3 demonstrated that GOAT can catalyze the formation of an octanoyl-amide bond at a similar rate compared with the natural reaction. A pH-rate comparison of these substrates revealed minimal differences in acyltransferase activity across pH 6.0-9.0, providing evidence that these reactions may be relatively insensitive to the basicity of the substrate nucleophile. The conserved His338 residue was required both for Ser3 and amino-Ala3 ghrelin substrates, suggesting that His338 may have a key catalytic role beyond that of a general base. PMID:26246082

  1. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by human lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Harayama, Takeshi; Shindou, Hideo; Shimizu, Takao

    2009-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex of phospholipids and proteins lining the alveolar walls of the lung. It reduces surface tension in the alveoli, and is critical for normal respiration. Pulmonary surfactant phospholipids consist mainly of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Although the phospholipid composition of pulmonary surfactant is well known, the enzyme(s) involved in its biosynthesis have remained obscure. We previously reported the cloning of murine lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (mLPCAT1) as a potential biosynthetic enzyme of pulmonary surfactant phospholipids. mLPCAT1 exhibits lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) and lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase (LPGAT) activities, generating PC and PG, respectively. However, the enzymatic activity of human LPCAT1 (hLPCAT1) remains controversial. We report here that hLPCAT1 possesses LPCAT and LPGAT activities. The activity of hLPCAT1 was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, indicating the importance of some cysteine residue(s) for the catalysis. We found a conserved cysteine (Cys(211)) in hLPCAT1 that is crucial for its activity. Evolutionary analyses of the close homologs of LPCAT1 suggest that it appeared before the evolution of teleosts and indicate that LPCAT1 may have evolved along with the lung to facilitate respiration. hLPCAT1 mRNA is highly expressed in the human lung. We propose that hLPCAT1 is the biosynthetic enzyme of pulmonary surfactant phospholipids. PMID:19383981

  2. Inhibiting monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 ameliorates hepatic metabolic abnormalities but not inflammation and injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Soufi, Nisreen; Hall, Angela M; Chen, Zhouji; Yoshino, Jun; Collier, Sara L; Mathews, James C; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Albert, Carolyn J; Graham, Mark J; Ford, David A; Finck, Brian N

    2014-10-24

    Abnormalities in hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin action are believed to play a critical role in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) enzymes convert monoacylglycerol to diacylglycerol, which is the penultimate step in one pathway for triacylglycerol synthesis. Hepatic expression of Mogat1, which encodes an MGAT enzyme, is increased in the livers of mice with hepatic steatosis, and knocking down Mogat1 improves glucose metabolism and hepatic insulin signaling, but whether increased MGAT activity plays a role in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is unclear. To examine this issue, mice were placed on a diet containing high levels of trans fatty acids, fructose, and cholesterol (HTF-C diet) or a low fat control diet for 4 weeks. Mice were injected with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to knockdown Mogat1 or a scrambled ASO control for 12 weeks while remaining on diet. The HTF-C diet caused glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and induced hepatic gene expression markers of inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and stellate cell activation. Mogat1 ASO treatment, which suppressed Mogat1 expression in liver and adipose tissue, attenuated weight gain, improved glucose tolerance, improved hepatic insulin signaling, and decreased hepatic triacylglycerol content compared with control ASO-treated mice on HTF-C chow. However, Mogat1 ASO treatment did not reduce hepatic diacylglycerol, cholesterol, or free fatty acid content; improve histologic measures of liver injury; or reduce expression of markers of stellate cell activation, liver inflammation, and injury. In conclusion, inhibition of hepatic Mogat1 in HTF-C diet-fed mice improves hepatic metabolic abnormalities without attenuating liver inflammation and injury. PMID:25213859

  3. Inhibiting Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase 1 Ameliorates Hepatic Metabolic Abnormalities but Not Inflammation and Injury in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Soufi, Nisreen; Hall, Angela M.; Chen, Zhouji; Yoshino, Jun; Collier, Sara L.; Mathews, James C.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Albert, Carolyn J.; Graham, Mark J.; Ford, David A.; Finck, Brian N.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin action are believed to play a critical role in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) enzymes convert monoacylglycerol to diacylglycerol, which is the penultimate step in one pathway for triacylglycerol synthesis. Hepatic expression of Mogat1, which encodes an MGAT enzyme, is increased in the livers of mice with hepatic steatosis, and knocking down Mogat1 improves glucose metabolism and hepatic insulin signaling, but whether increased MGAT activity plays a role in the etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is unclear. To examine this issue, mice were placed on a diet containing high levels of trans fatty acids, fructose, and cholesterol (HTF-C diet) or a low fat control diet for 4 weeks. Mice were injected with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to knockdown Mogat1 or a scrambled ASO control for 12 weeks while remaining on diet. The HTF-C diet caused glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and induced hepatic gene expression markers of inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and stellate cell activation. Mogat1 ASO treatment, which suppressed Mogat1 expression in liver and adipose tissue, attenuated weight gain, improved glucose tolerance, improved hepatic insulin signaling, and decreased hepatic triacylglycerol content compared with control ASO-treated mice on HTF-C chow. However, Mogat1 ASO treatment did not reduce hepatic diacylglycerol, cholesterol, or free fatty acid content; improve histologic measures of liver injury; or reduce expression of markers of stellate cell activation, liver inflammation, and injury. In conclusion, inhibition of hepatic Mogat1 in HTF-C diet-fed mice improves hepatic metabolic abnormalities without attenuating liver inflammation and injury. PMID:25213859

  4. Cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Favari, Elda; Chroni, Angelika; Tietge, Uwe J F; Zanotti, Ilaria; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Bernini, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Both alterations of lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and inflammatory events contribute to the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque, characterized by the accumulation of abnormal amounts of cholesterol and macrophages in the artery wall. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) may counteract the pathogenic events leading to the formation and development of atheroma, by promoting the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated removal of cholesterol from the artery wall. Recent in vivo studies established the inverse relationship between RCT efficiency and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD), thus suggesting that the promotion of this process may represent a novel strategy to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden and subsequent cardiovascular events. HDL plays a primary role in all stages of RCT: (1) cholesterol efflux, where these lipoproteins remove excess cholesterol from cells; (2) lipoprotein remodeling, where HDL undergo structural modifications with possible impact on their function; and (3) hepatic lipid uptake, where HDL releases cholesterol to the liver, for the final excretion into bile and feces. Although the inverse association between HDL plasma levels and CVD risk has been postulated for years, recently this concept has been challenged by studies reporting that HDL antiatherogenic functions may be independent of their plasma levels. Therefore, assessment of HDL function, evaluated as the capacity to promote cell cholesterol efflux may offer a better prediction of CVD than HDL levels alone. Consistent with this idea, it has been recently demonstrated that the evaluation of serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is a predictor of atherosclerosis extent in humans. PMID:25522988

  5. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    MedlinePlus

    ... You also get cholesterol by eating foods like egg yolks, fatty meats, and regular cheese. If you have too much cholesterol in your body, it can build up inside your blood vessels and make it hard for blood to ...

  6. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activities.

    PubMed Central

    Schlossman, D M; Bell, R M

    1978-01-01

    Yeast acyl-coenzyme A:dihydroxyacetone-phosphate O-acyltransferase (DHAP acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.42) was investigated to (i) determine whether its activity and that of acyl-coenzyme A:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (glycerol-P acyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.15) represent dual catalytic functions of a single membranous enzyme, (ii) estimate the relative contributions of the glycerol-P and DHAP pathways for yeast glycerolipid synthesis, and (iii) evaluate the suitability of yeast for future genetic investigations of the eucaryotic glycerol-P and DHAP acyltransferase activities. The membranous DHAP acyltransferase activity showed an apparent Km of 0.79 mM for DHAP, with a Vmax of 5.3 nmol/min per mg, whereas the glycerol-P acyltransferase activity showed an apparent Km of 0.05 mM for glycerol-P, with a Vmax of 3.4 nmol/min per mg. Glycerol-P was a competitive inhibitor (Ki, 0.07 mM) of the DHAP acyltransferase activity, and DHAP was a competitive inhibitor (Ki, 0.91 mM) of the glycerol-P acyltransferase activity. The two acyltransferase activities exhibited marked similarities in their pH dependence, acyl-coenzyme A chain length preference and substrate concentration dependencies, thermolability, and patterns of inactivation by N-ethylmaleimide, trypsin, and detergents. Thus, the data strongly suggest that yeast glycerol-P and DHAP acyltransferase activities represent dual catalytic functions of a single membrane-bound enzyme. Furthermore, since no acyl-DHAP oxidoreductase activity could be detected in yeast membranes, the DHAP pathway for glycerolipid synthesis may not operate in yeast. PMID:25265

  7. Fast serial analysis of active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunxiu; Zhou, Junyu; Wu, Zeng-Qiang; Fang, Danjun; Jiang, Dechen

    2014-01-01

    Previously, our group has utilized the luminol electrochemiluminescence to analyze the active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single cells by the exposure of one cell to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) through a pinhole. In this paper, fast analysis of active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single cells was achieved by a multimicroelectrode array without the pinhole. Single cells were directly located on the microelectrodes using cell-sized microwell traps. A cycle of voltage was applied on the microelectrodes sequentially to induce a peak of luminescence from each microelectrode for the serial measurement of active membrane cholesterol. A minimal time of 1.60 s was determined for the analysis of one cell. The simulation and the experimental data exhibited a semisteady-state distribution of hydrogen peroxide on the microelectrode after the reaction of cholesterol oxidase with the membrane cholesterol, which supported the relative accuracy of the serial analysis. An eight-microelectrode array was demonstrated to analyze eight single cells in 22 s serially, including the channel switching time. The results from 64 single cells either activated by low ion strength buffer or the inhibition of intracellular acyl-coA/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) revealed that most of the cells analyzed had the similar active membrane cholesterol, while few cells had more active cholesterol resulting in the cellular heterogeneity. The fast single-cell analysis platform developed will be potentially useful for the analysis of more molecules in single cells using proper oxidases. PMID:24328095

  8. [Inhibitory action of natural compounds of microbial origin on cholesterol metabolism].

    PubMed

    Fujioka, T

    1997-10-01

    1) Repeated administration of pravastatin significantly increased serum and liver cholesterol in rats. Hepatic LDL receptor activity was not changed and VLDL cholesterol secretion from the liver was increased. Net cholesterol synthesis in rat liver was increased after 7 days of repeated pravastatin administration. These results suggest that for rats, unlike other animals for which serum cholesterol is decreased, induced HMG-CoA reductase activity due to pravastatin treatment might overcome the inhibitory capability of pravastatin. 2) In the course of screening for squalene synthase inhibitors, novel zaragozic acids-F10863A, B, C and D-containing zaragozic acid D3 were isolated. F10863A was most potent and selectively inhibited cholesterol synthesis in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes among several cultured and isolated cells. It also showed in vivo serum cholesterol-lowering effects in hamsters and marmosets. However, the inhibition for squalene synthase proved to cause acidosis due to the accumulation of farnesol-derived dicarboxylic acids in urines. 3) A novel acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, designated epi-cochlioquinone A, a stereoisomer of cochlioquinone A, which has been previously reported as a nematocidal agent, was isolated from the fermentation broth of Stachybotrys bisbyi. It inhibited in vivo cholesterol absorption in rats by 50% at 75 mg/kg. PMID:9503410

  9. Age-related changes in the rate of esterification of plasma cholesterol in Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Carlile, S I; Kudchodkar, B J; Wang, C S; Lacko, A G

    1986-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels and selected molecular species of plasma cholesteryl esters and triglycerides were determined in 6-, 12-, 15-, 18-, 21-, and 24-month-old Fischer-344 rats. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was also determined using two independent methods utilizing endogenous and exogenous substrates. Plasma cholesterol levels increased up to 18 months of age and then plateaued. Of the plasma triglyceride molecular species investigated (C50, C52, C54 and C56), only the levels of C52 increased linearly with age. The concentration of other triglyceride molecular species did not change with age. The fractional rate of plasma cholesterol esterification showed a decreasing trend with age, whereas, the net cholesterol esterification rate showed a gradual age related increase. However, this latter parameter remained unchanged with age when the data were normalized for body weight. The cholesterol esterification rates measured using an exogenous substrate (estimating LCAT enzyme levels) showed essentially no change with age. These data indicate that changes in the levels and/or composition of lipoprotein substrate(s) for LCAT are likely causes of the observed age-related changes in the fractional rate of plasma cholesterol esterification. The net esterification rate of plasma cholesterol was significantly correlated with the plasma triglyceride levels when the animals for all age groups were treated as one experimental group. PMID:3959602

  10. Cholesterol and Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    There is a widespread belief among the public and even among chemist that plants do not contain cholesterol. This wrong belief is the result of the fact that plants generally contain only small quantities of cholesterol and that analytical methods for the detection of cholesterol in this range were not developed until recently.

  11. Small Intestine but Not Liver Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 (Lpcat3) Deficiency Has a Dominant Effect on Plasma Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Inamul; Li, Zhiqiang; Bui, Hai H; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Gao, Guangping; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (Lpcat3) is involved in phosphatidylcholine remodeling in the small intestine and liver. We investigated lipid metabolism in inducible intestine-specific and liver-specificLpcat3gene knock-out mice. We producedLpcat3-Flox/villin-Cre-ER(T2)mice, which were treated with tamoxifen (at days 1, 3, 5, and 7), to deleteLpcat3specifically in the small intestine. At day 9 after the treatment, we found that Lpcat3 deficiency in enterocytes significantly reduced polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines in the enterocyte plasma membrane and reduced Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), CD36, ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), and ABCG8 levels on the membrane, thus significantly reducing lipid absorption, cholesterol secretion through apoB-dependent and apoB-independent pathways, and plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid levels, as well as body weight. Moreover, Lpcat3 deficiency does not cause significant lipid accumulation in the small intestine. We also utilized adenovirus-associated virus-Cre to depleteLpcat3in the liver. We found that liver deficiency only reduces plasma triglyceride levels but not other lipid levels. Furthermore, there is no significant lipid accumulation in the liver. Importantly, small intestine Lpcat3 deficiency has a much bigger effect on plasma lipid levels than that of liver deficiency. Thus, inhibition of small intestine Lpcat3 might constitute a novel approach for treating hyperlipidemia. PMID:26828064

  12. Mechanism of transfer of LDL-derived free cholesterol to HDL subfractions in human plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Miida, T.; Fielding, C.J.; Fielding, P.E. )

    1990-11-01

    The transfer of ({sup 3}H)cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to different high-density lipoprotein (HDL) species in native human plasma was determined by using nondenaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis. Transfer from LDL had a t{sub 1/2} at 37{degree}C of 51 {plus minus} 8 min and an activation energy of 18.0 kCal mol{sup {minus}1}. There was unexpected specificity among HDL species as acceptors of LDL-derived labeled cholesterol. The largest fraction of the major {alpha}-migrating class (HDL{sub 2b}) was the major initial acceptor of LDL-derived cholesterol. Kinetic analysis indicated a rapid secondary transfer from HDL{sub 2b} to smaller {alpha}HDL (particularly HDL{sub 3}) driven enzymatically by the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase reaction. Rates of transfer among {alpha}HDL were most rapid from the largest {alpha}HDL fraction (HDL{sub 2b}), suggesting possible protein-mediated facilitation. Simultaneous measurements of the transport of LDL-derived and cell-derived isotopic cholesterol indicated that the former preferably utilized the {alpha}HDL pathyway, with little label in pre-{beta}HDL. The same experiments confirmed earlier data that cell-derived cholesterol is preferentially channeled through pre-{beta}HDL. The authors suggest that the functional heterogeneity of HDL demonstrated here includes the ability to independently process cell- and LDL-derived free cholesterol.

  13. Structure of a bacterial toxin-activating acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Nicholas P.; Hughes, Colin; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Secreted pore-forming toxins of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) insert into host–cell membranes to subvert signal transduction and induce apoptosis and cell lysis. Unusually, these toxins are synthesized in an inactive form that requires posttranslational activation in the bacterial cytosol. We have previously shown that the activation mechanism is an acylation event directed by a specialized acyl-transferase that uses acyl carrier protein (ACP) to covalently link fatty acids, via an amide bond, to specific internal lysine residues of the protoxin. We now reveal the 2.15-Å resolution X-ray structure of the 172-aa ApxC, a toxin-activating acyl-transferase (TAAT) from pathogenic Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. This determination shows that bacterial TAATs are a structurally homologous family that, despite indiscernible sequence similarity, form a distinct branch of the Gcn5-like N-acetyl transferase (GNAT) superfamily of enzymes that typically use acyl-CoA to modify diverse bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic substrates. A combination of structural analysis, small angle X-ray scattering, mutagenesis, and cross-linking defined the solution state of TAATs, with intermonomer interactions mediated by an N-terminal α-helix. Superposition of ApxC with substrate-bound GNATs, and assay of toxin activation and binding of acyl-ACP and protoxin peptide substrates by mutated ApxC variants, indicates the enzyme active site to be a deep surface groove. PMID:26016525

  14. Lysophospholipid acyltransferases and eicosanoid biosynthesis in zebrafish myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Zarini, Simona; Hankin, Joseph A; Murphy, Robert C; Gijón, Miguel A

    2014-10-01

    Eicosanoids derived from the enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid play important roles in a large number of physiological and pathological processes in humans. Many animal and cellular models have been used to investigate the intricate mechanisms regulating their biosynthesis and actions. Zebrafish is a widely used model to study the embryonic development of vertebrates. It expresses homologs of the key enzymes involved in eicosanoid production, and eicosanoids have been detected in extracts from adult or embryonic fish. In this study we prepared cell suspensions from kidney marrow, the main hematopoietic organ in fish. Upon stimulation with calcium ionophore, these cells produced eicosanoids including PGE2, LTB4, 5-HETE and, most abundantly, 12-HETE. They also produced small amounts of LTB5 derived from eicosapentaenoic acid. These eicosanoids were also produced in kidney marrow cells stimulated with ATP, and this production was greatly enhanced by preincubation with thimerosal, an inhibitor of arachidonate reacylation into phospholipids. Microsomes from these cells exhibited acyltransferase activities consistent with expression of MBOAT5/LPCAT3 and MBOAT7/LPIAT1, the main arachidonoyl-CoA:lysophospholipid acyltransferases. In summary, this work introduces a new cellular model to study the regulation of eicosanoid production through a phospholipid deacylation-reacylation cycle from a well-established, versatile vertebrate model species. PMID:25175316

  15. Radioassay of the stereospecificity of 2-monoacylglycerol acyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Manganaro, F.; Kuksis, A.; Myher, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The 2-monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.22, acylglycerol palmitoyl transferase) catalyzes the synthesis of X-1,2-diacylglycerols from 2-monoacylglycerol and acyl CoA with an apparently variable stereochemical specificity. A microassay for determining the ratio of sn-1,2- and sn-2,3-diacylglycerol formed by the acylation of radioactive 2-monoacylglycerol in intact cell or in cell-free systems in the presence of free fatty acids and cofactors has been developed. The diacyglycerols isolated by thin-layer chromatography using nonradioactive racemic diacylglycerols as carriers. The enantiomer content is determined following a chemical synthesis of X-1,2-diacylphosphatidylcholines and a stereospecific stepwise release of the sn-1,2- and sn-2,3-diacylglycerols by phospholipase C. By using thin-layer chromatography for the isolation of the hydrolysis products, known samples ranging in enantiomer ratios from 0.05 to 20 and containing 5000 to 200,000 cpm can be assayed to within 1% of the major and within 10% of the minor enantiomer content. The method is applicable to the determination of the enantiomer content of X-1,2-diacylglycerols generated via other acyltransferases and via lipolysis of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerolphospholipids in other biological systems.

  16. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... this test does: This is a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) in your blood. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) ("good" cholesterol) helps protect your heart, but low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ("bad" cholesterol) can clog the arteries of your ...

  17. Bastadins, brominated-tyrosine derivatives, suppress accumulation of cholesterol ester in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Keisuke; Kato, Hikaru; Fujiwara, Yukio; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Takeya, Motohiro; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2015-11-15

    The formation of foam cells in macrophages has been suggested to play an essential role in the progression of early atherosclerotic lesions in vivo and, thus, its suppression is considered to be one of the major approaches for the treatment of atherosclerosis. We isolated eight brominated-tyrosine derivatives, bastadins, from the EtOH extract of the marine sponge Ianthella vasta as inhibitors of the formation of foam cells induced by acetylated low-density lipoproteins in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Bastadin 6 was the strongest inhibitor of foam cell formation due to its suppression of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase. PMID:26403929

  18. Genetic regulation of cholesterol homeostasis: chromosomal organization of candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Welch, C L; Xia, Y R; Shechter, I; Farese, R; Mehrabian, M; Mehdizadeh, S; Warden, C H; Lusis, A J

    1996-07-01

    As part of an effort to dissect the genetic factors involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the mouse model, we report the mapping of 12 new candidate genes using linkage analysis. The genes include: cytoplasmic HMG-CoA synthase (Hmgcs 1, Chr 13), mitochondrial synthase (Hmgcs 2, Chr 3), a synthase-related sequence (Hmgcs 1-rs, Chr 12), mevalonate kinase (Mvk, Chr 5), farnesyl diphosphate synthase (Fdps, Chr 3), squalene synthase (Fdft 1, Chr 14), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (Acact, Chr 1), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (Srebf1, Chr 8) and -2 (Srebf2, Chr 15), apolipoprotein A-I regulatory protein (Tcfcoup2, Chr 7), low density receptor-related protein-related sequence (Lrp-rs, Chr 10), and Lrp-associated protein (Lrpap 1, Chr 5). In addition, the map positions for several lipoprotein receptor genes were refined. These genes include: low density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr, Chr 9), very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr, Chr 19), and glycoprotein 330 (Gp330, Chr 2). Some of these candidate genes are located within previously defined chromosomal regions (quantitative trait loci, QTLs) contributing to plasma lipoprotein levels, and Acact maps near a mouse mutation, ald, resulting in depletion of cholesteryl esters in the adrenals. The combined use of QTL and candidate gene mapping provides a powerful means of dissecting complex traits such as cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:8827514

  19. Impact of SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation and dietary cholesterol on hepatic lipid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Klipsic, Devon; Landrock, Danilo; Martin, Gregory G.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Mackie, John T.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    While a high-cholesterol diet induces hepatic steatosis, the role of intracellular sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) proteins is unknown. We hypothesized that ablating SCP-2/SCP-x [double knockout (DKO)] would impact hepatic lipids (cholesterol and cholesteryl ester), especially in high-cholesterol-fed mice. DKO did not alter food consumption, and body weight (BW) gain decreased especially in females, concomitant with hepatic steatosis in females and less so in males. DKO-induced steatosis in control-fed wild-type (WT) mice was associated with 1) loss of SCP-2; 2) upregulation of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP); 3) increased mRNA and/or protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP1 and SREBP2) as well as increased expression of target genes of cholesterol synthesis (Hmgcs1 and Hmgcr) and fatty acid synthesis (Acc1 and Fas); and 4) cholesteryl ester accumulation was also associated with increased acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT2) in males. DKO exacerbated the high-cholesterol diet-induced hepatic cholesterol and glyceride accumulation, without further increasing SREBP1, SREBP2, or target genes. This exacerbation was associated both with loss of SCP-2 and concomitant downregulation of Ceh/Hsl, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), MTP, and/or L-FABP protein expression. DKO diminished the ability to secrete excess cholesterol into bile and oxidize cholesterol to bile acid for biliary excretion, especially in females. This suggested that SCP-2/SCP-x affects cholesterol transport to particular intracellular compartments, with ablation resulting in less to the endoplasmic reticulum for SREBP regulation, making more available for cholesteryl ester synthesis, for cholesteryl-ester storage in lipid droplets, and for bile salt synthesis and/or secretion. These alterations are significant findings, since they affect key processes in regulation of sterol metabolism. PMID:26113298

  20. Impact of SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation and dietary cholesterol on hepatic lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Klipsic, Devon; Landrock, Danilo; Martin, Gregory G; McIntosh, Avery L; Landrock, Kerstin K; Mackie, John T; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Kier, Ann B

    2015-09-01

    While a high-cholesterol diet induces hepatic steatosis, the role of intracellular sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) proteins is unknown. We hypothesized that ablating SCP-2/SCP-x [double knockout (DKO)] would impact hepatic lipids (cholesterol and cholesteryl ester), especially in high-cholesterol-fed mice. DKO did not alter food consumption, and body weight (BW) gain decreased especially in females, concomitant with hepatic steatosis in females and less so in males. DKO-induced steatosis in control-fed wild-type (WT) mice was associated with 1) loss of SCP-2; 2) upregulation of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP); 3) increased mRNA and/or protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP1 and SREBP2) as well as increased expression of target genes of cholesterol synthesis (Hmgcs1 and Hmgcr) and fatty acid synthesis (Acc1 and Fas); and 4) cholesteryl ester accumulation was also associated with increased acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT2) in males. DKO exacerbated the high-cholesterol diet-induced hepatic cholesterol and glyceride accumulation, without further increasing SREBP1, SREBP2, or target genes. This exacerbation was associated both with loss of SCP-2 and concomitant downregulation of Ceh/Hsl, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), MTP, and/or L-FABP protein expression. DKO diminished the ability to secrete excess cholesterol into bile and oxidize cholesterol to bile acid for biliary excretion, especially in females. This suggested that SCP-2/SCP-x affects cholesterol transport to particular intracellular compartments, with ablation resulting in less to the endoplasmic reticulum for SREBP regulation, making more available for cholesteryl ester synthesis, for cholesteryl-ester storage in lipid droplets, and for bile salt synthesis and/or secretion. These alterations are significant findings, since they affect key processes in regulation of sterol metabolism. PMID:26113298

  1. Cholesterol and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... traveling together are called lipoproteins . Two kinds — low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) — are the ones that most of us have heard about. Low-density lipoproteins , or "bad cholesterol," are the primary cholesterol ...

  2. Children and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... a coronary artery procedure; or who suffered a heart attack or sudden cardiac death before age 55. Those with a parent who has a history of high total cholesterol levels (240 mg/dL or higher). Talk to your child’s pediatrician ... Risk Calculator Printable Cholesterol Information Sheets Heart360 Health ...

  3. Kids and Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficklen, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    According to a 1991 National Cholesterol Education Program report, the best way to avoid heart trouble is to take early preventive measures. This means that children over age two should follow the same low-fat, low-cholesterol guidelines already recommended for adults. Sidebars contain a fat glossary and tips for cutting fat in school lunches.…

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Indirect cholesterol electrochemical oxidation in the presence of various mediators leads to electrophilic addition to the double bond, oxidation at the allylic position, oxidation of the hydroxy group, or functionalization of the side chain. Recent studies have proven that direct electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol is also possible and affords different products depending on the reaction conditions. PMID:25977713

  5. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 1 regulates morphology and function of P19C6 cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Shirou; Hikiji, Hisako; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Hashidate-Yoshida, Tomomi; Shindou, Hideo; Okinaga, Toshinori; Shimizu, Takao; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2016-07-01

    Glycerophospholipids, which are components of biomembranes, are formed de novo by the Kennedy pathway and subsequently mature through the Lands cycle. Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) are key enzymes in both pathways and influence the fatty acid composition of biomembranes. Neuronal differentiation is characterized by neurite outgrowth, which requires biomembrane biosynthesis. However, the role of LPLATs in neuronal differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether LPLATs are involved in neuronal differentiation using all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated P19C6 cells. In these cells, mRNA levels of lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase (LPEAT)-1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT)-1 were higher than those in undifferentiated cells. LPEAT enzymatic activity increased with 16:0- and 18:1-CoA as acyl donors. When LPEAT1/MBOAT1 was knocked down with small interfering RNA (siRNA), outgrowth of neurites and expression of neuronal markers decreased in ATRA-treated P19C6 cells. Voltage-dependent calcium channel activity was also suppressed in these cells transfected with LPEAT1/MBOAT1 siRNA. These results suggest that LPEAT1/MBOAT1 plays an important role in neurite outgrowth and function.-Tabe, S., Hikiji, H., Ariyoshi, W., Hashidate-Yoshida, T., Shindou, H., Okinaga, T., Shimizu, T., Tominaga, K., Nishihara, T. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase 1/membrane-bound O-acyltransferase 1 regulates morphology and function of P19C6 cell-derived neurons. PMID:27048541

  6. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  7. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Aug 17,2016 How’s your cholesterol? Time to get it checked! Keeping your cholesterol levels healthy is a great way to keep your ...

  8. Haptoglobin binds apolipoprotein E and influences cholesterol esterification in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Alfonso; Cigliano, Luisa; Carlucci, Alessandro; Bucci, Enrico M; Abrescia, Paolo

    2009-07-01

    Haptoglobin (Hpt) binds the apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I domain, which is involved in stimulating the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) for cholesterol esterification. This binding was shown to protect ApoA-I against hydroxyl radicals, thus preventing loss of ApoA-I function in enzyme stimulation. In this study, we report that Hpt is also able to bind ApoE. The Hpt binding site on the ApoE structure was mapped by using synthetic peptides, and found homologous to the Hpt binding site of ApoA-I. Hydroxyl radicals promoted in vitro the formation of ApoE-containing adducts which were detected by immunoblotting. Hpt impaired this oxidative modification whereas albumin did not. CSF from patients with multiple sclerosis or subjects without neurodegeneration contains oxidized forms of ApoE and ApoA-I similar to those observed in vitro. CSF was analyzed for its level of ApoA-I, ApoE, Hpt, cholesteryl esters, and unesterified cholesterol. The ratio of esterified with unesterified cholesterol, assumed to reflect the LCAT activity ex vivo, did not correlate with either analyzed protein, but conversely correlated with the ratio [Hpt]/([ApoE]+[ApoA-I]). The results suggest that Hpt might save the function of ApoA-I and ApoE for cholesterol esterification, a process contributing to cholesterol elimination from the brain. PMID:19457062

  9. [Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) in plants].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Xiao, Dan-Wang; Shi, Chun-Lin; Hu, Xue-Fang; Wu, Ke-Bin; Guan, Chun-Yun; Xiong, Xing-Hua

    2013-12-01

    Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the acylation at sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate to produce lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in an acyl-CoA or acyl-ACP-dependent manner, which is the initial and rate-determining step of TAG biosynthetic pathway. Some GPATs have sn-2 transfer activity. Part members of the GPAT gene family have been cloned from different plant species. Based on their subcellular localizations, GPATs can be classified into three types, plastid GPATs, mitochondria GPATs and endoplasmic reticulum GPATs. GPATs exhibit diverse biochemical properties and are involved in synthesis of several lipids such as TAG, suberin, and cutin which play important roles in the growth and development of plants. This review summarized the current understanding of the chromosomal locus and gene structure of GPAT genes and the subcellular localization, sn-2 regiospecificity, substrates specialty, and functions of GPATs in plants. PMID:24645344

  10. Effectiveness of resistant starch, compared to guar gum, in depressing plasma cholesterol and enhancing fecal steroid excretion.

    PubMed

    Levrat, M A; Moundras, C; Younes, H; Morand, C; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    1996-10-01

    Amylase-resistant starch (RS) represents a substrate that can be administered in substantial amounts in the diet, in contrast to gel-forming polysaccharides, such as guar gum (GG). The aim of this work was thus to compare the effects of GG and RS on cholesterol metabolism in rats adapted to 0.4% cholesterol diets, using dietary GG or RS levels (8 or 20%, respectively) that led to a similar development of fermentations, as assessed by the degree of enlargement of the cecum. The RS diet elicited a marked rise in the cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids, especially acetic and butyric acid, whereas the GG diet favored high-propionic acid fermentations. Both polysaccharides markedly altered the cholesterol excretion, from 50% of ingested cholesterol in controls, up to about 70% in rats adapted to the RS or GG diets. With these diets, the fecal excretion of bile acids was enhanced (67 and 144% with the RS and GG diets, respectively). RS and GG diets were effective in lowering plasma cholesterol (about -40%) and triglycerides (-36%). There was practically no effect of the diets on cholesterol in d > 1.040 lipoproteins (high density lipoproteins), whereas RS (and to a larger extent, GG) were very effective to depress cholesterol in d < 1.040 lipoproteins (especially in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins). Fermentable polysaccharides counteracted the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver, especially cholesterol esters. In parallel, liver acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase was depressed in rats fed the RS or GG diets, whereas only the GG diet counteracted the downregulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA by cholesterol. These data suggest that RS may be practically as effective as a gel-forming gum, such as GG, on steroid excretion and on cholesterol metabolism. PMID:8898306

  11. Tissue-specific knockouts of ACAT2 reveal that intestinal depletion is sufficient to prevent diet-induced cholesterol accumulation in the liver and blood[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Marshall, Stephanie M.; Davis, Matthew A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Farese, Robert V.; Brown, J. Mark; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2012-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) generates cholesterol esters (CE) for packaging into newly synthesized lipoproteins and thus is a major determinant of blood cholesterol levels. ACAT2 is expressed exclusively in the small intestine and liver, but the relative contributions of ACAT2 expression in these tissues to systemic cholesterol metabolism is unknown. We investigated whether CE derived from the intestine or liver would differentially affect hepatic and plasma cholesterol homeostasis. We generated liver-specific (ACAT2L−/L−) and intestine-specific (ACAT2SI−/SI−) ACAT2 knockout mice and studied dietary cholesterol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and hypercholesterolemia. ACAT2SI−/SI− mice, in contrast to ACAT2L−/L− mice, had blunted cholesterol absorption. However, specific deletion of ACAT2 in the intestine generated essentially a phenocopy of the conditional knockout of ACAT2 in the liver, with reduced levels of plasma very low-density lipoprotein and hepatic CE, yet hepatic-free cholesterol does not build up after high cholesterol intake. ACAT2L−/L− and ACAT2SI−/SI− mice were equally protected from diet-induced hepatic CE accumulation and hypercholesterolemia. These results suggest that inhibition of intestinal or hepatic ACAT2 improves atherogenic hyperlipidemia and limits hepatic CE accumulation in mice and that depletion of intestinal ACAT2 is sufficient for most of the beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism. Inhibitors of ACAT2 targeting either tissue likely would be beneficial for atheroprotection. PMID:22460046

  12. High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cholesterol is called plaque. Plaque Buildup Can Lead to… Click for more information Artherosclerosis. Over time, ... disease (CHD). Angina. The buildup of plaque can lead to chest pain called angina. Angina is a ...

  13. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... most (and preferably all) days; and stressing the importance of avoiding tobacco products. Learn more about cholesterol ... Privacy Policy Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure ...

  14. Cholesterol and Statins

    MedlinePlus

    ... the liver makes ldl & hdl In the liver, triglycerides, cholesterol, and proteins form together to make LDL ... This is especially important for individuals with high triglyceride and/or low HDL levels who are overweight ...

  15. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  16. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    MedlinePlus

    ... is checked with a blood test called a lipid profile. During the test, a nurse will take ... blood tests that can check cholesterol, but a lipid profile gives the most information. Find out more ...

  17. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  18. Cholesterol in unusual places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kučerka, N.; Nieh, M. P.; Marquardt, D.; Harroun, T. A.; Wassail, S. R.; Katsaras, J.

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted "upright" position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  19. MD-2 binds cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I

    2016-02-19

    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID:26806306

  20. Carboxy-terminal mutations of bile acid CoA:N-acyltransferase alter activity and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Styles, Nathan A; Shonsey, Erin M; Falany, Josie L; Guidry, Amber L; Barnes, Stephen; Falany, Charles N

    2016-07-01

    Bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) is the terminal enzyme in the synthesis of bile salts from cholesterol and catalyzes the conjugation of taurine or glycine to bile acid CoA thioesters to form bile acid N-acylamidates. BAAT has a dual localization to the cytosol and peroxisomes, possibly due to an inefficient carboxy-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS), -serine-glutamine-leucine (-SQL). Mutational analysis was used to define the role of the carboxy terminus in peroxisomal localization and kinetic activity. Amidation activity of BAAT and BAAT lacking the final two amino acids (AAs) (BAAT-S) were similar, whereas the activity of BAAT with a canonical PTS sequence (BAAT-SKL) was increased >2.5-fold. Kinetic analysis of BAAT and BAAT-SKL showed that BAAT-SKL had a lower Km for taurine and glycine as well as a greater Vmax There was no difference in the affinity for cholyl-CoA. In contrast to BAAT, BAAT-SKL forms bile acid N-acylamidates with β-alanine. BAAT-S immunoprecipitated when incubated with peroxisomal biogenesis factor 5 (Pex5) and rabbit anti-Pex5 antibodies; however, deleting the final 12 AAs prevented coimmunoprecipitation with Pex5, indicating the Pex5 interaction involves more than the -SQL sequence. These results indicate that even small changes in the carboxy terminus of BAAT can have significant effects on activity and substrate specificity. PMID:27230263

  1. Novel role of a triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme: DGAT1 at the crossroad between triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Vinay; Leopold, Christina; Bauer, Raimund; Patankar, Jay V; Iqbal, Jahangir; Obrowsky, Sascha; Boverhof, Renze; Doktorova, Marcela; Scheicher, Bernhard; Goeritzer, Madeleine; Kolb, Dagmar; Turnbull, Andrew V; Zimmer, Andreas; Hoefler, Gerald; Hussain, M Mahmood; Groen, Albert K; Kratky, Dagmar

    2016-09-01

    Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TG) biosynthesis. Here we show that genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 in mice alters cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol absorption, as assessed by acute cholesterol uptake, was significantly decreased in the small intestine and liver upon DGAT1 deficiency/inhibition. Ablation of DGAT1 in the intestine (I-DGAT1(-/-)) alone is sufficient to cause these effects. Consequences of I-DGAT1 deficiency phenocopy findings in whole-body DGAT1(-/-) and DGAT1 inhibitor-treated mice. We show that deficiency/inhibition of DGAT1 affects cholesterol metabolism via reduced chylomicron size and increased trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion. These effects are independent of cholesterol uptake at the apical surface of enterocytes but mediated through altered dietary fatty acid metabolism. Our findings provide insight into a novel role of DGAT1 and identify a pathway by which intestinal DGAT1 deficiency affects whole-body cholesterol homeostasis in mice. Targeting intestinal DGAT1 may represent a novel approach for treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27344248

  2. Novel role of a triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme: DGAT1 at the crossroad between triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Vinay; Leopold, Christina; Bauer, Raimund; Patankar, Jay V.; Iqbal, Jahangir; Obrowsky, Sascha; Boverhof, Renze; Doktorova, Marcela; Scheicher, Bernhard; Goeritzer, Madeleine; Kolb, Dagmar; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Zimmer, Andreas; Hoefler, Gerald; Hussain, M. Mahmood; Groen, Albert K.; Kratky, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) is a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TG) biosynthesis. Here we show that genetic deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 in mice alters cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol absorption, as assessed by acute cholesterol uptake, was significantly decreased in the small intestine and liver upon DGAT1 deficiency/inhibition. Ablation of DGAT1 in the intestine (I-DGAT1−/−) alone is sufficient to cause these effects. Consequences of I-DGAT1 deficiency phenocopy findings in whole-body DGAT1−/− and DGAT1 inhibitor-treated mice. We show that deficiency/inhibition of DGAT1 affects cholesterol metabolism via reduced chylomicron size and increased trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion. These effects are independent of cholesterol uptake at the apical surface of enterocytes but mediated through altered dietary fatty acid metabolism. Our findings provide insight into a novel role of DGAT1 and identify a pathway by which intestinal DGAT1 deficiency affects whole-body cholesterol homeostasis in mice. Targeting intestinal DGAT1 may represent a novel approach for treating hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27344248

  3. Cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin is associated with down-regulation on genes of sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yin Tong; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Peng, Cheng; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaobo; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2015-03-25

    Sesame seed is rich in sesamin. The present study was to (i) investigate the plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of dietary sesamin and (ii) examine the interaction of dietary sesamin with the gene expression of sterol transporters, enzymes, receptors, and proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. Thirty hamsters were divided into three groups fed the control diet (CON) or one of two experimental diets containing 0.2% (SL) and 0.5% (SH) sesamin, respectively, for 6 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels in hamsters given the CON, SL, and SH diets were 6.62 ± 0.40, 5.32 ± 0.40, and 5.00 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively, indicating dietary sesamin could reduce plasma TC in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the excretion of total fecal neutral sterols was dose-dependently increased with the amounts of sesamin in diets (CON, 2.65 ± 0.57; SL, 4.30 ± 0.65; and SH, 5.84 ± 1.27 μmol/day). Addition of sesamin into diets was associated with down-regulation of mRNA of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein (NPC1L1), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP-binding cassette transporters subfamily G members 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8). Results also showed that dietary sesamin could up-regulate hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), whereas it down-regulated hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). It was concluded that the cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin was mediated by promoting the fecal excretion of sterols and modulating the genes involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism. PMID:25745846

  4. Cholesterol Absorption and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Howles, Philip N

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of cholesterol absorption have been sought for decades as a means to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) associated with hypercholesterolemia. Ezetimibe is the one clear success story in this regard, and other compounds with similar efficacy continue to be sought. In the last decade, the laboratory mouse, with all its genetic power, has become the premier experimental model for discovering the mechanisms underlying cholesterol absorption and has become a critical tool for preclinical testing of potential pharmaceutical entities. This chapter briefly reviews the history of cholesterol absorption research and the various gene candidates that have come under consideration as drug targets. The most common and versatile method of measuring cholesterol absorption is described in detail along with important considerations when interpreting results, and an alternative method is also presented. In recent years, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) has become an area of intense new interest for drug discovery since this process is now considered another key to reducing CVD risk. The ultimate measure of RCT is sterol excretion and a detailed description is given for measuring neutral and acidic fecal sterols and interpreting the results. PMID:27150091

  5. Cholesterol depletion induces autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jinglei; Ohsaki, Yuki; Tauchi-Sato, Kumi; Fujita, Akikazu; Fujimoto, Toyoshi . E-mail: tfujimot@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2006-12-08

    Autophagy is a mechanism to digest cells' own components, and its importance in many physiological and pathological processes is being recognized. But the molecular mechanism that regulates autophagy is not understood in detail. In the present study, we found that cholesterol depletion induces macroautophagy. The cellular cholesterol in human fibroblasts was depleted either acutely using 5 mM methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin or 10-20 {mu}g/ml nystatin for 1 h, or metabolically by 20 {mu}M mevastatin and 200 {mu}M mevalonolactone along with 10% lipoprotein-deficient serum for 2-3 days. By any of these protocols, marked increase of LC3-II was detected by immunoblotting and by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the increase was more extensive than that caused by amino acid starvation, i.e., incubation in Hanks' solution for several hours. The induction of autophagic vacuoles by cholesterol depletion was also observed in other cell types, and the LC3-positive membranes were often seen as long tubules, >50 {mu}m in length. The increase of LC3-II by methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin was suppressed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors and was accompanied by dephosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin. By electron microscopy, autophagic vacuoles induced by cholesterol depletion were indistinguishable from those seen after amino acid starvation. These results demonstrate that a decrease in cholesterol activates autophagy by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

  6. Engineering the acyltransferase substrate specificity of assembly line polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Briana J; Khosla, Chaitan

    2013-08-01

    Polyketide natural products act as a broad range of therapeutics, including antibiotics, immunosuppressants and anti-cancer agents. This therapeutic diversity stems from the structural diversity of these small molecules, many of which are produced in an assembly line manner by modular polyketide synthases. The acyltransferase (AT) domains of these megasynthases are responsible for selection and incorporation of simple monomeric building blocks, and are thus responsible for a large amount of the resulting polyketide structural diversity. The substrate specificity of these domains is often targeted for engineering in the generation of novel, therapeutically active natural products. This review outlines recent developments that can be used in the successful engineering of these domains, including AT sequence and structural data, mechanistic insights and the production of a diverse pool of extender units. It also provides an overview of previous AT domain engineering attempts, and concludes with proposed engineering approaches that take advantage of current knowledge. These approaches may lead to successful production of biologically active 'unnatural' natural products. PMID:23720536

  7. Molecular evolution of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) gene family.

    PubMed

    Körbes, Ana Paula; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Margis, Rogério; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina

    2016-03-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) perform an essential cellular function by controlling the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a key intermediate in the synthesis of membrane, signaling and storage lipids. Although LPAATs have been extensively explored by functional and biotechnological studies, little is known about their molecular evolution and diversification. We performed a genome-wide analysis using data from several plants and animals, as well as other eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, to identify LPAAT genes and analyze their evolutionary history. We used phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis to test the hypothesis of distinct origins for these genes. The reconstructed phylogeny supported the ancient origin of some isoforms (plant LPAAT1 and LPAATB; animal AGPAAT1/2), while others emerged more recently (plant LPAAT2/3/4/5; AGPAAT3/4/5/8). Additionally, the hypothesis of endosymbiotic origin of the plastidic isoform LPAAT1 was confirmed. LPAAT genes from plants and animals mainly experienced strong purifying selection pressures with limited functional divergence after the species-specific duplications. Gene expression analyses of LPAAT isoforms in model plants demonstrated distinct LPAAT expression patterns in these organisms. The results showed that distinct origins followed by diversification of the LPAAT genes shaped the evolution of TAG biosynthesis. The expression pattern of individual genes may be responsible for adaptation into multiple ecological niches. PMID:26721558

  8. Selective inhibitors of a PAF biosynthetic enzyme lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2.

    PubMed

    Tarui, Megumi; Shindou, Hideo; Kumagai, Kazuo; Morimoto, Ryo; Harayama, Takeshi; Hashidate, Tomomi; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Nagase, Takahide; Shimizu, Takao

    2014-07-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent pro-inflammatory phospholipid mediator. In response to extracellular stimuli, PAF is rapidly biosynthesized by lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAFAT). Previously, we identified two types of lyso-PAFATs: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT)1, mostly expressed in the lungs where it produces PAF and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine essential for respiration, and LPCAT2, which biosynthesizes PAF and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the inflammatory cells. Under inflammatory conditions, LPCAT2, but not LPCAT1, is activated and upregulated to produce PAF. Thus, it is important to develop inhibitors specific for LPCAT2 in order to ameliorate PAF-related inflammatory diseases. Here, we report the first identification of LPCAT2-specific inhibitors, N-phenylmaleimide derivatives, selected from a 174,000-compound library using fluorescence-based high-throughput screening followed by the evaluation of the effects on LPCAT1 and LPCAT2 activities, cell viability, and cellular PAF production. Selected compounds competed with acetyl-CoA for the inhibition of LPCAT2 lyso-PAFAT activity and suppressed PAF biosynthesis in mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with a calcium ionophore. These compounds had low inhibitory effects on LPCAT1 activity, indicating that adverse effects on respiratory functions may be avoided. The identified compounds and their derivatives will contribute to the development of novel drugs for PAF-related diseases and facilitate the analysis of LPCAT2 functions in phospholipid metabolism in vivo. PMID:24850807

  9. Adiponutrin Functions as a Nutritionally Regulated Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Manju; Schoiswohl, Gabriele; Chitraju, Chandramohan; Paar, Margret; Cornaciu, Irina; Rangrez, Ashraf Y.; Wongsiriroj, Nuttaporn; Nagy, Harald M.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Scott, Sarah A.; Knittelfelder, Oskar; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Eder, Sandra; Brown, H. Alex; Haemmerle, Guenter; Oberer, Monika; Lass, Achim; Kershaw, Erin E.; Zimmermann, Robert; Zechner, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Numerous studies in humans link a nonsynonymous genetic polymorphism (I148M) in adiponutrin (ADPN) to various forms of fatty liver disease and liver cirrhosis. Despite its high clinical relevance, the molecular function of ADPN and the mechanism by which I148M variant affects hepatic metabolism are unclear. Here we show that ADPN promotes cellular lipid synthesis by converting lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) into phosphatidic acid. The ADPN-catalyzed LPA acyltransferase (LPAAT) reaction is specific for LPA and long-chain acyl-CoAs. Wild-type mice receiving a high-sucrose diet exhibit substantial upregulation of Adpn in the liver and a concomitant increase in LPAAT activity. In Adpn-deficient mice, this diet-induced increase in hepatic LPAAT activity is reduced. Notably, the I148M variant of human ADPN exhibits increased LPAAT activity leading to increased cellular lipid accumulation. This gain of function provides a plausible biochemical mechanism for the development of liver steatosis in subjects carrying the I148M variant. PMID:22560221

  10. Engineering the acyltransferase substrate specificity of assembly line polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Briana J.; Khosla, Chaitan

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide natural products act as a broad range of therapeutics, including antibiotics, immunosuppressants and anti-cancer agents. This therapeutic diversity stems from the structural diversity of these small molecules, many of which are produced in an assembly line manner by modular polyketide synthases. The acyltransferase (AT) domains of these megasynthases are responsible for selection and incorporation of simple monomeric building blocks, and are thus responsible for a large amount of the resulting polyketide structural diversity. The substrate specificity of these domains is often targeted for engineering in the generation of novel, therapeutically active natural products. This review outlines recent developments that can be used in the successful engineering of these domains, including AT sequence and structural data, mechanistic insights and the production of a diverse pool of extender units. It also provides an overview of previous AT domain engineering attempts, and concludes with proposed engineering approaches that take advantage of current knowledge. These approaches may lead to successful production of biologically active ‘unnatural’ natural products. PMID:23720536

  11. A close look at a ketosynthase from a trans-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Darren C.; Gay, Glen; Axelrod, Abram J.; Jenner, Matthew; Kohlhaas, Christoph; Kampa, Annette; Oldham, Neil J.; Piel, Jörn; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The recently discovered trans-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthases catalyze the biosynthesis of a wide range of bioactive natural products in bacteria. Here we report the structure of the second ketosynthase from the bacillaene trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase. This 1.95 Å-resolution structure provides the highest resolution view available of a modular polyketide synthase ketosynthase and reveals a flanking subdomain that is homologous to an ordered linker in cis-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthases. The structure of the cysteine-to-serine mutant of the ketosynthase acylated by its natural substrate provides high-resolution details of how a native polyketide intermediate is bound and helps explain the basis of ketosynthase substrate specificity. The substrate range of the ketosynthase was further investigated by mass spectrometry. PMID:24508341

  12. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    Steps you can take to improve their cholesterol levels, and help prevent heart disease and a heart attack include: Quit smoking. This is the single biggest change you can make to reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke. Eat foods ...

  13. Niacin for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Niacin is a B-vitamin. When taken as a prescription in larger doses, ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics B Vitamins Cholesterol Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  14. Cholesterol, inflammasomes, and atherogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma cholesterol levels have been strongly associated with atherogenesis, underscoring the role of lipid metabolism in defining cardiovascular disease risk. However, atherosclerotic plaque is highly dynamic and contains elements of both the innate and adaptive immune system that respond to the abe...

  15. What's so special about cholesterol?

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, Ole G; Zuckermann, Martin J

    2004-11-01

    Cholesterol (or other higher sterols such as ergosterol and phytosterols) is universally present in large amounts (20-40 mol%) in eukaryotic plasma membranes, whereas it is universally absent in the membranes of prokaryotes. Cholesterol has a unique ability to increase lipid order in fluid membranes while maintaining fluidity and diffusion rates. Cholesterol imparts low permeability barriers to lipid membranes and provides for large mechanical coherence. A short topical review is given of these special properties of cholesterol in relation to the structure of membranes, with results drawn from a variety of theoretical and experimental studies. Particular focus is put on cholesterol's ability to promote a special membrane phase, the liquid-ordered phase, which is unique for cholesterol (and other higher sterols like ergosterol) and absent in membranes containing the cholesterol precursor lanosterol. Cholesterol's role in the formation of special membrane domains and so-called rafts is discussed. PMID:15726825

  16. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    Bile acid sequestrants are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can ... block them. These medicines work by blocking bile acid in your stomach from being absorbed in your ...

  17. Plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of gingerol- and shogaol-enriched extract is mediated by increasing sterol excretion.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaobo; Jiao, Rui; Ma, Ka Ying; Li, Yuk Man; Wang, Lijun; Man, Sun Wa; Sang, Shengmin; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-10-29

    The present study investigated the cholesterol-lowering activity of gingerol- and shogaol-enriched ginger extract (GSE). Thirty hamsters were divided into three groups and fed the control diet or one of the two experimental diets containing 0.5 and 1.0% GSE. Plasma total cholesterol, liver cholesterol, and aorta atherosclerotic plaque were dose-dependently decreased with increasing amounts of GSE added into diets. The fecal sterol analysis showed dietary GSE increased the excretion of both neutral and acidic sterols in a dose-dependent manner. GSE down-regulated the mRNA levels of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP binding cassette transporter 5 (ABCG5), whereas it up-regulated hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). It was concluded that beneficial modification of the lipoprotein profile by dietary GSE was mediated by enhancing excretion of fecal cholesterol and bile acids via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 and down-regulation of mRNA of intestinal NPC1L1, ACAT2, and MTP. PMID:25290252

  18. Facts about Blood Cholesterol. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet offers information on blood cholesterol and its implications for a healthy heart. An explanation is given of the known facts about cholesterol and how it affects the body. A chart is provided that lists various foods and their fat and cholesterol contents. (JD)

  19. Membrane topology of murine glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tadahiko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Miyamoto, Aiko; Kawanishi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Masaki; Shono, Masayuki; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Akira; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2012-02-17

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) is a rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian triacylglycerol biosynthesis. GPAT is a target for the treatment of metabolic disorders associated with high lipid accumulation. Although the molecular basis for GPAT1 activation has been investigated extensively, the activation of other isoforms, such as GPAT2, is less well understood. Here the membrane topology of the GPAT2 protein was examined using an epitope-tag-based method. Exogenously expressed GPAT2 protein was present in the membrane fraction of transformed HEK293 cells even in the presence of Na(2)CO(3) (100 mM), indicating that GPAT2 is a membrane-bound protein. Trypsin treatment of the membrane fraction degraded the N-terminal (FLAG) and C-terminal (myc-epitope) protein tags of the GPAT2 protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the GPAT2 protein sequence indicated four hydrophobic sequences as potential membrane-spanning regions (TM1-TM4). Immunoblotting of the myc-epitope tag, which was inserted between each TM region of the GPAT2 protein, showed that the amino acid sequence between TM3 and TM4 was protected from trypsin digestion. These results suggest that the GPAT2 protein has two transmembrane segments and that the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of this protein face the cytoplasm. These results also suggest that the enzymatically active motifs I-III of the GPAT2 protein face the cytosol, while motif IV is within the membrane. It is expected that the use of this topological model of GPAT2 will be essential in efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GPAT2 activity in mammalian cells. PMID:22285183

  20. Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders Dyslipidemia Hypolipidemia Cholesterol and triglycerides are important fats (lipids) in the blood. Cholesterol ... needs, but it also obtains cholesterol from food. Triglycerides, which are contained in fat cells, can be ...

  1. Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... or trans fats also increases the amount of LDL cholesterol in your blood. If high blood cholesterol runs ... may not be enough to help lower your LDL blood cholesterol. View an animation of cholesterol . More information: Women ...

  2. Differential lipid metabolism in monocytes and macrophages: influence of cholesterol loading.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Ruiz, Irene; Puchalska, Patrycja; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Sengupta, Bhaswati; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the hypercholesterolemia associated with atherosclerosis on monocytes is poorly understood. Monocytes are exposed to high concentrations of lipids, particularly cholesterol and lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC). Indeed, in line with recent reports, we found that monocytes accumulate cholesteryl esters (CEs) in hypercholesterolemic mice, demonstrating the need for studies that analyze the effects of lipid accumulation on monocytes. Here we analyze the effects of cholesterol and lyso-PC loading in human monocytes and macrophages. We found that cholesterol acyltransferase and CE hydrolase activities are lower in monocytes. Monocytes also showed a different expression profile of cholesterol influx and efflux genes in response to lipid loading and a different pattern of lyso-PC metabolism. In monocytes, increased levels of CE slowed the conversion of lyso-PC into PC. Interestingly, although macrophages accumulated glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine was the main water-soluble choline metabolite being generated in monocytes, suggesting a role for mono- and diacylglycerol in the chemoattractability of these cells. In summary, monocytes and macrophages show significant differences in lipid metabolism and gene expression profiles in response to lipid loading. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of atherosclerosis and suggest potentials for targeting monocyte chemotactic properties not only in atherosclerosis but also in other diseases. PMID:26839333

  3. Topology of 1-Acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferases SLC1 and ALE1 and Related Membrane-bound O-Acyltransferases (MBOATs) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Pagac, Martin; de la Mora, Hector Vazquez; Duperrex, Cécile; Roubaty, Carole; Vionnet, Christine; Conzelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In yeast, phosphatidic acid, the biosynthetic precursor for all glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols, is made de novo by the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases Ale1p and Slc1p. Ale1p belongs to the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, which contains many enzymes acylating lipids but also others that acylate secretory proteins residing in the lumen of the ER. A histidine present in a very short loop between two predicted transmembrane domains is the only residue that is conserved throughout the MBOAT gene family. The yeast MBOAT proteins of known function comprise Ale1p, the ergosterol acyltransferases Are1p and Are2p, and Gup1p, the last of which acylates lysophosphatidylinositol moieties of GPI anchors on ER lumenal GPI proteins. C-terminal topology reporters added to truncated versions of Gup1p yield a topology predicting a lumenal location of its uniquely conserved histidine 447 residue. The same approach shows that Ale1p and Are2p also have the uniquely conserved histidine residing in the ER lumen. Because these data raised the possibility that phosphatidic acid could be made in the lumen of the ER, we further investigated the topology of the second yeast 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, Slc1p. The location of C-terminal topology reporters, microsomal assays probing the protease sensitivity of inserted tags, and the accessibility of natural or artificially inserted cysteines to membrane-impermeant alkylating agents all indicate that the most conserved motif containing the presumed active site histidine of Slc1p is oriented toward the ER lumen, whereas other conserved motifs are cytosolic. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21849510

  4. The Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase from Acinetobacter sp. Strain ADP1: Characterization of a Novel Type of Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Stöveken, Tim; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) catalyzes the final steps in triacylglycerol (TAG) and wax ester (WE) biosynthesis in the gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. It constitutes a novel class of acyltransferases which is fundamentally different from acyltransferases involved in TAG and WE synthesis in eukaryotes. The enzyme was purified by a three-step purification protocol to apparent homogeneity from the soluble fraction of recombinant Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)pLysS (pET23a::atfA). Purified WS/DGAT revealed a remarkably low substrate specificity, accepting a broad range of various substances as alternative acceptor molecules. Besides having DGAT and WS activity, the enzyme possesses acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) activity. The sn-1 and sn-3 positions of acylglycerols are accepted with higher specificity than the sn-2 position. Linear alcohols ranging from ethanol to triacontanol are efficiently acylated by the enzyme, which exhibits highest specificities towards medium-chain-length alcohols. The acylation of cyclic and aromatic alcohols, such as cyclohexanol or phenylethanol, further underlines the unspecific character of this enzyme. The broad range of possible substrates may lead to biotechnological production of interesting wax ester derivatives. Determination of the native molecular weight revealed organization as a homodimer. The large number of WS/DGAT-homologous genes identified in pathogenic mycobacteria and their possible importance for the pathogenesis and latency of these bacteria makes the purified WS/DGAT from Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1 a valuable model for studying this group of proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria. PMID:15687201

  5. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena; Singh, Dev K.; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV) are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions. PMID:24616704

  6. Cholesterol dynamics in membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Yeagle, P L; Albert, A D; Boesze-Battaglia, K; Young, J; Frye, J

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of the sterol analogue, cholestatrienol, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin lattice relaxation time (T1c) measurements of [13C4] labeled cholesterol were exploited to determine the correlation times characterizing the major modes of motion of cholesterol in unsonicated phospholipid multilamellar liposomes. Two modes of motion were found to be important: (a) rotational diffusion and (b) time dependence of the orientation of the director for axial diffusion, or "wobble." From the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decays of cholestatrienol in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers, a value for tau perpendicular, the correlation time for wobble, of 0.9 x 10(-9) s and a value for S perpendicular, the order parameter characterizing the same motion, of 0.45 s were calculated. Both tau perpendicular and S perpendicular were relatively insensitive to temperature and cholesterol content of the membranes. The T1c measurements of [13C4] labeled cholesterol did not provide a quantitative determination of tau parallel, the correlation time for axial diffusion. T1c from the lipid hydrocarbon chains suggested a value for tau perpendicular similar to that for cholesterol. Steady-state anisotropy measurements and time-resolved anisotropy measurements of cholestatrienol were used to probe sterol behavior in a variety of pure and mixed lipid multilamellar liposomes. Both the lipid headgroups and the lipid hydrocarbons chains contributed to the determination of the sterol environment in the membrane, as revealed by these fluorescence measurements. In particular, effects of the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) headgroup and of multiple unsaturation in the lipid hydrocarbon chains were observed. However, while the steady-state anisotropy was sensitive to these factors, the time-resolved fluorescence analysis indicated that tau perpendicular was not strongly affected by the lipid composition of the membrane. S perpendicular may be increased

  7. A Bifunctional Enzyme That Has Both Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase and Acyl Hydrolase Activities1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraj, Panneerselvam; Jashal, Charnitkaur B.; Vijayakumar, Anitha; Rani, Sapa Hima; Venkata Rao, D.K.; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol, the precursor of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and an important signaling molecule. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea) MGAT gene. The soluble enzyme utilizes invariant histidine-62 and aspartate-67 residues of the acyltransferase motif for its MGAT activity. A sequence analysis revealed the presence of a hydrolase (GXSXG) motif, and enzyme assays revealed the presence of monoacylglycerol (MAG) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) hydrolytic activities, indicating the bifunctional nature of the enzyme. The overexpression of the MGAT gene in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) caused an increase in triacylglycerol accumulation. Similar to the peanut MGAT, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) homolog (At1g52760) also exhibited both acyltransferase and hydrolase activities. Interestingly, the yeast homolog lacks the conserved HX4D motif, and it is deficient in the acyltransferase function but exhibits MAG and LPC hydrolase activities. This study demonstrates the presence of a soluble MGAT/hydrolase in plants. The predicted three-dimensional homology modeling and substrate docking suggested the presence of two separate substrate (MAG and LPC)-binding sites in a single polypeptide. Our study describes a soluble bifunctional enzyme that has both MGAT and hydrolase functions. PMID:22915575

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of an Endophytic Actinoplanes Species, Encoding Uncommon trans-Acyltransferase Polyketide Synthases

    PubMed Central

    Centeno-Leija, Sara; Vinuesa, Pablo; Rodríguez-Peña, Karol; Trenado-Uribe, Miriam; Cárdenas-Conejo, Yair; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Actinoplanes is an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from the medicinal plant Amphipterygium adstringens. The strain draft genome sequence reveals a gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of a hybrid trans-acyltransferase (AT) polyketide, an unconventional bioactive metabolite never reported before in the genus Actinoplanes. PMID:27013046

  9. Structure-function analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequences for metabolic engineering and drug discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase families (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and lack milk secretion. Over-expression of DGATs increases TAG in plants. Therefore, unde...

  10. Structure-function analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequences from tung tree and 82 other Organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase family (DGATs) catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGATs esterify sn-1,2-diacylglycerol with a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Understanding the roles of DGATs will help to create transgenic plants with v...

  11. Developmental regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase family gene expression in tung tree tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) are responsible for the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. DGAT genes have been identified in numerous organisms. Multiple isoforms of DGAT are present in eukaryotes, including DGAT1 and DGAT2 of tung tre...

  12. Structure-function analysis of diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequences from 70 organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the final and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Understanding the roles of DGATs will help to create transgenic plants with value-added properties and provide clues for therapeutic intervention for obes...

  13. Castor diacylglycerol acyltransferase type1(DGAT1)displays greater activity with diricinolein than Arabidopsis DGAT1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor oil contains the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleate as a major (90%) component. The diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) carries out the final reaction step in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol, the principal constituent of seed oil, and has been considered to be the step that controls the oil...

  14. Expression of tung seed diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT) in E. coli and yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Plants and animals deficient in DGATs accumulate less TAG, resist obesity, and/or lack milk secretion. Over-expression of the DGATs increases TAG content in seeds and other t...

  15. Overexpression of Peanut Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lianqun; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gao; Bi, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in triacylglycerol biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. Triacylglycerols are important energy-storage oils in plants such as peanuts, soybeans and rape. In this study, Arachis hypogaea type 2 DGAT (AhDGAT2) genes were cloned from the peanut cultivar ‘Luhua 14’ using a homologous gene sequence method and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. To understand the role of AhDGAT2 in triacylglycerol biosynthesis, two AhDGAT2 nucleotide sequences that differed by three amino acids were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Following IPTG induction, the isozymes (AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b) were expressed as 64.5 kDa GST fusion proteins. Both AhDGAT2a and AhDGAT2b occurred in the host cell cytoplasm and inclusion bodies, with larger amounts in the inclusion bodies. Overexpression of AhDGATs depressed the host cell growth rates relative to non-transformed cells, but cells harboring empty-vector, AhDGAT2a–GST, or AhDGAT2b–GST exhibited no obvious growth rate differences. Interestingly, induction of AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2b–GST proteins increased the sizes of the host cells by 2.4–2.5 times that of the controls (post-IPTG induction). The total fatty acid (FA) levels of the AhDGAT2a–GST and AhDGAT2a–GST transformants, as well as levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1n9c and C18:3n3 FAs, increased markedly, whereas C15:0 and C21:0 levels were lower than in non-transformed cells or those containing empty-vectors. In addition, the levels of some FAs differed between the two transformant strains, indicating that the two isozymes might have different functions in peanuts. This is the first time that a full-length recombinant peanut DGAT2 has been produced in a bacterial expression system and the first analysis of its effects on the content and composition of fatty acids in E. coli. Our results indicate that AhDGAT2 is a strong candidate gene for

  16. Expression and purification of recombinant tung tree diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2.

    PubMed

    Cao, Heping; Chapital, Dorselyn C; Howard, O D; Deterding, Leesa J; Mason, Catherine B; Shockey, Jay M; Klasson, K Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) esterify sn-1,2-diacylglycerol with a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA, the last and rate-limiting step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in eukaryotic organisms. At least 74 DGAT2 sequences from 61 organisms have been identified, but the expression of any DGAT2 as a partial or full-length protein in Escherichia coli had not been reported. The main objective of this study was to express and purify recombinant DGAT2 (rDGAT2) from E. coli for antigen production with a minor objective to compare rDGAT2 expression in yeast. A plasmid was engineered to express tung tree DGAT2 fused to maltose binding protein and poly-histidine (His) affinity tags. Immunoblotting showed that rDGAT2 was detected in the soluble, insoluble, and membrane fractions. The rDGAT2 in the soluble fraction was partially purified by amylose resin, nickel-nitrilotriacetic agarose (Ni-NTA) beads, and tandem affinity chromatography. Multiple proteins co-purified with rDGAT2. Size exclusion chromatography estimated the size of the rDGAT2-enriched fraction to be approximately eight times the monomer size. Affinity-purified rDGAT2 fractions had a yellow tint and contained fatty acids. The rDGAT2 in the insoluble fraction was partially solubilized by seven detergents with SDS being the most effective. Recombinant DGAT2 was purified to near homogeneity by SDS solubilization and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Mass spectrometry identified rDGAT2 as a component in the bands corresponding to the monomer and dimer forms as observed by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands with monomer and dimer sizes were also observed in the microsomal membranes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing hemagglutinin-tagged DGAT2. Nonradioactive assay showed TAG synthesis activity of DGAT2 from yeast but not E. coli. The results suggest that rDGAT2 is present as monomer and dimer forms on SDS-PAGE, associated with other proteins, lipids, and membranes, and that post-translational modification of rDGAT2 may

  17. DISTINCT TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE ISOFORMS AND CYTOSOLIC THIOESTERASE 1 IN THE RODENT HEART BY FATTY ACIDS AND INSULIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for channeling long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) into oxidative versus nonoxidative pathways is (are) poorly understood in the heart. Intracellular LCFAs are converted to long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs (LCFA-CoAs) by a family of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs)...

  18. Increased Long Chain acyl-Coa Synthetase Activity and Fatty Acid Import Is Linked to Membrane Synthesis for Development of Picornavirus Replication Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Alison J.; Ford, Lauren A.; Pei, Zhengtong; Watkins, Paul A.; Ernst, Robert K.; Belov, George A.

    2013-01-01

    All positive strand (+RNA) viruses of eukaryotes replicate their genomes in association with membranes. The mechanisms of membrane remodeling in infected cells represent attractive targets for designing future therapeutics, but our understanding of this process is very limited. Elements of autophagy and/or the secretory pathway were proposed to be hijacked for building of picornavirus replication organelles. However, even closely related viruses differ significantly in their requirements for components of these pathways. We demonstrate here that infection with diverse picornaviruses rapidly activates import of long chain fatty acids. While in non-infected cells the imported fatty acids are channeled to lipid droplets, in infected cells the synthesis of neutral lipids is shut down and the fatty acids are utilized in highly up-regulated phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Thus the replication organelles are likely built from de novo synthesized membrane material, rather than from the remodeled pre-existing membranes. We show that activation of fatty acid import is linked to the up-regulation of cellular long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity and identify the long chain acyl-CoA syntheatse3 (Acsl3) as a novel host factor required for polio replication. Poliovirus protein 2A is required to trigger the activation of import of fatty acids independent of its protease activity. Shift in fatty acid import preferences by infected cells results in synthesis of phosphatidylcholines different from those in uninfected cells, arguing that the viral replication organelles possess unique properties compared to the pre-existing membranes. Our data show how poliovirus can change the overall cellular membrane homeostasis by targeting one critical process. They explain earlier observations of increased phospholipid synthesis in infected cells and suggest a simple model of the structural development of the membranous scaffold of replication complexes of picorna-like viruses, that may be relevant for other (+)RNA viruses as well. PMID:23762027

  19. A NOVEL 78-KDA FATTY ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE (ACS1) OF BABESIA BOVIS STIMULATES MEMORY CD4+ T LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSES IN B. BOVIS-IMMUNE CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocyte responses contribute to protective immunity against Babesia bovis, however the antigens that induce these responses remain largely unknown. A proteomic approach was used to identify novel B. bovis antigens recognized by memory CD4+ T cells from immune cattle. Fract...

  20. Functional Roles of Three Cutin Biosynthetic Acyltransferases in Cytokinin Responses and Skotomorphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Juan; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Li; Hirnerová, Eva; Mrvková, Michaela; Novák, Ondřej; Guo, Guang-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant development and growth via a two-component signaling pathway. By forward genetic screening, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant named grow fast on cytokinins 1 (gfc1), whose seedlings grew larger aerial parts on MS medium with CK. gfc1 is allelic to a previously reported cutin mutant defective in cuticular ridges (dcr). GFC1/DCR encodes a soluble BAHD acyltransferase (a name based on the first four enzymes characterized in this family: Benzylalcohol O-acetyltransferase, Anthocyanin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase and Deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase) with diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity in vitro and is necessary for normal cuticle formation on epidermis in vivo. Here we show that gfc1 was a CK-insensitive mutant, as revealed by its low regeneration frequency in vitro and resistance to CK in adventitious root formation and dark-grown hypocotyl inhibition assays. In addition, gfc1 had de-etiolated phenotypes in darkness and was therefore defective in skotomorphogenesis. The background expression levels of most type-A Arabidopsis Response Regulator (ARR) genes were higher in the gfc1 mutant. The gfc1-associated phenotypes were also observed in the cutin-deficient glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4/8 (gpat4/8) double mutant [defective in glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) acyltransferase enzymes GPAT4 and GPAT8, which redundantly catalyze the acylation of G3P by hydroxyl fatty acid (OH-FA)], but not in the cutin-deficient mutant cytochrome p450, family 86, subfamily A, polypeptide 2/aberrant induction of type three 1 (cyp86A2/att1), which affects the biosynthesis of some OH-FAs. Our results indicate that some acyltransferases associated with cutin formation are involved in CK responses and skotomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:25803274

  1. Modification of seed oil content and acyl composition in the brassicaceae by expression of a yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zou, J; Katavic, V; Giblin, E M; Barton, D L; MacKenzie, S L; Keller, W A; Hu, X; Taylor, D C

    1997-01-01

    A putative yeast sn-2 acyltransferase gene (SLC1-1), reportedly a variant acyltransferase that suppresses a genetic defect in sphingolipid long-chain base biosynthesis, has been expressed in a yeast SLC deletion strain. The SLC1-1 gene product was shown in vitro to encode an sn-2 acyltransferase capable of acylating sn-1 oleoyl-lysophosphatidic acid, using a range of acyl-CoA thioesters, including 18:1-, 22:1-, and 24:0-CoAs. The SLC1-1 gene was introduced into Arabidopsis and a high erucic acid-containing Brassica napus cv Hero under the control of a constitutive (tandem cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) promoter. The resulting transgenic plants showed substantial increases of 8 to 48% in seed oil content (expressed on the basis of seed dry weight) and increases in both overall proportions and amounts of very-long-chain fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols (TAGs). Furthermore, the proportion of very-long-chain fatty acids found at the sn-2 position of TAGs was increased, and homogenates prepared from developing seeds of transformed plants exhibited elevated lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51) activity. Thus, the yeast sn-2 acyltransferase has been shown to encode a protein that can exhibit lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity and that can be used to change total fatty acid content and composition as well as to alter the stereospecific acyl distribution of fatty acids in seed TAGs. PMID:9212466

  2. Characterization of mouse lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 3: an enzyme with dual functions in the testis1s⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Koichi; Shindou, Hideo; Hishikawa, Daisuke; Shimizu, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids are structural and functional components of cellular membranes as well as precursors of various lipid mediators. Using acyl-CoAs as donors, glycerophospholipids are formed by the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and modified in the remodeling pathway (Lands' cycle). Various acyltransferases, including two lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs), have been discovered from a 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) family. Proteins of this family contain putative acyltransferase motifs, but their biochemical properties and physiological roles are not completely understood. Here, we demonstrated that mouse LPAAT3, previously known as mouse AGPAT3, possesses strong LPAAT activity and modest lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase activity with a clear preference for arachidonoyl-CoA as a donor. This enzyme is highly expressed in the testis, where CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 1 preferring 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-phosphatidic acid as a substrate is also highly expressed. Since 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl species are the main components of phosphatidylinositol, mouse LPAAT3 may function in both the de novo and remodeling pathways and contribute to effective biogenesis of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylinositol in the testis. Additionally, the expression of this enzyme in the testis increases significantly in an age-dependent manner, and β-estradiol may be an important regulator of this enzyme's induction. Our findings identify this acyltransferase as an alternative important enzyme to produce phosphatidylinositol in the testis. PMID:19114731

  3. Evolutionarily Distinct BAHD N-Acyltransferases Are Responsible for Natural Variation of Aromatic Amine Conjugates in Rice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Meng; Gao, Yanqiang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wensheng; Shen, Shuangqian; Shi, Jian; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Li; Wang, Shouchuang; Wan, Jian; Liu, Xianqing; Gong, Liang; Luo, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Phenolamides (PAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites mainly synthesized by BAHD N-acyltransferases. Here, we report metabolic profiling coupled with association and linkage mapping of 11 PAs in rice (Oryza sativa). We identified 22 loci affecting PAs in leaves and 16 loci affecting PAs in seeds. We identified eight BAHD N-acyltransferases located on five chromosomes with diverse specificities, including four aromatic amine N-acyltransferases. We show that genetic variation in PAs is determined, at least in part, by allelic variation in the tissue specificity of expression of the BAHD genes responsible for their biosynthesis. Tryptamine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase 1/2 (Os-THT1/2) and tryptamine benzoyl transferase 1/2 (Os-TBT1/2) were found to be bifunctional tryptamine/tyramine N-acyltransferases. The specificity of Os-THT1 and Os-TBT1 for agmatine involved four tandem arginine residues, which have not been identified as specificity determinants for other plant BAHD transferases, illustrating the versatility of plant BAHD transferases in acquiring new acyl acceptor specificities. With phylogenetic analysis, we identified both divergent and convergent evolution of N-acyltransferases in plants, and we suggest that the BAHD family of tryptamine/tyramine N-acyltransferases evolved conservatively in monocots, especially in Gramineae. Our work demonstrates that omics-assisted gene-to-metabolite analysis provides a useful tool for bulk gene identification and crop genetic improvement. PMID:27354554

  4. Evolutionarily Distinct BAHD N-Acyltransferases Are Responsible for Natural Variation of Aromatic Amine Conjugates in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Meng; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wensheng; Shen, Shuangqian; Shi, Jian; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Li; Wang, Shouchuang; Wan, Jian; Liu, Xianqing; Gong, Liang; Luo, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Phenolamides (PAs) are specialized (secondary) metabolites mainly synthesized by BAHD N-acyltransferases. Here, we report metabolic profiling coupled with association and linkage mapping of 11 PAs in rice (Oryza sativa). We identified 22 loci affecting PAs in leaves and 16 loci affecting PAs in seeds. We identified eight BAHD N-acyltransferases located on five chromosomes with diverse specificities, including four aromatic amine N-acyltransferases. We show that genetic variation in PAs is determined, at least in part, by allelic variation in the tissue specificity of expression of the BAHD genes responsible for their biosynthesis. Tryptamine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase 1/2 (Os-THT1/2) and tryptamine benzoyl transferase 1/2 (Os-TBT1/2) were found to be bifunctional tryptamine/tyramine N-acyltransferases. The specificity of Os-THT1 and Os-TBT1 for agmatine involved four tandem arginine residues, which have not been identified as specificity determinants for other plant BAHD transferases, illustrating the versatility of plant BAHD transferases in acquiring new acyl acceptor specificities. With phylogenetic analysis, we identified both divergent and convergent evolution of N-acyltransferases in plants, and we suggest that the BAHD family of tryptamine/tyramine N-acyltransferases evolved conservatively in monocots, especially in Gramineae. Our work demonstrates that omics-assisted gene-to-metabolite analysis provides a useful tool for bulk gene identification and crop genetic improvement. PMID:27354554

  5. The epigenetic drug 5-azacytidine interferes with cholesterol and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Steve; Samami, Samaneh; Mamarbachi, Maya; Demers, Annie; Chang, Ta Yuan; Vance, Dennis E; Hatch, Grant M; Mayer, Gaétan

    2014-07-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation inhibitors are widely used to study the role of epigenetic marks in the regulation of gene expression. In addition, several of these molecules are being tested in clinical trials or already in use in the clinic. Antimetabolites, such as the DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), have been shown to lower malignant progression to acute myeloid leukemia and to prolong survival in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Here we examined the effects of DNA methylation inhibitors on the expression of lipid biosynthetic and uptake genes. Our data demonstrate that, independently of DNA methylation, 5-AzaC selectively and very potently reduces expression of key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism (e.g. PCSK9, HMGCR, and FASN) in all tested cell lines and in vivo in mouse liver. Treatment with 5-AzaC disturbed subcellular cholesterol homeostasis, thereby impeding activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (key regulators of lipid metabolism). Through inhibition of UMP synthase, 5-AzaC also strongly induced expression of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9 (AGPAT9) and promoted triacylglycerol synthesis and cytosolic lipid droplet formation. Remarkably, complete reversal was obtained by the co-addition of either UMP or cytidine. Therefore, this study provides the first evidence that inhibition of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis by 5-AzaC disturbs cholesterol and lipid homeostasis, probably through the glycerolipid biosynthesis pathway, which may contribute mechanistically to its beneficial cytostatic properties. PMID:24855646

  6. The Epigenetic Drug 5-Azacytidine Interferes with Cholesterol and Lipid Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Steve; Samami, Samaneh; Mamarbachi, Maya; Demers, Annie; Chang, Ta Yuan; Vance, Dennis E.; Hatch, Grant M.; Mayer, Gaétan

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation inhibitors are widely used to study the role of epigenetic marks in the regulation of gene expression. In addition, several of these molecules are being tested in clinical trials or already in use in the clinic. Antimetabolites, such as the DNA-hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), have been shown to lower malignant progression to acute myeloid leukemia and to prolong survival in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Here we examined the effects of DNA methylation inhibitors on the expression of lipid biosynthetic and uptake genes. Our data demonstrate that, independently of DNA methylation, 5-AzaC selectively and very potently reduces expression of key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism (e.g. PCSK9, HMGCR, and FASN) in all tested cell lines and in vivo in mouse liver. Treatment with 5-AzaC disturbed subcellular cholesterol homeostasis, thereby impeding activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (key regulators of lipid metabolism). Through inhibition of UMP synthase, 5-AzaC also strongly induced expression of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9 (AGPAT9) and promoted triacylglycerol synthesis and cytosolic lipid droplet formation. Remarkably, complete reversal was obtained by the co-addition of either UMP or cytidine. Therefore, this study provides the first evidence that inhibition of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis by 5-AzaC disturbs cholesterol and lipid homeostasis, probably through the glycerolipid biosynthesis pathway, which may contribute mechanistically to its beneficial cytostatic properties. PMID:24855646

  7. PRD125, a potent and selective inhibitor of sterol O-acyltransferase 2 markedly reduces hepatic cholesteryl ester accumulation and improves liver function in lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adam M; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Posey, Kenneth S; Ohshiro, Taichi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Rudel, Lawrence L; Turley, Stephen D

    2015-11-01

    In most organs, the bulk of cholesterol is unesterified, although nearly all possess a varying capability of esterifying cholesterol through the action of either sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT) 1 or, in the case of hepatocytes and enterocytes, SOAT2. Esterified cholesterol (EC) carried in plasma lipoproteins is hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) when they are cleared from the circulation. Loss-of-function mutations in LIPA, the gene that encodes LAL, result in Wolman disease or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). Hepatomegaly and a massive increase in tissue EC levels are hallmark features of both disorders. While these conditions can be corrected with enzyme replacement therapy, the question arose as to whether pharmacological inhibition of SOAT2 might reduce tissue EC accretion in CESD. When weaned at 21 days, Lal(-/-) mice, of either gender, had a whole liver cholesterol content that was 12- to 13-fold more than that of matching Lal(+/+) littermates (23 versus 1.8 mg, respectively). In Lal(-/-) males given the selective SOAT2 inhibitor PRD125 1,11-O-o-methylbenzylidene-7-O-p-cyanobenzoyl-1,7,11-trideacetylpyripyropene A in their diet (∼10 mg/day per kg body weight) from 21 to 53 days, whole liver cholesterol content was 48.6 versus 153.7 mg in untreated 53-day-old Lal(-/-) mice. This difference reflected a 59% reduction in hepatic EC concentration (mg/g), combined with a 28% fall in liver mass. The treated mice also showed a 63% reduction in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, in parallel with decisive falls in hepatic mRNA expression levels for multiple proteins that reflect macrophage presence and inflammation. These data implicate SOAT2 as a potential target in CESD management. PMID:26283692

  8. How cholesterol regulates endothelial biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhongkui; Staiculescu, Marius C.; Hampel, Paul; Levitan, Irena; Forgacs, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    As endothelial cells form the barrier between blood flow and surrounding tissue, many of their functions depend on mechanical integrity, in particular those of the plasma membrane. As component and organizer of the plasma membrane, cholesterol is a regulator of cellular mechanical properties. Disruption of cholesterol balance leads to impairment of endothelial functions and eventually to disease. The mechanical properties of the membrane are strongly affected by the cytoskeleton. As Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a key mediator between the membrane and cytoskeleton, it also affects cellular biomechanical properties. Typically, PIP2 is concentrated in cholesterol-rich microdomains, such as caveolae and lipid rafts, which are particularly abundant in the endothelial plasma membrane. We investigated the connection between cholesterol and PIP2 by extracting membrane tethers from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) at different cholesterol levels and PIP2 conditions. Our results suggest that in BAEC the role of PIP2, as a mediator of membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion, is regulated by cholesterol. Our findings confirm the specific role of cholesterol in endothelial cells and may have implications for cholesterol-dependent vascular pathologies. PMID:23162471

  9. Epigenetic regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Although best known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cholesterol is a vital component of all mammalian cells. In addition to key structural roles, cholesterol is a vital biochemical precursor for numerous biologically important compounds including oxysterols and bile acids, as well as acting as an activator of critical morphogenic systems (e.g., the Hedgehog system). A variety of sophisticated regulatory mechanisms interact to coordinate the overall level of cholesterol in cells, tissues and the entire organism. Accumulating evidence indicates that in additional to the more “traditional” regulatory schemes, cholesterol homeostasis is also under the control of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation. The available evidence supporting a role for these mechanisms in the control of cholesterol synthesis, elimination, transport and storage are the focus of this review. PMID:25309573

  10. Enhancing the Acyltransferase Activity of Candida antarctica Lipase A by Rational Design.

    PubMed

    Müller, Janett; Sowa, Miriam A; Fredrich, Birte; Brundiek, Henrike; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2015-08-17

    A few lipases, such as Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A), are known to possess acyltransferase activity. This enables the enzyme to synthesize fatty acid esters from natural oils and alcohols even in the presence of bulk water. Unfortunately, fatty acids are still formed in these reactions as undesired side-products. To reduce the amount of fatty acids, several CAL-A variants were rationally designed based on its crystal structure. These variants were expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, purified, and their acyltransferase/hydrolase activities were investigated by various biocatalytic approaches. Among the investigated variants, mutant Asp122Leu showed a significant decrease in the hydrolytic activity, thus reducing the side-product yield during acylation. As desired, this variant retained wild-type process-relevant features like pH profile and thermostability. PMID:26058745

  11. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000211.htm Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor To use the ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your body needs cholesterol to work properly. When you have extra cholesterol ...

  12. How to Get Your Cholesterol Tested

    MedlinePlus

    ... HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides. A small sample of blood will be drawn ... the amount of LDL (bad) cholesterol level and triglycerides can be affected by what you've recently ...

  13. What Do My Cholesterol Levels Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More What Do My Cholesterol Levels Mean? Updated:Mar 22,2016 High cholesterol can ... a fasting “lipoprotein profile” to measure your cholesterol levels. It assesses several types of fat in the ...

  14. The rv1184c Locus Encodes Chp2, an Acyltransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Polyacyltrehalose Lipid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Touchette, Megan H.; Holsclaw, Cynthia M.; Previti, Mary L.; Solomon, Viven C.; Leary, Julie A.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2014-01-01

    Trehalose glycolipids are found in many bacteria in the suborder Corynebacterineae, but methyl-branched acyltrehaloses are exclusive to virulent species such as the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In M. tuberculosis, the acyltransferase PapA3 catalyzes the formation of diacyltrehalose (DAT), but the enzymes responsible for downstream reactions leading to the final product, polyacyltrehalose (PAT), have not been identified. The PAT biosynthetic gene locus is similar to that of another trehalose glycolipid, sulfolipid 1. Recently, Chp1 was characterized as the terminal acyltransferase in sulfolipid 1 biosynthesis. Here we provide evidence that the homologue Chp2 (Rv1184c) is essential for the final steps of PAT biosynthesis. Disruption of chp2 led to the loss of PAT and a novel tetraacyltrehalose species, TetraAT, as well as the accumulation of DAT, implicating Chp2 as an acyltransferase downstream of PapA3. Disruption of the putative lipid transporter MmpL10 resulted in a similar phenotype. Chp2 activity thus appears to be regulated by MmpL10 in a relationship similar to that between Chp1 and MmpL8 in sulfolipid 1 biosynthesis. Chp2 is localized to the cell envelope fraction, consistent with its role in DAT modification and possible regulatory interactions with MmpL10. Labeling of purified Chp2 by an activity-based probe was dependent on the presence of the predicted catalytic residue Ser141 and was inhibited by the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). THL treatment of M. tuberculosis resulted in selective inhibition of Chp2 over PapA3, confirming Chp2 as a member of the serine hydrolase superfamily. Efforts to produce in vitro reconstitution of acyltransferase activity using straight-chain analogues were unsuccessful, suggesting that Chp2 has specificity for native methyl-branched substrates. PMID:25331437

  15. Lateral organization of cholesterol molecules in lipid-cholesterol assemblies.

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Slepoy, Alexander; Sengupta, Pinaki; Cox, Daniel L.

    2005-05-01

    We present results of an off-lattice simulation of a two-component planar system, as a model for lateral organization of cholesterol molecules in lipid-cholesterol assemblies. We explore the existence of 'superlattice' structures even in fluid systems, in the absence of an underlying translational long-range order, and study their coupling to hexatic or bond-orientational order. We discuss our results in context of geometric superlattice theories and 'condensation complexes' in understanding a variety of experiments in artificial lipid-cholesterol assemblies.

  16. Identification of a broad family of lipid A late acyltransferases with non-canonical substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Erica J.; O’Brien, John P.; Ivanov, Petko L.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Trent, M. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Most gram-negative organisms produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a complex macromolecule anchored to the bacterial membrane by the lipid A moiety. Lipid A is synthesized via the Raetz pathway, a conserved nine-step enzymatic process first characterized in Escherichia coli. The Epsilonproteobacterium Helicobacter pylori uses the Raetz pathway to synthesize lipid A; however, only eight of nine enzymes in the pathway have been identified in this organism. Here, we identify the missing acyltransferase, Jhp0255, which transfers a secondary acyl chain to the 3′-linked primary acyl chain of lipid A, an activity similar to that of E. coli LpxM. This enzyme, reannotated as LpxJ due to limited sequence similarity with LpxM, catalyzes addition of a C12:0 or C14:0 acyl chain to the 3′-linked primary acyl chain of lipid A, complementing an E. coli LpxM mutant. Enzymatic assays demonstrate that LpxJ and homologs in Campylobacter jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes can act before the 2′ secondary acyltransferase, LpxL, as well as the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase, KdtA. Ultimately, LpxJ is one member of a large class of acyltransferases found in a diverse range of organisms that lack an E. coli LpxM homolog, suggesting that LpxJ participates in lipid A biosynthesis in place of an LpxM homolog. PMID:24372821

  17. Characterization of monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 inhibitors by a novel probe in binding assays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhengping; Chao, Hannguang J; Turdi, Huji; Hangeland, Jon J; Friends, Todd; Kopcho, Lisa M; Lawrence, R Michael; Cheng, Dong

    2016-05-15

    Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (MGAT2) is a membrane-bound lipid acyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of diacylglycerol using monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. MGAT2 is important for intestinal lipid absorption and is an emerging target for the treatment of metabolic diseases. In the current study, we identified and characterized four classes of novel MGAT2 inhibitors. We established both steady state and kinetic binding assay protocols using a novel radioligand, [(3)H]compound A. Diverse chemotypes of MGAT2 inhibitors were found to compete binding of [(3)H]compound A to MGAT2, indicating the broad utility of [(3)H]compound A for testing various classes of MGAT2 inhibitors. In the dynamic binding assays, the kinetic values of MGAT2 inhibitors such as Kon, Koff, and T1/2 were systematically defined. Of particular value, the residence times of inhibitors on MGAT2 enzyme were derived. We believe that the identification of novel classes of MGAT2 inhibitors and the detailed kinetic characterization provide valuable information for the identification of superior candidates for in vivo animal and clinical studies. The current work using a chemical probe to define inhibitory kinetics can be broadly applied to other membrane-bound acyltransferases. PMID:26925857

  18. The LINKS motif zippers trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase assembly lines into a biosynthetic megacomplex.

    PubMed

    Gay, Darren C; Wagner, Drew T; Meinke, Jessica L; Zogzas, Charles E; Gay, Glen R; Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T

    2016-03-01

    Polyketides such as the clinically-valuable antibacterial agent mupirocin are constructed by architecturally-sophisticated assembly lines known as trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases. Organelle-sized megacomplexes composed of several copies of trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase assembly lines have been observed by others through transmission electron microscopy to be located at the Bacillus subtilis plasma membrane, where the synthesis and export of the antibacterial polyketide bacillaene takes place. In this work we analyze ten crystal structures of trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases ketosynthase domains, seven of which are reported here for the first time, to characterize a motif capable of zippering assembly lines into a megacomplex. While each of the three-helix LINKS (Laterally-INteracting Ketosynthase Sequence) motifs is observed to similarly dock with a spatially-reversed copy of itself through hydrophobic and ionic interactions, the amino acid sequences of this motif are not conserved. Such a code is appropriate for mediating homotypic contacts between assembly lines to ensure the ordered self-assembly of a noncovalent, yet tightly-knit, enzymatic network. LINKS-mediated lateral interactions would also have the effect of bolstering the vertical association of the polypeptides that comprise a polyketide synthase assembly line. PMID:26724270

  19. Glucose Polyester Biosynthesis. Purification and Characterization of a Glucose Acyltransferase1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Alice X.; Eannetta, Nancy; Ghangas, Gurdev S.; Steffens, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Glandular trichomes of the wild tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii secrete 2,3,4-O-tri-acyl-glucose (-Glc), which contributes to insect resistance. A Glc acyltransferase catalyzes the formation of diacyl-Glc by disproportionating two equivalents of 1-O-acyl-β-Glc, a high-energy molecule formed by a UDP-Glc dependent reaction. The acyltransferase was purified 4,900-fold from L. pennellii leaves by polyethylene glycol fractionation, diethylaminoethyl chromatography, concanavalin A affinity chromatography, and chromatofocusing. The acyltransferase possesses an isoelectric point of 4.8, a relative molecular mass around 110 kD, and is composed of 34- and 24-kD polypeptides as a heterotetramer. The 34- and 24-kD proteins were partially sequenced. The purified enzyme catalyzes both the disproportionation of 1-O-acyl-β-Glcs to generate 1,2-di-O-acyl-β-Glc and anomeric acyl exchange between 1-O-acyl-β-Glc and Glc. PMID:10517836

  20. Overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase in Yarrowia lipolytica affects lipid body size, number and distribution.

    PubMed

    Gajdoš, Peter; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Čertík, Milan; Rossignol, Tristan

    2016-09-01

    In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) are major factors for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. The Q4 strain, in which the four acyltransferases have been deleted, is unable to accumulate lipids and to form lipid bodies (LBs). However, the expression of a single acyltransferase in this strain restores TAG accumulation and LB formation. Using this system, it becomes possible to characterize the activity and specificity of an individual DGAT. Here, we examined the effects of DGAT overexpression on lipid accumulation and LB formation in Y. lipolytica Specifically, we evaluated the consequences of introducing one or two copies of the Y. lipolytica DGAT genes YlDGA1 and YlDGA2 Overall, multi-copy DGAT overexpression increased the lipid content of yeast cells. However, the size and distribution of LBs depended on the specific DGAT overexpressed. YlDGA2 overexpression caused the formation of large LBs, while YlDGA1 overexpression generated smaller but more numerous LBs. This phenotype was accentuated through the addition of a second copy of the overexpressed gene and might be linked to the distinct subcellular localization of each DGAT, i.e. YlDga1 being localized in LBs, while YlDga2 being localized in a structure strongly resembling the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27506614

  1. Serum cholesterol concentrations in parasuicide.

    PubMed Central

    Gallerani, M.; Manfredini, R.; Caracciolo, S.; Scapoli, C.; Molinari, S.; Fersini, C.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate whether people who have committed parasuicide have low serum cholesterol concentrations. DESIGN--Results of blood tests in subjects admitted to hospital for parasuicide compared with those of a control group of non-suicidal subjects; comparison in subgroup of parasuicide subjects of two sets of blood test results (one set from admission for parasuicide and the other from admission for some other illness). SETTING--General hospital, Ferrara, Italy. SUBJECTS--331 parasuicide subjects aged 44 (SD 21) years (109 with two sets of blood test results) and 331 controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Serum cholesterol concentrations and possible association with parasuicide, considering sex, violence of method of parasuicide, and underlying psychiatric disorder. RESULTS--Lower serum cholesterol concentrations (4.96 (SD 1.16) mmol/l) were found in the parasuicide subjects than in the controls (5.43 (1.30); P < 0.001), regardless of sex and degree of violence of parasuicide method. Both men and women with two sets of blood test results had lower cholesterol concentrations after parasuicide. Linear regression analysis showed that the difference in cholesterol concentrations was significantly related to the length of time between the taking of the two sets of blood samples. CONCLUSION--The study showed low cholesterol concentrations after parasuicide. This finding agrees with previous studies, which suggest an association between low cholesterol concentration and suicide. PMID:7795448

  2. Cholesterol-metabolizing cytochromes P450: implications for cholesterol lowering

    PubMed Central

    Pikuleva, Irina A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide. Elevated serum cholesterol is one of the classical risk factors for CVD which also include age, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity and family history. A number of therapeutic drug classes have been developed to treat hypercholesterolemia, yet, an important percentage of patients do not reach their treatment goals. Therefore, new cholesterol-lowering medications, having a site of action different from that of currently available drugs need to be developed. This review summarizes new information about cytochrome P450 enzymes 7A1, 27A1, and 46A1, that play key roles in cholesterol elimination and that have potential to serve as targets for cholesterol-lowering. PMID:18950282

  3. Cholesterol Perturbs Lipid Bilayers Nonuniversally

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Jianjun; Mills, Thalia T.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2008-05-16

    Cholesterol is well known to modulate the physical properties of biomembranes. Using modern x-ray scattering methods, we have studied the effects of cholesterol on the bending modulus K{sub C}, the thickness D{sub HH}, and the orientational order parameter S{sub xray} of lipid bilayers. We find that the effects are different for at least three classes of phospholipids characterized by different numbers of saturated hydrocarbon chains. Most strikingly, cholesterol strongly increases K{sub C} when both chains of the phospholipid are fully saturated but not at all when there are two monounsaturated chains.

  4. Targeting cancer using cholesterol conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Awwad A.; Alanazi, Fares K.

    2013-01-01

    Conjugation of cholesterol moiety to active compounds for either cancer treatment or diagnosis is an attractive approach. Cholesterol derivatives are widely studied as cancer diagnostic agents and as anticancer derivatives either in vitro or in vivo using animal models. In largely growing studies, anticancer agents have been chemically conjugated to cholesterol molecules, to enhance their pharmacokinetic behavior, cellular uptake, target specificity, and safety. To efficiently deliver anticancer agents to the target cells and tissues, many different cholesterol–anticancer conjugates were synthesized and characterized, and their anticancer efficiencies were tested in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24493968

  5. Cholesterol and synaptic vesicle exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Fratangeli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Lipids may affect synaptic function in at least two ways: by acting as ligands for effector proteins [e.g., phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate, diacylglycerol-mediated signaling] or by modifying the physicochemical properties and molecular organization of synaptic membranes. One that acts in the latter manner is cholesterol, an essential structural component of plasma membranes that is largely enriched in the membranes of synapses and synaptic vesicles, in which it may be involved in lipid-lipid and protein-lipid interactions. Cholesterol is an important constituent of the “membrane rafts” that may play a role in recruiting and organizing the specific proteins of the exocytic pathways. Furthermore, many synaptic proteins bind directly to cholesterol. The regulation of cholesterol and lipid levels may therefore influence the specific interactions and activity of synaptic proteins, and have a strong impact on synaptic functions. PMID:20798824

  6. Cholesterol and Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik R.; Chang, Ching-yi; McDonnell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is a risk factor for breast cancer although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. One hypothesis is that dyslipidemia results in increased cholesterol content in cell membranes thus impacting membrane fluidity and subsequent signaling. Additionally, studies demonstrate that the metabolite, 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), can function as an estrogen, increasing the proliferation of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. This was unexpected as 27HC and other oxysterols activate the liver X receptors resulting in the reduction of intracellular cholesterol. Resolution of this paradox will require a dissection of the molecular mechanisms by which ER and LXR converge in breast cancer cells. Regardless, the observation that 27HC influences breast cancer provides rationale for strategies that target cholesterol metabolism. PMID:25458418

  7. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy.

    PubMed

    DuBroff, Robert; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-07-26

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) and the true effect of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular, whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently, the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes, cancer, and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary, we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD. PMID:26225201

  8. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R.; Harroun, Thad A.; Katsaras, John

    2016-04-04

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown – at least in some bilayers – to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in themore » vicinity of the lipid–water interface. In this study we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies.« less

  9. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    PubMed Central

    DuBroff, Robert; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) and the true effect of cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular, whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently, the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes, cancer, and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary, we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD. PMID:26225201

  10. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R; Harroun, Thad A; Katsaras, John

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown - at least in some bilayers - to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in the vicinity of the lipid-water interface. In this article we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. PMID:27056099