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Sample records for ad libitum diets

  1. Fertility of sows fed ad libitum with a high fibre diet during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Peltoniemi, O A T; Tast, A; Heinonen, M; Oravainen, J; Munsterhjelm, C; Hälli, O; Oliviero, C; Hämeenoja, P; Virolainen, J V

    2010-12-01

    The effect of ad libitum (ADLIB) feeding strategy on the fertility of the group housed sow was studied in a prospective field trial during 1.5 years. All study animals farrowed under standard farrowing circumstances in crates, and they were provided with an ad libitum feeding throughout the 30-day lactation. After weaning, animals were randomly allocated to one of the two dry sow feeding strategies (AD LIB or CONT). After oestrus detection in groups, they were artificially inseminated and moved into pregnancy pens with partially slatted floor, in groups of 40 sows each. The ADLIB sows (n = 447) were loose housed and provided with ad libitum access to 7.7 MJ/kg feed high in fibre from two feeders per group. The control sows (n = 479; CONT) were also loose housed and given a standard dry sow feed in feeding stalls once a day (2.5 kg/day. The energy content of the feed was 9.3 MJ/kg NE). The feeding strategy (ADLIB vs CONT) had no effect on pregnancy rate (85.8 vs 90.9, p > 0.05), weaning to oestrus interval (7.7 vs 7.3 days, p > 0.05), piglets born alive (11.5 ± 3.5 vs 11.6 ± 3.3, p > 0.05), stillborn piglets (1.2 ± 1.8 vs 0.9 ± 1.5, p > 0.05) nor on progesterone concentration (p > 0.05). CONT sows weaned more piglets (9.7 ± 2.2 vs 9.4 ± 2.0, p < 0.01), whereas the piglets of AD LIB sows were heavier at weaning (8.8 ± 0.9 vs 8.0 ± 1.3 kg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, ad libitum feeding with a high in fibre diet during pregnancy did not affect the reproductive performance. PMID:19497024

  2. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    PubMed

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted. PMID:21039925

  3. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  4. Ad libitum and restricted day and night sleep architecture.

    PubMed

    Korompeli, Anna St; Muurlink, Olav; Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Fildissis, Georgios; Baltopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first controlled comparison of restricted versus unrestricted sleep in both day and night sleep categories. A repeated measures study of a homogenous group of young women without sleep disorders (n=14) found that stage 1, 2, 3 and REM sleep, as well as sleep latency were not statistically different between day ad libitum sleep (DAL) and day interrupted (DI) sleep categories, while night interrupted (NI) and ad libitum (NAL) sleep showed strikingly different architecture. PMID:26734985

  5. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights. PMID:25084314

  6. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  7. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  8. Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, I; Detilleux, J; Cuvelier, C; Istasse, L; Diez, M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the effect of ovariectomy on daily energy requirement in Beagle dogs, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of ad libitum feeding with a high energy diet on energy consumption, body weight gain and blood metabolites in these spayed dogs. Four young adult female Beagle dogs were used. Ovariectomy induced a significant decrease of daily energy requirement in dogs. Ad libitum feeding, initiated 6 months after spaying, induced a significant increase in consumption in spayed dogs. This overconsumption was greatest during the first month of ad libitum feeding but continued for the entire 4 months of this period. When fed ad libitum, dogs gained excess body weight without significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin, at short term. These data suggest that energy intake should be strictly controlled to avoid excess weight gain in spayed dogs. PMID:15059235

  9. Reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system123

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Susanne B; Franks, Paul W; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salbe, Arline D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of energy intake is difficult but critical for the evaluation of eating behavior and intervention effects. Consequently, methods to assess ad libitum energy intake under controlled conditions have been developed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system. Design: Twelve individuals (mean ± SD: 36 ± 8 y old; 41 ± 8% body fat) consumed a weight-maintaining diet for 3 d; subsequently, they self-selected all food with the use of a computerized vending machine system for an additional 3 d. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the actual weight of foods consumed and expressed as a percentage of weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN). Subjects repeated the study multiple times during 2 y. The within-person reproducibility of energy intake was determined through the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between visits. Results: Daily energy intake for all subjects was 5020 ± 1753 kcal during visit 1 and 4855 ± 1615 kcal during visit 2. There were no significant associations between energy intake and body weight, body mass index, or percentage body fat while subjects used the vending machines, which indicates that intake was not driven by body size or need. Despite overconsumption (%WMEN = 181 ± 57%), the reproducibility of intake between visits, whether expressed as daily energy intake (ICC = 0.90), %WMEN (ICC = 0.86), weight of food consumed (ICC = 0.87), or fat intake (g/d; ICC = 0.87), was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although ad libitum energy intake exceeded %WMEN, the within-person reliability of this intake across multiple visits was high, which makes this a reproducible method for the measurement of ad libitum intake in subjects who reside in a research unit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342732. PMID:19923376

  10. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  11. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  12. Ad Libitum Fluid Consumption via Self- or External Administration

    PubMed Central

    Yeargin, Susan W.; Finn, Megan E.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Gage, Matthew J.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Niemann, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Context: During team athletic events, athletic trainers commonly provide fluids with water bottles. When a limited number of water bottles exist, various techniques are used to deliver fluids. Objective: To determine whether fluid delivered via water-bottle administration influenced fluid consumption and hydration status. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Outdoor field (22.2°C ± 3.5°C). Patients or Other Participants: Nineteen participants (14 men, 5 women, age = 30 ± 10 years, height = 176 ± 8 cm, mass = 72.5 ± 10 kg) were recruited from the university and local running clubs. Intervention(s): The independent variable was fluid delivery with 3 levels: self-administration with mouth-to-bottle direct contact (SA-DC), self-administration with no contact between mouth and bottle (SA-NC), and external administration with no contact between the mouth and the bottle (EA-NC). Participants warmed up for 10 minutes before completing 5 exercise stations, after which an ad libitum fluid break was given, for a total of 6 breaks. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured the fluid variables of total volume consumed, total number of squirts, and average volume per squirt. Hydration status via urine osmolality and body-mass loss, and perceptual variables for thirst and fullness were recorded. We calculated repeated-measures analyses of variance to assess hydration status, fluid variables, and perceptual measures to analyze conditions across time. Results: The total volume consumed for EA-NC was lower than for SA-DC (P = .001) and SA-NC (P = .001). The total number of squirts for SA-DC was lower than for SA-NC (P = .009). The average volume per squirt for EA-NC was lower than for SA-DC (P = .020) and SA-NC (P = .009). Participants arrived (601.0 ± 21.3 mOsm/L) and remained (622.3 ± 38.3 mOsm/L) hydrated, with no difference between conditions (P = .544); however, the EA-NC condition lost more body mass than did the SA-DC condition (P = .001). There was no main effect for

  13. Ad Libitum Fluid Intake and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Hypertonic Saline, or Deionized Water Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Scott; Miller, Kevin C.; Albrecht, Jay; Garden-Robinson, Julie; Blodgett-Salafia, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adding sodium (Na+) to drinks improves rehydration and ad libitum fluid consumption. Clinicians (∼25%) use pickle juice (PJ) to treat cramping. Scientists warn against PJ ingestion, fearing it will cause rapid plasma volume restoration and thereby decrease thirst and delay rehydration. Advice about drinking PJ has been developed but never tested. Objective: To determine if drinking small volumes of PJ, hypertonic saline (HS), or deionized water (DIW) affects ad libitum DIW ingestion, plasma variables, or perceptual indicators. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen, euhydrated (urine specific gravity ≤ 1.01) men (age = 22 ± 2 years, height = 178 ± 6 cm, mass = 82.9 ± 8.4 kg). Intervention(s): Participants completed 3 testing days (≥72 hours between days). After a 30-minute rest, a blood sample was collected. Participants completed 60 minutes of hard exercise (temperature = 36 ± 2°C, relative humidity = 16 ± 1%). Postexercise, they rested for 30 minutes; had a blood sample collected; rated thirst, fullness, and nausea; and ingested 83 ± 8 mL of PJ, HS, or DIW. They rated drink palatability (100-mm visual analog scale) and were allowed to drink DIW ad libitum for 60 minutes. Blood samples and thirst, fullness, and nausea ratings (100-mm visual analog scales) were collected at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes posttreatment drink ingestion. Main Outcome Measure(s): Ad libitum DIW volume, percentage change in plasma volume, plasma osmolality (OSMp,) plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]p), and thirst, fullness, nausea, and palatability ratings. Results: Participants consumed more DIW ad libitum after HS (708.03 ± 371.03 mL) than after DIW (532.99 ± 337.14 mL, P < .05). Ad libitum DIW ingested after PJ (700.35 ± 366.15 mL) was similar to that after HS and DIW (P > .05). Plasma sodium concentration, OSMp, percentage change in plasma volume, thirst, fullness, and nausea did not differ among treatment drinks

  14. Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity

  15. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance. PMID:25220020

  16. Brisk walking reduces ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters during a workplace simulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2012-02-01

    Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15 years, BMI: 23.56±3.78 kg/m(2) abstained for 2 days. They were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, involving either a 15 min brisk walk or quiet rest, and then computerised Stroop tasks with low or high demanding conditions, in three 180 s blocks with a 90 s interval. Throughout, a pre-weighed bowl of chocolates was available for ad libitum eating. A two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction effect of exercise and stress on total chocolate consumption, or main effect of stress, but a main effect of exercise [F(1, 74)=7.12, p<.01]. Mean (SD) chocolate consumption was less (t(73.5)=2.69, 95% CI for difference 3.4-22.9, ES=0.61) for the exercise (15.6 g) than control (28.8 g) group. Exercise also increased affective activation, but there was no mediating effect of change in affect on chocolate consumption. A brief walk may help to reduce ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters. PMID:22100187

  17. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  18. Effects of encapsulated nitrate on eating behavior, rumen fermentation, and blood profile of beef heifers fed restrictively or ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-05-01

    A slow-release form of nitrate (encapsulated nitrate [EN]) was investigated for effects on risk of toxicity, feed consumption rates, and feed sorting behavior in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 5 beef heifers (806 ± 72 kg BW) were fed once daily at 75% of ad libitum intake. Supplementary EN (85.6% DM; 71.4% NO3(-) on a DM basis) was increased by 1% every 4 d from 0 to 1.0, 2.0, 2.9, 3.9, 4.8, and 5.8% of dietary DM (from 10.3 to 15.6% CP and 0.11 to 4.8% total NO3(-)). During the study, a heifer was removed due to nitrate poisoning with 59% blood methemoglobin (MetHb; % of total hemoglobin) at 2.9% EN and another due to refusal to eat the 2% EN diet. When dietary EN increased from 0 to 5.8%, DMI (8.8 to 7.6 kg/d; P < 0.001) and feed consumption from 0 to 3 h were decreased (70.3 to 48.6% of total feed offered on an as-is basis; P = 0.001) and feed consumption from 12 to 24 h was increased (0.6 to 22.6%; P < 0.001). Blood MetHb at 1% EN was negligible (<1.5% of total hemoglobin). However, MetHb levels were greater (average 9.8 vs. 3.1% and maximum 23.6 vs. 13.6% at 3 h) at 2.0 and 2.9% EN than at 3.9, 4.8, and 5.8% EN. In Exp. 2, 8 beef heifers (451 ± 21 kg BW) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed for ad libitum intake, once daily, diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% EN (isonitrogenous, 12.7% CP, and 0.15 to 2.5% total NO3(-) in dietary DM). Each period consisted of 14 d for adaption and 14 d for sampling followed by a 7-d washout. During adaptation, EN was provided to heifers in a stepwise manner (an increase by 1% every 4 d). In Exp. 2 with ad libitum feeding, feed consumption rates were not different (41.8% of total feed consumed from 0 to 3 h; P = 0.56) among EN levels, but DMI tended to decrease linearly (0 to 3% EN; 10.4 to 10.1 kg/d; P = 0.06) and feed was sorted (linear, P < 0.05) against concentrates (containing EN) with EN inclusion. Potential toxicity of nitrate based on blood MetHb was not observed (all samples <2.0% of total hemoglobin

  19. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than fat from the other depots. Generally, there were no differences (P > .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P < .05) than those for T and R. Marbling was greatest (P < .05) for S and did not differ (P > .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  20. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. PMID:24971700

  1. Effects of ad libitum ingestion of monosodium glutamate on weight gain in C57BL6/J mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueying; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; Kondoh, Takashi; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2011-01-01

    Although the umami compound monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used flavor enhancer, controversy still persists regarding the effects of MSG intake on body weight. It has been claimed, in particular, that chronic MSG intake may result in excessive body weight gain and obesity. In this study we assessed the effects of chronic (16 weeks) ad libitum MSG on body weight and metabolism of C57BL6/J mice. Adult male mice were divided in four experimental groups and fed with either a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet and with either two bottles of plain water or one bottle containing 1% MSG and another one containing water according to a factorial design. Mice were monitored weekly for body weight and food/fluid intake for 15 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the circulating levels of leptin, insulin, total protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, and non-esterified fatty acids were also analyzed. Our results show that MSG intake did not influence body weight in either LF or HF groups. Interestingly, although animals overall displayed strong preferences for MSG against water, preferences were relatively higher in LF compared to HF group. Consistent with the body weight data, while significant differences in leptin, insulin, total cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids were found between HF and LF groups, such an effect was not influenced by MSG intake. Finally, indirect calorimetry measurements revealed similar energy expenditure levels between animals being presented water only and MSG only. In summary, our data does not support the notion that ad libitum MSG intake should trigger the development of obesity or other metabolic abnormalities. PMID:21389726

  2. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance. PMID:25675355

  3. Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Stappers, L J N; van Hees, H M J; Gerrits, W J J; Kemp, B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency

  4. Alterations in energy balance from an exercise intervention with ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (-1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (-1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI. PMID:27066256

  5. A return to ad libitum feeding following caloric restriction promotes hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Linden, Melissa A; Fletcher, Justin A; Meers, Grace M; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2016-09-01

    Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats develop obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but lifestyle modifications, such as caloric restriction (CR), can prevent these conditions. We sought to determine if prior CR had protective effects on metabolic health and NAFLD development following a 4-wk return to ad libitum (AL) feeding. Four-week-old male OLETF rats (n = 8-10/group) were fed AL for 16 wk (O-AL), CR for 16 wk (O-CR; ∼70% kcal of O-AL), or CR for 12 wk followed by 4 wk of AL feeding (O-AL4wk). CR-induced benefit in prevention of NAFLD, including reduced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and markers of Kupffer cell activation/number, was largely lost in AL4wk rats. These findings occurred in conjunction with a partial loss of CR-induced beneficial effects on obesity and serum triglycerides in O-AL4wk rats, but in the absence of changes in serum glucose or insulin. CR-induced increases in hepatic mitochondrial respiration remained significantly elevated (P < 0.01) in O-AL4wk compared with O-AL rats, while mitochondrial [1-(14)C]palmitate oxidation, citrate synthase activity, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity did not differ among OLETF groups. NAFLD development in O-AL4wk rats was accompanied by increases in the protein content of the de novo lipogenesis markers fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and decreases in phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC)/ACC compared with O-CR rats (P < 0.05 for each). The beneficial effects of chronic CR on NAFLD development were largely lost with 4 wk of AL feeding in the hyperphagic OLETF rat, highlighting the importance of maintaining energy balance in the prevention of NAFLD. PMID:27445343

  6. Imbalance Between Postprandial Ghrelin and Insulin Responses to an Ad Libitum Meal in Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Japur, Camila Cremonezi; Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda; de Oliveira Penaforte, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Sá, Marcos Felipe Silva

    2014-02-11

    Obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may have impairment in the regulation of food intake associated with ghrelin and insulin. In order to compare postprandial ghrelin and insulin responses to an ad libitum meal, we assessed 30 obese women with PCOS and 23 obese women without PCOS (control group). Blood samples were taken under fasting conditions, preprandially, and 15, 45, 75, and 135 minutes after the beginning of an ad libitum meal and ghrelin and insulin concentrations were analyzed. Insulin resistance (IR) was classified using basal insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and homeostasis model assessment index. Mean ad libitum food intake was similar between the groups (468 ± 150 vs 444 ± 165 g, P = .60). The IR was found in 56.6% in PCOS group compared with 30.4% in the control group (P < .01). The postprandial ghrelin response was similar in both the groups but the insulin area under the curve (AUC) tend to be greater in the PCOS group (12807 ± 8149.4 vs 8654.4 ± 7232.3 μIU/mL/min; P = .057). The ghrelin AUC was negatively correlated with the insulin AUC (r = -.5138; P = .01) only in the control group. The imbalance in the feedback mechanisms between insulin and ghrelin, present in obese women, especially those with IR, may affect food intake throughout the day and that could be a mechanism for the development of obesity in PCOS. PMID:24520086

  7. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. Methods: This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). Results: The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. Conclusions: These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Implications: Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and

  8. Fattening Holstein heifers by feeding high-moisture corn (whole or ground) ad libitum separately from concentrate and straw.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Quintana, B; Aris, A; Bach, A

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of high-moisture corn (HMC), either whole or ground, fed separately from concentrate and straw on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, whole tract digestibility, and nitrogen balance. Twenty-four Holstein heifers (199 ± 5.5 kg BW and 157 ± 6.9 d age) housed in individual pens were assigned to 3 treatments: 1) whole (unprocessed) HMC fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (WHMC); 2) HMC ground through a 0.4-cm screen before ensiling and fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (GHMC); and 3) a concentrate composed of mainly corn meal, ground through a roller mill with screen openings of 6 mm, and barley straw, both fed separately and ad libitum (Control). Concentrate, HMC, and straw were offered separately ad libitum in a free-choice situation and consumption was recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. Apparent nutrient digestibility and N balance were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. At the same time points, rumen fluid was collected through rumenocentesis to determine rumen pH and VFA concentrations. Feeding behavior was monitored throughout the study. Animals were harvested after 134 d and HCW, rumen and cecum wall lesions, and liver abscesses were recorded. Treatment did not affect total DMI, feed efficiency, ADG, final BW, and carcass weight or classification. Concentrate consumption (6.6 ± 0.35 kg/d) of Control heifers was greater ( < 0.001) than that of GHMC (4.1 ± 0.35 kg/d) and WHMC heifers (2.8 ± 0.35 kg/d), and GHMC heifers consumed less ( < 0.001) HMC than WHMC heifers (2.3 ± 0.31 and 4.2 ± 0.31 kg/d, respectively). Dietary treatments did not affect rumination, self-grooming, nonnutritive oral behaviors, and rumen pH. However, rumen acetate to propionate ratio decreased when heifers received HMC (1.77 ± 0.276) compared with when heifers received the Control (2.82 ± 0.276). Total

  9. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  10. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  11. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  12. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. PMID:23123310

  13. Data on the phospholipid fatty acyl composition of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue in ad libitum fed and fasted mice.

    PubMed

    Marks, Kristin A; Marvyn, Phillip M; Henao, Juan J Aristizabal; Bradley, Ryan M; Stark, Ken D; Duncan, Robin E

    2016-06-01

    Data are presented on the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid from retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of female mice that were either given ad libitum access to food or fasted for 16 h overnight prior to sacrifice. Our data show that total adipose phospholipid concentrations were more than 2-fold higher in the fasted animals compared with the fed animals (33.48±7.40 versus 16.57±4.43 μg phospholipid fatty acids/100 mg tissue). Concentrations of several individual phospholipid fatty acyl species, including palmitic acid (16:0), vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as well as total phospholipid saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, were significantly higher in adipose tissue from the fasted animals compared with the fed animals. However, when the relative abundance of phospholipid fatty acyl species was analyzed, only 20:4n-6 was specifically enriched (by ~2.5-fold) in adipose phospholipid with fasting. PMID:27014729

  14. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  15. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p <0.05), fat mass, skinfold thicknesses and the volume of the arm remained unchanged (p >0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p <0.05). The decrease in the lower leg volume was unrelated to fluid intake (p >0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  16. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    PubMed

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P < 0.05) crude protein intake as the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal increased from 80 to 120 g. Similarly, treatment with PEG 4000 improved (P < 0.05) DM, OM and CP digestibilities when compared to 80 g Acacia nilotica leaf meal. Supplementation with PEG 4000 resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in blood urea concentrations. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has the potential to improve the feeding value of A. nilotica leaf meal and can, therefore, be used in the feeding systems for ruminant animals. The second experiment determined the effect of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation on in vitro digestibility of the diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP

  17. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  18. Ad libitum Pasture Feeding in Late Pregnancy Does Not Improve the Performance of Twin-bearing Ewes and Their Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Corner-Thomas, R. A.; Back, P. J.; Kenyon, P. R.; Hickson, R. E.; Ridler, A. L.; Stafford, K. J.; Morris, S. T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of controlled ryegrass-white clover herbage availability from day 128 until day 142 of pregnancy in comparison to unrestricted availability, on the performance of twin-bearing ewes of varying body condition score (BCS; 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0) and their lambs. It was hypothesised that under conditions of controlled herbage availability, the performance of lambs born to ewes with a greater BCS would be greater than those born to ewes with a lower BCS. During the period that the nutritional regimens were imposed, the pre- and post-grazing herbage masses of the Control regimen (1,070±69 and 801±30 kg dry matter [DM]/ha) were lower than the ad libitum regimen (1,784±69 and 1,333±33 kg DM/ha; p<0.05). The average herbage masses during lactation were 1,410±31 kg DM/ha. Nutritional regimen had no effect on ewe live weight, BCS and back fat depth or on lamb live weight, indices of colostrum uptake, maximal heat production, total litter weight weaned or survival to weaning (p>0.05). The difference in ewe BCSs and back fats observed among body condition groups was maintained throughout pregnancy (p<0.05). At weaning, ewes from the BCS2.0 group had lower BCS and live weight (2.4±0.2, 74.3±2.6 kg) than both the BCS2.5 (2.6±0.2, 78.6±2.4 kg) and BCS3.0 ewes (2.7±0.2, 79.0±2.6 kg; p<0.05), which did not differ (p>0.05). Ewe BCS group had no effect on lamb live weight at birth or weaning or on maximal heat production (p>0.05). Serum gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations of lambs born to BCS3.0 ewes were higher within 36 hours of birth than lambs born to BCS2.0 ewes and BCS2.5 ewes (51.8±1.9 vs 46.5±1.9 and 45.6±1.9 IU/mL, respectively [p<0.05]). There was, however, no effect of ewe body condition on lamb plasma glucose concentration (p>0.05). Lamb survival was the only lamb parameter that showed an interaction between ewe nutritional regimen and ewe BCS whereby survival of lambs born to BCS2.5 and BCS3.0 ewes differed but only

  19. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    Kontrollgruppe eher der amerikanischen Idealgruppe entsprach. In der Pilot-Studie waren die Unterschiede in der Nährstoffzufuhr zwischen den beiden Gruppen viel geringer als in der DASH-Studie; für eine blutdrucksenkende Ernährungsumstellung bestand somit nur ein geringer Spielraum. Eine weitere Erklärung besteht in der unterschiedlichen Zusammensetzung der Studienpopulation. Bei DASH wurden vorwiegend farbige Probanden (40% höhere Hypertonieprävalenz) untersucht. Die Studienergebnisse lassen also den Schluss zu, dass Ernährungs- und Lebensstilgewohnheiten sowie der genetische Hintergrund der entsprechenden Bevölkerungsgruppe bei der Formulierung von nährstoff- oder lebensmittelbezogenen Empfehlungen zur Senkung des Bluthochdruckes Berücksichtigung finden müssen. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial (DASH), a randomized well-controlled feeding study conducted at 4 medical centers, demonstrated that a low-fat diet, rich in fruits, vegetables and dairy products is able to lower blood pressure of borderline-hypertensive people significantly. Body weight, sodium intake and alcohol consumption were kept constant during the whole study period, due to the known influence on hypertension. Aim of our study project was to investigate whether the results of the DASH study can be confirmed by (i) using a German hypertensive population and (ii) replacing the well-controlled feeding design by allowing ad libitum intake according to dietary ad-vice. The participants were asked to keep their body weight, sodium urine excretion (un-der this study design more valid than sodium intake) and their alcohol consumption con-stant. Our pilot study population consisted of 53 mainly overweight participants with borderline hypertension and without medication or any metabolic disorders. They were randomly assigned to either an ideal diet low in fat and rich in dairy products, fruits and vegetables (similar to the DASH I-group) or a habitual diet as control (C-group). During five

  20. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    Kontrollgruppe eher der amerikanischen Idealgruppe entsprach. In der Pilot-Studie waren die Unterschiede in der Nährstoffzufuhr zwischen den beiden Gruppen viel geringer als in der DASH-Studie; für eine blutdrucksenkende Ernährungsumstellung bestand somit nur ein geringer Spielraum. Eine weitere Erklärung besteht in der unterschiedlichen Zusammensetzung der Studienpopulation. Bei DASH wurden vorwiegend farbige Probanden (40% höhere Hypertonieprävalenz) untersucht. Die Studienergebnisse lassen also den Schluss zu, dass Ernährungs- und Lebensstilgewohnheiten sowie der genetische Hintergrund der entsprechenden Bevölkerungsgruppe bei der Formulierung von nährstoff- oder lebensmittelbezogenen Empfehlungen zur Senkung des Bluthochdruckes Berücksichtigung finden müssen. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial (DASH), a randomized well-controlled feeding study conducted at 4 medical centers, demonstrated that a low-fat diet, rich in fruits, vegetables and dairy products is able to lower blood pressure of borderline-hypertensive people significantly. Body weight, sodium intake and alcohol consumption were kept constant during the whole study period, due to the known influence on hypertension. Aim of our study project was to investigate whether the results of the DASH study can be confirmed by (i) using a German hypertensive population and (ii) replacing the well-controlled feeding design by allowing ad libitum intake according to dietary ad-vice. The participants were asked to keep their body weight, sodium urine excretion (un-der this study design more valid than sodium intake) and their alcohol consumption con-stant. Our pilot study population consisted of 53 mainly overweight participants with borderline hypertension and without medication or any metabolic disorders. They were randomly assigned to either an ideal diet low in fat and rich in dairy products, fruits and vegetables (similar to the DASH I-group) or a habitual diet as control (C-group). During five

  1. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink. PMID:20199991

  2. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism. PMID:26004166

  3. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake. PMID:26394259

  4. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts. PMID:26435259

  5. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  6. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss. PMID:26693643

  7. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. PMID:26763471

  8. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits. PMID:26812310

  9. CH4 and N2O emissions from China's beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198gCH4animal(-1)d(-1) and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1)) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1) and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China's beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors. PMID:25769128

  10. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P < 0.0001) respectively; however, the relative intake of fluid to food (mL/kcal) increased (P < 0.0001). Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P < 0.001) and diet cola (P < 0.0001). Baseline thirst correlated positively with both fluid (r = 0.28; P < 0.001) and food (r = 0.16; P < 0.05) intakes at the meal, whereas baseline appetite associated positively only with mealtime food intake (r = 0.23; P<0.01). In conclusion, mealtime fluid and food intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. PMID:25700893

  11. Effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding on early production performance and body composition of Yorkshire pigs selected for reduced residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Boddicker, N; Gabler, N K; Spurlock, M E; Nettleton, D; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on growth and backfat, has been used to investigate genetic variation in feed efficiency in cattle, poultry and pigs. However, little is known about the biological basis of differences in RFI in pigs. To this end, the objective of this study was to evaluate the fifth generation of a line of pigs selected for reduced RFI against a randomly selected Control line for performance, carcass and chemical carcass composition and overall efficiency. Here, emphasis was on the early grower phase. A total of 100 barrows, 50 from each line, were paired by age and weight (22.6 ± 3.9 kg) and randomly assigned to one of four feeding treatments in 11 replicates: ad libitum (Ad), 75% of Ad (Ad75), 55% of Ad (Ad55) and weight stasis (WS), which involved weekly adjustments in intake to keep body weight (BW) constant for each pig. Pigs were individually penned (group housing was used for selection) and were on treatment for 6 weeks. Initial BW did not significantly differ between the lines (P > 0.17). Under Ad feeding, the low RFI pigs consumed 8% less feed compared with Control line pigs (P < 0.06), had less carcass fat (P < 0.05), but with no significant difference in growth rate (P > 0.85). Under restricted feeding, low RFI pigs under the Ad75 treatment had a greater rate of gain while consuming the same amount of feed as Control pigs. Despite the greater gain, no significant line differences in carcass composition or carcass traits were observed. For the WS treatment, low RFI pigs had similar BW (P > 0.37) with no significant difference in feed consumption (P > 0.32). Overall, selection for reduced RFI has decreased feed intake, with limited differences in growth rate but reduced carcass fat, as seen under Ad feeding. Collectively, results indicate that the effects of selection for low RFI are evident during the early grower stage, which allows for greater savings to the producer

  12. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  13. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( < 0.0001). There was no line effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( < 0.0001) but no difference in the meat-to-bone ratio of the hind leg. On the contrary, the ADGrestrict line had a higher proportion of forelegs plus thoracic cage ( = 0.03). We also found lower perirenal ( < 0.0001) and scapular fat yields ( < 0.0001) in ConsoResidual rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( < 0.0001) and higher water loss (drip and cooking loss; < 0.002) compared with the G0 and ADGrestrict rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass

  14. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  15. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  16. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  17. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  18. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  19. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  20. Binge-like consumption of caloric and non-caloric palatable substances in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice: pharmacological and molecular evidence of orexin involvement.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Lerma-Cabrera, José Manuel; Valor, Luis Miguel; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2014-10-01

    The orexin (OX) system has been implicated in food-reinforced behavior, food-seeking and food overconsumption. Recent evidence suggests that OX signaling might influence consumption of palatable foods with high reinforcing value depending upon the caloric status of the animal. The present study evaluates from a pharmacological and a molecular approach the contribution of OX to excessive binge-like consumption of highly preferred palatable substances (sucrose and saccharin) in ad libitum-fed C57BL/6J mice. The main findings of this study are: (1) intraperitoneal (ip) injection of SB-334867 (10, 20 or 30mg/kg), a selective OXR1 antagonist, significantly decreased binge-like consumption of sucrose (10%, w/v) and saccharin (0.15%, w/v) during the test day in a Drinking in the Dark procedure in ad libitum-fed animals, without evidence of any significant alteration of locomotor activity. (2) Four repetitive, 2-h daily episodes of sucrose and saccharin (but not water) binge-like drinking significantly dampened OX mRNA expression in the LH. Present findings show for the first time a role for OXR1 signaling in binge-like consumption of palatable substances in animals under no caloric needs. Targeting OXR1 could represent a novel pharmacological approach to treat binge-eating episodes. PMID:24983661

  1. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  2. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (P<0.001) than LU steers. Thus, adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the level of dietary lipid through the use of cold-pressed RSC, did not adversely affect health or performance of finishing beef steers when used within the diets studied. PMID:26627142

  3. Protection from radiation injury by elemental diet: does added glutamine change the effect?

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, A H

    1994-01-01

    The feeding of a protein hydrolysate based 'elemental' diet supplemented with added glutamine did not provide superior protection to the small intestine of dogs subjected to therapeutic pelvic irradiation. Comparison of diets with and without the added glutamine showed significant protection of the intestine from radiation injury. Both histological examination and electron microscopy showed lack of tissue injury with both diets. The activity of the free radical generating enzymes, scavengers, and antioxidants were similar in the intestinal mucosa of dogs fed either diet. After radiation, however, the activity of xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (p < 0.002) higher in the intestine of dogs fed elemental diet without the added glutamine. If the activities of these enzymes are important in the protection of the intestine from radiation injury, then the addition of extra glutamine may provide no benefit. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8125394

  4. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  5. PLASMA TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA CONCENTRATIONS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD OF COWS FED EITHER AD LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED DIETS DURING THE DRY PERIOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-') is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that upregulates mRNA expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) and induces nitric oxide (NO) production. Both SOCS and NO inhibit intracellular growth hormone (GH) signaling and uncouple the somatotropic axis. Expressio...

  6. Adélie Penguin Population Diet Monitoring by Analysis of Food DNA in Scats

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Simon N.; McInnes, Julie C.; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M.; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches. PMID:24358158

  7. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources. PMID:26244601

  8. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-11-15

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD{sub 100} dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereas all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha} and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 {+-}14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 {+-} 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMP{alpha}2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}mol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 {+-} 1.9 {mu}mol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway.

  9. Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-α level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a

  10. DHA diet reduces AD pathology in young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic mice: possible gender effects.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sylvia E; Berg, Brian M; Moore, Kenneth A; He, Bin; Counts, Scott E; Fritz, Jason J; Hu, Yuan-Shih; Lazarov, Orly; Lah, James J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological and clinical trial findings suggest that consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lowers the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the effects of short-term (3 months) DHA enriched diet on plaque deposition and synaptic defects in forebrain of young APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 transgenic (tg) and non-transgenic (ntg) mice. Gas chromatography revealed a significant increase in DHA concomitant with a decrease of arachidonic acid in both brain and liver in mice fed with DHA. Female tg mice consumed relatively more food daily than ntg female mice, independent of diet. Plaque load was significantly reduced in the cortex, ventral hippocampus and striatum of female APPswe/PS1 Delta E9 tg mice on DHA diet compared to female tg mice on control diet. Immunoblot quantitation of the APOE receptor, LR11, which is involved in APP trafficking and A beta production, were unchanged in mice on DHA or control diets. Moreover drebrin levels were significantly increased in the hippocampus of tg mice on the DHA diet. Finally, in vitro DHA treatment prevented amyloid toxicity in cell cultures. Our findings support the concept that increased DHA consumption may play and important role in reducing brain insults in female AD patients. PMID:19859965

  11. Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Colagiuri, S; Miller, J J; Edwards, R A

    1989-09-01

    This study compared the effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the usual diet of individuals with well-controlled noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). A double-blind, cross-over design was used with each 6-wk study period. During the sucrose period, 45 g sucrose (9% of total daily energy) was added, 10 g with each main meal and 5 g with each between-meal beverage. An equivalent sweetening quantity of aspartame (162 mg) was ingested during the aspartame period. The addition of sucrose did not have a deleterious effect on glycemic control, lipids, glucose tolerance, or insulin action. No differences were observed between sucrose and aspartame. Sucrose added as an integral part of the diabetic diet does not adversely affect metabolic control in well-controlled NIDDM subjects. Aspartame is an acceptable sugar substitute for diabetic individuals but no specific advantage over sucrose was demonstrated. PMID:2672774

  12. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  13. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet (< or = 7.8 MJ/day), both with reinforcement sessions 2-3 times monthly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean initial weight loss and proportion of patients maintaining a weight loss of > 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P < 0.03). At follow up, 65% of ad lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P

  14. Reconstructing the diets of Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Bourbou, Chryssi; Fuller, Benjamin T; Garvie-Lok, Sandra J; Richards, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Documentary evidence and artistic representations have traditionally served as the primary sources of information about Byzantine diet. According to these sources, Byzantine diet was based on grain (primarily wheat and barley), oil, and wine, supplemented with legumes, dairy products, meat, and marine resources. Here, we synthesize and compare the results of stable isotope ratio analyses of eight Greek Byzantine populations (6th-15th centuries AD) from throughout Greece. The δ(13) C and δ(15) N values are tightly clustered, suggesting that all of these populations likely consumed a broadly similar diet. Both inland and coastal Byzantine populations consumed an essentially land-based C(3) diet, significant amounts of animal protein, and possibly some C(4) plants, while no evidence of a general dependence on low-δ(15) N legumes was observed. One interesting result observed in the isotopic data is the evidence for the consumption of marine protein at both coastal sites (a reasonable expectation given their location) and for some individuals from inland sites. This pattern contrasts with previous isotopic studies mainly on prehistoric Greek populations, which have suggested that marine species contributed little, or not at all, to the diet. The possibility that fasting practices contributed to marine protein consumption in the period is discussed, as are possible parallels with published isotope data from western European medieval sites. PMID:21952735

  15. Influence of the intake and composition of elemental diets on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nelson, L M; Russell, R I

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the elemental diets Vivonex (V) and Flexical (F) on bile acid metabolism and hepatic lipids in the rat has been investigated both with ad libitum feeding and when calorie intake was limited to that of control rats (C) fed a standard diet (Oxoid 41B). Ad libitum feeding of V and F for 9 weeks resulted in a weight gain in excess of that for the control diet. After 9 weeks of isocaloric feeding the V-fed rats were significantly lighter than those fed F and C. Fecal bile acid excretion (FBA) and the fractional turnover rates for cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC) were measured. The elemental diets significantly reduced FBA when fed both ad libitum and isocalorically compared with the control diet, the reduction with V being significantly greater than for F. In the isocaloric feeding study both elemental diets significantly increased the half life of CA and CDC. The increase for CA was significantly greater for V than F but for CDC the effect of the two diets was the same. Thus the percentage of CDC-derived 6 substituted bile acids was greater with V than F feeding. There was a strong negative correlation between bile acid half-life and fecal excretion of metabolites for the three dietary groups indicating that bile acid pool size was unchanged by the elemental diets. A gross increase in liver lipid both histologically and chemically was found for the ad libitum fed V rats with a marked but lesser increase for F.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3755773

  16. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Astrup, A; Raben, A; Geiker, N

    2015-05-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups achieved 5.1% lower GI than the HGI groups. The effect of HP and LGI was additive on weight loss and maintenance, and the combination was successful in preventing weight regain and reducing drop-out rate among the adults after the 11kg weight loss. This diet also reduced body fatness and prevalence of overweight and obesity among their children and had consistent beneficial effects on blood pressure, blood lipids and inflammation in both parents and children. After 1 year, mainly the HP effects were maintained. Putative genes have been identified that suggest this diet to be particularly effective in 67% of the population. In conclusion, the DioGenes diet has shown to be effective for prevention of weight regain and for weight reduction in overweight children under ad libitum conditions. The less-restrictive dietary approach fits into a normal food culture, and has been translated into popular diet and cook books in several languages. PMID:25540980

  17. Ileostomy and your diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... ileostomy - diet; Abdominal pouch - diet; End ileostomy - diet; Ostomy - diet ... odor: Eating parsley, yogurt, and buttermilk Keeping your ostomy devices clean Using special deodorants or adding vanilla ...

  18. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  19. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  20. Evaluating marine diets through radiocarbon dating and stable isotope analysis of victims of the AD79 eruption of Vesuvius.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Bondioli, Luca; Fattore, Luciano; Higham, Tom; Hedges, Robert

    2013-11-01

    The stable carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotope values of bone collagen are frequently used in paleodietary studies to assess the marine contribution to an individual's diet. Surprisingly, the relationship between stable isotope these values characteristics and the percentage of marine foods in diet has never been effectively demonstrated. To clarify this relationship, the stable isotope values and radiocarbon dates of nine humans and one sheep from Herculaneum, all who perished simultaneously during the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius, were determined. Significant differences were found in the radiocarbon dates which are attributable to the incorporation of "old" carbon from the marine reservoir. The magnitude of the observed differences was linearly correlated with both δ(13) C and δ(15) N values allowing the response of each isotope to increasing marine carbon in collagen to be independently verified. Regression analyses showed that for every 1‰ enrichment in δ(13) C and δ(15) N, 56 years and 34 years were added to the radiocarbon age, respectively. Predictions of the maximum marine reservoir age differed considerably depending on which stable isotope was considered. This discrepancy is attributed to some degree of macronutrient scrambling whereby nitrogen from marine protein is preferentially incorporated in collagen over marine carbon. It is suggested that the macronutrient scrambling explains the observed relationship between δ(13) C and δ(15) N from Roman coastal sites and should be considered when interpreting any diet which is not dominated by protein. Nevertheless, without knowing the degree of macronutrient scrambling in different dietary scenarios, the accuracy of dietary reconstructions is severely compromised. PMID:24000142

  1. Effects of a protein deficient diet and urea supplementation on lactating mares.

    PubMed

    Martin, R G; McMeniman, N P; Dowsett, K F

    1991-01-01

    Six lactating mares were fed either a low protein diet or the same diet with added urea ad libitum over 71 days. The quantity consumed by the mares, milk intakes of their foals, milk composition, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), mare liveweight changes and foal growth rates were measured. The mares were unable to consume sufficient quantities of either diet to meet their nitrogen requirements and all lost weight. Adding urea to the diet significantly increased PUN in mares and foals, raised urea concentrations in the milk, decreased the mares' feed intake and significantly increased their weight loss. Low concentrations of protein were measured in milk from mares on both diets. Milk intakes of all the foals were reduced and they showed poor growth rates. PMID:1795297

  2. Sex-Based Differences in Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) Chick Growth Rates and Diet.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Katie M; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d(-1) faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species--one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact

  3. Sex-Based Differences in Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) Chick Growth Rates and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Scott; Varsani, Arvind; Dugger, Katie M.; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually size-dimorphic species must show some difference between the sexes in growth rate and/or length of growing period. Such differences in growth parameters can cause the sexes to be impacted by environmental variability in different ways, and understanding these differences allows a better understanding of patterns in productivity between individuals and populations. We investigated differences in growth rate and diet between male and female Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks during two breeding seasons at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, Antarctica. Adélie Penguins are a slightly dimorphic species, with adult males averaging larger than adult females in mass (~11%) as well as bill (~8%) and flipper length (~3%). We measured mass and length of flipper, bill, tibiotarsus, and foot at 5-day intervals for 45 male and 40 female individually-marked chicks. Chick sex was molecularly determined from feathers. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate daily growth rate as a function of chick sex, while controlling for hatching order, brood size, year, and potential variation in breeding quality between pairs of parents. Accounting for season and hatching order, male chicks gained mass an average of 15.6 g d-1 faster than females. Similarly, growth in bill length was faster for males, and the calculated bill size difference at fledging was similar to that observed in adults. There was no evidence for sex-based differences in growth of other morphological features. Adélie diet at Ross Island is composed almost entirely of two species—one krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) and one fish (Pleuragramma antarctica), with fish having a higher caloric value. Using isotopic analyses of feather samples, we also determined that male chicks were fed a higher proportion of fish than female chicks. The related differences in provisioning and growth rates of male and female offspring provides a greater understanding of the ways in which ecological factors may impact the

  4. Simultaneous DNA-based diet analysis of breeding, non-breeding and chick Adélie penguins.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Julie C; Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin; Faux, Cassandra; Jarman, Simon N

    2016-01-01

    As central place foragers, breeding penguins are restricted in foraging range by the need to return to the colony to feed chicks. Furthermore, breeding birds must balance energetic gain from self-feeding with the costs of returning to provision young. Non-breeding birds, however, are likely to be less restricted in foraging range and lack the high energy demands of provisioning, therefore may consume different prey to breeders. We used DNA dietary analysis to determine whether there was a difference in provisioning and self-feeding diet by identifying prey DNA in scat samples from breeding and chick Adélie penguins at two locations in East Antarctica. We also investigated diet differences between breeders and non-breeders at one site. Although previous work shows changing foraging behaviour between chick provisioning and self-feeding, our results suggest no significant differences in the main prey groups consumed by chicks and breeders at either site or between breeding stages. This may reflect the inability of penguins to selectively forage when provisioning, or resources were sufficient for all foraging needs. Conversely, non-breeders were found to consume different prey groups to breeders, which may reflect less restricted foraging ranges, breeders actively selecting particular prey during breeding or reduced foraging experience of non-breeders. PMID:26909171

  5. Simultaneous DNA-based diet analysis of breeding, non-breeding and chick Adélie penguins

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Julie C.; Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin; Faux, Cassandra; Jarman, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    As central place foragers, breeding penguins are restricted in foraging range by the need to return to the colony to feed chicks. Furthermore, breeding birds must balance energetic gain from self-feeding with the costs of returning to provision young. Non-breeding birds, however, are likely to be less restricted in foraging range and lack the high energy demands of provisioning, therefore may consume different prey to breeders. We used DNA dietary analysis to determine whether there was a difference in provisioning and self-feeding diet by identifying prey DNA in scat samples from breeding and chick Adélie penguins at two locations in East Antarctica. We also investigated diet differences between breeders and non-breeders at one site. Although previous work shows changing foraging behaviour between chick provisioning and self-feeding, our results suggest no significant differences in the main prey groups consumed by chicks and breeders at either site or between breeding stages. This may reflect the inability of penguins to selectively forage when provisioning, or resources were sufficient for all foraging needs. Conversely, non-breeders were found to consume different prey groups to breeders, which may reflect less restricted foraging ranges, breeders actively selecting particular prey during breeding or reduced foraging experience of non-breeders. PMID:26909171

  6. Effect of added zinc in diets with ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Paulk, C B; Burnett, D D; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Hill, G M; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing the dietary Zn content on growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma Zn, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs fed diets containing ractopamine HCl (RAC; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; 94 kg BW) were used in a 27-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 26 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal diet (control; 0.66% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; and the RAC diet plus 50, 100, or 150 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or 50 mg Zn/kg from a Zn AA complex (ZnAA; Availa-Zn; Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN). All diets also contained 83 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 in the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet without added Zn had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, carcass yield, and loin weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing Zn from ZnO in diets containing RAC tended to increase (linear, P = 0.067) G:F and loin weight (quadratic, P = 0.064). Pigs fed diets with 50 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA tended to have increased (P = 0.057) ADG compared with pigs fed the RAC diet. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC; 98 kg BW) were used in a 35-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Treatments included a control diet (0.66% SID Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; or the RAC diet plus 75, 150, and 225 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or ZnAA. All diets also contained 55 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 from the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, loin depth, percentage lean, and liver weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. No Zn level or source effects or level × source interactions were observed for growth performance. A Zn level × source interaction (quadratic, P = 0.007) was observed in liver Zn concentrations. This resulted from liver Zn concentrations plateauing at 150 mg Zn/kg when Zn

  7. Proportion of corn silage in diets of feedlot steers fed to achieve stepwise increases in growth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J E; Loerch, S C

    2001-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of proportion of dietary corn silage during periods of feed restriction on performance of steers. In Exp. 1, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 107; initial BW = 273 +/- 3.8 kg) were allotted to 12 pens with eight or nine steers/pen and four pens/treatment. Periods of growth were 273 to 366 kg BW (Period 1), 367 to 501 kg BW (Period 2), and 502 to 564 kg BW (Period 3). In two of the dietary regimens, steers were given ad libitum access to feed throughout the experiment and were fed either a 15% corn silage diet in each period or an 85, 50, and 15% corn silage diet in Periods 1, 2, and 3; respectively. In the third feeding regimen, a programmed intake feeding regimen was used. Steers were fed a 15% corn silage diet in each period. However, feed intake was restricted to achieve a predicted gain of 1.13 kg/d in Period 1 and 1.36 kg/d in Period 2, and feed was offered for ad libitum consumption in Period 3. For the entire experiment, ADG was similar (P = 0.41) among treatments and feed efficiency was lower (P < 0.10) for steers in the corn silage regimen than for steers in the programmed intake and ad libitum regimens. In Exp. 2, Simmental x Angus steer calves (n = 106; initial BW = 233 +/- 2 kg) were allotted by BW to 12 pens (three pens/treatment) and fed in three periods similar to those described in Exp. 1. Four feeding regimens were investigated: 1) AL; steers were offered a 15% corn silage diet for ad libitum consumption in all three periods; 2) PI; DMI was programmed to achieve gains as described in Exp. 1; 3) CS-HLL; programmed intake as described above except diets contained 85, 15, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and 4) CS-HIL; same feeding regimens as CS-HLL, except diets contained 85, 50, and 15% corn silage in Periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers were given ad libitum access to feed in Period 3. Overall ADG was lower (P < 0.05) for steers in the CS-HLL and CS

  8. Zinc-deficient rats have more limited bone recovery during repletion than diet-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Hosea, Heather J; Taylor, Carla G; Wood, Trisha; Mollard, Rebecca; Weiler, Hope A

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary zinc deficiency and diet restriction on bone development in growing rats, and to determine whether any adverse effects could be reversed by dietary repletion. Weanling rats were fed either a zinc-deficient diet ad libitum (ZD; <1 mg zinc/kg) or nutritionally complete diet (30 mg zinc/kg) either ad libitum (CTL) or pair-fed to the intake of the ZD group (DR; diet-restricted) for 3 weeks (deficiency phase) and then all groups were fed the zinc-adequate diet ad libitum for 3, 7, or 23 days (repletion phase). Excised femurs were analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and plasma was analyzed for markers of bone formation (osteocalcin) and resorption (Ratlaps). After the deficiency phase, ZD had lower body weight and reduced femur BMD, zinc, and phosphorus concentrations compared with DR; and these parameters were lower in DR compared with CTL. Femur calcium concentrations were unchanged among the groups. Reduced plasma osteocalcin in ZD and elevated plasma Ratlaps in DR suggested that zinc deficiency limits bone formation while diet restriction accelerates bone resorption activity. After 23 days of repletion, femur size, BMD, and zinc concentrations remained lower in ZD compared with DR and CTL. Body weight and femur phosphorus concentrations remained lower in both ZD and DR compared with CTL after repletion. There were no differences in plasma osteocalcin concentrations after the repletion phase, but the plasma Ratlaps concentrations remained elevated in DR compared with CTL. In summary, both ZD and DR lead to osteopenia during rapid growth, but the mechanisms appear to be due to reduced modeling in ZD and higher turnover in DR. Zinc deficiency was associated with a greater impairment in bone development than diet restriction, and both deficiencies limited bone recovery during repletion in growing rats. PMID:15044713

  9. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH4 emissions. PMID:26479012

  10. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P < 0.10) to have less ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed the control diet. Barrows had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and less (P < 0.001) G:F than gilts. Pigs fed the DDGS diet had reduced (P < 0.05) loin eye area compared with pigs fed the control diet, but diet had no effect on other carcass characteristics. Barrows had greater (P < 0.001) final BW at the end of both phases, greater (P < 0.001) HCW and backfat thickness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater dressing percentage, but less (P < 0.001) fat-free lean percentage than gilts. Backfat of pigs fed the 5 DDGS-containing diets had less (P < 0.05) L* values than pigs fed the control diet and backfat of gilts had greater (P < 0.001) a* and b* values than barrows. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) belly flop distance compared with pigs fed

  11. Effects of adding some dietary fibers to a cystine diet on the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes and serum enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Guochun; Aoyama, Yoritaka

    2003-03-01

    This study investigates whether some dietary fibers can the toxicity due to cystine added to the diet. Wistar rats were investigated for the effects of adding pectin, sugar beet fiber or konjac mannan to a cystine diet on the growth rate and on the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes and serum enzymes. The addition of pectin, sugar beet fiber or konjac mannan to the cystine diet resulted in a significant increase in both the food intake and body weight gain. Feeding the cystine diet caused lower activities of total and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and of catalase in the liver. The addition of pectin to the cystine diet counteracted the activities of the total and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, and of catalase in liver. Of the dietary fibers tested, konjac mannan prevented the elevation of the two enzyme activities in the serum induced by feeding the cystine diet, indicating that this fiber might have the ability to alleviate hepatic damage due to dietary cystine. PMID:12723612

  12. Effects of adding saturated fat to diets with sorghum-based distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth performance and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 112 barrows (avg BW of 72 kg) was used in a 65-day growth assay to determine the effects of adding a source of saturated fat (beef tallow) into diets with sorghum-based distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The pigs were sorted by ancestry and blocked by BW with seven pigs/pen an...

  13. Effects of copper sulfate supplement on growth, tissue concentration, and ruminal solubilities of molybdenum and copper in sheep fed low and high molybdenum diets

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan, M.; Veira, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Each of four groups of six wethers were fed one of a low molybdenum, high molybdenum, high molybdenum plus copper sulfate, or high molybdenum plus copper sulfate corn silage-based diet for ad libitum intake for 221 days. Average daily gains and ratios of feed/gain were depressed for the high molybdenum diet as compared with the low molybdenum diet suggesting molybdenum toxicity in sheep fed the high molybdenum diet. This was alleviated partly by the copper sulfate supplement. The supplement also decreased solubility of both copper and molybdenum in the rumen but had no effect on copper concentration in blood plasma. Concentration of molybdenum was higher in both liver and kidney in sheep fed high-molybdenum diets as compared with low-molybdenum diets. Copper concentration was higher in kidneys of sheep fed high-molybdenum diets, but no difference was significant in liver copper between sheep fed diets high or low in molybdenum.

  14. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05) for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions. PMID:26479012

  15. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  16. Egg quality and productive performance of laying hens fed different levels of skimmed milk powder added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Cesari, V; Mangiagalli, M G; Giardini, A; Galimberti, P; Carteri, S; Gallazzi, D; Toschi, I

    2014-05-01

    The current trial was carried out on a commercial poultry farm to study the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) added to a diet containing Lactobacillus acidophilus on performance and egg quality of laying hens from 20 to 49 wk of age. A total of 2,400 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were housed in 600 unenriched cages (4 hens each) located over 4 tier levels. Animals were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (0, 3, and 4). The laying hens assigned to treatments 3 and 4 received a diet enriched respectively with 3 and 4% SMP, whereas the animals in treatment 0 were fed a diet without SMP. All diets, moreover, were supplemented with L. acidophilus D2/CSL. Hen performance was determined throughout the experimental period and egg quality was measured on 30 eggs per treatment every week. Results showed that productive performance in terms of egg production, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SMP at 3 or 4% of the diet. Egg quality was significantly affected by SMP included at 3 or 4% of the diet. Eggs from treatments 3 and 4, in fact, displayed higher shell thickness than those from treatment 0 (P < 0.0001). Likewise, specific gravity, Haugh unit, and shell percentage were significantly affected by the addition of SMP. In conclusion, in our study, SMP added to a diet containing L. acidophilus had no significant effects on the productive parameters of hens during the laying period, whereas significant improvements were found in certain egg quality characteristics. PMID:24795312

  17. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  18. Diet composition exacerbates or attenuates soman toxicity in rats: implied metabolic control of nerve agent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Myers, Todd M; Langston, Jeffrey L

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the role of diet composition on nerve agent toxicity, rats were fed four distinct diets ad libitum for 28 d prior to challenge with 110 μg/kg (1.0 LD(50), sc) soman. The four diets used were a standard rodent diet, a choline-enriched diet, a glucose-enriched diet, and a ketogenic diet. Body weight was recorded throughout the study. Toxic signs and survival were evaluated at key times for up to 72 h following soman exposure. Additionally, acquisition of discriminated shuttlebox avoidance performance was characterized beginning 24h after soman challenge and across the next 8 d (six behavioral sessions). Prior to exposure, body weight was highest in the standard diet group and lowest in the ketogenic diet group. Upon exposure, differences in soman toxicity as a function of diet became apparent within the first hour, with mortality in the glucose-enriched diet group reaching 80% and exceeding all other groups (in which mortality ranged from 0 to 6%). At 72 h after exposure, mortality was 100% in the glucose-enriched diet group, and survival approximated 50% in the standard and choline-enriched diet groups, but equaled 87% in the ketogenic diet group. Body weight loss was significantly reduced in the ketogenic and choline-enriched diet groups, relative to the standard diet group. At 1 and 4h after exposure, rats in the ketogenic diet group had significantly lower toxic sign scores than all other groups. The ketogenic diet group performed significantly better than the standard diet group on two measures of active avoidance performance. The exacerbated soman toxicity observed in the glucose-enriched diet group coupled with the attenuated soman toxicity observed in the ketogenic diet group implicates glucose availability in the toxic effects of soman. This increased glucose availability may enhance acetylcholine synthesis and/or utilization, thereby exacerbating peripheral and central soman toxicity. PMID:21396400

  19. Immune parameters in male atheletes after a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet and a mixed Western diet.

    PubMed

    Richter, E A; Kiens, B; Raben, A; Tvede, N; Pedersen, B K

    1991-05-01

    The influence of a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet versus a meat-rich Western diet on in vitro measures of immune function was studied in eight male endurance athletes. Subjects consumed two different diets for 2 x 6 wk, separated by 4 wk on an ad libitum diet, in a cross-over design. Both diets consisted of 57 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 14 E% protein and 29 E% fat. One diet was a mixed meat-rich diet (M) prepared with 69% animal protein sources, whereas the other diet (V) was a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet prepared with 82% vegetable protein sources. Blood for determination of leukocyte subpopulations and in vitro function was collected at the end of each diet period 36 h after the last training bout. Fiber content and P/S ratio of fatty acids were twice as high on the V diet as on the M diet. Training volume was similar on the two diets, and maximal aerobic capacity did not change during diet periods. The number of CD3+ (pan T-cells), CD8+ (mainly T suppressor cells), CD4+ (mainly T helper cells), CD16+ (natural killer cells), and CD14+ (monocytes) was similar after the two different diets. Similarly, proliferations of mononuclear cells after stimulation with interleukin-2 (IL-2), phytohemagglutinin, and purified derivative of tuberculin (PPD), as well as activity of natural killer cells in the unstimulated state and after stimulation with IL-2, indomethacin, and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), were identical after the two diet periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2072829

  20. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  1. Defensive Effect of Lansoprazole in Dementia of AD Type in Mice Exposed to Streptozotocin and Cholesterol Enriched Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Rupinder K.; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor and agonist of liver x receptors) in experimental dementia of AD type. Streptozotocin [STZ, 3 mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v), and high fat diet (HFD, administered for 90 days)] were used to induce dementia in separate groups of Swiss mice. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to assess learning and memory of the animals. A battery of biochemical and histopathological studies were also performed. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity and serum cholesterol levels were also estimated. The brain level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation. STZ and HFD produced a marked decline in MWM performance of the animals, reflecting impairment of learning and memory. STZ/HFD treated mice exhibited a marked accentuation of AChE activity, TBARS and MPO levels along with a fall in GSH levels. Further, the stained micrographs of STZ/HFD treated mice indicated pathological changes, severe neutrophilic infiltration and amyloid deposition. Lansoprazole treatment significantly attenuated STZ and HFD -induced memory deficits, biochemical and histopathological alterations. It also prevented HFD-induced rise in the cholesterol level. Therefore, the findings demonstrate potential of lansoprazole in memory dysfunctions which may probably be attributed to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, both cholesterol-dependent as well as cholesterol-independent effects of lansoprazole appear to play a role. In addition study indicates the role of liver x receptors in dementia. PMID:23936214

  2. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  3. Identification of N-terminally truncated pyroglutamate amyloid-β in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit and AD brain.

    PubMed

    Perez-Garmendia, Roxanna; Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Morales, Miguel Angel; Luna-Muñoz, José; Mena, Raul; Nava-Catorce, Miriam; Acero, Gonzalo; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Viramontes-Pintos, Amparo; Cribbs, David H; Gevorkian, Goar

    2014-01-01

    The main amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) variants detected in the human brain are Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42; however, a significant proportion of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain also consists of N-terminal truncated/modified species. AβN3(pE), Aβ peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3, has been demonstrated to be a major N-truncated/modified constituent of intracellular, extracellular, and vascular Aβ deposits in AD and Down syndrome brain tissue. It has been previously demonstrated that rabbits fed a diet enriched in cholesterol and given water containing trace copper levels developed AD-like pathology including intraneuronal and extracellular Aβ accumulation, tau hyperphosphorylation, vascular inflammation, astrocytosis, microgliosis, reduced levels of acetylcholine, as well as learning deficits and thus, may be used as a non-transgenic animal model of sporadic AD. In the present study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of AβN3(pE) in blood vessels in cholesterol-enriched diet-fed rabbit brain. In addition, we detected AβN3(pE) immunoreactivity in all postmortem AD brain samples studied. We believe that our results are potentially important for evaluation of novel therapeutic molecules/strategies targeting Aβ peptides in a suitable non-transgenic animal model. PMID:24240639

  4. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760

  5. Adding Diet and Exercise Counseling to the Health Promotion Plan Alleviates Anthropometric and Metabolic Complications in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morita-Suzuki, S.; Fujioka, Y.; Mitsuoka, H.; Tashiro, M.; Harada, M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of individual (IC) and group (GC) diet and exercise counseling in men with metabolic syndrome. Participants received exercise instruction and exercise load was monitored. IC participants received individual diet counseling sessions and general consultations at baseline and monthly. GC participants received a group diet counseling session at baseline and general consultations at baseline and monthly. In the IC group, body mass index (BMI) percent body fat, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and liver function levels were reduced significantly after 3 months, whereas in the GC group, waist circumference and levels of liver function were reduced. Exercise load was negatively correlated with change in BMI and waist circumference in the IC group, and positively correlated with changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all subjects and in the GC group. Diet and exercise counseling, especially IC, may benefit patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:23882148

  6. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. PMID:20696533

  7. Effects of cadmium in herbage on the apparent absorption of elements by sheep in comparison with inorganic cadmium added to their diet

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.J.C. . E-mail: c.phillips@uq.edu.au; Chiy, P.C.; Zachou, E.

    2005-10-01

    A meta-analysis of existing scientific literature recently suggested that Cd is absorbed more efficiently by sheep if it is in the organic form in grass, than if it is added as an inorganic supplement to the diet. We tested this experimentally by feeding sheep grass from contaminated soil, compared with uncontaminated grass and with Cd added to the diet. To produce contaminated herbage, Cd nitrate was added to soil in 11 lysimeters sown with perennial ryegrass, with a further 11 lysimeters receiving no Cd to produce uncontaminated herbage. In the Cd-treated lysimeters, soil had increased exchangeable K, Mg, and Ca, leachate had increased K, Mg, Ca, Na, and P, grass had increased Cd and reduced Mg, Na, P, Mn, Fe, Cr, Al, and Ni, and there was some reduction in grass yield compared with untreated lysimeters. Grass from Cd-treated or untreated lysimeters was fed to groups of 12 ewes for 2 days, with Cd intake equated by adding Cd nitrate to the concentrate feed of ewes receiving the uncontaminated grass. The apparent absorption of Cd, Zn, Mo, Cr, and Al was increased for ewes receiving Cd-enriched grass, and apparent absorption of Cu was reduced, compared to those receiving supplementary inorganic Cd. Most of the unabsorbed Cd was excreted in feces within 4 days of feeding. The ewes consuming Cd in grass had increased B concentrations in their urine, possibly due to adverse effects of Cd on kidney function. Finally, the ewes were offered a choice of the two herbages and they ate significantly more of the uncontaminated grass. It is concluded that the apparent absorption of Cd and other heavy metals by sheep in a short-term experiment was greater when Cd was in the grass than when the Cd was added in in an inorganic form and that sheep partially avoided herbage with a high Cd concentration.

  8. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes added to a Andropogon gayanus grass silage-concentrate diet on rumen fermentation in batch cultures and the artificial rumen (Rusitec).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, G O; Gonçalves, L C; Pereira, L G R; Chaves, A V; Wang, Y; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A

    2015-07-01

    In vitro batch cultures were used to screen four fibrolytic enzyme mixtures at two dosages added to a 60 : 40 silage : concentrate diet containing the C(4) tropical grass Andropogon gayanus grass ensiled at two maturities - vegetative stage (VS) and flowering stage (FS). Based on these studies, one enzyme mixture was selected to treat the same diets and evaluate its impact on fermentation using an artificial rumen (Rusitec). In vitro batch cultures were conducted as a completely randomized design with two runs, four replicates per run and 12 treatments in a factorial arrangement (four enzyme mixtures×three doses). Enzyme additives (E1, E2, E3 and E4) were commercial products and contained a range of endoglucanase, exoglucanase and xylanase activities. Enzymes were added to the complete diet 2 h before incubation at 0, 2 and 4 μl/g of dry matter (DM). Gas production (GP) was measured after 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of incubation. Disappearance of DM (DMD), NDF (NDFD) and ADF (ADFD) were determined after 24 and 48 h. For all four enzyme mixtures, a dosage effect (P>0.05) DM, N, NDF or ADF disappearance after 48 h of incubation nor daily ammonia-N, volatile fatty acids or CH(4) production. However, enzyme application increased (P<0.05) microbial N production in feed particle-associated (loosely-associated) and silage feed particle-bound (firmly associated) fractions. With A. gayanus silage diets, degradation may not be limited by microbial colonization, but rather by the ability of fibrolytic enzymes to degrade plant cell walls within this recalcitrant forage. PMID:25697879

  9. Transcriptome analysis of age-, gender- and diet-associated changes in murine thymus ☆

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Ana; Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Wood, William W.; Teichberg, Diane; Bertak, Dorothy; Carter, Arnell; Poosala, Suresh; Firman, Jeffrey; Becker, Kevin G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Longo, Dan L.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2008-01-01

    The loss of thymic function with age may be due to diminished numbers of T-cell progenitors and the loss of critical mediators within the thymic microenvironment. To assess the molecular changes associated with this loss, we examined transcriptomes of progressively aging mouse thymi, of different sexes and on caloric-restricted (CR) vs. ad libitum (AL) diets. Genes involved in various biological and molecular processes including transcriptional regulators, stress response, inflammation and immune function significantly changed during thymic aging. These differences depended on variables such as sex and diet. Interestingly, many changes associated with thymic aging are either muted or almost completely reversed in mice on caloric-restricted diets. These studies provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with thymic aging and emphasize the need to account for biological variables such as sex and diet when elucidating the genomic correlates that influence the molecular pathways responsible for thymic involution. PMID:17499630

  10. The impact of low-protein high-carbohydrate diets on aging and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Le Couteur, David G; Solon-Biet, Samantha; Cogger, Victoria C; Mitchell, Sarah J; Senior, Alistair; de Cabo, Rafael; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Most research on nutritional effects on aging has focussed on the impact of manipulating single dietary factors such as total calorie intake or each of the macronutrients individually. More recent studies using a nutritional geometric approach called the Geometric Framework have facilitated an understanding of how aging is influenced across a landscape of diets that vary orthogonally in macronutrient and total energy content. Such studies have been performed using ad libitum feeding regimes, thus taking into account compensatory feeding responses that are inevitable in a non-constrained environment. Geometric Framework studies on insects and mice have revealed that diets low in protein and high in carbohydrates generate longest lifespans in ad libitum-fed animals while low total energy intake (caloric restriction by dietary dilution) has minimal effect. These conclusions are supported indirectly by observational studies in humans and a heterogeneous group of other types of interventional studies in insects and rodents. Due to compensatory feeding for protein dilution, low-protein, high-carbohydrate diets are often associated with increased food intake and body fat, a phenomenon called protein leverage. This could potentially be mitigated by supplementing these diets with interventions that influence body weight through physical activity and ambient temperature. PMID:26718486

  11. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance. PMID:27188906

  12. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  13. Interaction of caffeine and diets on fetal brain

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamoto, T.; Yazdani, M.

    1986-03-01

    Growing human fetuses were frequently exposed to caffeine (C). The object was to determine the C effects on growing fetal rats and how protein malnutrition can modify these potential effects. Timed pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups (G) on day 10 of gestation. G1 received a 20% protein diet (P) ad libitum: G2 was pair-fed with G1 with 20% P + C (2 mg/100 g BW): G3 received an 8% P ad libitum and G4 was pair-fed with G3 and a 6% P + C. At day 22, /sup 3/H-thymidine was injected into randomly selected dams to study DNA synthesis of brain. Fetuses from other dams were also removed to study DNA, RNA and protein contents of brain. Body weight of the 20% P + C was lower than the non-C, whereas no difference in weight was shown in 8% P between C and non-C, percent reduction was greater in 8% P than 20% P. Protein contents of C in both groups were greater than the non-C, but percent increase was less than non + C, but that of the 8% P + C was greater than non + C. It is concluded that C supplemented to the maternal diet during pregnancy produces differential effects on fetal brain depending on dietary protein content.

  14. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Participants We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Main outcome measures Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Data analysis Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Results Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Conclusions Decreasing the consumption of ultra

  15. Effect of increasing levels of seven tree species extracts added to a high concentrate diet on in vitro rumen gas output.

    PubMed

    Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Kholif, Ahmed E; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Hernandez, Saul R; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio A; Mellado, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of increasing levels of extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, Celtis pallida, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Fraxinus excelsior, Ficus trigonata, Phoradendrom brevifolium and Prunus domestica on in vitro gas production (GP) and ruminal fermentation of a high concentrate diet. Plant extracts were prepared at 1 g dry matter (DM)/8 mL of solvent mixture (methanol : ethanol : water, 1:1:8) and added at levels of 0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mL/g DM of a high concentrate diet. In vitro GP was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. Increasing addition of extracts linearly increased (P < 0.001), the GP24 , GP48 and GP72 (mL/g DM), and linearly decreased (P < 0.001), the discrete GP lag time. Moreover, increasing extract doses linearly increased (P < 0.001) the asymptotic GP and decreased (P < 0.001) the rate of GP. GP6 was not impacted by treatments and GP12 increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing addition of extracts. Rumen pH declined linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing doses of extracts added. As no interactions (P > 0.05) occurred between the extracts and doses, it could be conclude that all extracts positively modified rumen fermentation at doses of 1.2 to 1.8 mL extract/g diet DM. PMID:24796241

  16. Growth, carcass yield and meat quality attributes of Red Maasai sheep fed wheat straw-based diets.

    PubMed

    Safari, John G; Mushi, Daniel E; Mtenga, Louis A; Kifaro, George C; Eik, Lars O

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two castrated Red Maasai sheep (12.7 kg initial body weight, aged 12-18 months), were used in an 84-day experiment to evaluate diets based on treated straw upon growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality. The animals were blocked by weight into four similar groups and randomly allotted into four dietary treatments, with eight individually fed animals per treatment. The dietary treatments were ad libitum untreated wheat straw (UTS), wheat straw treated with urea and lime (TS), straw and ad libitum hay (UTSH), and TS and ad libitum hay (TSH). In addition, each experimental animal received 220 g/day (on as fed basis) of a concentrate diet. Treatment of straw increased (P < 0.05) dry matter intake (42.3 vs. 33.7 g/kg W (75)/day), energy intake (4.6 vs. 3.7 MJ ME/d) and the average daily gain (40.7 vs. 23.1 g). Animals on TS produced heavier (P < 0.05) carcasses (6.6 vs. 5.4 kg) with superior conformation than animals on UTS. Percentage cooking loss was higher in carcasses from animals fed TS compared to those from other diets. Except M. longissimus dorsi and M. semitendinosus, tenderness of muscles was not affected by diet but ageing of meat improved (P < 0.001) tenderness. Overall, straw treatment increased carcass yields with limited effects on meat quality attributes. PMID:20640886

  17. Bacterial and Protozoal Communities and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Sheep Fed a Diet Containing Added Tannins ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C18:2 c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C18:2 c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C18:0 (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P < 0.005) VA in the rumen compared to the tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P < 0.005) for the tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (−30.6%; P < 0.1), and B. fibrisolvens and protozoan populations were higher (+107% and +56.1%, respectively; P < 0.05) in the rumen of lambs fed the tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations. PMID:20173064

  18. Bacterial and protozoal communities and fatty acid profile in the rumen of sheep fed a diet containing added tannins.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C(18:2) c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C(18:2) c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C(18:1) t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C(18:0) (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P < 0.005) VA in the rumen compared to the tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P < 0.005) for the tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (-30.6%; P < 0.1), and B. fibrisolvens and protozoan populations were higher (+107% and +56.1%, respectively; P < 0.05) in the rumen of lambs fed the tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations. PMID:20173064

  19. Endogenous nociceptin modulates diet preference independent of motivation and reward.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Miwako; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P

    2009-04-20

    Previous studies show that the opioid peptide nociceptin stimulates food intake. Here, we studied nociceptin receptor knockout (NOP KO) mice in various behavioral paradigms designed to differentiate psychological and physiological loci at which endogenous nociceptin might control feeding. When presented a choice under food restriction, NOP KO mice displayed reduced preference for high sucrose diet, but lower intake of high fat diet under no-choice conditions. These responses were absent under ad libitum feeding conditions. Conditioned place preference to high fat diet under food-deprived conditions was unaltered in NOP KO mice, suggesting no difference in reward responses. Furthermore, operant food self-administration under a variety of conditions showed no genotype-dependent differences, suggesting no differences in the motivational properties of food. Taste reactivity to sucrose was unchanged in NOP KO mice, though NOP KO mice had altered aversive reactions to quinine solutions under ad libitum feeding, suggesting minor differences in the affective impact of palatable and unpalatable tastants. Although NOP KO mice re-fed following food-deprivation showed normal increases in plasma glucose and insulin, multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the relationship between these measures, body weight and plasma leptin was substantially disrupted in NOP KO, particularly in fasted mice. Additionally, the typical positive relationship between body weight and plasma leptin was considerably weaker in NOP KO mice. Together, these findings suggest that endogenous nociceptin differentially modulates diet preference depending on macronutrient content and homeostatic state, independently of the motivating, rewarding or orosensory properties of food, but may involve metabolic or postingestive processes. PMID:19138695

  20. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    PubMed

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury. PMID:25523027

  1. Stable isotopic evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman coastal site of Velia (1st and 2nd centuries AD) in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Craig, Oliver E; Biazzo, Marco; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Garnsey, Peter; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Lelli, Roberta; Salvadei, Loretana; Tartaglia, Gianna; Nava, Alessia; Renò, Lorena; Fiammenghi, Antonella; Rickards, Olga; Bondioli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Here we report on a stable isotope palaeodietary study of a Imperial Roman population interred near the port of Velia in Southern Italy during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on collagen extracted from 117 adult humans as well as a range of fauna to reconstruct individual dietary histories. For the majority of individuals, we found that stable isotope data were consistent with a diet high in cereals, with relatively modest contributions of meat and only minor contributions of marine fish. However, substantial isotopic variation was found within the population, indicating that diets were not uniform. We suggest that a number of individuals, mainly but not exclusively males, had greater access to marine resources, especially high trophic level fish. However, the observed dietary variation did not correlate with burial type, number of grave goods, nor age at death. Also, individuals buried at the necropolis at Velia ate much less fish overall compared with the contemporaneous population from the necropolis of Portus at Isola Sacra, located on the coast close to Rome. Marine and riverine transport and commerce dominated the economy of Portus, and its people were in a position to supplement their own stocks of fish with imported goods in transit to Rome, whereas at Velia marine exploitation existed side-by-side with land-based economic activities. PMID:19280672

  2. Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Sandra; Moghaddam, Negahnaz; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U.; Kanz, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts. PMID:25333366

  3. Energy Allowances for Solid Fats and Added Sugars in Nutritionally Adequate U.S. Diets Estimated at 17–33% by a Linear Programming Model1

    PubMed Central

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that no more than 5–15% of total dietary energy should be derived from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The guideline was based on USDA food pattern modeling analyses that met the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and Dietary Guidelines and followed typical American eating habits. This study recreated food intake patterns for 6 of the same gender-age groups by using USDA data sources and a mathematical optimization technique known as linear programming. The analytic process identified food consumption patterns based on 128 food categories that met the nutritional goals for 9 vitamins, 9 minerals, 8 macronutrients, and dietary fiber and minimized deviation from typical American eating habits. Linear programming Model 1 created gender- and age-specific food patterns that corresponded to energy needs for each group. Model 2 created food patterns that were iso-caloric with diets observed for that group in the 2001–2002 NHANES. The optimized food patterns were evaluated with respect to MyPyramid servings goals, energy density [kcal/g (1 kcal = 4.18 kJ)], and energy cost (US$/2000 kcal). The optimized food patterns had more servings of vegetables and fruit, lower energy density, and higher cost compared with the observed diets. All nutrient goals were met. In contrast to the much lower USDA estimates, the 2 models placed SoFAS allowances at between 17 and 33% of total energy, depending on energy needs. PMID:21178090

  4. A stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) perspective on human diet on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) ca. AD 1400-1900.

    PubMed

    Commendador, Amy S; Dudgeon, John V; Finney, Bruce P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Esh, Kelley S

    2013-10-01

    Ecological and environmental evidence suggests that Rapa Nui was among the most marginally habitable islands in Eastern Polynesia, with only a fraction of the biotic diversity found on archipelagos to the west, and capable of sustaining many fewer cultigens traditionally transported by Polynesian colonizers. However, archaeological evidence for human dietary adaptations under such restrictions is limited. Little is known about the particulars of the subsistence base and dietary changes on Rapa Nui that may be associated with a hypothesized late prehistoric decline in the quality and diversity of food sources. To better understand prehistoric Rapa Nui diet we examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of human teeth along with archaeological faunal material thought to comprise the Rapa Nui food web. Our results indicate that contrary to previous zooarchaeological studies diet was predominantly terrestrial throughout the entire sequence of occupation, with reliance on rats, chickens and C3 plants. While a few individuals may have had access to higher trophic level marine resources, this is evident only later in time (generally post-AD 1600). A decline in (15)N through time was observed, and may be attributed to declines in available terrestrial proteins; however, presently we cannot rule out the effect of changing soil and plant baseline δ(15)N. Our results also suggest differential access to higher trophic level marine resources among contemporaneous populations, but more research is required to clarify this observation. PMID:23996514

  5. Behaviour of captive canvasbacks Aythya valisineria fed different diets during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Williams, B.K.; Obrecht, H.H., III

    1989-01-01

    Time activity budget studies were conducted on captive Canvasbacks manintained on ad libitum diets with varying levels of protein and energy during the winter of 1978-79 and 1979-80. No differences could be detected in the behaviour of the ducks as a result of the diets they received. Differences due to season and sex were observed for some behaviours. Activity decreased (P<0.05) during the winter apparently as a mechanism to conserve energy. This decrease occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of the Canvasbacks' annual cycle. This behaviour pattern has been observed in the wild and seems to persist in captive Canvasbacks.

  6. Growth and Survival of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Fed Different Commercial and Laboratory Diets

    PubMed Central

    Garris, Heath W.; Jones, Warren T.; Moseley, Dorothy B.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The need to develop standardized diets to support zebrafish (Danio rerio) research is supported by the knowledge that specific dietary ingredients, nutrients, or antinutritional factors in diets have been shown to affect development and growth of adult D. rerio and their offspring. In this study, there were seven dietary treatments consisting of five commercially available diets and two laboratory-prepared diets, three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed ad libitum twice daily for 9 weeks. At 9 weeks, both weight and length were recorded to determine condition indices. D. rerio fed one of the laboratory-prepared diets had significantly higher weights than individuals fed any of the other diets and exhibited significantly higher lengths than those fed five of the six remaining diets. Although there were significant differences in general growth demographics (length/weight) after the 9-week feeding trial, no significant differences in overall health of D. rerio were observed for the different dietary treatments as determined by statistical analysis of condition factor indices (K=[weight×100]/length3). The success achieved with the laboratory-prepared diets represents the foundation for establishing an open-formulation nutritional standard to ensure that the D. rerio model for research does not generate confounding research results caused by nutritional vagaries. PMID:19566408

  7. Dental health in Northern Chile's Atacama oases: evaluating the Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000) impact on local diet.

    PubMed

    Hubbe, Mark; Torres-Rouff, Christina; Neves, Walter Alves; King, Laura M; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Costa, Maria Antonietta

    2012-05-01

    As one of the few areas apt for horticulture in Northern Chile's arid landscape, the prehistory of the Atacama oases is deeply enmeshed with that of the inter-regional networks that promoted societal development in the south central Andes. During the Middle Horizon (AD 500-1000), local populations experienced a cultural apex associated with a substantial increase in inter-regional interaction, population density, and quantity and quality of mortuary assemblages. Here, we test if this cultural peak affected dietary practices equally among the distinct local groups of this period. We examine caries prevalence and the degree of occlusal wear in four series recovered from three cemeteries. Our results show a reduction in the prevalence of caries for males among an elite subsample from Solcor 3 and the later Coyo 3 cemeteries. Dental wear tends to increase over time with the Late Middle Horizon/Late Intermediate Period cemetery of Quitor 6 showing a higher average degree of wear. When considered in concert with archaeological information, we concluded that the Middle Horizon was marked by dietary variability wherein some populations were able to obtain better access to protein sources (e.g., camelid meat). Not all members of Atacameño society benefited from this, as we note that this dietary change only affected men. Our results suggest that the benefits brought to the San Pedro oases during the Middle Horizon were not equally distributed among local groups and that social status, relationship to the Tiwanaku polity, and interment in particular cemeteries affected dietary composition. PMID:22411074

  8. Comparison of Serum Bisphenol A Concentrations in Mice Exposed to Bisphenol A through the Diet versus Oral Bolus Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sieli, Paizlee T.; Jašarevic´, Eldin; Warzak, Denise A.; Mao, Jiude; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Collet, Séverine H.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced endocrine-disrupting chemical. Diet is a primary route of exposure, but internal exposure (serum concentrations) in animals and humans has been measured only after single oral bolus administration. Objective: We compared serum concentrations of BPA over a 24-hr period after oral bolus administration or ad libitum feeding in mice and assessed for buildup with dietary exposure. Methods: Adult female mice were administered [dimethyl-d6]-BPA (BPA-d6) as a single oral bolus (20 mg/kg body weight) or fed a diet containing 100 mg BPA-d6/kg feed weight ad libitum for 1 week. Serum concentrations were analyzed using isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and compared between exposure groups over the first 23 hr and after 7 days of dietary exposure. Results: Maximum concentration (Cmax) for BPA-d6 during the first 24 hr was reached at 1 hr and 6 hr for oral bolus and diet groups, respectively. Relative BPA-d6 bioavailability (unconjugated BPA-d6) was higher in diet-exposed mice than in the bolus group despite a relative lower absorption, a phenomenon consistent with an inhibitory effect of food on first-pass hepatic metabolism. In mice with ongoing dietary exposure, unconjugated BPA-d6 was higher on day 7 than on day 1. Conclusions: This is the first report of serum BPA concentrations in an animal model exposed to this chemical via the diet. Although bolus administration of BPA-d6 led to peak concentrations within 1 hr, Cmax for diet-exposed mice was delayed for several hours. However, bolus administration underestimates bioavailable serum BPA concentrations in animals—and presumably humans—than would result from dietary exposure. Exposure via diet is a more natural continuous exposure route than oral bolus exposure and is thus a better predictor of BPA concentrations in chronically exposed animals and humans. PMID:21642047

  9. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C).

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition. PMID:26471188

  10. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased (P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  11. Effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diet on productive performance, egg quality characteristics, and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature (6.8 ± 3 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Mohsen; Torki, Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted using 144 laying hens to evaluate the effects of adding aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris to diets on productive performance, egg quality traits, and some blood parameters of laying hens reared under cold stress condition (6.8 ± 3 °C). The birds were randomly assigned to each of four dietary treatments (C, T1, T2, and T3) with six replicate cages of six birds. Diet inclusion of aqueous extract of T. terrestris at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 ml/Lit offered to groups T1, T2, and T3, respectively, while group C served as the control diet with no addition. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg weight (EW), egg production (EP), and egg mass (EM) were evaluated during the 42-day trial period. The EP and EM increased, whereas FCR decreased ( P < 0.001) in the hens fed the extract-included diet as compared to those fed the basal diet. The serum content of cholesterol decreased and the thickness of egg shell increased in the hens fed the T2 and T3 diet compared to those fed the basal diet. Overall from the results of the present experiment, it can be concluded that diet supplementation with aqueous extract of T. terrestris has beneficial effects on productive performance of laying hens reared under cold stress condition.

  12. Effects on obese women of the sugar sucrose added to the diet over 28 d: a quasi-randomised, single-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa; Ballantyne, Carrie

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether obese women can compensate for sucrose added to the diet when it is given blind, rather than gaining weight or exhibiting dysfunctional regulation of intake, in the present study, forty-one healthy obese (BMI 30-35 kg/m²) women (age 20-50 years), not currently dieting, were randomly assigned to consume sucrose (n 20) or aspartame (n 21) drinks over 4 weeks in a parallel single-blind design. Over the 4 weeks, one group consumed 4 × 250 ml sucrose drinks (total 1800 kJ/d) and the other group consumed 4 × 250 ml aspartame drinks. During the baseline week and experimental weeks, body weight and other biometric data were measured and steps per day, food intake using 7 d unweighed food diaries, and mood using ten- or seven-point Likert scales four times a day were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the participants weighed 1·72 (SE 0·47) kg less than the value predicted by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) model; the predicted body weight accounted for 94·3% of the variance in the observed body weight and experimental group accounted for a further 1·1% of the variance in the observed body weight, showing that women consuming sucrose drinks gained significantly less weight than predicted. The reported daily energy intake did not increase significantly, and sucrose supplements significantly reduced the reported voluntary sugar, starch and fat intake compared with aspartame. There were no effects on appetite or mood. Over 4 weeks, as part of everyday eating, sucrose given blind in soft drinks was partially compensated for by obese women, as in previous experiments with healthy and overweight participants. PMID:24164779

  13. Effect of an obesogenic diet during the juvenile period on growth pattern, fatness and metabolic, cardiovascular and reproductive features of Swine with obesity/leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Rovira, Laura; Gonzalez-Anover, Pedro; Astiz, Susana; Caro, Alicia; Lopez-Bote, Clemente; Ovilo, Cristina; Pallares, Pilar; Perez-Solana, Maria Luz; Sanchez-Sanchez, Raul; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, in a female swine model of leptin resistance (Iberian pig), the effect of an obesogenic diet, with high saturated fat content, during the juvenile period, on the appearance of early obesity and its possible effects on metabolic syndrome-related parameters and reproductive features (puberty attainment). Thus, from 130 to 245 days-old, seven Iberian gilts had ad libitum access to food enriched with saturated fat whilst six females acted as controls and had ad libitum access to a commercial maintenance diet. Results showed that a high fat intake-level during the juvenile period induces early obesity with lower body weight and size but a higher body fat-content. Such obesity was related with impairments of glucose regulation predisposing for insulin resistance, but also with an earlier onset of puberty. However, there were no signs of hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension; the gilts diminish their intake level and modify their metabolic features by increasing insulin secretion. In conclusion, Iberian gilts freely eating saturated fat diets during the juvenile period have the prodrome of metabolic syndrome but, during their juvenile period, are still able to develop an adaptive response to the diet. PMID:23094796

  14. Oral Metformin Treatment Prevents Enhanced Insulin Demand and Placental Dysfunction in the Pregnant Rat Fed a Fructose-Rich Diet

    PubMed Central

    Alzamendi, Ana; Del Zotto, Hector; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Romero, Jose; Giovambattista, Andres; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The intake of a fructose-rich diet (FRD) in the normal female rat induces features similar to those observed in the human metabolic syndrome phenotype. We studied the impact of FRD administration to mothers on pregnancy outcome. On gestational day (Gd) zero rats were assigned to either group: ad libitum drinking tap water alone (normal diet, ND) or containing fructose (10% w/vol; FRD) through pregnancy; all rats were fed a Purina chow diet ad libitum ND and FRD rats were daily cotreated or not with metformin (60 mg/Kg/day oral; ND + MF and FRD + MF) and submitted to a high glucose load test on Gd 14. Additionally, placentas from different groups were studied on Gd 20. Data indicated that: (1) although FRD rats well tolerated glucose overload, their circulating levels of insulin were significantly higher than in ND rats; (2) the mesometrial triangle blood vessel area was significantly lower in placentas from FRD than ND dams; (3) the detrimental effects of FRD administration to mothers were ameliorated by metformin cotreatment. Our study suggests that excessive intake of fructose during pregnancy enhanced the risk for developing gestational diabetes and subsequent preeclampsia, and that metformin prevented the poor pregnancy outcome induced by FRD. PMID:22957268

  15. Survival and Cardioprotective Benefits of Long-Term Blueberry Enriched Diet in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Following Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmet, Ismayil; Spangler, Edward; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Ingram, Donald K.; Talan, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite remarkable progress in treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) over the last two decades, mortality, personal suffering and cost remain staggering, and effective interventions are still a challenge. Previously we reported that a blueberry-enriched diet (BD) attenuated necroapoptosis and inflammation in periinfarct area in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives To test the hypothesis that BD will attenuate the course of CHF, including mortality and cardiac remodeling during the first year after induction of MI in rats. Method and Results Two weeks after coronary artery ligation, rats were divided into two groups of similar average MI size, measured by echocardiography, and then12-mo dietary regimens were initiated as follows: ad libitum regular diet (control, CD, n = 27) and isocaloric food with 2% blueberry supplement (BD, n = 27) also available ad libitum. These dietary groups were compared to each other and to sham group (SH). Mortality over the 12 mo was reduced by 22% in BD compared with CD (p<0.01). In the course of developing CHF, BD had no effect on the body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Bi-monthly Echo revealed significant attenuation of the LV chamber remodeling, LV posterior wall thinning, and MI expansion in BD compared with CD. In fact, BD arrested the MI expansion. Conclusion This is the first experimental evidence that a blueberry-enriched diet has positive effects on the course of CHF and thus warrants consideration for clinical evaluation. PMID:19936253

  16. Shift of Circadian Feeding Pattern by High-Fat Diets Is Coincident with Reward Deficits in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-Acebes, Ismael; Fole, Alberto; Cano, Victoria; Merino, Beatriz; Stucchi, Paula; Ruggieri, Daniela; López, Laura; Alguacil, Luis Fernando; Ruiz-Gayo, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies provide evidence that high-fat diets (HF) trigger both i) a deficit of reward responses linked to a decrease of mesolimbic dopaminergic activity, and ii) a disorganization of circadian feeding behavior that switch from a structured meal-based schedule to a continuous snacking, even during periods normally devoted to rest. This feeding pattern has been shown to be a cause of HF-induced overweight and obesity. Our hypothesis deals with the eventual link between the rewarding properties of food and the circadian distribution of meals. We have investigated the effect of circadian feeding pattern on reward circuits by means of the conditioned-place preference (CPP) paradigm and we have characterized the rewarding properties of natural (food) and artificial (cocaine) reinforcers both in free-feeding ad libitum HF mice and in HF animals submitted to a re-organized feeding schedule based on the standard feeding behavior displayed by mice feeding normal chow (“forced synchronization”). We demonstrate that i) ad libitum HF diet attenuates cocaine and food reward in the CPP protocol, and ii) forced synchronization of feeding prevents this reward deficit. Our study provides further evidence that the rewarding impact of food with low palatability is diminished in mice exposed to a high-fat diet and strongly suggest that the decreased sensitivity to chow as a positive reinforcer triggers a disorganized feeding pattern which might account for metabolic disorders leading to obesity. PMID:22570696

  17. Body composition and energy utilization by steers of diverse genotypes fed a high-concentrate diet during the finishing period: II. Angus, Boran, Brahman, Hereford, and Tuli sires.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    1998-02-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine the influence of Angus (A), Boran (BO), Brahman (BR), Hereford (H), or Tuli (T) sires on body composition, composition of gain, and energy utilization of crossbred steers during the finishing period. Beginning at 300 kg, 96 steers were adjusted to a high-corn diet and individual feeding. Steers were assigned, by sire breed, to be killed as an initial slaughter group or fed either a limited amount or ad libitum for 140 d then killed. Organ weights, carcass traits, and body composition were evaluated. The statistical model included sire breed (S), treatment (Trt), and the S x Trt interaction. Ad libitum feed intake was least for BO- and T-, intermediate for BR- and H-, and greatest for A-sired steers. Rates of weight, fat, and energy gains were similar for A-, H-, and BR-sired steers but less (P < .01) for BO and T when fed ad libitum. Rates of protein or water gains did not differ among sire breeds (P > .12). Rates of water, fat, and protein gain increased linearly with increased rate of BW gain, but relationships differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Linear regression analyses indicated energy requirements for maintenance and efficiency of energy use for energy gain differed (P < .05) among sire breeds. Evaluation by nonlinear regression indicated that heat production increased exponentially and energy gain increased asymptotically as feed intake increased above maintenance. PMID:9498376

  18. Stable-isotope analysis of canvasback winter diet in upper Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Macko, S.A.; Walker, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A major decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Chesapeake Bay has altered the diet of wintering Canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from historically plant to a combination of benthic animal foods, especially the ubiquitous Baltic clam (Macoma balthica), supplemented with anthropogenic corn (Zea mays). Because the isotopic signature of corn is readily discriminated from bay benthos, but not SAV, we used stable-isotope methodology to investigate the corn-SAV component of the winter diet of Canvasbacks. Feeding trials with penned Canvasbacks were conducted to establish turnover rates and fractionation end-point loci of *13C and *15N signatures of whole blood for individual ducks fed ad libitum diets of (1) Baltic clams, (2) Baltic clams and corn, and (3) tubers of wild celery (Vallisneria americana). Turnover time constants averaged 4.5 weeks, indicating that signatures of wild ducks would be representative of bay diets by late February. Isotopic signatures of wild Canvasbacks sampled in February fell on a continuum between end-point loci for the Baltic clam and the combination Baltic clam and corn diet. Although that finding verifies a clear dependence on corn-SAV for wintering Canvasbacks, it also reveals that not enough corn-SAV is available to establish ad libitum consumption for the 15,000+ Canvasbacks wintering in the upper bay. On the basis of mean *13C signature of bay Canvasbacks (n=59) and ingestion rates from feeding trials, we estimated that 258 kg corn per day would account for the observed *13C enrichment and supply 18% of daily energetic needs for 15,000 Canvasbacks. That level of corn availability is so realistic that we conclude that SAV is likely of little dietary importance to Canvasbacks in that portion of the bay.

  19. Dietary experience modifies horses' feeding behavior and selection patterns of three macronutrient rich diets.

    PubMed

    Redgate, S E; Cooper, J J; Hall, S; Eady, P; Harris, P A

    2014-04-01

    Choice feeding is often used to investigate an animal's nutritional requirements and dietary preferences. A problem with this approach is that animals with long gut transit times, such as the horse, may find it difficult to associate a chosen food with its nutritional consequence when alternative foods are presented simultaneously. One solution is to present foods singly for a period of time before a simultaneous choice session to allow the development of learned associations. This method was used to determine if horse's voluntary intake and feeding behavior was influenced by the macronutrient composition of the diet. Seven stabled horses, maintained on a low intensity exercise regimen, were allowed, on an ad libitum basis, haylage and 3 isocaloric forage based diets that were rich in 1 of 3 macronutrients (protein, lipid, and hydrolyzable carbohydrate). Initially, diets were presented as a 3-way choice for 5 d (self-selection a [SSa]), then singly (monadic phase) with exposure to each diet for 2 separate periods of 3 d each, and finally again as a choice for 5 d (self-selection b [SSb]). The total amount of trial diet offered differed with trial phase, with 2 to 2.5% of BW during SSa and the monadic phase, increasing to ad libitum access during SSb. To control differences in the total amount of trial diet offered, 2 measurements of voluntary intake were taken at 4 and 22 h postpresentation. Daily macronutrient and energy intakes were estimated from proximate analysis of the trial diets and batches of haylage fed. Feeding behavior was observed over a single 4-h period during both self-selection phases. Horses showed no initial preference after 4 h for any 1 diet during SSa. Following the monadic phase, horses demonstrated a preference for the protein and hydrolyzable carbohydrate rich diets over the lipid rich diet (P < 0.001). Dietary experience modified foraging behavior as the total number of visits to the diets decreased during SSb (P < 0.005). Analysis of 24

  20. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    PubMed

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior. PMID:22963737

  1. Tlr-4 deficiency selectively protects against obesity induced by diets high in saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeremy E; Gabler, Nicholas K; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Spurlock, Michael E

    2008-06-01

    Toll-like receptor-4 (Tlr-4), a key pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immune response, is activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs). To investigate the involvement of this receptor in obesity caused by consumption of diets high in fat, we utilized male Tlr-4-deficient 10ScN mice and 10J controls. Mice were fed either low fat (low-fat control (LFC)), high unsaturated fat (high-fat control (HFC)), or high saturated fat + palmitate (HFP) diets ad libitum for 16 weeks. Relative to the LFC diet, the HFC diet resulted in greater epididymal fat pad weights and adipocyte hypertrophy in both Tlr-4-deficient and normal mice. However, the 10ScN mice were completely protected against the obesigenic effects of the HFP diet. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) transcript abundance were lower in adipose tissue of 10ScN mice fed the HFP diet, and the hyperinsulinemic response was negated. Tlr-4-deficient mice also had markedly lower circulating concentrations of MCP-1 and much less nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) protein in nuclear extracts prepared from adipose tissue, irrespective of diet. In contrast, Tlr-4 deficiency did not attenuate the induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in adipose tissue. These data indicate that Tlr-4 deficiency selectively protects against the obesigenic effects of SFA and alters obesity-related inflammatory responses in adipose tissue. PMID:18421279

  2. Plant-Based No Added Fat or American Heart Association Diets, Impact on Cardiovascular Risk in Obese Hypercholesterolemic Children and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Macknin, Michael; Kong, Tammie; Weier, Adam; Worley, Sarah; Tang, Anne S.; Alkhouri, Naim; Golubic, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a randomized trial to determine if there is cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction from a plant-based no added fat diet (PB) and the American Heart Association Diet (AHA) in children. Study design Four-week (4/20/2013-5/18/2013) prospective randomized trial in a large Midwestern hospital system’s predominantly middle class outpatient pediatric practices. Thirty children (9–18 years old) parent pairs with a last recorded child BMI >95th percentile and child cholesterol >169 mg/dL were randomized to PB or AHA with weekly 2-hour classes of nutrition education. Results Children on PB had nine and children on AHA had four statistically significant (P<0.05) beneficial changes from baseline (mean decreases): BMI Z-scorePB (−0.14), systolic blood pressurePB (−6.43 mm Hg), total cholesterolPB (−22.5 mg/dL), low density lipoproteinPB (−13.14 mg/dL), hsCRPPB (−2.09 mg/L), insulinPB (−5.42uU/ml), myeloperoxidasePB/AHA (−75.34/69.23 pmol/L), mid-arm circumferencePB/AHA (−2.02/−1.55 cm), weightPB/AHA (−3.05/ −1.14kg) and waist circumferenceAHA (−2.96 cm). Adults on PB and AHA had seven and two respectively statistically significant (P<0.05) beneficial changes. The significant change favoring AHA was a 1% difference in children’s waist circumference. Difficulty shopping for food for the PB was the only statistically significant acceptability barrier. Conclusions PB and the AHA in both children and adults demonstrated potentially beneficial changes from baseline in risk factors for CVD. Future larger, long-term randomized trials with easily accessible PB foods will further define the role of the PB in preventing CVD. PMID:25684089

  3. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. PMID:25475789

  4. Relations between passage rates of rumen fluid and particulate matter and foam production in rumen contents of cattle fed on different diets ad lib.

    PubMed

    Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Hardin, R T

    1989-03-01

    1. A group of six cattle, three of which had a non-bloating history (group A) and had been ruminally cannulated for the previous 2 years, and three with a history of being bloat-prone (group B) and which had been ruminally cannulated only 3 months before the study, were fed ad lib. on chopped lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay, lucerne pellets, or a 100 g chopped hay and 900 g rolled barley grain/kg diet over three periods of 30 d each. Flow of rumen digesta, by reference to CoEDTA and chromium-mordanted fibres, and foam production from samples of rumen contents were measured. 2. Samples of rumen contents (50 ml) from group A produced foam heights of 150 and 60 mm, 2 and 4 h after feeding respectively, compared with 240 and 150 mm for group B (P less than 0.05). 3. The fractional passage rate of the 1-2 mm particles mordanted with Cr did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between groups. 4. The fractional outflow rates (FOR) for CoEDTA 0-2 h and 2-7 h after feed was offered were 0.205 and 0.160/h for group A and 0.093 and 0.086/h for group B respectively (P less than 0.05). 5. Rumen-fluid FOR 0-2 h and 2-7 h after provision of feed were significantly (P less than 0.05) inversely correlated (r -0.74 and -0.85 respectively) with the amount of foam produced from rumen contents at these times. PMID:2706234

  5. Effects of Replacing Groundnut Cake with Blood Vegetable Waste Meal in the Diets of Weaner Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Adeniji, Adedayo Abiodun

    2012-01-01

    A total of seventy-two weaner rabbits of eight weeks of age were used to assess the effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with blood vegetable waste meal (BVWM) in the diets of rabbits. The BVWM was fed to replace dietary GNC at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, with GNC being 15% in the control diet. The four experimental diets were fed ad libitum for a period of eight weeks. BVWM was analyzed to contain a crude protein value of 62.35%. There were comparable feed intake values by rabbits on all the diets although the rabbits in the higher replacement levels of BVWM tended to have consumed more of the feed. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in body weight gain by rabbits as the BVWM level increased in the diet. Similarly, the feed to gain ratio improved and nitrogen digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with higher levels of BVWM in the diet. This study shows that rabbits can tolerate the 45% BVWM replacement of groundnut cake effectively. PMID:23738121

  6. Using eastern gamagrass to construct diets that limit intake and caloric density for dairy replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has shown that eastern gamagrass (EGG; Tripsacum dactyloides L.) will survive winter climatic conditions common throughout central Wisconsin, and will produce yields of dry matter (DM) ranging approximately from 7,000 to 10,000 kg/ha annually when managed with a 1-cut harvest system. The objective of this research was to determine whether the fibrous nature of this perennial warm-season grass could be effective in reducing the caloric density and DMI of corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets for replacement dairy heifers. A total of 120 Holstein dairy heifers were blocked by body weight (heavy, 424 ± 15.9 kg; medium, 369 ± 11.8 kg; light, 324 ± 22.4 kg), and then assigned to 15 individual pens containing 8heifers each. Eastern gamagrass forage was harvested, ensiled, and subsequently incorporated into blended corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets at rates of 0, 9.1, 18.3, or 27.4% of the total dietary DM (EGG0, EGG9, EGG18, and EGG27, respectively). These diets were offered during a 105-d evaluation period for ad libitum intake; however, the EGG0 diet also was offered on a limit-fed basis (LF), which was set at 85% of the voluntary intake of EGG0. Serial additions of EGG increased concentrations of neutral detergent fiber in blended diets from 39.6 (EGG0) to 48.7% (EGG27), and simultaneously reduced corresponding estimates of total digestible nutrients (TDN) from 68.2 to 61.3%, and net energy for gain from 1.07 to 0.83 Mcal/kg. Dry matter intakes for all diets offered ad libitum were greater than observed for LF (9.06 vs. 8.07 kg/d); however, DM intakes for diets containing EGG were reduced relative to EGG0 (9.40 vs. 8.94 kg/d). Similarly, intakes of TDN were greater for diets offered for ad libitum intake than for LF (5.84 vs. 5.50 kg/d); however, inclusion of EGG reduced TDN intakes relative to EGG0 (6.41 vs. 5.65 kg/d). This reduction was explained by both linear and quadratic effects of the inclusion rate of EGG in the diet. Over the 105-d trial

  7. Walnut ingestion in adults at risk for diabetes: effects on body composition, diet quality, and cardiac risk measures

    PubMed Central

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Ayettey, Rockiy; Petraro, Paul; Treu, Judith A; Katz, David L

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite their energy density, walnuts can be included in the diet without adverse effects on weight or body composition. The effect of habitual walnut intake on total calorie intake is not well studied. Effects on overall diet quality have not been reported. Methods Randomized, controlled, modified Latin square parallel design study with 2 treatment arms. The 112 participants were randomly assigned to a diet with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake. Within each treatment arm, participants were further randomized to 1 of the 2 possible sequence permutations to receive a walnut-included diet with 56 g (providing 366 kcal) of walnuts per day and a walnut-excluded diet. Participants were assessed for diet quality, body composition, and cardiac risk measures. Results When compared with a walnut-excluded diet, a walnut-included diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust caloric intake, significantly improved diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (9.14±17.71 vs 0.40±15.13; p=0.02 and 7.02±15.89 vs -5.92±21.84; p=0.001, respectively). Endothelial function, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol improved significantly from baseline in the walnut-included diet. Body mass index, percent body fat, visceral fat, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and blood pressure did not change significantly. Conclusions The inclusion of walnuts in an ad libitum diet for 6 months, with or without dietary counseling to adjust calorie intake, significantly improved diet quality, endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol, but had no effects on anthropometric measures, blood glucose level, and blood pressure. Trial registration number: NCT02330848 PMID:26688734

  8. Effect of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbiota of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cangyou; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Qing; Peng, Qian; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the experiment on 180 weaned piglets (8.9 kg body weight) was to investigate the influence of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea incidence and numbers of faecal microbiota. The dietary treatments included a Control diet and five high fibre diets formulated with different fibre sources including wheat bran, soybean hulls, naked oat hulls, palm kernel expeller and bamboo fibre. The high fibre diets averaged 14.6% neutral detergent fibre with different non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) components and were fed ad libitum for 28 d. Faecal samples were collected during the last 3 d of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fibre components were determined. Pigs fed the Control and wheat bran diets had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than pigs fed the palm kernel expeller and bamboo meal diets. The reduced ADG for pigs appeared to be related to reductions in the digestibility of gross energy and dry matter, respectively. The feed-to-gain ratio was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the fibre diets. The digestibility of NSP components was different among the treatments. The diarrhoea incidence was not affected by treatments. The abundance of faecal bifidobacteria was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the wheat bran diet than for pigs fed the bamboo meal diet. It was concluded that the diets formulated with different fibre sources when fed to weaned piglets have different effects on pig performance, nutrient digestibility and numbers of faecal microbiota. The wheat bran diet rich in arabinoxylans enabled a better performance than the other tested diets with fibre addition. PMID:27216554

  9. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health. PMID:7440817

  10. A ketogenic diet delays weight loss and does not impair working memory or motor function in the R6/2 1J mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Ruskin, David N; Ross, Jessica L; Kawamura, Masahito; Ruiz, Tiffany L; Geiger, Jonathan D; Masino, Susan A

    2011-07-01

    Ketogenic diets are high in fat and low in carbohydrates, and have long been used as an anticonvulsant therapy for drug-intractable and pediatric epilepsy. Additionally, ketogenic diets have been shown to provide neuroprotective effects against acute and chronic brain injury, including beneficial effects in various rodent models of neurodegeneration. Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurological, behavioral and metabolic dysfunction, and ketogenic diets have been shown to increase energy molecules and mitochondrial function. We tested the effects of a ketogenic diet in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease (R6/2 1J), with a focus on life-long behavioral and physiological effects. Matched male and female wild-type and transgenic mice were maintained on a control diet or were switched to a ketogenic diet fed ad libitum starting at six weeks of age. We found no negative effects of the ketogenic diet on any behavioral parameter tested (locomotor activity and coordination, working memory) and no significant change in lifespan. Progressive weight loss is a hallmark feature of Huntington's disease, yet we found that the ketogenic diet-which generally causes weight loss in normal animals-delayed the reduction in body weight of the transgenic mice. These results suggest that metabolic therapies could offer important benefits for Huntington's disease without negative behavioral or physiological consequences. PMID:21501628

  11. Effects of adding MIN-AD to steam-flaked corn-based diets with or without wet corn distiller's grain plus solubles on performance by beef cattle during receiving and finishing phases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of wet corn distillers grain (WCDG) and MIN-AD (MIN-AD Inc., Amarillo, TX), a commercial source of calcium-magnesium carbonate, on cattle performance and carcass measurements were evaluated in a 42-d receiving phase (220 steers; initial BW = 279.3 kg) and a subsequent finishing phase (192 s...

  12. Effect of crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) hay harvest interval on forage quality and performance of growing calves fed mixed diets.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Hutchison, S; Stewart, C B; Shockey, J D; Gunter, S A

    2007-02-01

    Twelve 0.81-ha crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris [Retz.] Koel.) hay fields were harvested at 21, 35, and 49 d of regrowth (average phonological growth stage of 30, 51, and 56, respectively). Increased harvest interval exhibited a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in CP (14.1, 13.7, and 10.6% of DM, respectively) and increase (P < 0.01) in NDF (65.3, 70.6, and 70.2% of DM, respectively) and ADF (35.7, 38.9, and 42.7% of DM, respectively). Hays were incorporated into 3 diets that contained 20% (DM basis) crabgrass hay, ground corn (33%), and soybean hulls (32%). Diets contained 14.4, 14.4, and 13.6% CP; 1.83, 1.72, and 1.81 Mcal of NE(m)/kg; and 1.21, 1.10, and 1.17 Mcal of NE(g)/kg; respectively. Diets were fed to beef calves in 12 pens at a rate of 2.3% (DM basis) of BW in 1 experiment (n = 120, initial BW 210 +/- 4.4 kg) and ad libitum in another experiment (n = 60, initial BW 207 +/- 4.4 kg). To measure passage rate of the hay and concentrate portions of the diets, 12 heifer calves (BW = 145 +/- 4.5 kg) were individually fed at 2.3% of BW for 14 d and dosed with Dy-labeled soybean hulls and Yb-labeled hay. In situ DM digestibility of the hays and diets were determined using 3 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 584 +/- 10.4 kg). Harvest interval did not affect (P > or = 0.11) ADG of limit-fed calves during the diet acclimation or growing phases (average 0.32 and 0.80 kg, respectively) or ADG of calves fed ad libitum (average 1.21 kg). Dry matter intake of calves fed ad libitum averaged 7.9 kg/d (3.28% of BW) and was not affected (P > or = 0.22) by harvest interval. Gain:feed was not affected (P > or = 0.20) by harvest interval (0.13 and 0.15 for limit-fed and ad libitum-fed calves, respectively). Increased harvest interval linearly increased (P < 0.01) ruminal retention time of the hay and tended (P = 0.06) to linearly increase ruminal retention time of the concentrate portions of the diet. Harvest interval linearly decreased (P < or = 0.05) the extent of degradability and

  13. Characterization of early changes in fetoplacental hemodynamics in a diet-induced rabbit model of IUGR.

    PubMed

    López-Tello, J; Barbero, A; González-Bulnes, A; Astiz, S; Rodríguez, M; Formoso-Rafferty, N; Arias-Álvarez, M; Rebollar, P G

    2015-10-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and late-onset diseases in offspring. Eating disorders, voluntary caloric restriction and maternal undernutrition can all induce IUGR but a relevant model is required to measure all its possible consequences. In this work, pregnant rabbits were used as an IUGR model. Control females (n=4) received ad libitum diet throughout pregnancy, whereas underfed females (n=5) were restricted to 50% of their daily requirements. Offspring size was measured by ultrasonography and in vivo at birth. Hemodynamic features of the umbilical cords and middle cerebral arteries (systolic peak velocity, end diastolic velocity, pulsatility index and resistance index) were characterized by Doppler ultrasonography. At day 21, maternal underfeeding resulted in a significant reduction of fetal size (occipito-nasal length). At birth, the size of kits from the underfed group was significantly lower (lower crown-rump length, biparietal and transversal thoracic diameters) and a reduced weight with respect to the control group. Feed restriction altered blood flow perfusion compared with does fed ad libitum (significant higher systolic peak, time-averaged mean velocities and lower end diastolic velocity). Fetuses affected by IUGR presented with compensative brain-sparing effects when compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study supports using rabbits and the underfeeding approach as a valuable model for IUGR studies. These results may help to characterize IUGR alterations due to nutrient restriction of mothers in future research. PMID:26268616

  14. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input–output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy. PMID:26009636

  15. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-05-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input-output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy. PMID:26009636

  16. Oviposition and development of face flies in dung from cattle on herbage and supplemented herbage diets.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, C T; Knapp, F W

    1994-10-01

    Dung was collected from Angus cattle (Bos taurus L.) fed (ad libitum) hays of endophyte-free (EF) and endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams) infected (EI) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and alfalfa-smooth bromegrass (1:1 w/w) and green-chopped Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Samples of dung were subsequently collected from the same animals offered the same herbage diets supplemented each day with ground maize (Zea mays L.) kernels at 0.35 kg per body weight. Dung from both sources were used in bioassays to establish oviposition preferences of face flies (Musca autumnalis De Geer). When offered dung from herbage diets, face flies deposited 38.3% of their eggs on dung derived from EF tall fescue diets, 9.9% on dung from EI tall fescue diets, 21.0% on dung from alfalfa diets, 7.4% on dung from red clover diets and 22.8% on dung from alfalfa-bromegrass diets. Face flies avoided ovipositing in dung from cattle ingesting bromegrass hay and Kentucky bluegrass green-chop. Supplements increased oviposition preference of face flies for dung from cattle ingesting Kentucky bluegrass greenchop to 19.1% at the expense of oviposition on dung from cattle ingesting alfalfa hay diets (4.5%), otherwise, they had little effect on oviposition preference ranking. Growth and development of first instar larvae of face flies was also measured in bioassays of dung from cattle on herbage and supplemented herbage diets. The presence of endophyte reduced pupation in dung from cattle on tall fescue hay diets from 86.3 to 79.8% and from 90.1 to 73.2% in dung from cattle on supplemented tall fescue hay diets. Pupal liveweights averaged 27.5 mg on dung from cattle on EF tall fescue diets, 22.1 mg from dung of cattle on EI tall fescue diets, 22.2 mg from dung of cattle on supplemented EF tall fescue diets and 24.0 mg from dung of cattle on supplemented

  17. n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF, 20%) diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL) or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG). Results Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i) inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), (ii) leptin and (iii) 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution. Conclusion Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing the size of

  18. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  19. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  20. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Z; Heger, J

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted on growing male SPF-rats to compare weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine concentration as response criteria in evaluating adequacy of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan supplements to the deficient diets. Two basal semisynthetic diets were prepared limiting in lysine and threonine (Expt. 1) and lysine and tryptophan (Expt. 2). The addition of graded supplements to the basal diets of L-lysine X HCl alone (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0% of diet) induced imbalance of amino acids resulting in low level of daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Plasma free lysine concentration started to grow linearly from the first supplement of L-lysine X HCl. If rats were fed the diets containing identical supplements of L-lysine X HCl in combination with two supplements of L-threonine (0.2 and 0.4% of diet, Expt. 1) or L-tryptophan (0.05 and 0.1% of diet, Expt. 2), plasma free lysine started to increase before supplements of amino acids were adequate to support maximum weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. this difference in response seems to be caused by different feeding regiment during the growth period of the experiments (ad libitum) and training period prior to blood sampling (feeding twice daily). PMID:3098208

  1. The effect of diet and exercise on incidence of 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in virgin BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.T.; Lane, H.W.; Teer, P.; Keith, R.E.; Strahan, S. NASA, Houston, TX )

    1991-03-15

    The effects of rotating-drum treadmill exercise and diet on 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors were investigated in virgin female BALB/c mice. The animals were fed one of three diets: AIN 76 (SD), high-fat diet (HFD), or a restricted calorie diet (RCD). All diets were begun at 6 weeks of age and fed ad libitum except for the restricted diet which was fed at 70% of the SD. At 8 weeks of age all animals received the first of 6 consecutive DMBA doses via gastric tube. Each diet had an exercise and no exercise subgroup. Exercise began at 10 wks of age (6 m/min for 60 min, 5 d/wk) and continued throughout the 9.5 mo. study. Exercise reduced feed consumption in SD and HFD groups. Body weight was similar in all groups with HFDEx having the lowest body wt. Calorie restriction had no effect on body wt. but reduced mammary tumor incidence in the SD groups; however, exercise did affect mammary tumor incidence in the other groups as follows: RCD = 28%, RCDEx = 13%; HFD = 31%, HFDEx = 19%. Caloric consumption appeared to be related to mammary tumor incidence rather than body wt. or dietary fat.

  2. Mimosine degradation in calves fed a sole diet of Leucaena leucocephala in India.

    PubMed

    Ram, J J; Atreja, P P; Chopra, R C; Chhabra, A

    1994-11-01

    Five Karan Swiss crossbred (Sahiwal x Brown Swiss) calves were abruptly switched over from a diet of concentrate and maize fodder to ad libitum air dried Leucaena leucocephala leaves plus twigs. After 17 days on the L. leucocephala diet, 3 of the calves were supplemented with copper sulphate (10 mg/kg DM L. leucocephala) for 12 days. Thereafter all the calves were taken off the L. leucocephala diet and returned to the pre-experimental concentrate and maize fodder diet. While on the L. leucocephala diet, the average DM intake/d of L. leucocephala declined to 497 g within 3 weeks and all calves lost weight. This weight loss was reversed in the 3 calves that received copper sulphate, and all calves gained weight when they resumed the concentrate and maize fodder diet. The toxic effects of L. leucocephala feeding for 24 days were characterised by poor growth, emaciation, alopecia, loss of hair from the tail switch, ear and eye lesions, ulceration of the mouth region, drooling viscid saliva and vomiting of thick green saliva in one of the calves. Mean levels of 3,4 dihydroxypyridone (DHP) (mg/100 ml) were 30.35 +/- 13.52 and 55.57 +/- 13.77 on days 2 and 4 respectively in rumen liquor and up to 136.01 +/- 80.18 in urine. The mean ratios of mimosine: DHP of 3.14, 0.12 and 0.04 in feed, faeces and urine respectively revealed extensive degradation of mimosine to DHP in the calves fed the L. leucocephala diet and it was concluded the calves were unable to tolerate a diet consisting solely of L. leucocephala. PMID:7900214

  3. Almond hulls in diets for lactating goats: effects on yield and composition of milk, feed intake, and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Reed, B A; Brown, D L

    1988-02-01

    Four cubed rations of similar chemical composition were fed ad libitum to 16 lactating yearling Alpine goats. The rations contained 0, 15, 25, and 35% almond hulls; 0, .5, 1, and 1% urea; and 58.4, 42.5, 32.0, and 22.0% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Chromic oxide was added as a digestibility marker. Average nutrient composition of diets was 91% DM, 20% CP, 32% NDF, 9% ash, and 4.39 Mcal gross energy/kg. Goats were randomly assigned to one of four diet orders in four replications of a 4 X 4 Latin square, blocked by goat and period. Data were collected in the 3rd wk of each period. Diets containing 25 and 35% almond hulls increased DM intake and reduced milk protein percent and digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ash, and NDF. Dry matter intake and weight gain were highest for the diet containing 35% almond hulls and 1% urea. Results indicate that almond hulls and urea can be fed to lactating goats up to these amounts without adversely affecting lactation. PMID:3379180

  4. Added sugar, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages and risk of pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ying; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Jiao, Li; Silverman, Debra T.; Subar, Amy F.; Park, Yikyung; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been hypothesized to be involved in the development of pancreatic cancer, results from epidemiologic studies on added sugar intake are inconclusive. Objective Our objective was to investigate whether the consumption of total added sugar, sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. Design We prospectively examined 487922 men and women aged 50–71 years and free of cancer and diabetes in 1995–96. Total added dietary sugar intake in teaspoons per day (based on USDA’s Pyramid Servings Database) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with adjustment for total energy and potential confounding factors. Results During an average 7.2 years of follow-up, 1258 incident pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained. The median intakes for the lowest and highest quintiles of total added sugar intake were 12.6 g/day and 96.2 g/day. No overall increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed in men or women with high intake of total added sugar or sugar-sweetened foods and beverages. For men and women combined, the multivariate RRs of the highest versus lowest intake categories were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.06; P trend= 0.07) for total added sugar, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.82,1.23; P trend= 0.58) for sweets, 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82,1.18; P trend= 0.49) for dairy desserts, 1.12 (95% CI: 0.91,1.39; P trend= 0.35) for sugar added to coffee and tea, and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.77,1.31; P trend= 0.76) for sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis that consumption of added sugar, or sugar-sweetened foods and beverages is associated with overall risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:18689380

  5. Cholesterol: an antidiarrheal agent in rats with short-bowel syndrome fed elemental diets.

    PubMed

    Huk, I; Schulz, F; Abrahamian, V; Kaminski, M V

    1986-01-01

    Studies show that bile acids and long-chain fatty acids are responsible for diarrhea in certain malabsorption syndromes. Recent reports indicate that substances such as dietary cholesterol, when moderately consumed, can reduce bile-induced excessive mucosal fluid and electrolyte output. This study explores the antidiarrheal effect and dosage of dietary cholesterol in rats following massive bowel resection, co-fed elemental diet. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 248-253 g underwent 75% resection of the small bowel and were fed ad libitum for 21 days with 1 of 5 diets (n = 7) of Vivonex HN, supplemented by 0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 15 mM cholesterol/1,000 g of the powdered elemental diet. Parameters measured included daily food and water consumption, daily changes in weight, volume of excrement and stool consistency graded by the same individual (water, semiformed or formed). It was found that 5 mM dietary cholesterol in 1,000 g of the elemental diet produced the most formed stool and significantly improved weight gain in rats with short-bowel syndrome. PMID:3780788

  6. Various types of diets, sources of energy, and positive energy balance in the induction of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Polin, D; Wolford, J H

    1976-01-01

    Adult female chickens were force-fed a corn-soy base diet at 150% of the daily amount consumed by those allowed the same diet ad libitum. Other hens were force-fed diets isocaloric to the 150% group just mentioned, but diet composition was adjusted so that 2/3 of the metabolizable energy (M.E.) came from the corn-soy diet and 1/3 from either corn oil or glucose; or force-fed a low energy diet accounting for 2/3 of the M.E. and corn oil 1/3 of M.E., or a purified diet accounting for all M.E. Fatty liver-hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) was induced in all force-fed groups with only the low energy diet plus corn oil having produced a significantly lower score for FLHS. However, the livers from the hens of the latter group had as much lipid, and the hens gained at least as much weight as those in other force-fed groups. During the third week of the experiment M.E. was determined along with a partition of energy among eggs, basal metabolism, body weight gain, and subsistance plus heat increment (H.I). The data showed that the hens force-fed corn oil had lower H.I. values indicative of associative dynamic action of fats at a plane of nutrition above normal. The data revealed that various types of diets and sources of energy in excess can induce FLHS, and this is discussed in terms of FLHS arising out of a positive energy balance. PMID:934996

  7. Effects of adding protein, condensed tannins, and polyethylene glycol to diets of sheep and goats fed one-seed juniper and low quality roughage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biochemical mechanisms that limit voluntary intake of one-seed juniper by browsing ruminants are not well understood. Twelve Rambouillet ewes (78 ± 2.3 kg BW) and 12 Boer-Spanish does (54 ± 1.4 kg BW) were used in a split-plot sequence design to investigate the effects of adding protein, quebrac...

  8. Effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs to the diet of young pigs on growth performance, intestinal cytokines, and circulating acute phase proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of adding fibrous feedstuffs on growth performance, intestinal cytokine expression, markers of inflammation, abundance of phosphorylated S6 kinase (S6K), and the expression of genes that control intestinal growth was evaluated in weanling pigs. Pigs (n = 120; 5.2 kg and 24 d of age) wer...

  9. Lifestyle and diet.

    PubMed

    Opie, Lionel H

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is widespread interest in many different diets. The best-known diets include the New Atkins diet in the USA, the Dukan diet in France, and in South Africa the Noakes diet. Two different approaches have emerged, one focusing on a life-long healthy lifestyle and the other emphasising weight loss. These are in fact complementary aims, as will be reviewed and reconciled. Furthermore, besides the dietary approach, there is a valid case for added drug therapy for selected lipid disorders with the use statins. In addition, new drugs are emerging that in the future might eventually considerably reduce the negative health impact of coronary artery disease. PMID:25629717

  10. Consumption of Clarified Grapefruit Juice Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Insulin Resistance and Weight Gain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L.; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25–50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13–17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet. PMID:25296035

  11. Consumption of clarified grapefruit juice ameliorates high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25-50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13-17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet. PMID:25296035

  12. Diet-induced obesity exacerbates metabolic and behavioral effects of polycystic ovary syndrome in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Ressler, Ilana B; Grayson, Bernadette E; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Seeley, Randy J

    2015-06-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age. Although a comorbidity of PCOS is obesity, many are lean. We hypothesized that increased saturated fat consumption and obesity would exacerbate metabolic and stress indices in a rodent model of PCOS. Female rats were implanted with the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or placebo pellets prior to puberty. Half of each group was maintained ad libitum on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 40% butter fat calories) or nutrient-matched low-fat diet (LFD). Irrespective of diet, DHT-treated animals gained more body weight, had irregular cycles, and were glucose intolerant compared with controls on both diets. HFD/DHT animals had the highest levels of fat mass and insulin resistance. DHT animals demonstrated increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze by decreased distance traveled and time in the open arms. HFD consumption increased immobility during the forced-swim test. DHT treatment suppressed diurnal corticosterone measurements in both diet groups. In parallel, DHT treatment significantly dampened stress responsivity to a mild stressor. Brains of DHT animals showed attenuated c-Fos activation in the ventromedial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus; irrespective of DHT-treatment, however, all HFD animals had elevated hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus c-Fos activation. Whereas hyperandrogenism drives overall body weight gain, glucose intolerance, anxiety behaviors, and stress responsivity, HFD consumption exacerbates the effect of androgens on adiposity, insulin resistance, and depressive behaviors. PMID:26078189

  13. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    SciTech Connect

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  14. Effects of weight loss via high fat vs. low fat alternate day fasting diets on free fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Dam, Vi T; Klempel, Monica C; Horne, Matthew; Cruz, Rani; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Santosa, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk is associated with excess body weight and elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. This study examines how an alternate-day fasting (ADF) diet high (HF) or low (LF) in fat affects plasma FFA profiles in the context of weight loss, and changes in body composition and lipid profiles. After a 2-week weight maintenance period, 29 women (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2)) 25-65 years old were randomized to an 8-week ADF-HF (45% fat) diet or an ADF-LF (25% fat) diet with 25% energy intake on fast days and ad libitum intake on feed days. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were assessed weekly and body composition was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and individual FFA and plasma lipid concentrations were measured before and after weight loss. Body weight, BMI, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in both groups. Total FFA concentrations also decreased (P < 0.001). In the ADF-LF group, decreases were found in several more FFAs than in the ADF-HF group. In the ADF-HF group, FFA concentrations were positively correlated with waist circumference. Depending on the macronutrient composition of a diet, weight loss with an ADF diet decreases FFA concentrations through potentially different mechanisms. PMID:25557754

  15. Effects of starch and fibre in pelleted diets on nutritional status of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) fawns.

    PubMed

    McCusker, S; Shipley, L A; Tollefson, T N; Griffin, M; Koutsos, E A

    2011-08-01

    To compare the effects of a low-starch, high-fibre diet [LSHF; 51.6% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 3.0% starch, 14.8% crude protein (CP)] and a high-starch, low-fibre diet (HSLF; 33.3% NDF, 20.0% starch, 19.6% CP) on the nutritional status of captive exotic ruminants, 16 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were fed one of these two diets ad libitum with ≤25% alfalfa hay cubes from 10 days to 68 weeks of age. During five sampling periods beginning in November and spaced 6-12 weeks apart thereafter, feed intake, rumen and blood chemistry, faecal scores, growth and body condition were measured. Dry matter intake, digestible energy intake, time spent ruminating and feeding and blood acetate concentration were greater for deer fed LSHF (p < 0.05 for all). Lower dietary CP led to reduced blood urea nitrogen for deer consuming LSHF (p = 0.004). Deer had the same faecal scores, growth and body fat among treatments (all p > 0.05). These findings show pelleted diets with less starch, more fibre, and reduced protein met the energy and protein requirements of growing mule deer, a medium-sized browsing ruminant, as well as traditional grain-based diets while more closely mimicking natural forages and stimulating a more natural feeding behaviour. PMID:21091543

  16. Effects of a high fat diet on bone of growing rats. Correlations between visceral fat, adiponectin and bone mass density

    PubMed Central

    Lac, Gerard; Cavalie, Helian; Ebal, Edmond; Michaux, Odile

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated some bone parameters (bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area) in growing rats fed with a high fat diet. Correlations between bone and body composition parameters are reported. Two groups of Wistar male rats (35 days old, body mass 80 ± 6 g) were used. Water and food were given "ad libitum" during 10 weeks. Sixteen rats (L) were given a lipid enriched diet and were compared to 16 rats (S) fed with a standard diet. Body composition and bone parameters were assessed using DXA. Results indicated that L rats had lower body mass, lean body mass; fat mass was not different between the two groups. Bone mineral content, bone mineral density, skeleton area of L rats were lower compared with S rats. Significant correlations were noted between body composition, adiponectin and bone parameters. High fat diet intake during the growing period has deleterious effects on bone parameters in rats. This study confirms in growing rats that a high fat diet is pathogenic, including bone metabolism. PMID:18442361

  17. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681

  18. Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Kil, Dong Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated 5×5 Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW], 39.2±2.2 kg). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire; initial BW, 47.7±3.5 kg) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE

  19. [Volatile fatty acids in the rumen of sheep fed a synthetic diet].

    PubMed

    Baran, M; Bod'a, K; Jalc, D; Piatková, M; Kalacnjuk, G I; Várady, J

    1983-08-01

    A trial was conducted with wethers to study the effect of the administration of a synthetic diet (composition: 30.125% starch, 30.125% sucrose, 25% cellulose, 5.25% urea, 8.125% mineral supplement, 1.25% maize oil and 0.125% cholinechloride) upon rumen fermentation. The adaptation to the synthetic diet lasted three months, the proportion of the synthetic diet increasing every week (by 10%) to the detriment of a traditional diet (composition: 0.5 kg meadow hay, 0.3 kg barley, 0.2 kg wheat bran, salt and straw ad libitum). In the 10th week the animals consumed 0.5 kg granular synthetic diet, 0.2 kg cellulose flakes and 0.01 kg polystyrene. After three weeks of the administration of the fully synthetic diet, the rumen fluid was sampled after morning feeding in intervals of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours. In the dynamics of fermentation, statistically significant differences were found only in isobutyric and isovaleric acid between the 0th and 1st and between the 5th and 7th hours (P less than 0.05--P less than 0.001). The data for all the time intervals were recalculated to average values. These were as follows: total volatile fatty acids 63.03 mmol/l, acetic acid 51.00 mol%, propionic acid 26.75 mol%, butyric acid 19.43 mol%, isobutyric acid 0.91 mol%, isovaleric 1.27 mol%, valeric acid 0.62 mol%, energy efficiency of VFA production 78.23%. The obtained data are confronted with literary data on synthetic diets which contained urea and various energy sources. PMID:6414150

  20. Reproductive Performance Of Heifers Offered Ad Libitum Or Restricted Access To Feed For A 140-D Period After Weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance was evaluated in heifers born in 4 years that were randomly assigned to either control (fed to appetite; n = 268) or restricted (fed at 80 % of that consumed by controls adjusted to a common BW basis; n = 263) feeding during a 140-d postweaning trial, beginning about 2 mo af...

  1. Reproductive Performance of Heifers Offered Ad Libitum Or Restricted Access To Feed For A 140-D Period After Weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance was evaluated in heifers born in 4 years that were randomly assigned to either control (fed to appetite; n = 268) or restricted (fed at 80 % of that consumed by controls adjusted to a common BW basis; n = 263) feeding during a 140-d postweaning trial, beginning about 2 mo af...

  2. Reproductive performance of heifers offered ad libitum or restricted access to feed for a 140-d period after weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance was evaluated in composite heifers born over a 4-yr period that were randomly assigned to control (fed to appetite; n = 268) or restricted fed at 80 % of that consumed by controls adjusted to a common BW basis; n = 263) feeding for a 140-d period beginning about 2 mo after w...

  3. A comparison of hyperhydration versus ad libitum fluid intake strategies on measures of oxidative stress, thermoregulation, and performance.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Angela R; Turner, Mark C; Peart, Daniel J; Bray, James W; Taylor, Lee; McNaughton, Lars R; Siegler, Jason C

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration has been shown to augment cellular stress. Glycerol hyperhydration can delay dehydration, which may decrease the level of pre- and post-exercise oxidative stress. This study aimed to compare the effects of glycerol (G) or water (W) hyperhydration with no hyperhydration (C) on oxidative stress, thermoregulation, and cycle performance. Seven trained males consumed 1.2 g of glycerol·kg⁻¹ body mass (BM) in 26 ml·kg⁻¹ BM water or equal volume water to achieve hyperhydration followed by a 90 min time trial. Total glutathione increased post exercise (PE) in all trials (p < 0.01), while oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05) and protein carbonyl concentrations (p < 0.001) were increased PE for the C trial only. Mean body temperature and heart rate increased with exercise but were not different between interventions. Total distance covered and power outputs were not different between interventions. Fluid intake attenuated oxidative stress but did not enhance thermoregulation or performance. PMID:24067117

  4. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving. PMID:25913686

  5. Isotopic evidence for divergent diets and mobility patterns in the Atacama Desert, northern Chile, during the Late Intermediate Period (AD 900-1450).

    PubMed

    Santana-Sagredo, Francisca; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Schulting, Rick; Uribe, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    The decline of the Tiwanaku state saw the emergence of two new cultures-Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama-during the Late Intermediate Period in northern Chile. Archeological evidence suggests that both groups practised maize agriculture and pastoralism, but that their interaction zones differed significantly. Marine resources are common at Pica-Tarapacá sites, even those far from coast, while Atacama sites in the desert oases and precordilleran area seem to have directed their networks towards the highlands. Here we apply stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope analysis on human bone and enamel to test dietary patterns and residential mobility at two sites, Pica 8 and Quitor 6, representing the Pica-Tarapacá and Atacama cultures, respectively. Our results show that diet at the two sites indeed differed: significant but variable consumption of marine resources and maize is indicated at Pica 8, despite being an inland site, while diet at Quitor 6 was based mainly on terrestrial resources. The use of seabird guano and llama dung as fertilizers and extreme aridity may have contributed to the high nitrogen isotope values observed in Pica 8 humans. The δ(18) O values in Pica 8 individuals are generally lower than for Quitor in spite of its greater distance from the Andes. All three isotopes suggest the presence of at least five nonlocals in the 30 measured at Pica 8. This evidence for human mobility is consistent with the high levels of trade and interaction observed in the archeological record, and begins to quantify the degree of movement of specific individuals. PMID:25385676

  6. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to −6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and −5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) −1.1 kg (−2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) −0.49 mmol/L (−0.70 to −0.28), p<0.001 and −0.34 mmol/L (−0.57 to −0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (−0.57 (−0.83, −0.32), p<0.001 and −0.05 (−0.09, −0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss

  7. Modern 'junk food' and minimally-processed 'natural food' cafeteria diets alter the response to sweet taste but do not impair flavor-nutrient learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Palframan, Kristen M; Myers, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Animals learn to prefer and increase consumption of flavors paired with postingestive nutrient sensing. Analogous effects have been difficult to observe in human studies. One possibility is experience with the modern, processed diet impairs learning. Food processing manipulates flavor, texture, sweetness, and nutrition, obscuring ordinary correspondences between sensory cues and postingestive consequences. Over time, a diet of these processed 'junk' foods may impair flavor-nutrient learning. This 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis was tested by providing rats long-term exposure to cafeteria diets of unusual breadth (2 or 3 foods per day, 96 different foods over 3 months, plus ad libitum chow). One group was fed processed foods (PF) with added sugars/fats and manipulated flavors, to mimic the sensory-nutrient properties of the modern processed diet. Another group was fed only 'natural' foods (NF) meaning minimally-processed foods without manipulated flavors or added sugars/fats (e.g., fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains) ostensibly preserving the ordinary correspondence between flavors and nutrition. A CON group was fed chow only. In subsequent tests of flavor-nutrient learning, PF and NF rats consistently acquired strong preferences for novel nutrient-paired flavors and PF rats exhibited enhanced learned acceptance, contradicting the 'flavor-confusion' hypothesis. An unexpected finding was PF and NF diets both caused lasting reduction in ad lib sweet solution intake. Groups did not differ in reinforcing value of sugar in a progressive ratio task. In lick microstructure analysis the NF group paradoxically showed increased sucrose palatability relative to PF and CON, suggesting the diets have different effects on sweet taste evaluation. PMID:26796789

  8. Response of lactating cows to methionine or methionine plus lysine added to high protein diets based on alfalfa and heated soybeans.

    PubMed

    Armentano, L E; Bertics, S J; Ducharme, G A

    1997-06-01

    Lactation diets based on wilted alfalfa silage and heated whole soybeans are common in the midwestern US. We examined the milk production response of multiparous Holstein cows to the addition of ruminally protected methionine at two percentages to a basal total mixed ration. An additional total mixed ration included both methionine and lysine supplementation. Sixteen Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production, milk composition, and dry matter intake were determined for the last 5 d of each period. Milk production (41.5 kg/d), dry matter intake (25.9 kg/d), and milk fat concentration (3.26%) were unaffected by the supplementation of amino acids. The addition of methionine increased milk protein concentration and yield linearly. Each gram of methionine increased milk protein yield by 4 g, and milk protein concentration increased from 2.89 to 2.99% with the addition of 10.5 g/d of methionine. The proportion of casein N in total milk N was unaffected by treatment. The addition of lysine did not elicit a response. Total mixed rations based on alfalfa haylage, heated soybeans, and animal proteins were clearly limited by their methionine content but were adequate in their lysine content. PMID:9201591

  9. Effects of linseed and quercetin added to the diet of fattening lambs on the fatty acid profile and lipid antioxidant status of meat samples.

    PubMed

    Andrés, S; Morán, L; Aldai, N; Tejido, M L; Prieto, N; Bodas, R; Giráldez, F J

    2014-06-01

    Thirty-two Merino lambs fed barley straw and a concentrate formulated either with palm oil (CTRL group) or with linseed (+LS group), both alone or supplemented with quercetin (+QCT group or +LS+QCT group) were used to assess the effects of these dietary supplements on meat quality attributes. After being slaughtered, the longissimus thoracis muscles were used to study the fatty acid (FA) profile in detail, whilst longissimus lumborum slices were stored under refrigerated conditions to determine the lipid stability. Linseed increased the content of highly unsaturated n-3 long-chain fatty acid (20:5n-3; 22:5n-3; 22:6n-3). Interestingly, a significant increment of rumenic acid content (9c,11t-18:2) was observed when this seed was administered together with dietary quercetin. Moreover, the feeding of quercetin resulted in a reduction in the proportion of saturated FA and a decrease in lipid peroxidation of meat when the lambs were fed linseed. In conclusion, from both a nutritional and a commercial (shelf-life) point of view, it may be useful to include a source of quercetin when lambs are fed linseed diets. PMID:24583323

  10. Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes With the Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bulló, Monica; Babio, Nancy; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Basora, Josep; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, Maria Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ros, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the effects of two Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions versus a low-fat diet on incidence of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a three-arm randomized trial in 418 nondiabetic subjects aged 55–80 years recruited in one center (PREDIMED-Reus, northeastern Spain) of the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea [PREDIMED] study, a large nutrition intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomly assigned to education on a low-fat diet (control group) or to one of two MedDiets, supplemented with either free virgin olive oil (1 liter/week) or nuts (30 g/day). Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on physical activity was given. The main outcome was diabetes incidence diagnosed by the 2009 American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS After a median follow-up of 4.0 years, diabetes incidence was 10.1% (95% CI 5.1–15.1), 11.0% (5.9–16.1), and 17.9% (11.4–24.4) in the MedDiet with olive oil group, the MedDiet with nuts group, and the control group, respectively. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of diabetes were 0.49 (0.25–0.97) and 0.48 (0.24–0.96) in the MedDiet supplemented with olive oil and nuts groups, respectively, compared with the control group. When the two MedDiet groups were pooled and compared with the control group, diabetes incidence was reduced by 52% (27–86). In all study arms, increased adherence to the MedDiet was inversely associated with diabetes incidence. Diabetes risk reduction occurred in the absence of significant changes in body weight or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS MedDiets without calorie restriction seem to be effective in the prevention of diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:20929998

  11. Mediterranean diets and metabolic syndrome status in the PREDIMED randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Babio, Nancy; Toledo, Estefanía; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Castañer, Olga; Bulló, Mònica; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Sorlí, José V.; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little evidence exists on the effect of an energy-unrestricted healthy diet on metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the long-term effect of Mediterranean diets ad libitum on the incidence or reversion of metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial — a multicentre, randomized trial done between October 2003 and December 2010 that involved men and women (age 55–80 yr) at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary interventions: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts or advice on following a low-fat diet (the control group). The interventions did not include increased physical activity or weight loss as a goal. We analyzed available data from 5801 participants. We determined the effect of diet on incidence and reversion of metabolic syndrome using Cox regression analysis to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Over 4.8 years of follow-up, metabolic syndrome developed in 960 (50.0%) of the 1919 participants who did not have the condition at baseline. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome did not differ between participants assigned to the control diet and those assigned to either of the Mediterranean diets (control v. olive oil HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.94–1.30, p = 0.231; control v. nuts HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.92–1.27, p = 0.3). Reversion occurred in 958 (28.2%) of the 3392 participants who had metabolic syndrome at baseline. Compared with the control group, participants on either Mediterranean diet were more likely to undergo reversion (control v. olive oil HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.15–1.58, p < 0.001; control v. nuts HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.08–1.51, p < 0.001). Participants in the group receiving olive oil supplementation showed significant decreases in both central obesity and high fasting glucose (p = 0.02); participants in the group supplemented with nuts showed a

  12. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows. PMID:26888487

  13. From Olympia to Atlanta: a cultural-historical perspective on diet and athletic training.

    PubMed

    Grivetti, L E; Applegate, E A

    1997-05-01

    Greek and Roman writers described diet and training of Olympic athletes. Lucian (A.D. 120-ca. 180) described distance and speed work in runners; Galen (A.D. 131-201) recommended ball-related exercises to train vision and the body; Philostratos (A.D. 170-249) suggested cross training by endurance running, weight training, and wrestling with animals. The ancient Greek training system, the tetrad (eta tau epsilon tau rho alpha sigma), was a four-day cycle with each day devoted to a different activity. Diogenes Laertius (died A.D. 222) wrote that Greek athletes trained on dried figs, moist cheese and wheat; then the pattern changed and focused on meat. Epictetus (2nd century A.D.) wrote that Olympic victors avoided desserts and cold water and took wine sparingly. Philostratos deprecated athletic diet in his era, a pattern based on white bread sprinkled with poppy seeds, fish and pork. Americans at the XIth Olympiad in Berlin (1936) consumed beefsteak with average daily intake of 125 grams of butter or cotton oil, three eggs, custard for dessert and 1.5 L of milk. The American pattern at Berlin was characterized by ad libitum intake of white bread, dinner rolls, fresh vegetables and salads. At Atlanta, more than 5 million meals will be served during the Olympic festival. The highly varied menu will include fresh vegetables and dips; fruits, cheeses and breads; salads; pasta, rice and fruit salads; soups; meat and seafood entrees; hot vegetables; desserts; and beverages. American Southern specialties will be served. PMID:9164253

  14. No protein intake compensation for insufficient indispensable amino acid intake with a low-protein diet for 12 days

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein quality evaluation aims to determine the capacity of food sources and diets to meet protein and indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirements. This study determined whether nitrogen balance was affected and whether dietary IAA were adequately obtained from the ad libitum consumption of diets at three levels of protein from different primary sources for 12 days. Methods Two 12-day randomized crossover design trials were conducted in healthy subjects [n = 70/67 (M/F); age: 19-70 y; BMI: 18.2-38.7 kg/m2]. The relative dietary protein content was lower than [5% of energy (En%)], similar to (15En%), and higher than (30En%) customary diets. These diets had a limited variety of protein sources, containing wheat protein as a single protein source (5En%-protein diet) or 5En% from wheat protein with 10En% (15En%-protein diets) or 25En% (30En%-protein diets) added from whey with α-lactalbumin, soy or beef protein. Results There was a dose-dependent increase in nitrogen excretion with increasing dietary protein content, irrespective of the protein sources (P = 0.001). Nitrogen balance was maintained on the 5En%-protein diet, and was positive on the 15En%- and 30En%-protein diets (P < 0.001) over 12 days. Protein intake from the 5En%-protein diet did not reach the amount necessary to meet the calculated minimal IAA requirements, but IAA were sufficiently obtained from the 15En%- and 30En%-protein diets. In the 15En%- and 30En%-protein conditions, a higher protein intake from the soy-containing diets than from the whey with α-lactalbumin or beef containing diets was needed to meet the minimal IAA requirements. Conclusion Protein intake did not compensate for an insufficient indispensable amino acid intake with a low-protein diet for 12 days. Trial registration These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01320189 and NCT01646749. PMID:25183991

  15. Effect of commercially available chemically defined liquid diets on the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut.

    PubMed

    Alverdy, J C; Aoys, E; Moss, G S

    1990-01-01

    The effect of chemically defined liquid diets on the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut was studied in the rat. Seventy-five female Fischer rats were randomized to five groups of 15 animals each. Group I was fed rat chow and water, group II was fed Vivonex TEN, group III was fed Ensure, group IV was fed Enrich, and group V was fed Ensure plus ground corn cobs, a crude fiber source. Animals were fed their respective diets ad libitum for 1 week and then killed. Quantitative culture of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cecum was performed to determine bacterial translocation from the gut. A 66% translocation rate (10/15) of bacteria to MLN was observed in the animals fed Ensure and Enrich compared to 21% in the Vivonex TEN group (3/14) and 20% in the animals fed Ensure plus ground corn cobs (3/15). None of the animals in the control group eating their normal diets of rat chow and water developed positive MLN. Statistical significance (p less than 0.001) was achieved between the Ensure and Enrich groups when compared to controls but not between the Vivonex TEN and Ensure plus corn cobs. Cecal culture revealed a statistically significant rise in cecal bacteria in all groups when compared to the control group (group I). These results indicate that chemically defined liquid diets result in altered intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation from the gut. PMID:2325237

  16. Evaluation of procedures for estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility in ruminant animals

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures used in estimating ruminal particle turnover and diet digestibility were evaluated in a series of independent experiments. Experiment 1 and 2 evaluated the influence of sampling site, mathematical model and intraruminal mixing on estimates of ruminal particle turnover in beef steers grazing crested wheatgrass or offered ad libitum levels of prairie hay once daily, respectively. Particle turnover rate constants were estimated by intraruminal administration (via rumen cannula) of ytterbium (Yb)-labeled forage, followed by serial collection of rumen digesta or fecal samples. Rumen Yb concentrations were transformed to natural logarithms and regressed on time. Influence of sampling site (rectum versus rumen) on turnover estimates was modified by the model used to fit fecal marker excretion curves in the grazing study. In contrast, estimated turnover rate constants from rumen sampling were smaller (P < 0.05) than rectally derived rate constants, regardless of fecal model used, when steers were fed once daily. In Experiment 3, in vitro residues subjected to acid or neutral detergent fiber extraction (IVADF and IVNDF), acid detergent fiber incubated in cellulase (ADFIC) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were evaluated as internal markers for predicting diet digestibility. Both IVADF and IVNDF displayed variable accuracy for prediction of in vivo digestibility whereas ADL and ADFIC inaccurately predicted digestibility of all diets.

  17. Effect of a histidine-excess diet on a tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate pattern in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kohashi, M; Takahashi, A; Iwai, K

    1990-02-01

    The effect of a histidine-excess diet on the hepatic folylpolyglutamate pattern in rat was studied. Rats were fed ad libitum 9.7% casein basal diets with 0.6% methionine (controls) or the basal diets with 3.5% histidine. The average daily weight gain and the food intake in histidine-supplemented rats (His-rats) did not significantly differ from controls. The liver weight in His-rats, however, was 50% higher than controls. Hepatic methyltetrahydropteroylpentaglutamate (CH3-H4PteGlu5), and tetrahydropteroylmonoglutamate concentrations in His-rats was 5.7- and 2-fold higher than controls, respectively. The tetrahydropteroylpentaglutamate (H4PteGlu5) concentration in the His-rats was 74% lower than controls. Considering the homeostasis of folate cofactors in tissues, these results suggest that the hepatic regeneration systems for H4PteGlu5 in His-rats might be repressed and an apparent methylfolate trap might be attained rather on a pteroylpentaglutamate level than a monoglutamate level, and that the activity for catabolizing the excess histidine might exceed the regenerating activity for folate cofactors. PMID:2362222

  18. Influence of different histidine sources and zinc supplementation of broiler diets on dipeptide content and antioxidant status of blood and meat.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical

  19. Motivation for hay: effects of a pelleted diet on behavior and physiology of horses.

    PubMed

    Elia, Jamie B; Erb, Hollis N; Houpt, Katherine Albro

    2010-12-01

    The natural diet of free-ranging horses is grass, which is typically high in fiber and calorically dilute, however diets for high performance domestic horses are often low in fiber and calorically dense. The aim of the study was to determine the motivation of horses for hay when fed a low roughage diet. Their motivation could be used to determine if low roughage diets compromise the welfare of horses. Eight mares were fed two different diets in counterbalanced order: ad libitum orchard grass hay; a complete pelleted feed (pellets). Each trial lasted three weeks, with a one-week transition period between diets. To determine the motivation of horses for fiber they were taught to press a panel to obtain a food reward. The fixed ratio (FR) was increased using a progressive ratio ((1,2,4,7,11…) technique. When fed pellets, the horses worked for a median FR of 1 (Range=1-497) to attain pellets, and when fed hay, they worked for a median FR of 25.5 (4-497) to attain pellets. When fed hay, the horses worked for a median FR of 0 (0-0) to attain hay, and when fed pellets, they worked for a FR of 13 (2-79) to attain hay. These results indicate a greater motivation for hay, a high fiber diet, when fed a low fiber diet. The horses spent 10 (5-19.4)% of their time during a 24-hour period eating pellets compared to 61.5 (29-76) % of their time eating hay. Horses spent 58% of their time standing when fed the pellets and only 37% of their time standing when fed hay. Searching behavior (i.e. sifting through wood shaving bedding for food particles) took up 11.5 (1.4-32) % of the horse's day when fed pellets, but only 1.2 (0-3.5) % of the daily time budget when fed hay. Horses chew more times when eating a hay diet (43,476chews/day) than when eating a pellet diet (10,036chews/day). Fecal pH was lower in horses fed the pelleted diet. PMID:20869976

  20. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  1. Fructose Rich Diet-Induced High Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Production in the Adult Female Rat: Protective Effect of Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Alzamendi, Ana; Ongaro, Luisina; Giovambattista, Andrés; Gaillard, Rolf C.; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The effect of progesterone (P4) on fructose rich diet (FRD) intake-induced metabolic, endocrine and parametrial adipose tissue (PMAT) dysfunctions was studied in the adult female rat. Sixty day-old rats were i.m. treated with oil alone (control, CT) or containing P4 (12 mg/kg). Rats ate Purina chow-diet ad libitum throughout the entire experiment and, between 100 and 120 days of age drank ad libitum tap water alone (normal diet; CT-ND and P4-ND) or containing fructose (10% w/v; CT-FRD and P4-FRD). At age 120 days, animals were subjected to a glucose tolerance test or decapitated. Plasma concentrations of various biomarkers and PMAT gene abundance were monitored. P4-ND (vs. CT-ND) rats showed elevated circulating levels of lipids. CT-FRD rats displayed high (vs. CT-ND) plasma concentrations of lipids, leptin, adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Lipidemia and adiponectinemia were high (vs. P4-ND) in P4-FRD rats. Although P4 failed to prevent FRD-induced hyperleptinemia, it was fully protective on FRD-enhanced plasma PAI-1 levels. PMAT leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were high in CT-FRD and P4-FRD rats. While FRD enhanced PMAT PAI-1 mRNA abundance in CT rats, this effect was absent in P4 rats. Our study supports that a preceding P4-enriched milieu prevented the enhanced prothrombotic risk induced by FRD-elicited high PAI-1 production. PMID:23016136

  2. Performance and carbon turnover in fast- and slow-growing broilers submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed on high-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Campos, D M B; Macari, M; Fernadez-Alarcon, M F; Nogueira, W C L; de Souza, F A; Hada, F H; Lunedo, R; Denadai, J C

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that when using similar protein/amino acid diets and environment temperature conditions, the performance and carbon turnover in muscle and liver tissues, as measured by the incorporation of stable isotopes ((13)C/(12)C), must be different between fast-growing Cobb 500® and slow-growing Label Rouge broilers. For both experiments (Cobb and Label Rouge), 21-d-old birds were distributed in a completely randomised, 3 × 3 factorial design; three environmental temperatures (cyclic heat stress ad libitum, 22°C ad libitum, and 22°C restricted) and three crude protein concentrations (189.1, 210 and 220 g/kg CP) were used. The Cobb 500® had better performance with higher concentrations of crude protein. Cyclic heat stress (a temperature factor), negatively affected this genetic strain's performance. For the Label Rouge birds, the crude protein concentrations in the diet presented inconsistent results and cyclic heat stress did not affect the performance. The carbon turnover rate was affected in the Cobb 500® strain, with a high protein content reducing carbon turnover in the evaluated tissues (liver and muscles). Feed intake had a greater impact on carbon turnover rates than cyclic heat stress. The Label Rouge birds were not affected by the evaluated factors, suggesting that genetic improvement has a leading role on tissue carbon turnover. There is a genetic influence on carbon turnover in the liver and muscle tissues of broiler chickens. In addition, genetically fast-growing broilers are more susceptible to variations in diet composition and environmental temperature than less rapidly growing animals. PMID:26634283

  3. Effects of Different Levels of Concentrate in the Diet on Physicochemical Traits of Korean Native Black Goat Meats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Woo; Park, Seong Bok; Kim, Myeong Jik; Kim, Dong Hun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding of diets based on roughage supplemented with concentrate on the carcass and meat quality attributes of Korean black goats were investigated. The 40 male goats at 5 mon age were divided into four treatment groups; T1 (1.5%), T2 (2.0%), T3 (2.5%) and T4 (ad libitum) feeding of concentrate with ad libitum rice straw. Forty bucks at the end of the feeding were fasted for 12 h before slaughter and were then slaughtered. For carcass measurement, cold buck carcasses were examined after 24 h of chilling at 5℃. The carcasses were chilled in refrigerator at 2±2℃ for 24 h, then the longissimus dorsi muscle was removed from the carcasses. The samples were separately vacuum packaged, frozen and stored at −20℃ for up to 1 mon, prior to physicochemical evaluations. Carcass yields were greatly affected by rate of concentrate feeding. T4 showed the heaviest live and carcass weights and the highest dressing and fat percentages (p<0.05). The moisture contents were lower in T4 compared with other treatments, while the crude protein and fat contents were higher (p<0.05). monounsaturated fatty acid in T4 was significantly higher than others, which showed the highest percentages of oleic acid (C18:1). For the sensory test, T4 was tenderer and produced better flavor scores than others. Increasing the level of concentrate in the diet resulted in an improvement in growth performance, and carcass and physicochemical characteristics of goat meats. PMID:26761283

  4. Effects of Different Levels of Concentrate in the Diet on Physicochemical Traits of Korean Native Black Goat Meats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Park, Seong Bok; Kim, Myeong Jik; Kim, Dong Hun; Yim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding of diets based on roughage supplemented with concentrate on the carcass and meat quality attributes of Korean black goats were investigated. The 40 male goats at 5 mon age were divided into four treatment groups; T1 (1.5%), T2 (2.0%), T3 (2.5%) and T4 (ad libitum) feeding of concentrate with ad libitum rice straw. Forty bucks at the end of the feeding were fasted for 12 h before slaughter and were then slaughtered. For carcass measurement, cold buck carcasses were examined after 24 h of chilling at 5℃. The carcasses were chilled in refrigerator at 2±2℃ for 24 h, then the longissimus dorsi muscle was removed from the carcasses. The samples were separately vacuum packaged, frozen and stored at -20℃ for up to 1 mon, prior to physicochemical evaluations. Carcass yields were greatly affected by rate of concentrate feeding. T4 showed the heaviest live and carcass weights and the highest dressing and fat percentages (p<0.05). The moisture contents were lower in T4 compared with other treatments, while the crude protein and fat contents were higher (p<0.05). monounsaturated fatty acid in T4 was significantly higher than others, which showed the highest percentages of oleic acid (C18:1). For the sensory test, T4 was tenderer and produced better flavor scores than others. Increasing the level of concentrate in the diet resulted in an improvement in growth performance, and carcass and physicochemical characteristics of goat meats. PMID:26761283

  5. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears.

    PubMed

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A; van Manen, Frank T

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004-2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46-47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in this

  6. Diet and macronutrient optimization in wild ursids: A comparison of grizzly bears with sympatric and allopatric black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costello, Cecily M; Cain, Steven L; Pils, Shannon R; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004–2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46–47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in

  7. Effects of five southern California macroalgal diets on consumption, growth, and gonad weight, in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jarrett E.K.; Reed, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the extent to which urchins can use alternate species of algae or a mixed diet of multiple algal species to maintain fitness when giant kelp is unavailable is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of single and mixed species diets on consumption, growth and gonad weight in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Urchins were fed single species diets consisting of one of four common species of macroalgae (the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica, and the red algae Chondracanthus corymbiferus and Rhodymenia californica (hereafter referred to by genus)) or a mixed diet containing all four species ad libitum over a 13-week period in a controlled laboratory setting. Urchins fed Chondracanthus, Macrocystis and a mixed diet showed the highest growth (in terms of test diameter, wet weight and jaw length) and gonad weight, while urchins fed Pterygophora and Rhodymenia showed the lowest. Urchins consumed their preferred food, Macrocystis, at the highest rate when offered a mixture, but consumed Chondracanthus or Macrocystis at similar rates when the two algae were offered alone. The differences in urchin feeding behavior and growth observed between these diet types suggest the relative availability of the algae tested here could affect urchin populations and their interactions with the algal assemblage. The fact that the performance of urchins fed Chondracanthus was similar or higher than those fed the preferred Macrocystis suggests that the availability of the former could could sustain growth and reproduction of purple sea urchins during times of low Macrocystis abundance as is common following

  8. Diet and Macronutrient Optimization in Wild Ursids: A Comparison of Grizzly Bears with Sympatric and Allopatric Black Bears

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Cecily M.; Cain, Steven L.; Pils, Shannon; Frattaroli, Leslie; Haroldson, Mark A.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    When fed ad libitum, ursids can maximize mass gain by selecting mixed diets wherein protein provides 17 ± 4% of digestible energy, relative to carbohydrates or lipids. In the wild, this ability is likely constrained by seasonal food availability, limits of intake rate as body size increases, and competition. By visiting locations of 37 individuals during 274 bear-days, we documented foods consumed by grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in Grand Teton National Park during 2004–2006. Based on published nutritional data, we estimated foods and macronutrients as percentages of daily energy intake. Using principal components and cluster analyses, we identified 14 daily diet types. Only 4 diets, accounting for 21% of days, provided protein levels within the optimal range. Nine diets (75% of days) led to over-consumption of protein, and 1 diet (3% of days) led to under-consumption. Highest protein levels were associated with animal matter (i.e., insects, vertebrates), which accounted for 46–47% of daily energy for both species. As predicted: 1) daily diets dominated by high-energy vertebrates were positively associated with grizzly bears and mean percent protein intake was positively associated with body mass; 2) diets dominated by low-protein fruits were positively associated with smaller-bodied black bears; and 3) mean protein was highest during spring, when high-energy plant foods were scarce, however it was also higher than optimal during summer and fall. Contrary to our prediction: 4) allopatric black bears did not exhibit food selection for high-energy foods similar to grizzly bears. Although optimal gain of body mass was typically constrained, bears usually opted for the energetically superior trade-off of consuming high-energy, high-protein foods. Given protein digestion efficiency similar to obligate carnivores, this choice likely supported mass gain, consistent with studies showing monthly increases in percent body fat among bears in

  9. Metabolic changes induced by sustained exhaustive cycling and diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Brouns, F; Saris, W H; Beckers, E; Adlercreutz, H; van der Vusse, G J; Keizer, H A; Kuipers, H; Menheere, P; Wagenmakers, A J; ten Hoor, F

    1989-05-01

    Thirteen highly trained subjects were studied concerning the effect of consuming a normal carbohydrate-rich diet (N) on energy exchange, substrate metabolism, and performance. Six of these subjects performed the same protocol receiving N supplemented with a high-maltodextrin, low-fructose beverage (Mf). The studies were performed in random order. The subjects performed 2 days of sustained exhausting cycling, preceded and followed by a standardized resting day, in a respiration chamber, allowing continuous gas analysis, weighed food and fluid intake procedures, collection of excretes, and drawing of blood samples at 7:00 AM, 12:00 AM (halfway exercise) and 3:00 PM at exhaustion. Muscle biopsies were taken prior to, 45 min after, and 24 h after exercise (energy expenditure 25.2-26.6 MJ.day-1). The results showed that while consuming a normal diet, the cyclists developed a negative energy balance (-9 MJ.day-1) and regulated their hormone levels in such a way that fat oxidation and protein breakdown were increased and CHO oxidation became depressed. When supplemented with Mf, the subjects showed increased blood glucose, insulin and decreased glucagon levels. Fat metabolism was significantly depressed as indicated by the levels of blood fatty acids, glycerol, and ketones. A significant glycogen sparing, as well as supercompensation within 24 h of recovery, was observed after Mf supplementation. The normal CHO-rich diet, available ad libitum, was insufficient to fully restore glycogen within 24 h. The changes in substrate availability and glycogen depletion were accompanied by a significant performance improvement, 126% when cycling a final 90% Wmax bout, when supplemented with Mf compared with N. PMID:2663743

  10. Efficiency of energy utilization: effects of diet composition on body composition and mammary neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Boissonneault, G.A.; Elson, C.E.; Pariza, M.W.

    1986-03-05

    Multiple interactions between the efficiency of utilization of dietary fat and carbohydrate energy, energy intake changes in body composition and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis were examined using female F-344 rats. The rats were fed ad libitum a semipurified diet containing 5% corn oil (LF) from weaning to 50 d of age at which each was given, by gavage, 65 mg DMBA/kg body weight. The rats were randomly assigned to diets containing 5% 17.5% (MF) and 30% (HF) corn oil. All diets were balanced with respect per unit of energy in terms of protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber. For 28 d post-DMBA, the rats were fed 40 or 42 kcal daily and thereafter, diet was provided ad libitium. Daily energy intakes were recorded throughout the study. The mean energy intakes during the first 35 wk were: LF, 240 +/- 12.3 kcal/wk; MF, 237 +/- 11.7 kcal/wk; and HF, 237 +/- 11.1 kcal/wk. Body weight at 35 wk were: LF, 196 +/- 9.5 g; MF, 206 +/- 13.9 g; and HF, 210 +/- 20.6 g. No differences in tumor incidence (LF, 55%; MF, 46%; HF, 51%), tumors/group (LF, 24; MF, 28; HF, 25) and tumors/tumor-bearing rat (LF, 1.3 +/- 0.7; MF 1.6 +/- 1.0;p HF, 1.2 +/- 0.4) were noted. Within dietary groups tumor incidence was positively correlated with energy intake. However, there were no differences among the various parameters between dietary groups at any energy intake level. Body compositions were monitored during this study. The body fat mass and % carcass weight increased in parallel with the % dietary fat. Concomitantly, % lean body and, to a lesser extent lean body mass decreased. Both body size and body composition, influenced by energy intake and retention, affected the response to DMBA.

  11. Hypothalamic gene expression during voluntary hypophagia in the Sprague-Dawley rat on withdrawal of the palatable liquid diet, Ensure.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Julian G; Duncan, Jacqueline S; Archer, Zoe A

    2014-04-10

    Sprague-Dawley rats over-consume calories over a 10 week period and develop diet-induced obesity (c. 100 g body weight differential vs controls) when fed a control pellet diet supplemented with chocolate Ensure liquid. Subsequent withdrawal of Ensure immediately reduces caloric intake by more than 50%, and results in weight loss, despite control pellet being available ad libitum. To assess the molecular underpinnings of this phenomenon, brains were processed for energy balance and food reward-related gene expression analysis at two time points, 24 h and 4 days after the withdrawal of Ensure, when energy intake was suppressed. Gene expression levels in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and forebrain nucleus accumbens were compared with rats pair-fed to the same energy intake, i.e. imposed negative energy balance, and to controls fed control pellet ad libitum throughout. Cumulative energy intake was approximately 50% lower across the 4 day post-Ensure period, giving rise to a small reduction in body weight although body adiposity and blood leptin remained elevated (c. 100% and 50%, respectively vs controls) in rats that had previously been fed Ensure. In contrast, pair-feeding reduced blood insulin and leptin by 33% and 55%, respectively. Hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide was down-regulated at 24 h in rats previously fed Ensure, indicative of the apparent counter-regulatory changes seen in diet-induced obesity, but was normalised between the 24 h and 4 day time points. By contrast, the effect of cumulative negative energy balance in the pair-fed groups increased with time, up-regulating expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides. There was also a reduction of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 gene expression in pair-fed groups where leptin levels were low. There were no changes in opioid, dopamine receptor or cannabinoid receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens. Feedback from diet-induced obesity appears to drive voluntary

  12. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Clare L.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Peinado, Diana I.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Garden, Karen E.; Williams, Patricia A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity. PMID:27224646

  13. Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9 ± 0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P < 0.01) the total DM, OM and CP intake and improved (P < 0.01) the daily body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Lambs in T2, T3 and T4 gained weight at the rate of 22.7, 21.9 and 14.1 g/day, respectively, while lambs on the control diet lost weight at a rate of -24.9 g/day. Supplementation also improved (P < 0.01) the digestibility of DM, OM, CP and NDF of the total diet. It was concluded that supplementation of E. coracana straw with NSC, CSC and U mixed with WB improves feed utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs. PMID:20661642

  14. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production. PMID:25431274

  15. Energy restriction and exercise modulate angiopoietins and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the cavernous tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Tomada, Inês; Tomada, Nuno; Almeida, Henrique; Neves, Delminda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet, energy restriction and exercise on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and 2, and their receptors in rat corpus cavernosum (CC). Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with an HF diet for 8 or 16 weeks. After 8 weeks of the HF diet, a group of rats was subjected to energy restriction with or without exercise for 8 weeks. Control animals had free access to standard diet for the same period. After euthanasia, blood was collected and the penises removed for immunofluorescence assays (VEGF, VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 and 2, Ang1, Ang2 and Tie2) and semiquantification of VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, Ang1, Ang2, Tie2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt/phospho-Akt by Western blotting. HF diet-fed rats exhibited lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, higher systolic blood pressure and an increased atherogenic index. A significant increase in Ang2 expression in the CC was verified and coupled to a decrease in VEGF and VEGFRs. The Akt pathway was activated by the HF diet. Energy restriction and exercise increased eNOS expression and restored most HF diet-induced modifications except for VEGFR2 expression. These results emphasize the role of diet on vascular function regulation, demonstrating that cavernous imbalance of VEGF/VEGFRs and Angs/Tie2 systems occurs before serum lipid changes and obesity onset, antedating structural atherosclerotic features. PMID:22138901

  16. Predictive behaviors for anxiety and depression in female Wistar rats subjected to cafeteria diet and stress.

    PubMed

    da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; da Silva Castro, André Luis; da Silva Torres, Iraci Lucena; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and chronic stress have been considered important public health problems that affect millions of people worldwide. Our aim was to analyze the effect of obesity associated with chronic stress on neurobehavioral parameters in female rats, considering that the association of these syndromes can enhance the negative effects on homeostasis. The animals were distributed into standard diet (Std), standard diet+stress (Std+stress), cafeteria diet (Cafe), and cafeteria diet+stress (Cafe+stress) groups. The animals of groups Std and Std+stress were fed with rodent standard feed. Groups Cafe and Cafe+stress, additionally to the standard feed, were offered palatable and calorie-rich processed food and cola-type soft drink ad libitum. From the eighth experimental week, groups Std+stress and Cafe+stress were subjected to restraint chronic stress model (50 days). After the stress protocol, predictive anxiety (open-field and elevated plus-maze tests) and depression (forced swim) were applied. The cafeteria diet was effective in inducing obesity. The ratio locomotion in the central quadrants/total locomotion evaluated during the open field test was not indicative of anxiogenic or anxiolytic effect in the animal's behavior. However, the elevated plus maze test showed that obese and stressed animals were prone to higher anxiety levels. In addition, the obese and stressed animals display less climbing behavior than all the other groups, which can be considered an indicator of depression-like behavior. Nevertheless, it is suggested that the mechanisms involved in effects of obesity associated with chronic stress be better investigated in female rats, considering the organic complexity related to these modern illnesses. PMID:26241160

  17. A diet-induced animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asgharpour, Amon; Cazanave, Sophie C.; Pacana, Tommy; Seneshaw, Mulugeta; Vincent, Robert; Banini, Bubu A.; Kumar, Divya Prasanna; Daita, Kalyani; Min, Hae-Ki; Mirshahi, Faridoddin; Bedossa, Pierre; Sun, Xiaochen; Hoshida, Yujin; Koduru, Srinivas V.; Contaifer, Daniel; Warncke, Urszula Osinska; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S.; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims The lack of a preclinical model of progressive non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that recapitulates human disease is a barrier to therapeutic development. Methods A stable isogenic cross between C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S1/SvImJ (S129) mice were fed a high fat diet with ad libitum consumption of glucose and fructose in physiologically relevant concentrations and compared to mice fed a chow diet and also to both parent strains. Results Following initiation of the obesogenic diet, B6/129 mice developed obesity, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and increased LDL-cholesterol. They sequentially also developed steatosis (4–8 weeks), steatohepatitis (16–24 weeks), progressive fibrosis (16 weeks onwards) and spontaneous hepatocellular cancer (HCC). There was a strong concordance between the pattern of pathway activation at a transcriptomic level between humans and mice with similar histological phenotypes (FDR 0.02 for early and 0.08 for late time points). Lipogenic, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways activated in human NASH were also activated in these mice. The HCC gene signature resembled the S1 and S2 human subclasses of HCC (FDR 0.01 for both). Only the B6/129 mouse but not the parent strains recapitulated all of these aspects of human NAFLD. Conclusions We here describe a diet-induced animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (DIAMOND) that recapitulates the key physiological, metabolic, histologic, transcriptomic and cell-signaling changes seen in humans with progressive NASH. Lay summary We have developed a diet-induced mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatic cancers in a cross between two mouse strains (129S1/SvImJ and C57Bl/6J). This model mimics all the physiological, metabolic, histological, transcriptomic gene signature and clinical endpoints of human NASH and can facilitate preclinical development of therapeutic targets for NASH. PMID:27261415

  18. Effects of dairy cow diet forage proportion on duodenal nutrient supply and urinary purine derivative excretion.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, R T; Danelón, J L

    2006-09-01

    Four mature Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square change-over design experiment made up of four 4-wk periods to investigate the relationship between microbial protein flow to the duodenum and excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in the urine. Four dietary treatments based on ad libitum access to ryegrass silage were offered, with a standard dairy concentrate included at different forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios, calculated on a dry matter basis: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65. Feed intakes increased as the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased, despite a concurrent decrease in silage intake. Increased feed intake led to increased nutrient flow to the duodenum. Milk yields increased as the diet F:C ratio decreased, with cows offered the 35:65 diet yielding nearly 8 kg/d more milk than cows offered the 80:20 diet; the concentrations of milk fat decreased and milk protein increased with a decreasing F:C ratio. Purine derivative excretion in the urine increased with an increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet, and there was a strong linear relationship between total PD excretion (allantoin and uric acid) and microbial N flow to the duodenum: microbial N (g/d) = 19.9 + 0.689 x total PD (mmol/d); R = 0.887. This strengthens the case for using PD excretion as a noninvasive marker of microbial protein flow from the rumen in dairy cows. PMID:16899691

  19. Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ozanildo V; Boleti, Ana P A; Yuyama, Lucia K O; Lima, Emerson S

    2013-03-01

    Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh) has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG) and a non treated group (CG). After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity. PMID:23460435

  20. Impact of distillers dried grains with solubles particle size on nutrient digestibility, DE and ME content, and flowability in diets for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Souza, L W O; Baidoo, S K; Shurson, G C

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on DE and ME content, diet DM, energy, N, P digestibility, and diet flowability for growing pigs. One DDGS source was processed through an Urshel Commitrol mill or a hammer mill to achieve mean particle sizes of 818, 595, and 308 μm. The basal control diet consisted of 96.8% corn with supplemental minerals and vitamins. Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 30% of corn from the basal diet with DDGS of different particle sizes. Thirty-six growing pigs (initial BW of 40 ± 1.13 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their BW block and housed in individual metabolic crates for a 9-d adaptation period followed by a 4-d total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were provided ad libitum access to water and fed an amount of their respective experimental diets equivalent to 3% of the initial BW of each pig. Feed, feces, and urine samples were analyzed for DM, GE, N, and P and used to calculate diet apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Gross energy was also used to calculate DE and ME of diets as well as the DE and ME content of corn and DDGS with different particle sizes. Diet drained and poured angles of repose were measured using a modified Hele-Shaw cell method to evaluate the diet flowability. Inclusion of 30% DDGS with an average particle size of 308 μm improved (P < 0.05) dietary ATTD of DM and GE as well as DE (4,006 vs. 3,783 kcal/kg DM) and ME (3,861 vs. 3,583 kcal/kg DM) compared with 818 μm DDGS. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in N and P digestibility among the 3 DDGS diets. The DDGS particle size of 595 μm had greater (P < 0.05) DE but not ME compared with 818 μm DDGS, and DE and ME were not different between 308 and 595 μm. Compared with a 595 or 818 μm DDGS, grinding DDGS to 308 μm reduced diet flowability as indicated by a greater (P < 0.05) drained angle of

  1. Diet counseling during the infant oral health visit.

    PubMed

    Nainar, S M Hashim; Mohummed, Shamsia

    2004-01-01

    Diet counseling is an integral part of anticipatory guidance during the infant oral health visit. Similar to dietary instructions for children of all ages, the primary emphasis is on sugar intake frequency. There are, however, other infant-specific dietary issues that must also be addressed during the infant oral health visit. Breast-feeding should be promoted during the first year of life, although ad libitum nocturnal breast-feeding should be discouraged after the first primary tooth erupts. Bottle-fed infants should not be put to sleep with the bottle. Weaning from the breast or the bottle should be encouraged by 12 to 14 months of age. Infants older than 6 months and with exposure to less than 0.3 ppm fluoride in their drinking water need dietary fluoride supplements of 0.25 mg fluoride per day. Only 4 to 6 oz of fruit juice should be consumed by infants per day. Infants should not be given powdered beverages or soda pop, as these drinks pose increased risk for dental caries. Iron-fortified infant cereals, along with breast milk or infant formula, should be consumed by infants who are at least 6 months of age. Cow's milk should be completely avoided in the first year of life and restricted to less than 24 oz per day in the second year of life. Parents should be cautioned regarding the potential of various foods to constitute a choking hazard for infants. PMID:15460303

  2. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements for weight loss. These sites are a marketing ploy created to sell acai berry supplements.  Tainted ... on health claims? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  3. Effect of type and level of dietary fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Grummer, R R

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tallow and choice white grease (CWG) fed at 0, 2, and 4% of the diet dry matter (DM) on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows when corn silage is the sole forage source. Fifteen midlactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 0% fat (control), 2% tallow, 2% CWG, 4% tallow, and 4% CWG (DM basis). The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets fed twice daily as total mixed rations. Cows fed supplemental fat had lower DM intake and produced less milk and milk fat than cows fed the control diet. Feeding 4% fat reduced milk production and milk fat yield relative to feeding 2% fat. Treatments had little effect on the concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids in milk fat. Total trans fatty acids were poorly related to changes in milk fat percentage. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by supplemental fat. The acetate:propionate ratio, NH3-N, and numbers of protozoa in the rumen were significantly decreased when fat was added to the diets. Source of dietary fat did not affect rumen parameters. There was no treatment effect on in situ corn silage DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance. Including fat in corn silage-based diets had negative effects on milk production and rumen fermentation regardless of the source or level of supplemental fat. PMID:11814031

  4. Effect of supplemental tallow on performance of dairy cows fed diets with different corn silage:alfalfa silage ratios.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Palmquist, D L; Grummer, R R

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the response to supplemental tallow of lactating cows fed basal diets with different alfalfa silage:corn silage ratios. We postulated that supplemental tallow will have decreasing negative effects on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk fat percentage as the dietary ratio of alfalfa silage:corn silage is increased. Eighteen Holstein cows averaging 134 +/- 14 d in milk were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (DM basis) and three forage treatments: 1) 50% of diet DM as corn silage, 2) 37.5% corn silage and 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 3) 25% corn silage and 25% alfalfa silage. Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber. No fat x forage treatment interactions were observed. Fat supplemented cows had lower DMI and produced more milk with less milk fat content relative to non-supplemented cows. Concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids was higher in milk fat of tallow-supplemented cows. Tallow supplementation had no effect on ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, but tended to decrease total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the rumen. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa silage increased DMI, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield regardless of the fat content of the diet. Total VFA concentration and acetate:propionate ratio in the rumen were increased in response to higher levels of alfalfa in the diets. These results suggest that replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage did not alleviate the negative response of dairy cows to tallow supplementation at 2% of diet DM. PMID:11949868

  5. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shireesh; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M. Todd; Baxa, Ulrich; Tam, Joseph; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We measured the effects of a diet in which d-β-hydroxybutyrate-(R)-1,3 butanediol monoester [ketone ester (KE)] replaced equicaloric amounts of carbohydrate on 8-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice. Diets contained equal amounts of fat, protein, and micronutrients. The KE group was fed ad libitum, whereas the control (Ctrl) mice were pair-fed to the KE group. Blood d-β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the KE group were 3-5 times those reported with high-fat ketogenic diets. Voluntary food intake was reduced dose dependently with the KE diet. Feeding the KE diet for up to 1 mo increased the number of mitochondria and doubled the electron transport chain proteins, uncoupling protein 1, and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in IBAT of the KE group was twice that in IBAT of the Ctrl group. Plasma leptin levels of the KE group were more than 2-fold those of the Ctrl group and were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity to IBAT. The KE group exhibited 14% greater resting energy expenditure, but the total energy expenditure measured over a 24-h period or body weights was not different. The quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index was 73% higher in the KE group. These results identify KE as a potential antiobesity supplement.—Srivastava, S., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T. Baxa, U., Tam, J., Niu, G., Chen, X., Clarke, K., Veech, R. L. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. PMID:22362892

  6. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. Results NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. Conclusion From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue. PMID:24403834

  7. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  8. Physiological effects of chicory root preparations with various levels of fructan and polyphenolic fractions in diets for rats.

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zary-Sikorska, Ewa; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Król, Bogusław; Jurgoński, Adam

    2011-02-01

    The experiment was aimed at studying the effects of easily fermentable oligosaccharides and phenolic compounds from chicory root meal (CRM) on the fermentative processes in the caecum, the antioxidative status and the lipoprotein profile of rats. Five different diets were fed ad libitum to 40 Wistar rats (eight animals per group, individually housed): a control group (C); group PCM (10% processed CRM, deprived of polyphenolic fraction); group PCMO (8% processed CRM and 1.6% oligofructose); group UCM (10% unprocessed CRM); and group FP (8.3% fructan-polyphenol concentrate from CRM). Diets PCM, PCMO, UCM and FP induced favourable metabolic changes in the caecum, blood lipid profile and the antioxidative status of the body. In the caecum, the experimental diets increased the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and acidification of digesta as well as a decrease in the ammonia concentration and bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity. In blood serum, the total cholesterol concentration was reduced and, simultaneously, the proportion of HDL in the total cholesterol concentration was increased. The presence of the polyphenolic fraction in the unprocessed meal (diets UCM and FP) evoked a significant increase in the total antioxidative status in blood serum. Dietary fibre and the polyphenolic fraction present in diet UCM and the FOS-polyphenol concentrate in diet FP did not exhibit an antagonistic activity regarding the physiological parameters analysed, except for in the intensity of caecal fermentation. The results of the experiment point to the benefits of dietary supplementation with chicory preparations containing both prebiotic saccharides and polyphenolic compounds, which enable us to take advantage of the physiological traits of both components. PMID:21452615

  9. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. PMID:26525915

  10. Effects of diet on rate of body mass gain by wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorde, D.G.; Haramis, G.M.; Bunck, C.M.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Because habitat degradation has led to the loss of submerged vegetation in Chesapeake Bay, wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) have shifted from a plant diet of American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana) to an animal diet of Baltic clams (Macoma balthica). We conducted experiments with pen-reared canvasbacks (n = 32, 1990; n = 32, 1991) to assess the effect of this diet change on mass recovery rate following a simulated period of food deprivation. During the recovery phase, canvasbacks were fed ad libitum either (1) Baltic clams (1991 only), (2) tubers of wildcelery, 3) corn, or (4) commercial control diet. Initial body mass of ducks did not differ between years (P = 0.754) or among pens (P > 0.264) or diets within years (1990, P = 0.520; 1991, P = 0.684). Body mass decline during food deprivation (x super(-) = 26.0 g/day plus or minus 0.6 SE) did not differ among diets (1990, P = 0.239; 1991, P = 0.062) or between sexes in 1990 (P = 0.197), but was greater (P = 0.039) for males (x super(-) = 28 g/day plus or minus 0.8 SE) than females (x super(-) = 25 g/day plus or minus 0.9) in 1991. Mass recovery rate differed between diets (clams excluded) in 1990 (P = 0.003) and 1991 (clams included) (P = 0.011); mean = 42 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) plus or minus 3.8 (SE) control diet, mean = 32 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) plus or minus 2.8 wildcelery tubers, mean = 24 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) plus or minus 4.9 whole corn, and mean = 23 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) plus or minus 1.0 Baltic clams. Canvasbacks consumed an average of 2,169 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) of Baltic clams, 1,158 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) of wildcelery tubers, 152 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) whole corn, and 208 g/bird super(-1)/day super(-1) (dry mass) control diet during recovery. Managers should restore and maintain aquatic plant foods that enhance winter survival of canvasbacks and other waterfowl in response to declining habitat quality.

  11. Adaptation of beef cattle to high-concentrate diets: performance and ruminal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brown, M S; Ponce, C H; Pulikanti, R

    2006-04-01

    The diet adaptation period is widely considered a critical period of time in which nutritional management practices can promote or impair subsequent performance and health. Performance studies indicate that adapting feedlot cattle with incremental increases in dietary concentrate, from approximately 55 to 90% of diet DM, in 14 d or less, while allowing ad libitum access to the diet, generally results in reduced performance during adaptation or over the entire feeding period. However, the number of cattle involved in these studies does not allow insight into the frequencies of metabolic disorders associated with the management practices tested. Adapting cattle by restricting the quantity of higher-concentrate diets offered shows promise for improving production efficiency, but further development is needed for application in commercial feedlots. Evidence suggests considerable diversity in the ability of animals to cope with ingested cereal grain, and indicates that diet adaptation procedures should affect the frequency of health-impaired or low-performing cattle in a pen. Individuals that seem to effectively regulate voluntary feed intake during adaptation generally display a steady increase in DMI as dietary concentrate is increased. These data also highlight a seemingly counterproductive, repeating cycle of overconsumption, followed by a pronounced reduction in ruminal pH, by cattle that appear to cope less favorably with grain adaptation. At least a portion of this diversity may relate to the maintenance of protozoal populations. Increases in amylolytic bacteria seemed to follow the increment of additional concentrate. Protozoa were most numerous when the diet contained approximately 60% concentrate, and lactate-utilizing bacteria increased more markedly when the diet contained more than approximately 70% concentrate. Available in vivo data suggest that the number of lactate-utilizing bacteria may reach a plateau for a given diet composition after 2 to 7 d, but

  12. Evaluation of dried distillers grains and roughage source in steam-flaked corn finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Uwituze, S; Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Depenbusch, B E; Karges, K K; Gibson, M L; Reinhardt, C D; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and alfalfa hay (AH) or corn silage (CS) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and diet digestibility in cattle fed steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. In trial 1, crossbred heifers (n = 358; BW = 353 +/- 13 kg) were used in a finishing trial to evaluate interactions between corn-DDGS and roughage source (AH or CS) in terms of impact on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Experimental diets (DM basis) consisted of SFC and 11% CS without DDGS (SFC-CS), SFC and 11% CS with 25% DDGS (DDGS-CS), SFC and 6% AH without DDGS (SFC-AH), and SFC with 25% DDGS and 6% AH (DDGS-AH). Heifers were fed for ad libitum intake once daily for 97 d. Results indicated no interaction between DDGS and roughage source with respect to animal performance. Feeding DDGS did not affect ADG (P = 0.19), DMI (P = 0.14), or feed conversion (P = 0.67). Heifers fed CS had greater DMI than those fed AH (P = 0.05), but ADG (P = 0.56) and G:F (P = 0.63) were not different. There were no differences among treatments with respect to HCW, dressing percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, quality grades, or yield grades (P > 0.20). Cattle fed CS tended (P = 0.10) to have greater marbling scores than those fed AH. There was an interaction (P = 0.02) between roughage and DDGS with respect to incidence of liver abscess. The greatest incidence was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when CS was fed, and the least was observed in cattle fed diets without DDGS when AH was used. In the second trial, ruminal fermentation characteristics and diet digestibility were examined in 12 cannulated Holstein steers fed similar diets to those fed in the finishing trial. Ruminal pH for all treatments was below 5.8 for 14 h after feeding. Acetate:propionate ratios were less (P = 0.02) in steers fed 25% DDGS but had greater (P = 0.02) ruminal lactate concentrations compared with cattle fed 0

  13. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets. PMID:26420580

  14. A High-Fat Diet Prevents and Reverses the Development of Activity-Based Anorexia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amanda J.; Avena, Nicole M.; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Activity-based anorexia is an animal model of anorexia nervosa in which limited access to standard lab chow combined with voluntary wheel running leads to hypophagia and severe weight loss. This study tested whether activity-based anorexia could be prevented or reversed with palatable foods. Method Male rats were divided into sedentary or ad libitum-running groups and maintained on 1 h daily access to standard chow plus one of the following: sugar, saccharin, vegetable fat (shortening), or sweet high-fat chow. Results Access to the sweet high-fat chow both reversed and prevented the weight loss typical of activity-based anorexia. Vegetable fat attenuated body weight loss, but to a lesser degree than the sweet high-fat diet. The addition of saccharin or sucrose solutions to the standard lab-chow diet had no effect. Conclusion The results suggest that certain palatable diets may affect the development of, and recovery from, activity-based anorexia. PMID:18306342

  15. The effects of diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus in lambs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nadino; das Neves, José Henrique; Nazato, Carina; Louvandini, Helder; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate the effects of Diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus, 28 lambs were allocated to one of four groups treated as follows: Group Basal Diet - Normal; Group Basal Diet - Immune-Suppressed; Group Supplemented Diet - Normal; and Group Supplemented Diet - Immune-Suppressed. The Basal Diet contained Cynodon dactylon (cv. coast cross) hay with 82 g crude protein (CP)/kg dry matter (DM), which was provided to the lambs in all groups ad libitum. In addition, animals on the Supplemented Diet received daily a commercial concentrate containing 171 g CP/kg DM, which was offered in an amount corresponding to 3% of the animal's live weight. The Immune-Suppressed groups received treatments with the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone sodium succinate (1.33 mg/kg of body weight), administered weekly. All lambs received a single infection with 4000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and were euthanised 28 days post-infection. Differences in pH and in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations occurred in rumen as a result of the distinct Diets offered to lambs. Such changes, however, did not have any apparent effect on larvae exsheathment and/or larvae survival inside the rumen, with all groups presenting similar worm burdens. However, animals on the Supplemented Diet presented reductions in worm growth and faecal egg counts. There was a significant effect of the Diet on the IgG levels against total antigens of H. contortus L3 from 7 to 27 days post-infection, with supplemented animals showing higher overall mean values (P<0.05). The immunosuppressive treatments had no effect on worm burden despite the reduction in the numbers of inflammatory cells in the abomasal mucosa of the Immune-Suppressed groups. These groups showed longer worms and females with more eggs in comparison with their counterparts fed each Diet; however, only the length of males was significantly affected (P<0.05). In conclusion, the changes

  16. Both Food Restriction and High-Fat Diet during Gestation Induce Low Birth Weight and Altered Physical Activity in Adult Rat Offspring: The “Similarities in the Inequalities” Model

    PubMed Central

    Portella, André Krumel; Benetti, Carla da Silva; Noschang, Cristie; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called “Similarities in the Inequalities”, in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the “similarities in the inequalities” phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib), receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR), receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam’s habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF), receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels), abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The “similarities in the inequalities” effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth) and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females). Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters), probably through different biological mechanisms. PMID:25738800

  17. Diets with High or Low Protein Content and Glycemic Index for Weight-Loss Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; van Baak, Marleen; Jebb, Susan A.; Papadaki, Angeliki; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.H.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kunešová, Marie; Pihlsgård, Mats; Stender, Steen; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H.M.; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. Methods We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie diet. Participants were randomly assigned, in a two-by-two factorial design, to one of five ad libitum diets to prevent weight regain over a 26-week period: a low-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a low-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, or a control diet. Results A total of 1209 adults were screened (mean age, 41 years; body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 34), of whom 938 entered the low-calorie-diet phase of the study. A total of 773 participants who completed that phase were randomly assigned to one of the five maintenance diets; 548 completed the intervention (71%). Fewer participants in the high-protein and the low-glycemic-index groups than in the low-protein–high-glycemic-index group dropped out of the study (26.4% and 25.6%, respectively, vs. 37.4%; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01 for the respective comparisons). The mean initial weight loss with the low-calorie diet was 11.0 kg. In the analysis of participants who completed the study, only the low-protein–high-glycemic-index diet was associated with subsequent significant weight regain (1.67 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 2.87). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the weight regain was 0.93 kg less (95% CI, 0.31 to 1.55) in the groups assigned to a high-protein diet than in those assigned to a low-protein diet (P = 0.003) and 0.95 kg less (95% CI, 0.33 to 1.57) in the groups assigned to a low-glycemic-index diet than in those assigned to a high-glycemic-index diet (P = 0.003). The analysis involving

  18. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  19. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  20. Fattening performance, metabolic indicators, and muscle composition of bulls fed fiber-rich versus starch-plus-lipid-rich concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Mialon, M M; Renand, G; Ortigues-Marty, I; Bauchart, D; Hocquette, J F; Mounier, L; Noël, T; Micol, D; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the responses in fattening performance and meat composition for high-concentrate diets rich in either starch and lipids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) or fibrous by-products. A total of 140 Charolais bulls (initially 319 ± 27 kg BW) were allocated to 3 high-concentrate diets and were fattened for up to 18 mo. The diet treatments included concentrate mixtures rich in either fiber (FR; n = 56) or starch plus linseed (diets SL and SLR; n = 56 and n = 28, respectively) and barley straw. The concentrate mix was offered ad libitum in SL and FR diets but was kept isoenergetic to the FR diet in the SLR diet. Bulls were weighed every 15 d. Feed intake was measured daily. Carcass composition was assessed for all animals slaughtered at 699 ± 65 kg BW. Meat nutritional quality traits (e.g., fat content and fatty acid composition focusing on n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) were measured on the longissimus thoracis, rectus abdominis, and semitendinosus muscles. Metabolic enzyme activity (phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome-c oxidase) was measured on these muscles and on liver. The SL diet bulls had greater fattening performance, BW gain (P = 0.006), and efficiency for growth (P = 0.025) at an energy intake similar to that of FR diet bulls. They also had heavier carcasses with a greater proportion of fat. However, liver samples showed no difference in specific metabolic activity. Compared to bulls fed the SL diet, bulls fed SLR consumed 15% less energy and had lower BW gain (P < 0.001) but were slightly more efficient for growth (P = 0.010). They had lower carcass weight but a greater muscle-to-fat ratio. Compared to bulls fed the FR diet, SLR bulls had lower than planned NEg intake and lower BW gain but did not have differences in body composition. Compared to the FR diet, the SL diet led to a greater omega-3 fatty acid content because of a greater supply of dietary linoleic acid, especially in lean muscle

  1. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  2. Epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis enhances growth performance of early-weaned pigs fed diets devoid of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Bedford, A; Li, Z; Li, M; Ji, S; Liu, W; Huai, Y; de Lange, C F M; Li, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of supplementing Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) that was engineered to express epidermal growth factor (EGF-LL) to early-weaned pigs fed diets with typical levels of blood plasma (5%) or diets without blood plasma [blood plasma was substituted with soybean (Glycine max) meal and fish meal, based on amino acid supply] was examined. A total of 108 weaned piglets (19-26 d of age; mean initial BW 6.58 kg; 9 pigs per pen) were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program without growth promoters. Three pens were assigned to each of 4 treatments: i) blood plasma-containing diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BP-Con), ii) blood plasma-containing diet with fermented EGF-LL (BP-EGF), iii) blood plasma-free diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BPF-Con), and iv) blood plasma-free diet with fermented EGF-LL (BPF-EGF). The amount of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was determined in the fermentation product and pigs were allotted 60 μg EGF/kg BW/d for 3 wk postweaning. There were no differences in overall growth performance between BP-Con and BP-EGF pigs and no differences in overall growth performance between LoCon and BPF-EGF pigs. Pigs fed BPF-EGF showed increased daily BW gain (410 vs. 260 g/d; P < 0.01) and gain:feed (0.67 vs. 0.58; P < 0.05) compared to BPF-Con pigs in wk 3 postweaning; this was comparable to values for the BP-Con group (400 g/d and 0.64). These results indicate that supplementation with EGF-LL can be effective in enhancing the performance of early-weaned piglets fed a low complexity diet and reduces the need for feeding high-quality animal proteins and antibiotics. PMID:23365266

  3. Bone mineralisation of weaned piglets fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase, as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Weremko, Dagmara; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen female piglets (58 d of age, 16.8 ± 0.8 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to two groups (n = 8) and received until day 100 of age (50.3 ± 1.2 kg BW) ad libitum either a diet with a standard (diet C) or low (diet L) total phosphorus (P) content (5.38 and 4.23 g/kg, respectively). Diet C was supplemented with mineral P (1.15 g/kg) and did not contain microbial phytase. Diet L did not contain any inorganic P but 750 FTU/kg of microbial phytase. Despite these treatments, both diets were composed with the same ingredients. Body mineralisation of each gilt was assessed by determining the bone mineral content (BMC), area bone mineral density (BMD) by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at days 58, 72, 86 and 100 of age. Feeding diet L caused a higher P digestibility (p = 0.008) measured from days 72 to 86 of age and at 100 days of age a higher BMC and BMD (p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, the gilts of group L deposited more minerals in the body than control pigs (by 2.4 g/d, p = 0.008). It was found that BMD and BMC were positively correlated with body lean mass and digestible P intake. The results indicated that, even for very young pigs, the addition of microbial phytase instead of inorganic P increases the amount of digestible P covering the requirements of piglets for proper bone mineralisation. Furthermore, it was proved that the DXA method can be successfully applied to measure body fat and lean mass contents as well as bone mineralisation of growing pigs using the same animals. PMID:26062598

  4. The influence of diet, consumption and lipid use on recruitment of white bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckmayer, W.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of white bass (Morone chrysops) in Lake Erie has declined in recent years, sparking interest in mechanisms influencing its recruitment. We evaluate two mechanisms affecting recruitment: diet and the potential for competition, and storage of lipid energy reserves and the relationship to overwinter survival. The fish in our study were characteristic of white bass in the northern portion of their range, feeding predominantly on zooplankton. Only the largest age-0 white bass ate fish as a significant portion of their diet. Over the summer sampling period, we found decreasing ration sizes, expressed as a percentage of maximum ration, as the summer progressed with a concomitant decrease in the relative amount of lipid storage. In laboratory experiments, age-0 white bass held at 5??C and given food ad libitum did feed, but at rates that were insufficient to maintain body weight. Loss in weight was accompanied with a loss in lipids at a rate of 2.8 mg of lipids per gram of body weight per day. Based on our data, we concluded that age-0 white bass in Lake Erie were food-limited. Food limitation resulted in reduced growth rates, presumably related to competition with other planktivorous fishes. Reduced growth results in increased mortality and, ultimately, low recruitment through increased risk of predation by larger piscivorous fishes, reduced ability for white bass to switch to more energetically profitable piscivory and the increased likelihood of higher overwinter mortality because of reduced lipid stores.

  5. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038

  6. Microbial reprogramming inhibits Western diet-associated obesity.

    PubMed

    Poutahidis, Theofilos; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Smillie, Christopher; Levkovich, Tatiana; Perrotta, Alison; Bhela, Siddheshvar; Varian, Bernard J; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Lakritz, Jessica R; Kearney, Sean M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Hafler, David A; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    A recent epidemiological study showed that eating 'fast food' items such as potato chips increased likelihood of obesity, whereas eating yogurt prevented age-associated weight gain in humans. It was demonstrated previously in animal models of obesity that the immune system plays a critical role in this process. Here we examined human subjects and mouse models consuming Westernized 'fast food' diet, and found CD4(+) T helper (Th)17-biased immunity and changes in microbial communities and abdominal fat with obesity after eating the Western chow. In striking contrast, eating probiotic yogurt together with Western chow inhibited age-associated weight gain. We went on to test whether a bacteria found in yogurt may serve to lessen fat pathology by using purified Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 6475 in drinking water. Surprisingly, we discovered that oral L. reuteri therapy alone was sufficient to change the pro-inflammatory immune cell profile and prevent abdominal fat pathology and age-associated weight gain in mice regardless of their baseline diet. These beneficial microbe effects were transferable into naïve recipient animals by purified CD4(+) T cells alone. Specifically, bacterial effects depended upon active immune tolerance by induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and interleukin (Il)-10, without significantly changing the gut microbial ecology or reducing ad libitum caloric intake. Our finding that microbial targeting restored CD4(+) T cell balance and yielded significantly leaner animals regardless of their dietary 'fast food' indiscretions suggests population-based approaches for weight management and enhancing public health in industrialized societies. PMID:23874682

  7. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. PMID:27101294

  8. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  9. Effects of particle size of alfalfa-based dairy cow diets on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

    2003-02-01

    Effects offorage particle size measured as physically effective NDF and ratio of alfalfa silage to alfalfa hay of diets on feed intake, chewing activity, particle size reduction, salivary secretion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of dairy cows were evaluated using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The diets consisted of 60% barley-based concentrate and 40% forage, comprised either of 50:50 or 25:75 of alfalfa silage:alfalfa hay, and alfalfa hay was either chopped or ground. Various methods were used to determine physically effective NDF content of the diets. Cows surgically fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were offered ad libitum access to these total mixed diets. The physically effective NDF content of the diets was significantly lower when measured using the Penn State Particle Separator than when measured based on particles retained on 1.18-mm screen. Intake of DM was increased by increasing the ratio of silage to hay but was not affected by physically effective NDF content of diets. Eating time (hours per day) was not affected by the physically effective NDF content of diets, although cows spent more time eating per unit of DM or NDF when consuming high versus low alfalfa hay diets. Ruminating time (hours per day) was increased with increased physically effective NDF content of the diets. Rumen pH was affected more by changing dietary particle size than altering the ratio of silage to hay. Feeding chopped hay instead of ground hay improved ruminal pH status: time during which ruminal pH was above 6.2 increased and time during which ruminal pH was below 5.8 decreased. Milk production was increased by feeding higher concentrations of alfalfa silage due to increased DM intake, but was not affected by dietary particle size. Feed particle size, expressed as mean particle length or physically effective NDF was moderately correlated with ruminating time but not with eating time. Although physically

  10. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO) rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF) rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005), epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005), fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P < 0.05), HOMA-IR (5.0 vs 13.6; P < 0.019), and serum cholesterol (167 vs 94 mg/dL; P < 0.05). When challenged with LPS, FO-fed mice had significantly lower serum IL-1β compared to SF-fed mice (2.0 vs 30.0 pg/mL; P < 0.001). After LPS-challenge, SF-fed mice had higher mortality, lost more body weight, and had greater decrease in blood glucose compared to FO-fed mice. Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice. PMID:21388548

  11. A comparison of effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable shortening on the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kubant, R; Poon, A N; Sánchez-Hernández, D; Domenichiello, A F; Huot, P S P; Pannia, E; Cho, C E; Hunschede, S; Bazinet, R P; Anderson, G H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with increased consumption and preference for dietary fat. Experimental models of fat-induced obesity use either lard or vegetable shortening. Yet, there are no direct comparisons of these commonly used fat sources, or the influence of their fatty acid composition, on the development of diet-induced obesity. Objective: To compare the effects of lard and hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets, which differ in their fatty acid composition, on weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Methods and design: Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 14 weeks high-fat diets containing either (1) high vegetable fat (HVF, 60 kcal% from vegetable shortening) or (2) high lard fat (HLF, 60 kcal% from lard). Rats fed normal-fat (NF, 16 kcal% from vegetable shortening) diet served as control. Body weight, food intake, adipose tissue mass, serum 25[OH]D3, glucose, insulin and fatty acid composition of diets were measured. Results: Rats fed either of the two high-fat diets had higher energy intake, weight gain and fat accretion than rats fed normal-fat diet. However, rats fed the HLF diet consumed more calories and gained more weight and body fat with greater increases of 32% in total (158.5±8.2 vs 120.2±6.6 g, P<0.05), 30% in visceral (104.4±5.2 vs 80.3±4.2 g, P<0.05) and 36% in subcutaneous fat mass (54.1±3.6 vs 39.9±3.1 g, P<0.05), compared with rats fed the HVF diet. Higher visceral adiposity was positively correlated with serum insulin (r=0.376, P<0.05) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (r=0.391, P<0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that lard-based high-fat diets accentuate the increase in weight gain and the development of obesity and insulin resistance more than hydrogenated vegetable-shortening diets. These results further point to the importance of standardizing fatty acid composition and type of fat used in determining outcomes of consuming high-fat diets. PMID:26657014

  12. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows. PMID:26298755

  13. The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Essential Oils on Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Blood Metabolites in Holstein Calves Consuming High Concentrate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, A. R.; Khorrami, B.; Mesgaran, M. Danesh; Parand, E.

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites. PMID:25049871

  14. Influence of High-fat and High-cholesterol Diet on Major CYP Activities in the Liver.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sachina; Sato, Yoko; Umegaki, Keizo; Chiba, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 12 weeks induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and influenced major CYP subtype gene expression levels and activities in a mouse model. In the present study, we determined the effects of the HFHC diet on CYP expression levels and activities prior to the establishment of NASH. When male C57BL/6J mice were fed the HFHC or a normal chow diet (Control) ad libitum for 4 weeks, body weights were significantly lower, whereas liver weights and hepatic lipid contents were significantly higher in the HFHC group than in the Control group. Under these conditions, hepatic microsomal luciferin-H (human CYP2C9 substrate) hydroxylation activity was significantly lower in the HFHC group than in the Control group. In order to investigate drug efficacy in mice fed the HFHC diet, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted with or without a pretreatment with tolbutamide (a CYP2C substrate) after 4 weeks of feeding. The plasma glucose-lowering effects of tolbutamide were attenuated in the HFHC group even though luciferin-H hydroxylation activity was suppressed in this group. The reason for this discrepancy was attributed to the mRNA expression levels of Cyp2c44 being lower and those of Cyp2c29 and Cyp2c66, which are involved in the metabolism of tolbutamide, being higher in the HFHC group than in the Control group. These results indicate that the expression of Cyp2c in the liver is influenced by the HFHC diet prior to the establishment of NASH and its regulation differed among the subtypes examined. PMID:27592832

  15. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. PMID:23890357

  16. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  17. GLUCOMANNAN AND GLUCOMANNAN PLUS SPIRULINA-ENRICHED SQUID-SURIMI ADDED TO HIGH SATURATED DIET AFFECT GLYCEMIA, PLASMA AND ADIPOSE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN GROWING FA/FA RATS.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p < 0.05) but did not modify insulinemia with respect to C diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p < 0.05) than C ones suggesting increased insulin availability. Plasma leptin and adiponectin decreased in G and GS vs. C group (p < 0.05). Adipose adiponectin increased significantly in G and GS vs. C rats (16-20 times, p < 0.01). Leptin in adipose tissue was higher in GS vs. G group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both glucomannan-diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies. PMID:26667726

  18. Effects of diet type on establishment of pregnancy and embryo development in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Gath, V P; Crowe, M A; O'Callaghan, D; Boland, M P; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Mulligan, F J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of elevated blood urea concentrations on: (i) the response to superovulation, fertilisation rate, and early embryonic development in beef heifers, and (ii) embryo survival from days 7 to 35 of gestation. In Experiment 1, heifers (18-24 months) were allocated at random (n=20 per treatment) to one of the following diets: (i) ad libitum grass silage plus 5 kg commercial beef concentrates per day (controls); (ii) ad libitum grass silage plus 5 kg concentrates and 250 g feed grade urea per day (HE/HU); or (iii) ad libitum wheaten straw plus 250 g feed grade urea and 50 g vitamin/mineral mix per day (LE/HU). Serum urea concentrations were monitored throughout the experiment. Oestrus in heifers was synchronised using an intravaginal releasing device (CIDR(®), InterAg, New Zealand). Oestrus was detected and in vitro produced blastocysts (day 7, morphological grades 1 and 2) were transferred to the heifers 7 days later (19 days after start of treatment diets). The heifers were maintained on the dietary treatments for a further 28 days, when pregnancy status was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. Detected pregnancies were terminated using 15 mg luprostiol and recycled for Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, following a 14-day dietary rest period, the heifers were re-allocated at random to the three dietary treatments above. Heifers were treated with a CIDR for 8 days and 15 mg luprostiol was given 12h before pessary withdrawal. They received 144 mg pFSH (Folltropin(®)-V, Vetrepharm, Canada) given as 8 injections over 4 days commencing on day 6 of CIDR/dietary treatment. Heifers were artificially inseminated 48 h after progesterone pessary withdrawal using commercial semen of proven fertility by a competent inseminator. The heifers were maintained on their diets until slaughter, 3 days post insemination when corpora lutea numbers were determined and embryos were recovered and cell numbers determined visually. Serum urea

  19. Role of a Bacillus subtilis Direct-Fed Microbial on Digesta Viscosity, Bacterial Translocation, and Bone Mineralization in Turkey Poults Fed with a Rye-Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Juan D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Kogut, Michael H.; Vicente, Jose L.; Wolfenden, Ross; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hargis, Billy M.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Rye contains high concentrations of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs), leading to reduced digestibility. Since poultry have little or no endogenous enzymes capable of hydrolyzing these NSP, exogenous carbohydrases as feed additives are used in an attempt to reduce the anti-nutritional effects of these polysaccharides. Previously, an in vitro study conducted in our laboratory showed that inclusion of certain Bacillus direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous phytase, lipase, protease, cellulase, and xylanase in high-NSP diets significantly reduced both digesta viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation. In the present study, rye-based turkey starter diets with or without Bacillus-DFM were administered ad libitum to day-of-hatch turkey poults in two independent experiments. In both experiments, day-of-hatch turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CON) or a DFM treated diet (n = 25 birds/group). At 10 days-of-age, all turkey poults from experiments 1 and 2 were weighted and 12 turkey poults/group were randomly selected and humanely killed. Liver samples were aseptically collected to evaluate bacterial translocation, and intestinal digesta samples were individually collected to evaluate viscosity. Additionally, in experiment 2 both tibias were removed for assessment of bone parameters. In both experiments, the treated group showed a reduction in the total number of coliforms in the liver and a reduced digesta viscosity when compared to the CON group (P < 0.05). Turkey poults fed the Bacillus-DFM candidate had increased tibia diameter, breaking strength, ash content, calcium content, and phosphorus content when compared with CON turkey poults. In summary, turkey poults fed with a rye-based diet without DFM showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by a reduction in bone mineralization; however, these adverse effects can be prevented by the inclusion of selected a Bacillus

  20. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the following ...

  1. Vegetarian Diet

    MedlinePlus

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  2. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  3. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M; Mansfield, Josephine P; Pluske, John R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO ( p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster ( p = 0.013) and ate more ( p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same ( p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets ( p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction ( p = 0.037), with more E. coli with F4 fimbriae found in pigs fed ZnO on d 11 ( p = 0.011) compared to base diet-fed pigs. Only significant time effects ( p < 0.05) occurred for blood measures. Under the conditions of this study, inclusion of OACP gave statistically similar production responses to pigs fed ZnO, however pigs fed ZnO had less PWD compared to OACP- and the base diet-fed pigs. PMID:26610577

  4. Alternate-day fasting protects the livers of mice against high-fat diet-induced inflammation associated with the suppression of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanwei; Cao, Meng; Mao, Xiaodong; Wei, Xiao; Li, Xingjia; Chen, Guofang; Zhang, Jiaming; Wang, Zhiguo; Shi, Jianfeng; Huang, HouCai; Yao, Xiaoming; Liu, Chao

    2016-06-01

    Because of unhealthy lifestyles, a large number of people are suffering from hepatic lipid accumulation and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Energy restriction (ER) is an effective nutritional intervention for preventing chronic disease. However, poor compliance with continuous ER limits its effectiveness. As an alternative to daily ER, alternate-day fasting (ADF) may be more effective. We hypothesized that ADF would improve obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance and protect the liver against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced steatosis and inflammation. In this study, we used C57BL/6 mice to test the beneficial effects of ADF. Thirty male 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups (10 per group, total N = 30): 1 group was fed chow diet, the second was fed HFD ad libitum, and the third group was submitted to ADF. The mice in the third group were fed the HFD ad libitum every other day and fasted the following day. After 12 months, the mice submitted to ADF exhibited reduced body weights and fasting glucose levels and improved insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis compared with continuous HFD-fed mice. In addition, the serum transaminase levels in the mice of the ADF group were lower than those of the HFD group. Moreover, the ADF regimen suppressed the expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4 and nuclear factor κB protein in the liver and suppressed the inflammatory pathway genes interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and serum amyloid A. These finding indicate that long-term ADF protects mouse livers against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatocellular damage associated with the suppression of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB signaling. PMID:27188904

  5. DIS in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-01

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS5. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS5 shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Qs is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Qs˜A1/3. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of αP = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of αP = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be αP = 1.5.

  6. High-fat diet-dependent modulation of the delayed rectifier K(+) current in adult guinea pig atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Aromolaran, Ademuyiwa S; Colecraft, Henry M; Boutjdir, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with hyperlipidemia, electrical remodeling of the heart, and increased risk of supraventricular arrhythmias in both male and female patients. The delayed rectifier K(+) current (IK), is an important regulator of atrial repolarization. There is a paucity of studies on the functional role of IK in response to obesity. Here, we assessed the obesity-mediated functional modulation of IK in low-fat diet (LFD), and high-fat diet (HFD) fed adult guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were randomly divided into control and obese groups fed, ad libitum, with a LFD (10 kcal% fat) or a HFD (45 kcal% fat) respectively. Action potential duration (APD), and IK were studied in atrial myocytes and IKr and IKs in HEK293 cells using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. HFD guinea pigs displayed a significant increase in body weight, total cholesterol and total triglycerides within 50 days. Atrial APD at 30% (APD30) and 90% (APD90) repolarization were shorter, while atrial IK density was significantly increased in HFD guinea pigs. Exposure to palmitic acid (PA) increased heterologously expressed IKr and IKs densities, while oleic acid (OA), severely reduced IKr and had no effect on IKs. The data are first to show that in obese guinea pigs abbreviated APD is due to increased IK density likely through elevations of PA. Our findings may have crucial implications for targeted treatment options for obesity-related arrhythmias. PMID:27130822

  7. A high-fat diet or galanin in the PVN decreases phosphorylation of CREB in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    A high-fat diet (HFD) can increase hypothalamic galanin (GAL). GAL has recently been shown to inhibit opiate reward, which in turn, decreases cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We hypothesized that injection of GAL into the PVN, or consumption of a HFD, would be associated with a decrease in NAc CREB. In Exp. 1, GAL in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of naïve rats decreased phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) in the NAc compared to saline injected controls. In Exp. 2, rats fed ad libitum HFD for 4 wks had reduced NAc pCREB levels compared to rats with sporadic tastes of the HFD. Body weight, serum triglyceride and leptin levels were also raised in the chronic HFD-fed rats. These data suggest that PVN GAL or chronic intake of a HFD can decrease NAc pCREB. The implications of these findings may help to explain the lack of opiate-like withdrawal that has been reported in response to overeating a high fat diet, thereby providing a potential mechanism underlying behavioral differences seen with addiction-like overconsumption of different types of palatable foods. PMID:23747305

  8. Breath ethane as a marker of reactive oxygen species during manipulation of diet and oxygen tension in rats.

    PubMed

    Risby, T H; Jiang, L; Stoll, S; Ingram, D; Spangler, E; Heim, J; Cutler, R; Roth, G S; Rifkind, J M

    1999-02-01

    Breath ethane, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were analyzed in 24-mo-old female Fischer 344 rats that had been fed continuously ad libitum (AL) or restricted 30% of AL level (DR) diets since 6 wk of age. Rats were placed in a glass chamber that was first flushed with air, then with a gas mixture containing 12% O2. After equilibration, a sample of the outflow was collected in gas sampling bags for subsequent analyses of ethane and CO2. The O2 and CO2 levels were also directly monitored in the outflow of the chamber. O2 consumption and CO2 production increased for DR rats. Hypoxia decreased O2 consumption and CO2 production for the AL-fed and DR rats. These changes reflect changes in metabolic rate due to diet and PO2. A significant decrease in ethane generation was found in DR rats compared with AL-fed rats. Under normoxic conditions, breath ethane decreased from 2.20 to 1.61 pmol ethane/ml CO2. During hypoxia the levels of ethane generation increased, resulting in a DR-associated decrease in ethane from 2.60 to 1.90 pmol ethane/ml CO2. These results support the hypothesis that DR reduces the level of oxidative stress. PMID:9931199

  9. Effects of different diets on intestinal microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Ping; Zou, Wen-Li; Chen, Shui-Jiao; Wei, Hong-Yun; Yin, Ya-Ni; Zou, Yi-You; Lu, Fang-Gen

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the effects of different diets on intestinal microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development at the same caloric intake. METHODS Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (six rats each). The control diet (CON) group and free high-fat diet (FFAT) group were allowed ad libitum access to a normal chow diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. The restrictive high-fat diet (RFAT) group, restrictive high-sugar diet (RSUG) group, and high-protein diet (PRO) group were fed a high-fat diet, a high-sugar diet, and a high-protein diet, respectively, in an isocaloric way. All rats were killed at 12 wk. Body weight, visceral fat index (visceral fat/body weight), liver index (liver/body weight), insulin resistance, portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and liver triglycerides were measured. The intestinal microbiota in the different groups of rats was sequenced using high-throughput sequencing technology. RESULTS The FFAT group had higher body weight, visceral fat index, liver index, peripheral insulin resistance, portal LPS, serum ALT, serum AST, and liver triglycerides compared with all other groups (P < 0.05). Taking the same calories, the RFAT and RSUG groups demonstrated increased body weight, visceral fat index, peripheral insulin resistance and liver triglycerides compared with the PRO group (P < 0.05). The RFAT group also showed increased portal LPS compared with the PRO group (P < 0.05). Unweighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis of the sequencing data revealed that the intestinal microbiota structures of the CON, FFAT, RSUG and PRO groups were roughly separated away from each other. Taxon-based analysis showed that, compared with the CON group, the FFAT group had an increased abundance of Firmicutes, Roseburia and Oscillospira bacteria, a higher ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and a decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes

  10. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    PubMed Central

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  11. High fat diet and body weight have different effects on cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression in rat nodose ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Cluny, N.L.; Baraboi, E.D.; Mackie, K; Burdyga, G.; Richard, D.; Dockray, G.J.; Sharkey, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance is regulated, in part, by orexigenic signaling pathways of the vagus nerve. Fasting-induced modifications in the expression of orexigenic signaling systems have been observed in vagal afferents of lean animals. Altered basal cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor expression in the nodose ganglia in obesity has been reported. Whether altered body weight or a high fat diet modifies independent or additive changes in CB1 expression is unknown. We investigated the expression of CB1 and orexin 1 receptor (OX-1R) in nodose ganglia of rats fed ad libitum or food deprived (24h), maintained on low or high fat diets (HFD), with differing body weights. Male Wistar rats were fed chow or HFD (diet-induced obese: DIO or diet-resistant: DR) or were body weight matched to the DR group but fed chow (wmDR). CB1 and OX-1R immunoreactivity were investigated and CB1 mRNA density was determined using in situ hybridization. CB1 immunoreactivity was measured in fasted rats after sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8s) administration. In chow rats, fasting did not modify the level of CB1 mRNA. More CB1 immunoreactive cells were measured in fed DIO, DR and wmDR rats than chow rats; levels increased after fasting in chow and wmDR rats but not in DIO or DR rats. In HFD fasted rats CCK8s did not reduce CB1 immunoreactivity. OX-1R immunoreactivity was modified by fasting only in DR rats. These data suggest that body weight contributes to the proportion of neurons expressing CB1 immunoreactivity in the nodose ganglion, while HFD blunts fasting-induced increases, and CCK-induced suppression of, CB1-immunoreactivity. PMID:24145047

  12. Long-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a two-year randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mellberg, Caroline; Sandberg, Susanne; Ryberg, Mats; Eriksson, Marie; Brage, Sören; Larsson, Christel; Olsson, Tommy; Lindahl, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Short-term studies have suggested beneficial effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet (PD) on body weight and metabolic balance. We now report long-term effects in obese postmenopausal women of a PD on anthropometric measurements and metabolic balance, in comparison with a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Subjects/Methods Seventy obese postmenopausal women (mean age 60 years, body mass index 33 kg/m2) were assigned to an ad libitum PD or NNR diet in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was change in fat mass as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Both groups significantly decreased total fat mass at 6 months (−6.5 and −2.6 kg) and 24 months (−4.6 and −2.9 kg), with a more pronounced fat loss in the PD group at 6 months (P<0.001), but not at 24 months (P=0.095). Waist circumference and sagittal diameter also decreased in both groups, with a more pronounced decrease in the PD group at 6 months (−11.1 vs. −5.8 cm, P=0.001 and −3.7 vs. −2.0 cm, P<0.001, respectively). Triglyceride levels decreased significantly more at 6 and 24 months in the PD group versus the NNR group (P<0.001 and P=0.004). Nitrogen excretion did not differ between groups. Conclusions A PD has greater beneficial effects versus an NNR diet regarding fat mass, abdominal obesity and triglyceride levels in obese postmenopausal women; effects not fully sustained for anthropometric measurements at 24 months. Adherence to protein intake was poor in the PD group. The long-term consequences of these changes remain to be studied. PMID:24473459

  13. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Cassandra E; Phinney, Stephen D; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Quann, Erin E; Wood, Richard J; Bibus, Doug M; Kraemer, William J; Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal distribution of plasma fatty acids and increased inflammation are prominent features of metabolic syndrome. We tested whether these components of metabolic syndrome, like dyslipidemia and glycemia, are responsive to carbohydrate restriction. Overweight men and women with atherogenic dyslipidemia consumed ad libitum diets very low in carbohydrate (VLCKD) (1504 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 12:59:28) or low in fat (LFD) (1478 kcal:%CHO:fat:protein = 56:24:20) for 12 weeks. In comparison to the LFD, the VLCKD resulted in an increased proportion of serum total n-6 PUFA, mainly attributed to a marked increase in arachidonate (20:4n-6), while its biosynthetic metabolic intermediates were decreased. The n-6/n-3 and arachidonic/eicosapentaenoic acid ratio also increased sharply. Total saturated fatty acids and 16:1n-7 were consistently decreased following the VLCKD. Both diets significantly decreased the concentration of several serum inflammatory markers, but there was an overall greater anti-inflammatory effect associated with the VLCKD, as evidenced by greater decreases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, E-selectin, I-CAM, and PAI-1. Increased 20:4n-6 and the ratios of 20:4n-6/20:5n-3 and n-6/n-3 are commonly viewed as pro-inflammatory, but unexpectedly were consistently inversely associated with responses in inflammatory proteins. In summary, a very low carbohydrate diet resulted in profound alterations in fatty acid composition and reduced inflammation compared to a low fat diet. PMID:18046594

  14. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-02-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55-75 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (beta = -0.87, P < 0.001) showed a 44% greater decline in weight over the 12 weeks than the nonwater group (beta = -0.60, P < 0.001). Test meal EI was lower in the WP than NP condition at baseline, but not at week 12 (baseline: WP 498 +/- 25 kcal, NP 541 +/- 27 kcal, P = 0.009; 12-week: WP 480 +/- 25 kcal, NP 506 +/- 25 kcal, P = 0.069). Thus, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion. PMID:19661958

  15. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, P<0.05) and produced more CH4 per kg BW0.75 than LIMx cows (1.30 v. 1.05 g CH4/kg BW0.75; P<0.01). Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P<0.001) and propionate and butyrate lower (P<0.01) in rumen fluid samples from BG-fed compared with GS-fed cows. This study demonstrated that replacing GS with BG in barley straw-based diets can effectively reduce CH4

  16. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8%) significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C) ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment of

  17. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P < 0.05). The LD group consumed 1.3 kg/d (DM) more diet compared with HD group in the last 24 h before calving. The milk yield and the postpartum DMI were increased by the reduced energy density diet prepartum (P < 0.05). The changes in BCS and BW prepartum and postpartum were not affected by prepartum diets. HD group had higher milk fat content and lower lactose content compared with LD group during the first 3 wk of lactation (P < 0.05). The energy consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P < 0.05), and 72.7%, 73.1% and 75.2% during the first 4 wk postpartum, respectively. In conclusion, the low energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum. PMID:24976969

  18. Effect of tetrahydrocurcumin on the profiles of drug-metabolizing enzymes induced by a high fat and high fructose diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Jearapong, Nattharat; Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP), a superfamily of hepatic monooxygenase enzymes, catalyzes biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Modification of CYPs associated with metabolic diseases and continuous consumption of diet with excessive energy levels. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) exhibited beneficial effects in metabolic syndromes such as diabetic mellitus and dyslipidemia. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of THC and vitamin E (vitE) on the expression profiles of CYPs in the livers of mice fed with the high fat and high fructose diet. In addition to ad libitum access to commercial regular diet, the high fat and high fructose diet (HFD) group of adult male ICR mice was administered a HFD, which consisted of intragastric administration of hydrogenated soybean oil (1mL/day) and the addition of 20% fructose to the drinking water for 8weeks. During the induction period, subgroups of mice (n=5) were daily intragastrically administered with THC (100 or 200mg/kg/day) or vitE (100mg/kg/day). The expressions of CYP mRNA and protein were quantified using real-time PCR and the levels of these proteins were quantified using immunoblotting. Continuous consuming of high fat and high fructose for 8weeks significantly increased the expressions of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Cyp2c29, and Cyp3a11 while THC ultimately normalized these CYPs profiles. In the control mice, most of the investigated CYPs was unchanged by THC, with the exception that the Cyp1a1, Cyp2b9, and Cyp3a11 proteins were elevated. These findings provided additional important information on the effects of THC on diet induced-metabolic dysfunctions. However, drug interactions due to the use of THC as an alternative supplement are of concern, particularly in the combinations that include a drug that is a substrate of Cyp1a1, Cyp2b9, and Cyp3a11. PMID:26102010

  19. Maternal conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reverses high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and inflammation in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, C A; Segovia, S A; Markworth, J F; Gray, C; Zhang, X D; Milan, A M; Mitchell, C J; Barnett, M P G; Roy, N C; Vickers, M H; Reynolds, C M; Cameron-Smith, D

    2016-03-01

    A high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation leads to metabolic disorders in offspring concomitant with increased adiposity and a proinflammatory phenotype in later life. During the fetal period, the impact of maternal diet on skeletal muscle development is poorly described, despite this tissue exerting a major influence on life-long metabolic health. This study investigated the effect of a maternal HFD on skeletal muscle anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory signaling in adult rat offspring. Furthermore, the actions of maternal-supplemented conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on these measures of muscle phenotype were investigated. A purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal fat), a CD supplemented with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal fat, 1% total fat as CLA), a high-fat (HFD; 45% kcal fat from lard), or a HFD supplemented with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal fat from lard, 1% total fat as CLA) was fed ad libitum to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 days before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring received a standard chow diet from weaning, and the gastrocnemius was collected for analysis at day 150. Offspring from HF and HFCLA mothers displayed lower muscular protein content accompanied by elevated monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, and IL-1β concentrations. Phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 (Ser(536)) and expression of the catabolic E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were increased in HF offspring, an effect reversed by maternal CLA supplementation. The present study demonstrates the importance of early life interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of poor maternal diet on offspring skeletal muscle development. PMID:26632603

  20. Apparent zinc absorption and zinc status of weanling rats fed moderately zinc-deficient diets enriched with beef tallow or sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Weigand, E; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare apparent Zn absorption and Zn status of weanling rats fed diets that differed in Zn level, fat level and fat source. Semi-synthetic diets, which were about isoenergetic and contained 3% soyabean oil, were supplemented with 7 or 100 mg Zn/kg to create a mild Zn deficiency (LZ) or a high Zn supply (HZ) and with 0 (LF), 22% beef tallow (BT) or 22% sunflower oil (SF) according to a 2 × 3 factorial design of treatments. They were fed ad libitum to 6 × 8 rats for 28 days. Energy intake and growth rates were comparable among the HZ groups. Weight gains in the LZ-LF, LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups averaged 5.54, 4.95 and 4.15 g/day, and apparent Zn absorption averaged 79.4, 60.3 and 48.0 μg Zn/day, respectively, whereas faecal Zn excretion was comparable among these groups. Apparent Zn absorption, and plasma and femur Zn concentrations were lower in the high-fat groups than in the LF group, possibly due to the high cellulose content of the BT and SF diets. Plasma Zn concentrations were higher in the animals fed the BT-based than in the SF-based diets, whereas femur and soft tissue Zn concentrations were comparable among these groups. The differences between the LZ-BT and LZ-SF groups in growth rate, Zn absorption rate and Zn status were confirmed in a second experiment. The results indicate that moderately Zn-deficient diets enriched with SF in relation to BT affect Zn metabolism of weanling rats by a yet unknown mechanism. PMID:22672508

  1. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  2. Bubbling AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose F.

    2005-02-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS3 × S3, the pp-wave and the multi-center string. ``Bubbling'', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane.

  3. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  5. Estimating pasture intake and nutrient digestibility of growing pigs fed a concentrate-forage diet by n-alkane and acid-insoluble ash markers.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Jean Serge; Kanengoni, Arnold Tapera; Makgothi, Onkabetswe Gogakgamatsamang; Baloyi, Joseph Jimu

    2012-10-01

    A study was carried out to determine voluntary forage intake and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed a mixed forage and concentrate diet. Twenty-five 8-week-old Large White × Landrace crossbred male pigs (27 ± 3.8 kg) were blocked by weight into five groups, and each was randomly allocated to four indoor treatments (A, B, C, and D), which received 100, 90, 80, and 70 % of ad lib concentrated intake and an outdoor treatment (E) that received 80 % of ad lib concentrate. Indoor treatments were either fed the concentrate only (A) or also received freshly cut Kikuyu grass (Pennissetum clandestinum) ad libitum (B, C, and D), while pigs on treatment E were reared outdoors in Kikuyu grass paddocks. There was a significant correlation between the amount of concentrate offered and its intake (P < 0.01). The intake of Kikuyu was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). Mean acid-insoluble ash digestibility estimates of organic and dry matter were superior to C(32) estimates (P < 0.05). Kikuyu intake was higher (P < 0.05) than the estimated intake by 0.076 ± 0.03 kg. It was concluded that Kikuyu intake was not affected by the reduction of the concentrate allowance, and this should be taken into consideration when feeding pigs on pasture. PMID:22467043

  6. Diet-induced and mono-genetic obesity alter volatile organic compound signature in mice.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Martin; Muntean, Andreea; Szymczak, Wilfried; Rink, Nadine; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hoeschen, Christoph; Klingenspor, Martin; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Rozman, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is still rising in many countries, resulting in an increased risk of associated metabolic diseases. In this study we aimed to describe the volatile organic compound (VOC) patterns symptomatic for obesity. We analyzed high fat diet (HFD) induced obese and mono-genetic obese mice (global knock-in mutation in melanocortin-4 receptor MC4R-ki). The source strengths of 208 VOCs were analyzed in ad libitum fed mice and after overnight food restriction. Volatiles relevant for a random forest-based separation of obese mice were detected (26 in MC4R-ki, 22 in HFD mice). Eight volatiles were found to be important in both obesity models. Interestingly, by creating a partial correlation network of the volatile metabolites, the chemical and metabolic origins of several volatiles were identified. HFD-induced obese mice showed an elevation in the ketone body acetone and acrolein, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and several unidentified volatiles. In MC4R-ki mice, several yet-unidentified VOCs were found to be altered. Remarkably, the pheromone (methylthio)methanethiol was found to be reduced, linking metabolic dysfunction and reproduction. The signature of volatile metabolites can be instrumental in identifying and monitoring metabolic disease states, as shown in the screening of the two obese mouse models in this study. Our findings show the potential of breath gas analysis to non-invasively assess metabolic alterations for personalized diagnosis. PMID:26860833

  7. High fat diet induces obesity in British Angora rabbit: a model for experimental obesity.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, S; Sinha, R; Sinha, M; Paudel, B H; Bhattacharya, N; Mandal, M B

    2009-01-01

    A reliable and cost-effective animal model for human obesity with its manifested disorders is yet to be established in the context of increased morbidity and mortality due to obesity and its related problems. Therefore, an attempt was made to produce obesity in locally available British Angora Rabbits (BAR) and examine the effect on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Adult male BARs weighing nearly 2 kg were randomly divided into two groups, one of the groups was fed with high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 10 weeks and the control group received standard normal rabbit chow for same period. Body weight, skinfold thickness, serum cholesterol, serum glucose and resting heart rate were measured before and after the dietary regimens. After 10 weeks, HFD group of rabbits demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight (+24%) and skinfold thickness (+37%). The gain in body weight was positively correlated to skinfold thickness (r = 0.61). Serum cholesterol, serum glucose and resting heart rate were also increased by 46%, 52% and 15%, respectively. Whereas no such increases in any of these parameters were observed in control group of rabbits. Our results suggest that obesity can be produced in BARs by feeding HFD. The obesity manifests with cardiovascular and metabolic changes. It is proposed that this may serve as a valid and reliable model of experimental obesity. PMID:19810577

  8. Impact of diet on 24-hour intragastric pH profile in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Damkel, Cornelia; Snyder, Alice; Uhlig, Albrecht; Coenen, Manfred; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2015-01-01

    An electrode incorporated into a polyethylene hose was introduced under endoscopic control into the stomach of six fasting adult horses for long-lasting pH measurements. The intragastric pH was recorded every four seconds for a period of 24 hours. The Warmblood horses were assigned randomly to receive hay ad libitum (H group); 1.5 kg hay/100 kg BW/day and 1 kg concentrate/100 kg BW/ day (C group) or protocol C plus 75 g pectin-lecithin supplement/100 kg BW/day (P group). The horses were adapted to each diet for 14 days. The 24-hour median pH value for protocol H (2.69) was significantly lower compared to protocol C (3.35) and P (3.44) (p < 0.05). The horses in protocol P had a significant higher percentage (40.1 %) of 24-hour intragastric pH values ≥ 4 than in protocol C (36.2 %) or in protocol H (25.3 %) (p < 0.05). PMID:26591378

  9. Tantalus, restraint theory, and the low-sacrifice diet: the art of reverse abstraction: 10th International Congress on Obesity; September 4, 2006; Sydney,Australia - Symposium: obesity management: adding art to the science, invited presentation.

    PubMed

    Blair-West, George W

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that clinicians face the unique artistic challenge of taking concrete pieces of data - scientific findings - and abstracting them into effective therapeutic interventions. Moreover, this abstraction has to be modified for different personality types. The process of therapeutic change and how it can be impeded by the traditional medical model are briefly explored. The doctor-patient dyadic treatment relationship, while appropriate and necessary for many medical interventions, can disavow the source of change when it comes to lifestyle conditions such as obesity. Restraint theory and its origins in Greek mythology are briefly reviewed and integrated with Bowlby's attachment theory as precepts in developing a psychologically based dietary approach. By retaining in people's diets foods they have a deep emotional attachment to, the low-sacrifice diet attempts to encourage caloric restriction in a way that does not trigger rebound overeating. PMID:18311368

  10. Milk fatty acid composition, rumen microbial population, and animal performances in response to diets rich in linoleic acid supplemented with chestnut or quebracho tannins in dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Buccioni, A; Pauselli, M; Viti, C; Minieri, S; Pallara, G; Roscini, V; Rapaccini, S; Marinucci, M Trabalza; Lupi, P; Conte, G; Mele, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate milk fatty acid (FA) profile, animal performance, and rumen microbial population in response to diets containing soybean oil supplemented or not with chestnut and quebracho tannins in dairy ewes. Eighteen Comisana ewes at 122±6 d in milking were allotted into 3 experimental groups. Diets were characterized by chopped grass hay administered ad libitum and by 800 g/head and day of 3 experimental concentrates containing 84.5 g of soybean oil/kg of dry matter (DM) and 52.8 g/kg of DM of bentonite (control diet), chestnut tannin extract (CHT diet), or quebracho tannin extract (QUE diet). The trial lasted 4 wk. Milk yield was recorded daily, and milk composition and blood parameters were analyzed weekly. At the end of the experiment, samples of rumen fluid were collected to analyze pH, volatile fatty acid profile, and the relative proportions of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in the rumen microbial population. Hepatic functionality, milk yield, and gross composition were not affected by tannin extracts, whereas milk FA composition was characterized by significant changes in the concentration of linoleic acid (CHT +2.77% and QUE +9.23%), vaccenic acid (CHT +7.07% and QUE +13.88%), rumenic acid (CHT -1.88% and QUE +24.24%), stearic acid (CHT + 8.71% and QUE -11.45%), and saturated fatty acids (CHT -0.47% and QUE -3.38%). These differences were probably due to the ability of condensed versus hydrolyzable tannins to interfere with rumen microbial metabolism, as indirectly confirmed by changes in the relative proportions of B. fibrisolvens and B. proteoclasticus populations and by changes in the molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. The effect of the CHT diet on the milk FA profile and microbial species considered in this trial was intermediate between that of QUE and the control diet, suggesting a differential effect of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on rumen microbes. Compared with control animals

  11. Dietary Protein to Carbohydrate Ratio and Caloric Restriction: Comparing Metabolic Outcomes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Mitchell, Sarah J; Coogan, Sean C P; Cogger, Victoria C; Gokarn, Rahul; McMahon, Aisling C; Raubenheimer, David; de Cabo, Rafael; Simpson, Stephen J; Le Couteur, David G

    2015-06-16

    Both caloric restriction (CR) and low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) ad-libitum-fed diets increase lifespan and improve metabolic parameters such as insulin, glucose, and blood lipids. Severe CR, however, is unsustainable for most people; therefore, it is important to determine whether manipulating macronutrient ratios in ad-libitum-fed conditions can generate similar health outcomes. We present the results of a short-term (8 week) dietary manipulation on metabolic outcomes in mice. We compared three diets varying in protein to carbohydrate ratio under both CR and ad libitum conditions. Ad libitum LPHC diets delivered similar benefits to CR in terms of levels of insulin, glucose, lipids, and HOMA, despite increased energy intake. CR on LPHC diets did not provide additional benefits relative to ad libitum LPHC. We show that LPHC diets under ad-libitum-fed conditions generate the metabolic benefits of CR without a 40% reduction in total caloric intake. PMID:26027933

  12. Growth, training response and health in Standardbred yearlings fed a forage-only diet.

    PubMed

    Ringmark, S; Roepstorff, L; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Revold, T; Lindholm, A; Hedenström, U; Rundgren, M; Ogren, G; Jansson, A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to, from a holistic perspective, describe the effects of a forage-only feeding system and a conventional training program on young Standardbred horses and compare data with similar observations from the literature. Sixteen Standardbred colts fed a forage-only diet for 4 months from breaking (August to December) and with the goal to vigorously trot 5 to 7 km at a speed of 5.6 m/s (3 min/km) were studied. The horses were fed grass haylage (56 to 61% dry matter (DM), 2.80 to 3.02 Mcal DE/kg DM and 130 to 152 g CP/kg DM) ad libitum, 1 kg of a lucerne product and minerals. The amount of training and number of training sessions were documented daily, and feed intake and body development were measured once every month. Heart rate (HR) was measured during and after a standardized exercise test in October and December. In December, a postexercise venous blood sample was collected and analyzed for plasma lactate concentration. Muscle biopsies (m. gluteus medius) were taken and analyzed for glycogen and fiber composition. Health was assessed in October and November by an independent veterinarian using a standardized health scoring protocol. BW and height at withers increased from 402 to 453 kg (root mean square error (RMSE) 6) and from 148.7 to 154.1 cm (RMSE 0.7), respectively, and the body condition score was 4.9 (RMSE 0.2) at the end of the study. Muscle glycogen content was 532 mmol/kg dry weight (s.d. 56). There was a significant decrease in postexercise HR (81 v. 73 bpm, RMSE 8), and the individual amount of training was negatively correlated with HR during and after exercise. Health scores were high and similar at both assessments (8.4 and 8.4 (RMSE 1.0) out of 10; P > 0.05), and the number of lost training days per month due to health problems was <0.9, with the exception of November (5.3 days). It is concluded that yearlings in training fed high-energy forage ad libitum can reach a conventional training goal and grow at least as well as

  13. A Snapshot of the Hepatic Transcriptome: Ad Libitum Alcohol Intake Suppresses Expression of Cholesterol Synthesis Genes in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jonathon D.; Sherrill, Jeremy B.; Morello, Gabriella M.; San Miguel, Phillip J.; Ding, Zhenming; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Liang, Tiebing; Muir, William M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Lossie, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Research is uncovering the genetic and biochemical effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol. One prime example is the J- or U-shaped relationship between the levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption in humans (about 30 g ethanol/d) is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, while abstinence and heavier alcohol intake is linked to increased risk. However, the hepatic consequences of moderate alcohol drinking are largely unknown. Previous data from alcohol-preferring (P) rats showed that chronic consumption does not produce significant hepatic steatosis in this well-established model. Therefore, free-choice alcohol drinking in P rats may mimic low risk or nonhazardous drinking in humans, and chronic exposure in P animals can illuminate the molecular underpinnings of free-choice drinking in the liver. To address this gap, we captured the global, steady-state liver transcriptome following a 23 week free-choice, moderate alcohol consumption regimen (∼7.43 g ethanol/kg/day) in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP10a) rats. Chronic consumption led to down-regulation of nine genes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, including HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis. These findings corroborate our phenotypic analyses, which indicate that this paradigm produced animals whose hepatic triglyceride levels, cholesterol levels and liver histology were indistinguishable from controls. These findings explain, at least in part, the J- or U-shaped relationship between cardiovascular risk and alcohol intake, and provide outstanding candidates for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms that underlie the salutary cardiovascular benefits of chronic low risk and nonhazardous alcohol intake. PMID:25542004

  14. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (P<0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm (P<0.05) with the acrophase at the second feed and a decrease over the next 12 h. Average daily trypsin, lipase and amylase levels of FA fish were significantly lower than those of TR fish (P<0.01); however, the growth performance of both groups was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  15. Effect of flaxseed physical form on digestibility of lactation diets fed to Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, J W; Bauer, M L; Bork, N R

    2014-09-01

    Four multicannulated (rumen, duodenum, and ileum) Holstein steers (459.7±46.4kg of initial body weight) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to determine the effect of flaxseed processing method on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. Treatments were based on inclusion of (1) 7.5% linseed meal (control), (2) 10% whole flaxseed, (3) 10% rolled flaxseed, or (4) 10% ground flaxseed on a dry matter (DM) basis, and were formulated to mimic typical high-producing dairy cow lactation diets. The control diet contained linseed meal in a proportion to provide crude protein (CP) equal to the amount of CP contributed by the flaxseed in the other treatments. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained 30% corn silage, 17% chopped alfalfa hay, 6% sugar beet pulp, and 47% concentrate (comprising ground corn, supplemental protein, trace minerals and vitamins, and either flaxseed or linseed meal (DM basis). Diets were formulated to contain 17% CP, 34% neutral detergent fiber, 21% acid detergent fiber, and 4% fatty acid (DM basis). Periods were 14 d long and consisted of 7 d of adaptation and 7 d of sample collection. Dry matter intake (as a % of body weight) was similar (2.41±0.17) for all treatments. The inclusion of flaxseed, regardless of processing method, tended to decrease total-tract organic matter digestibility relative to the linseed control, but no differences in CP intake, duodenal CP flow (bacterial, apparent feed, or total), ileal CP flow, fecal CP output, microbial efficiency, or CP digestibility (apparent ruminal, true ruminal, small intestine, large intestine, or total tract) were observed between treatments. Method of processing did not alter ruminal pH, ammonia, or volatile fatty acids production. The ground flaxseed treatment had the fastest rate of in situ DM degradation (11.25%/h), followed by the control (7.46%/h), rolled flaxseed (4.53%/h), and whole flaxseed (0.57%/h) treatments. Degradability of CP and fat followed the same pattern as DM

  16. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K. N.; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  17. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  18. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fruits Whole grains Legumes Seeds Nuts May include eggs and milk A vegetarian diet contains no animal ... animal proteins or animal by-products such as eggs, milk, or honey. Lacto-vegetarian: includes plant foods ...

  19. Vegetarian diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... grains Legumes Seeds Nuts May include eggs and milk A vegetarian diet contains no animal proteins. A ... proteins or animal by-products such as eggs, milk, or honey. Lacto-vegetarian: includes plant foods plus ...

  20. IBS Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... often conflicting advice is available, especially on the Internet. Much of it is associated with a considerable cost. Video with Peter Whorwell, MD Diet, Eating and IBS Symptoms There are a variety of ...

  1. DASH Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products. Includes whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limits sodium, sweets, sugary beverages, ...

  2. Feeding a diet containing resistant potato starch influences gastrointestinal tract traits and growth performance of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Agyekum, A K; Yin, Y L; Rideout, T C; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding resistant potato starch (RPS) as a natural source of resistant starch to weaned pigs for 28 d immediately after weaning. Sixty piglets (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc) weaned at 21 ± 2 d (1:1 male:female) with an initial BW of 7.2 ± 0.78 kg were assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 dietary treatments to give 6 observations per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a negative control corn-soybean meal-wheat-wheat middlings-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial agents added) or the NC supplemented with RPS either as powder or in capsules and each included at 0.5 or 1.0% as a top-dressing on each day. Diets were formulated to meet 1998 NRC specifications. Pigs were offered the experimental diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d and water was available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined weekly. Fecal score was determined daily for 14 d after weaning. At the conclusion of study, 1 pig from each pen was randomly selected and euthanized (n = 6 per treatment) to determine visceral organ weight, digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentrations. Resistant potato starch supplementation improved (P < 0.001) fecal score, and pigs offered 1.0% RPS had more solid feces (P < 0.05) than those offered 0.5% RPS during the first 14 d after weaning, independent of the form of RPS. Resistant potato starch supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) ileal and cecal digesta pH regardless of the levels of RPS or mode of delivery. The total VFA concentrations in cecal digesta were greater (P < 0.05) but the molar proportion of branched-chain fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the RPS-containing diets compared with those fed the NC, irrespective of the RPS levels or the form of RPS. However, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in visceral organ weights, growth performance, and digestibilities of DM, CP, Ca, and P among treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that

  3. Large, binge-type meals of high fat diet change feeding behaviour and entrain food anticipatory activity in mice*

    PubMed Central

    Bake, T.; Murphy, M.; Morgan, D.G.A.; Mercer, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum on control diet but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) for 2 h a day during the mid-dark phase rapidly adapt their feeding behaviour and can consume nearly 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h-scheduled feed. We assessed food intake microstructure and meal pattern, and locomotor activity and rearing as markers of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Schedule fed mice reduced their caloric intake from control diet during the first hours of the dark phase but not during the 3-h period immediately preceding the scheduled feed. Large meal/binge-like eating behaviour during the 2-h scheduled feed was characterised by increases in both meal number and meal size. Rearing was increased during the 2-h period running up to scheduled feeding while locomotor activity started to increase 1 h before, indicating that schedule-fed mice display FAA. Meal number and physical activity changes were sustained when HFD was withheld during the anticipated scheduled feeding period, and mice immediately binged when HFD was represented after a week of this “withdrawal” period. These findings provide important context to our previous studies suggesting that energy balance systems in the hypothalamus are not responsible for driving these large, binge-type meals. Evidence of FAA in HFD dark phase schedule-fed mice implicates anticipatory processes in binge eating that do not involve immediately preceding hypophagia or regulatory homeostatic signalling. PMID:24631639

  4. The Ketogenic Diet and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Prolong Survival in Mice with Systemic Metastatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Poff, Angela M.; Ari, Csilla; Seyfried, Thomas N.; D’Agostino, Dominic P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2T) saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. Methods We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO2T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week). Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Results KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO2T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO2T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. Conclusions KD and HBO2T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease. PMID:23755243

  5. Sex differences in renal and metabolic responses to a high-fructose diet in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nikhil; Li, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    High fructose intake has been associated with increased incidences of renal disease and hypertension, among other pathologies. Most fructose is cleared by the portal system and metabolized in the liver; however, systemic levels of fructose can rise with increased consumption. We tested whether there were sex differences in the renal responses to a high-fructose diet in mice. Two-month-old male and female C57BL6/129/SV mice (n = 6 mice per sex per treatment) were randomized to receive control or high-fructose (65% by weight) diets as pelleted chow ad libitum for 3 mo. Fructose feeding did not significantly affect body weight but led to a 19% and 10% increase in kidney weight in male and female mice, respectively. In male mice, fructose increased the expression (∼50%) of renal cortical proteins involved in metabolism, including glucose transporter 5 (facilitative fructose transporter), ketohexokinase, and the insulin receptor (β-subunit). Female mice had lower basal levels of glucose transporter 5, which were unresponsive to fructose. However, female mice had increased urine volume and plasma K+ and decreased plasma Na+ with fructose, whereas male mice were less affected. Likewise, female mice showed a two- to threefold reduction in the expression Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb and aquaporin-2 in the collecting duct with fructose relative to female control mice, whereas male mice had no change. Overall, our results support greater proximal metabolism of fructose in male animals and greater distal tubule/collecting duct (electrolyte homeostasis) alterations in female animals. These sex differences may be important determinants of the specific nature of pathologies that develop in association with high fructose consumption. PMID:25537743

  6. Reducing the phosphorus concentration in diets for turkeys between 10 and 22 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Wendt, P; Strobel, E

    2003-09-01

    1. An experiment lasting for 13 weeks was started at the beginning of week 10 with male turkeys weighing 5.38 kg. The experiment comprised three subsequent periods with adjusted metabolisable energy (ME) and nutrient concentrations from weeks 10 to 13, 14 to 17, and 18 to 22. Seven pens of 12 birds each were allocated to each of 5 treatments. Treatments differed in dietary phosphorus concentration and phytase supplementation (500 U/kg) only. Total phosphorus varied between treatments from 4.9 to 8.0 g/kg (weeks 10 to 13), from 4.4 to 7.5 g/kg (weeks 14 to 17) and from 3.5 to 7.0 g/kg (weeks 18 to 22). Phosphorus concentration was adjusted by different inclusions of monocalcium phosphate. Diets were pelleted and offered ad libitum. 2. A final body weight of, on average, 22.3 kg was achieved at the end of week 22. Body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, toe ash, toe phosphorus and toe calcium were not significantly affected by dietary phosphorus concentration. There was no indication of an effect on mortality or on broken or deformed bones. 3. Phosphorus concentrations (g/kg diet) of 5.9, 5.4 and 4.4 without microbial phytase and of 4.9, 4.4 and 3.5 with microbial phytase, respectively, were sufficient in the three periods. As compared with the control, a reduction in phosphorus excretion of turkeys by 0.4 without phytase and by 0.5 with phytase was achieved without negative effects on turkeys. 4. Because the data demonstrate the great potential for a reduction in dietary phosphorus concentration, detailed requirement and availability studies with turkeys should follow. PMID:14584849

  7. Effect of a Low Starch/Low Dairy Diet on Fat Oxidation in Overweight and Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Phy, Jennifer L.; Watkins, Phillip; Boylan, Mallory; Spallholz, Julian; Harris, Kitty S.; Cooper, Jamie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 4%- 18% of reproductive-aged women and is associated with increased risk of obesity and obesity-related disease. PCOS is associated with hyperinsulinemia which is known to impair fat oxidation. Research shows that carbohydrates from dairy and starch-based foods cause greater postprandial insulin secretion than carbohydrates from non-starchy vegetables and fruits. Objective To determine whether an ad libitum 8-week low starch/low dairy diet would improve fasting and postprandial fat oxidation after a high saturated fat liquid meal (HSFLM) in overweight and obese women with PCOS. Methods Prospective 8-week dietary intervention using a low starch/low dairy diet in 10 women (BMI ≥25kg/m2 and ≤45kg/m2) with PCOS. Indirect calorimetry was used at fasting and for 5 hours following consumption of the HSFLM to determine respiratory exchange ratio (RER), macronutrient oxidation, and energy expenditure (EE) at week 0 and week 8. Results Participants had a reduction in body weight (−8.1±1.8kg, p<0.05) and fasting insulin (−19.5±8.9μg/mL, p<0.05) after dietary intervention; however, these were not significantly correlated with improved fat oxidation. There was a reduction in fasting RER, and fasting and postprandial CHO oxidation, and an increase in fasting and postprandial fat oxidation after adjusting for body weight. There was also significant difference in incremental area under the curve (iAUC) from pre- to post-diet for fat (0.06±0.00 g/kg/5hour; p<0.001) and carbohydrate oxidation (−0.29±0.06 g/kg/5hour; p<0.001), but not for RER or EE. Conclusions An 8-week low starch/low dairy diet increased fat oxidation in overweight and obese women with PCOS. PMID:25109619

  8. A low protein diet during pregnancy provokes a lasting shift of hepatic expression of genes related to cell cycle throughout ontogenesis in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. Adverse environmental conditions during fetal development provoke an intrauterine adaptive response termed 'fetal programming', which may lead to both persistently biased responsiveness to extrinsic factors and permanent consequences for the organismal phenotype. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome exhibits short-term and long-term changes, depending on the maternal diet. In order to contribute to a comprehensive inventory of genes and functional networks that are targets of nutritional programming initiated during fetal life, we applied whole-genome microarrays for expression profiling in a longitudinal experimental design covering prenatal, perinatal, juvenile, and adult ontogenetic stages in a porcine model. Pregnant sows were fed either a gestational low protein diet (LP, 6% CP) or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP). All offspring was nursed by foster sows receiving standard diets. After weaning, all offspring was fed standard diets ad libitum. Results Analyses of the hepatic gene expression of the offspring at prenatal (94 dies post conceptionem, dpc) and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dies post natum, dpn) included comparisons between dietary groups within stages as well as comparisons between ontogenetic stages within diets to separate diet-specific transcriptional changes and maturation processes. We observed differential expression of genes related to lipid metabolism (e.g. Fatty acid metabolism, Biosynthesis of steroids, Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, FA elongation in mitochondria, Bile acid synthesis) and cell cycle regulation (e.g. Mitotic roles of PLK, G1/S checkpoint regulation, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation). Notably, at stage 1 dpn no regulation of a distinct pathway was found in LP offspring. Conclusions The transcriptomic modulations point to

  9. TRAMP Prostate Tumor Growth Is Slowed by Walnut Diets Through Altered IGF-1 Levels, Energy Pathways, and Cholesterol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsook; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dietary changes could potentially reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) prostate tumor responses to a 100 g of fat/kg diet (whole walnuts, walnut oil, and other oils; balanced for macronutrients, tocopherols [α-and γ]) for 18 weeks ad libitum were assessed. TRAMP mice (n=17 per group) were fed diets with 100 g fat from either whole walnuts (diet group WW), walnut-like fat (diet group WLF, oils blended to match walnut's fatty acid profile), or as walnut oil (diet group WO, pressed from the same walnuts as WW). Fasted plasma glucose was from tail vein blood, blood was obtained by cardiac puncture, and plasma stored frozen until analysis. Prostate (genitourinary intact [GUI]) was weighed and stored frozen at −80°C. Plasma triglyceride, lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma multianalyte levels (Myriad RBM Rat Metabolic MAP), prostate (GUI), tissue metabolites (Metabolon, Inc., Durham, NC, USA), and mRNA (by Illumina NGS) were determined. The prostate tumor size, plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), high density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol all decreased significantly (P<.05) in both WW and WO compared to WLF. Both WW and WO versus WLF showed increased insulin sensitivity (Homeostasis Model Assessment [HOMA]), and tissue metabolomics found reduced glucose-6-phosphate, succinylcarnitine, and 4-hydroxybutyrate in these groups suggesting effects on cellular energy status. Tissue mRNA levels also showed changes suggestive of altered glucose metabolism with WW and WO diet groups having increased PCK1 and CIDEC mRNA expression, known for their roles in gluconeogenesis and increased insulin sensitivity, respectively. WW and WO group tissues also had increased MSMB mRNa a tumor suppressor and decreased COX-2 mRNA, both reported to inhibit prostate tumor growth. Walnuts reduced prostate tumor growth by affecting energy metabolism along with decreased plasma IGF-1 and cholesterol. These

  10. TRAMP prostate tumor growth is slowed by walnut diets through altered IGF-1 levels, energy pathways, and cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Yokoyama, Wallace; Davis, Paul Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Dietary changes could potentially reduce prostate cancer morbidity and mortality. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) prostate tumor responses to a 100 g of fat/kg diet (whole walnuts, walnut oil, and other oils; balanced for macronutrients, tocopherols [α-and γ]) for 18 weeks ad libitum were assessed. TRAMP mice (n=17 per group) were fed diets with 100 g fat from either whole walnuts (diet group WW), walnut-like fat (diet group WLF, oils blended to match walnut's fatty acid profile), or as walnut oil (diet group WO, pressed from the same walnuts as WW). Fasted plasma glucose was from tail vein blood, blood was obtained by cardiac puncture, and plasma stored frozen until analysis. Prostate (genitourinary intact [GUI]) was weighed and stored frozen at -80°C. Plasma triglyceride, lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma multianalyte levels (Myriad RBM Rat Metabolic MAP), prostate (GUI), tissue metabolites (Metabolon, Inc., Durham, NC, USA), and mRNA (by Illumina NGS) were determined. The prostate tumor size, plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), high density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol all decreased significantly (P<.05) in both WW and WO compared to WLF. Both WW and WO versus WLF showed increased insulin sensitivity (Homeostasis Model Assessment [HOMA]), and tissue metabolomics found reduced glucose-6-phosphate, succinylcarnitine, and 4-hydroxybutyrate in these groups suggesting effects on cellular energy status. Tissue mRNA levels also showed changes suggestive of altered glucose metabolism with WW and WO diet groups having increased PCK1 and CIDEC mRNA expression, known for their roles in gluconeogenesis and increased insulin sensitivity, respectively. WW and WO group tissues also had increased MSMB mRNa a tumor suppressor and decreased COX-2 mRNA, both reported to inhibit prostate tumor growth. Walnuts reduced prostate tumor growth by affecting energy metabolism along with decreased plasma IGF-1 and cholesterol. These effects are

  11. Cognitive health and Mediterranean diet: just diet or lifestyle pattern?

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Kontogianni, Meropi; Scarmeas, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline. The present review focuses on longitudinal studies with repeated cognitive assessments. It also evaluates evidence on behaviors related to the Mediterranean way of living, that have been shown to be associated with cognition, namely social interaction, participation in leisure activities, including physical activities, and sleep quality. The synergistic association-effect of these lifestyle behaviors, including diet, is unknown. Lifestyle patterns may constitute a new research and public health perspective. PMID:25461244

  12. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-4 levels were elevated in a murine model of human sickle cell anemia maintained on a high protein/calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Capers, Patrice L; Archer, David R; Hibbert, Jacqueline M

    2014-01-01

    Increased frequency and risk of infection is one of the well described complications of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Dietary supplementation in children with SCA and growth retardation improved growth and decreased incidence of infection. We investigated the impact of a high protein diet on weight gain, hematological profile, and immune cytokine levels in the Berkeley model of SCA, 16 of which were randomized to either regular mouse diet with 20% of calories from protein (n = 8) or a test feed with 35% of calories from protein (n = 8). Control mice (C57BL/6, n = 16) were correspondingly randomized, and were all feed ad libitum for three months with actual intake estimated by subtracting the weight of gnaw waste from that of the feed given. Blood was collected at sacrifice by cardiac puncture and plasma levels of T helper cell 1 (TH1) and TH2 associated cytokines were measured using a multiplex antibody immobilized bead assay. SCA mice receiving the 35% protein diet had modest improvements in weight, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin level, with a slight decrease in reticulocyte count compared with SCA mice on the regular mouse diet. Furthermore, they also had significantly higher plasma levels of cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P = 0.02), interferon (IFN)-γ (P = 0.01), interleukin 10 (IL-10; P = 0.02), and IL-4 (P = 0.02) compared with those that received the 20% protein diet. We conclude that providing additional protein calories to transgenic SCA mice increased the plasma levels of acute inflammatory cytokines associated with immune response to infection, which might partly explain decreased episodes of infection observed among supplemented children with SCA. PMID:24281564

  13. Ethanol Coproducts for Livestock Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid growth of the ethanol industry in the United States has generated large quantities of ethanol coproducts, primarily distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), available as a feedstuff for livestock. These coproducts are often added to livestock diets as a source of protein and energy. The...

  14. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics DASH Diet Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  15. Increasing linseed supply in dairy cow diets based on hay or corn silage: Effect on enteric methane emission, rumen microbial fermentation, and digestion.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Ferlay, A; Mosoni, P; Rochette, Y; Chilliard, Y; Doreau, M

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of increasing extruded linseed supply in diets based on hay (H; experiment 1) or corn silage (CS; experiment 2) on enteric methane (CH4) emission, rumen microbial and fermentation parameters, and rumen and total-tract digestibility. In each experiment, 4 lactating Holstein cows fitted with cannulas at the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d periods). Cows were fed ad libitum a diet [50:50 and 60:40 forage:concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis for experiments 1 and 2, respectively] without supplementation (H0, CS0) or supplemented with extruded linseed at 5% (H5, CS5), 10% (H10, CS10), and 15% (H15, CS15) of dietary DM (i.e., 1.8, 3.6 and 5.4% total fatty acids added, respectively). All measurements were carried out during the last 8 d of each period. Linseed supply linearly decreased daily CH4 emission in cows fed H diets (from 486 to 289g/d for H0 to H15, on average) and CS diets (from 354 to 207g/d for CS0 to CS15, on average). The average decrease in CH4 per kilogram of DM intake was, respectively, -7, -15, and -38% for H5, H10, H15 compared with the H0 diet, and -4, -8, and -34% for CS5, CS10, and CS15 compared with the CS0 diet. The same dose-response effect was observed on CH4 emission in percent of gross energy intake, per kilogram of nutrient digested, and per kilogram of 4% fat- and 3.3% protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in both experiments. Changes in the composition of rumen volatile fatty acids in response to increasing linseed supply resulted in a moderate or marked linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio for H or CS diets, respectively. The depressive effect of linseed on total protozoa concentration was linear for H diets (-15 to -40%, on average, for H5 to H15 compared with H0) and quadratic for CS diets (-17 to -83%, on average, for CS5 to CS15 compared with CS0). Concentration of methanogens was similar among H or CS diets. The energetic benefits from the decreased CH4 emission

  16. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based backgrounding diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    PubMed

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the effects of CP concentration and ruminal degradability of barley-based backgrounding diets on route and chemical form of N excretion, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (479 ± 14.6 kg average BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square. The basal diet consisted of 54% barley silage and 46% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (12% CP) or diets formulated to contain 14% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). The amount of feed offered was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. There was no effect of the diets on DMI (P = 0.38), and therefore, N intake was less (P < 0.05) in heifers fed the 12% CP diets than the 14% CP diets. Fecal N output was not affected by the diet (P = 0.15), but urine N (P < 0.10) and urea N output were greater (P < 0.05) in heifers fed the 14% CP than the 12% CP diets. There was no effect of CP degradability (P > 0.10) on the amount of urine N output. Urine N output was 38.9 and 45.1 ± 5.50% of N intake in heifers fed the 12% CP and 14% CP diets (P < 0.05), respectively. Urea N, the form of N most susceptible to NH3-N volatilization and loss, was the major form of N in urine (75.5% in heifers fed the 12% CP diet and 81.4 ± 1.7% in heifers fed the 14% CP diets; P < 0.05). Supplemental RDP (UREA+CM) and RUP combined with urea (UREA+CGM+xSBM) to provide 14% CP increased (P < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N but had no effect on ruminal peptide N (P = 0.62) and free AA N (P = 0.18) concentration, the flow of microbial (P = 0.34) and feed (P = 0.55) N, and ruminal (starch, P = 0.11; NDF, P = 0.78) and total tract nutrient digestibility (OM, P = 0.21; starch, P = 0.16). Supplementation of barley

  17. Growth and carcass characteristics in goat kids fed grass and alfalfa hay-based diets with limited concentrate supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding legume hay (alfalfa; Medicago sativa L.) or mixed grass hay on ADG and carcass characteristics of growing goats. In Experiment 1, 24 Spanish kids, equally representing intact male, female, and wether goats, were pen-fed ad libitum eit...

  18. New frontiers in gut nutrient sensor research: monosodium L-glutamate added to a high-energy, high-protein liquid diet promotes gastric emptying: a possible therapy for patients with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Zai, Hiroaki; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Nagoshi, Atsuto; Maeda, Masaki; Kawamura, Osamu; Mori, Masatomo

    2010-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia is a clinical syndrome that features abdominal symptoms centered in the upper abdomen without an organic basis. Three possible mechanisms of gastric dysfunction could be related to functional dyspepsia: 1) delayed gastric emptying, 2) impaired gastric accommodation to food intake, and 3) hypersensitivity to gastric distention. Delayed gastric emptying has been suggested to lead to prolonged antral distension that causes dyspeptic symptoms. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore a focal point of debate about anorexia caused by dyspepsia, and prokinetic agents are often administered in Japan for its treatment. Recently, we found that addition of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to a high-energy liquid diet rich in casein promoted gastric emptying in healthy men. Therefore, another potential method to improve delayed gastric emptying could be enhancement of chemosensors that activate the autonomic nervous system innervating the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, enrichment with glutamate promoted gastric emptying after intake of a high-protein meal, suggesting that free glutamate is important for protein digestion and that MSG may be helpful for management of delayed gastric emptying in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:20093786

  19. Fenugreek seed extract inhibit fat accumulation and ameliorates dyslipidemia in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Parveen; Bhandari, Uma; Jamadagni, Shrirang

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG) on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days+AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) or orlistat (10 mg/kg) from day 8 to 28), respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI), white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)) levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)) activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes. PMID:24868532

  20. Change in growth performance of crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) dairy heifers fed on forage grass diets supplemented with commercial concentrates.

    PubMed

    Mutimura, Mupenzi; Ebong, Cyprian; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla

    2016-04-01

    Rearing heifers for dairy cow replacement is a challenge in smallholder dairy farms in the tropics due to feed shortage. The objective of this study was to evaluate Brachiaria hybrid cultivar Mulato II as a forage resource for improving growth performance of dairy heifers under cut-and-carry feeding system in Rwanda. Sixteen crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) heifers (mean weight 203 ± 35 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments viz: Mulato II with 2 kg/day of commercial concentrates (MCC) and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with the same supplement (NCC), for a period of 12 weeks. Mineral lick and water were provided ad libitum. Daily feed intake and fortnightly live weight were measured. Average daily gains and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Results showed that absolute daily dry matter intake (g DMI/day) and relative intake (g/kg of metabolic body weight--BW(0.75)) were higher in heifers fed on MCC than in heifers fed on NCC (P < 0.001). FCR was lower (P < 0.001) in MCC than NCC diets. Final body weight (FBW) and body weight gain (BWG) did not differ between the two groups of heifers (P > 0.05). Average daily weight gain (ADWG) also not differed significantly (P > 0.05). Based on numerical body weight changes and nutritive values, Mulato II showed potential to be integrated into local cut-and-carry feeding systems for better heifer rearing to facilitate dairy cow replacement. PMID:26888207

  1. A high-fat diet or galanin in the PVN decreases phosphorylation of CREB in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, M E; Avena, N M

    2013-09-17

    A high-fat diet (HFD) can increase hypothalamic galanin (GAL). GAL has recently been shown to inhibit opiate reward, which in turn, decreases cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We hypothesized that injection of GAL into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), or consumption of a HFD, would be associated with a decrease in NAc CREB. In Exp. 1, GAL in the PVN of naïve rats decreased phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) which is the activated form of CREB, in the NAc compared to saline-injected controls. In Exp. 2, rats fed ad libitum HFD for 4 weeks had reduced NAc pCREB levels compared to rats with sporadic tastes of the HFD. Body weight, serum triglyceride and leptin levels were also raised in the chronic HFD-fed rats. These data suggest that PVN GAL or chronic intake of a HFD can decrease NAc pCREB. The implications of these findings may help to explain the lack of opiate-like withdrawal that has been reported in response to overeating a HFD, thereby providing a potential mechanism underlying behavioral differences seen with addiction-like overconsumption of different types of palatable foods. PMID:23747305

  2. Effect of alfalfa forage preservation method and particle length on performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets and tallow.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Reynal, S M; Grummer, R R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including alfalfa preserved either as silage or long-stem or chopped hay on DMI and milk fat production of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with supplemental tallow (T). Fifteen Holstein cows that averaged 117 DIM were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were: 1) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate without T (CS); 2) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (CST); 3) 25% corn silage:25% short-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (SAHT); 4) 25% corn silage:25% long-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (LAHT); and 5) 25% corn silage:25% alfalfa silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (AST). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a TMR fed 4 times daily. Diets averaged 16.4% CP and 30.3% NDF. Including 2% T in diets with corn silage as the sole forage source decreased DMI and milk fat percentage and yield. Replacing part of corn silage with alfalfa in diets with 2% T increased milk fat percentage and yield. The milk fat of cows fed CST was higher in trans-10 C18:1 than that of cows fed diets with alfalfa. No effect of alfalfa preservation method or hay particle length was observed on DMI and milk production. The milk fat percentage and yield were lower, and the proportion of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was higher for cows fed LAHT than for cows fed SAHT. Alfalfa preservation method had no effect on milk fat yield. Ruminal pH was higher for cows fed alfalfa in the diets, and it was higher for cows fed LAHT than SAHT. Feeding alfalfa silage or chopped hay appears to be more beneficial than long hay in sustaining milk fat production when 2% T is fed with diets high in corn silage. These results support the role of trans fatty acids in milk fat depression. PMID:15202650

  3. Effects of increasing levels of refined cornstarch in the diet of lactating dairy cows on performance and ruminal pH.

    PubMed

    Krause, K M; Combs, D K; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-04-01

    Our study investigated the effect of a linear increase in level of ruminally fermentable carbohydrate, at a constant level of dietary starch and fiber, on performance, microbial N yield, chewing activity, and ruminal pH of midlactation dairy cows. Eight cows (53 DIM) were assigned to four treatments in a double 4 x 4 Latin square. Diets consisted of increasing levels of refined cornstarch (0, 5.9, 11.9, and 17.9% of diet dry matter) replacing dry cracked, shelled corn so that increasing amounts of dietary starch originated from refined cornstarch. Corn gluten feed was used to balance diets for similar NDF content. The four diets averaged 17.9% CP, 27.2% NDF, 18.7% ADF, and 31.1% starch (dry matter basis). Diets were fed for ad libitum intake and had a forage to concentrate ratio of 40:60. Forage was coarsely chopped (13.7 mm mean particle size) alfalfa silage. Daily dry matter intake averaged 26.0 kg and tended (P = 0.08) to increase quadratically with increasing level of refined cornstarch. Milk production averaged 38.9 kg/d and milk fat percentage tended (P = 0.08) to decrease linearly, whereas percentage of protein increased quadratically, with increasing level of refined cornstarch. Yield of components and energy corrected milk was similar across diets. Total tract digestibility of starch increased linearly from 85.1% to 92.4% with increasing level of refined cornstarch. Microbial yield was unaffected by diet and averaged 371.1 g N/d. Time spent eating decreased linearly from 329 to 308 min/d when level of refined cornstarch was increased, but rumination time was unaffected. Ruminal concentration and proportion of acetate decreased linearly while concentration and proportion of propionate increased linearly with increasing level of refined cornstarch. Mean ruminal pH, time spent below pH 5.8 (h), and area below pH 5.8 (h x pH units/d) were unaffected by level of refined cornstarch and averaged 5.97, 8.4, and 2.9, respectively. Increasing the level of

  4. Elevating glucose and insulin secretion by carbohydrate formulation diets in late lactation to improve post-weaning fertility in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Chen, T Y; Lines, D; Dickson, C; Go, C; Kirkwood, R N; Langendijk, P

    2016-10-01

    Primiparous (P1) sows commonly lose excessive body reserves to meet energy requirements for maintenance and milk production during lactation, and consequently, post-weaning reproductive performance may be compromised. The present studies determined whether ad libitum feeding a glucogenic carbohydrate diet (CHO) during late lactation could stimulate insulin and glucose secretion (experiment 1) and improve subsequent litter size (experiment 2). For experiment 1, 15 P1 sows, and for experiment 2, 99 P1 sows (198.5 ± 2.7 kg) were allocated randomly according to suckled litter size (≥10 piglets), either to a CHO diet (14.3 MJ DE/kg, 19.8% crude protein) or a standard lactation diet (control; 14.2 DE MJ/kg, 19.5% crude protein) at 8 days before weaning. The CHO diet aimed to provide glucogenic content (extruded wheat, dextrose and sugar) as energy sources instead of fat sources without changing total dietary energy. Pre-prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not influenced by treatments. However, post-prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and their peaks were both higher (p < .05) compared to the control treatment. Body weight loss during lactation was relatively low at 3%-4% for both treatments and did not differ between control and CHO treatments (-7.6 ± 1.6 vs -5.4 ± 1.2 kg; p > .05). Second litter size was not influenced by diet (p > .05), but the weaning-to-mating interval was shorter in CHO sows (p < .05). This study demonstrates that providing an enriched CHO diet in late lactation did influence post-weaning follicle growth but did not improve subsequent litter size. This may be due to the primiparous sows in this study not experiencing severe negative energy balance and there was no second litter syndrome in this farm which limited the ability of diet to improve sow fertility. PMID:27548995

  5. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared. PMID:20307350

  6. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based finishing diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    PubMed

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives were to characterize the effects of supplemental CP concentration and ruminal degradability in barley-based finishing diets on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion, and route and chemical form of N excretion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (564 ± 18 kg BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 28-d periods (9 d for diet adaptation and 19 d for measurements). The basal diet consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% barley-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (13% CP) or diets containing 14.5% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). Nutrient digestion was determined using Yb as a digesta flow marker and purine N as a microbial marker with the collection of ruminal, duodenal, and fecal samples over 5 d. The next week, total collections of feces and urine were performed for 5 d to quantify route and chemical form of N excretion. Feed offered was restricted (95% of ad libitum) and there was no effect of the dietary treatments on DMI (P = 0.55); therefore, N intake was less (P < 0.05) in heifers fed the 13% CP diets than the 14.5% CP diets. Supplemental RDP and RUP had no effect on ruminal NH3-N (P = 0.17), peptide N (P = 0.46), and VFA (P = 0.62) concentrations, flow of microbial (P = 0.69) and feed (P = 0.22) N, and ruminal and total tract nutrient digestibility (P ≥ 0.18). Nutrient digestion in the rumen and total tract averaged 75.4 ± 3.8% and 84.6 ± 0.9% for OM, 80.8 ± 3.6% and 95.8 ± 0.8% for starch, and 41.2 ± 7.9% and 60.4 ± 3.3% of intake for NDF, respectively. Daily output of N in feces (P = 0.91) and urine (P = 0.14) were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fecal N output averaged 19.9 ± 1.9% (P = 0.30) and urine N output averaged 44.1 ± 2.8% (P = 0.63) of N intake

  7. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  8. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  9. Water-related occupations and diet in two Roman coastal communities (Italy, first to third century AD): correlation between stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values and auricular exostosis prevalence.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Fiona; Sperduti, Alessandra; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Craig, Oliver E; Kirsanow, Karola; Germoni, Paola; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Garnsey, Peter; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-07-01

    The reconstruction of dietary patterns in the two Roman imperial age coastal communities of Portus and Velia (I-III AD) by means of stable isotope analysis of bone remains has exposed a certain degree of heterogeneity between and within the two samples. Results do not correlate with any discernible mortuary practices at either site, which might have pointed to differential social status. The present study tests the hypothesis of a possible connection between dietary habits and occupational activities in the two communities. Among skeletal markers of occupation, external auricular exostosis (EAE) has proved to be very informative. Clinical and retrospective epidemiological surveys have revealed a strong positive correlation between EAE development and habitual exposure to cold water. In this study, we show that there is a high rate of occurrence of EAE among adult males in both skeletal samples (21.1% in Portus and 35.3% in Velia). Further, there is a statistically significant higher prevalence of EAE among those individuals at Velia with very high nitrogen isotopic values. This points to fishing (coastal, low-water fishing) as the sea-related occupation most responsible for the onset of the ear pathology. For Portus, where the consumption of foods from sea and river seems to be more widespread through the population, and where the scenario of seaport and fluvial activities was much more complex than in Velia, a close correlation between EAE and fish consumption by fishermen is less easy to establish. PMID:20014179

  10. Enhancement of amphetamine-induced locomotor response in rats on different regimens of diet restriction and 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment.

    PubMed

    Mamczarz, J; Bowker, J L; Duffy, K; Zhu, M; Hagepanos, A; Ingram, D K

    2005-01-01

    Diet restriction (DR) in rodents increases lifespan, reduces age-related disease and pathology, increases stress responses, and maintains better function later into life compared with conventional ad libitum (AL) feeding. We have been investigating different DR regimens and also DR mimetics that stimulate stress response pathways that are activated by DR. By inhibiting glycolysis, feeding or injection of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) has been proposed as a DR mimetic and has been shown to provide neuroprotection. In the current study, we examined whether 2DG treatment produces behavioral changes similar to those observed in DR rats following stimulation of the dopaminergic (DA) system by D-amphetamine (AMPH). Male Fischer 344 rats were maintained on different dietary regimens: 40% daily DR (40% DR); every-other-day feeding (EOD); or AL with some groups provided food containing 0.4% 2DG or injected i.p. with 2DG. In addition, we examined the persistence of effects of DR or 2DG feeding after switching rats to AL. When locomotor activity was assessed at different time points following initiation of dietary treatments, we noted that the enhancement of AMPH-induced locomotor responses emerged earlier in DR rats than observed in 2DG fed rats, but 40% DR and EOD rats responded in a similar manner. Enhanced locomotor responses persisted in 2DG fed rats even when returned to normal diet for 1 month and in the case of DR rats even after 2 months of AL feeding. Three weeks of 2DG injections also enhanced AMPH response, but this effect was transient. The most important finding was that 2DG did not affect body weight or diet intake yet had effects similar to DR. Thus, 2DG appears to activate DA pathways in the same direction as DR does but without the necessity of reducing caloric intake. PMID:15708486

  11. Coffee intake mitigated inflammation and obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huijuan; Aw, Wanping; Egashira, Kenji; Takahashi, Shoko; Aoyama, Shinya; Saito, Kenji; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Kato, Hisanori

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic findings offer the promise that coffee or its many constituents may be useful as a dietary intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention. We aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the ameliorative effects of caffeinated coffee (CC), decaffeinated coffee (DC) and unroasted caffeinated green coffee (GC) on skeletal muscle gene expression profiles and their relationships in an obesity animal model. Eight-week-old male C57BL6 mice were raised for 9 weeks ad libitum on a normal diet, a high-fat diet, or high-fat diet containing 2 % freeze-dried CC, or DC, or GC. Total RNA and protein were extracted from skeletal muscle and subjected to microarray (Mouse Genome 430 2.0, Affymetrix) and western blotting analyses, respectively. Coffee intake mitigated the insulin resistance by decreasing plasma glucose levels during an insulin tolerance test and by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), p85/IRS-1 complex and pAkt/PKB (protein kinase B). In addition, coffee intake down-regulated the anti-inflammatory genes activating transcription factor 3, FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene, heat shock protein 1A, heat shock protein 1B and synuclein, gamma and the inflammation-associated insulin signaling genes stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 and secreted phosphoprotein 1. These results provide scientific insight on the probable positive effects of coffee intake on impaired insulin signaling, inflammation and obesity, thereby providing a new perspective on the prevention of obesity and T2D. PMID:24599575

  12. Sarcolipin Is a Key Determinant of the Basal Metabolic Rate, and Its Overexpression Enhances Energy Expenditure and Resistance against Diet-induced Obesity*

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Santosh K.; Bal, Naresh C.; Sopariwala, Danesh H.; Pant, Meghna; Rowland, Leslie A.; Shaikh, Sana A.; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-01-01

    Sarcolipin (SLN) is a novel regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) in muscle. SLN binding to SERCA uncouples Ca2+ transport from ATP hydrolysis. By this mechanism, SLN promotes the futile cycling of SERCA, contributing to muscle heat production. We recently showed that SLN plays an important role in cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism of how SLN regulates muscle metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we used both SLN knockout (Sln−/−) and skeletal muscle-specific SLN overexpression (SlnOE) mice to explore energy metabolism by pair feeding (fixed calories) and high-fat diet feeding (ad libitum). Our results show that, upon pair feeding, SlnOE mice lost weight compared with the WT, but Sln−/− mice gained weight. Interestingly, when fed with a high-fat diet, SlnOE mice consumed more calories but gained less weight and maintained a normal metabolic profile in comparison with WT and Sln−/− mice. We found that oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation were increased markedly in SlnOE mice. There was also an increase in both mitochondrial number and size in SlnOE muscle, together with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) and PPAR γ coactivator 1 α (PGC1α), key transcriptional activators of mitochondrial biogenesis and enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism. These results, taken together, establish an important role for SLN in muscle metabolism and energy expenditure. On the basis of these data we propose that SLN is a novel target for enhancing whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:25713078

  13. The effect of high-fat diet on the composition of the gut microbiota in cloned and non-cloned pigs of lean and obese phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Stagsted, Jan; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-far-high-energy diet on cloned and non-cloned domestic pigs of both lean and obese phenotype and to evaluate if the lean cloned pigs had a lower inter-individual variation as compared with non-cloned pigs. The microbiota of colon and terminal ileum was investigated in cloned and non-cloned pigs that received a high-far-high-energy diet with either restricted or ad libitum access to feed, resulting in lean and obese phenotypes, respectively. The fecal microbiota of lean pigs was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The intestinal microbiota of lean and obese cloned and non-cloned pigs was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR and a novel high-throughput qPCR platform (Fluidigm). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the T-RFLP profiles revealed that lean cloned and non-cloned pigs had a different overall composition of their gut microbiota. The colon of lean cloned pigs contained relatively more bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and less from the phylum Bacteroidetes than obese cloned pigs as estimated by qPCR. Fluidigm qPCR results revealed differences in specific bacterial groups in the gut microbiota of both lean and obese pigs. Our results suggest that high-far-high-energy diet is associated with changes in the gut microbiota even in the absence of obesity. Overall, the cloned pigs had a different gut microbiota from that of non-cloned pigs. To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the gut microbiota of cloned domestic pigs of lean and obese phenotype. PMID:23974297

  14. Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    PubMed Central

    Palmnäs, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5–7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10–12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

  15. Effects of mesulergine treatment on diet selection, brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) turnover in free feeding rats.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, G; Galanopoulou, P; Daifotis, Z; Couvaris, C

    1998-07-01

    1. The effects of mesulergine, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonist with dopamine (DA) agonistic properties, on rats diet selection over a seven day period and on 5-HT and DA turnover was studied. 2. Three groups of male Wistar rats were individually caged and ad libitum fed with a standard (SD) and 50% sweet carbohydrate enriched diet (CED). Food intake was measured daily 4 hrs and 24 hrs after i.p. injections of mesulergine (1 and 3 mg/kg) or vehicle. 5-HT and 5-HIAA in hypothalamus (Hy), Striatum (St) and hippocampus (Hi) as well as DA and DOPAC in (Hy) and (St) were assayed at the 8th day of the experiment. 3. There was a dose dependent increase of SD consumption 4 hrs after mesulergine treatment while the CED remained unchanged with total food intake dose dependently increased as a consequence. At 24 hrs measurements SD consumption was increased only for the dose of 1 mg/kg of mesulergine, while a dose dependent decrease of CED intake was observed. Total food intake was unchanged for the dose of 1 mg/kg and decreased with the dose of 3 mg/kg consequently. A dose dependent decrease of rats body weight was observed too. 4. A significant increase of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in (Hy) and (St) for the dose of 1 mg/kg and in (Hi) for the dose of 3 mg/kg with no changes of DA turnover were found. 5. The above data suggest a dual mode of action of mesulergine presented as a short term hyperphagia due to simultaneous antiserotonergic and dopaminergic activity and long-term hypophagia due to long-term agonistic effects of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:9723121

  16. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    PubMed

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

  17. Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high fat diet and endurance training in rats: impact on whole-body energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the regulation of thermogenic capacity in classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets. Analysis of tissue mass, PGC-1α and UCP-1 content, the presence of multilocular adipocytes, and palmitate oxidation revealed that a HF diet increased the thermogenic capacity of the interscapular and aortic brown adipose tissues, whereas exercise markedly suppressed it. Conversely, exercise induced browning of the SC Ing WAT. This effect was attenuated by a HF diet. Endurance training neither affected skeletal muscle FNDC5 content nor circulating irisin, but it increased FNDC5 content in SC Ing WAT. This suggests that locally produced FNDC5 rather than circulating irisin mediated the exercise-induced browning effect on this fat tissue. Importantly, despite reducing the thermogenic capacity of classical BAT, exercise increased whole-body energy expenditure during the dark cycle. Therefore, browning of subcutaneous WAT likely exerted a compensatory effect and raised whole-body energy expenditure in endurance-trained rats. Based on these novel findings, we propose that exercise-induced browning of the subcutaneous WAT provides an alternative mechanism that reduces thermogenic capacity in core areas and increases it in peripheral body regions. This could allow the organism to adjust its metabolic rate to accommodate diet-induced thermogenesis while simultaneously coping with the stress of chronically increased heat production through exercise. PMID:25344623

  18. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    PubMed

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. PMID:25865422

  19. Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Truijen, Brecht; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and D p branes smeared over 6 - p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS p+1 solutions from D p branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

  20. A Balanced Diet Is Necessary for Proper Entrainment Signals of the Mouse Liver Clock

    PubMed Central

    Hirao, Akiko; Tahara, Yu; Kimura, Ichiro; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2009-01-01

    Background The peripheral circadian clock in mice is entrained not only by light-dark cycles but also by daily restricted feeding schedules. Behavioral and cell culture experiments suggest an increase in glucose level as a factor in such feeding-induced entrainment. For application of feeding-induced entrainment in humans, nutrient content and dietary variations should be considered. Principal Finding To elucidate the food composition necessary for dietary entrainment, we examined whether complete or partial substitution of dietary nutrients affected phase shifts in liver clocks of mice. Compared with fasting mice or ad libitum fed mice, the liver bioluminescence rhythm advanced by 3–4 h on the middle day in Per2::luciferase knock-in mice that were administered a standard mouse diet, i.e. AIN-93M formula [0.6–0.85 g/10 g mouse BW] (composition: 14% casein, 47% cornstarch, 15% gelatinized cornstarch, 10% sugar, 4% soybean oil, and 10% other [fiber, vitamins, minerals, etc.]), for 2 days. When each nutrient was tested alone (100% nutrient), an insignificant weak phase advance was found to be induced by cornstarch and soybean oil, but almost no phase advance was induced by gelatinized cornstarch, high-amylose cornstarch, glucose, sucrose, or casein. A combination of glucose and casein without oil, vitamin, or fiber caused a significant phase advance. When cornstarch in AIN-93M was substituted with glucose, sucrose, fructose, polydextrose, high-amylose cornstarch, or gelatinized cornstarch, the amplitude of phase advance paralleled the increase in blood glucose concentration. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest the following: (1) balanced diets containing carbohydrates/sugars and proteins are good for restricted feeding-induced entrainment of the peripheral circadian clock and (2) a balanced diet that increases blood glucose, but not by sugar alone, is suitable for entrainment. These findings may assist in the development of dietary recommendations for on

  1. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  2. Chemical and Physical Predictors of the Nutritive Value of Wheat in Broiler Diets

    PubMed Central

    Ball, M. E. E.; Owens, B.; McCracken, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish relationships between chemical and physical parameters of wheat with performance and digestibilities of feed components in broiler chickens fed on wheat-based diets. Ninety-four wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolism cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), liveweight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were measured weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, dry matter retention, oil and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility. At 28 d the birds were humanely killed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal dry matter, starch and protein digestibility. When wheat parameters were correlated with bird performance data, it was found that specific weight was not significantly (p>0.05) related to bird performance. Bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed were best correlated (p<0.05) with the rate of starch digestion, although the coefficients of correlation (r) were still low (0.246 to 0.523). A negative relationship (p<0.01) between AME and total (r = −0.432) and soluble (r = −0.304) non starch polysaccharide (NSP) was observed in this study. Thousand grain weight (TG) was positively correlated with DMI (r = 0.299), LWG (r = 0.343) and gain:feed (r = 0.371). When establishing multiple regression relationships, correlation coefficients greater than 0.8 were achieved for DMI, LWG, gain:feed and ileal crude protein digestibility. However, the economics involved in determining the parameters involved in the regressions make the process impractical. PMID:25049711

  3. N-Acetylneuraminic acid attenuates hypercoagulation on high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yida, Zhang; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Wong, WaiTeng; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini; Ideris, Aini; Ismail, Norsharina

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a type of sialic acid, has close links with cholesterol metabolism and is often used as a biomarker in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, most studies on the health implications of Neu5Ac have focused on its effects on the nervous system, while its effects on cardiovascular risk factors have largely been unreported. Thus, the effects of Neu5Ac on coagulation status in high fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were evaluated in this study. Methods Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into five different groups and fed with HFD alone, HFD low-dose Neu5Ac, HFD high-dose Neu5Ac, HFD simvastatin (10 mg/kg day), and normal pellet alone. Food was given ad libitum while body weight of rats was measured weekly. After 12 weeks of intervention, rats were sacrificed and serum and tissue samples were collected for biochemistry and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results The results showed that Neu5Ac could improve lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia-associated coagulation. Neu5Ac exerted comparable or sometimes better physiological effects than simvastatin, at biochemical and gene expression levels. Conclusions The data indicated that Neu5Ac prevented HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and associated hypercoagulation in rats through regulation of lipid-related and coagulation-related genes and, by extension, induced metabolite and protein changes. The implications of the present findings are that Neu5Ac may be used to prevent coagulation-related cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic conditions. These findings are worth studying further. PMID:26642300

  4. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P < .05) 28- and 70-d ADG and DMI and increased (P < .05) 28-d efficiency (kg of gain/100 kg of feed). Replacing urea with CB did not improve (P > .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P < .05) 28-d efficiency. The growth rate of steers at 28 and 70 d was correlated to a greater degree with ME intake (r2 = .83 and .85, respectively) rather than MAA supply, suggesting that the MAA supply was not first-limiting for growth. The source of supplemental protein fed during d 0 through 70 had no effect (P > .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P < .05) 175-d ADG compared with feeding urea, SP, or CB. Increasing supplemental true protein tended to linearly increase ADG and DMI at 28 and 70 d, but overall, ADG, DMI, and efficiency were not affected (P

  5. Short-term moderate diet restriction in adulthood can reverse oxidative, cardiovascular and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Guenancia, Charles; Rigal, Eve; Hachet, Olivier; Chollet, Pauline; Desmoulins, Lucie; Leloup, Corinne; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether moderate diet restriction could restore cardiac, oxidative and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding (PNOF). Litters of C57BL/6 male mice were either maintained at 9 (normal litter, NL), or reduced to 3 (small litter, SL) in order to induce PNOF. At 6 months, half of the NL and SL mice were subjected to 20% calorie-restriction (CR: NLCR, SLCR) for one month, while the other half continued to eat ad libitum (AL: NLAL, SLAL). Six-month old SL mice presented overweight, fat accumulation, hyperleptinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiac ROS production and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). After CR, SL mice body weight was normalized; however, their fat mass and leptinemia were not decreased, glucose metabolism was improved and LVEF was increased. In SL mice, CR increased the cardiac mitochondrial respiratory rate and decreased cardiac ROS production. Hearts from SLCR mice showed better recovery and smaller postischemic infarct size. Intriguingly, no difference was observed between NLAL and NLCR mice for most of the parameters investigated. Short-term moderate CR not only normalized body weight in SL mice but also improved metabolic programming and reversed oxidative and cardiac dysfunction induced by PNOF. PMID:27465434

  6. Short-term moderate diet restriction in adulthood can reverse oxidative, cardiovascular and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Guenancia, Charles; Rigal, Eve; Hachet, Olivier; Chollet, Pauline; Desmoulins, Lucie; Leloup, Corinne; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether moderate diet restriction could restore cardiac, oxidative and metabolic alterations induced by postnatal overfeeding (PNOF). Litters of C57BL/6 male mice were either maintained at 9 (normal litter, NL), or reduced to 3 (small litter, SL) in order to induce PNOF. At 6 months, half of the NL and SL mice were subjected to 20% calorie-restriction (CR: NLCR, SLCR) for one month, while the other half continued to eat ad libitum (AL: NLAL, SLAL). Six-month old SL mice presented overweight, fat accumulation, hyperleptinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiac ROS production and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). After CR, SL mice body weight was normalized; however, their fat mass and leptinemia were not decreased, glucose metabolism was improved and LVEF was increased. In SL mice, CR increased the cardiac mitochondrial respiratory rate and decreased cardiac ROS production. Hearts from SLCR mice showed better recovery and smaller postischemic infarct size. Intriguingly, no difference was observed between NLAL and NLCR mice for most of the parameters investigated. Short-term moderate CR not only normalized body weight in SL mice but also improved metabolic programming and reversed oxidative and cardiac dysfunction induced by PNOF. PMID:27465434

  7. Diets that Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Diets that Work Fact Sheet Diets that Work February 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Susan ... there? It can be hard to know what works and what’s healthy. Everyone wants a diet that ...

  8. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rings Frequently Asked Questions Definitions Transplantation Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  9. Understanding the DASH diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... you out. This is not just a traditional low-salt diet. The DASH diet emphasizes foods high in ... increase the potassium in your diet or use salt substitutes (which often contain potassium), check with your doctor. ...

  10. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet helps ...

  11. High specification starter diets improve the performance of low birth weight pigs to 10 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Douglas, S L; Wellock, I; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Piglets born with low birth weights (LBiW) are likely to be lighter at weaning. Starter regimes tailored for pigs of average BW therefore may not be optimal for LBiW nursery performance. The objective was to determine if LBiW pigs benefit from a high specification starter regime and the provision of extra feed (additional allowance of last phase diet of the starter regime) in comparison to a standard commercial regime. Additionally, the effect of starter regime on performance of normal birth weight (NBiW) pigs at weaning was determined and compared to that of LBiW pigs. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the treatments was determined. The experiment was therefore an incomplete 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, as the provision of extra feed was given only to LBiW pigs (n = 6 replicates per treatment; 5 pigs per replicate). Treatments comprised birth weight (LBiW or NBiW), starter regime (high specification [HS] or standard starter [SS]), and extra feed 3 quantity (yes [YF] or no [NF], for LBiW pigs only; feed 3 corresponded to the last phase diet of the starter regime). At weaning (d 28), pigs were randomly assigned within each birth weight category to treatment groups. Nutritional treatments were fed ad libitum on a kilogram/head basis for approximately 3 wk followed by a common weaner diet fed ad libitum until d 70. Starter regime (P = 0.019), feed 3 amount (P = 0.010), and their interaction (P = 0.029) had an effect on ADG of LBiW pigs from d 28 to 49, with pigs on HS followed by YF (HY) performing best. An improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was noted between d 28 and 49 for pigs fed the additional feed 3 (P = 0.030); between d 49 and 70, the only residual effect seen was of starter regime (P = 0.017) on ADG. In contrast, there was no significant effect of starter regime from d 28 to 70 on ADG, ADFI, or FCR of NBiW pigs. By d 49 and 70, LBiW pigs on regime HY weighed the same as NBiW pigs (d 70 BW; 30.0 vs. 30.6 kg; P = 0.413), with similar growth rates from

  12. Effect of different levels of rapeseed meal and sunflower meal and enzyme combination on the performance, digesta viscosity and carcass traits of broiler chickens fed wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; van de Belt, K; van Der Klis, J D

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effect of different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) and sunflower meal (SFM) and enzyme combination (endoxylanase and β-glucanase) on the production performance, carcass quality, gizzard development and digesta viscosity of broiler chickens. The experimental design was a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating three diet types containing different levels of RSM and SFM (low (L), medium (M) and high (H)) and two levels of enzyme inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet to provide 1220 U xylanase and 152 U β-glucanase per kg diet). Broiler starter and grower/finisher diets were formulated, based on wheat and soya bean meal and containing 50, 50 and 80 g/kg RSM and 0, 50 and 60 g/kg SFM for L, M and H treatments, respectively, during starter period and 80, 80 and 120 g/kg RSM and 0, 80 and 100 g/kg SFM for L, M and H, respectively, during grower/finisher period, and each diet was fed ad libitum to eight pens of 20 male broilers each. During the starter period (1 to 21 days), birds fed the H treatment had lower (P0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR). During the grower/finisher phase (22 to 42 day) and over the entire period (1 to 42 day) birds fed the H treatment had lower (P0.05) between RSM and SFM inclusion level and enzyme supplementation were observed for any of the measured parameters at any period. Diet type and enzyme supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on carcass traits, abdominal fat pad, breast meat yield and jejunal digesta viscosity. Diet type influenced (P=0.05) relative empty gizzard weight, where the H treatment had higher relative empty gizzard weight compared with the L treatment. Enzyme supplementation tended (P=0.10) to increase relative empty gizzard weight. The present data suggest that high inclusion of SFM and RSM negatively influenced broiler performance. Enzyme supplementation improved FCR at all levels of RSM and SFM included in this study, but did not recover the reduction in weight

  13. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  14. Effects of Arsenite Exposure during Fetal Development on Energy Metabolism and Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Disease in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ditzel, Eric J.; Nguyen, Thu; Parker, Patricia; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to arsenicals at various life stages and across a range of exposures has been implicated in cardiometabolic and liver disease, but disease predisposition from developmental exposures remains unclear. Objectives In utero and post-weaning exposure to trivalent arsenic (AsIII) was examined on the background of a Western-style diet to determine whether AsIII exposure affects metabolic disease. Methods Male Swiss Webster mice were exposed to 100 ppb AsIII in utero, after weaning, or both. Ad libitum access to a Western-style diet was provided after weaning, and the plasma metabolome, liver histopathology, liver enzyme activity, and gene expression were analyzed. Results Hepatic lipid composition and histopathology revealed that developmental AsIII exposure exacerbated Western-style diet–induced fatty liver disease. Continuous AsIII exposure increased cardiometabolic risk factors including increased body weight, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and plasma triglycerides. AsIII exposure produced a decrease in the intermediates of glycolysis and the TCA cycle while increasing ketones. Hepatic isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was also decreased, which confirmed disruption of the TCA cycle. Developmental AsIII exposure increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, lipogenesis, inflammation, and packaging of triglycerides, suggesting an increased acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) load. Conclusions In utero and continuous early-life exposure to AsIII disrupted normal metabolism and elevated the risk for fatty liver disease in mice maintained on a high-fat diet. Our findings suggest that individuals exposed to AsIII during key developmental periods and who remain exposed to AsIII on the background of a Western-style diet may be at increased risk for metabolic disease later in life. Citation Ditzel EJ, Nguyen T, Parker P, Camenisch TD. 2016. Effects of arsenite exposure during fetal development on energy metabolism and

  15. Effect of replacing corn with whole-grain paddy rice and brown rice in broiler diets on growth performance and intestinal morphology.

    PubMed

    Sittiya, J; Yamauchi, K; Takata, K

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate replacing corn with whole-grain paddy rice (WPR) and whole-grain brown rice (BR) in broiler chicken diets and its effect on growth performance and histological structures of the intestinal villi. Marshall Chunky male chicks (14 days old) were divided into five groups with four replicates of four chicks each. In the dietary treatments, corn in the basal diet was replaced with WPR and BR. The chickens received five experimental diets consisting of corn, WPR and BR in ratios of 100:0:0 (Control), 50:0:50 (50Corn + 50BR), 50:25:25 (50Corn + 25WPR + 25BR), 25:50:25 (25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR) and 0:50:50 (50WPR + 50BR) respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 35 day. No significant differences were found in feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency among the treatment groups. The relative weights of the gizzard in the 50Corn + 25WPR + 25BR, 25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR and 50WPR + 50BR groups were significantly higher than that of the Control and 50Corn + 50BR groups (p < 0.05). The gizzard pH of the experimental groups was lower than those of Control (p < 0.05). The ileal crypt of birds on the Control diets was deeper (p < 0.05) than those observed in the experimental birds. Moreover, the ileal villus height: crypt depth ratio increased (p < 0.05) in the 50WPR + 50BR group (p < 0.05) compared with the Control group. No specific changes were observed in the epithelial cells on the duodenal apical surface among the groups except that the villus of the 25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR group had cell clusters. The jejunal and ileal villus apical surface of the experimental groups showed similar morphology to the Control group. These findings suggest that WPR and BR can totally replace corn in broiler diets without negatively affecting growth performance. PMID:26122821

  16. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( < 0.01) but was unavoidably confounded with animal age/size and experimental period. Correlation coefficients between RFI and DMI were significant ( < 0.05) only when animals were fed the TMR. Daily CH correlated with DMI ( = 0.42, < 0.05) only when animals grazed pasture. Daily DMI was lower in low-RFI animals ( = 0.047) but only when expressed as grams per kilogram metabolic BW. Absolute CH emissions did not differ between RFI groups ( > 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a

  17. The AdS particle [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir

    2005-09-01

    In this Letter we have considered a relativistic Nambu-Goto model for a particle in AdS metric. With appropriate gauge choice to fix the reparameterization invariance, we recover the previously discussed [S. Ghosh, P. Pal, Phys. Lett. B 618 (2005) 243, arxiv:hep-th/0502192] "exotic oscillator". The Snyder algebra and subsequently the κ-Minkowski spacetime are also derived. Lastly we comment on the impossibility of constructing a non-commutative spacetime in the context of open string where only a curved target space is introduced.

  18. Effects of forage particle size and grain fermentability in midlactation cows. I. Milk production and diet digestibility.

    PubMed

    Krause, K M; Combs, D K; Beauchemin, K A

    2002-08-01

    Our study investigated the effects of, and interactions between, level of dietary ruminally fermentable carbohydrate (RFC) and forage particle size on milk production, nutrient digestibility, and microbial protein yield for dairy cows fed one level of dietary NDF. Eight cows (61 days in milk) were assigned to four treatments in a double 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; finely chopped alfalfa silage (FS) and coarse alfalfa silage (CS) were combined with concentrates based on either dry cracked shelled corn (DC; low RFC) or ground high-moisture corn (HMC; high RFC). Diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed rations with a concentrate to forage ratio of 61:39. Diets based on DC had a predicted NEL content of 1.73 Mcallkg dry matter (DM), while HMC diets contained 1.80 Mcal/kg DM. Diets averaged 18.7% CP, 24.0% NDF, 18.3% ADF, and 27.4% starch on a DM basis. Mean particle size of the four diets was 6.3, 2.8, 6.0, and 3.0 mm for DCCS, DCFS, HMCCS, and HMCFS, respectively. Increasing level of RFC decreased dry matter intake (DMI) from 25.0 to 23.8 kg/ d and organic matter intake from 22.3 to 21.1 kg/d, but intake was not affected by particle size. Milk production averaged 44.0 and 26.8 kg/d solids corrected milk (SCM) and was not affected by diet, but increasing level of RFC tended to increase milk yield. Efficiency of milk production, expressed as SCM/DMI, increased from 1.06 to 1.14 when level of RFC was increased. Milk composition or yield of milk components was not affected by diet, and averaged 3.53% fat, 3.11% protein, 1.55 kg/d fat, and 1.36 kg/d protein. Total tract digestibility of DM and OM increased from 71.4 to 73.0% and 72.4 to 76.1% for DM and OM, respectively, when level of RFC was increased. Total tract digestibility of fiber was unaffected by diet, but total tract starch digestibility increased from 93.1 to 97.4% when HMC replaced DC. Total urinary excretion of the purine derivatives uric acid and allantoin

  19. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    A total of 121 steers (162 ± 3.0 kg BW and 148 ± 2.7 d old) were used to study the effect of dietary energy density and meal size (limiting the amount of concentrate delivered at each feeder visit) on performance, hormones associated with the regulation of intake, and carcass and meat quality. Steers were allocated by BW to 6 pens. Each pen had the same BW mean and CV, and pens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (2 pens/treatment): a concentrate of moderate energy density (3.23 Mcal ME/kg, 6.2% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (CTR), a concentrate of high-energy density (3.43 Mcal ME/kg, 8.3% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (HE), and the same high-energy concentrate offered for ad libitum intake but with meal size limited to a maximum concentrate delivery of 0.6 kg DM/visit (HELM). Body weight was recorded every 14 d; concentrate consumption and eating pattern were recorded daily. On d 163, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, and insulin. After slaughter (on d 166 to 170), the 9-10-11 rib section was removed to estimate separable bone, lean, and fat. Meat quality of LM was analyzed. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures. Steers in the HELM treatment had a lower (P < 0.01) final BW and ADG than CTR and HE steers. Concentrate intake was greater (P < 0.001) in CTR (6.6 ± 0.10 kg/d) than in HE steers (5.7 ± 0.10 kg/d), and HELM (5.2 ± 0.10 kg/d) consumed less concentrate than CTR and HE steers. However, HE and HELM steers were more (P < 0.01) efficient than CTR steers. The mean number of daily meals and eating rate were less (P < 0.05) for HELM than for HE or CTR. At d 163, serum concentrations of GLP-1, CCK, and insulin were lower (P < 0.05), and leptin (P = 0.10) and glucose (P = 0.08) concentrations tended to be lower for HELM than for CTR or

  20. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Prem; Vaganov, Vladislav

    2016-02-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of {N}=8 supergravity on AdS4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor ã max. Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy Ɛ ≲ ã max, while geodesics with Ɛ > ã max terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by ã max which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  1. Alzheimer's disease and epigenetic diet.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Zeynep; Dincer, Yildiz

    2014-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Many efforts have been directed to prevent AD due to its rising prevalence and the lack of an effective curative treatment. Various epigenetic mechanisms are linked to pathogenesis of AD. Epigenetic alterations may occur through external factors and are known for their reversibility. Dietary factors can influence epigenetic mechanisms. Several neuroprotective nutrients have been shown to enhance cognition, memory and other impaired functions seen in AD. Within recent years neuroprotective nutrients have gained more attention in the field of epigenetic. A growing body of evidence suggest that epigenetic changes triggered by dietary nutrients have an important role in health and in prevention of some diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders. Several studies have shown that folic acid, vitamin B12, choline, zinc, selenium, dietary polyphenols are capable of interacting with epigenetic mechanisms and ultimately gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms resulting in neuronal dysfunction may be modified by diet. Therefore manipulation of epigenetic mechanisms via dietary nutrients may affect influence the vulnerability of neurons to degeneration which is seen in AD. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview about the recent findings related to epigenetic alterations that are linked to AD pathogenesis, and to discuss the bioactive nutrients which can affect these epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:25290336

  2. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    PubMed

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  3. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption. PMID:25204084

  4. Alcohol-free fermented blueberry-blackberry beverage phenolic extract attenuates diet-induced obesity and blood glucose in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michelle H; Wallig, Matthew; Luna Vital, Diego A; de Mejia, Elvira G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of phenolic compounds from a fermented blackberry-blueberry beverage to reduce diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia in mice fed a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for 10weeks after 1week of pretreatment. C57BL/6J mice were randomized into six groups and allowed to drink (ad libitum) an alcohol-free blackberry-blueberry beverage [alcohol-free fermented beverage (AFFB), 8.4mg anthocyanin (ANC)/kg body weight (BW)/day]; three doses of a phenolic extract [postamberlite extract (PAE)] from AFFB at 0.1×, 1× and 2× ANC concentrations; sitagliptin (hypoglycemic positive control); or water (negative control). Weight and fat mass gain were attenuated in mice receiving the highest doses of PAE (18.9mg ANC/kg BW/day, P<.05). There were also reductions (P<.05) in percent fat mass, epididymal fat pad weights, mean adipocyte diameters and plasma triglycerides and cholesterol associated with PAE treatments. By the end of the study, fasting blood glucose for mice receiving 9mg (1×) or 18.9mg (2×) ANC/kg BW/day was significantly lower than in the water and the sitagliptin groups (P<.05). Histological and histochemical analyses revealed an unexpected change in liver of mice fed ANC at 1× or 2× doses consisting of liver enlargement and increased lipid deposition. PAE also induced the most differential gene expression changes, including highly significant downstream effects at all doses to reduce d-glucose concentrations. Overall, phenolic compounds from the fermented blueberry-blackberry beverage had an impact to attenuate the development of obesity and fasting blood glucose in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:27133423

  5. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver. PMID:27327650

  6. Effect of glycine supplementation in low protein diets with amino acids from soy protein isolate or free amino acids on broiler growth and nitrogen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Siegert, W; Wild, K J; Schollenberger, M; Helmbrecht, A; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-06-01

    Here, it was investigated whether substitution of amino acids (AA) from soy protein isolate with free AA in low crude protein diets influences the growth performance and N utilisation in broilers, and whether interactions with dietary glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration exist. Birds were distributed in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of 48 floor pens containing 10 birds each, plus 48 metabolism cages containing two birds each. Experimental feed was provided for ad libitum consumption from d 7 to 22. Diets contained either a soy protein isolate at 79 g/kg or a mix of free AA, which supplied the same amount of 18 proteinogenic AA. A mix of free glycine and l-serine was used to obtain low and high (12.0 and 20.5 g/kg dry matter) levels of dietary Glyequi. Substitution of soy protein isolate with free AA reduced the average daily gain and feed efficiency, mainly due to reduced feed intake. Efficiency of N accretion was not influenced by the AA source or Glyequi concentration on d 21, possibly due to the lower AA digestibility of soy protein isolate and higher urinary excretion of nitrogenous substances in the treatments with the AA mix. The average daily weight gain of the treatments with high Glyequi concentration was higher for both AA sources. This increase was due to higher average daily feed intake by broilers in the treatments with soy protein isolate and due to the increased feed efficiency in the treatments with the AA mix. Broilers exhibited different growth responses to dietary Glyequi between the AA sources; however, these responses could not be attributed to the different utilisation of Glyequi for uric acid synthesis. PMID:26955743

  7. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver. PMID:27327650

  8. Polyphenol-Rich Bilberry Ameliorates Total Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol when Implemented in the Diet of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Lea; Overgaard, Ann; Christensen, Lars P.; Jeppesen, Per B.; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bilberries and blackcurrants are nutrient sources rich in bioactive components, including dietary fibers, polyphenols, and anthocyanins, which possess potent cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies investigating the cardio-protective effects of natural components have focused on whole bilberries or blackcurrants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate whether a diet enriched with bilberries or blackcurrants has beneficial effects on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, blood pressure, and expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats (n = 48) were randomly assigned to either a control, bilberry-enriched, blackcurrant-enriched, or fiber-enriched diet for 8 weeks ad libitum. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was performed on liver, adipose, and muscle tissue. Berry polyphenol content was determined by HPLC and LC-MS analysis. RESULTS: Bilberry enrichment reduced total (-21%, p = 0.0132) and LDL-cholesterol (-60%, p = 0.0229) levels, but increased HDL-cholesterol to a lesser extent than in controls. This may partly be due to the altered hepatic liver X receptor-α expression (-24%, p < 0.001). Neither bilberries nor blackcurrants influenced glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Nevertheless, transcriptional analysis implied a better conservation of hepatic and adipocyte insulin sensitivity by bilberry enrichment. Anthocyanins constituted 91% and 87% of total polyphenol content in bilberries and blackcurrants, respectively. However, total anthocyanin content (3441 mg/100 g) was 4-fold higher in bilberries than in blackcurrants (871 mg/100 g). CONCLUSIONS: Bilberry consumption ameliorated total and LDL-cholesterol levels, but not HDL-cholesterol levels in ZDF rats. Neither bilberry nor blackcurrant enrichment delayed the development of diabetes or hypertension. Thus, in rats, bilberries may be valuable as a dietary preventive agent against hypercholesterolemia, probably by

  9. Evaluation of Artificial Diets for Rearing Aphis Glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial aphid diets have been previously developed for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. The ability to rear aphids on an artificial diet allows for selectively adding or subtracting compounds from an aphid's food source to determine the effect on fec...

  10. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus. PMID:26613658

  11. Effects of bulk density of steam-flaked corn in diets containing wet corn gluten feed on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ponce, C H; Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Schutz, J S; Gautam, K K; Galyean, M L

    2013-07-01

    The effects of varying bulk density of steam-flaked corn (SFC) in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) have not been defined. In Exp. 1, yearling steers (n = 108; initial BW = 367 ± 1.18 kg) were housed in 27 pens (4 steers/pen) and received 1 of 3 different SFC bulk density treatments in a randomized complete block design. Bulk density treatments were 283, 335, or 386 g/L SFC in diets containing 25% WCGF (% of DM). Steers were fed once daily to provide ad libitum access to feed for an average of 163 d. For a 5-d period before d 70 of the experiment, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected from each pen for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. Varying bulk densities of SFC did not affect (P ≥ 0.233) overall DMI, ADG, or G:F on a live- or carcass-adjusted basis. Dressing percent and LM area increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as bulk density increased, but other carcass traits were not affected by treatments. Intake of DM, OM, and CP during the 5-d digestion phase did not differ among bulk densities; however, starch intake increased linearly (P = 0.004) as bulk density of SFC increased. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP tended (P ≤ 0.065) to decrease and starch digestibility decreased (P = 0.002) linearly as bulk density of SFC increased. In Exp. 2, a 3 × 3 Latin square design was used for collection of ruminal fluid from 3 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers adapted to the same diets used in Exp. 1. Bulk density did not affect NH3 concentrations, VFA molar proportions, ruminal fluid osmolality, and IVDMD of the diets. Total gas production increased linearly (P = 0.003) as bulk density of SFC increased from 283 to 335 g/L, but it decreased (P = 0.002) at 386 g/L. Present data suggest that bulk density can be increased up to 386 g/L in finishing diets containing 25% (DM basis) WCGF without affecting cattle performance and with limited effects on ruminal

  12. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  13. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  14. Vinasse added to the concentrate for fattening lambs: intake, animal performance, and carcass and meat characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, Ó; Bodas, R; Prieto, N; Frutos, P; Andrés, S; Giráldez, F J

    2011-04-01

    Twenty-four Merino lambs (mean BW 15.4 ± 0.13 kg, 6 to 7 wk old) were used to study the effects of the addition of 0 (control), 100 (V10), and 200 (V20) g of vinasse per kilgram of concentrate on intake, animal performance, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets and fed barley straw and the corresponding concentrate ad libitum. When the animals reached 25 kg of BW, a sample of blood was taken and the lambs were slaughtered. Feed intake, growth rate, biochemical blood profile, and carcass and meat characteristics were assessed. Lambs that received the concentrates with vinasse showed a reduced concentrate intake (linear contrast, P = 0.029) and ADG (linear contrast, P = 0.004) and an increased length of fattening period (linear contrast, P = 0.002) as well as feed:gain ratio (linear contrast P = 0.011). Vinasse enhanced ruminal pH (orthogonal contrast control vs. V10 + V20; P = 0.007). Plasma glucose concentrations declined in lambs fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.003), whereas plasma urea concentration increased in animals fed vinasse (linear contrast, P = 0.036). The plasma concentrations of creatinine, triglycerides, and lactate and the enzyme profile studied (alkaline phosphate, alanine transaminase, glutamate oxal-acetate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase) were not modified in response to vinasse inclusion. Lambs in the vinasse groups had less Na(+) and nitrate and greater K(+) and nitrite plasma concentrations (linear contrasts, P < 0.05). None of the carcass characteristics studied was affected by vinasse (P > 0.10). Meat chemical composition and characteristics were unaffected (P > 0.10), but shear force was greater for lambs that received vinasse (orthogonal contrast, control vs. V10 + V20, P = 0.007). The addition of 100 or 200 g vinasse/kg of concentrate for fattening lambs reduced feed intake and growth rate and increased the feed:gain ratio

  15. Effect of early feed type exposure on diet-selection behavior of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle exhibit characteristic feeding behavior patterns that may be influenced by early experiences. The objective of this study was to determine how early exposure to different feed types affects diet selection behavior of dairy calves once fed a mixed ration after weaning off milk. Eight Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned at birth to a feed exposure treatment: concentrate or grass/alfalfa hay, offered ad libitum. All calves were offered 8 L/d of milk replacer [1.2 kg of dry matter (DM)] from birth, which was incrementally reduced after 4 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. After milk weaning, all calves were fed a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 60% concentrate and 40% grass/alfalfa hay for 9 wk. Intake was recorded daily, and calves were weighed 3 times/wk. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken in wk 8, 12, and 16 for particle size analysis. The separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake. Calves exposed to concentrate tended to have greater DM intake than calves exposed to hay both before (0.49 vs. 0.16 kg/d) and after weaning off milk (3.3 vs. 2.6 kg/d). Weights were similar during the milk-feeding stage, but calves exposed to concentrate had greater weights overall in the postweaning stage (129.8 vs. 112.6 kg). Initially after weaning, calves sorted for familiar feed; calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted for short particles (126.4%), which were primarily concentrate, whereas calves previously exposed to hay did not (94.2%). Calves previously exposed to hay tended to sort for long particles (113.4%), which were solely hay, whereas calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted against them (56.4%). The sorting observed for short particles was associated with consuming a diet with a greater concentration of protein, nonfiber carbohydrates, and metabolizable energy

  16. Experience with an elemental diet (Vivonex).

    PubMed

    Villaveces, J W; Heiner, D C

    1985-12-01

    Six patients with intractable atopic dermatitis completed this study which consisted of a baseline week, 1 to 2 weeks on an elemental diet, then sequential specific food additions. Symptom/sign scores, total eosinophil counts, and IgE and IgG4 radioimmunoassays for wheat alpha-gliadin, bovine serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and egg white were carried out as part of the protocol. Symptom/sign scores improved in five of six patients, some dramatically. Total eosinophil counts generally dropped after a week on the elemental diet and then increased as foods were added to the diet. The elemental diet used (Vivonex) appears to be beneficial in the management of at least some adult patients who have severe atopic dermatitis. PMID:3840962

  17. Influence of fresh forage-based diets and αs₁-casein (CSN1S1) genotype on nutrient intake and productive, metabolic, and hormonal responses in milking goats.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Di Trana, A; Di Gregorio, P; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; Claps, S; Maggio, G; Todaro, M

    2013-04-01

    Polymorphism at the αS1-casein locus (CSN1S1) in goats influences several milk production traits. Milk from goats carrying strong alleles, which are associated with high αS1-casein (αS1-CN) synthesis, has higher fat and casein contents, longer coagulation time and higher curd firmness than milk from goats with weak alleles linked to low αS1-CN content. Nutrition also affects these milk properties; therefore, it is important to better understand the interaction between dietary characteristics and the CSN1S1 genotype in goats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fresh forage based diet or energy supplement on feeding behavior, milk production, and metabolic and hormonal parameters of Girgentana goats with different genotypes at CSN1S1 loci. From a group of goats genotyped by PCR at the DNA level, 12 were selected because they had the same genotype for αS2-CN, β-CN, and κ-CN but a different genotype for αS1-CN: 6 were homozygous for strong alleles at the CSN1S1 loci (AA) and 6 were heterozygous for a weak allele (AF). Goats of each genotype were allocated to 3 subgroups and fed 3 diets ad libitum in a 3×3 Latin square design. The diets were sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) fresh forage, sulla fresh forage plus 800 g/d of barley meal (SFB), and mixed hay plus 800 g/d of barley meal (MHB). Diet had a stronger effect than CSN1S1 genotype. The SFB diet led to the highest energy intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and milk yield. The fresh forage diets (SFF and SFB) increased DM and crude protein (CP) intake, CP digestibility, and milk CN compared with the MHB diet. The diets supplemented with energy (SFB, MHB) reduced milk fat and urea, improved CP utilization for casein synthesis, and limited body fat mobilization, in accordance with a lower level of nonesterified fatty acids and higher levels of glucose and IGF-1. With regard to CSN1S1 genotype, AA goats showed higher CP digestibility and lower free thyroxine hormone and cholesterol levels than AF

  18. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates. PMID:22403707

  19. Metabolomic profiling of a modified alcohol liquid diet model for liver injury in the mouse uncovers new markers of disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, Blair U.; O'Connell, Thomas M.; Han, Jun; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Ross, Pamela K.; Winnike, Jason; Kono, Hiroshi; Rusyn, Ivan

    2008-10-15

    Metabolomic evaluation of urine and liver was conducted to assess the biochemical changes that occur as a result of alcohol-induced liver injury. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an isocaloric control- or alcohol-containing liquid diet with 35% of calories from corn oil, 18% protein and 47% carbohydrate/alcohol for up to 36 days ad libitum. Alcohol treatment was initiated at 7 g/kg/day and gradually reached a final dose of 21 g/kg/day. Urine samples were collected at 22, 30 and 36 days and, in additional treatment groups, liver and serum samples were harvested at 28 days. Steatohepatitis was induced in the alcohol-fed group since a 5-fold increase in serum alanine aminotransferase activity, a 6-fold increase in liver injury score (necrosis, inflammation and steatosis) and an increase in lipid peroxidation in liver were observed. Liver and urine samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray infusion/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. In livers of alcohol-treated mice the following changes were noted. Hypoxia and glycolysis were activated as evidenced by elevated levels of alanine and lactate. Tyrosine, which is required for L-DOPA and dopamine as well as thyroid hormones, was elevated possibly reflecting alterations of basal metabolism by alcohol. A 4-fold increase in the prostacyclin inhibitor 7,10,13,16-docosatetraenoic acid, a molecule important for regulation of platelet formation and blood clotting, may explain why chronic drinking causes serious bleeding problems. Metabolomic analysis of the urine revealed that alcohol treatment leads to decreased excretion of taurine, a metabolite of glutathione, and an increase in lactate, n-acetylglutamine and n-acetylglycine. Changes in the latter two metabolites suggest an inhibition of the kidney enzyme aminoacylase I and may be useful as markers for alcohol consumption.

  20. Role of CYP2E1 and saturation kinetics in the bioactivation of thioacetamide: Effects of diet restriction and phenobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Chilakapati, Jaya; Korrapati, Midhun C.; Shankar, Kartik; Hill, Ronald A.; Warbritton, Alan; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2007-02-15

    Thioacetamide (TA) undergoes saturation toxicokinetics in ad libitum (AL) fed rats. Diet restriction (DR) protects rats from lethal dose of TA despite increased bioactivation-mediated liver injury via CYP2E1 induction. While a low dose (50 mg TA/kg) produces 6-fold higher initial injury, a 12-fold higher dose produces delayed and mere 2.5-fold higher injury. The primary objective was to determine if this less-than-expected increase in injury is due to saturation toxicokinetics. Rats on AL and DR for 21 days received either 50 or 600 mg TA/kg i.p. T {sub 1/2} and AUCs for TA and TA-S-oxide were consistent with saturable kinetics. Covalent binding of {sup 14}C-TA-derived-radiolabel to liver macromolecules after low dose was 2-fold higher in DR than AL rats. However, following lethal dose, no differences were found between AL and DR. This lack of dose-dependent response appears to be due to saturation of bioactivation at the higher dose. The second objective was to investigate the effect of phenobarbital pretreatment (PB) on TA-initiated injury following a sub-lethal dose (500 mg/kg). PB induced CYP2B1/2 {approx} 350-fold, but did not increase covalent binding of {sup 14}C-TA, TA-induced liver injury and mortality, suggesting that CYP2B1/2 has no major role in TA bioactivation. The third objective was to investigate the role of CYP2E1 using cyp2e1 knockout mice (KO). Injury was assessed over time (0-48 h) in wild type (WT) and KO mice after LD{sub 100} dose (500 mg/kg) in WT. While WT mice exhibited robust injury which progressed to death, KO mice exhibited neither initiation nor progression of injury. These findings confirm that CYP2E1 is responsible for TA bioactivation.

  1. Food and water intake, growth, and adiposity of Sprague-Dawley rats with diet board for 24 months.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, K S; Nevalainen, T O; Haasio, K; Kasanen, I H E; Nieminen, P A; Voipio, H-M

    2013-10-01

    Ad libitum (AL) feeding of rats leads to obesity and increased result variability, as well as premature morbidity and mortality. It may also alter metabolism and responses to foreign compounds. Moderate dietary restriction (DR) reduces these untoward effects without compromising the sensitivity of rodent bioassays. The diet board (DB) is a novel method for achieving moderate DR in group housing. Food pellets are firmly attached into grooves in an aspen board, and rats have to gnaw the wood in order to eat. Food is available continuously, but due to the effort involved rats eat less. This study simulated a chronic safety test to assess the long-term effects of DB feeding. A total of 146 male and female outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, nine weeks old at onset, were housed in groups of three and fed either AL or with DBs for two years. Food and water consumption were measured at six time points. The rats were weighed every one to two weeks. Body and tibial lengths and epididymal fat weight were measured at necropsy. Modified body mass index was calculated at five time points after one year of age. DB feeding reduced body weight and fat tissue moderately, more so in males. DB males ate less than AL males, but no differences were seen in the total food consumption in the females. There was no consistent difference in the within-group variations of the measured parameters. DB is a workable DR method, albeit some modification could enhance and standardize its DR effects, especially in female rats. PMID:23760564

  2. Impaired hypothalamic mTOR activation in the adult rat offspring born to mothers fed a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Pérez García, Georgina; Matos, Rhowena J B; de Sa Braga Oliveira, André; Manhães de Castro, Raul; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological and experimental studies have clearly established that maternal malnutrition induces a high risk of developing obesity and related metabolic diseases in the offspring. To determine if altered nutrient sensing might underlie this enhanced disease susceptibility, here we examined the effects of perinatal protein restriction on the activation of the nutrient sensor mTOR in response to acute variations in the nutritional status of the organism. Female Wistar rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 17% protein (control) or 8% protein (PR) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning offspring received standard chow and at 4 months of age the effects of fasting or fasting plus re-feeding on the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its downstream target S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6) in the hypothalamus were assessed by immuno-fluorescence and western blot. Under ad libitum feeding conditions, PR rats exhibited decreased mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation in the arcuate (ARC) and ventromedial (VMH) hypothalamic nuclei. Moreover, the phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in these hypothalamic nuclei decreased with fasting in control but not in PR animals. Conversely, PR animals exhibited enhanced number of pmTOR imunostained cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and fasting decreased the activation of mTOR in the PVN of malnourished but not of control rats. These alterations occurred at a developmental stage at which perinatally-undernourished animals do not show yet obesity or glucose intolerance. Collectively, our observations suggest that altered hypothalamic nutrient sensing in response to an inadequate foetal and neonatal energetic environment is one of the basic mechanisms of the developmental programming of metabolic disorders and might play a causing role in the development of the metabolic syndrome induced by malnutrition during early life. PMID:24040371

  3. Lower body adipose tissue removal decreases glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice with exposure to high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cox-York, K; Wei, Y; Wang, D; Pagliassotti, M J; Foster, M T

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that the protective effects of lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue (LBSAT) occur via its ability to sequester surplus lipid and thus serve as a "metabolic sink." However, the mechanisms that mediate this protective function are unknown thus this study addresses this postulate. Ad libitum, chow-fed mice underwent Sham-surgery or LBSAT removal (IngX, inguinal depot removal) and were subsequently provided chow (Chow; typical adipocyte expansion) or high fat diet (HFD; enhanced adipocyte expansion) for 5 weeks. Primary outcome measures included glucose tolerance and subsequent insulin response, muscle insulin sensitivity, liver and muscle triglycerides, adipose tissue gene expression, and circulating lipids and adipokines. In a follow up study the consequences of extended experiment length post-surgery (13 wks) or pre-existing glucose intolerance were examined. At 5 wks post-surgery IngX in HFD-fed mice reduced glucose tolerance and muscle insulin sensitivity and increased circulating insulin compared with HFD Sham. In Chow-fed mice, muscle insulin sensitivity was the only measurement reduced following IngX. At 13 wks circulating insulin concentration of HFD IngX mice continued to be higher than HFD Sham. Surgery did not induce changes in mice with pre-existing glucose intolerance. IngX also increased muscle, but not liver, triglyceride concentration in Chow- and HFD-fed mice 5 wks post-surgery, but chow group only at 13 wks. These data suggest that the presence of LBSAT protects against triglyceride accumulation in the muscle and HFD-induced glucose intolerance and muscle insulin resistance. These data suggest that lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue can function as a "metabolic sink." PMID:26167400

  4. Lower body adipose tissue removal decreases glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice with exposure to high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Cox-York, K; Wei, Y; Wang, D; Pagliassotti, MJ; Foster, MT

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the protective effects of lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue (LBSAT) occur via its ability to sequester surplus lipid and thus serve as a “metabolic sink.” However, the mechanisms that mediate this protective function are unknown thus this study addresses this postulate. Ad libitum, chow-fed mice underwent Sham-surgery or LBSAT removal (IngX, inguinal depot removal) and were subsequently provided chow (Chow; typical adipocyte expansion) or high fat diet (HFD; enhanced adipocyte expansion) for 5 weeks. Primary outcome measures included glucose tolerance and subsequent insulin response, muscle insulin sensitivity, liver and muscle triglycerides, adipose tissue gene expression, and circulating lipids and adipokines. In a follow up study the consequences of extended experiment length post-surgery (13 wks) or pre-existing glucose intolerance were examined. At 5 wks post-surgery IngX in HFD-fed mice reduced glucose tolerance and muscle insulin sensitivity and increased circulating insulin compared with HFD Sham. In Chow-fed mice, muscle insulin sensitivity was the only measurement reduced following IngX. At 13 wks circulating insulin concentration of HFD IngX mice continued to be higher than HFD Sham. Surgery did not induce changes in mice with pre-existing glucose intolerance. IngX also increased muscle, but not liver, triglyceride concentration in Chow- and HFD-fed mice 5 wks post-surgery, but chow group only at 13 wks. These data suggest that the presence of LBSAT protects against triglyceride accumulation in the muscle and HFD-induced glucose intolerance and muscle insulin resistance. These data suggest that lower body subcutaneous adipose tissue can function as a “metabolic sink.” PMID:26167400

  5. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    PubMed

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  6. Low Starch/Low Dairy Diet Results in Successful Treatment of Obesity and Co-Morbidities Linked to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Phy, Jennifer L.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Cooper, Jamie A.; Watkins, Phillip; Spallholz, Julian; Harris, Kitty S.; Berenson, Abbey B.; Boylan, Mallory

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 15% of reproductive-age women and increases risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, cancer and infertility. Hyperinsulinemia is believed to contribute to or worsen all of these conditions, and increases androgens in women with PCOS. Carbohydrates are the main stimulators of insulin release, but research shows that dairy products and starches elicit greater postprandial insulin secretion than non-starchy vegetables and fruits. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an 8-week low-starch/low-dairy diet results in weight loss, increased insulin sensitivity, and reduced testosterone in women with PCOS. Methods Prospective 8-week dietary intervention using an ad libitum low starch/low dairy diet in 24 overweight and obese women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and ≤ 45 kg/m2) with PCOS. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on the Rotterdam criteria. Weight, BMI, Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), fasting and 2-hour glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), HbA1c, total and free testosterone, and Ferriman-Gallwey scores were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Results There was a reduction in weight (−8.61 ± 2.34 kg, p<0.001), BMI (−3.25 ± 0.88 kg/m2, p<0.001), WC (−8.4 ± 3.1 cm, p<0.001), WHtR (−0.05 ± 0.02 inches, p<0.001), fasting insulin (−17.0 ± 13.6 μg/mL, p<0.001) and 2-hour insulin (−82.8 ± 177.7 μg/mL, p=0.03), and HOMA-IR (−1.9 ± 1.2, p<0.001) after diet intervention. Total testosterone (−10.0 ± 17.0 ng/dL, p=0.008), free testosterone (−1.8 pg/dL, p=0.043) and Ferriman-Gallwey scores (−2.1 ± 2.7 points (p=0.001) were also reduced from pre- to post-intervention. Conclusion An 8-week low-starch/low-dairy diet resulted in weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced testosterone in women with PCOS. PMID:26225266

  7. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  8. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  9. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  10. Diet myths and facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... myths and facts; Overweight - diet myths and facts; Obesity- diet myths and facts ... evidence: using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence. ...

  11. Zinc in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Animal proteins are a good source of zinc. Beef, pork, and lamb contain more zinc than fish. The ... use by the body as the zinc from animal proteins. Therefore, low-protein diets and vegetarian diets tend ...

  12. Caffeine in the diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  13. Diets for Constipation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease in children. Successful treatment of constipation can be achieved not only with medication but also with lifestyle changes, including a proper diet. Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Some dietary components are helpful for constipation, and some are harmful. In this study, we present diets related to constipation from the literature, and propose some perspectives regarding diets related to constipation. PMID:25587519

  14. High blood pressure and diet

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - diet ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... DIET The low-salt Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is proven to help lower blood ...

  15. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  16. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    PubMed

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  17. Effects of calcium soap of rice bran oil fatty acids supplementation alone and with DL-α-tocopherol acetate in lamb diets on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A; Agrawal, A R

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-six Malpura lambs (28 day old and 6.7 ± 0.25 kg BW) were distributed equally in three groups having six males and six female. They were ad libitum fed individually three different experimental diets containing calcium soap of fatty acids (CA-FA) at 0 (T1 ) and 40 (T2 and T3 ) g/kg concentrate up to six months of age. Animals in T3 were supplemented additionally with 40 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate/kg of concentrate. The roughage moiety included ad libitum dry Prosopis cineraria and fresh Azadirachata indica leaves. All the lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam up to weaning (90 day of age). Supplementation of Ca-FA improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio during both pre- (28-90 days) and post-weaning (91-180 days) phases; however, no effect of DL-α-tocopherol was observed. Metabolic parameters during post-weaning phase revealed non-significant effect on digestibility but improved nitrogen balance in the test groups. The effect on biochemical attributes did not show any significant alteration in ruminal parameters, blood biochemicals and urinary purine derivatives. Carcass traits revealed higher (p < 0.05) dressing yield and loin eye area with Ca-FA supplementation. The value of thiobarbituric reactive substances for nuggets prepared from frozen carcasses revealed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in T3 compared to the other dietary groups. Fatty acid profile of adipose tissue revealed higher (p < 0.001) 9-octadecanoic, 9-12-octadecadienoic, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), higher ratio of PUFA/saturated fatty acids (SFA), ω-6/ω-3 and lower SFA in Ca-FA-supplemented groups. It is concluded that supplementation of 40 g/kg calcium soap prepared from industrial grade rice bran oil in lamb ration provided additional energy intake, improved N utilization, gain and feed conversion ratio besides improving dressing yield and meat quality with CLA enriched fatty acid profile. DL-α-tocopherol acetate when supplemented at 40

  18. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased. PMID:22952356

  19. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    . The increased milk yield observed in experiment 1 was not observed in experiment 2. Adding 8% of MB to lactating cow diets had a mixed effect on DMI and milk production. Milk component yields and milk quality were not affected. Feeding this level of MB presents a hemolytic danger to lactating dairy cows. PMID:21605775

  20. Innovations Without Added Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cereghino, Edward

    1974-01-01

    There is no question that we are in a tight money market, and schools are among the first institutions to feel the squeeze. Therefore, when a plan is offered that provides for innovations without added costs, its something worth noting. (Editor)

  1. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  2. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  3. Diet and acne.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P; Joshi, Smita S; Shalita, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    Historically, the relationship between diet and acne has been highly controversial. Before the 1960s, certain foods were thought to exacerbate acne. However, subsequent studies dispelled these alleged associations as myth for almost half a century. Several studies during the last decade have prompted dermatologists to revisit the potential link between diet and acne. This article critically reviews the literature and discusses how dermatologists might address diet when counseling patients with acne. Dermatologists can no longer dismiss the association between diet and acne. Compelling evidence exists that high glycemic load diets may exacerbate acne. Dairy ingestion appears to be weakly associated with acne, and the roles of omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, zinc, vitamin A, and dietary fiber remain to be elucidated. This study was limited by the lack of randomized controlled trials in the literature. We hope that this review will encourage others to explore the effects of diet on acne. PMID:20338665

  4. Effect of a diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation and monocyte adhesion in diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christian K; Won, Dean; Pruthi, Sandeep; Lin, San San; Barnard, R James

    2006-09-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of coronary artery disease. We examined the effects of lifestyle modification on key contributing factors to atherogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation and cell adhesion. Diabetic men (N=13) were placed on a high-fiber, low-fat diet in a 3-week residential program where food was provided ad libitum and daily aerobic exercise was performed. In each subject, pre- and post-intervention fasting blood was drawn for circulating levels of serum lipids, glucose and insulin, oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha), the inflammatory protein C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 and sE-selectin as indicators of endothelial activation. Using subject sera and human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) culture systems, serum-induced monocyte adhesion, ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and cell surface abundance, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) production were determined. Nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide production were measured in vitro by fluorometric detection. After 3 weeks, significant reductions (p<0.05) in BMI, all serum lipids including total cholesterol (pre: 188.9+/-10.1 mg/dL versus post: 146.3+/-3.8 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein (103.1+/-10.2 mg/dL versus 76.4+/-4.3 mg/dL), fasting serum glucose (157.5+/-10.1 mg/dL versus 126.7+/-8.7 mg/dL), insulin (33.8+/-4.0 microU/ml versus 23.8+/-3.4 microU/ml), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, 8-iso-PGF2alpha, CRP, sICAM-1, and sE-selectin were noted. In vitro, serum-stimulated monocyte adhesion, cellular ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05), and fluorometric detection of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production decreased, while a concomitant increase in NO production was noted (all p<0.01). A combination of diet and exercise ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and monocyte-endothelial interaction. Intensive lifestyle modification may

  5. Chemosensory Abilities in Consumers of a Western-Style Diet.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Boakes, Robert A; Oaten, Megan J; Yeomans, Martin R; Mahmut, Memhet; Francis, Heather M

    2016-07-01

    People vary in their habitual diet and also in their chemosensory abilities. In this study, we examined whether consumption of a Western-style diet, rich in saturated fat and added sugar, is associated with either poorer or different patterns of chemosensory perception, relative to people who consume a healthier diet. Participants were selected based on a food frequency questionnaire, which established whether they were likely to consume a diet either higher or lower in saturated fat and added sugar. Eighty-seven participants were tested for olfactory ability (threshold, discrimination, and identification), gustatory ability (PROP sensitivity, taste intensity, quality, and hedonics), and flavor processing (using dairy fat-sugar-odor mixtures). A Western-style diet was associated with poorer odor identification ability, greater PROP sensitivity, poorer fat discrimination, different patterns of sweetness taste enhancement, and hedonic differences in taste and flavor perception. No differences were evident for odor discrimination or threshold, in perception of taste intensity/quality (excluding PROP) or the ability of fats to affect flavor perception. The significant relationships were of small to moderate effect size, and would be expected to work against consuming a healthier diet. The discussion focuses on whether these diet-related differences precede adoption of a Western-style diet and/or are a consequence of it. PMID:27060104

  6. Prenatal nicotine exposure enhances Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channel activity in brain cells of adult offspring mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Juan A.; Busso, Dolores; Ramírez, Gigliola; Campos, Marlys; Rigotti, Attilio; Eugenín, Jaime; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine, the most important neuroteratogen of tobacco smoke, can reproduce brain and cognitive disturbances per se when administered prenatally. However, it is still unknown if paracrine signaling among brain cells participates in prenatal nicotine-induced brain impairment of adult offspring. Paracrine signaling is partly mediated by unopposed channels formed by connexins hemichannels (HCs) and pannexins serving as aqueous pores permeable to ions and small signaling molecules, allowing exchange between the intra- and extracellular milieus. Our aim was to address whether prenatal nicotine exposure changes the activity of those channels in adult mice offspring under control conditions or subjected to a second challenge during young ages: high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet. To induce prenatal exposure to nicotine, osmotic minipumps were implanted in CF1 pregnant mice at gestational day 5 to deliver nicotine bitartrate or saline (control) solutions. After weaning, offspring of nicotine-treated or untreated pregnant mice were fed ad libitum with chow or HFC diets for 8 weeks. The functional state of connexin 43 (Cx43) and pannexin 1 (Panx1) unopposed channels was evaluated by dye uptake experiments in hippocampal slices from 11-week-old mice. We found that prenatal nicotine increased the opening of Cx43 HCs in astrocytes, and Panx1 channels in microglia and neurons only if offspring mice were fed with HFC diet. Blockade of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E receptor 1 (EP1), ionotropic ATP receptor type 7 (P2X7) and NMDA receptors, showed differential inhibition of prenatal nicotine-induced channel opening in glial cells and neurons. Importantly, inhibition of the above mentioned enzymes and receptors, or blockade of Cx43 and Panx1 unopposed channels greatly reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutamate release from hippocampal slices of prenatally nicotine-exposed offspring. We propose that unregulated gliotransmitter

  7. Dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in substitution of goat milk and slaughtered at different ages: an economic viability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques.

    PubMed

    Knupp, L S; Veloso, C M; Marcondes, M I; Silveira, T S; Silva, A L; Souza, N O; Knupp, S N R; Cannas, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ -16.4 and US$ -2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ -30.8 and US$ -0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model's results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically

  8. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  9. Excess iron modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated pathways in a mouse model of alcohol and high-fat diet-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Tan, Terrence C H; Crawford, Darrell H G; Jaskowski, Lesley A; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Clouston, Andrew D; Crane, Denis I; Bridle, Kim R; Anderson, Gregory J; Fletcher, Linda M

    2013-12-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an important pathogenic mechanism for alcoholic (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Iron overload is an important cofactor for liver injury in ALD and NAFLD, but its role in ER stress and associated stress signaling pathways is unclear. To investigate this, we developed a murine model of combined liver injury by co-feeding the mildly iron overloaded, the hemochromatosis gene-null (Hfe(-/)) mouse ad libitum with ethanol and a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. This co-feeding led to profound steatohepatitis, significant fibrosis, and increased apoptosis in the Hfe(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Iron overload also led to induction of unfolded protein response (XBP1 splicing, activation of IRE-1α and PERK, as well as sequestration of GRP78) and ER stress (increased CHOP protein expression) following HFD and ethanol. This is associated with a muted autophagic response including reduced LC3-I expression and impaired conjugation to LC3-II, reduced beclin-1 protein, and failure of induction of autophagy-related proteins (Atg) 3, 5, 7, and 12. As a result of the impaired autophagy, levels of the sequestosome protein p62 were most elevated in the Hfe(-/-) group co-fed ethanol and HFD. Iron overload reduces the activation of adenosine monophosphate protein kinase associated with ethanol and HFD feeding. We conclude that iron toxicity may modulate hepatic stress signaling pathways by impairing adaptive cellular compensatory mechanisms in alcohol- and obesity-induced liver injury. PMID:24126888

  10. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungchhang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Norrapoke, Thitima

    2015-04-01

    Four rumen-fistulated Thai native swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to assess the effect of protein (CP) level and urea (U) source in concentrate diet on feed utilization and rumen ecology. The treatments were as follows: concentrate containing CP at 120 g/kg (soybean meal, SBM) (T1), 160 g/kg (SBM) (T2), 120 g/kg (U) (T3), and 160 g/kg (U) (T4), respectively. All buffaloes were fed concentrate at 10 g/kg of body weight, and rice straw was offered ad libitum. Feed intake and digestibilities of CP, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber increased (P < 0.05) in treatments with higher level of CP especially with U source (P < 0.05). In contrast, CP level and source in concentrate did not affect on ruminal pH and temperature (P > 0.05), while concentration of ruminal ammonia (N), blood urea (U), volatile fatty acids profile, microorganism populations, and variable bacterial growth increased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing CP at 160 g/kg (T2 and T4; P < 0.05). Fecal and urinary N excretions decreased in buffaloes consumed concentrate containing higher CP level especially with U source while purine derivatives increased which resulted in a higher N balance as compared to lower CP level and SBM source treatments (P < 0.05). In summary, higher CP level in concentrate improved feed intake, nutrient digestibility, purine derivatives, and rumen ecology, and U had shown better result than SBM. Concentrate mixtures containing 16 g/kg CP with U 40 g/kg could improved nutrients utilization with no adverse effects for swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. PMID:25686554

  11. Investigation of a role for ghrelin signaling in binge-like feeding in mice under limited access to high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    King, S J; Rodrigues, T; Watts, A; Murray, E; Wilson, A; Abizaid, A

    2016-04-01

    Binge eating is defined by the consumption of an excessive amount of food in a short time, reflecting a form of hedonic eating that is not necessarily motivated by caloric need. Foods consumed during a binge are also often high in fat and/or sugar. Ghrelin, signaling centrally via the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), stimulates growth hormone release and appetite. GHSR signaling also enhances the rewarding value of palatable foods and increases the motivation for such foods. As ghrelin interacts directly with dopaminergic reward circuitry, shown to be involved in binge eating, the current studies explored the role of GHSR signaling in a limited access model of binge eating in mice. In this model, mice received either intermittent (INT) or daily (DAILY) access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet (HFD) for 2h late in the light cycle, alongside 24-h ad libitum chow. In CD-1 mice, 2-h exposure to HFD generated substantial binge-like intake of HFD, as well as a binge-compensate pattern of 24-h daily intake. INT and daily groups did not differ in 2-h HFD consumption, while INT mice maintained stable intake of chow despite access to HFD. GHSR knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice both binged during HFD access, and exhibited the same binge-compensate pattern. INT GHSR KO mice did not binge as much as WT, while DAILY KO and WT were comparable. Overall, GHSR KO mice consumed fewer calories from HFD, regardless of access condition. GHSR KO mice also had reduced activation of the nucleus accumbens shell, but not core, following HFD consumption. These data support the ability of INT HFD in mice to induce a binge-compensate pattern of intake that emulates select components of binge eating in humans. There also appears to be a role for GHSR signaling in driving HFD consumption under these conditions, potentially via mediation of reward-related circuitry. PMID:26791525

  12. Knockdown of neuropeptide Y in the dorsomedial hypothalamus reverses high-fat diet-induced obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonwook J; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance. While DMH NPY overexpression causes hyperphagia and obesity in rats, knockdown of NPY in the DMH via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated RNAi (AAVshNPY) ameliorates these alterations. Whether this knockdown has a therapeutic effect on obesity and glycemic disorder has yet to be determined. The present study sought to test this potential using a rat model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance, mimicking human obesity with impaired glucose homeostasis. Rats had ad libitum access to rodent regular chow (RC) or HFD. Six weeks later, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for verifying HFD-induced glucose intolerance. After verification, obese rats received bilateral DMH injections of AAVshNPY or the control vector AAVshCTL, and OGTT and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed at 16 and 18 wk after viral injection (23 and 25 wk on HFD), respectively. Rats were killed at 26 wk on HFD. We found that AAVshCTL rats on HFD remained hyperphagic, obese, glucose intolerant, and insulin resistant relative to lean control RC-fed rats receiving DMH injection of AAVshCTL, whereas these alterations were reversed in NPY knockdown rats fed a HFD. NPY knockdown rats exhibited normal food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, as seen in lean control rats. Together, these results demonstrate a therapeutic action of DMH NPY knockdown against obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis in rats, providing a potential target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PMID:26561644

  13. Rumen adaptation of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) by high level of urea supplementation when fed on rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to investigate rumen adaptation of urea on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis. Buffaloes were fed with rice straw ad libitum for a period of 2 weeks and then were shifted to a step-up diet regimen by supplementation of concentrate containing 20 and 40 g/kg urea at 5 g/kg BW for a period of 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The results revealed that feed intake and nutrient digestibility were increased by urea supplementation (P < 0.05) both at two and four period of consumption. However, ruminal pH, temperature, and protozoal population were neither affected by urea nor adaptation period (P > 0.05) while bacterial and fungal zoospores were increased especially at 40 g/kg urea. Data from real-time PCR further showed that total bacteria and the three predominant cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens) were increased by urea supplementation both at 2 and 4 weeks of urea feeding. Furthermore, methane production was similar among treatments while microbial protein synthesis was enhanced when buffaloes were fed with urea after a period of 2 weeks especially at 40 g/kg urea (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that urea supplementation could increase feed intake, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and fermentation efficiency of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. It is suggested that buffaloes could adapt well and utilize urea as a N source effectively within a period of 2 weeks uptake without adverse effect. PMID:27107749

  14. Effect of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation, MMP-9, and monocyte chemotactic activity in men with metabolic syndrome factors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christian K; Won, Dean; Pruthi, Sandeep; Kurtovic, Silvia; Sindhu, Ram K; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Barnard, R James

    2006-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of lifestyle modification on key contributing factors to atherogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and cell adhesion. Obese men (n = 31), 15 of whom had metabolic syndrome, were placed on a high-fiber, low-fat diet in a 3-wk residential program where food was provided ad libitum and daily aerobic exercise was performed. In each subject, pre- and postintervention fasting blood was drawn for circulating levels of serum lipids, glucose and insulin (for estimation of insulin sensitivity), oxidative stress-generating enzyme myeloperoxidase and marker 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha, the inflammatory protein C-reactive protein, soluble ICAM-1 as an indicator of endothelial activation, sP-selectin as a marker of platelet activation, the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and total matrix metalloproteinase-9. Using subject sera and human aortic endothelial cell culture systems, we measured VCAM-1 cell surface abundance and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, nitric oxide, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide production in vitro by fluorometric detection. Also determined in vitro was serum-induced, monocyte adhesion and monocyte chemotactic activity. After 3 wk, significant reductions (P < 0.05) in body mass index, all serum lipids and lipid ratios, fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, myeloperoxidase, 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha, C-reactive protein, soluble ICAM-1, soluble P-selectin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were noted. In vitro, serum-stimulated cellular VCAM-1 expression, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production, and fluorometric detection of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production decreased, whereas a concomitant increase in NO production was noted (all P < 0.01). Additionally, both monocyte adhesion (P < 0.05) and MCA (P < 0.01) decreased. Nine of 15 were no longer positive for metabolic

  15. Mediterranean diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Trichopoulou, A; Vasilopoulou, E

    2000-12-01

    Mortality statistics from the WHO database covering the period 1960 to 1990 have provided intriguing evidence that something unusual has been affecting in a beneficial way the health of the Mediterranean population. In recent papers, which evaluated the evidence accumulated over the last three decades, it was concluded that the traditional Mediterranean diet meets several important criteria for a healthy diet. Direct evidence in support of the beneficial properties of the Mediterranean diet has also become available. These data were derived from three studies, which have used a diet score, devised a priori on the basis of eight desirable key features of the traditional common diet in the Mediterranean region. The conclusion of these studies is that a diet that adheres to the principles of the traditional Mediterranean one is associated with longer survival. The Greek version of the Mediterranean diet is dominated by the consumption of olive oil and by high consumption of vegetables and fruits. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and an antioxidant action provides a plausible explanation for the apparent benefits. Wild edible greens frequently eaten in rural Greece in the form of salads and pies contain very high quantities of flavonoids-- considerably higher than those found in red wine or black tea. While there is no direct evidence that these antioxidants are central to the benefits of the Mediterranean Diet, indirect evidence from epidemiological data and the increasing understanding of their mechanisms of action suggest that antioxidants may play a major role. PMID:11242471

  16. TOTAL DIET STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...

  17. Diet Therapy Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food…

  18. DIET at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, G.; Boer-Duchemin, E.; Le Moal, E.; Mayne, A. J.; Riedel, D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the long evolution of DIET (Dynamics at surfaces Induced by Electronic Transitions) that began in the 1960s when Menzel, Gomer and Redhead proposed their famous stimulated desorption model. DIET entered the "nanoscale" in the 1990s when researchers at Bell Labs and IBM realized that the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) could be used as an atomic size source of electrons to electronically excite individual atoms and molecules on surfaces. Resonant and radiant Inelastic Electron Tunneling (IET) using the STM have considerably enlarged the range of applications of DIET. Nowadays, "DIET at the nanoscale" covers a broad range of phenomena at the atomic-scale. This includes molecular dynamics (dissociation, desorption, isomerization, displacement, chemical reactions), vibrational spectroscopy and dynamics, spin spectroscopy and manipulation, luminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and plasmonics. Future trends of DIET at the nanoscale offer exciting prospects for new methods to control light and matter at the nanoscale.

  19. [Diet treatment of hyperliproteinemias].

    PubMed

    Louis, J; Antoine, J M; Pointel, J P; Debry, G; Drouin, P

    1983-04-01

    The authors mention the previous conditions to the prescription of a diet for primary hyperlipoproteinemia: definition of the metabolic disease and of its nutritional dependance, precise knowledge of earlier nutritional uses, demonstration of vascular risk factor linked to the hyperlipoproteinemia, i.e. obesity which always requires a hypocaloric diet. A low cholesterol and saturated fatty acid diet reduces by 10% the cholesterolemia, and sometimes exempts from use of medical drugs in moderate hypercholesterolemia. The exceptional hyperchylomicronemia are reduced by drastic reduction of the lipid fraction of the diet, which is compensated by use of MCT. The dietetic treatment of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia depends on their nutritional dependance: an alcohol dependance implies a complete suppression of alcoholic drinks. A glucid dependance implies the suppression of simple carbohydrates and a reduction of the glucidic fraction of the diet. PMID:6346241

  20. Very Low-Calorie Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... list of resources ​​. Alternate Language URL Very Low-calorie Diets Page Content What is a VLCD? Should ... weight? Research ​ Clinical Trials Resources​ A very low-calorie diet (VLCD) is not just any diet that ...

  1. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Art Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  2. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  3. Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF**6) is a commonly used method for measuring CH**4 enteric emissions in ruminants. Studies using SF**6 have shown large variation in CH**4 emissions data, inconsistencies in CH**4 emissions across studies, and potential methodological errors. Therefore, th...

  4. What do government agencies consider in the debate over added sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The place of sugars in the U.S. diet is vigorously debated with much attention on added sugars, those added during processing or preparation of foodstuffs, particularly as they relate to obesity. Federal government agencies have different responsibilities related to the food supply including researc...

  5. Dirac operator on fuzzy AdS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Imaanpur, Ali

    2003-03-01

    In this article we construct the chirality and Dirac operators on noncommutative AdS2. We also derive the discrete spectrum of the Dirac operator which is important in the study of the spectral triple associated to AdS2. It is shown that the degeneracy of the spectrum present in the commutative AdS2 is lifted in the noncommutative case. The way we construct the chirality operator is suggestive of how to introduce the projector operators of the corresponding projective modules on this space.

  6. An xp model on AdS2 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sierra, Germán

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we formulate the xp model on the AdS2 spacetime. We find that the spectrum of the Hamiltonian has positive and negative eigenvalues, whose absolute values are given by a harmonic oscillator spectrum, which in turn coincides with that of a massive Dirac fermion in AdS2. We extend this result to generic xp models which are shown to be equivalent to a massive Dirac fermion on spacetimes whose metric depend of the xp Hamiltonian. Finally, we construct the generators of the isometry group SO(2,1) of the AdS2 spacetime, and discuss the relation with conformal quantum mechanics.

  7. Effects of Low Glycemic Index Diets on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jinhua; Heng, Weijun; Gao, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies of the effects of low glycemic index (LGI) diets on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reported conflicting findings. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM patients. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for studies of the effects of LGI diets in GDM patients. We performed a meta-analysis of the effects of the LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on GDM outcomes. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- and fixed-effects models. Five RCTs involving 302 participants were included in our meta-analysis. No statistically significant differences in the risks of cesarean section delivery, large for gestational age, and small for gestational age were observed. The risk of macrosomia in the LGI groups was significantly lower (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10–0.71; P = 0.008) than that in the control groups. Our subgroup analysis of the effects of DF showed that LGI diets with an increased level of DF, relative to the control diet, reduced the risk of macrosomia beyond that of the LGI diets alone (RR: 0.17 vs 0.47, respectively). The subgroup analysis also showed that LGI diets in which the level of DF was approximately equivalent to that in the control diets significantly reduced the risk of insulin usage (RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52–0.92; P = 0.01). The LGI diets reduced the risk of macrosomia in GDM patients, and LGI diets with added DF reduced the risk of macrosomia further. The LGI diets with levels of DF approximately equivalent to that in the control diets reduced the risk of insulin usage in GDM patients. PMID:27258511

  8. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    PubMed

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation. PMID:16208206

  9. ADS Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

  10. Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deger, N. S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

    2014-07-01

    We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS3. This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz-Chern-Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves.

  11. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    PubMed

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P < 0.01). Total VFA concentrations were not affected (P = 0.12); however, molar proportion of acetate was reduced and that for propionate increased when NOP was added (P < 0.01), which reduced the acetate to propionate ratio (3.0 vs. 4.0; P < 0.01). The total copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of total bacteria was not affected (P = 0.50) by NOP, but the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene of methanogens was reduced (P < 0.01) and the copy number of the 18S rRNA gene of protozoa was increased (P = 0.03). The residual effect of NOP for

  12. Diet - full liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7 of the foods you can eat for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Liquid foods DO NOT include " ... Nonfat dry milk added to your drinks Instant breakfast powder added to milk, puddings, custards, and milkshakes ...

  13. Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Does It Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Go Back The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) Email Print + Share There is no ... diet that has received attention is the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. This diet limits poorly digestible carbohydrates to ...

  14. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  15. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...

  16. Diet for Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... discuss these guidelines with a physical therapist and nutritionist familiar with movement disorders. Ataxia is a complex ... fiber to your diet with your physician or nutritionist, ask them if you might also benefit by ...

  17. Diet and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  18. Diet - chronic kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this special diet to limit the buildup of waste products in the body. Limiting fluids between dialysis ... up when the kidneys no longer function well. Dangerous heart rhythms may result, which can lead to ...

  19. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the "bad" stuff. But the truth is, the human body is designed to purify itself. Detox diets vary. ... fat or fat-free milk or yogurt). The human body is designed to purify itself. You can help ...

  20. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and Sensitivities Celiac Disease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Prostatitis Constipation ... Dr. Shorter completed the first validated, systematic food sensitivity questionnaire on IC and diet. Revised Tuesday, April ...

  1. Diet - clear liquid

    MedlinePlus

    ... It includes things such as: Clear broth Tea Cranberry juice Jell-O Popsicles This diet is easier ... such as grape juice, filtered apple juice, and cranberry juice Soup broth (bouillon or consommé) Clear sodas, ...

  2. Iron in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - iron; Ferric acid; Ferrous acid; Ferritin ... The human body needs iron to make the oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and myoglobin is found ...

  3. Diet and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types Risk Factors Prevention & Early Detection Diet And Exercise Transplant recipients need to be aware of the ... help arrange for counseling and other support services. Exercise After a Transplant Most people are weak after ...

  4. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... scarring of your liver (cirrhosis). For people with liver disease, even a small amount of alcohol can make ... time. Eating an unhealthy diet can lead to liver disease. For example, a person who eats a lot ...

  5. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  6. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  7. Diet and health.

    PubMed

    Gotto, A M; Scott, L W; Foreyt, J P

    1984-12-01

    The role of diet in personal health maintenance is important whether a person is trying to stay healthy or to treat diet-related diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. Dietary recommendations include limiting fat to 30% and protein to 20% of total calories, with the remaining 50% coming from carbohydrate. Maintaining dietary changes for long periods is very difficult for many persons. Specific self-management skills may ea