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Sample records for adapting effective narrative-based

  1. Use of Narrative-Based Language Intervention with Children who have Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Ellie C.; Swanson, Lori A.; Buebler, Velvet

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the use of narrative-based language intervention (NBLI) with 3 children who have cochlear implants. Findings reveal that NBLI is effective intervention to increase the narrative skills of children with specific language impairment.

  2. Building a Narrative Based Requirements Engineering Mediation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Nan; Hall, Tracy; Barker, Trevor

    This paper presents a narrative-based Requirements Engineering (RE) mediation model to help RE practitioners to effectively identify, define, and resolve conflicts of interest, goals, and requirements. Within the SPI community, there is a common belief that social, human, and organizational issues significantly impact on the effectiveness of software process improvement in general and the requirements engineering process in particularl. Conflicts among different stakeholders are an important human and social issue that need more research attention in the SPI and RE community. By drawing on the conflict resolution literature and IS literature, we argue that conflict resolution in RE is a mediated process, in which a requirements engineer can act as a mediator among different stakeholders. To address socio-psychological aspects of conflict in RE and SPI, Winslade and Monk (2000)'s narrative mediation model is introduced, justified, and translated into the context of RE.

  3. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  4. Narrative-Based Interactive Learning Environments from Modelling Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yearwood, John; Stranieri, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Narrative and story telling has a long history of use in structuring, organising and communicating human experience. This paper describes a narrative based interactive intelligent learning environment which aims to elucidate practical reasoning using interactive emergent narratives that can be used in training novices in decision making. Its…

  5. Effects of incomplete adaptation and disturbance in adaptive control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    In this paper consideration is given to the effects of disturbance and incomplete parameter adaptation on the performance of adaptive control systems in which Liapunov theory is used in deriving the control law. A design equation for the bounded error is derived. It is further shown that parameters in the adaptive controller may not converge in the presence of disturbance unless the input signal has a rich enough frequency constant. Design examples are presented.

  6. Ionic effects on spindle adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Husmark, I.; Ottoson, D.

    1971-01-01

    1. Effects of changes in ionic environment on the receptor potential were studied in isolated frog spindle. Particular attention was focused on the action of potassium removal on the early adaptive decline of the response. 2. Removal of potassium caused a reduction and final disappearance of the dynamic overshoot of the receptor potential. The static phase of the response was also reduced although to less extent. The repolarization phase of the response following release of phasic or maintained stretch was greatly prolonged. 3. Increased potassium concentration caused a reduction of the response, but did not change its general time course. The amount of reduction was related to the potassium concentration. 4. Removal of sodium caused a marked diminution of the response, the static phase being in general more affected than the dynamic phase. 5. It is suggested that the effects of potassium removal are caused by a delay in sodium inactivation and a partial depolarization of the endings. It is concluded that the greater part of the early adaptation of the spindle proper may be attributed to ionic mechanisms in the transducer membrane. PMID:4256546

  7. Analyzing the Generality of Conflict Adaptation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funes, Maria Jesus; Lupianez, Juan; Humphreys, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    Conflict adaptation effects refer to the reduction of interference when the incongruent stimulus occurs immediately after an incongruent trial, compared with when it occurs after a congruent trial. The present study analyzes the key conditions that lead to adaptation effects that are specific to the type of conflict involved versus those that are…

  8. Characterizing the effects of multidirectional motion adaptation

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, David P.; Roach, Neil W.; Webb, Ben S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent sensory experience can alter our perception and change the response characteristics of sensory neurons. These effects of sensory adaptation are a ubiquitous property of perceptual systems and are believed to be of fundamental importance to sensory coding. Yet we know little about how adaptation to stimulus ensembles affects our perception of the environment as most psychophysical experiments employ adaptation protocols that focus on prolonged exposure to a single visual attribute. Here, we investigate how concurrent adaptation to multiple directions of motion affects perception of subsequently presented motion using the direction aftereffect. In different conditions, observers adapted to a stimulus ensemble comprised of dot directions sampled from different distributions or to bidirectional motion. Increasing the variance of normally distributed directions reduced the magnitude of the peak direction aftereffect and broadened its tuning profile. Sampling of asymmetric Gaussian and uniform distributions resulted in shifts of direction aftereffect tuning profiles consistent with changes in the perceived global direction of the adapting stimulus. Adding dots in a direction opposite or orthogonal to a unidirectional adapting stimulus led to a pronounced reduction in the direction aftereffect. A simple population-coding model, in which adaptation selectively alters the responsivity of direction-selective neurons, can accommodate the effects of multidirectional adaptation on the perceived direction of motion. PMID:25368339

  9. Technological Innovation: Teacher Preparation, Adaptability, and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Noel; Mundy, Pamela

    This study examined elementary teachers' perceptions about their preparation for efficient, effective implementation of technology, the adaptability of technology to teaching style, and the effect on students of their technology use, investigating whether there was a correlation between those three variables. This work also examined the effects of…

  10. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  11. Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...

  12. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of `knowledge work' and Westley's 2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers—`managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics—scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the `doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  13. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management.

    PubMed

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of 'knowledge work' and Westley's (2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers-'managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics-scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the 'doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice. PMID:27351578

  14. Neural Adaptation Effects in Conceptual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Barbara F. M.; Borghi, Anna M.; Gemmi, Luca; Cacciari, Cristina; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals) after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view. PMID:26264031

  15. Effects of incomplete adaption and disturbance in adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation focused attention on the fact that the synthesis of adaptive control systems has often been discussed in the framework of idealizations which may represent over simplifications. A condition for boundedness of the tracking error has been derived for the case in which incomplete adaption and disturbance are present. When using Parks' design it is shown that instability of the adaptive gains can result due to the presence of disturbance. The theory has been applied to a nontrivial example in order to illustrate the concepts involved.

  16. Adaptive Controller Adaptation Time and Available Control Authority Effects on Piloting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna; Gregory, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive control is considered for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic of adverse conditions. This experiment looked at how adaptive controller adaptation time to recover nominal aircraft dynamics affects pilots and how pilots want information about available control authority transmitted. Results indicate that an adaptive controller that takes three seconds to adapt helped pilots when looking at lateral and longitudinal errors. The controllability ratings improved with the adaptive controller, again the most for the three seconds adaptation time while workload decreased with the adaptive controller. The effects of the displays showing the percentage amount of available safe flight envelope used in the maneuver were dominated by the adaptation time. With the displays, the altitude error increased, controllability slightly decreased, and mental demand increased. Therefore, the displays did require some of the subjects resources but these negatives may be outweighed by pilots having more situation awareness of their aircraft.

  17. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  18. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  19. Adaptive Teaching in STEM: Characteristics for Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melony; Webb, Angela W.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the process of adaptive teaching in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). We assert that teachers who possess a well-developed STEM pedagogical content knowledge, a constructivist paradigm of teaching and learning, and an ability to draw on a vision while reflecting on and during teaching to help negotiate…

  20. Rapid adaptation effect of N170 for printed words.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Bei; Li, Chao; He, Zi-Qiao

    2014-08-01

    Faces and written words are two of the most familiar types of visual patterns with the brain's selective response of N170 component in early perception. Using ERP adaptation paradigms, studies have found the N170 response is reduced when there is repeated presentation of upright faces relative to a control condition. In contrast to these well-established features of the face-related N170 adaptation effect, the characteristics of the N170 adaptation effect for printed words are less clear. The goal was to investigate the ERP adaptation effects of printed language (English words and Chinese characters) in a short ISI (200 msec.) adaptation paradigm. The present study showed that both alphabetic words and non-alphabetic words could produce a rapid N170 adaptation effect. Objects of expertise (e.g. words and faces) can produce a rapid N170 adaptation effect but other objects (e.g., houses) cannot, indicating that the specific stimuli have some specific mechanisms for the rapid N170 adaptation. PMID:25153749

  1. Sustained effects of adaptation on the perception of familiar faces.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a 2-alternative forced choice task. Veridicality aftereffects were found in a direction opposite to the adapting distortion; these effects generalized to other pictures of the same individual and also to pictures of celebrities that had not been shown during adaptation. The findings support hierarchical theories of norm-based face coding and suggest that face adaptation effects have a representational basis. They also point toward multiple timescales in the operation of adaptation mechanisms, thereby providing a link between high-level adaptation and more general aspects of neuro-cognitive plasticity, that is, learning and memory. PMID:20731521

  2. Effects of dopaminergic therapy on locomotor adaptation and adaptive learning in persons with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Roemmich, Ryan T.; Hack, Nawaz; Akbar, Umer; Hass, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are characterized by multifactorial gait deficits, though the factors which influence the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store new gait patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dopaminergic therapy on the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store gait parameters during split-belt treadmill (SBT) walking. Ten participants with idiopathic PD who were being treated with stable doses of orally-administered dopaminergic therapy participated. All participants performed two randomized testing sessions on separate days: once while optimally-medicated (ON meds) and once after 12-hour withdrawal from dopaminergic medication (OFF meds). During each session, locomotor adaptation was investigated as the participants walked on a SBT for ten minutes while the belts moved at a 2:1 speed ratio. We assessed locomotor adaptive learning by quantifying: 1) aftereffects during de-adaptation (once the belts returned to tied speeds immediately following SBT walking) and 2) savings during re-adaptation (as the participants repeated the same SBT walking task after washout of aftereffects following the initial SBT task). The withholding of dopaminergic medication diminished step length aftereffects significantly during de-adaptation. However, both locomotor adaptation and savings were unaffected by levodopa. These findings suggest that dopaminergic pathways influence aftereffect storage but do not influence locomotor adaptation or savings within a single session of SBT walking. It appears important that persons with PD should be optimally-medicated if walking on the SBT as gait rehabilitation. PMID:24698798

  3. Effects of dopaminergic therapy on locomotor adaptation and adaptive learning in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roemmich, Ryan T; Hack, Nawaz; Akbar, Umer; Hass, Chris J

    2014-07-15

    Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by multifactorial gait deficits, though the factors which influence the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store new gait patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dopaminergic therapy on the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store gait parameters during split-belt treadmill (SBT) walking. Ten participants with idiopathic PD who were being treated with stable doses of orally-administered dopaminergic therapy participated. All participants performed two randomized testing sessions on separate days: once while optimally-medicated (ON meds) and once after 12-h withdrawal from dopaminergic medication (OFF meds). During each session, locomotor adaptation was investigated as the participants walked on a SBT for 10 min while the belts moved at a 2:1 speed ratio. We assessed locomotor adaptive learning by quantifying: (1) aftereffects during de-adaptation (once the belts returned to tied speeds immediately following SBT walking) and (2) savings during re-adaptation (as the participants repeated the same SBT walking task after washout of aftereffects following the initial SBT task). The withholding of dopaminergic medication diminished step length aftereffects significantly during de-adaptation. However, both locomotor adaptation and savings were unaffected by levodopa. These findings suggest that dopaminergic pathways influence aftereffect storage but do not influence locomotor adaptation or savings within a single session of SBT walking. It appears important that persons with PD should be optimally-medicated if walking on the SBT as gait rehabilitation. PMID:24698798

  4. Factors influencing the effect size distribution of adaptive substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Christopher G.; Gould, Billie A.; Schemske, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of effect sizes of adaptive substitutions has been central to evolutionary biology since the modern synthesis. Early theory proposed that because large-effect mutations have negative pleiotropic consequences, only small-effect mutations contribute to adaptation. More recent theory suggested instead that large-effect mutations could be favoured when populations are far from their adaptive peak. Here we suggest that the distributions of effect sizes are expected to differ among study systems, reflecting the wide variation in evolutionary forces and ecological conditions experienced in nature. These include selection, mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and other factors such as the degree of pleiotropy, the distance to the phenotypic optimum, whether the optimum is stable or moving, and whether new mutation or standing genetic variation provides the source of adaptive alleles. Our goal is to review how these factors might affect the distribution of effect sizes and to identify new research directions. Until more theory and empirical work is available, we feel that it is premature to make broad generalizations about the effect size distribution of adaptive substitutions important in nature. PMID:27053750

  5. Spontaneous recovery of effects of contrast adaptation without awareness

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Gaoxing; Dong, Xue; Dong, Bo; Bao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to a high contrast stimulus reduces the neural sensitivity to subsequent similar patterns. Recent work has disclosed that contrast adaptation is controlled by multiple mechanisms operating over differing timescales. Adaptation to high contrast for a relatively longer period can be rapidly eliminated by adaptation to a lower contrast (or meanfield in the present study). Such rapid deadaptation presumably causes a short-term mechanism to signal for a sensitivity increase, canceling ongoing signals from long-term mechanisms. Once deadaptation ends, the short-term mechanism rapidly returns to baseline, and the slowly decaying effects in the long-term mechanisms reemerge, allowing the perceptual aftereffects to recover during continued testing. Although this spontaneous recovery effect is considered strong evidence supporting the multiple mechanisms theory, it remains controversial whether the effect is mainly driven by visual memory established during the initial longer-term adaptation period. To resolve this debate, we used a modified Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) and visual crowding paradigms to render the adapting stimuli invisible, but still observed the spontaneous recovery phenomenon. These results exclude the possibility that spontaneous recovery found in the previous work was merely the consequence of explicit visual memory. Our findings also demonstrate that contrast adaptation, even at the unconscious processing levels, is controlled by multiple mechanisms. PMID:26483723

  6. N170 adaptation effect for repeated faces and words.

    PubMed

    Cao, X; Ma, X; Qi, C

    2015-05-21

    Using ERP adaptation paradigms, studies have shown that the N170 adaptation effect is a stable phenomenon for both faces and words. However, the N170 adaptation effect for repeated identity remains unclear, so we have addressed this with two experiments. In Experiment 1, we investigated the face-related N170 repeated adaptation effect in a short interstimulus interval (ISI) and found that the N170 response elicited by faces was smaller when preceded by a same face adaptor than by another face adaptor. Experiment 2 addressed whether this repeated N170 adaptation effect generalizes to words. For the first time, the results indicated that the N170 response elicited by words was larger with a different word as an adaptor relative to the same word as an adaptor. Our results demonstrate that the face-related N170 response is sensitive to visual face features and extend the characteristics of N170 with the sensitivity to repeated items to other familiar objects of expertise (i.e. words). The results also suggest that there are some common characteristics between faces and words in the early perceptual processing. PMID:25772788

  7. Using narrative-based design scaffolds within a mobile learning environment to support learning outdoors with young children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Brian J.

    This study aims to advance learning outdoors with mobile devices. As part of the ongoing Tree Investigators design-based research study, this research investigated a mobile application to support observation, identification, and explanation of the tree life cycle within an authentic, outdoor setting. Recognizing the scientific and conceptual complexity of this topic for young children, the design incorporated technological and design scaffolds within a narrative-based learning environment. In an effort to support learning, 14 participants (aged 5-9) were guided through the mobile app on tree life cycles by a comic-strip pedagogical agent, "Nutty the Squirrel", as they looked to explore and understand through guided observational practices and artifact creation tasks. In comparison to previous iterations of this DBR study, the overall patterns of talk found in this study were similar, with perceptual and conceptual talk being the first and second most frequently coded categories, respectively. However, this study coded considerably more instances of affective talk. This finding of the higher frequency of affective talk could possibly be explained by the relatively younger age of this iteration's participants, in conjunction with the introduced pedagogical agent, who elicited playfulness and delight from the children. The results also indicated a significant improvement when comparing the pretest results (mean score of .86) with the posttest results (mean score of 4.07, out of 5). Learners were not only able to recall the phases of a tree life cycle, but list them in the correct order. The comparison reports a significant increase, showing evidence of increased knowledge and appropriation of scientific vocabulary. The finding suggests the narrative was effective in structuring the complex material into a story for sense making. Future research with narratives should consider a design to promote learner agency through more interactions with the pedagogical agent and a

  8. Effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring of automated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parasuraman, R.; Mouloua, M.; Molloy, R.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring for automation failure during multitask flight simulation were examined. Participants monitored an automated engine status task while simultaneously performing tracking and fuel management tasks over three 30-min sessions. Two methods of adaptive task allocation, both involving temporary return of the automated engine status task to the human operator ("human control"), were examined as a possible countermeasure to monitoring inefficiency. For the model-based adaptive group, the engine status task was allocated to all participants in the middle of the second session for 10 min, following which it was again returned to automation control. The same occurred for the performance-based adaptive group, but only if an individual participant's monitoring performance up to that point did not meet a specified criterion. For the nonadaptive control groups, the engine status task remained automated throughout the experiment. All groups had low probabilities of detection of automation failures for the first 40 min spent with automation. However, following the 10-min intervening period of human control, both adaptive groups detected significantly more automation failures during the subsequent blocks under automation control. The results show that adaptive task allocation can enhance monitoring of automated systems. Both model-based and performance-based allocation improved monitoring of automation. Implications for the design of automated systems are discussed.

  9. Adapting Strategies of Effective Instruction for Culturally Diverse Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Lois A.; Im, Seongah; Schonleber, Nanette S.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes collaboration between preschool and university educators focused on adapting the Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (CREDE) standards for Effective Pedagogy for use in early childhood (EC) settings. The CREDE standards are strategies of best practices for culturally diverse K-12 students. Teachers…

  10. Sequential congruency effects: disentangling priming and conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Puccioni, Olga; Vallesi, Antonino

    2012-09-01

    Responding to the color of a word is slower and less accurate if the word refers to a different color (incongruent condition) than if it refers to the same color (congruent condition). This phenomenon, known as the Stroop effect, is modulated by sequential effects: it is bigger when the current trial is preceded by a congruent condition than by an incongruent one in the previous trial. Whether this phenomenon is due to priming mechanisms or to cognitive control is still debated. To disentangle the contribution of priming with respect to conflict adaptation mechanisms in determining sequential effects, two experiments were designed here with a four-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) Stroop task: in the first one only trials with complete alternations of features were used, while in the second experiment all possible types of repetitions were presented. Both response times (RTs) and errors were evaluated. Conflict adaptation effects on RTs were limited to congruent trials and were exclusively due to priming: they disappeared in the priming-free experiment and, in the second experiment, they occurred in sequences with feature repetitions but not in complete alternation sequences. Error results, instead, support the presence of conflict adaptation effects in incongruent trials. In priming-free sequences (experiment 1 and complete alternation sequences of experiment 2) with incongruent previous trials there was no error Stroop effect, while this effect was significant with congruent previous trials. These results indicate that cognitive control may modulate performance above and beyond priming effects. PMID:21735040

  11. Adaptive wavefront sensor based on the Talbot effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podanchuk, Dmytro V.; Kurashov, Vitaliy N.; Kovalenko, Andrey V.; Dan'ko, Volodymyr P.; Kotov, Myhailo M.; Goloborodko, Nataliya S.

    2015-11-01

    The possibilities of wavefront curvature measuring by Talbot sensor are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A new method of wavefront aberrations measurement is proposed and demonstrated. It is based on the observation of the Talbot effect when the diffraction grating is adapted to the wavefront curvature of the analyzed wave. Herewith, the observation plane stay fixed and corresponds to the Talbot length for a plane wave. It is shown that the measurement range can be made several times wider, with the help of the adaptive Talbot sensor, by retaining the required angular sensitivity. A possibility of self-reproduction of the rectangular grating (with different periods along the axes) by the astigmatic wavefront is experimentally demonstrated. The possibility of the experimental realization of the adaptive Talbot sensor using the dynamic spatial light modulator is demonstrated.

  12. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  13. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p < .001) and ADHD (p < .001) on all VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population

  14. Effect of cooling procedure on final denture base adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ganzarolli, S M; Rached, R N; Garcia, R C M R; Del Bel Cury, A A

    2002-08-01

    Well-fitted dentures prevent hyperplasic lesions, provide chewing efficiency and promote patient's comfort. Several factors may affect final adaptation of dentures, as the type of the acrylic resin, the flask cooling procedure and the water uptake. This investigation evaluated the effect of water storage and two different cooling procedures [bench cooling (BC) for 2 h; running water (RW) at 20 degrees C for 45 min] on the final adaptation of denture bases. A heat-cured acrylic resin (CL, Clássico, Clássico Artigos Odontológicos) and two microwave-cured acrylic resins [Acron MC, (AC) GC Dent. Ind. Corp.; Onda Cryl (OC), Clássico Artigos Odontológicos] were used to make the bases. Adaptation was assessed by measuring the weight of an intervening layer of silicone impression material between the base and the master die. Data was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (0.05). The following means were found: (BC) CL=0.72 +/- 0.03 a; AC=0.70 +/- 0.03 b; OC=0.76 +/- 0.04 c//(RW) CL= 1.00 +/- 0.11 a; AC=1.00 +/- 0.12 a; OC=0.95 +/- 0.10 a. Different labels join groups that are not statistically different (P > 0.05). Comparisons are made among groups submitted to the same cooling procedure (BC or RW). The conclusions are: interaction of type of material and cooling procedure had a statistically significant effect on the final adaptation of the denture bases (P < 0.05); water storage was not detected as a source of variance (P > 0.05) on the final adaptation. PMID:12220348

  15. Effect of prism adaptation on thermoregulatory control in humans.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Elena; Gallace, Alberto; Moseley, G Lorimer; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The physiological regulation of skin temperature can be modulated not only by autonomic brain regions, but also by a network of higher-level cortical areas involved in the maintenance of a coherent representation of the body. In this study we assessed in healthy participants if the sensorimotor changes taking place during motor adaptation to the lateral displacement of the visual scene induced by wearing prismatic lenses (prism adaptation, PA), and the aftereffects, after prisms' removal, on the ability to process spatial coordinates, were associated with skin temperature regulation changes. We found a difference in thermoregulatory control as a function of the direction of the prism-induced displacement of the visual scene, and the subsequent sensorimotor adaptation. After PA to rightward displacing lenses, with leftward aftereffects (the same directional procedure efficaciously used for ameliorating left spatial neglect in right-brain-damaged patients) the hands' temperature decreased. Conversely, after adaptation to neutral lenses, and PA to leftward displacing lenses, with rightward aftereffects, the temperature of both hands increased. These results suggest a lateral asymmetry in the effects of PA on skin temperature regulation, and a relationship between body spatial representations and homeostatic control in humans. PMID:26354443

  16. Chromatic effects of the atmosphere on astronomical adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Nicholas; Goncharov, Alexander V; Dainty, J Christopher

    2008-03-10

    The atmosphere introduces chromatic errors that may limit the performance of adaptive optics (AO) systems on large telescopes. Various aspects of this problem have been considered in the literature over the past two decades. It is necessary to revisit this problem in order to examine the effect on currently planned systems, including very high-order AO on current 8-10 m class telescopes and on future 30-42 m extremely large telescopes. We review the literature on chromatic effects and combine an analysis of all effects in one place. We examine implications for AO and point out some effects that should be taken into account in the design of future systems. In particular we show that attention should be paid to chromatic pupil shifts, which may arise in components such as atmospheric dispersion compensators. PMID:18327278

  17. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information

  18. Effects of additional interfering signals on adaptive array performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Randolph L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of additional interference signals on the performance of a fully adaptive array are considered. The case where the number of interference signals exceeds the number of array degrees of freedom is addressed. It is shown how performance is affected as a function of the number of array elements, the number of interference signals, and the directivity of the array antennas. By using directive auxiliary elements, the performance of the array can be as good as the performance when the additional interference signals are not present.

  19. Face Adaptation Effects Show Strong and Long-Lasting Transfer from Lab to More Ecological Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A review on recent experiments on figural face aftereffects reveals that adaptation effects in famous faces can last for hours up to days. Such adaptations seem to be highly reliable regarding test–retest designs as well as regarding the generalizability of adaptation across different adaptation routines and adaptations toward different kinds of facial properties. However, in the studies conducted so far, adaptation and the subsequent test phase were carried out in typical laboratory environments. Under these circumstances, it cannot be ruled out that the observed effects are, in fact, episodic learn–test compatibility effects. To test for ecological validity in adaptation effects we used an adaptation paradigm including environmental and social properties that differed between adaptation and test phase. With matched samples (n1 = n2 = 54) we found no main effects of experimental setting compatibility resulting from varying where the tests where conducted (environmental condition) nor any interaction with effects of stimulus compatibility resulting from varying stimulus similarity between adaptation and test phase using the same picture, different pictures of the same person, or different persons (transfer). This indicates that these adaptation effects are not artificial or merely lab-biased effects. Adaptation to face stimuli may document representational adaptations and tuning mechanisms that integrate new visual input in a very fast, reliable, and sustainable way. PMID:22291676

  20. Psychological Adaptation to Extreme Environments: Effects of Team Composition on Individual Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J.; Hysong, S. J.; Lugg, D. J.; Harm, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing program of research examining the psychological effects of isolation and confinement on individual adaptation, productivity and group relations in Antarctic winter personnel. This environment is used as an analogue for long-duration space mission scenarios, such as a space station sojourn, or a mission to Mars. Earlier results from this and other environments have demonstrated that: (1) most changes in psychological well-being are event-related and of relatively short duration; and (2) the greatest problem facing most individuals is interpersonal conflict. Content analysis of responses to open-ended questions has identified the numerous enjoyable aspects of Antarctic living, and confirmed that many of the problems reported were interpersonal in nature, and that problems varied significantly by station. Current work is exploring the effects of team assignment on the self-reported psychological changes and self-evaluations of members of isolated teams. This work includes identifying the dimensions by which subjects determine how well they are functioning. These dimensions (e.g., work, social life, internal emotional state) appear to play an important role in how subjects evaluate many aspects of life in isolation.

  1. The Effects of Feedback in Computerized Adaptive and Self-Adapted Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Linda L.; And Others

    Computerized adaptive (CA) testing uses an algorithm to match examinee ability to item difficulty, while self-adapted (SA) testing allows the examinee to choose the difficulty of his or her items. Research comparing SA and CA testing has shown that examinees experience lower anxiety and improved performance with SA testing. All previous research…

  2. Effects of adaptive refinement on the inverse EEG solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, David M.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Schmidt, John A.

    1995-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems in electroencephalography can be characterized by an inverse problem. Given a subset of electrostatic potentials measured on the surface of the scalp and the geometry and conductivity properties within the head, calculate the current vectors and potential fields within the cerebrum. Mathematically the generalized EEG problem can be stated as solving Poisson's equation of electrical conduction for the primary current sources. The resulting problem is mathematically ill-posed i.e., the solution does not depend continuously on the data, such that small errors in the measurement of the voltages on the scalp can yield unbounded errors in the solution, and, for the general treatment of a solution of Poisson's equation, the solution is non-unique. However, if accurate solutions the general treatment of a solution of Poisson's equation, the solution is non-unique. However, if accurate solutions to such problems could be obtained, neurologists would gain noninvasive accesss to patient-specific cortical activity. Access to such data would ultimately increase the number of patients who could be effectively treated for pathological cortical conditions such as temporal lobe epilepsy. In this paper, we present the effects of spatial adaptive refinement on the inverse EEG problem and show that the use of adaptive methods allow for significantly better estimates of electric and potential fileds within the brain through an inverse procedure. To test these methods, we have constructed several finite element head models from magneteic resonance images of a patient. The finite element meshes ranged in size from 2724 nodes and 12,812 elements to 5224 nodes and 29,135 tetrahedral elements, depending on the level of discretization. We show that an adaptive meshing algorithm minimizes the error in the forward problem due to spatial discretization and thus increases the accuracy of the inverse solution.

  3. Mechanistic basis of adaptive maternal effects: egg jelly water balance mediates embryonic adaptation to acidity in Rana arvalis.

    PubMed

    Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stress, such as acidification, can challenge persistence of natural populations and act as a powerful evolutionary force at ecological time scales. The ecological and evolutionary responses of natural populations to environmental stress at early life-stages are often mediated via maternal effects. During early life-stages, maternal effects commonly arise from egg coats (the extracellular structures surrounding the embryo), but the role of egg coats has rarely been studied in the context of adaptation to environmental stress. Previous studies on the moor frog Rana arvalis found that the egg coat mediated adaptive divergence along an acidification gradient in embryonic acid stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these adaptive maternal effects remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of water balance and charge state (zeta potential) of egg jelly coats in embryonic adaptation to acid stress in three populations of R. arvalis. We found that acidic pH causes severe water loss in the egg jelly coat, but that jelly coats from an acid-adapted population retained more water than jelly coats from populations not adapted to acidity. Moreover, embryonic acid tolerance (survival at pH 4.0) correlated with both water loss and charge state of the jelly, indicating that negatively charged glycans influence jelly water balance and contribute to embryonic adaptation to acidity. These results indicate that egg coats can harbor extensive intra-specific variation, probably facilitated in part via strong selection on water balance and glycosylation status of egg jelly coats. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of environmental stress tolerance and adaptive maternal effects. PMID:25983113

  4. Effect of a care plan based on Roy adaptation model biological dimension on stroke patients’ physiologic adaptation level

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Maleki, Bibi; Shahriari, Mohsen; Chitsaz, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a stressful event with several functional, physical, psychological, social, and economic problems that affect individuals’ different living balances. With coping strategies, patients try to control these problems and return to their natural life. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a care plan based on Roy adaptation model biological dimension on stroke patients’ physiologic adaptation level. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial in which 50 patients, affected by brain stroke and being admitted in the neurology ward of Kashani and Alzahra hospitals, were randomly assigned to control and study groups in Isfahan in 2013. Roy adaptation model care plan was administered in biological dimension in the form of four sessions and phone call follow-ups for 1 month. The forms related to Roy adaptation model were completed before and after intervention in the two groups. Chi-square test and t-test were used to analyze the data through SPSS 18. Results: There was a significant difference in mean score of adaptation in physiological dimension in the study group after intervention (P < 0.001) compared to before intervention. Comparison of the mean scores of changes of adaptation in the patients affected by brain stroke in the study and control groups showed a significant increase in physiological dimension in the study group by 47.30 after intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of study showed that Roy adaptation model biological dimension care plan can result in an increase in adaptation in patients with stroke in physiological dimension. Nurses can use this model for increasing patients’ adaptation. PMID:25878708

  5. THE EFFECTS OF BRAIN LATERALIZATION ON MOTOR CONTROL AND ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Pratik K.; Haaland, Kathleen Y.; Sainburg, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Lateralization of mechanisms mediating functions such as language and perception is widely accepted as a fundamental feature of neural organization. Recent research has revealed that a similar organization exists for the control of motor actions, in that each brain hemisphere contributes unique control mechanisms to the movements of each arm. We now review current research that addresses the nature of the control mechanisms that are lateralized to each hemisphere and how they impact motor adaptation and learning. In general, the studies reviewed here suggest an enhanced role for the left hemisphere during adaptation, and the learning of new sequences and skills. We suggest that this specialization emerges from a left hemisphere specialization for predictive control – the ability to effectively plan and coordinate motor actions, possibly by optimizing certain cost functions. In contrast, right hemisphere circuits appear to be important for updating ongoing actions and stopping at a goal position, through modulation of sensorimotor stabilization mechanisms such as reflexes. We also propose that each brain hemisphere contributes its mechanism to the control of both arms. We conclude by examining the potential advantages of such a lateralized control system. PMID:23237468

  6. The effect of deleterious alleles on adaptation in asexual populations.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Toby; Barton, Nick H

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the fixation probability of a beneficial allele that arises as the result of a unique mutation in an asexual population that is subject to recurrent deleterious mutation at rate U. Our analysis is an extension of previous works, which make a biologically restrictive assumption that selection against deleterious alleles is stronger than that on the beneficial allele of interest. We show that when selection against deleterious alleles is weak, beneficial alleles that confer a selective advantage that is small relative to U have greatly reduced probabilities of fixation. We discuss the consequences of this effect for the distribution of effects of alleles fixed during adaptation. We show that a selective sweep will increase the fixation probabilities of other beneficial mutations arising during some short interval afterward. We use the calculated fixation probabilities to estimate the expected rate of fitness improvement in an asexual population when beneficial alleles arise continually at some low rate proportional to U. We estimate the rate of mutation that is optimal in the sense that it maximizes this rate of fitness improvement. Again, this analysis relaxes the assumption made previously that selection against deleterious alleles is stronger than on beneficial alleles. PMID:12242249

  7. Adapting to the Effects of Climate Change on Inuit Health

    PubMed Central

    Ford, James D.; Willox, Ashlee Cunsolo; Chatwood, Susan; Furgal, Christopher; Harper, Sherilee; Mauro, Ian; Pearce, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will have far-reaching implications for Inuit health. Focusing on adaptation offers a proactive approach for managing climate-related health risks—one that views Inuit populations as active agents in planning and responding at household, community, and regional levels. Adaptation can direct attention to the root causes of climate vulnerability and emphasize the importance of traditional knowledge regarding environmental change and adaptive strategies. An evidence base on adaptation options and processes for Inuit regions is currently lacking, however, thus constraining climate policy development. In this article, we tackled this deficit, drawing upon our understanding of the determinants of health vulnerability to climate change in Canada to propose key considerations for adaptation decision-making in an Inuit context. PMID:24754615

  8. "Because if We Don't Talk about It, How Are We Going to Prevent It?": "Lucidity," a Narrative-Based Digital Game about Sexual Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Jaworski, Erin; Hebert, Luciana E.; Lyman, Phoebe; Wilson, M. Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of an interactive, narrative-based, multimedia game to promote learning and communication about sexual violence and health topics. High school-aged participants created the game concept in a three-week workshop, after which assets were assembled and refined by a university-based game design lab.…

  9. Effects of Ordinary and Adaptive Toys on Pre-School Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Toys help children in mastering developmental tasks. This study investigated toy effect on children with developmental disabilities as they engage in using ordinary and adaptive toys. A single-subject design was used to identify the effects on their toy play abilities. Differences in toy effects between playing ordinary and adaptive toys were…

  10. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Kristin I.; Middelbeek, Roeland J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise training have long been known to cause adaptations to white adipose tissue (WAT), including decreases in cell size and lipid content and increases in mitochondrial proteins. In this article, we discuss recent studies that have investigated the effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function, the “beiging” of WAT, regulation of adipokines, metabolic effects of trained adipose tissue on systemic metabolism, and depot-specific responses to exercise training. The major WAT depots in the body are found in the visceral cavity (vWAT) and subcutaneously (scWAT). In rodent models, exercise training increases mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in both these adipose tissue depots. Exercise training also increases expression of the brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in both adipose tissue depots, although these effects are much more pronounced in scWAT. Consistent with the increase in UCP1, exercise training increases the presence of brown-like adipocytes in scWAT, also known as browning or beiging. Training results in changes in the gene expression of thousands of scWAT genes and an altered adipokine profile in both scWAT and vWAT. Transplantation of trained scWAT in sedentary recipient mice results in striking improvements in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Human and rodent exercise studies have indicated that exercise training can alter circulating adipokine concentration as well as adipokine expression in adipose tissue. Thus, the profound changes to WAT in response to exercise training may be part of the mechanism by which exercise improves whole-body metabolic health. PMID:26050668

  11. Neural Time Course of Conflict Adaptation Effects on the Stroop Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Michael J.; Kaufman, David A. S.; Perlstein, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive control theory suggests conflict effects are reduced following high- relative to low-conflict trials. Such reactive adjustments in control, frequently termed "conflict adaptation effects," indicate a dynamic interplay between regulative and evaluative components of cognitive control necessary for adaptable goal-directed behavior. The…

  12. The Effects of Predator Arrival Timing on Adaptive Radiation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Knope, M. L.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Much of Earth’s biodiversity is thought to have arisen by adaptive radiation, the rapid diversification of a single ancestral species to fill a wide-variety of ecological niches. Both theory and empirical evidence have long supported competition for limited resources as a primary driver of adaptive radiation. While predation has also been postulated to be an important selective force during radiation, empirical evidence is surprisingly scant and its role remains controversial. However, two recent empirical studies suggest that predation can promote divergence during adaptive radiation. Using an experimental laboratory microcosm system, we examined how predator arrival timing affects the rate and extent of diversification during adaptive radiation. We varied the introduction timing of a protozoan predator (Tetrahymena thermophila) into populations of the bacteria Pseudomonas flourescens, which is known for its ability to undergo rapid adaptive radiation in aqueous microcosms. While our results show that predator arrival timing may have a significant impact on the rate, but not extent, of diversification, these results are tenuous and should be interpreted with caution, as the protozoan predators died early in the majority of our treatments, hampering our ability for comparison across treatments. Additionally, the abundance of newly derived bacterial genotypes was markedly lower in all treatments than observed in previous experiments utilizing this microbial experimental evolution system. To address these shortcomings, we will be repeating the experiment in the near future to further explore the impact of predator arrival timing on adaptive radiation. Smooth Morph and small-Wrinkly Spreader Pseudomonas flourescens diversification in the 96 hour treatment. Day 10, diluted to 1e-5.

  13. Effects of face feature and contour crowding in facial expression adaptation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pan; Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Xu, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged exposure to a visual stimulus, such as a happy face, biases the perception of subsequently presented neutral face toward sad perception, the known face adaptation. Face adaptation is affected by visibility or awareness of the adapting face. However, whether it is affected by discriminability of the adapting face is largely unknown. In the current study, we used crowding to manipulate discriminability of the adapting face and test its effect on face adaptation. Instead of presenting flanking faces near the target face, we shortened the distance between facial features (internal feature crowding), and reduced the size of face contour (external contour crowding), to introduce crowding. We are interested in whether internal feature crowding or external contour crowding is more effective in inducing crowding effect in our first experiment. We found that combining internal feature and external contour crowding, but not either of them alone, induced significant crowding effect. In Experiment 2, we went on further to investigate its effect on adaptation. We found that both internal feature crowding and external contour crowding reduced its facial expression aftereffect (FEA) significantly. However, we did not find a significant correlation between discriminability of the adapting face and its FEA. Interestingly, we found a significant correlation between discriminabilities of the adapting and test faces. Experiment 3 found that the reduced adaptation aftereffect in combined crowding by the external face contour and the internal facial features cannot be decomposed into the effects from the face contour and facial features linearly. It thus suggested a nonlinear integration between facial features and face contour in face adaptation. PMID:25449164

  14. Effects of ordinary and adaptive toys on pre-school children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Toys help children in mastering developmental tasks. This study investigated toy effect on children with developmental disabilities as they engage in using ordinary and adaptive toys. A single-subject design was used to identify the effects on their toy play abilities. Differences in toy effects between playing ordinary and adaptive toys were examined. Three special education teachers chose ordinary toys and modified ordinary toys. Modified ordinary toys, i.e., adaptive toys, were designed according to the individual disabilities of participating children, treatment goals, and the toy types. Three children with developmental disabilities from pre-schools in Taiwan were enrolled. Appropriate participation of three pre-schoolers increased dramatically in playing adaptive toys during intervention phase. The toy effects demonstrate that when using adaptive toys, children with developmental disabilities may response better during toy play sessions. PMID:17936580

  15. Effective Classroom Adaptations for Students with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Penny R.; Dykes, Mary K.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for including students with visual impairments in general education settings. It explains categories of visual impairments and how students with visual impairments learn. Auditory learning and visual learning accommodations are addressed, and checklists for orientation and mobility adaptations, and for classroom…

  16. Effects of Crowding and Attention on High-Levels of Motion Processing and Motion Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Andrea; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The motion after-effect (MAE) persists in crowding conditions, i.e., when the adaptation direction cannot be reliably perceived. The MAE originating from complex moving patterns spreads into non-adapted sectors of a multi-sector adapting display (i.e., phantom MAE). In the present study we used global rotating patterns to measure the strength of the conventional and phantom MAEs in crowded and non-crowded conditions, and when attention was directed to the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted away from the adapting stimulus. The results show that: (i) the phantom MAE is weaker than the conventional MAE, for both non-crowded and crowded conditions, and when attention was focused on the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted from it, (ii) conventional and phantom MAEs in the crowded condition are weaker than in the non-crowded condition. Analysis conducted to assess the effect of crowding on high-level of motion adaptation suggests that crowding is likely to affect the awareness of the adapting stimulus rather than degrading its sensory representation, (iii) for high-level of motion processing the attentional manipulation does not affect the strength of either conventional or phantom MAEs, neither in the non-crowded nor in the crowded conditions. These results suggest that high-level MAEs do not depend on attention and that at high-level of motion adaptation the effects of crowding are not modulated by attention. PMID:25615577

  17. Exploring the Effects of Intercultural Learning on Cross-Cultural Adaptation in a Study Abroad Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yau

    2011-01-01

    This study targets Asian students studying abroad and explores the effects of intercultural learning on their cross-cultural adaptation by drawing upon a questionnaire survey. On the one hand, the results of this study find that under the influence of intercultural learning, students respond differently in their cross-cultural adaptation and no…

  18. Psychological Effects of Immediate Knowledge of Results and Adaptive Ability Testing. Research Report 76-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Weiss, David J.

    The effects of providing immediate knowledge of results (KR) and adaptive testing on test anxiety and test-taking motivation were investigated. Also studied was the accuracy of student perceptions of the difficulty of adaptive and conventional tests administered with or without immediate knowledge of results. Testees were 350 college students…

  19. Effectiveness of Adaptive Assessment versus Learner Control in a Multimedia Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Chang, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of adaptive assessment versus learner control in a multimedia learning system designed to help secondary students learn science. Unlike other systems, this paper presents a workflow of adaptive assessment following instructional materials that better align with learners' cognitive…

  20. Glomerular ultrastructure of the trout, Salmo gairdneri: effects of angiotensin II and adaptation to seawater.

    PubMed

    Gray, C J; Brown, J A

    1987-08-01

    The effect of angiotensin infusion on the glomerular ultrastructure of freshwater- and seawater-adapted rainbow trout. Salmo gairdneri, has been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Adaptation of trout to seawater resulted in epithelial podocyte flattening, primary process broadening and apparent loss of foot processes in almost all glomeruli, features which were uncommon in freshwater-adapted trout. Similar changes were induced by infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin, suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the modification of glomerular epithelial ultrastructure. Adaptation of trout to seawater also reduced glomerular diameter, but infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin did not mirror this effect. Infusion of angiotensin into seawater-adapted animals increased the overall thickness of glomerular basement membrane by increasing the lamina rara interna and lamina densa. This did not occur when freshwater-adapted fish were either infused with angiotensin or adapted to seawater. These findings suggest that other humoral systems are involved in the control of glomerular diameter and basement membrane thickness as part of an integrated response to increased environmental salinity. PMID:3621307

  1. Adaptive Protein Evolution in Animals and the Effective Population Size Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Galtier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which genomes adapt to environmental changes and the prevalence of adaptive processes in molecular evolution are two controversial issues in current evolutionary genetics. Previous attempts to quantify the genome-wide rate of adaptation through amino-acid substitution have revealed a surprising diversity of patterns, with some species (e.g. Drosophila) experiencing a very high adaptive rate, while other (e.g. humans) are dominated by nearly-neutral processes. It has been suggested that this discrepancy reflects between-species differences in effective population size. Published studies, however, were mainly focused on model organisms, and relied on disparate data sets and methodologies, so that an overview of the prevalence of adaptive protein evolution in nature is currently lacking. Here we extend existing estimators of the amino-acid adaptive rate by explicitly modelling the effect of favourable mutations on non-synonymous polymorphism patterns, and we apply these methods to a newly-built, homogeneous data set of 44 non-model animal species pairs. Data analysis uncovers a major contribution of adaptive evolution to the amino-acid substitution process across all major metazoan phyla—with the notable exception of humans and primates. The proportion of adaptive amino-acid substitution is found to be positively correlated to species effective population size. This relationship, however, appears to be primarily driven by a decreased rate of nearly-neutral amino-acid substitution because of more efficient purifying selection in large populations. Our results reveal that adaptive processes dominate the evolution of proteins in most animal species, but do not corroborate the hypothesis that adaptive substitutions accumulate at a faster rate in large populations. Implications regarding the factors influencing the rate of adaptive evolution and positive selection detection in humans vs. other organisms are discussed. PMID:26752180

  2. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    PubMed

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. PMID:24105926

  3. Towards feasible and effective predictive wavefront control for adaptive optics

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2008-06-04

    We have recently proposed Predictive Fourier Control, a computationally efficient and adaptive algorithm for predictive wavefront control that assumes frozen flow turbulence. We summarize refinements to the state-space model that allow operation with arbitrary computational delays and reduce the computational cost of solving for new control. We present initial atmospheric characterization using observations with Gemini North's Altair AO system. These observations, taken over 1 year, indicate that frozen flow is exists, contains substantial power, and is strongly detected 94% of the time.

  4. Effects of surround suppression on response adaptation of V1 neurons to visual stimuli

    PubMed Central

    LI, Peng; JIN, Cai-Hong; JIANG, San; LI, Miao-Miao; WANG, Zi-Lu; ZHU, Hui; CHEN, Cui-Yun; HUA, Tian-Miao

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intracortical inhibition on the response adaptation of visual cortical neurons remains in debate. To clarify this issue, in the present study the influence of surround suppression evoked through the local inhibitory interneurons on the adaptation effects of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) were observed. Moreover, the adaptations of V1 neurons to both the high-contrast visual stimuli presented in the classical receptive field (CRF) and to the costimulation presented in the CRF and the surrounding nonclassical receptive field (nCRF) were compared. The intensities of surround suppression were modulated with different sized grating stimuli. The results showed that the response adaptation of V1 neurons decreased significantly with the increase of surround suppression and this adaptation decrease was due to the reduction of the initial response of V1 neurons to visual stimuli. However, the plateau response during adaptation showed no significant changes. These findings indicate that the adaptation effects of V1 neurons may not be directly affected by surround suppression, but may be dynamically regulated by a negative feedback network and be finely adjusted by its initial spiking response to stimulus. This adaptive regulation is not only energy efficient for the central nervous system, but also beneficially acts to maintain the homeostasis of neuronal response to long-presenting visual signals. PMID:25297081

  5. Faraday-effect light-valve arrays for adaptive optical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Hirleman, E.D.; Dellenback, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to adapt to a range of measurement conditions by autonomously configuring software or hardware on-line will be an important attribute of next-generation intelligent sensors. This paper reviews the characteristics of spatial light modulators (SLM) with an emphasis on potential integration into adaptive optical instruments. The paper focuses on one type of SLM, a magneto-optic device based on the Faraday effect. Finally, the integration of the Faraday-effect SLM into a laser-diffraction particle-sizing instrument giving it some ability to adapt to the measurement context is discussed.

  6. [Effects of chronic irradiation on the adaptive potential of plants].

    PubMed

    Gushcha, N A; Perkovskaia, G Iu; Dmitriev, A P; Grodzinskiĭ, D M

    2002-01-01

    The content of anthocianins was determined in Oenothera biennis plants, grown from seeds, picked on the plots with different levels of radionuclide contamination in the 30-km Chernobyl zone. It was shown that the content of anthocianins was higher in plants from Yanov area (20-40 mR/h) than in plants from Chernobyl area (0.04 mR/h). An acute gamma-irradiation of seeds with a dose of 5-100 Gy or UV-irradiation of plants resulted in increasing of anthocianin content which was higher in plants grown from the seeds picked on plots with a low level of radionuclide contamination. The data obtained suggest that chronic irradiation of O. biennis populations induces accumulation of anthocianins. Apparently the adaptivity potential has been more completely realised in plants on the plots with a higher level of radionuclide contamination. The populations which were formed in the absence or at the low level of radionuclide contamination, on the contrary, have a significant adaptivity potential and, accordingly, higher radioresistance. PMID:12004610

  7. Effects of adaptive dynamical linking in networked games.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhihu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2013-10-01

    The role of dynamical topologies in the evolution of cooperation has received considerable attention, as some studies have demonstrated that dynamical networks are much better than static networks in terms of boosting cooperation. Here we study a dynamical model of evolution of cooperation on stochastic dynamical networks in which there are no permanent partners to each agent. Whenever a new link is created, its duration is randomly assigned without any bias or preference. We allow the agent to adaptively adjust the duration of each link during the evolution in accordance with the feedback from game interactions. By Monte Carlo simulations, we find that cooperation can be remarkably promoted by this adaptive dynamical linking mechanism both for the game of pairwise interactions, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG), and for the game of group interactions, illustrated by the public goods game (PGG). And the faster the adjusting rate, the more successful the evolution of cooperation. We also show that in this context weak selection favors cooperation much more than strong selection does. What is particularly meaningful is that the prosperity of cooperation in this study indicates that the rationality and selfishness of a single agent in adjusting social ties can lead to the progress of altruism of the whole population. PMID:24229137

  8. Effects of adaptive dynamical linking in networked games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2013-10-01

    The role of dynamical topologies in the evolution of cooperation has received considerable attention, as some studies have demonstrated that dynamical networks are much better than static networks in terms of boosting cooperation. Here we study a dynamical model of evolution of cooperation on stochastic dynamical networks in which there are no permanent partners to each agent. Whenever a new link is created, its duration is randomly assigned without any bias or preference. We allow the agent to adaptively adjust the duration of each link during the evolution in accordance with the feedback from game interactions. By Monte Carlo simulations, we find that cooperation can be remarkably promoted by this adaptive dynamical linking mechanism both for the game of pairwise interactions, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG), and for the game of group interactions, illustrated by the public goods game (PGG). And the faster the adjusting rate, the more successful the evolution of cooperation. We also show that in this context weak selection favors cooperation much more than strong selection does. What is particularly meaningful is that the prosperity of cooperation in this study indicates that the rationality and selfishness of a single agent in adjusting social ties can lead to the progress of altruism of the whole population.

  9. Effects of adaptation of vestibulo-ocular reflex function on manual target localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Merkle, L. A.; Barry, S. R.; Huebner, W. P.; Cohen, H. S.; Mueller, S. A.; Fordice, J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if adaptive modulation of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function is associated with commensurate alterations in manual target localization. To measure the effects of adapted VOR on manual responses we developed the Vestibular-Contingent Pointing Test (VCP). In the VCP test, subjects pointed to a remembered target following passive whole body rotation in the dark. In the first experiment, subjects performed VCP before and after wearing 0.5X minifying lenses that adaptively attenuate horizontal VOR gain. Results showed that adaptive reduction in horizontal VOR gain was accompanied by a commensurate change in VCP performance. In the second experiment, bilaterally labyrinthine deficient (LD) subjects were tested to confirm that vestibular cues were central to the spatial coding of both eye and hand movements during VCP. LD subjects performed significantly worse than normal subjects. These results demonstrate that adaptive change in VOR can lead to alterations in manual target localization.

  10. Measurement of dark adapted foveal contrast sensitivity: effect of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Yossi; Belkin, Michael; Yehezkel, Oren; Rosner, Mordechai; Polat, Uri

    2005-04-01

    Contrast sensitivity function (CSF) measures the overall sensitivity of the visual system from the retina to the visual cortex. There are numerous diseases, clinical and physiological conditions as well as aging processes that can influence the CSF. METHODS: The 22 subjects (8 male and 14 females) ranging in age from 19 to 75 years that participated in the study were divided into two groups - below and above 50 years of age. The older patients were all pseudophakic. All subjects underwent complete eye examination and were refracted and corrected for the trial's working distance of 1.5 meter. Scotopic CSF was tested monocularly after 3 minutes of dark adaptation by a computerized method using Gabor patches as targets with spatial frequencies between 1.5-6 cycles per degree (cpd). The test was conducted in a completely darkened room, with the monitor covered with neutral density filters having a luminance of 0.35 cd/m2. RESULTS: The mean CSF for the older age group was 11.6, 10.3, 5.5, 2.9 for 1.5, 2.25, 3, 6 cpd respectively while the mean CSF for the younger age was 20.7, 9.8, 3.8, for the frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6 cpd respectively. Univariant analysis had found the association between CSF and both age group and spatial frequencies to be statistically significant (p=0.027, p<0.001 for age group and spatial frequency, respectively). A fair negative correlation between age and the dark-adapted contrast sensitivity was calculated (correlation coefficient=-0.35, p=0.004, adjusted for spatial frequency). CONCLUSION: CSF under nearly scotopic conditions declines with age, a decline that can only partially explained by preneuronal factors. In both age groups the CSF declines with increasing spatial frequency. In most of the older subjects the 6 cpd Gabor patches were too difficult to detect. This selective CSF loss may reflect either reduction in cone spacing, or decreased efficiency of neural processing from the fovea to the cortex. The fact that the younger subjects are

  11. Accounting for sequential trial effects in the flanker task: conflict adaptation or associative priming?

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Stins, John F; Posthuma, Danielle; Polderman, Tinca J C; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J

    2006-09-01

    The conflict-control loop theory proposes that the detection of conflict in information processing triggers an increase in cognitive control, resulting in improved performance on the subsequent trial. This theory seems consistent with the robust finding that conflict susceptibility is reduced following correct trials associated with high conflict: the conflict adaptation effect. However, despite providing favorable conditions for eliciting and detecting conflict-triggered performance adjustments, none of the five experiments reported here provide unequivocal evidence of such adjustments. Instead, the results corroborate and extend earlier findings by demonstrating that the conflict adaptation effect, at least in the flanker task, is only present for a specific subset of trial sequences that is characterized by a response repetition. This pattern of results provides strong evidence that the conflict adaptation effect reflects associative stimulus-response priming instead of conflict-driven adaptations in cognitive control. PMID:17225507

  12. Adaptive Multi-Rate Compression Effects on Vowel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, David; Knuepffer, Christina; McBride, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Signal processing on digitally sampled vowel sounds for the detection of pathological voices has been firmly established. This work examines compression artifacts on vowel speech samples that have been compressed using the adaptive multi-rate codec at various bit-rates. Whereas previous work has used the sensitivity of machine learning algorithm to test for accuracy, this work examines the changes in the extracted speech features themselves and thus report new findings on the usefulness of a particular feature. We believe this work will have potential impact for future research on remote monitoring as the identification and exclusion of an ill-defined speech feature that has been hitherto used, will ultimately increase the robustness of the system. PMID:26347863

  13. The combined effects of action observation and passive proprioceptive training on adaptive motor learning.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuming; Bao, Shancheng; Wang, Jinsung

    2016-09-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation can be induced by action observation, and also by passive training. Here, we investigated the effect of a protocol that combined action observation and passive training on visuomotor adaptation, by comparing it with the effect of action observation or passive training alone. Subjects were divided into five conditions during the training session: (1) action observation, in which the subjects watched a video of a model who adapted to a novel visuomotor rotation; (2) proprioceptive training, in which the subject's arm was moved passively to target locations that were associated with desired trajectories; (3) combined training, in which the subjects watched the video of a model during a half of the session and experienced passive movements during the other half; (4) active training, in which the subjects adapted actively to the rotation; and (5) a control condition, in which the subjects did not perform any task. Following that session, all subjects adapted to the same visuomotor rotation. Results showed that the subjects in the combined training condition adapted to the rotation significantly better than those in the observation or proprioceptive training condition, although their performance was not as good as that of those who adapted actively. These findings suggest that although a protocol that combines action observation and passive training consists of all the processes involved in active training (error detection and correction, effector-specific and proprioceptively based reaching movements), these processes in that protocol may work differently as compared to a protocol in which the same processes are engaged actively. PMID:27298007

  14. The Effects of Sociodrama on the Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors of Elementary School Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven Harvey

    The effects of sociodrama on the adaptive and maladaptive behaviors of elementary school boys were examined in three groups of six boys each. One group was used as a control for the Hawthorne effect; the second, as a control for teacher expectation effects and for changes as a function of involvement with a male counselor. In the experimental…

  15. Stable Epigenetic Effects Impact Adaptation in Allopolyploid Orchids (Dactylorhiza: Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Paun, Ovidiu; Bateman, Richard M.; Fay, Michael F.; Hedrén, Mikael; Civeyrel, Laure; Chase, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic information includes heritable signals that modulate gene expression but are not encoded in the primary nucleotide sequence. We have studied natural epigenetic variation in three allotetraploid sibling orchid species (Dactylorhiza majalis s.str, D. traunsteineri s.l., and D. ebudensis) that differ radically in geography/ecology. The epigenetic variation released by genome doubling has been restructured in species-specific patterns that reflect their recent evolutionary history and have an impact on their ecology and evolution, hundreds of generations after their formation. Using two contrasting approaches that yielded largely congruent results, epigenome scans pinpointed epiloci under divergent selection that correlate with eco-environmental variables, mainly related to water availability and temperature. The stable epigenetic divergence in this group is largely responsible for persistent ecological differences, which then set the stage for species-specific genetic patterns to accumulate in response to further selection and/or drift. Our results strongly suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a complementary epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand population processes that drive phenotypic evolution and adaptation. PMID:20551043

  16. Bilateral adaptive deep brain stimulation is effective in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, Simon; Beudel, Martijn; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan; Neal, Spencer; Cheeran, Binith; Cagnan, Hayriye; Gratwicke, James; Aziz, Tipu Z; Pogosyan, Alex; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction & objectives Adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) uses feedback from brain signals to guide stimulation. A recent acute trial of unilateral aDBS showed that aDBS can lead to substantial improvements in contralateral hemibody Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores and may be superior to conventional continuous DBS in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We test whether potential benefits are retained with bilateral aDBS and in the face of concurrent medication. Methods We applied bilateral aDBS in 4 patients with PD undergoing DBS of the subthalamic nucleus. aDBS was delivered bilaterally with independent triggering of stimulation according to the amplitude of β activity at the corresponding electrode. Mean stimulation voltage was 3.0±0.1 volts. Motor assessments consisted of double-blinded video-taped motor UPDRS scores that included both limb and axial features. Results UPDRS scores were 43% (p=0.04; Cohen’s d=1.62) better with aDBS than without stimulation. Motor improvement with aDBS occurred despite an average time on stimulation (ToS) of only 45%. Levodopa was well tolerated during aDBS and led to further reductions in ToS. Conclusion Bilateral aDBS can improve both axial and limb symptoms and can track the need for stimulation across drug states. PMID:26424898

  17. Electrophysiological correlates related to the conflict adaptation effect in an emotional conflict task.

    PubMed

    Xue, Song; Ren, Guofang; Kong, Xia; Liu, Jia; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have provided some evidence of the neural basis of the emotional conflict adaptation effect. However, the neural time-course is largely unknown. Therefore, a face-word Stroop task was used in the present study to explore the neural dynamics of the emotional conflict control effect, using event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data showed a robust emotional conflict adaptation effect, and there was an interaction between previous trials and current trials for RT. There were two ERP components (N450 and conflict SP) that might be related to trial congruency. The N450 results showed both a main effect of current trial congruency and an interaction between previous trials and current trials, which might be related to successful conflict adaptation. The SP results only showed the main effect of current trial congruency, which might be associated with post-response monitoring. PMID:25459295

  18. Process- and controller-adaptations determine the physiological effects of cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Werner, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    Experimental results on physiological effects of cold adaptation seem confusing and apparently incompatible with one another. This paper will explain that a substantial part of such a variety of results may be deduced from a common functional concept. A core/shell treatment ("model") of the thermoregulatory system is used with mean body temperature as the controlled variable. Adaptation, as a higher control level, is introduced into the system. Due to persistent stressors, either the (heat transfer) process or the controller properties (parameters) are adjusted (or both). It is convenient to call the one "process adaptation" and the other "controller adaptation". The most commonly demonstrated effect of autonomic cold acclimation is a change in the controller threshold. The analysis shows that this necessarily means a lowering of body temperature because of a lowered metabolic rate. This explains experimental results on both Europeans in the climatic chamber and Australian Aborigines in a natural environment. Exclusive autonomic process adaptation occurs in the form of a better insulation. The analysis explains why the post-adaptive steady-state can only be achieved, if the controller system reduces metabolism and why in spite of this the new state is inevitably characterized by a rise in body temperature. If both process and controller adaptations are simultaneously present, there may be not any change of body temperature at all, e.g., as demonstrated in animal experiments. Whether this kind of adaptation delivers a decrease, an increase or no change of mean body temperature, depends on the proportion of process and controller adaptation. PMID:18026979

  19. Identity-specific face adaptation effects: evidence for abstractive face representations.

    PubMed

    Hole, Graham

    2011-05-01

    The effects of selective adaptation on familiar face perception were examined. After prolonged exposure to photographs of a celebrity, participants saw a series of ambiguous morphs that were varying mixtures between the face of that person and a different celebrity. Participants judged fewer of the morphs to resemble the celebrity to which they had been adapted, implying that they were now less sensitive to that particular face. Similar results were obtained when the adapting faces were highly dissimilar in viewpoint to the test morphs; when they were presented upside-down; or when they were vertically stretched to three times their normal height. These effects rule out explanations of adaptation effects solely in terms of low-level image-based adaptation. Instead they are consistent with the idea that relatively viewpoint-independent, person-specific adaptation occurred, at the level of either the "Face Recognition Units" or "Person Identity Nodes" in Burton, Bruce and Johnston's (1990) model of face recognition. PMID:21316651

  20. Helping fluid teams work: A research agenda for effective team adaptation in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, Wendy L; Ramsay, P Scott; Salas, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Although membership changes within teams are a common practice, research into this phenomenon is relatively nascent (Summers et al.; Acad Manag J 55:314-338, 2012). The small literature base, however, does provide insight into skills required for effective adaptation. The purpose of this effort is to provide a brief research synopsis, leading to research hypotheses about medical team training. By generalizing previous scientific findings regarding skills required for effective membership adaptation in different kinds of teams, we posit mechanisms whereby teamwork training might also support adaptation among medical teams (Burke et al.; Qual & Saf Health Care 13:i96-i104, 2004 and Salas et al.; Theor Issues Ergon Sci 8:381-394, 2007). We provide an overview of the membership change literature. Drawing upon literature from both within and outside of the medical domain, we suggest a framework and research propositions to aid in research efforts designed to determine the best content for helping to create adaptable medical teams through team training efforts. For effective adaptation, we suggest ad hoc teams should be trained on generalizable teamwork skills, to share just "enough" and the "right" information, to engage in shared leadership, and to shift from explicit to implicit coordination. Our overarching goal was to present what is known from the general research literature on successful team adaptation to membership changes, and to propose a research agenda to evaluate whether findings generalize to member changes in medical teams. PMID:24073150

  1. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress. PMID:25816622

  2. The effect of adaptive mutagenesis on genetic variation at a linked, neutral locus

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, C.; Williams, S.M.

    1995-07-01

    Based on recent studies in single-celled organisms, it has been argued that a fitness benefit associated with a mutation will increase the probability of that mutation occurring. This increase is independent of mutation rates at other loci and is called adaptive mutagenesis. We modeled the effect of adaptive mutagenesis on populations of haploid organisms with adaptive mutation rates ranging from 0 to 1 x 10{sup -5}. Allele frequencies at the selected locus and a neutral linked locus were tracked. We also observed the amount of linkage disequilibrium during the selective sweep and the final heterozygosity after the sweep. The presence of adaptive mutagenesis increases the number of genetic backgrounds carrying the new fitter allele, making the outcomes more representative of the population before the selection. Therefore, more neutral genetic variation is preserved in simulations with adaptive mutagenesis than in those without it due to hitchhiking. Since adaptive mutagensis is time-dependent, it can generate mutants when other mechanisms of mutation cannot. In addition, adaptive mutagenesis has the potential to confound both phylogeny construction and the detection of natural selection from patterns of nucleotide variation. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Effect of acid adaptation on the environmental stress tolerance of three strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Wu, Chieh; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2014-04-01

    Three strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (690, BCRC 13023, and BCRC 13025), involved in foodborne outbreaks in Taiwan, were subjected to acid adaptation at pH 5.5 for 90 min. The effects of acid adaptation on the tolerance of V. parahaemolyticus to various environmental stresses, including heat (47°C), cold (4°C and -20°C), ethanol (8%), high salt (20% NaCl), and hydrogen peroxide (20 ppm) were examined. Results showed that acid adaptation increased the thermal tolerance of the three test strains of V. parahaemolyticus, while it did not affect their cold tolerance. Acid adaptation also increased the ethanol tolerance in V. parahaemolyticus 690 and BCRC 13025, but not in BCRC 13023. Differences in the tolerance to high salts were noted among the three strains after prior acid adaptation. However, these acid-adapted V. parahaemolyticus strains were more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide than their nonadapted controls. These findings demonstrated that acid adaption responses of V. parahaemolyticus varied among strains and types of stress challenge. PMID:24410096

  4. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    PubMed

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Proulx, Stephen R; Teotónio, Henrique

    2016-02-01

    All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging), are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to adaptation than

  5. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Proulx, Stephen R.; Teotónio, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging), are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia–anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia–anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to adaptation than

  6. The Effect of Adaptation on the Tuning Curves of Rat Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Parto Dezfouli, Mohsen; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Repeated stimulus causes a specific suppression of neuronal responses, which is so-called as Stimulus-Specific Adaptation (SSA). This effect can be recovered when the stimulus changes. In the auditory system SSA is a well-known phenomenon that appears at different levels of the mammalian auditory pathway. In this study, we explored the effects of adaptation to a particular stimulus on the auditory tuning curves of anesthetized rats. We used two sequences and compared the responses of each tone combination in these two conditions. First sequence consists of different pure tone combinations that were presented randomly. In the second one, the same stimuli of the first sequence were presented in the context of an adapted stimulus (adapter) that occupied 80% of sequence probability. The population results demonstrated that the adaptation factor decreased the frequency response area and made a change in the tuning curve to shift it unevenly toward the higher thresholds of tones. The local field potentials and multi-unit activity responses have indicated that the neural activities strength of the adapted frequency has been suppressed as well as with lower suppression in neighboring frequencies. This aforementioned reduction changed the characteristic frequency of the tuning curve. PMID:25719404

  7. Temperature-Mediated Effects of Host Alternation on the Adaptation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Huiyan; Gao, Huanhuan; Hu, Zuqing; Hu, Xiangshun

    2015-04-01

    Local adaptation, an important phenomenon in ecological speciation, occurs in Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with the tobacco-adapted line proposed as a subspecies. Recent studies showed that temperature could alter the selection strength and direction in host-herbivore interactions. To understand the formation of host-adapted speciation and the effects of temperature on host adaptation, the parthenogenetic progeny of an M. persicae egg were conditioned on two hosts for >10 generations. Then, their life table parameters were studied after reciprocal transfer under a temperature gradient. The results showed that aphids habituated on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) had different optimal temperatures, including different upper thresholds of development and reproduction on original and alternative hosts. After habituation for >10 generations, local adaptation of aphids on the host of origin was formed, which was observed as the better performance of the native aphids compared with the foreign ones. The M. persicae that habituated on rape appeared more generalized to the host plants than the aphids that habituated on tobacco. The adaptation patterns of green peach aphids on two hosts varied differentially according to temperature, which verified the temperature-mediated effects of host selection on herbivores, implying the presence of a demographic basis of aphid seasonal migration. PMID:26313192

  8. Effects of Class Size and Adaptive Teaching Competency on Classroom Processes and Academic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhwiler, Christian; Blatchford, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In many studies of class size effects, teacher characteristics are missing, even though many argue it is not class size that is important but teacher quality. In the present study teachers' effectiveness on the learning progress was assessed while teaching a unit with predefined learning objectives. To measure adaptive teaching competency a…

  9. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  10. Adaptive memory: animacy effects persist in paired-associate learning.

    PubMed

    VanArsdall, Joshua E; Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Cogdill, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that animate stimuli are remembered better than matched inanimate stimuli. Two experiments tested whether this animacy effect persists in paired-associate learning of foreign words. Experiment 1 randomly paired Swahili words with matched animate and inanimate English words. Participants were told simply to learn the English "translations" for a later test. Replicating earlier findings using free recall, a strong animacy advantage was found in this cued-recall task. Concerned that the effect might be due to enhanced accessibility of the individual responses (e.g., animates represent a more accessible category), Experiment 2 selected animate and inanimate English words from two more constrained categories (four-legged animals and furniture). Once again, an advantage was found for pairs using animate targets. These results argue against organisational accounts of the animacy effect and potentially have implications for foreign language vocabulary learning. PMID:24813366

  11. Sustained Effects of Adaptation on the Perception of Familiar Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Figural aftereffects are commonly believed to be transient and to fade away in the course of milliseconds. We tested face aftereffects using familiar faces and found sustained effects lasting up to 1 week. In 3 experiments, participants were first exposed to distorted pictures of famous persons and then had to select the veridical face in a…

  12. Adaptations of School Effectiveness Research to Practice: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J.

    This case study of a Colorado school district sought to assess the process and outcomes of administrative leadership in implementing school effectiveness research on time-on-task classroom strategies. The study examines the interrelationship of conditions bearing upon the change effort and focuses on those changes affecting the district's…

  13. Motor adaptation with passive machines: a first study on the effect of real and virtual stiffness.

    PubMed

    Tommasino, P; Melendez-Calderon, A; Burdet, E; Campolo, D

    2014-09-01

    Motor adaptation to novel force fields is considered as a key mechanism not only for the understanding of skills learning in healthy subjects but also for rehabilitation of neurological subjects. Several studies conducted over the last two decades used active robotic manipulanda to generate force fields capable of perturbing the baseline trajectories of both healthy and impaired subjects. Recent studies showed how motor adaptation to novel force fields can be induced also via virtual environments, whereas the effects of the force are projected onto a virtual hand, while the real hand remains constrained within a channel. This has great potentials of being translated into passive devices, rather than robotic ones, with clear benefits in terms of costs and availability of the devices. However, passive devices and virtual environments have received much less attention at least with regard to motor adaptation. This paper investigates the effects of both the real and virtual stiffness on motor adaptation. In particular, we tested 20 healthy subjects under two different real stiffness conditions (Stiff Channel vs Compliant Channel) and two different virtual conditions (Viscous vs Springy). Our main finding is that compliance of the channel favours a better adaptation featured with less lateral errors and longer retention of the after-effect. We posit that the physical compliance of the channel induces a proprioceptive feedback which is otherwise absent in a stiff condition. PMID:24508211

  14. Effect of certain psychopharmacological preparations on adaptation under stress conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanishevskaya, A. V.; Mezentseva, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments staged on rats demonstrated that the formation of pathological states caused by stress and accompanied by the development of ulcerative lesion of the gastric mucosa are associated with the degree of the catecholamines level drop in the mesencephalon and hypothalamus. The application of seduxen and also of combinations consisting of L-DOPA with seduxen, or with an L-adrenoblocking agent pyroxan tends to reduce the frequency of developing alcerative lesions of the stomach. The protective effect produced by the combination of L-DOPA with an L-adrenoblocking agent pyroxan is barred by an additional administration of an B-adrenoblocking agent, inderal.

  15. Homo Heuristicus: Less-is-More Effects in Adaptive Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Brighton, Henry; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes that ignore information. In contrast to the widely held view that less processing reduces accuracy, the study of heuristics shows that less information, computation, and time can in fact improve accuracy. We discuss some of the major progress made so far, focusing on the discovery of less-is-more effects and the study of the ecological rationality of heuristics which examines in which environments a given strategy succeeds or fails, and why. Homo heuristicus has a biased mind and ignores part of the available information, yet a biased mind can handle uncertainty more efficiently and robustly than an unbiased mind relying on more resource-intensive and general-purpose processing strategies. PMID:23613644

  16. Adaptive rewiring aggravates the effects of species loss in ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, David; Curtsdotter, Alva; Ebenman, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Loss of one species in an ecosystem can trigger extinctions of other dependent species. For instance, specialist predators will go extinct following the loss of their only prey unless they can change their diet. It has therefore been suggested that an ability of consumers to rewire to novel prey should mitigate the consequences of species loss by reducing the risk of cascading extinction. Using a new modelling approach on natural and computer-generated food webs we find that, on the contrary, rewiring often aggravates the effects of species loss. This is because rewiring can lead to overexploitation of resources, which eventually causes extinction cascades. Such a scenario is particularly likely if prey species cannot escape predation when rare and if predators are efficient in exploiting novel prey. Indeed, rewiring is a two-edged sword; it might be advantageous for individual predators in the short term, yet harmful for long-term system persistence. PMID:26400367

  17. An Exploratory Investigation into the Effects of Adaptation in Child-Robot Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Tamie; Michaud, François; Létourneau, Dominic

    The work presented in this paper describes an exploratory investigation into the potential effects of a robot exhibiting an adaptive behaviour in reaction to a child’s interaction. In our laboratory we develop robotic devices for a diverse range of children that differ in age, gender and ability, which includes children that are diagnosed with cognitive difficulties. As all children vary in their personalities and styles of interaction, it would follow that adaptation could bring many benefits. In this abstract we give our initial examination of a series of trials which explore the effects of a fully autonomous rolling robot exhibiting adaptation (through changes in motion and sound) compared to it exhibiting pre-programmed behaviours. We investigate sensor readings on-board the robot that record the level of ‘interaction’ that the robot receives when a child plays with it and also we discuss the results from analysing video footage looking at the social aspect of the trial.

  18. [The role of preventing nitric oxide deficiency in the antihypertensive effect of adaptation to hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Mashina, S Iu; Smirin, B V; Pokidyshev, D A; Malyshev, I Iu; Liamina, N P; Senchikin, V N; Markov, Kh M; Manukhin, E B

    2001-01-01

    Shortage of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) manifested as decreased daily urinary excretion of nitrate and nitrite as well as attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxation of conduit and resistance vessels progresses with age-related increase of blood pressure (BP) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Simultaneous NO-dependent suppression of vascular contractions is, apparently, due to the inducible NO synthase activity in vascular smooth muscle specific for spontaneously hypertensive rat. Adaptation of rats to hypobaric hypoxia initiated at early hypertensive stage (at the age of 5-6 weeks) decelerates hypertension progress. The antihypertensive effect of the adaptation was accompanied by stimulation of endothelial NO synthesis and prevention of impaired NO-dependent response in isolated blood vessels. Nitric oxide stores were formed in the vascular wall of SHRSP and WKY rats at the same time. The obtained data indicate a significant role of correction of endothelial NO deficiency in the antihypertensive effect of adaptation to hypoxia. PMID:15926321

  19. Musculoskeletal adaptations to weightlessness and development of effective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; White, T. P.; Arnaud, S. B.; Edgerton, V. R.; Kraemer, W. J.; Kram, R.; Raab-Cullen, D.; Snow, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    A Research Roundtable, organized by the American College of Sports Medicine with sponsorship from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, met in November 1995 to define research strategies for effective exercise countermeasures to weightlessness. Exercise was considered both independently of, and in conjunction with, other therapeutic modalities (e.g., pharmacological nutritional, hormonal, and growth-related factors) that could prevent or minimize the structural and functional deficits involving skeletal muscle and bone in response to chronic exposure to weightlessness, as well as return to Earth baseline function if a degree of loss is inevitable. Musculoskeletal deficits and countermeasures are described with respect to: 1) muscle and connective tissue atrophy and localized bone loss, 2) reductions in motor performance, 3) potential proneness to injury of hard and soft tissues, and 4) probable interaction between muscle atrophy and cardiovascular alterations that contribute to the postural hypotension observed immediately upon return from space flight. In spite of a variety of countermeasure protocols utilized previously involving largely endurance types of exercise, there is presently no activity-specific countermeasure(s) that adequately prevent or reduce musculoskeletal deficiencies. It seems apparent that countermeasure exercises that have a greater resistance element, as compared to endurance activities, may prove beneficial to the musculoskeletal system. Many questions remain for scientific investigation to identify efficacious countermeasure protocols, which will be imperative with the emerging era of long-term space flight.

  20. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  1. Identity-Specific Face Adaptation Effects: Evidence for Abstractive Face Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The effects of selective adaptation on familiar face perception were examined. After prolonged exposure to photographs of a celebrity, participants saw a series of ambiguous morphs that were varying mixtures between the face of that person and a different celebrity. Participants judged fewer of the morphs to resemble the celebrity to which they…

  2. Differential Effects of Two Spelling Procedures on Acquisition, Maintenance and Adaption to Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Gary L.; Dunne, Megan; Erkfritz, Karyn N.; Kivisto, Aaron; Lee, Nicole; Wierzbicki, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was used to assess the effects of a constant time delay (CTD) procedure and a cover-copy-compare (CCC) procedure on three students' acquisition, subsequent maintenance, and adaptation (i.e., application) of acquired spelling words to reading passages. Students were randomly presented two trials of word lists from…

  3. Effects of Age on the Adaptive Behavior of Institutionalized and Noninstitutionalized Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, A. B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evidence of an association between Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome led to three studies on the effects of age on the adaptive behavior of over 400 Down syndrome individuals. One study found a decline in motor development competence among older (over 60 years) Down syndrome individuals when compared with other mentally retarded persons.…

  4. Effect of Incorporating Adaptive Functioning Scores on the Prevalence of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Obianuju; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Baio, Jon; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Devine, Owen; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance and epidemiologic research on intellectual disability often do not incorporate adaptive functioning (AF) data. Exclusion of AF data leads to overestimation of the prevalence of intellectual disability, the extent of which is not known. In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of incorporating AF data on overall intellectual…

  5. The Development of Adaptive Conformity in Young Children: Effects of Uncertainty and Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Thomas J. H.; Laland, Kevin N.; Harris, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Human culture relies on extensive use of social transmission, which must be integrated with independently acquired (i.e. asocial) information for effective decision-making. Formal evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies, including a bias to copy when uncertain, and a bias to disproportionately…

  6. Effects of a Culturally Adapted Social-Emotional Learning Intervention Program on Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Kristine M.; Castro-Olivo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Student self-reports of resiliency and social-emotional internalizing problems were examined to determine intervention effects of a culturally adapted social and emotional learning (SEL) program. Data were analyzed from 20 culturally and linguistically diverse high school students who participated in a school-based 12-lesson SEL intervention and…

  7. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    R. Julian Preston
    Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA

    There ...

  8. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  9. Effects of a Culture-Adaptive Forgiveness Intervention for Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Mingxia; Hui, Eadaoin; Fu, Hong; Watkins, David; Tao, Linjin; Lo, Sing Kai

    2016-01-01

    The understanding and application of forgiveness varies across cultures. The current study aimed to examine the effect of a culture-adaptive Forgiveness Intervention on forgiveness attitude, self-esteem, empathy and anxiety of Mainland Chinese college students. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated to either experimental groups or a…

  10. Is the Adaptive Response an Efficient Protection Against the Detrimental Effects of Space Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. Javad; Cameron, J. R.; Niroomand-rad, A.

    2003-07-01

    exposure to high-energy neutrons, protons and HZE particles during a deep space mission, needs an efficient protection against the detrimental effects of space radiation. Recent findings concerning the induction of adaptive response by neutrons and high cumulative doses of gamma radiation in human cells have opened a new horizon for possible implications of adaptive response in radiation protection and esp ecially in protection against detrimental effects of high levels of radiation during a long-term space journey. We demonstrated significant adaptive response in humans after exposure to high levels of natural radiation. Individuals whose cumulative radiation doses were up to 950 mSv, showed a significant adaptive response after exposure to 1.5 Gy gamma radiation. These doses are much lower than those received by astronauts during a sixmonth space mission. Screening the adaptive response of candidates for long-term space missions will help scientists identify individuals who not only show low radiation susceptibility but also demonstrate a high magnitude of radioadaptive response. In selected individuals, chronic exposure to elevated levels of space radiation during a long-term mission can considerably decrease their radiation susceptibility and protect them against the unpredictable exposure to relatively high radiation levels due to solar activity. Keywords: Space radiation, adaptive response, chromosome aberrations. Introduction In recent decades, humans successfully experienced relatively long time space missions. No doubt, in the near future deep space journeys as long as a few years will be inevitable. Despite current advances, there are still some great problems that limit the duration of such long-term space missions. Radiation risk due to exposure to high levels of cosmic rays and the effects of microgravity are clearly the most important problems that need to be solved before a long-term

  11. Testing the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross Adaptation-Sensitization Model for Homeopathic Remedy Effects

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Key concepts of the Nanoparticle-Allostatic Cross-Adaptation-Sensitization (NPCAS) Model for the action of homeopathic remedies in living systems include source nanoparticles as low level environmental stressors, heterotypic hormesis, cross-adaptation, allostasis (stress response network), time-dependent sensitization with endogenous amplification and bidirectional change, and self-organizing complex adaptive systems. The model accommodates the requirement for measurable physical agents in the remedy (source nanoparticles and/or source adsorbed to silica nanoparticles). Hormetic adaptive responses in the organism, triggered by nanoparticles; bipolar, metaplastic change, dependent on the history of the organism. Clinical matching of the patient’s symptom picture, including modalities, to the symptom pattern that the source material can cause (cross-adaptation and cross-sensitization). Evidence for nanoparticle-related quantum macro-entanglement in homeopathic pathogenetic trials. This paper examines research implications of the model, discussing the following hypotheses: Variability in nanoparticle size, morphology, and aggregation affects remedy properties and reproducibility of findings. Homeopathic remedies modulate adaptive allostatic responses, with multiple dynamic short- and long-term effects. Simillimum remedy nanoparticles, as novel mild stressors corresponding to the organism’s dysfunction initiate time-dependent cross-sensitization, reversing the direction of dysfunctional reactivity to environmental stressors. The NPCAS model suggests a way forward for systematic research on homeopathy. The central proposition is that homeopathic treatment is a form of nanomedicine acting by modulation of endogenous adaptation and metaplastic amplification processes in the organism to enhance long-term systemic resilience and health. PMID:23290882

  12. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: the moderating effects of evaluative observation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, R M; Blascovich, J; Leitten, C L; Schneider, T R; Tomaka, J; Wiens, S

    2000-11-01

    The impact of evaluative observation on cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress was evaluated in 162 undergraduate men and women. All participants performed three mental arithmetic tasks with or without evaluative observation. Impedance cardiographic, blood pressure, task performance, and stress appraisal measures were recorded for each task. Evaluative observation moderated the effects of task repetition on cardiac reactivity but not vascular reactivity. The introduction of evaluative observation disrupted cardiac adaptation, resulting in a resurgence of beta-adrenergic cardiac reactivity (p < .005), whereas the removal of evaluative observation promoted cardiac adaptation. Evaluative observation also increased stress appraisals and slowed task performance. The results support the dual process theory of habituation, rather than stimulus comparator theory, but only partially support cognitive appraisal theory. PMID:11117455

  13. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  14. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  15. Adaptation to visual and proprioceptive rearrangement - Origin of the differential effectiveness of active and passive movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure and compare the accuracy with which subjects pointed to visual targets before and after an exposure period in which they received systematic proprioceptive misinformation about the locations of visual targets. The crucial factor determining whether adaptation will be elicited is shown to be the presence of a discordance in the positional information being conveyed over two different sensory modalities. Another experiment was carried out to study the effectiveness of active and passive movements in eliciting adaptation when the subjects were exposed to a systematic discordance between the visual and proprioceptive locations of external targets without being permitted sight of their hands. Superiority of active over passive movements in producing adaptation to visual rearrangement is due to the greater accuracy of position sense information about voluntarily moved limbs, partly derived from the contribution of muscle afferent signals.

  16. Effects of founding genetic variation on adaptation to a novel resource.

    PubMed

    Agashe, Deepa; Falk, Jay J; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2011-09-01

    Population genetic theory predicts that adaptation in novel environments is enhanced by genetic variation for fitness. However, theory also predicts that under strong selection, demographic stochasticity can drive populations to extinction before they can adapt. We exposed wheat-adapted populations of the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) to a novel suboptimal corn resource, to test the effects of founding genetic variation on population decline and subsequent extinction or adaptation. As previously reported, genetically diverse populations were less likely to go extinct. Here, we show that among surviving populations, genetically diverse groups recovered faster after the initial population decline. Within two years, surviving populations significantly increased their fitness on corn via increased fecundity, increased egg survival, faster larval development, and higher rate of egg cannibalism. However, founding genetic variation only enhanced the increase in fecundity, despite existing genetic variation-and apparent lack of trade-offs-for egg survival and larval development time. Thus, during adaptation to novel habitats the positive impact of genetic variation may be restricted to only a few traits, although change in many life-history traits may be necessary to avoid extinction. Despite severe initial maladaptation and low population size, genetic diversity can thus overcome the predicted high extinction risk in new habitats. PMID:21884051

  17. Effects of Adaptation Rate and Noise Suppression on the Intelligibility of Compressed-Envelope Based Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Temporal envelope is the primary acoustic cue used in most cochlear implant (CI) speech processors to elicit speech perception for patients fitted with CI devices. Envelope compression narrows down envelope dynamic range and accordingly degrades speech understanding abilities of CI users, especially under challenging listening conditions (e.g., in noise). A new adaptive envelope compression (AEC) strategy was proposed recently, which in contrast to the traditional static envelope compression, is effective at enhancing the modulation depth of envelope waveform by making best use of its dynamic range and thus improving the intelligibility of envelope-based speech. The present study further explored the effect of adaptation rate in envelope compression on the intelligibility of compressed-envelope based speech. Moreover, since noise reduction is another essential unit in modern CI systems, the compatibility of AEC and noise reduction was also investigated. In this study, listening experiments were carried out by presenting vocoded sentences to normal hearing listeners for recognition. Experimental results demonstrated that the adaptation rate in envelope compression had a notable effect on the speech intelligibility performance of the AEC strategy. By specifying a suitable adaptation rate, speech intelligibility could be enhanced significantly in noise compared to when using static envelope compression. Moreover, results confirmed that the AEC strategy was suitable for combining with noise reduction to improve the intelligibility of envelope-based speech in noise. PMID:26196508

  18. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Moriuchi, Ken S.; Friesen, Maren L.; Cordeiro, Matilde A.; Badri, Mounawer; Vu, Wendy T.; Main, Bradley J.; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Strauss, Sharon Y.; von Wettberg, Eric J. B.

    2016-01-01

    High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within-generation phenotypic

  19. Effect of joint imperfections on static control of adaptive structures as space cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesh, A. V.; Utku, Senol; Wada, B. K.; Chen, G. S.

    1990-01-01

    Effect of imperfections in the joints of an adaptive structure on its slow (no inertia forces) motion along a prescribed trajectory as a space crane is studied. Two mathematical models to predict the effect of joint imperfections are proposed. The two models are used to obtain estimates of the deviations of the node of the space crane to which the end-effector is attached, from its prescribed trajectory. An application of the models to a two-section space crane is given.

  20. Effect of imperfections on static control of adaptive structures as a space crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesh, A. V.; Utku, S.; Wada, B. K.; Chen, G. S.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of imperfections in the joints of an adaptive structure on its slow (no inertia forces) motion along a prescribed trajectory as a space crane is studied. Two mathematical models to predict the effect of joint imperfections are proposed. The two models are used to obtain estimates of the deviations of the node of the space crane to which the end-effector is attached, from its prescribed trajectory. An application of the models to a two-section space crane is given.

  1. [Maternal effect obscures adaptation to adverse environments and hinders divergence in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Markov, A V; Ivnitsky, S B; Kornilova, M B; Naimark, E B; Shirokova, N G; Perfilieva, K S

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to contrasting environments can facilitate ecological divergence and sympatric speciation. Factors that influence the probability and tempo of these processes are poorly known. We performed an evolutionary experiment on Drosophila melanogaster in order to attain better understanding of adaptation dynamics and to model the initial steps of sympatric speciation. In our experiment, several populations are being cultured either on standard rich medium (RM) or on nutrient-deficient starch-based medium (SM). After 10 generations, experimental populations demonstrated unexpected changes in their fitness: on the starch medium, flies grown on RM (FRM) outcompeted those that were cultured on SM (FSM), while on the rich medium, FRM were outcompeted by FSM. That is, experimental populations demonstrated higher fitness on the foreign medium, but were outcompeted by the aliens on the one they had been accustomed to. To explain the paradox, we hypothesize that the observed low fitness of FSM on SM was due to maternal effect, or the "effect of starving mother". The FSM flies are probably better adapted to SM, but the phenotypic outcome of their adaptations is obscured because the females grown on the poor medium invest less in their offspring (for instance, they may produce nutrient-deficient eggs). Larvae hatched from such eggs develop successfully on the rich medium RM, but experience delayed growth and/or lower survival rate on the nutrient-deficient medium SM. To test the hypothesis, we measured the fitness of the flies FSM after culturing them for one generation on RM, in order to remove the assumed maternal effect. As expected, this time FSM demonstrated higher fitness on SM compared to control flies (FRM) and to FSM before the removal of the maternal effect. The results support the idea that non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and maternal effects can mask adaptation to adverse environments and prohibit ecological divergence and speciation by allowing the migrants

  2. Ready, set, point: the effects of alertness on prism adaptation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kintzel, Franziska; Ishigami, Yoko; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-05-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is a promising rehabilitation technique for visuo-spatial neglect, an attention disorder that is characterized by spatial attention deficits (i.e., deficits in orienting). PA involves visuo-motor adaptation to rightward shifting prism goggles. Following goggle removal, this adaptation results in leftward shifts in visuo-motor aiming and amelioration of spatial neglect. Even though some studies clearly support the beneficial effects of PA for spatial neglect, not all studies find benefits, thus it remains unclear how PA effects could be improved. Taking advantage of the known interactions between orienting and alerting reported in the attention literature (i.e., alerting enhances orienting function; e.g., Ishigami and Klein in J Individ Differ 30:220-237. doi: 10.1027/1614-0001.30.4.220 , 2009, in J Neurosci Methods 190:117-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.04.019 , 2010; Robertson et al. in Nature 395:169-72. doi: 10.1038/25993 , 1998), we examined the effects of alerting tones on PA with healthy young and older adults. We found that the effects of alerting on PA with young adults were negative, while there was a positive effect with older adults, specifically on a visuo-motor outcome task. Thus, enhancement of PA effects by alerting may be age specific and task specific. Therefore, we can conclude that while the impact of alerting tones is not always positive, further research in patients with neglect may be warranted. PMID:25702160

  3. Effects of climate change adaptation scenarios on perceived spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, J.-P.; Martin, E.; Kitova, N.; Najac, J.; Soubeyroux, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    " adaptation) or over a 30-year period centred around the date considered ("prospective" adaptation). These adaptation scenarios are translated into local-scale transient drought thresholds, as opposed to a non-adaptation scenario where the drought threshold remains constant. The perceived spatio-temporal characteristics derived from the theoretical adaptation scenarios show much reduced changes, but they call for more realistic scenarios at both the catchment and national scale in order to accurately assess the combined effect of local-scale adaptation and global-scale mitigation. This study thus proposes a proof of concept for using standardized drought indices for (1) assessing projections of spatio-temporal drought characteristics and (2) building theoretical adaptation scenarios and associated perceived changes in hydrological impact studies (Vidal et al., submitted). Vidal J.-P., Martin E., Franchistéguy L., Habets F., Soubeyroux J.-M., Blanchard M. & Baillon M. (2010) Multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France with the Safran-Isba-Modcou hydrometeorological suite. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 459-478.doi: 10.5194/hess-14-459-2010 Vidal J.-P., Martin E., Kitova N., Najac J. & Soubeyroux, J. M. (submitted) Evolution of spatio-temporal drought characteristics: validation, projections and effect of adaptation scenarios. Submitted to Hydrology and earth System Sciences

  4. Parental genetic effects in a cavefish adaptive behavior explain disparity between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Ashida, Go; Jeffery, William R

    2012-09-01

    Epigenetic parental genetic effects are important in many biological processes but their roles in the evolution of adaptive traits and their consequences in naturally evolving populations remain to be addressed. By comparing two divergent blind cave-dwelling cavefish populations with a sighted surface-dwelling population (surface fish) of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, we report here that convergences in vibration attraction behavior (VAB), the lateral line sensory receptors underlying this behavior, and the feeding benefits of this behavior are controlled by parental genetic effects, either maternal or paternal inheritance. From behavioral studies and mathematical evolutionary simulations, we further demonstrate that disparity in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in one of these cavefish populations that has hybridized with surface fish can be explained by paternal inheritance of VAB. The results suggest that parental genetic effects in adaptive behaviors may be important factors in biasing mitochondrial DNA inheritance in natural populations that are subject to introgression. PMID:22946818

  5. Reintroducing domesticated wild mice to sociality induces adaptive transgenerational effects on MUP expression.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Adam C; Cauceglia, Joseph W; Merkley, Seth D; Youngson, Neil A; Oler, Andrew J; Nelson, Randy J; Cairns, Bradley R; Whitelaw, Emma; Potts, Wayne K

    2013-12-01

    When brought into captivity, wild animals can adapt to domestication within 10 generations. Such adaptations may decrease fitness in natural conditions. Many selective pressures are disrupted in captivity, including social behavioral networks. Although lack of sociality in captivity appears to mediate domestication, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Additionally, determining the contribution of genetic inheritance vs. transgenerational effects during relaxed selection may provide insight into the flexibility of adaptation. When wild-derived mice kept under laboratory conditions for eight generations were reintroduced to sociality and promiscuity (free mate choice), they adapted within two generations. Fitness assessments between this promiscuous lineage and a monogamous laboratory lineage revealed male-specific effects. Promiscuous-line males had deficits in viability, but a striking advantage in attracting mates, and their scent marks were also more attractive to females. Here, we investigate mechanistic details underlying this olfactory signal and identify a role of major urinary protein (MUP) pheromones. Promiscuous-line males inherit higher MUP expression than monogamous-line males through transgenerational inheritance. Sociality-driven maternal and paternal effects reveal intriguing conflicts among parents and offspring over pheromone expression. MUP up-regulation is not driven by hormone-driven transduction pathways, but rather is associated with reduction in DNA methylation of a CpG dinucleotide in the promoter. This reduction in methylation could enhance transcription by promoting the binding of transcription factor USF1 (upstream stimulatory factor 1). Finally, we experimentally demonstrate that increased MUP expression is a female attractant. These results identify molecular mechanisms guiding domestication and adaptive responses to fluctuating sociality. PMID:24248373

  6. Guided Discovery Learning with Computer-Based Simulation Games: Effects of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Instructional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutner, Detlev

    1993-01-01

    System-initiated adaptive advice and learner-requested nonadaptive background information were investigated in computer simulation game experiments with 64 seventh graders, 38 college students, and 80 seventh and eighth graders in Germany. Results are discussed in terms of theories of problem solving, intelligence, memory, and information…

  7. Effects of Subliminal Symbiotic Stimulation on Academic Performance: Further Evidence on the Adaptation-Enhancing Effects of Oneness Fantasies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Kenneth A.

    1982-01-01

    College students (N=60), divided into three matched groups, received subliminal stimulation. The main dependent variable was the final examination grade. Results indicated that both experimental groups earned significantly higher grades than the control group and that the stimulation of oneness fantasies has an adaptation-enhancing effect on…

  8. Effect of Adaptive Paced Cardiolocomotor Synchronization During Running: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Bill; Jin, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiolocomotor synchronization (CLS) has been well established for individuals engaged in rhythmic activity, such as walking, running, or cycling. When frequency of the activity is at or near the heart rate, entrainment occurs. CLS has been shown in many cases to improve the efficiency of locomotor activity, improving stroke volume, reducing blood pressure variability, and lowering the oxygen uptake (VO2). Instead of a 1:1 frequency ratio of activity to heart rate, an investigation was performed to determine if different harmonic coupling at other simple integer ratios (e.g. 1:2, 2:3, 3:2) could achieve any performance benefits. CLS was ensured by pacing the stride rate according to the measured heartbeat (i.e., adaptive paced CLS, or forced CLS). An algorithm was designed that determined the simplest ratio (lowest denominator) that, when multiplied by the heart rate will fall within an individualized, predetermined comfortable pacing range for the user. The algorithm was implemented on an iPhone 4, which generated a ‘tick-tock’ sound through the iPhone’s headphones. A sham-controlled crossover study was performed with 15 volunteers of various fitness levels. Subjects ran a 3 mile (4.83 km) simulated training run at their normal pace on two consecutive days (randomized one adaptive pacing, one sham). Adaptive pacing resulted in faster runs run times, with subjects running an average of 26:03 ± 3:23 for adaptive pacing and 26:38 ± 3:31 for sham (F = 5.46, p < 0.05). The increase in heart rate from the start of the race as estimated by an exponential time constant was significantly longer during adaptive pacing, τ = 0.99 ± 0.30, compared to sham, τ = 1.53 ± 0.34 (t = -6.62, p < 0.01). Eighty-seven percent of runners found it easy to adjust their stride length to match the pacing signal with seventy-nine percent reporting that pacing helped their performance. These results suggest that adaptive paced CLS may have a beneficial effect on running performance

  9. Effect of cold adaptation on activities of relevant enzymes and antioxidant system in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Ji-Qing; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Jian-Feng; Li, Shang-Bin; Fang, Wei; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Exercise in cold environments can cause significant metabolic regulation and antioxidant behavior. For discussing enzymatic responses towards cold adaptation, we investigated enzyme activities of adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterase (PDE) in liver, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as Na+·K+ ATPase and Na+/K+ ratio in blood. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in blood were also studied to address the effect of cold adaptation on oxidative damage and antioxidant system. Experimental results indicated that enzyme activities in liver, skeletal muscle and BAT maintained relatively constant for the control group. For the cold adaptation group, enzyme activities in liver and skeletal muscle were in high levels at the beginning, and then gradually decreased to similar values with the control group. However, enzyme activities in BAT performed an increasing trend and significantly higher than the control at the end. In addition, decreased oxidative damage and activated antioxidant system was observed along with the cold adaptation process. PMID:25550936

  10. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology. PMID:22218164

  11. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  12. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrario, Filippo; Beck, Michael W.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Shepard, Christine C.; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The world’s coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence.

  13. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Filippo; Beck, Michael W; Storlazzi, Curt D; Micheli, Fiorenza; Shepard, Christine C; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The world's coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence. PMID:24825660

  14. Effects of extended lay-off periods on performance and operator trust under adaptable automation.

    PubMed

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of system reliability when operators do not use a system during an extended lay-off period. To examine threats to skill maintenance, 28 participants operated twice a simulation of a complex process control system for 2.5 h, with an 8-month retention interval between sessions. Operators were provided with an adaptable support system, which operated at one of the following reliability levels: 60%, 80% or 100%. Results showed that performance, workload, and trust remained stable at the second testing session, but operators lost self-confidence in their system management abilities. Finally, the effects of system reliability observed at the first testing session were largely found again at the second session. The findings overall suggest that adaptable automation may be a promising means to support operators in maintaining their performance at the second testing session. PMID:26603139

  15. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Filippo; Beck, Michael W.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Shepard, Christine C.; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The world’s coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence. PMID:24825660

  16. Multiple wall-reflection effect in adaptive-array differential-phase reflectometry on QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idei, H.; Mishra, K.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hamasaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Onchi, T.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; QUEST Team

    2016-01-01

    A phased array antenna and Software-Defined Radio (SDR) heterodyne-detection systems have been developed for adaptive array approaches in reflectometry on the QUEST. In the QUEST device considered as a large oversized cavity, standing wave (multiple wall-reflection) effect was significantly observed with distorted amplitude and phase evolution even if the adaptive array analyses were applied. The distorted fields were analyzed by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) in wavenumber domain to treat separately the components with and without wall reflections. The differential phase evolution was properly obtained from the distorted field evolution by the FFT procedures. A frequency derivative method has been proposed to overcome the multiple-wall reflection effect, and SDR super-heterodyned components with small frequency difference for the derivative method were correctly obtained using the FFT analysis.

  17. Modulatory Effects of Antidepressant Classes on the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Depression.

    PubMed

    Eyre, H A; Lavretsky, H; Kartika, J; Qassim, A; Baune, B T

    2016-05-01

    Current reviews exploring for unique immune-modulatory profiles of antidepressant classes are limited by focusing mainly on cytokine modulation only and neglecting other aspects of the innate and adaptive immune system. These reviews also do not include recent comparative clinical trials, immune-genetic studies and therapeutics with unique neurotransmitter profiles (e. g., agomelatine). This systematic review extends the established literature by comprehensively reviewing the effects of antidepressants classes on both the innate and adaptive immune system. Antidepressants appear, in general, to reduce pro-inflammatory factor levels, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. We caution against conclusions as to which antidepressant possesses the greater anti-inflammatory effect, given the methodological heterogeneity among studies and the small number of comparative studies. The effects of antidepressant classes on adaptive immune factors are complex and poorly understood, and few studies have been conducted. Methodological heterogeneity is high among these studies (e. g., length of study, cohort characteristics, dosage used and immune marker analysis). We recommend larger, comparative studies - in clinical and pre-clinical populations. PMID:26951496

  18. Assessing effects of climate change and adaptation strategies on irrigated pastures using DAISY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagimoto, Y.; Cuenca, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    The DAISY ecological model was applied for the flood-irrigated cool-season pastures in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon to study 1) the current condition of the pastures in the semi-arid environment, 2) effects of projected climate change, and 3) effects of introducing white clover and a sprinkler system as a potential adaptation strategy. The calibrated model indicated that productivity of the cool-season pastures was limited primarily by nitrogen (N) availability and temperature. The results of our scenario analysis indicated that the projected climate change would increase seasonal forage production (YF) and crop water use (AET) due to longer and warmer growing season. This study also found that introduction of white clover would significantly increase YF without changing AET by improving N availability due to increased nutrients deposition by cattle and increased symbiotic N fixation by white clover. In consequence, the mixed pasture could significantly improve water use efficiency (YF/AET) and, therefore the adaptability of the pasture in an area with high value water. Installing sprinkler system to the mixed pasture would increase YF by increasing net N input by increasing N mineralization and reducing denitrification. Furthermore, upgraded irrigation systems could increase water availability of the area during growing season by releasing significant amount of subsurface water to nearby surface water pools. This study demonstrated that ecological models such as DAISY can be a useful tool to model pasture systems and assess effects of projected climate changes and adaptation strategies.

  19. The effects of adaptation and masking on incremental thresholds for contrast.

    PubMed

    Ross, J; Speed, H D; Morgan, M J

    1993-10-01

    Using a temporal two-alternative forced-choice procedure, we measured thresholds for detecting increments in contrast of a 2 c/deg vertical grating at a wide range of pedestal contrasts, (1) before and after adapting to a grating of the same orientation and spatial frequency, and (2) in the presence of superimposed masks that varied in either orientation or spatial frequency. The adapting grating and all masks were of fixed 40% contrast. The results show that prior adaptation and concurrent masking have qualitatively similar effects on incremental thresholds; both raise threshold at low pedestal contrasts and leave them unaltered at higher contrasts. But masks have greater effects than adaptors, the effect of an orthogonal mask, or one two octaves higher in spatial frequency, being about the same as a parallel adaptor of the same spatial frequency as the pedestal grating. The results are explained by a model of Ross and Speed [(1991) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 246, 61-69] that assumes that masks and adaptors both reposition the transducer function of contrast sensitive mechanisms and that masks, but not adaptors, also stimulate the detecting mechanism. PMID:8266646

  20. Adaptive optics with four laser guide stars: correction of the cone effect in large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Viard, Elise; Le, Louarn Miska; Hubin, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    We study the performance of an adaptive optics (AO) system with four laser guide stars (LGSs) and a natural guide star (NGS). The residual cone effect with four LGSs is obtained by a numerical simulation. This method allows the adaptive optics system to be extended toward the visible part of the spectrum without tomographic reconstruction of three-dimensional atmospheric perturbations, resolving the cone effect in the visible. Diffraction-limited images are obtained with 17-arc ms precision in median atmospheric conditions at wavelengths longer than 600 nm. The gain achievable with such a system operated on an existing AO system is studied. For comparison, performance in terms of achievable Strehl ratio is also computed for a reasonable system composed of a 40 x 40 Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor optimized for the I band. Typical errors of a NGS wave front are computed by use of analytical formulas. With the NGS errors and the cone effect, the Strehl ratio can reach 0.45 at 1.25 microm under good-seeing conditions with the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS; a 14 x 14 subpupil wave-front sensor) at the Very Large Telescope and 0.8 with a 40 x 40 Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. PMID:11900425

  1. The Effects of Pregnancy-Adaptation Training on Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Adaptation in Pregnant Women With a History of Baby Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baghdari, Nasrin; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Azmoude, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that educating mothers can improve their adaptation to pregnancy and motherhood roles. There are also studies that have investigated the effects of certain interventions on maternal-fetal attachment. However, studies on the effects of maternal adaptation training on maternal-fetal attachment in mothers with a history of fetal or baby loss are rare. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a pregnancy adaptation training package on maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant women with a history of baby loss. Patients and Methods This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 pregnant women with previous fetal or neonatal death in 2014. The women were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 30) and a control group (n = 30). The pregnant women in the experimental group received routine prenatal education in addition to four sessions of a pregnancy adaption training package. The control group received only routine prenatal education. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Cranley’s maternal-fetal attachment scale, and a prenatal self-evaluation questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the study. The data analysis was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and spearman correlation coefficient tests. Results Before the intervention, there were no statistically significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of maternal-fetal attachment (P = 0.280) and adaptation to pregnancy (P = 0.883). However, following the intervention, the mean score of the maternal-fetal attachment was significantly higher in the experimental group, when compared with the control (77.57 ± 7.23 vs. 61.53 ± 2.62; P = 0.001). In addition, the mean post-intervention adaptation to pregnancy score was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (118.89 ± 8.12 vs. 126.38 ± 4.17; P = 0.001). Conclusions The pregnancy adaptation

  2. Congruency sequence effects and previous response times: conflict adaptation or temporal learning?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, James R; Weissman, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we followed up on a recent report of two experiments in which the congruency sequence effect-the reduction of the congruency effect after incongruent relative to congruent trials in Stroop-like tasks-was observed without feature repetition or contingency learning confounds. Specifically, we further scrutinized these data to determine the plausibility of a temporal learning account as an alternative to the popular conflict adaptation account. To this end, we employed a linear mixed effects model to investigate the role of previous response time in producing the congruency sequence effect, because previous response time is thought to influence temporal learning. Interestingly, slower previous response times were associated with a reduced current-trial congruency effect, but only when the previous trial was congruent. An adapted version of the parallel episodic processing (PEP) model was able to fit these data if it was additionally assumed that attention "wanders" during different parts of the experiment (e.g., due to fatigue or other factors). Consistent with this assumption, the magnitude of the congruency effect was correlated across small blocks of trials. These findings demonstrate that a temporal learning mechanism provides a plausible account of the congruency sequence effect. PMID:26093801

  3. Diagnosing Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Sample: Gender and Age Effects on the Relationship between Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between adaptive behaviour and cognitive functioning in offenders with intellectual disabilities is not well researched. This study aims to examine gender and age effects on the relationship between these two areas of functioning. Method: The "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales" (VABS) and the "Kaufman Brief…

  4. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  5. Effects of stress associated with weaning on the adaptive immune system in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kick, A R; Tompkins, M B; Flowers, W L; Whisnant, C S; Almond, G W

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of weaning age on specific components of the adaptive immune system in pigs. Twenty-three crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: weaning at 14 (14D, n = 8), 21 (21D, n = 7), or 28 (28D, n = 8) d of age. Peripheral blood samples, obtained when pigs were 13, 15, 20, 22, 27, 29, and 35 d of age, were analyzed for peripheral blood cell percentages and concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, T cell subsets, mature B cells, and plasma cortisol concentrations. For each of the 3 groups, weaning increased plasma cortisol concentrations (P < 0.001) and reduced BW percentage change (P < 0.017). Lymphocyte concentrations displayed a treatment effect for the 14D (P = 0.074) and 28D (P = 0.014) groups. Albeit inconsistent, lymphocyte concentrations were less in weaned pigs on the day after weaning than in pigs remaining on the sow or weaned at a younger age. Specifically, mature B cells (CD21(+)) and CD4(+)CD8(+) cells decreased (P < 0.05) after weaning at 28 d of age. Other differences occurred among treatments; however, the differences apparently were not associated with weaning. Based upon the immunological measures used in the present study, there was not an explicit benefit to the adaptive immune system for any weaning age. Early weaning did not negatively affect the adaptive immunological competence of pigs as determined by changes in populations of immune cells. PMID:21926316

  6. Direction-specific adaptation effects acquired in a slow rotation room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Knepton, J.

    1972-01-01

    Thirty-eight subjects were required to execute 120 head movements in a slow rotation room at each 1-rpm increase in velocity of the room between 0 and 6 rpm and, after a single-step gradual return to zero velocity, execute 120 head movements either immediately after the return or after delay periods varying from 1 to 24 hours unless, at any time, more than mild symptoms of motion sickness were elicited. A second stress profile differed by the sequential addition of an incremental adaptation schedule in which the direction of rotation was reversed. The experimental findings demonstrated the acquisition of direction-specific adaptation effects that underwent spontaneous decay with a short time constant (hours). Speculations are presented which could account for the simultaneous acquisition of short-term and long-term adaptation effects. The findings support the theory that motion sickness, although a consequence of vestibular stimulation, has its immediate origin in nonvestibular systems, implying a faculative or temporary linkage between the vestibular and nonvestibular systems.

  7. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback induces the temporal recalibration effect in both speech perception and production.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kosuke; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-12-01

    We ordinarily speak fluently, even though our perceptions of our own voices are disrupted by various environmental acoustic properties. The underlying mechanism of speech is supposed to monitor the temporal relationship between speech production and the perception of auditory feedback, as suggested by a reduction in speech fluency when the speaker is exposed to delayed auditory feedback (DAF). While many studies have reported that DAF influences speech motor processing, its relationship to the temporal tuning effect on multimodal integration, or temporal recalibration, remains unclear. We investigated whether the temporal aspects of both speech perception and production change due to adaptation to the delay between the motor sensation and the auditory feedback. This is a well-used method of inducing temporal recalibration. Participants continually read texts with specific DAF times in order to adapt to the delay. Then, they judged the simultaneity between the motor sensation and the vocal feedback. We measured the rates of speech with which participants read the texts in both the exposure and re-exposure phases. We found that exposure to DAF changed both the rate of speech and the simultaneity judgment, that is, participants' speech gained fluency. Although we also found that a delay of 200 ms appeared to be most effective in decreasing the rates of speech and shifting the distribution on the simultaneity judgment, there was no correlation between these measurements. These findings suggest that both speech motor production and multimodal perception are adaptive to temporal lag but are processed in distinct ways. PMID:25106757

  8. Effects of adaptive protective behavior on the dynamics of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michael A L; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to present a complex and costly challenge to public health programs. The preferences and social dynamics of a population can have a large impact on the course of an outbreak as well as the effectiveness of interventions intended to influence individual behavior. In addition, individuals may alter their sexual behavior in response to the presence of STIs, creating a feedback loop between transmission and behavior. We investigate the consequences of modeling the interaction between STI transmission and prophylactic use with a model that links a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) system to evolutionary game dynamics that determine the effective contact rate. The combined model framework allows us to address protective behavior by both infected and susceptible individuals. Feedback between behavioral adaptation and prevalence creates a wide range of dynamic behaviors in the combined model, including damped and sustained oscillations as well as bistability, depending on the behavioral parameters and disease growth rate. We found that disease extinction is possible for multiple regions where R0>1, due to behavior adaptation driving the epidemic downward, although conversely endemic prevalence for arbitrarily low R0 is also possible if contact rates are sufficiently high. We also tested how model misspecification might affect disease forecasting and estimation of the model parameters and R0. We found that alternative models that neglect the behavioral feedback or only consider behavior adaptation by susceptible individuals can potentially yield misleading parameter estimates or omit significant features of the disease trajectory. PMID:26362102

  9. Sensorless adaptive optics and the effect of field of view in biological second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Vanbel, Maarten K.; Verbiest, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    In light of the population aging in many developed countries, there is a great economical interest in improving the speed and cost-efficiency of healthcare. Clinical diagnosis tools are key to these improvements, with biophotonics providing a means to achieve them. Standard optical microscopy of in vitro biological samples has been an important diagnosis tool since the invention of the microscope, with well known resolution limits. Nonlinear optical imaging improves on the resolution limits of linear microscopy, while providing higher contrast images and a greater penetration depth due to the red-shifted incident light compared to standard optical microscopy. It also provides information on molecular orientation and chirality. Adaptive optics can improve the quality of nonlinear optical images. We analyzed the effect of sensorless adaptive optics on the quality of the nonlinear optical images of biological samples. We demonstrate that care needs to be taken when using a large field of view. Our findings provide information on how to improve the quality of nonlinear optical imaging, and can be generalized to other in vitro biological samples. The image quality improvements achieved by adaptive optics should help speed up clinical diagnostics in vitro, while increasing their accuracy and helping decrease detection limits. The same principles apply to in vivo biological samples, and in the future it may be possible to extend these findings to other nonlinear optical effects used in biological imaging.

  10. Enhancement of adaptive biological effects by nanotechnology preparation methods in homeopathic medicines.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R; Schwartz, Gary E

    2015-04-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that traditional homeopathic manufacturing reagents and processes can generate remedy source and silica nanoparticles (NPs). Homeopathically-made NPs would initiate adaptive changes in an organism as a complex adaptive system (CAS) or network. Adaptive changes would emerge from several different endogenous amplification processes that respond to exogenous danger or threat signals that manufactured nanomaterials convey, including (1) stochastic resonance (SR) in sensory neural systems and (2) time-dependent sensitization (TDS)/oscillation. SR is nonlinear coherent amplification of a weak signal by the superposition of a larger magnitude white noise containing within it the same frequencies of the weak signal. TDS is progressive response magnitude amplification and oscillatory reversal in response direction to a given low dose at physiological limits with the passage of time. Hormesis is an overarching adaptive phenomenon that reflects the observed nonlinear adaptive dose-response relationship. Remedies would act as enhanced micro- and nanoscale forms of their source material via direct local ligand-receptor interactions at very low potencies and/or by triggering systemic adaptive network dynamical effects via their NP-based electromagnetic, optical, and quantum mechanical properties at higher potencies. Manufacturing parameters including dilution modify sizes, shapes, and surface charges of nanoparticles, thereby causing differences in physico-chemical properties and biological effects. Based on surface area, size, shape, and charge, nanoparticles adsorb a complex pattern of serum proteins, forming a protein corona on contact that constitutes a unique biological identity. The protein corona may capture individualized dysfunctional biological mediator information of the organism onto the surfaces of the salient, i.e., resonant, remedy nanostructures. SR would amplify this weak signal from the salient remedy NPs with protein corona

  11. Effects of light curing method and resin composite composition on composite adaptation to the cavity wall.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takako; Morigami, Makoto; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the light curing method and resin composite composition on marginal sealing and resin composite adaptation to the cavity wall. Cylindrical cavities were prepared on the buccal or lingual cervical regions. The teeth were restored using Clearfil Liner Bond 2V adhesive system and filled with Clearfil Photo Bright or Palfique Estelite resin composite. The resins were cured using the conventional or slow-start light curing method. After thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to a dye penetration test. The slow-start curing method showed better resin composite adaptation to the cavity wall for both composites. Furthermore, the slow-start curing method resulted in significantly improved dentin marginal sealing compared with the conventional method for Clearfil Photo Bright. The light-cured resin composite, which exhibited increased contrast ratios duringpolymerization, seems to suggest high compensation for polymerization contraction stress when using the slow-start curing method. PMID:24988883

  12. Adapt globally, act locally: the effect of selective sweeps on bacterial sequence diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, J; Cohan, F M

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that genetic exchange in bacteria is too rare to prevent neutral sequence divergence between ecological populations. That is, despite genetic exchange, each population should diverge into its own DNA sequence-similarity cluster. In those studies, each selective sweep was limited to acting within a single ecological population. Here we postulate the existence of globally adaptive mutations, which may confer a selective advantage to all ecological populations constituting a metapopulation. Such adaptations cause global selective sweeps, which purge the divergence both within and between populations. We found that the effect of recurrent global selective sweeps on neutral sequence divergence is highly dependent on the mechanism of genetic exchange. Global selective sweeps can prevent populations from reaching high levels of neutral sequence divergence, but they cannot cause two populations to become identical in neutral sequence characters. The model supports the earlier conclusion that each ecological population of bacteria should form its own distinct DNA sequence-similarity cluster. PMID:10430576

  13. Fermi-coupled spherically adapted effective states in the collisionless multiphoton excitation of SF 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lauro, C.; Lattanzi, F.

    1982-10-01

    A calculation method for the collisionless multiphoton excitation of SF 6 by intense CO 2 laser light up to a chain of parallel nv3, ( n - 1) v3 + v2 + v6 … vibrational-rotational ladders linked by Fermi interaction is described. Spherically adapted effective states suitable to the purpose are defined, and matrix elements for multiphoton excitation in the rotatingwave approximation effective hamiltonian formalism are given in this basis. The method is aimed at the investigation of population transfer between the cited parallel vibrational ladders, and is suitable for computer-calculation programmation.

  14. Local genetic adaptation generates latitude-specific effects of warming on predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    De Block, Marjan; Pauwels, Kevin; Van Den Broeck, Maarten; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2013-03-01

    Temperature effects on predator-prey interactions are fundamental to better understand the effects of global warming. Previous studies never considered local adaptation of both predators and prey at different latitudes, and ignored the novel population combinations of the same predator-prey species system that may arise because of northward dispersal. We set up a common garden warming experiment to study predator-prey interactions between Ischnura elegans damselfly predators and Daphnia magna zooplankton prey from three source latitudes spanning >1500 km. Damselfly foraging rates showed thermal plasticity and strong latitudinal differences consistent with adaptation to local time constraints. Relative survival was higher at 24 °C than at 20 °C in southern Daphnia and higher at 20 °C than at 24 °C, in northern Daphnia indicating local thermal adaptation of the Daphnia prey. Yet, this thermal advantage disappeared when they were confronted with the damselfly predators of the same latitude, reflecting also a signal of local thermal adaptation in the damselfly predators. Our results further suggest the invasion success of northward moving predators as well as prey to be latitude-specific. We advocate the novel common garden experimental approach using predators and prey obtained from natural temperature gradients spanning the predicted temperature increase in the northern populations as a powerful approach to gain mechanistic insights into how community modules will be affected by global warming. It can be used as a space-for-time substitution to inform how predator-prey interaction may gradually evolve to long-term warming. PMID:23504827

  15. Effect of 11-Cis 13-Demethylretinal on Phototransduction in Bleach-Adapted Rod and Cone Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Corson, D.Wesley; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Cornwall, M. Carter; Crouch, Rosalie K.

    2000-01-01

    We used 11-cis 13-demethylretinal to examine the physiological consequences of retinal's noncovalent interaction with opsin in intact rod and cone photoreceptors during visual pigment regeneration. 11-Cis 13-demethylretinal is an analog of 11-cis retinal in which the 13 position methyl group has been removed. Biochemical experiments have shown that it is capable of binding in the chromophore pocket of opsin, forming a Schiff-base linkage with the protein to produce a pigment, but at a much slower rate than the native 11-cis retinal (Nelson, R., J. Kim deReil, and A. Kropf. 1970. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 66:531–538). Experimentally, this slow rate of pigment formation should allow separate physiological examination of the effects of the initial binding of retinal in the pocket and the subsequent formation of the protonated Schiff-base linkage. Currents from solitary rods and cones from the tiger salamander were recorded in darkness before and after bleaching and then after exposure to 11-cis 13-demethylretinal. In bleach-adapted rods, 11-cis 13-demethylretinal caused transient activation of phototransduction, as evidenced by a decrease of the dark current and sensitivity, acceleration of the dim flash responses, and activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase and guanylyl cyclase. The steady state of phototransduction activity was still higher than that of the bleach-adapted rod. In contrast, exposure of bleach-adapted cones to 11-cis 13-demethylretinal resulted in an immediate deactivation of transduction as measured by the same parameters. These results extend the validity of a model for the effects of the noncovalent binding of a retinoid in the chromophore pockets of rod and cone opsins to analogs capable of forming a Schiff-base and imply that the noncovalent binding by itself may play a role for the dark adaptation of photoreceptors. PMID:10919871

  16. Effects of prostaglandins and COX-inhibiting drugs on skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sophia Z.

    2013-01-01

    It has been ∼40 yr since the discovery that PGs are produced by exercising skeletal muscle and since the discovery that inhibition of PG synthesis is the mechanism of action of what are now known as cyclooxygenase (COX)-inhibiting drugs. Since that time, it has been established that PGs are made during and after aerobic and resistance exercise and have a potent paracrine and autocrine effect on muscle metabolism. Consequently, it has also been determined that orally consumed doses of COX inhibitors can profoundly influence muscle PG synthesis, muscle protein metabolism, and numerous other cellular processes that regulate muscle adaptations to exercise loading. Although data from acute human exercise studies, as well as animal and cell-culture data, would predict that regular consumption of a COX inhibitor during exercise training would dampen the typical muscle adaptations, the chronic data do not support this conjecture. From the studies in young and older individuals, lasting from 1.5 to 4 mo, no interfering effects of COX inhibitors on muscle adaptations to resistance-exercise training have been noted. In fact, in older individuals, a substantial enhancement of muscle mass and strength has been observed. The collective findings of the PG/COX-pathway regulation of skeletal muscle responses and adaptations to exercise are compelling. Considering the discoveries in other areas of COX regulation of health and disease, there is certainly an interesting future of investigation in this re-emerging area, especially as it pertains to older individuals and the condition of sarcopenia, as well as exercise training and performance of individuals of all ages. PMID:23539318

  17. [In vitro comparison of marginal adaptation of various filling materials. I. Effect of the filling material on marginal adaptation].

    PubMed

    Kóhalmi, T; Gorzo, I; Mari, A; Nagy, K

    1999-03-01

    In a two-month in vitro experiment cervical marginal adaptation was examined in relation to the preparation, filling method and restorative material. Fifty Class II cavities were prepared in fifty extracted sound human premolar and molar teeth extending to the approximal cement-enamel junction. The cavities to receive composite restorations were bevelled at the vestibulo-occlusal and -approximal enamel margins, the other aspects of the cavity enamel and gingival margins at the cement-enamel junction being prepared conventionally. The cavities for amalgam were prepared and filled conventionally. The specimens were cycled in different buffer solutions and temperature, modelling possible variations in the oral environment and examined with SEM. The results were analysed using ANOVA. The best marginal adaptation among the composites was achieved with Charisma, Estilux Posterior, Durafil and Prisma AP. H at the bevelled enamel margins, the worst marginal fit was with Heliomolar and Polofil. It was concluded, that adhesive technique reduces, but does not eliminate marginal leakage. PMID:10205985

  18. Effects of spike-frequency adaptation on neural models, with applications to biologically inspired robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, David Ross

    Animals are impressive biological machines, and their ability to handle unstructured environments is something roboticists wish to emulate. The behavioural competence of animals derives largely from the functioning of their nervous systems. Mathematical modelling of the functioning of neurons may enable us to extract useful principles from biology to be applied in robotics. Here, several systems with relevance to biologically inspired robotics are analyzed. The qualitative dynamics of a biological property called spike-frequency adaptation are added to existing analog neural models, and analysis shows the conditions under which the augmented model can generate oscillatory solutions. A network of these augmented analog neurons is then used to generate a walking gait for a six-legged robot in such a way that the system recovers rapidly from perturbations to the legs. The dynamics of oscillations arising in two coupled populations of integrate-and-fire neurons are studied; an analysis of the system provides good predictions of the oscillatory period and the range of coupling strengths for which oscillations will occur. A signal-processing phenomenon known as noise-shaping, wherein noise in a system is shifted out of the low frequencies up into higher frequency ranges, is demonstrated in networks of integrate-and-fire and conductance-based neurons; it is shown that spike-frequency adaptation provides certain signal-processing advantages in such networks. The effect of spike-frequency adaptation on the variability in integrate-and-fire neurons' firing records is analyzed.

  19. Longitudinal Effects of Adaptability on Behavior Problems and Maternal Depression in Families of Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family-systems perspective to examine whether family-level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the three-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptability, the mother-child relationship, their own depressive symptoms, and the behavior problems of their children at Wave 1, and these factors were used to predict maternal depression and child behavior problems three years later. Family-level adaptability predicted change in both maternal depression and child behavior problems over the study period, above and beyond the contribution of the dyadic mother-child relationship. These associations did not appear to depend upon the intellectual disability status of the individual with autism. Implications for autism, parent mental health, family systems theory, and for intervention with this population are discussed. PMID:21668120

  20. Effects of Adrenergic Blockade on Postpartum Adaptive Responses Induced by Labor Contractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Mills, N. A.; Lam, K. P.; Hayes, L. E.; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to labor contractions augments the expression of postnatal adaptive responses in newborn rats. Near-term rat fetuses exposed prenatally to simulated labor contractions and delivered by cesarean section breath and attach to nipples at greater frequencies than non-stimulated fetuses. Plasma NE (norepinephrine) and EPI (epinephrine) was significantly elevated in newborn rats exposed to vaginal birth or simulated labor contractions (compressions) with cesarean delivery as compared to non-compressed fetuses. In the present study, we investigated adrenergic mechanisms underlying labor-induced postnatal adaptive responses. Following spinal transection of late pregnant rat dams, fetuses were administered neurogenic or non-neurogenic adrenergic blockade: 1) bretylium (10 mg/kg sc) to prevent sympathetic neuronal release, 2) hexamethonium (30 mg/kg) to produce ganglionic blockade, 3) phenoxybenzanune (10mg/kg sc), an a- adrenergic receptor antagonist, 4) ICI-118551, 10 mg/kg sc), a b receptor antagonist, or 5) vehicle alone. Fetuses were either compressed (C) or non-compressed (NC) prior to cesarean delivery. a- and b- adrenergic antagonists reduced respiration and nipple attachment rates while sympathetic and vehicle alone did not. These results provide additional support for the hypothesis that adaptive neonatal effects of labor contractions are mediated by adrenal and extra-adrenal catecholamines.

  1. Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, Rebecca M; Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Henshaw, Jonathan M; Jarrett, Benjamin JM; De Gasperin, Ornela; Attisano, Alfredo; Kokko, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet, virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care. We manipulated the early-life environment and measured the fitness payoffs associated with the supply of parental care when larvae reached maturity. We found that (1) adults that received low levels of care as larvae were less successful at raising larger broods and suffered greater mortality as a result: they were low-quality parents. Furthermore, (2) high-quality males that raised offspring with low-quality females subsequently suffered greater mortality than brothers of equivalent quality, which reared larvae with higher quality females. Our analyses identify three general ways in which parental effects can change the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait: by influencing the associated fitness benefits and costs; by consequently changing the evolutionary outcome of social interactions; and by modifying the evolutionarily stable expression of behavioural traits that are themselves parental effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07340.001 PMID:26393686

  2. Dissociating proportion congruent and conflict adaptation effects in a Simon-Stroop procedure.

    PubMed

    Torres-Quesada, Maryem; Funes, Maria Jesús; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2013-02-01

    Proportion congruent and conflict adaptation are two well known effects associated with cognitive control. A critical open question is whether they reflect the same or separate cognitive control mechanisms. In this experiment, in a training phase we introduced a proportion congruency manipulation for one conflict type (i.e. Simon), whereas in pre-training and post-training phases two conflict types (e.g. Simon and Spatial Stroop) were displayed with the same incongruent-to-congruent ratio. The results supported the sustained nature of the proportion congruent effect, as it transferred from the training to the post-training phase. Furthermore, this transfer generalized to both conflict types. By contrast, the conflict adaptation effect was specific to conflict type, as it was only observed when the same conflict type (either Simon or Stroop) was presented on two consecutive trials (no effect was observed on conflict type alternation trials). Results are interpreted as supporting the reactive and proactive control mechanisms distinction. PMID:23337083

  3. Nonlinear Effects of Nanoparticles: Biological Variability From Hormetic Doses, Small Particle Sizes, and Dynamic Adaptive Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Ives, John A.; Jonas, Wayne B.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly focused on the nanoscale level of organization where biological processes take place in living systems. Nanoparticles (NPs, e.g., 1–100 nm diameter) are small forms of natural or manufactured source material whose properties differ markedly from those of the respective bulk forms of the “same” material. Certain NPs have diagnostic and therapeutic uses; some NPs exhibit low-dose toxicity; other NPs show ability to stimulate low-dose adaptive responses (hormesis). Beyond dose, size, shape, and surface charge variations of NPs evoke nonlinear responses in complex adaptive systems. NPs acquire unique size-dependent biological, chemical, thermal, optical, electromagnetic, and atom-like quantum properties. Nanoparticles exhibit high surface adsorptive capacity for other substances, enhanced bioavailability, and ability to cross otherwise impermeable cell membranes including the blood-brain barrier. With super-potent effects, nano-forms can evoke cellular stress responses or therapeutic effects not only at lower doses than their bulk forms, but also for longer periods of time. Interactions of initial effects and compensatory systemic responses can alter the impact of NPs over time. Taken together, the data suggest the need to downshift the dose-response curve of NPs from that for bulk forms in order to identify the necessarily decreased no-observed-adverse-effect-level and hormetic dose range for nanoparticles. PMID:24910581

  4. Effect of adaptation strategies when feeding fresh cassava foliage on intake and physiological responses of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Van, Do Thi Thanh; Spörndly, Eva; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study different adaptation strategies to avoid HCN intoxication when feeding fresh cassava foliage to sheep. Twenty-four Phan Rang lambs (initial weight = 19.6 kg at 5.5 months of age) were used in the study. The four experimental diets contained guinea grass (Panicum maximum) supplemented with concentrate at 1.5% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM) (control) or supplemented with fresh cassava foliage (FCF) that was introduced into the diet with an adaptation period of 0 (FCF-0), 7 (FCF-7) or 21 (FCF-21) days before reaching the target feeding level of 2% of BW. The average intake of FCF expressed as DM was not different amongst the supplemented treatments and ranged from 1.4 to 1.5% of BW but gradually increased during the first 7 days without any adaptation. The hydrogen cyanide consumed varied from 5.1 to 5.4 mg/kg BW and no difference between treatments with cassava foliage in the diet was found. The live weight gain was significantly higher in the treatments control and FCF-7 compared to FCF-21. No significant differences in heart rate, respiration rate and rumen movement were found between diets. The thiocyanate concentration in the urine of the lambs increased concomitantly with the increase in fresh cassava foliage offered during the first part of the experiment. In conclusion, an adaptation period of approximately 7 days seems to be favourable in combined diets where cassava foliage is offered in quantities up to 2% of BW. This level of intake could enhance the intake and LWG of the lambs without any documented effects on heart rate, respiration rate or rumen movements. PMID:22081316

  5. The change probability effect: incidental learning, adaptability, and shared visual working memory resources.

    PubMed

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2011-12-01

    Statistical properties in the visual environment can be used to improve performance on visual working memory (VWM) tasks. The current study examined the ability to incidentally learn that a change is more likely to occur to a particular feature dimension (shape, color, or location) and use this information to improve change detection performance for that dimension (the change probability effect). Participants completed a change detection task in which one change type was more probable than others. Change probability effects were found for color and shape changes, but not location changes, and intentional strategies did not improve the effect. Furthermore, the change probability effect developed and adapted to new probability information quickly. Finally, in some conditions, an improvement in change detection performance for a probable change led to an impairment in change detection for improbable changes. PMID:21963330

  6. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by

  7. Daytime sleep has no effect on the time course of motor sequence and visuomotor adaptation learning.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, Winifried; Braaß, Hanna; Renné, Thomas; Krüger, Christian; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2016-05-01

    Sleep has previously been claimed to be essential for the continued learning processes of declarative information as well as procedural learning. This study was conducted to examine the importance of sleep, especially the effects of midday naps, on motor sequence and visuomotor adaptation learning. Thirty-five (27 females) healthy, young adults aged between 18 and 30years of age participated in the current study. Addressing potential differences in explicit sequence and motor adaptation learning participants were asked to learn both, a nine-element explicit sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion on two consecutive days. Both tasks were performed with their non-dominant left hand. Prior to learning, each participant was randomized to one of three interventions; (1) power nap: 10-20min sleep, (2) long nap: 50-80min sleep or (3) a 45-min wake-condition. Performance of the motor learning task took place prior to and after a midday rest period, as well as after a night of sleep. Both sleep conditions were dominated by Stage N2 sleep with embedded sleep spindles, which have been described to be associated with enhancement of motor performance. Significant performance changes were observed in both tasks across all interventions (sleep and wake) confirming that learning took place. In the present setup, the magnitude of motor learning was not sleep-dependent in young adults - no differences between the intervention groups (short nap, long nap, no nap) could be found. The effect of the following night of sleep was not influenced by the previous midday rest or sleep period. This finding may be related to the selectiveness of the human brain enhancing especially memory being thought of as important in the future. Previous findings on motor learning enhancing effects of sleep, especially of daytime sleep, are challenged. PMID:27021017

  8. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptations to Space: Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Ellen S.; Bavendam, Tamara G.; Beck, Kevin D.; Miller, Virginia M.; Tash, Joseph S.; Jenkins, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this report, sex/gender research relevant to reproduction on Earth, in conjunction with the extant human and animal observations in space, was used to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize recommendations for future sex- and gender-specific surveillance and monitoring of male and female astronauts. With overall increased durations of contemporary space missions, a deeper understanding of sex/gender effects on reproduction-related responses and adaptations to the space environment is warranted to minimize risks and insure healthy aging of the men and women who travel into space. PMID:25401943

  9. Effects of sex and gender on adaptations to space: reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Ronca, April E; Baker, Ellen S; Bavendam, Tamara G; Beck, Kevin D; Miller, Virginia M; Tash, Joseph S; Jenkins, Marjorie

    2014-11-01

    In this report, sex/gender research relevant to reproduction on Earth, in conjunction with the extant human and animal observations in space, was used to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize recommendations for future sex- and gender-specific surveillance and monitoring of male and female astronauts. With overall increased durations of contemporary space missions, a deeper understanding of sex/gender effects on reproduction-related responses and adaptations to the space environment is warranted to minimize risks and insure healthy aging of the men and women who travel into space. PMID:25401943

  10. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects.

    PubMed

    John, Sona; Seetharaman, Sarada

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments. PMID:26990188

  11. The Congruency Sequence Effect 3.0: A Critical Test of Conflict Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Duthoo, Wout; Abrahamse, Elger L.; Braem, Senne; Boehler, C. Nico; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the congruency sequence effect (CSE) –the finding of a reduced congruency effect following incongruent trials in conflict tasks– has played a central role in advancing research on cognitive control. According to the influential conflict-monitoring account, the CSE reflects adjustments in selective attention that enhance task focus when needed, often termed conflict adaptation. However, this dominant interpretation of the CSE has been called into question by several alternative accounts that stress the role of episodic memory processes: feature binding and (stimulus-response) contingency learning. To evaluate the notion of conflict adaptation in accounting for the CSE, we construed versions of three widely used experimental paradigms (the colour-word Stroop, picture-word Stroop and flanker task) that effectively control for feature binding and contingency learning. Results revealed that a CSE can emerge in all three tasks. This strongly suggests a contribution of attentional control to the CSE and highlights the potential of these unprecedentedly clean paradigms for further examining cognitive control. PMID:25340396

  12. Exploiting the Adaptation Dynamics to Predict the Distribution of Beneficial Fitness Effects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation of asexual populations is driven by beneficial mutations and therefore the dynamics of this process, besides other factors, depends on the distribution of beneficial fitness effects. It is known that on uncorrelated fitness landscapes, this distribution can only be of three types: truncated, exponential and power law. We performed extensive stochastic simulations to study the adaptation dynamics on rugged fitness landscapes, and identified two quantities that can be used to distinguish the underlying distribution of beneficial fitness effects. The first quantity studied here is the fitness difference between successive mutations that spread in the population, which is found to decrease in the case of truncated distributions, remains nearly a constant for exponentially decaying distributions and increases when the fitness distribution decays as a power law. The second quantity of interest, namely, the rate of change of fitness with time also shows quantitatively different behaviour for different beneficial fitness distributions. The patterns displayed by the two aforementioned quantities are found to hold good for both low and high mutation rates. We discuss how these patterns can be exploited to determine the distribution of beneficial fitness effects in microbial experiments. PMID:26990188

  13. Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

    2005-10-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status. PMID:16287384

  14. Alterations in cancer cell metabolism: the Warburg effect and metabolic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Yazdan; Zabihinpour, Zahra; Salehzadeh-Yazdi, Ali; Schreiber, Falk; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2015-05-01

    The Warburg effect means higher glucose uptake of cancer cells compared to normal tissues, whereas a smaller fraction of this glucose is employed for oxidative phosphorylation. With the advent of high throughput technologies and computational systems biology, cancer cell metabolism has been reinvestigated over the last decades toward identifying various events underlying "how" and "why" a cancer cell employs aerobic glycolysis. Significant progress has been shaped to revise the Warburg effect. In this study, we have integrated the gene expression of 13 different cancer cells with the genome-scale metabolic network of human (Recon1) based on the E-Flux method, and analyzed them based on constraint-based modeling. Results show that regardless of significant up- and down-regulated metabolic genes, the distribution of metabolic changes is similar in different cancer types. These findings support the theory that the Warburg effect is a consequence of metabolic adaptation in cancer cells. PMID:25773945

  15. Behavioural and physiological effect of dental environment sensory adaptation on children's dental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michele; Melmed, Raphael N; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Eli, Ilana; Parush, Shula

    2007-12-01

    Dental anxiety is a serious obstacle in conventional oral healthcare delivery. A sensory adapted dental environment (SDE) might be effective in reducing anxiety and inducing relaxation. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a Snoezelen SDE in reducing anxiety among children undergoing scaling and polishing by a dental hygienist. The Snoezelen environment consists of a partially dimmed room with lighting effects, vibroacoustic stimuli, and deep pressure. Nineteen children, aged 6-11 yr, participated in a cross-over intervention trial. Behavioral parameters included the mean number, duration, and magnitude of anxious behaviors, as monitored by videotaped recordings. Physiological parameters reflecting arousal were monitored by changes in dermal resistance. Results, by all measures, consistently indicated that both behavioral and psychophysiological measures of relaxation improved significantly in the SDE compared with a conventional dental environment. The findings support recommending the SDE as an effective and practical alternative in oral healthcare delivery to anxious children. PMID:18028056

  16. Role of adapted physical activity to prevent the adverse effects of the sarcopenia. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Marini, Mirca; Sarchielli, Erica; Brogi, Lucia; Lazzeri, Renzo; Salerno, Roberto; Sgambati, Eleonora; Monaci, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the physiological age related decline in muscle mass and strength. It is a main cause of muscle weakness and reduced locomotory ability and its adverse effects contributes to a reduction in physical function and performance with decreased independence and quality of life. In fact, sarcopenia has been associated with disability and morbidity in the elderly population. Therefore, prevention and treatment of sarcopenia are areas of intense interest. The studies suggest that the pathogenesis of sarcopenia is multifactorial, but the decreased physical activity with aging appears to be a key factor involved in producing this pathology. We investigated the role of adapted physical activity on the adverse effects of the sarcopenia: we examined the effect of a specific resistance training program in twenty sedentary older men, 60-80 years old, with sarcopenia. The program was performed three days a week for 18 total weeks with isotonic machines; in particular the exercises effected with leg press, chest press and vertical row were monitored using a Globus-Tesys dynamometer with Real Power. The maximum repetition test (1RM) was used to calculate the percentage of work and formulate the methodology. Our results demonstrated that the proposed training can improve the dynamic characteristics of muscle strength. In particular, we showed that a medium-low intensity training, structured in series and repetitions with gradual increased workload, produced a time-dependent improvement of strength. Our training increased the muscle strength mainly in the lower limbs reducing the risk of falls which frequently occurs in the elderly. Therefore, a planned resistance training could be an effective countermeasure to prevent or reduce the adverse effects of the sarcopenia improving the quality of life. The physical activity should be personalized and adapted to subject's age and/or disability. PMID:19507462

  17. Effectiveness of Cultural Adaptations of Interventions Aimed at Smoking Cessation, Diet, and/or Physical Activity in Ethnic Minorities. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A.; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. Aim To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. Methods Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997–2009). Inclusion criteria: a) effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b) interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c) primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. Results Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. Conclusion This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a higher intensity of the

  18. A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanoparticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper proposes a novel model for homeopathic remedy action on living systems. Research indicates that homeopathic remedies (a) contain measurable source and silica nanoparticles heterogeneously dispersed in colloidal solution; (b) act by modulating biological function of the allostatic stress response network (c) evoke biphasic actions on living systems via organism-dependent adaptive and endogenously amplified effects; (d) improve systemic resilience. Discussion The proposed active components of homeopathic remedies are nanoparticles of source substance in water-based colloidal solution, not bulk-form drugs. Nanoparticles have unique biological and physico-chemical properties, including increased catalytic reactivity, protein and DNA adsorption, bioavailability, dose-sparing, electromagnetic, and quantum effects different from bulk-form materials. Trituration and/or liquid succussions during classical remedy preparation create “top-down” nanostructures. Plants can biosynthesize remedy-templated silica nanostructures. Nanoparticles stimulate hormesis, a beneficial low-dose adaptive response. Homeopathic remedies prescribed in low doses spaced intermittently over time act as biological signals that stimulate the organism’s allostatic biological stress response network, evoking nonlinear modulatory, self-organizing change. Potential mechanisms include time-dependent sensitization (TDS), a type of adaptive plasticity/metaplasticity involving progressive amplification of host responses, which reverse direction and oscillate at physiological limits. To mobilize hormesis and TDS, the remedy must be appraised as a salient, but low level, novel threat, stressor, or homeostatic disruption for the whole organism. Silica nanoparticles adsorb remedy source and amplify effects. Properly-timed remedy dosing elicits disease-primed compensatory reversal in direction of maladaptive dynamics of the allostatic network, thus promoting resilience and recovery from

  19. Determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to scarce freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, R.; Hornberger, G.; Carrico, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stress on freshwater resources is a significant risk associated with climatic change. The risk is even greater given the expected changes in overall resource use as the developing world develops, as the world's population continues to grow, and as land use changes dramatically. Effective water management has implications for food security, health, and political stability worldwide. This is particularly true in developing regions heavily dependent on agriculture, and where agriculture depends on irrigation. Adaptation to water stress requires both managing water allocation among competing users and ensuring that each user is efficient in his or her use of a limited allotment: the problem is a quintessential common-pool resource (CPR) dilemma. In the future even more so than in the past, adaptation will be essential as the world evolves. The problem that we identify—determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to increasingly scarce freshwater resources—is one of great scientific and societal importance. The issue lies at the intersection of water-cycle processes and social-psychological processes that influence and are influenced by water availability and use. This intersection harbors intriguing unresolved scientific questions; advances in natural and social sciences will stem from attacks on the overall problem. The issue is societally compelling because the ability of the world to supply adequate food for a population expected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050 may well be determined by how farmers, consumers, and government institutions adapt to changing conditions of water availability. Major strides have been made in recent decades in understanding why Hardin's envisioned "tragedy of the commons" is avoided under certain circumstances, in some cases through self-organization rather than government intervention originally considered a necessity. Furthermore, we now know that the impacts of decisions about allocation and use of water can be

  20. Developmental Cascade Effects of the New Beginnings Program on Adolescent Adaptation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bonds, Darya D.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Winslow, Emily; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a 6-year longitudinal follow-up sample of 240 youth who participated in a randomized experimental trial of a preventive intervention for divorced families with children ages 9–12, the current study tested alternative cascading pathways by which the intervention decreased symptoms of internalizing disorders, symptoms of externalizing disorders, substance use, and risky sexual behavior, and increased self-esteem and academic performance in mid-to late-adolescence (15–19 years old). It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on adolescent adaptation outcomes would be explained by progressive associations between program-induced changes in parenting and youth adaptation outcomes. The results supported a cascading model of program effects in which the program was related to increased mother-child relationship quality, which was related to subsequent decreases in child internalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent increases in self-esteem and decreases in symptoms of internalizing disorders in adolescence. The results also were consistent with a model in which the program was related to increased maternal effective discipline, which was related to subsequent decreases in child externalizing problems, which then was related to subsequent decreases in symptoms of externalizing disorders, less substance use and better academic performance in adolescence. There were no significant differences in the model based on level of baseline risk or adolescent gender. These results provide support for a cascading pathways model of child and adolescent development. PMID:20883581

  1. Effect of Margin Design and Processing Steps on Marginal Adaptation of Captek Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Amy; Flinton, Robert; Vaidyanathan, Jayalakshmi; Vaidyanathan, Tritala

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of four margin designs on marginal adaptation of Captek crowns during selected processing steps. Twenty-four Captek crowns were fabricated, six each of four margin designs: shoulder (Group A), chamfer (Group B), chamfer with bevel (Group C), and shoulder with bevel (Group D). Marginal discrepancies between crowns and matching dies were measured at selected points for each sample at the coping stage (Stage 1), following porcelain application (Stage 2) and cementation (Stage 3). Digital imaging methods were used to measure marginal gap. The results indicate decreasing trend of margin gap as a function of margin design in the order A>B>C>D. Between processing steps, the trend was in the order Stage 3 < Stage 1 < Stage 2. Porcelain firing had no significant effect on marginal adaptation, but cementation decreased the marginal gap. Generally, the margin gap in Captek restorations were in all cases less than the reported acceptable range of margin gaps for ceramometal restorations. These results are clinically favorable outcomes and may be associated with the ductility and burnishability of matrix phase in Captek metal coping margins. PMID:21991488

  2. Effect of oral DHEA on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance training in young men.

    PubMed

    Brown, G A; Vukovich, M D; Sharp, R L; Reifenrath, T A; Parsons, K A; King, D S

    1999-12-01

    This study examined the effects of acute dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ingestion on serum steroid hormones and the effect of chronic DHEA intake on the adaptations to resistance training. In 10 young men (23 +/- 4 yr old), ingestion of 50 mg of DHEA increased serum androstenedione concentrations 150% within 60 min (P < 0.05) but did not affect serum testosterone and estrogen concentrations. An additional 19 men (23 +/- 1 yr old) participated in an 8-wk whole body resistance-training program and ingested DHEA (150 mg/day, n = 9) or placebo (n = 10) during weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8. Serum androstenedione concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the DHEA-treated group after 2 and 5 wk. Serum concentrations of free and total testosterone, estrone, estradiol, estriol, lipids, and liver transaminases were unaffected by supplementation and training, while strength and lean body mass increased significantly and similarly (P < 0.05) in the men treated with placebo and DHEA. These results suggest that DHEA ingestion does not enhance serum testosterone concentrations or adaptations associated with resistance training in young men. PMID:10601178

  3. The Effects of Short-Lasting Anti-Saccade Training in Homonymous Hemianopia with and without Saccadic Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Lévy-Bencheton, Delphine; Pélisson, Denis; Prost, Myriam; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Salemme, Roméo; Pisella, Laure; Tilikete, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Homonymous Visual Field Defects (HVFD) are common following stroke and can be highly debilitating for visual perception and higher level cognitive functions such as exploring visual scene or reading a text. Rehabilitation using oculomotor compensatory methods with automatic training over a short duration (~15 days) have been shown as efficient as longer voluntary training methods (>1 month). Here, we propose to evaluate and compare the effect of an original HVFD rehabilitation method based on a single 15 min voluntary anti-saccades task (AS) toward the blind hemifield, with automatic sensorimotor adaptation to increase AS amplitude. In order to distinguish between adaptation and training effect, 14 left- or right-HVFD patients were exposed, 1 month apart, to three trainings, two isolated AS task (Delayed-shift and No-shift paradigm), and one combined with AS adaptation (Adaptation paradigm). A quality of life questionnaire (NEI-VFQ 25) and functional measurements (reading speed, visual exploration time in pop-out and serial tasks) as well as oculomotor measurements were assessed before and after each training. We could not demonstrate significant adaptation at the group level, but we identified a group of nine adapted patients. While AS training itself proved to demonstrate significant functional improvements in the overall patient group, we could also demonstrate in the sub-group of adapted patients and specifically following the adaptation training, an increase of saccade amplitude during the reading task (left-HVFD patients) and the Serial exploration task, and improvement of the visual quality of life. We conclude that short-lasting AS training combined with adaptation could be implemented in rehabilitation methods of cognitive dysfunctions following HVFD. Indeed, both voluntary and automatic processes have shown interesting effects on the control of visually guided saccades in different cognitive tasks. PMID:26778986

  4. Context-dependent planktivory: interacting effects of turbidity and predation risk on adaptive foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Kevin L.; Malinich, Timothy D.; Bunnell, David B.; DeVries, Dennis R.; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    By shaping species interactions, adaptive phenotypic plasticity can profoundly influence ecosystems. Predicting such outcomes has proven difficult, however, owing in part to the dependence of plasticity on the environmental context. Of particular relevance are environmental factors that affect sensory performance in organisms in ways that alter the tradeoffs associated with adaptive phenotypic responses. We explored the influence of turbidity, which simultaneously and differentially affects the sensory performance of consumers at multiple trophic levels, on the indirect effect of a top predator (piscivorous fish) on a basal prey resource (zooplankton) that is mediated through changes in the plastic foraging behavior of an intermediate consumer (zooplanktivorous fish). We first generated theoretical predictions of the adaptive foraging response of a zooplanktivore across wide gradients of turbidity and predation risk by a piscivore. Our model predicted that predation risk can change the negative relationship between intermediate consumer foraging and turbidity into a humped-shaped (unimodal) one in which foraging is low in both clear and highly turbid conditions due to foraging-related risk and visual constraints, respectively. Consequently, the positive trait-mediated indirect effect (TMIE) of the top predator on the basal resource is predicted to peak at low turbidity and decline thereafter until it reaches an asymptote of zero at intermediate turbidity levels (when foraging equals that which is predicted when the top predator is absent). We used field observations and a laboratory experiment to test our model predictions. In support, we found humped-shaped relationships between planktivory and turbidity for several zooplanktivorous fishes from diverse freshwater ecosystems with predation risk. Further, our experiment demonstrated that predation risk reduced zooplanktivory by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) at a low turbidity, but had no effect on consumption at

  5. Effect of randomness on multi-frequency aeroelastic responses resolved by Unsteady Adaptive Stochastic Finite Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Witteveen, Jeroen A.S. Bijl, Hester

    2009-10-01

    The Unsteady Adaptive Stochastic Finite Elements (UASFE) method resolves the effect of randomness in numerical simulations of single-mode aeroelastic responses with a constant accuracy in time for a constant number of samples. In this paper, the UASFE framework is extended to multi-frequency responses and continuous structures by employing a wavelet decomposition pre-processing step to decompose the sampled multi-frequency signals into single-frequency components. The effect of the randomness on the multi-frequency response is then obtained by summing the results of the UASFE interpolation at constant phase for the different frequency components. Results for multi-frequency responses and continuous structures show a three orders of magnitude reduction of computational costs compared to crude Monte Carlo simulations in a harmonically forced oscillator, a flutter panel problem, and the three-dimensional transonic AGARD 445.6 wing aeroelastic benchmark subject to random fields and random parameters with various probability distributions.

  6. Niche partitioning due to adaptive foraging reverses effects of nestedness and connectance on pollination network stability.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos, Fernanda S; Brosi, Berry J; Briggs, Heather M; Moisset de Espanés, Pablo; Ramos-Jiliberto, Rodrigo; Martinez, Neo D

    2016-10-01

    Much research debates whether properties of ecological networks such as nestedness and connectance stabilise biological communities while ignoring key behavioural aspects of organisms within these networks. Here, we computationally assess how adaptive foraging (AF) behaviour interacts with network architecture to determine the stability of plant-pollinator networks. We find that AF reverses negative effects of nestedness and positive effects of connectance on the stability of the networks by partitioning the niches among species within guilds. This behaviour enables generalist pollinators to preferentially forage on the most specialised of their plant partners which increases the pollination services to specialist plants and cedes the resources of generalist plants to specialist pollinators. We corroborate these behavioural preferences with intensive field observations of bee foraging. Our results show that incorporating key organismal behaviours with well-known biological mechanisms such as consumer-resource interactions into the analysis of ecological networks may greatly improve our understanding of complex ecosystems. PMID:27600659

  7. The Effects of Adapted Tango on Spatial Cognition and Disease Severity in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Kathleen E.; Hackney, Madeleine E.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined effects of community-based adapted tango upon spatial cognition and disease severity in Parkinson’s disease (PD) while controlling for the effects of social interaction. Thirty-three individuals with mild-moderate PD (stage I–III) were assigned to twenty, 90-minute Tango (n=24) or Education (n=9) lessons over 12 weeks. Disease severity, spatial cognition, balance, and fall incidence were evaluated pre-, post-, and 10–12 weeks post-intervention. T-tests and ANOVAs evaluated differences. Twenty-three Tango and 8 Education participants finished. Tango participants improved on disease severity (p=0.008), and spatial cognition (p=0.021) compared to Education participants. Tango participants also improved in balance (p=0.038), and executive function (p=0.012). Gains were maintained 10–12 weeks post-intervention. Multimodal exercise with structured syllabi may improve disease severity and spatial cognition. PMID:24116748

  8. Radiation-induced bystander effect and adaptive response in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, H.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Waldren, C. A.; Hei, T. K.

    2004-01-01

    Two conflicting phenomena, bystander effect and adaptive response, are important in determining the biological responses at low doses of radiation and have the potential to impact the shape of the dose-response relationship. Using the Columbia University charged-particle microbeam and the highly sensitive AL cell mutagenic assay, we show here that non-irradiated cells acquire mutagenesis through direct contact with cells whose nuclei have been traversed with a single alpha particle each. Pretreatment of cells with a low dose of X-rays four hours before alpha particle irradiation significantly decreased this bystander mutagenic response. Results from the present study address some of the fundamental issues regarding both the actual target and radiation dose effect and can contribute to our current understanding in radiation risk assessment. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive Scheduling for QoS Virtual Machines under Different Resource Allocation - Performance Effects and Predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodan, Angela C.

    Virtual machines have become an important approach to provide performance isolation and performance guarantees (QoS) on cluster servers and on many-core SMP servers. Many-core CPUs are a current trend in CPU design and require jobs to be parallel for exploitation of the performance potential. Very promising for batch job scheduling with virtual machines on both cluster servers and many-core SMP servers is adaptive scheduling which can adjust sizes of parallel jobs to consider different load situations and different resource availability. Then, the resource allocation and resource partitioning can be determined at virtual-machine level and be propagated down to the job sizes. The paper investigates job re-sizing and virtual-machine resizing, and the effects which the efficiency curve of the jobs has on the resulting performance. Additionally, the paper presents a simple, yet effective queuing-model approach for predicting performance under different resource allocation.

  10. Adapting The Joint Commission's Seven Foundations of Safe and Effective Transitions of Care to Home

    PubMed Central

    Labson, Margherita C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe The Joint Commission's 7 foundations of safe and effective transitions of care to home: (a) leadership support; (b) multidisciplinary collaboration; (c) early identification of patients/clients at risk; (d) transitional planning; (e) medication management; (f) patient and family action/engagement; and (g) transfer of information. These foundations were identified by The Joint Commission after a review of published research; focus groups with healthcare professionals involved in transitions of care; and visits to diverse healthcare organizations. The author, who is the executive director of The Joint Commission's Home Care Accreditation Program, illustrates how healthcare organizations are adapting the 7 foundations of safe and effective transitions of care to home. PMID:25742092

  11. Effects of systemic hypoxia on human muscular adaptations to resistance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Kon, Michihiro; Ohiwa, Nao; Honda, Akiko; Matsubayashi, Takeo; Ikeda, Tatsuaki; Akimoto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Yuichi; Russell, Aaron P

    2014-06-01

    Hypoxia is an important modulator of endurance exercise-induced oxidative adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether hypoxia affects resistance exercise-induced muscle adaptations remains unknown. Here, we determined the effect of resistance exercise training under systemic hypoxia on muscular adaptations known to occur following both resistance and endurance exercise training, including muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), one-repetition maximum (1RM), muscular endurance, and makers of mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), citrate synthase (CS) activity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), and capillary-to-fiber ratio. Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to either a normoxic resistance training group (NRT, n = 7) or a hypoxic (14.4% oxygen) resistance training group (HRT, n = 9) and performed 8 weeks of resistance training. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were obtained before and after training. After training muscle CSA of the femoral region, 1RM for bench-press and leg-press, muscular endurance, and skeletal muscle VEGF protein levels significantly increased in both groups. The increase in muscular endurance was significantly higher in the HRT group. Plasma VEGF concentration and skeletal muscle capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly higher in the HRT group than the NRT group following training. Our results suggest that, in addition to increases in muscle size and strength, HRT may also lead to increased muscular endurance and the promotion of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. PMID:24907297

  12. The development of adaptive conformity in young children: effects of uncertainty and consensus.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Thomas J H; Laland, Kevin N; Harris, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    Human culture relies on extensive use of social transmission, which must be integrated with independently acquired (i.e. asocial) information for effective decision-making. Formal evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies, including a bias to copy when uncertain, and a bias to disproportionately copy the majority (known as 'conformist transmission'). Although the function and causation of these evolved strategies has been comparatively well studied, little is known of their development. We experimentally investigated the development of the bias to copy-when-uncertain and conformist transmission in children from the ages of 3 to 7, testing predictions derived from theoretical models. Children first attempted to solve a binary-choice quantity discrimination task themselves using asocial information, but were then given the decisions of informants, and an opportunity to revise their answer. We investigated whether children's revised judgments were adaptively contingent on (i) the difficulty of the trial and (ii) the degree of consensus amongst informants. As predicted, older but not younger children copied others more on more difficult trials than on easier trials, even though older children also showed a tendency to stick with their initial, asocial decision. We also found that older children, like adults, were disproportionately receptive to non-total majorities (i.e. were conformist) whereas younger children were receptive only to total (i.e. unanimous) majorities. We conclude that, whilst the mechanism for incorporating social information into decision-making is initially very blunt, across the course of early childhood it converges on the adaptive learning mechanisms observed in adults and predicted by cultural evolutionary theory. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://youtu.be/Qb6JINGYqVk. PMID:25283881

  13. Increasing the effectiveness of native forest regeneration and reforestation: towards climate-change adaptation in drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branquinho, Cristina; Príncipe, Adriana; Nunes, Alice; Kobel, Melanie; Soares, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The recent expansion of the semiarid climate to all the region of the south of Portugal and the growing impact of climate change demands local adaptation. The growth of the native forest represents a strategy at the ecosystem level to adapt to climate change since it increases resilience and increases also de delivery of ecosystem services such as the increment of organic matter in the soil, carbon and nitrogen, biodiversity, water infiltration, etc. Moreover decreases susceptibility to desertification. For that reason, large areas have been reforested in the south of Portugal with the native species holm oak and cork oak but with a low rate of effectiveness. Our goal in this work is to show how the cost-benefit relation of the actions intended to expand the forest of the Portuguese semiarid can be lowered by taking into account the microclimatic conditions and high spatial resolution management. The potential of forest regeneration was modelled at the local and regional level in the semiarid area using information concerning the Potential Solar Radiation. This model gives us the rate of native forest regeneration after a disturbance with high spatial resolution. Based on this model the territory was classified in: i) easy regeneration areas; ii) areas with the need of assisted reforestation, using methods that increase water and soil conservation; iii) areas of difficult reforestation because of the costs. Additionally a summary of the success of reforestations was made in the historical semiarid since the 60s based on the evaluation of a series of case studies, where we quantified the ecosystem services currently delivered by the reforested ecosystems. Acknowledgement: Programa Adapt: financed by EEA Grants and Fundo Português de Carbono

  14. Effectiveness of a Culturally Adapted Strengthening Families Program 12-16-Years for High-Risk Irish Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumpfer, Karol L.; Xie, Jing; O'Driscoll, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based programs (EBPs) targeting effective family skills are the most cost effective for improving adolescent behavioural health. Cochrane Reviews have found the "Strengthening Families Program" (SFP) to be the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Standardized cultural adaptation processes resulted in…

  15. Assessing Dynamic Spectral Causality by Lagged Adaptive Directed Transfer Function and Instantaneous Effect Factor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haojie; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhu, Shanan

    2014-01-01

    It is of significance to assess the dynamic spectral causality among physiological signals. Several practical estimators adapted from spectral Granger causality have been exploited to track dynamic causality based on the framework of time-varying multivariate autoregressive (tvMVAR) models. The non-zero covariance of the model’s residuals has been used to describe the instantaneous effect phenomenon in some causality estimators. However, for the situations with Gaussian residuals in some autoregressive models, it is challenging to distinguish the directed instantaneous causality if the sufficient prior information about the “causal ordering” is missing. Here, we propose a new algorithm to assess the time-varying causal ordering of tvMVAR model under the assumption that the signals follow the same acyclic causal ordering for all time lags and to estimate the instantaneous effect factor (IEF) value in order to track the dynamic directed instantaneous connectivity. The time-lagged adaptive directed transfer function (ADTF) is also estimated to assess the lagged causality after removing the instantaneous effect. In the present study, we firstly investigated the performance of the causal-ordering estimation algorithm and the accuracy of IEF value. Then, we presented the results of IEF and time-lagged ADTF method by comparing with the conventional ADTF method through simulations of various propagation models. Statistical analysis results suggest that the new algorithm could accurately estimate the causal ordering and give a good estimation of the IEF values in the Gaussian residual conditions. Meanwhile, the time-lagged ADTF approach is also more accurate in estimating the time-lagged dynamic interactions in a complex nervous system after extracting the instantaneous effect. In addition to the simulation studies, we applied the proposed method to estimate the dynamic spectral causality on real visual evoked potential (VEP) data in a human subject. Its usefulness in

  16. Longitudinal Effects of Adaptive Interventions With a Speech-Generating Device in Minimally Verbal Children With ASD.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Daniel; DiStefano, Charlotte; Chang, Ya-Chih; Shire, Stephanie; Kaiser, Ann; Lu, Xi; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Landa, Rebecca; Mathy, Pamela; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on the effects of adaptive social communication interventions with a speech-generating device in autism. This study is the first to compare growth in communications outcomes among three adaptive interventions in school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who are minimally verbal. Sixty-one children, ages 5-8 years, participated in a sequential, multiple-assignment randomized trial (SMART). All children received a developmental behavioral communication intervention: joint attention, symbolic play, engagement and regulation (JASP) with enhanced milieu teaching (EMT). The SMART included three 2-stage, 24-week adaptive interventions with different provisions of a speech-generating device (SGD) in the context of JASP+EMT. The first adaptive intervention, with no SGD, initially assigned JASP+EMT alone, then intensified JASP+EMT for slow responders. In the second adaptive intervention, slow responders to JASP+EMT were assigned JASP+EMT+SGD. The third adaptive intervention initially assigned JASP+EMT+SGD; then intensified JASP+EMT+SGD for slow responders. Analyses examined between-group differences in change in outcomes from baseline to Week 36. Verbal outcomes included spontaneous communicative utterances and novel words. Nonlinguistic communication outcomes included initiating joint attention and behavior regulation, and play. The adaptive intervention beginning with JASP+EMT+SGD was estimated as superior. There were significant (p < .05) between-group differences in change in spontaneous communicative utterances and initiating joint attention. School-age children with ASD who are minimally verbal make significant gains in communication outcomes with an adaptive intervention beginning with JASP+EMT+SGD. Future research should explore mediators and moderators of the adaptive intervention effects and second-stage intervention options that further capitalize on early gains in treatment. PMID:26954267

  17. Left to Right: Representational Biases for Numbers and the Effect of Visuomotor Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Andrea M.; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Bradshaw, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptation to right-shifting prisms improves left neglect for mental number line bisection. This study examined whether adaptation affects the mental number line in normal participants. Thirty-six participants completed a mental number line task before and after adaptation to either: left-shifting prisms, right-shifting prisms or control…

  18. Aftereffects for Face Attributes with Different Natural Variability: Adapter Position Effects and Neural Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rachel; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Adaptation to distorted faces is commonly interpreted as a shift in the face-space norm for the adapted attribute. This article shows that the size of the aftereffect varies as a function of the distortion level of the adapter. The pattern differed for different facial attributes, increasing with distortion level for symmetric deviations of eye…

  19. Copy-number changes in evolution: rates, fitness effects and adaptive significance

    PubMed Central

    Katju, Vaishali; Bergthorsson, Ulfar

    2013-01-01

    Gene copy-number differences due to gene duplications and deletions are rampant in natural populations and play a crucial role in the evolution of genome complexity. Per-locus analyses of gene duplication rates in the pre-genomic era revealed that gene duplication rates are much higher than the per nucleotide substitution rate. Analyses of gene duplication and deletion rates in mutation accumulation lines of model organisms have revealed that these high rates of copy-number mutations occur at a genome-wide scale. Furthermore, comparisons of the spontaneous duplication and deletion rates to copy-number polymorphism data and bioinformatic-based estimates of duplication rates from sequenced genomes suggest that the vast majority of gene duplications are detrimental and removed by natural selection. The rate at which new gene copies appear in populations greatly influences their evolutionary dynamics and standing gene copy-number variation in populations. The opportunity for mutations that result in the maintenance of duplicate copies, either through neofunctionalization or subfunctionalization, also depends on the equilibrium frequency of additional gene copies in the population, and hence on the spontaneous gene duplication (and loss) rate. The duplication rate may therefore have profound effects on the role of adaptation in the evolution of duplicated genes as well as important consequences for the evolutionary potential of organisms. We further discuss the broad ramifications of this standing gene copy-number variation on fitness and adaptive potential from a population-genetic and genome-wide perspective. PMID:24368910

  20. Adaptive prediction of human eye pupil position and effects on wavefront errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea; Kulcsár, Caroline; Raynaud, Henri-François; El Mrabet, Yamina; Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    The effects of pupil motion on retinal imaging are studied in this paper. Involuntary eye or head movements are always present in the imaging procedure, decreasing the output quality and preventing a more detailed diagnostics. When the image acquisition is performed using an adaptive optics (AO) system, substantial gain is foreseen if pupil motion is accounted for. This can be achieved using a pupil tracker as the one developed by Imagine Eyes R®, which provides pupil position measurements at a 80Hz sampling rate. In any AO loop, there is inevitably a delay between the wavefront measurement and the correction applied to the deformable mirror, meaning that an optimal compensation requires prediction. We investigate several ways of predicting pupil movement, either by retaining the last value given by the pupil tracker, which is close to the optimal solution in the case of a pure random walk, or by performing position prediction thanks to auto-regressive (AR) models with parameters updated in real time. We show that a small improvement in prediction with respect to predicting with the latest measured value is obtained through adaptive AR modeling. We evaluate the wavefront errors obtained by computing the root mean square of the difference between a wavefront displaced by the assumed true position and the predicted one, as seen by the imaging system. The results confirm that pupil movements have to be compensated in order to minimize wavefront errors.

  1. Adaptive Vibration Reduction System Shown to Effectively Eliminate Vibrations for the Stirling Radioisotope Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    2000-01-01

    Stirling Technology Company (STC), as part of a Small Business Innovation Research contract Phase II with the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is developing an Adaptive Vibration Reduction System (AVRS) that will effectively eliminate vibrations for the Stirling radioisotope power system. The AVRS will reduce vibration levels for two synchronized, opposed Stirling converters by a factor of 10 or more under normal operating conditions. Even more importantly, the AVRS will be adaptive and will be able to adjust to any changing converter conditions over the course of a mission. The Stirling converter is being developed by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) as a high-efficiency option for a radioisotope power system to provide onboard electric power for NASA deep space missions. The high Stirling efficiency of over 25 percent for this application will reduce the required amount of isotope by more than a factor of 3 in comparison to the current radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG s). Stirling is the most developed converter option of the advanced power technologies under consideration.

  2. Coordination of Lower Limb Joints During Locomotion: The Effects of Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Chris; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Richards, Jason; Peters, Brian; Houser, Jeremy; Marshburn, Ann; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Controlling locomotion while maintaining a stable gaze requires precise coordination between several, interdependent full-body sensorimotor subsystems (Bloomberg and Mulavara, 2003; McDonald, et al., 1997). The overall goal of this study is to determine how this full-body gaze stabilization system responds to adaptive changes in vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) function. Locomotion involves cyclical physical interactions (impacts) with the environment. Hence, focusing on a target and maintaining visual acuity during this activity may require mechanisms to manage the energy flow, so it does not disrupt the visual and vestibular sensory information processing that stabilizes gaze. It has been shown that increasing the difficulty of a gaze task (reading numbers on a screen as opposed to simply focusing on a central dot pattern) resulted in an increase in the amount of knee flexion movement during the critical phase immediately following the heel strike event (Mulavara and Bloomberg, 2003). The increase in knee flexion during the stance phase of the gait cycle has been suggested to function as a shock absorbing mechanism associated with the rapid weight transfer from the trailing to the leading leg during walking. To understand this full-body coordination, the relative contributions of each component and the resulting effects should be assessed. In this study, we hypothesized that VOR adaptation would result in a reorganization of the lower limb joint coordination during treadmill walking in a manner to facilitate the gaze stabilization task and preserve locomotor function.

  3. Effects of Centrifuge Diameter and Operation on Rodent Adaptation to Chronic Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the responses of rats to centrifugation in a constant acceleration field (1.5 G). Centrifuge diameter (1.8m, 2.5m or 6.0m) and schedule of operation (Daily or weekly stop) varied between groups. Body mass, food consumption, water consumption and neurovestibular function were measured weekly. Body temperature and activity were continuously monitored using telemetry. A subset of subjects were videotaped (50 minutes per day) to allow for movement analysis. Exposure to a hyperdynamic field of this magnitude did cause the expected depression in the physiological variables monitored. Recovery was accomplished within a relatively rapid time frame; all variables returned to precentrifugation levels. In general, the magnitudes of the changes and the rate of recovery were similar at different centrifuge diameters and stopping frequency. There were cases, however, in which the magnitude of the response and/or the rate of recovery to a new steady-state were altered as a result of centrifuge diameter. In summary, these results indicate that stopping frequency has little, if any, effect on adaptation to chronic centrifugation. However, the angular velocity (omega), and therefore centrifuge diameter is an important consideration in the adaptation of an organism to chronic centrifugation.

  4. Effects of Centrifuge Diameter and Operation on Rodent Adaptation to Chronic Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the responses of rats to centrifugation in a constant acceleration field (1.5 G). Centrifuge diameter (1.8m, 2.5m or 6.0m) and schedule of operation (Daily or weekly stop) varied between groups. Body mass, food consumption, water consumption and neurovestibular function were measured weekly. Body temperature and activity were continuously monitored using telemetry. A subset of subjects were videotaped (50 minutes per day) to allow for movement analysis. Exposure to a hyperdynamic field of this magnitude did cause the expected depression in the physiological variables monitored. Recovery was accomplished within a relatively rapid time frame; all variables returned to precentrifugation levels. In general, the magnitudes of the changes and the rate of recovery were similar at different centrifuge diameters and stopping frequency. There were cases, however, in which the magnitude of the response and/or the rate of recovery to a new steady-state were altered as a result of centrifuge diameter. In summary, these results indicate that stopping frequency has little, if any, effect on adaptation to chronic centrifugation. However, the angular velocity (omega), and therefore centrifuge diameter is an important consideration in the adaptation of an organism to chronic centrifugation.

  5. Climate Change and Agriculture in the U.S.: Effects and Adaptation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, M. K.; Rippey, B.; Walthall, C. L.; Hatfield, J.; Backlund, P. W.; Lengnick, L.; Marshall, E.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture in the United States has followed a path of continual adaptation to a wide range of factors throughout its history. However, observational evidence, supported by an understanding of the physical climate system, shows that human-induced climate change is underway in the U.S. and even now causing changes for which there is no historical reference for producers. Temperatures have increased and precipitation patterns have changed; the incidence, frequency, and extent of pest infestations have been altered, as well as the natural resource base (water, air, and soils) upon which production depends. Each factor challenges agricultural management as atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases rise. These trends are likely to continue over the next century. Importantly, a gap exists between U.S. agricultural producers and managers' needs related to climate-driven problems and the information that research currently offers them. In the past, agricultural research into climate change effects has largely focused on mean values of precipitation and temperature. Today's management requirements, however, often demand immediate response on shorter time scales to address abrupt, often novel needs. Further complicating this reality, future decisions will likely require even greater emphasis on managing under increasing levels of uncertainty, and planning for and adjusting to the extremes. Research is moving to better address these emerging issues for the relevant timescales and parameters in order to allow the formulation of improved and resilient management strategies that apply to a future in which past experience has become less applicable. A climate-ready U.S. agricultural system requires easy access to useable climate knowledge and technical resources, improved climate risk management strategies, new processes to support effective adaptive actions, and the development of sustainable production systems resilient to climate effects. Mainstreaming climate knowledge

  6. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Training Adaptation in Well-Trained Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Jastrzębska, M, Kaczmarczyk, M, and Jastrzębski, Z. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on training adaptation in well-trained soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2648-2655, 2016-There is growing body of evidence implying that vitamin D may be associated with athletic performance, however, studies examining the effects of vitamin D on athletic performance are inconsistent. Moreover, very little literature exists about the vitamin D and training efficiency or adaptation, especially in high-level, well-trained athletes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on training adaptation in well-trained football players. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: the placebo group (PG) and the experimental group (SG, supplemented with vitamin D, 5,000 IU per day). Both groups were subjected to High Intensity Interval Training Program. The selection to the groups was based on peak power results attained before the experiment and position on the field. Blood samples for vitamin D level were taken from the players. In addition, total work, 5, 10, 20, and 30 m running speed, squat jump, and countermovement jump height were determined. There were no significant differences between SG and PG groups for any power-related characteristics at baseline. All power-related variables, except the 30 m sprint running time, improved significantly in response to interval training. However, the mean change scores (the differences between posttraining and pretraining values) did not differ significantly between SG and PG groups. In conclusion, an 8-week vitamin D supplementation in highly trained football players was not beneficial in terms of response to High Intensity Interval Training. Given the current level of evidence, the recommendation to use vitamin D supplements in all athletes to improve performance or training gains would be premature. To avoid a seasonal decrease in 25(OH)D level or to obtain optimal vitamin D levels, the

  7. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: cardiovascular alterations.

    PubMed

    Platts, Steven H; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Barr, Yael; Fu, Qi; Gulati, Martha; Hughson, Richard; Levine, Benjamin D; Mehran, Roxana; Stachenfeld, Nina; Wenger, Nanette K

    2014-11-01

    Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant examination as predisposing factors to atherosclerosis, important as the current cohort of astronauts ages. Currently, 20% of astronauts are women, and the recently selected astronaut recruits are 50% women. Thus there should be expectation that future research will reflect the composition of the overall population to determine potential benefits or risks. This should apply both to clinical studies and to basic science research. PMID:25401939

  8. Multimode delta-E effect magnetic field sensors with adapted electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, Sebastian; Reermann, Jens; Fichtner, Simon; Kirchhof, Christine; Quandt, Eckhard; Wagner, Bernhard; Schmidt, Gerhard; Faupel, Franz

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical and experimental study on low-noise piezoelectric thin film resonators that utilize the delta-E effect of a magnetostrictive layer to measure magnetic fields at low frequencies. Calculations from a physical model of the electromechanical resonator enable electrode designs to efficiently operate in the first and second transversal bending modes. As predicted by our calculations, the adapted electrode design improves the sensitivity by a factor of 6 and reduces the dynamic range of the sensor output by 16 dB, which significantly eases the requirements on readout electronics. Magnetic measurements show a bandwidth of 100 Hz at a noise level of about 100 pTHz-0.5.

  9. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: effects of prior task exposure.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, R M; Blascovich, J; Tomaka, J; Leitten, C L; Schneider, T R; Wiens, S

    1999-11-01

    The effects of prior task exposure on cardiovascular reactivity to stress were examined in two experiments by randomly assigning participants to repeated exposure groups that performed mental arithmetic pretest and test tasks versus delayed exposure groups that performed only the test task after prolonged rest. Impedance cardiographic and blood pressure measures were recorded continuously from 60 undergraduate men in Experiment 1 and 112 undergraduate men and women in Experiment 2. Task repetition attenuated cardiovascular reactivity and improved task performance in repeated exposure groups (p < .001), suggesting an integrated process of behavioral adaptation. During the test task, delayed exposure groups showed greater cardiac reactivity (p < .01), but not vascular reactivity, than repeated exposure groups. Thus, cardiac reactivity varied as a specific function of prior task exposure, whereas vascular reactivity varied as a general function of time. PMID:10554594

  10. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Cardiovascular Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Bairey Merz, C. Noel; Barr, Yael; Fu, Qi; Gulati, Martha; Hughson, Richard; Levine, Benjamin D.; Mehran, Roxana; Stachenfeld, Nina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant examination as predisposing factors to atherosclerosis, important as the current cohort of astronauts ages. Currently, 20% of astronauts are women, and the recently selected astronaut recruits are 50% women. Thus there should be expectation that future research will reflect the composition of the overall population to determine potential benefits or risks. This should apply both to clinical studies and to basic science research. PMID:25401939

  11. Effect of different cyclooxygenase inhibitors on gastric adaptive cytoprotection induced by 20% ethanol.

    PubMed

    Gambero, Alessandra; Maróstica, Marta; Becker, Tagliane Liza; Pedrazzoli, José

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different dosages of therapeutically prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ibuprofen, diclofenac, nimesulide, meloxicam, and celecoxib (ED80 for COX-1 and COX-2) on normal gastric mucosa and mucosa, previously exposed to 20% ethanol. At COX-2-inhibiting dosages, the NSAIDs tested were nonulcerogenic, and the same response profile was observed in "adapted" stomachs. Interestingly, low doses of nimesulide and celecoxib increase the levels of Prostaglandin E(2) and COX-2, and protect against subsequent 100% ethanol exposition, suggesting that these drugs may act as "mild irritants" to gastric mucosa. The ulcerogenic response to NSAIDs was prevented by the previous 20% ethanol exposition, probably the result of nitric oxide synthesis, because PGE(2) levels in gastric mucosa were reduced by these agents and a concomitant nitric oxide blockade reversed this protection. PMID:17226071

  12. Effects of pre-exposures to a rotating optokinetic drum on adaptation to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Senqi; Stern, Robert M.; Koch, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of two different preexposure procedures on the adaptation to motion-sickness-causing rotation motion in a rotating optokinetic drum were investigated in three groups of human subjects. The first (control) group had a standard 16-min exposure in a drum rotating at 60 deg/sec, with no preexposure. The second (incremental exposure) group had two separated 4-min preexposure periods, at 15 deg/min and 30 deg/min, immediately prior to the standard 16-min exposure. The third (abrupt exposure) group had the same preexposure but with the second rotation at 60 deg/min, followed by the standard exposure. It was found that subjects in the incremental exposure group had significantly fewer motion sickness symptoms during the standard rotation period than did the subjects in the other two groups.

  13. Stochastic effects in adaptive reconstruction of body damage: implied the creativity of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Cui, Li-Qiang; Chen, Tian-Ming; Lian, Bin

    2015-11-01

    After an injury occurs, mechanical/biochemical loads on muscles influence the composition and structure of recovering muscles; this effect likely occurs in other tissues, cells and biological molecules as well owing to the similarity, interassociation and interaction among biochemical reactions and molecules. The 'damage and reconstruction' model provides an explanation for how an ideal cytoarchitecture is created by reducing components not suitable for bearing loads; in this model, adaptive changes are induced by promoting the stochasticity of biochemical reactions. Biochemical and mechanical loads can direct the stochasticity of biochemical reactions, which can in turn induce cellular changes. Thus, mechanical and biochemical loads, under natural selection pressure, modify the direction of cell- and tissue-level changes and guide the formation of new structures and traits, thereby influencing microevolution. In summary, the 'damage and reconstruction' model accounts for the role of natural selection in the formation of new organisms, helps explain punctuated equilibrium, and illustrates how macroevolution arises from microevolution. PMID:26153081

  14. Effectiveness of adaptive silverware on range of motion of the hand

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Susan S.; Richards, Jim; Aguilar, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hand function is essential to a person’s self-efficacy and greatly affects quality of life. Adapted utensils with handles of increased diameters have historically been used to assist individuals with arthritis or other hand disabilities for feeding, and other related activities of daily living. To date, minimal research has examined the biomechanical effects of modified handles, or quantified the differences in ranges of motion (ROM) when using a standard versus a modified handle. The aim of this study was to quantify the ranges of motion (ROM) required for a healthy hand to use different adaptive spoons with electrogoniometry for the purpose of understanding the physiologic advantages that adapted spoons may provide patients with limited ROM. Methods. Hand measurements included the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP), proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) for each finger and the interphalangeal (IP) and MCP joint for the thumb. Participants were 34 females age 18–30 (mean age 20.38 ± 1.67) with no previous hand injuries or abnormalities. Participants grasped spoons with standard handles, and spoons with handle diameters of 3.18 cm (1.25 inch), and 4.45 cm (1.75 inch). ROM measurements were obtained with an electrogoniometer to record the angle at each joint for each of the spoon handle sizes. Results. A 3 × 3 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA (Spoon handle size by Joint by Finger) found main effects on ROM of Joint (F(2, 33) = 318.68, Partial η2 = .95, p < .001), Spoon handle size (F(2, 33) = 598.73, Partial η2 = .97, p < .001), and Finger (F(3, 32) = 163.83, Partial η2 = .94, p < .001). As the spoon handle diameter size increased, the range of motion utilized to grasp the spoon handle decreased in all joints and all fingers (p < 0.01). Discussion. This study confirms the hypothesis that less range of motion is required to grip utensils with larger diameter handles, which in turn may reduce challenges for patients

  15. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Growth Hormone Treatment on Adaptive Functioning in Infants With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sin T; Festen, Dederieke A M; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F A; Collin, Philippe J L; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growth hormone treatment on adaptive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was assessed during a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and after 7 years of growth hormone treatment. In the RCT, 75 children (42 infants and 33 prepubertal children) with Prader-Willi syndrome were included. Subsequently, 53 children were treated with long-term growth hormone. Our study demonstrates a marked delay in adaptive functioning in infants and children with Prader-Willi syndrome, which was associated with older age and lower intelligence. Results of the repeated measurements show that the earlier growth hormone treatment was started during infancy, the better the adaptive skills were on the long-term. PMID:26161469

  16. Adaptive divergence in body size overrides the effects of plasticity across natural habitats in the brown trout

    PubMed Central

    Rogell, Björn; Dannewitz, Johan; Palm, Stefan; Dahl, Jonas; Petersson, Erik; Laurila, Anssi

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of life-history traits is characterized by trade-offs between different selection pressures, as well as plasticity across environmental conditions. Yet, studies on local adaptation are often performed under artificial conditions, leaving two issues unexplored: (i) how consistent are laboratory inferred local adaptations under natural conditions and (ii) how much phenotypic variation is attributed to phenotypic plasticity and to adaptive evolution, respectively, across environmental conditions? We reared fish from six locally adapted (domesticated and wild) populations of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in one semi-natural and three natural streams and recorded a key life-history trait (body size at the end of first growth season). We found that population-specific reaction norms were close to parallel across different streams and QST was similar – and larger than FST – within all streams, indicating a consistency of local adaptation in body size across natural environments. The amount of variation explained by population origin exceeded the variation across stream environments, indicating that genetic effects derived from adaptive processes have a stronger effect on phenotypic variation than plasticity induced by environmental conditions. These results suggest that plasticity does not “swamp” the phenotypic variation, and that selection may thus be efficient in generating genetic change. PMID:23919140

  17. Adaptive divergence in body size overrides the effects of plasticity across natural habitats in the brown trout.

    PubMed

    Rogell, Björn; Dannewitz, Johan; Palm, Stefan; Dahl, Jonas; Petersson, Erik; Laurila, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    The evolution of life-history traits is characterized by trade-offs between different selection pressures, as well as plasticity across environmental conditions. Yet, studies on local adaptation are often performed under artificial conditions, leaving two issues unexplored: (i) how consistent are laboratory inferred local adaptations under natural conditions and (ii) how much phenotypic variation is attributed to phenotypic plasticity and to adaptive evolution, respectively, across environmental conditions? We reared fish from six locally adapted (domesticated and wild) populations of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in one semi-natural and three natural streams and recorded a key life-history trait (body size at the end of first growth season). We found that population-specific reaction norms were close to parallel across different streams and Q ST was similar - and larger than F ST - within all streams, indicating a consistency of local adaptation in body size across natural environments. The amount of variation explained by population origin exceeded the variation across stream environments, indicating that genetic effects derived from adaptive processes have a stronger effect on phenotypic variation than plasticity induced by environmental conditions. These results suggest that plasticity does not "swamp" the phenotypic variation, and that selection may thus be efficient in generating genetic change. PMID:23919140

  18. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Mattias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that global change has on urban areas in the United States and how the growth of urban areas will affect the environment. It presents the elements of our Synthesis and Assessment Report (SAP) report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e.g. public health, urban planning for mitigation strategies) on how cities can cope and adapt to climate change and variability. This latter point parallels the concepts and ideas presented in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Decadal Survey report on "Earth Science Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond" wherein the analysis of the impacts of climate change and variability, human health, and land use change are listed as key areas for development of future Earth observing remote sensing systems.

  19. Effect of age and pregnancy status on adaptive immune responses of Canadian Holstein replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Hine, B C; Cartwright, S L; Mallard, B A

    2011-02-01

    Selection for production traits with little or no emphasis on health traits has led to an increase in the incidence of disease in Canadian dairy herds. We describe here a patented protocol for estimating the breeding value for immune responsiveness in heifers that combines measures of both cell-mediated (CM) and antibody-mediated (AM) immune responses (IR). The ability of putative type 1 and type 2 antigens used to induce CMIR and AMIR, respectively, was assessed in replacement Holstein heifers, and the effects of age and pregnancy on type 1 and type 2 IR bias were estimated. Results demonstrated that the type 1 and type 2 antigens induced polarized type 1 and type 2 responses in heifers regardless of age and pregnancy status, and can therefore be used to identify animals with superior overall immune responsiveness. However, age and pregnancy status had significant effects on adaptive IR profiles, highlighting the need for appropriate statistical modeling of such effects when ranking animals on their ability to mount CM and AMIR. Responses became increasingly type 1 biased as heifers approached 12 mo of age, from which point, responses then became increasingly type 2 biased with age and length of gestation. Knowledge of how age and pregnancy influence the dynamics of type 1 and type 2 IR bias is expected to improve our ability to select animals with enhanced immune responsiveness and aid in the development of effective vaccines through strategic targeting of vaccine components to recipients. PMID:21257066

  20. Adaptive Use of Information during Growth Can Explain Long-Term Effects of Early Life Experiences.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Fawcett, Tim W; Higginson, Andrew D; Trimmer, Pete C; Uller, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Development is a continuous process during which individuals gain information about their environment and adjust their phenotype accordingly. In many natural systems, individuals are particularly sensitive to early life experiences, even in the absence of later constraints on plasticity. Recent models have highlighted how the adaptive use of information can explain age-dependent plasticity. These models assume that information gain and phenotypic adjustments either cannot occur simultaneously or are completely independent. This assumption is not valid in the context of growth, where finding food results both in a size increase and learning about food availability. Here, we describe a simple model of growth to provide proof of principle that long-term effects of early life experiences can arise through the coupled dynamics of information acquisition and phenotypic change in the absence of direct constraints on plasticity. The increase in reproductive value from gaining information and sensitivity of behavior to experiences declines across development. Early life experiences have long-term impacts on age of maturity, yet-due to compensatory changes in behavior-our model predicts no substantial effects on reproductive success. We discuss how the evolution of sensitive windows can be explained by experiences having short-term effects on informational and phenotypic states, which generate long-term effects on life-history decisions. PMID:27104994

  1. The Effectiveness of Adapted Versions of an Evidence-Based Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use among Alternative School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Laura M.; Holleran Steiker, Lori K.

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a strong evidence base for effective substance abuse prevention programs for youths, there is a need to facilitate the implementation and evaluation of these programs in real-world settings. This study evaluates the effectiveness of adapted versions of an evidence-based prevention program, keepin' it REAL (kiR), with alternative…

  2. When Goal Orientations Collide: Effects of Learning and Performance Orientation on Team Adaptability in Response to Workload Imbalance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christopher O. L. H.; Webb, Justin W.; Gogus, Celile Itir

    2010-01-01

    The authors draw on resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) to develop hypotheses regarding the conditions under which collective learning and performance orientation have interactive effects and the nature of those effects on teams' ability to adapt to a sudden and dramatic change in workload. Consistent with the theory, results…

  3. Effect of adaptation and pulp density on bioleaching of mine waste using indigenous acidophilic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K.; Kim, B.; Lee, D.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Adaptation to environment is a natural phenomena that takes place in many animals, plants and microorganisms. These adapted organisms achieve stronger applicability than unadapted organisms after habitation in a specific environment for a long time. In the biohydrometallurgical industry, adaptation to special environment conditions by selective culturing is the most popular method for improving bioleaching activity of strains-although that is time consuming. This study investigated the influence of the bioleaching efficiency of mine waste under batch experimental conditions (adaptation and pulp density) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acid mine drainage in Go-seong and Yeon-hwa, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at the influences of parameters, such as the adaptation of bacteria and pulp density of the mine waste. In the adaptation case, the value of pH in 1'st adaptation bacteria sample exhibited lower than in 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. And the content of both Cu and Zn at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample appeared lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. In the SEM analysis, the rod-shaped bacteria with 1μm in length were observed on the filter paper (pore size - 0.45μm). The results of pulp density experiments revealed that the content of both Cu and Zn increased with increasing pulp density, since the increment of pulp density resulted in the enhancement of bioleaching capacity.

  4. Communicating Non-Targeted Effects of Ionizing Radiation to Achieve Adaptive Homeostasis in Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-06-04

    Non-targeted effects, i.e., those responses in cells or tissues that were not subject to energy deposition events after localized exposure to ionizing radiaton, are well-established. While they are not universal phenotype, when they do occur they can be associated with subsequent tissue or whole body responses. Here it is argued that non-targeted effects are a tissue level response to restore equilibrium within an organ system, and thus restores tissue homeostasis. This "adaptive homeostasis" has evolved in response to a variety of environmental and other such stresses an individual is exposed to in their lifetime. These non-targeted effects are not likely to impact significantly on estimates of potential risks associated with radiation exposure because they are presumably "built into" current risk estimates. However, they could have implications for radiation carcinogenesis, by driving processes in targeted and non-targeted cells that could eliminate transformed cells or transform cells from a normal phenotype to a phenotype associated with malignancy within a tissue.

  5. A framework for adaptive monitoring of the cumulative effects of human footprint on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burton, A Cole; Huggard, David; Bayne, Erin; Schieck, Jim; Sólymos, Péter; Muhly, Tyler; Farr, Dan; Boutin, Stan

    2014-06-01

    Effective ecological monitoring is imperative in a human-dominated world, as our ability to manage functioning ecosystems will depend on understanding biodiversity responses to anthropogenic impacts. Yet, most monitoring efforts have either been narrowly focused on particular sites, species and stressors - thus inadequately considering the cumulative effects of multiple, interacting impacts at scales of management relevance - or too unfocused to provide specific guidance. We propose a cumulative effects monitoring framework that integrates multi-scaled surveillance of trends in biodiversity and land cover with targeted evaluation of hypothesized drivers of change. The framework is grounded in a flexible conceptual model and uses monitoring to generate and test empirical models that relate the status of diverse taxonomic groups to the nature and extent of human "footprint" and other landscape attributes. An adaptive cycle of standardized sampling, model development, and model evaluation provides a means to learn about the system and guide management. Additional benefits of the framework include standardized data on status and trend for a wide variety of biodiversity elements, spatially explicit models for regional planning and scenario evaluation, and identification of knowledge gaps for complementary research. We describe efforts to implement the framework in Alberta, Canada, through the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, and identify key challenges to be addressed. PMID:24488328

  6. Illusory Reversal of Causality between Touch and Vision has No Effect on Prism Adaptation Rate.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is "to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc." In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka et al., 2011; Exp. Brain Res.) demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation. PMID:23248609

  7. [Effect of respiratory and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive potential of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Krivonogova, T S; Gerget, O M; Agarkova, L A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with one of the most promising methods for the assessment of the health status of pregnant women and their children based on information criteria in the framework of an intelligent system. Inter-relations between the revealed adaptation strategies and functional disturbances in the organism are considered with special reference to various types of adaptive reactions in pregnant women and adaptational capacities of their children. PMID:21381327

  8. The effect of dopamine agonists on adaptive and aberrant salience in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Helga; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Somlai, Zsuzsanna; Takáts, Annamária; Bereczki, Dániel; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-03-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that after initiation of dopaminergic medications some patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the neurocognitive basis of this phenomenon can be defined as the formation of arbitrary and illusory associations between conditioned stimuli and reward signals, called aberrant salience. Young, never-medicated PD patients and matched controls were assessed on a speeded reaction time task in which the probe stimulus was preceded by conditioned stimuli that could signal monetary reward by color or shape. The patients and controls were re-evaluated after 12 weeks during which the patients received a dopamine agonist (pramipexole or ropinirole). Results indicated that dopamine agonists increased both adaptive and aberrant salience in PD patients, that is, formation of real and illusory associations between conditioned stimuli and reward, respectively. This effect was present when associations were assessed by means of faster responding after conditioned stimuli signaling reward (implicit salience) and overt rating of stimulus-reward links (explicit salience). However, unusual feelings and experiences, which are subclinical manifestations of psychotic-like symptoms, were specifically related to irrelevant and illusory stimulus-reward associations (aberrant salience) in PD patients receiving dopamine agonists. The learning of relevant and real stimulus-reward associations (adaptive salience) was not related to unusual experiences. These results suggest that dopamine agonists may increase psychotic-like experiences in young patients with PD, possibly by facilitating dopaminergic transmission in the ventral striatum, which results in aberrant associations between conditioned stimuli and reward. PMID:22089321

  9. Effects of Intraframe Distortion on Measures of Cone Mosaic Geometry from Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Robert F.; Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Chui, Toco Y.; Rosen, Richard B.; Michaelides, Michel; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the effects of intraframe distortion due to involuntary eye motion on measures of cone mosaic geometry derived from adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images. Methods We acquired AOSLO image sequences from 20 subjects at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0° temporal from fixation. An expert grader manually selected 10 minimally distorted reference frames from each 150-frame sequence for subsequent registration. Cone mosaic geometry was measured in all registered images (n = 600) using multiple metrics, and the repeatability of these metrics was used to assess the impact of the distortions from each reference frame. In nine additional subjects, we compared AOSLO-derived measurements to those from adaptive optics (AO)-fundus images, which do not contain system-imposed intraframe distortions. Results We observed substantial variation across subjects in the repeatability of density (1.2%–8.7%), inter-cell distance (0.8%–4.6%), percentage of six-sided Voronoi cells (0.8%–10.6%), and Voronoi cell area regularity (VCAR) (1.2%–13.2%). The average of all metrics extracted from AOSLO images (with the exception of VCAR) was not significantly different than those derived from AO-fundus images, though there was variability between individual images. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the intraframe distortion found in AOSLO images can affect the accuracy and repeatability of cone mosaic metrics. It may be possible to use multiple images from the same retinal area to approximate a “distortionless” image, though more work is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach. Translational Relevance Even in subjects with good fixation, images from AOSLOs contain intraframe distortions due to eye motion during scanning. The existence of these artifacts emphasizes the need for caution when interpreting results derived from scanning instruments. PMID:26933523

  10. Adaptation of farming practices could buffer effects of climate change on northern prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voldseth, R.A.; Johnson, W.C.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Gilmanov, T.; Millett, B.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are vulnerable to climate change. Adaptation of farming practices to mitigate adverse impacts of climate change on wetland water levels is a potential watershed management option. We chose a modeling approach (WETSIM 3.2) to examine the effects of changes in climate and watershed cover on the water levels of a semi-permanent wetland in eastern South Dakota. Land-use practices simulated were unmanaged grassland, grassland managed with moderately heavy grazing, and cultivated crops. Climate scenarios were developed by adjusting the historical climate in combinations of 2??C and 4??C air temperature and ??10% precipitation. For these climate change scenarios, simulations of land use that produced water levels equal to or greater than unmanaged grassland under historical climate were judged to have mitigative potential against a drier climate. Water levels in wetlands surrounded by managed grasslands were significantly greater than those surrounded by unmanaged grassland. Management reduced both the proportion of years the wetland went dry and the frequency of dry periods, producing the most dynamic vegetation cycle for this modeled wetland. Both cultivated crops and managed grassland achieved water levels that were equal or greater than unmanaged grassland under historical climate for the 2??C rise in air temperature, and the 2??C rise plus 10% increase in precipitation scenarios. Managed grassland also produced water levels that were equal or greater than unmanaged grassland under historical climate for the 4??C rise plus 10% increase in precipitation scenario. Although these modeling results stand as hypotheses, they indicate that amelioration potential exists for a change in climate up to an increase of 2??C or 4??C with a concomitant 10% increase in precipitation. Few empirical data exist to verify the results of such land-use simulations; however, adaptation of farming practices is one possible mitigation

  11. SU-E-J-59: Effective Adaptive DMLC Gated Radiotherapy with OAR Sparing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Wu, H; Zhou, Z; Sandison, MinGeorge

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient respiratory motion degrades the effectiveness of cancer radiation treatment. Advanced respiratory gating delivers radiation dose accurately yet with elongated treatment time. The goal of this research is to propose a novel adaptive dMLC dynamic gating with high delivery efficiency and precision. Methods: The dose delivery of dMLC is aided by simultaneous tracking of tumor and organ at risk (OAR). The leaf opening/closing will follow the motion trajectory of the tumor while sparing the OAR. The treatment beam turns on only when there is no overlapping between OAR and tumor in BEV. A variety of evaluation metrics were considered and calculated, including duty cycle, beam toggling rate, and direct irradiation avoidance to OAR, under various combinations of different tumor margins and the distance between the centers of the tumor and OAR in BEV (expressed as dx). Results: Retrospective simulation was performed to investigate the feasibility and superiority of this technique using four groups of synchronized tumor and OAR motion data. The simulation results indicate that the tumor and OAR motion patterns and their relative positions are the dominant influential factors. The duty cycle can be greater than 96.71% yet can be as low as 6.69% depending different motion groups. This proposed technique provides good OAR protection, especially for such cases with low duty cycle for which as high as 77.71% maximal direct irradiation to OAR can be spared. Increasing dx improves the duty cycle (treatment efficiency) and provides better OAR volume sparing, whereas, that of the tumor margins has the opposite influence. Conclusion: This real-time adaptive dMLC gated radiation treatment with synchronous tumor and OAR tracking has inherent accurate dose delivery to tumor with reduced treatment time. In addition, the OAR protection capability make it an outstanding potential treatment strategy for mobile tumors.

  12. Detrimental effects for colonocytes of an increased exposure to luminal hydrogen sulfide: The adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Martin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Audebert, Marc; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Grauso, Marta; Lancha, Luciana; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Benamouzig, Robert; Tomé, Daniel; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François

    2016-04-01

    Protein fermentation by the gut microbiota releases in the large intestine lumen various amino-acid derived metabolites. Among them, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in excess has been suspected to be detrimental for colonic epithelium energy metabolism and DNA integrity. The first objective of this study was to evaluate in rats the epithelial response to an increased exposure to H2S. Experiments from colonocyte incubation and intra-colonic instillation indicate that low millimolar concentrations of the sulfide donor NaHS reversibly inhibited colonocyte mitochondrial oxygen consumption and increased gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (Hif-1α) together with inflammation-related genes namely inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos) and interleukin-6 (Il-6). Additionally, rat colonocyte H2S detoxification capacity was severely impaired in the presence of nitric oxide. Based on the γH2AX ICW technique, NaHS did not induce DNA damage in colonocytes. Since H2S is notably produced by the gut microbiota from sulfur containing amino acids, the second objective of the study was to investigate the effects of a high protein diet (HPD) on large intestine luminal sulfide content and on the expression of genes involved in H2S detoxification in colonocytes. We found that HPD markedly increased H2S content in the large intestine but the concomitant increase of the content mass maintained the luminal sulfide concentration. HPD also provoked an increase of sulfide quinone reductase (Sqr) gene expression in colonocytes, indicating an adaptive response to increased H2S bacterial production. In conclusion, low millimolar NaHS concentration severely affects colonocyte respiration in association with increased expression of genes associated with intestinal inflammation. Although HPD increases the sulfide content of the large intestine, the colonic adaptive responses to this modification limit the epithelial exposure to this deleterious bacterial metabolite. PMID:26849947

  13. Bystander effects, genomic instability, adaptive response, and cancer risk assessment for radiation and chemical exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R. Julian . E-mail: preston.julian@epa.gov

    2005-09-01

    There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard, the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to provide an enhanced basis for describing the nature of the dose-response curve for induced tumors at low levels of exposure. Cellular responses that might influence the nature of the dose-response curve at low exposures are understandably receiving attention. These responses (bystander effects, genomic instability, and adaptive responses) have been studied most extensively for radiation exposures. The former two could result in an enhancement of the tumor response at low doses and the latter could lead to a reduced response compared to that predicted by a linear extrapolation from high dose responses. Bystander responses, whereby cells other than those directly traversed by radiation tracks are damaged, can alter the concept of target cell population per unit dose. Similarly, induced genomic instability can alter the concept of total response to an exposure. There appears to be a role for oxidative damage and cellular signaling in the etiology of these cellular responses. The adaptive response appears to be inducible at very low doses of radiation or of some chemicals and reduces the cellular response to a larger challenge dose. It is currently unclear how these cellular toxic responses might be involved in tumor formation, if indeed they are. In addition, it is not known how widespread they are as regards inducing agents. Thus, their impact on low dose cancer risk remains to be established.

  14. The Effect of Dopamine Agonists on Adaptive and Aberrant Salience in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Helga; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Somlai, Zsuzsanna; Takáts, Annamária; Bereczki, Dániel; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that after initiation of dopaminergic medications some patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the neurocognitive basis of this phenomenon can be defined as the formation of arbitrary and illusory associations between conditioned stimuli and reward signals, called aberrant salience. Young, never-medicated PD patients and matched controls were assessed on a speeded reaction time task in which the probe stimulus was preceded by conditioned stimuli that could signal monetary reward by color or shape. The patients and controls were re-evaluated after 12 weeks during which the patients received a dopamine agonist (pramipexole or ropinirole). Results indicated that dopamine agonists increased both adaptive and aberrant salience in PD patients, that is, formation of real and illusory associations between conditioned stimuli and reward, respectively. This effect was present when associations were assessed by means of faster responding after conditioned stimuli signaling reward (implicit salience) and overt rating of stimulus–reward links (explicit salience). However, unusual feelings and experiences, which are subclinical manifestations of psychotic-like symptoms, were specifically related to irrelevant and illusory stimulus–reward associations (aberrant salience) in PD patients receiving dopamine agonists. The learning of relevant and real stimulus–reward associations (adaptive salience) was not related to unusual experiences. These results suggest that dopamine agonists may increase psychotic-like experiences in young patients with PD, possibly by facilitating dopaminergic transmission in the ventral striatum, which results in aberrant associations between conditioned stimuli and reward. PMID:22089321

  15. Effects of visual reference on adaptation to motion sickness and subjective responses evoked by graded cross-coupled angular accelerations. [vestibular oculogravic effect in human acceleration adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reason, J. T.; Diaz, E.

    1973-01-01

    Three groups of 10 subjects each were exposed to stepwise increments of cross coupled angular accelerations in three visual modes: internal visual reference (IVR), external visual reference (EVR), and vision absent (VA). The subjects in the IVR condition required significantly greater amounts of stimulus exposure to neutralize their illusory subjective reactions. They also suffered a greater loss of well-being and a more marked incidence of motion sickness than did subjects in the EVR and VA conditions. The same 30 subjects were reexposed to the same graded cross coupled stimulation 1 week later. This time, however, all the subjects were tested under only the IVR condition. All three groups showed some positive transfer of adaptation, but only the IVR-IVR combination required significantly fewer head motions to achieve the same level of adaptation on the second occasion. Taken overall, however, the most efficient and least disturbing route to adaptation at the completion of the second test was via the VA-IVR combination.

  16. Effects of structural and functional cerebellar lesions on sensorimotor adaptation of saccades.

    PubMed

    Panouillères, M; Alahyane, N; Urquizar, C; Salemme, R; Nighoghossian, N; Gaymard, B; Tilikete, C; Pélisson, D

    2013-11-01

    The cerebellum is critically involved in the adaptation mechanisms that maintain the accuracy of goal-directed acts such as saccadic eye movements. Two categories of saccades, each relying on different adaptation mechanisms, are defined: reactive (externally triggered) saccades and voluntary (internally triggered) saccades. The contribution of the medio-posterior part of the cerebellum to reactive saccades adaptation has been clearly demonstrated, but the evidence that other parts of the cerebellum are also involved is limited. Moreover, the cerebellar substrates of voluntary saccades adaptation have only been marginally investigated. Here, we addressed these two questions by investigating the adaptive capabilities of patients with cerebellar or pre-cerebellar stroke. We recruited three groups of patients presenting focal lesions located, respectively, in the supero-anterior cerebellum, the infero-posterior cerebellum and the lateral medulla (leading to a Wallenberg syndrome including motor dysfunctions similar to those resulting from lesion of the medio-posterior cerebellum). Adaptations of reactive saccades and of voluntary saccades were tested during separate sessions in all patients and in a group of healthy participants. The functional lesion of the medio-posterior cerebellum in Wallenberg syndrome strongly impaired the adaptation of both reactive and voluntary saccades. In contrast, patients with lesion in the supero-anterior part of the cerebellum presented a specific adaptation deficit of voluntary saccades. Finally, patients with an infero-posterior cerebellar lesion showed mild adaptation deficits. We conclude that the medio-posterior cerebellum is critical for the adaptation of both saccade categories, whereas the supero-anterior cerebellum is specifically involved in the adaptation of voluntary saccades. PMID:23963603

  17. Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Producing β-Cells: General Characteristics and Adaptive Effects of Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zuheng; Scholz, Hanne; Björklund, Anneli; Grill, Valdemar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide novel insights on mitochondrial respiration in β-cells and the adaptive effects of hypoxia. Methods and Design Insulin-producing INS-1 832/13 cells were exposed to 18 hours of hypoxia followed by 20–22 hours re-oxygenation. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry in both intact and permeabilized cells, in the latter after establishing three functional substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols. Concomitant measurements included proteins of mitochondrial complexes (Western blotting), ATP and insulin secretion. Results Intact cells exhibited a high degree of intrinsic uncoupling, comprising about 50% of oxygen consumption in the basal respiratory state. Hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation increased maximal overall respiration. Exploratory experiments in peremabilized cells could not show induction of respiration by malate or pyruvate as reducing substrates, thus glutamate and succinate were used as mitochondrial substrates in SUIT protocols. Permeabilized cells displayed a high capacity for oxidative phosphorylation for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in relation to maximum capacity of electron transfer. Previous hypoxia decreased phosphorylation control of complex I-linked respiration, but not in complex II-linked respiration. Coupling control ratios showed increased coupling efficiency for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in hypoxia-exposed cells. Respiratory rates overall were increased. Also previous hypoxia increased proteins of mitochondrial complexes I and II (Western blotting) in INS-1 cells as well as in rat and human islets. Mitochondrial effects were accompanied by unchanged levels of ATP, increased basal and preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion. Conclusions Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to hypoxia, followed by a re-oxygenation period increases substrate-stimulated respiratory capacity and coupling efficiency. Such effects are accompanied by up-regulation of

  18. Eye-pupil displacement and prediction: effects on residual wavefront in adaptive optics retinal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kulcsár, Caroline; Raynaud, Henri-François; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of pupil displacements on the best achievable performance of retinal imaging adaptive optics (AO) systems, using 52 trajectories of horizontal and vertical displacements sampled at 80 Hz by a pupil tracker (PT) device on 13 different subjects. This effect is quantified in the form of minimal root mean square (rms) of the residual phase affecting image formation, as a function of the delay between PT measurement and wavefront correction. It is shown that simple dynamic models identified from data can be used to predict horizontal and vertical pupil displacements with greater accuracy (in terms of average rms) over short-term time horizons. The potential impact of these improvements on residual wavefront rms is investigated. These results allow to quantify the part of disturbances corrected by retinal imaging systems that are caused by relative displacements of an otherwise fixed or slowy-varying subject-dependent aberration. They also suggest that prediction has a limited impact on wavefront rms and that taking into account PT measurements in real time improves the performance of AO retinal imaging systems. PMID:27231607

  19. Effects of intracellular injection of calcium buffers on light adaptation in Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The calcium sequestering agent, EGTA, was injected into Limulus ventral photoreceptors. Before injection, the inward membrane current induced by a long stimulus had a large initial transient which declined to a smaller plateau. Iontophoretic injection of EGTA tended to prevent the decline from transient to plateau. Before injection the plateau response was a nonlinear function of light intensity. After EGTA injection the response-intensity curves tended to become linear. Before injection, bright lights lowered the sensitivity as determined with subsequent test flashes. EGTA injection decreased the light-induced changes in sensitivity. Ca-EGTA buffers having different levels of free calcium were pressure-injected into ventral photoreceptors; the higher the level of free calcium, the lower the sensitivity measured after injection. The effects of inotophoretic injection of EGTA were not mimicked by injection or similar amounts of sulfate and the effects of pressure injection of EGTA buffer solutions were not mimicked by injection of similar volumes of pH buffer or mannitol. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that light adaptation is mediated by a rise of the intracellular free calcium concentration. PMID:810540

  20. The evolution of alternative adaptive strategies for effective communication in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Ord, Terry J; Charles, Grace K; Hofer, Rebecca K

    2011-01-01

    Animals communicating socially are expected to produce signals that are conspicuous within the habitats in which they live. The particular way in which a species adapts to its environment will depend on its ancestral condition and evolutionary history. At this point, it is unclear how properties of the environment and historical factors interact to shape communication. Tropical Anolis lizards advertise territorial ownership using visual displays in habitats where visual motion or "noise" from windblown vegetation poses an acute problem for the detection of display movements. We studied eight Anolis species that live in similar noise environments but belong to separate island radiations with divergent evolutionary histories. We found that species on Puerto Rico displayed at times when their signals were more likely to be detected by neighboring males and females (during periods of low noise). In contrast, species on Jamaica displayed irrespective of the level of environmental motion, apparently because these species have a display that is effective in a range of viewing conditions. Our findings appear to reflect a case of species originating from different evolutionary starting points evolving different signal strategies for effective communication in noisy environments. PMID:21117941

  1. Eye-pupil displacement and prediction: effects on residual wavefront in adaptive optics retinal imaging.

    PubMed

    Kulcsár, Caroline; Raynaud, Henri-François; Garcia-Rissmann, Aurea

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies the effect of pupil displacements on the best achievable performance of retinal imaging adaptive optics (AO) systems, using 52 trajectories of horizontal and vertical displacements sampled at 80 Hz by a pupil tracker (PT) device on 13 different subjects. This effect is quantified in the form of minimal root mean square (rms) of the residual phase affecting image formation, as a function of the delay between PT measurement and wavefront correction. It is shown that simple dynamic models identified from data can be used to predict horizontal and vertical pupil displacements with greater accuracy (in terms of average rms) over short-term time horizons. The potential impact of these improvements on residual wavefront rms is investigated. These results allow to quantify the part of disturbances corrected by retinal imaging systems that are caused by relative displacements of an otherwise fixed or slowy-varying subject-dependent aberration. They also suggest that prediction has a limited impact on wavefront rms and that taking into account PT measurements in real time improves the performance of AO retinal imaging systems. PMID:27231607

  2. Effective Levels of Adaptation to Different Types of Users in Interactive Museum Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterno, F.; Mancini, C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses user interaction with museum application interfaces and emphasizes the importance of adaptable and adaptive interfaces to meet differing user needs. Considers levels of support that can be given to different users during navigation of museum hypermedia information, using examples from the Web site for the Marble Museum (Italy).…

  3. Effect of biomass adaptation to biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon in water.

    PubMed

    Tihomirova, K; Briedis, A; Rubulis, J; Juhna, T

    2012-04-01

    In the present study the time of adaptation of fixed biomass for biodegradation of natural organic matter was investigated. The experiments were done in columns that are usually used for rapid determination of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). The biomass was adapted to samples with different concentrations of organic substances before measurements by pumping water to be investigated through the columns for several days. The time of adaptation was dependent on the initial concentration of the organic matter in the water sample. The adaptation time increased from 6 to 24 h with increase of concentration of acetate solution from 2 to 10 mg/l, thus adaptation rate decreased simultaneously from 0.28 to 0.11 min(-1). In natural water samples with the initial concentration in the range from 4.61-10.82 mg/l of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) the maximal adaptation time was less than 24 h. During the adaptation period the increase in reproducibility and decrease in the standard deviation was observed. The study showed that adaptation of column to the different concentration of organic matter in water sample is necessary in order to decrease the bias in BDOC measurements when using columns tests. PMID:21892664

  4. Polytomous Adaptive Classification Testing: Effects of Item Pool Size, Test Termination Criterion, and Number of Cutscores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnambs, Timo; Batinic, Bernad

    2011-01-01

    Computer-adaptive classification tests focus on classifying respondents in different proficiency groups (e.g., for pass/fail decisions). To date, adaptive classification testing has been dominated by research on dichotomous response formats and classifications in two groups. This article extends this line of research to polytomous classification…

  5. Effects of extracellular calcium and of light adaptation on the response to dim light in honey bee drone photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Raggenbass, M

    1983-01-01

    Light responses in honey bee drone photoreceptors were recorded with intracellular micro-electrodes in superfused slices of retina. The effects of changes in extracellular calcium on the size and the shape of the response to dim light were studied and compared with the effects of light adaptation. Dim light stimuli were used so that the amplitude of the response was linearly related to the number of the photons absorbed, the effects of voltage-dependent mechanisms were negligible and no detectable light adaptation was produced by the stimulus. Lowering the extracellular calcium concentration increased the amplitude and the duration of the response. Raising the extracellular calcium concentration produced the opposite effects. Changing the extracellular calcium concentration modified the response without altering either the linearity of the intensity--response relation or the resting membrane potential in the dark. Light adaptation decreased the amplitude and the duration of the response in a manner that could be quantitatively simulated, in the same photoreceptors, by an increase in the extracellular calcium concentration. Changing the extracellular calcium concentration, or light-adapting the preparation, modified the response without altering its early depolarizing phase. Lowering external calcium either did not affect, or slightly increased, the maximum rate of the light-induced depolarization; raising external calcium, or light-adapting the preparation, either did not affect, or slightly decreased, the maximum rate of the light-induced depolarization. The experimental data can be quantitatively described by a mathematical model with the basic assumption that calcium acts in the process of light adaptation by decreasing the mean open time of the light-activated channels. PMID:6655592

  6. The psychological and neurological bases of leader self-complexity and effects on adaptive decision-making.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Sean T; Balthazard, Pierre A; Waldman, David A; Jennings, Peter L; Thatcher, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    Complex contexts and environments require leaders to be highly adaptive and to adjust their behavioral responses to meet diverse role demands. Such adaptability may be contingent upon leaders having requisite complexity to facilitate effectiveness across a range of roles. However, there exists little empirical understanding of the etiology or basis of leader complexity. To this end, we conceptualized a model of leader self-complexity that is inclusive of both the mind (the complexity of leaders' self-concepts) and the brain (the neuroscientific basis for complex leadership). We derived psychometric and neurologically based measures, the latter based on quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) profiles of leader self-complexity, and tested their separate effects on the adaptive decision-making of 103 military leaders. Results demonstrated that both measures accounted for unique variance in external ratings of adaptive decision-making. We discuss how these findings provide a deeper understanding of the latent and dynamic mechanisms that underpin leaders' self-complexity and their adaptability. PMID:23544481

  7. Suprathreshold contrast perception across differences in mean luminance: effects of stimulus size, dichoptic presentation, and length of adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Eli

    1995-05-01

    Contrast constancy across changes in mean luminance was reported to hold over a wide range of luminances in a few studies and to be limited to approximately 1 log unit in another. The studies reporting contrast constancy over a wide luminance range used extended grating stimuli presented dichoptically (bright stimulus to one eye and dim stimulus to the other) with long adaptation periods. The study reporting only limited constancy used narrow (1-octave-wide) Gabor patches presented side by side to both eyes with only a short (up to 5 s) period of adaptation. The current study was designed to determine whether differences in stimulus bandwidth, presentation format, or adaptation time could account for the different results reported. It was found that increasing stimulus size had no effect on the results. Dichoptic presentation with either a filter in front of one eye or calibrated screen luminance could account for the differences between the studies. When dichoptic presentation was combined with short adaptation periods (of a few seconds) an intermediate deviation from constancy was demonstrated. This effect suggests that the deviations from constancy demonstrated under free viewing are due to a lack of fast local adaptation and not to long-distance interactions across the retina.

  8. The effect of retinal image error update rate on human vestibulo-ocular reflex gain adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fadaee, Shannon B; Migliaccio, Americo A

    2016-04-01

    The primary function of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is to stabilise images on the retina during head movements. Retinal image movement is the likely feedback signal that drives VOR modification/adaptation for different viewing contexts. However, it is not clear whether a retinal image position or velocity error is used primarily as the feedback signal. Recent studies examining this signal are limited because they used near viewing to modify the VOR. However, it is not known whether near viewing drives VOR adaptation or is a pre-programmed contextual cue that modifies the VOR. Our study is based on analysis of the VOR evoked by horizontal head impulses during an established adaptation task. Fourteen human subjects underwent incremental unilateral VOR adaptation training and were tested using the scleral search coil technique over three separate sessions. The update rate of the laser target position (source of the retinal image error signal) used to drive VOR adaptation was different for each session [50 (once every 20 ms), 20 and 15/35 Hz]. Our results show unilateral VOR adaptation occurred at 50 and 20 Hz for both the active (23.0 ± 9.6 and 11.9 ± 9.1% increase on adapting side, respectively) and passive VOR (13.5 ± 14.9, 10.4 ± 12.2%). At 15 Hz, unilateral adaptation no longer occurred in the subject group for both the active and passive VOR, whereas individually, 4/9 subjects tested at 15 Hz had significant adaptation. Our findings suggest that 1-2 retinal image position error signals every 100 ms (i.e. target position update rate 15-20 Hz) are sufficient to drive VOR adaptation. PMID:26715411

  9. Thinking About Walking: Effects of Conscious Correction Versus Distraction on Locomotor Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Control of the human walking pattern normally requires little thought, with conscious control used only in the face of a challenging environment or a perturbation. We have previously shown that people can adapt spatial and temporal aspects of walking to a sustained perturbation generated by a split-belt treadmill. Here we tested whether conscious correction of walking, versus distraction from it, modifies adaptation. Conscious correction of stepping may expedite the adaptive process and help to form a new walking pattern. However, because walking is normally an automatic process, it is possible that conscious effort could interfere with adaptation, whereas distraction might improve it by removing competing voluntary control. Three groups of subjects were studied: a control group was given no specific instructions, a conscious correction group was instructed how to step and given intermittent visual feedback of stepping during adaptation, and a distraction group performed a dual-task during adaptation. After adaptation, retention of aftereffects was assessed in all groups during normal treadmill walking without conscious effort, feedback, or distraction. We found that conscious correction speeds adaptation, whereas distraction slows it. Subjects trained with distraction retained aftereffects longest, suggesting that the training used during adaptation predicts the time course of deadaptation. An unexpected finding was that these manipulations affected the adaptation rate of spatial but not temporal elements of walking. Thus conscious processes can preferentially access the spatial walking pattern. It may be that spatial and temporal controls of locomotion are accessible through distinct neural circuits, with the former being most sensitive to conscious effort or distraction. PMID:20147417

  10. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e

  11. Trends in the mortality effects of hot spells in central Europe: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, J.; Plavcova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Europe has recently been affected by several long-lasting and severe heat waves, particularly in July-August 2003 (western Europe), June-July 2006 (central Europe), July 2007 (southeastern Europe) and July 2010 (western Russia). The heat waves influenced many sectors of human activities, with enormous socio-economic and environmental impacts. With estimated death tolls exceeding 50,000, the 2003 and 2010 heat waves were the worst natural disasters in Europe over the last 50 years, yielding an example of how seriously may also high-income societies be affected by climate change. The present study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (around 10 million inhabitants, central Europe). Declining trends in the mortality impacts since 1986 are found, in spite of rising temperature trends. The findings remain unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account, and they are similar for all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability in the examined population (Kyselý and Plavcová, 2012). The results are also consistent with those reported for other developed regions of the world (the US, western Europe, Australia) and suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that affect vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address

  12. Examining the Effects of Adapted Peer Tutoring on Social and Language Skills of Young English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adapted peer tutoring (APT) on social interactions and early language and literacy skills of pre-school-age children who were English language learners (ELLs). APT was the treatment for this study. Quasi-experimental group comparison design was applied. Two inclusive pre-school classrooms…

  13. Effects of Estimation Bias on Multiple-Category Classification with an IRT-Based Adaptive Classification Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xiangdong; Poggio, John C.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of five ability estimators, that is, maximum likelihood estimator, weighted likelihood estimator, maximum a posteriori, expected a posteriori, and Owen's sequential estimator, on the performances of the item response theory-based adaptive classification procedure on multiple categories were studied via simulations. The following…

  14. The Effect of an Adapted Swimming Program on the Performance of an Individual with Kyphosis-Scoliosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrios, Voutsas; Dimitrios, Kokaridas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to examine the effect of an adapted swimming program in terms of improving the performance and behaviour of an individual with kyphosis-scoliosis, with the use of an individualised education approach. The sample consisted of an adult woman with kyphosis-scoliosis. The pre-swimming phase included a…

  15. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  16. The Effect of Fitting a Unidimensional IRT Model to Multidimensional Data in Content-Balanced Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Tian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of fitting a unidimensional IRT model to multidimensional data in content-balanced computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Unconstrained CAT with the maximum information item selection method is chosen as the baseline, and the performances of three content balancing procedures, the constrained CAT (CCAT), the…

  17. Effects of an Adapted Physical Education Teaching Model on Special Educator Teaching Approaches for Students with Low Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training package, which consisted of the Flex Grid Teaching Model along with adapted physical education consultation, on special education teacher instruction of functional motor skill acquisition instruction to secondary students with low incidence disabilities. Special education teachers…

  18. Guiding Learners through Technology-Based Instruction: The Effects of Adaptive Guidance Design and Individual Differences on Learning over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanar, Adam M.; Bell, Bradford S.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive guidance is an instructional intervention that helps learners to make use of the control inherent in technology-based instruction. The present research investigated the interactive effects of guidance design (i.e., framing of guidance information) and individual differences (i.e., pretraining motivation and ability) on learning basic and…

  19. Age and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with ASD: The Effects of Intellectual Functioning and ASD Symptom Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Trenesha L.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; Kamps, Jodi L.; Enrique Varela, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive…

  20. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Conforto, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique, PPT), while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique, EPT). Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness (IE). EMG signals were recorded from eight muscles of the dominant leg and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. Seven representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding eight-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern). Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity

  1. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling

    PubMed Central

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Conforto, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique, PPT), while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique, EPT). Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness (IE). EMG signals were recorded from eight muscles of the dominant leg and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. Seven representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding eight-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern). Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity

  2. What benefit does Intelligent Speed Adaptation deliver: a close examination of its effect on vehicle speeds.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank; Carsten, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) is a driver support system which brings the speed limit information into the vehicle. This paper describes the UK ISA field trials taken place between 2004 and 2006 and presents evidence on how drivers' choice of speed is altered. The ISA system was observed to have a distinctive effect in transforming the speed distribution from a conventional bell shape to an asymmetric distribution biased towards the high speed end. ISA not only diminished excessive speeding, but also led to a reduction in speed variation, prompting a positive implication to accident reduction. The use of an overridable ISA system also provided an opportunity to investigate where drivers would choose to have ISA based on observed behaviour instead of opinion. Evidence shows that ISA tends to be overridden on roads where it was perhaps needed most. Behavioural difference among driver groups also suggests that ISA tends to be overridden by those drivers who in safety terms stand to benefit most from using it, as with other safety systems. PMID:22664662

  3. Environmental versus Anthropogenic Effects on Population Adaptive Divergence in the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Bouétard, Anthony; Côte, Jessica; Besnard, Anne-Laure; Collinet, Marc; Coutellec, Marie-Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pesticide contaminations of lentic freshwater systems located within agricultural landscapes may affect population evolution in non-target organisms, especially in species with a fully aquatic life cycle and low dispersal ability. The issue of evolutionary impact of pollutants is therefore conceptually important for ecotoxicologists. The impact of historical exposure to pesticides on genetic divergence was investigated in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, using a set of 14 populations from contrasted environments in terms of pesticide and other anthropogenic pressures. The hypothesis of population adaptive divergence was tested on 11 life-history traits, using QST -FST comparisons. Despite strong neutral differentiation (mean FST = 0.291), five adult traits or parameters were found to be under divergent selection. Conversely, two early expressed traits showed a pattern consistent with uniform selection or trait canalization, and four adult traits appeared to evolve neutrally. Divergent selection patterns were mostly consistent with a habitat effect, opposing pond to ditch and channel populations. Comparatively, pesticide and other human pressures had little correspondence with evolutionary patterns, despite hatching rate impairment associated with global anthropogenic pressure. Globally, analyses revealed high genetic variation both at neutral markers and fitness-related traits in a species used as model in ecotoxicology, providing empirical support for the need to account for genetic and evolutionary components of population response in ecological risk assessment. PMID:25207985

  4. Effect of betaine on HSP70 expression and cell survival during adaptation to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Petronini, P G; De Angelis, E M; Borghetti, A F; Wheeler, K P

    1993-07-15

    Induced expression of the HSP70 gene in 3T3 and SV-3T3 cells was monitored by measurements of the synthesis of HSP70 and of the cellular contents of both HSP70 and its mRNA. The presence of betaine (N-trimethylglycine) at concentrations of 2.5-25 mM decreased the induction of HSP70 gene expression caused by incubation of 3T3 and SV-3T3 cells in hypertonic (0.5 osM) medium. This effect was accompanied by an enhancement of SV-3T3 cell adaptation, assayed by colony formation, to the hyperosmotic conditions. In contrast, the presence of betaine did not affect HSP70 gene expression induced in these cells by heat shock. After 6 h incubation with 25 mM betaine under hypertonic (0.5 osM) conditions the intracellular concentration of betaine in SV-3T3 cells was about 195 mM, compared with about 70 mM under isotonic (0.3 osM) conditions. Hence, with this concentration of extracellular betaine, the marked increase in the accumulation of betaine within the cells presumably counteracts the imposed osmotic pressure and eliminates the signal that otherwise initiates increased expression of the HSP70 gene. PMID:8343134

  5. Stochastic effects in adaptive reconstruction of body damage: implied the creativity of natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Cui, Li-Qiang; Chen, Tian-Ming; Lian, Bin

    2015-01-01

    After an injury occurs, mechanical/biochemical loads on muscles influence the composition and structure of recovering muscles; this effect likely occurs in other tissues, cells and biological molecules as well owing to the similarity, interassociation and interaction among biochemical reactions and molecules. The ‘damage and reconstruction’ model provides an explanation for how an ideal cytoarchitecture is created by reducing components not suitable for bearing loads; in this model, adaptive changes are induced by promoting the stochasticity of biochemical reactions. Biochemical and mechanical loads can direct the stochasticity of biochemical reactions, which can in turn induce cellular changes. Thus, mechanical and biochemical loads, under natural selection pressure, modify the direction of cell- and tissue-level changes and guide the formation of new structures and traits, thereby influencing microevolution. In summary, the ‘damage and reconstruction’ model accounts for the role of natural selection in the formation of new organisms, helps explain punctuated equilibrium, and illustrates how macroevolution arises from microevolution. PMID:26153081

  6. Effects of climate change on rice production and strategies for adaptation in southern China

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Ge, D.; Chen, H.; Fang, J.

    1995-12-31

    The CERES-rice (Oryza sativa L.) model was calibrated and validated for nine sites in southern China to examine its suitability to model rice production in this area, using agronomic data from more than three successive years. After determining the genetic coefficients for the cultivars, the CERES-rice model was run a second time for the same locations for a time period of 20 to 30 yr. The model used local climate data (1958--1986) and doubled-CO{sub 2} climate change scenarios generated from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), Geophysical Fluid dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), and United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) global climate models (GCMs), with and without supplemental irrigation(to model paddy and upland rice, respectively). The study estimated the potential impacts of climate change on rice production by comparing the base runs with the runs under the three doubled-CO{sub 2} GCM scenarios and it considered the physiological effects of CO{sub 2} on rice growth in each GCM scenario. Finally, the study examined several strategies for adapting to climate change.

  7. Effects of strategic versus tactical instructions on adaptation to changing contingencies in children with adhd.

    PubMed

    Bicard, David E; Neef, Nancy A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two types of instructions on the academic responding of 4 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Tactical instructions specified how to distribute responding between two concurrently available sets of math problems associated with different variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. Strategic instructions provided a strategy to determine the best way to distribute responding. Instruction conditions were counterbalanced in an ABAB/BABA reversal design nested within a multiple baseline across participants design. Experimental sessions consisted of a learning session in which participants were provided with one type of instruction, followed by a test session in which no instruction was provided. The schedules of reinforcement were subsequently reversed during test sessions. When learning and test schedules were identical, the responding of all 4 participants closely matched the reinforcement schedules. When tactical instructions were provided and schedules were subsequently changed, responding often remained under the control of the instructions. When strategic instructions were provided, responding more quickly adapted to the changed contingencies. Analysis of postsession verbal reports indicated correspondence between the participants' verbal descriptions (whether accurate or inaccurate) and their nonverbal patterns of responding. PMID:12555909

  8. Wide-field wavefront sensing in solar adaptive optics : modeling and effects on reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchet, Clémentine; Tallon, Michel; Montilla, Icíar; Langlois, Maud

    2013-12-01

    The planned 4-meter diameter of the European Solar Telescope (EST) is aimed at providing high spatial resolution and large photon collecting area, in order to understand in particular the mechanisms of magnetic coupling in the chromosphere and the photosphere. To reach its goals in the visible and the near-infrared, EST is designed with both a conventional and a multi-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) of similar complexity than the ones featured for the Extremely Large Telescopes. In addition, the AO on EST has to face a particularity of solar AO: the wavefront sensing on extended sources with measurement fields of about 10'' in size. Reviewing recent literature together with an independent analysis, we investigate the impact of extended-field sensing in AO for large solar telescopes. Sensing modeling and its effect on reconstruction performance are analyzed, thanks to simulations performed with the Fractal Iterative Method for tomography (FRiM-3D), showing the difficulty to correct high altitude turbulence. We introduce a new approximate direct model of extended-source sensing which greatly improves the quality of the end-to-end simulations for EST AO. Next, we try to improve the conventional solar AO correction by using this new model in the reconstruction. Our simulations do not show significant benefits from using such tomographic model in this conventional AO configuration and under typical atmospheric conditions.

  9. [Effect of adaptation to hypoxia on expression of NO synthase isoforms in rat myocardium].

    PubMed

    Goryacheva, A V; Terekhina, O L; Abramochkin, D V; Budanova, O P; Belkina, L M; Smirin, B V; Downey, H F; Malyshev, I Yu; Manukhina, E B

    2015-01-01

    Previously we have shown that adaptation to hypoxia (AH) is cardio- and vasoprotective in myocardial ischemic and reperfusion injury and this protection is associated with restriction of nitrosative stress. The present study was focused on further elucidation of NO-dependent mechanisms of AH by identifying specific NO synthases (NOS) that could play the major role in AH protection. AH was performed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber by breathing hypoxic gas mixture (9.5-10% O2) for 5-10 min with intervening 4 min normoxia (5-8 cycles daily for 21 days). Expression of neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS), and endothelial (eNOS) protein was measured in the left ventricular myocardium using Western blot analysis with respective antibodies. AH educed iNOS protein expression by 71% (p < 0.05) whereas eNOS protein expression tended to be reduced by 41% compared to control (p < 0.05). nNOS protein expression remained unchanged after AH. Selective iNOS inhibition can mimic the AH-induced protection. Therefore protective effects of AH could be at least partially due to restriction of iNOS and, probably, eNOS expression. PMID:27116881

  10. Effects of axial scanning in confocal microscopy employing adaptive lenses (CAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukourakis, N.; Finkeldey, M.; Stürmer, M.; Gerhardt, N. C.; Wallrabe, U.; Hofmann, M. R.; Czarske, J. W.; Fischer, A.

    2014-05-01

    We analyze axial scanning in Confocal microscopy based on Adaptive Lenses (CAL). A tunable lens located in the illumination path of a confocal setup enables scanning the focus position by applying an electrical voltage. This opens up the possibility to replace mechanical axial scanning which is commonly used. In our proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate a tuning range of about 380 μm. The range can easily be extended by using the whole possible tuning range. During the scan the axial resolution degrades by a factor of about 2.3. The deterioration is introduced by aberrations that strongly depend on the scanning process. Therefore a second lens is located in the detection path of the CAL setup to balance the aberration effects. Both experiments and simulations show that this approach allows creating a homogeneous axial resolution throughout the scan. This is at the cost of tuning range which halves to about 200 μm. The lateral resolution is not noticeably affected and amounts to 500 nm.

  11. Relative age effect and soccer refereeing: a 'strategic adaptation' of relatively younger children?

    PubMed

    Delorme, Nicolas; Radel, Rémi; Raspaud, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggested that the relative age effect (RAE) has a psychological influence on children and their decision to engage in a particular sport. Relatively younger children seem to have lower self-esteem. Indeed, because of the disadvantages of being younger, it is assumed that these players experience more situations of failure and inferiority. Because of these negative performance cues, it is likely that these young players feel less competent, which eventually leads to a higher dropout rate. These children can also decide to participate in sports in which physical attributes are less important. This shift from one sport to another can be interpreted as a 'strategic adaptation'. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate whether refereeing could be another form of 'strategic adaptation'. If a child chooses a specific sport but then does not feel competent enough to be a player, refereeing might be an alternate path followed to stay in the environment of a sport they like. Given the minimal age limits for refereeing, two hypotheses were formulated: (1) 'reversed' RAE would be observed in district referees younger than 18 years old and (2) no RAE would be observed in district referees older than 18 years old, regional referees and national referees. The birthdates of all official male soccer referees (n=13,952) were collected from the federation database. Results show that the distribution of all district referees was significantly unbalanced (χ(2)=18.73, df=3, P<0.001) with an over-representation of individuals who were born in the second half of the competitive year. As expected, this imbalance was exclusively located in district referees of 18 years old and less (χ(2)=8.03, df=3, P<0.05), while the distribution was uniform for adults (χ(2)=5.17, df=3, P<0.16). Concerning regional referees (χ(2)=2.09, df=3, P<0.554) and national referees (χ(2)=3.75, df=3, P<0.290), the results also provide support for our initial hypothesis as uniform

  12. Effects of removing extracellular Ca2+ on excitation and adaptation in Limulus ventral photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Lisman, J E

    1976-01-01

    In Limulus ventral photoreceptors, removing extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) increases the median latency of light-evoked discrete waves. Removal greatly lengthens the time-to-peak of responses in the dark-adapted cell, but not in the light-adapted cell. Removal does not block light-adaptation or the light-induced rise in intracellular calcium (Ca2+i). These results are interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that both sensitivity and the kinetics of excitation are dependent on Ca2+i, and that Ca2+i is dependent on Ca2+o in the dark-adapted cell, but in the light is dependent largely on Ca2+ released from intracellular compartments. PMID:974224

  13. Effects of different anesthetic techniques on neurologic and adaptation capacity in newborn with elective cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Jabalameli, Mitra; Mokhtary, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Scoring (NACS) has been introduced as a screening test for diagnosis of central nervous system depression due to intrapartum drugs on the neonate. This test can show neurological and behavioral changes even in the presence of a normal Apgar score. NACS has 20 indicators, each indicator allocating to itself the score zero, one or two. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different anesthetic techniques on the NACS values. Materials and Methods: This study was performed as a randomized, single-blind clinical trial on 75 infants born with elective cesarean in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Isfahan. Simple Sampling method was carried out and the information was gathered by questionnaires. Anesthetic techniques included general, spinal or epidural anesthesia. NACS score was assessed at 15th min, 2 and 24 h after birth and then the anesthesia technique was recorded in the questionnaire. NACS score 35 or above was considered normal and 34 or less was abnormal. Results: In the present study, no significant correlation was found between the anesthesia techniques and NACS score. The mean NACS at 15 min after birthin the general, spinal and epidural groups were 33.5 ± 2.2, 33.0 ± 4.4 and 33.7 ± 1.6 respectively (P = 0.703). Conclusion: All three anesthetic techniques have identical effects on neurological and compatibility capacity of neonates born with elective cesarean; so, this could necessarily be a base to recommend the three methods equally. PMID:26693474

  14. A Review on Effectiveness and Adaptability of the Design-Build Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Masataka; Miyatake, Ichiro; Baba, Kazuhito; Yokoi, Hiroyuki; Fueta, Toshiharu

    In the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), various approaches have been taken for efficient implementation of public works projects, one of which is the ongoing use of the design-build method on a trial basis, as a means to utilize the technical skills and knowledge of private companies. In 2005, MLIT further introduced the a dvanced technical proposal type, a kind of the comprehensive evaluation method, as part of its efforts to improve tendering and contracting systems. Meanwhile, although the positive effect of the design build method has been reported, it has not been widely published, which may be one of the reasons that the number of MLIT projects using the design-build method is declining year by year. In this context, this paper discusses the result and review of the study concerning the extent of flexibility allowed for the process and design (proposal) of public work projects, and the follow-up surveys of the actual test case projects, conducted as basic researches to examine the measure to expand and promote the use of the design-build method. The study objects were selected from the tunnel construction projects using the shield tunneling method for developing the common utility duct, and the bridge construction projects ordering construction of supers tructure work and substructure work in a single contract. In providing the result and review of the studies, the structures and the temporary installations were separately examined, and effectiveness and adaptability of the design-build method was discussed for each, respectively.

  15. Adaptive Effects on Locomotion Performance Following Exposure to a Rotating Virtual Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Marshburn, A. M.; Bucello, R.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    During long-duration spaceflight, astronauts experience alterations in vestibular and somatosensory cues that result in adaptive disturbances in balance and coordination upon return to Earth. These changes can pose a risk to crew safety and to mission objectives if nominal or emergency vehicle egress is required immediately following long-duration spaceflight. At present, no operational countermeasure is available to mitigate the adaptive sensorimotor component underlying the locomotor disturbances that occur after spaceflight. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop an inflight training regimen that facilitates recovery of locomotor function after long-duration spaceflight. The countermeasure we are proposing is based on the concept of adaptive generalization. During this type of training the subject gains experience producing the appropriate adaptive motor behavior under a variety of sensory conditions and response constraints. As a result of this training a subject learns to solve a class of motor problems, rather than a specific motor solution to one problem, i.e., the subject learns response generalizability or the ability to "learn to learn." under a variety of environmental constraints. We are developing an inflight countermeasure built around treadmill exercise activities. By manipulating the sensory conditions of exercise by varying visual flow patterns, body load and speed we will systematically and repeatedly promote adaptive change in locomotor behavior. It has been shown that variable practice training increases adaptability to novel visuo-motor situations. While walking over ground in a stereoscopic virtual environment that oscillated in roll, subjects have shown compensatory torso rotation in the direction of scene rotation that resulted in positional variation away from a desired linear path. Thus, postural sway and locomotor stability in 1-g can be modulated by visual flow patterns and used during inflight treadmill training to promote

  16. The effect of repeated mild cold water immersions on the adaptation of the vasomotor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Kuroki, Hideto; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    There are several types of cold adaptation based on the alteration of thermoregulatory response. It has been thought that the temperature of repeated cold exposures during the adaptation period is one of the factors affecting the type of cold adaptation developed. This study tested the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersions would induce an insulative cold adaptation but would not alter the metabolic response. Seven healthy male participants were immersed to their xiphoid process level repeatedly in 26°C water for 60 min, 3 days every week, for 4 weeks. During the first and last exposure of this cold acclimation period, the participants underwent body immersion tests measuring their thermoregulatory responses to cold. Separately, they conducted finger immersion into 5°C water for 30 min to assess their cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) response before and after cold acclimation. During the immersion to xiphoid process, participants showed significantly lower mean skin temperature and skin blood flow in the forearm post-acclimation, while no adaptation was observed in the metabolic response. Additionally, blunted CIVD responses were observed after cold acclimation. From these results, it was considered that the participants showed an insulative-type of cold acclimation after the repeated mild cold immersions. The major finding of this study was the acceptance of the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersion was sufficient to induce insulative cold adaptation but did not alter the metabolic response. It is suggested that the adaptation in the thermoregulatory response is specific to the response which is repeatedly stimulated during the adaptation process.

  17. Adaptive plasticity in speech perception: Effects of external information and internal predictions.

    PubMed

    Guediche, Sara; Fiez, Julie A; Holt, Lori L

    2016-07-01

    When listeners encounter speech under adverse listening conditions, adaptive adjustments in perception can improve comprehension over time. In some cases, these adaptive changes require the presence of external information that disambiguates the distorted speech signals, whereas in other cases mere exposure is sufficient. Both external (e.g., written feedback) and internal (e.g., prior word knowledge) sources of information can be used to generate predictions about the correct mapping of a distorted speech signal. We hypothesize that these predictions provide a basis for determining the discrepancy between the expected and actual speech signal that can be used to guide adaptive changes in perception. This study provides the first empirical investigation that manipulates external and internal factors through (a) the availability of explicit external disambiguating information via the presence or absence of postresponse orthographic information paired with a repetition of the degraded stimulus, and (b) the accuracy of internally generated predictions; an acoustic distortion is introduced either abruptly or incrementally. The results demonstrate that the impact of external information on adaptive plasticity is contingent upon whether the intelligibility of the stimuli permits accurate internally generated predictions during exposure. External information sources enhance adaptive plasticity only when input signals are severely degraded and cannot reliably access internal predictions. This is consistent with a computational framework for adaptive plasticity in which error-driven supervised learning relies on the ability to compute sensory prediction error signals from both internal and external sources of information. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854531

  18. Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Implementation of an Adapted Evidence-Based Mammography Intervention for African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Balihe, Philomene; Ausborn, Valerie A.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality disparities continue, particularly for uninsured and minority women. A number of effective evidence-based interventions (EBIs) exist for addressing barriers to mammography screening; however, their uptake and use in community has been limited. Few cancer-specific studies have evaluated adapted EBIs in new contexts, and fewer still have considered implementation. This study sought to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of an adapted mammography EBI in improving appointment keeping in African American women and (2) describe processes of implementation in a new practice setting. We used the type 1 hybrid design to test effectiveness and implementation using a quasi-experimental design. Logistic regression and intent-to-treat analysis were used to evaluate mammography appointment attendance. The no-show rate was 44% (comparison) versus 19% (intervention). The adjusted odds of a woman in the intervention group attending her appointment were 3.88 (p < 0.001). The adjusted odds of a woman attending her appointment in the intent-to-treat analysis were 2.31 (p < 0.05). Adapted EBI effectiveness was 3.88 (adjusted OR) versus 2.10 (OR) for the original program, indicating enhanced program effect. A number of implementation barriers and facilitators were identified. Our findings support previous studies noting that sequentially measuring EBI efficacy and effectiveness, followed by implementation, may be missing important contextual information. PMID:26504790

  19. Heel effect adaptive flat field correction of digital x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yongjian; Wang, Jue

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Anode heel effect renders large-scale background nonuniformities in digital radiographs. Conventional offset/gain calibration is performed at mono source-to-image distance (SID), and disregards the SID-dependent characteristic of heel effect. It results in a residual nonuniform background in the corrected radiographs when the SID settings for calibration and correction differ. In this work, the authors develop a robust and efficient computational method for digital x-ray detector gain correction adapted to SID-variant heel effect, without resorting to physical filters, phantoms, complicated heel effect models, or multiple-SID calibration and interpolation.Methods: The authors present the Duo-SID projection correction method. In our approach, conventional offset/gain calibrations are performed only twice, at the minimum and maximum SIDs of the system in typical clinical use. A fast iterative separation algorithm is devised to extract the detector gain and basis heel patterns from the min/max SID calibrations. The resultant detector gain is independent of SID, while the basis heel patterns are parameterized by the min- and max-SID. The heel pattern at any SID is obtained from the min-SID basis heel pattern via projection imaging principles. The system gain desired at a specific acquisition SID is then constructed using the projected heel pattern and detector gain map.Results: The method was evaluated for flat field and anatomical phantom image corrections. It demonstrated promising improvements over interpolation and conventional gain calibration/correction methods, lowering their correction errors by approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. The separation algorithm was able to extract the detector gain and heel patterns with less than 2% error, and the Duo-SID corrected images showed perceptually appealing uniform background across the detector.Conclusions: The Duo-SID correction method has substantially improved on conventional offset/gain corrections for

  20. Effects of Age and Cognition on a Cross-Cultural Paediatric Adaptation of the Sniffin' Sticks Identification Test

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Marilisa Mantovani; Lees, Andrew John; Warner, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the effects of age and cognition on the performance of children aged 3 to 18 years on a culturally adapted version of the 16 item smell identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS16). Methods A series of pilots were conducted on 29 children aged 3 to 18 years old and 23 adults to produce an adapted version of the SS16 suitable for Brazilian children (SS16-Child). A final version was applied to 51 children alongside a picture identification test (PIT-SS16-Child) to access cognitive abilities involved in the smell identification task. In addition 20 adults performed the same tasks as a comparison group. Results The final adapted SS16-Child was applied to 51 children with a mean age of 9.9 years (range 3-18 years, SD=4.25 years), of which 68.3% were girls. There was an independent effect of age (p<0.05) and PIT-SS16-Child (p<0.001) on the performance on the SS16-Child, and older children reached the ceiling for scoring in the cognitive and olfactory test. Pre-school children had difficulties identifying items of the test. Discussion/Conclusions A cross-culturally adapted version of the SS16 can be used to test olfaction in children but interpretation of the results must take age and cognitive abilities into consideration. PMID:26267145

  1. The effects of country-level population policy for enhancing adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekara, N. K.; Kazama, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Oki, T.

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of population policy in reducing the combined impacts of population change and climate change on water resources is explored. One no-policy scenario and two scenarios with population policy assumptions are employed in combination with water availability under the SRES scenarios A1b, B1 and A2 for the impact analysis. The population data used are from the World Bank. The river discharges per grid of horizontal resolution 0.5° are obtained from the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) of the University of Tokyo, Japan. Unlike the population scenarios utilized in the SRES emission scenarios and the newest representative concentration pathways, the scenarios employed in this research are based, even after 2050, on country-level rather than regional-level growth assumptions. Our analysis implies that the heterogeneous pattern of population changes across the world is the dominant driver of water stress, irrespective of future greenhouse gas emissions, with highest impacts occurring in the already water-stressed low latitudes. In 2100, Africa, Middle East and parts of Asia are under extreme water stress under all scenarios. The sensitivity analysis reveals that a small reduction in populations over the region could relieve a large number of people from high water stress, while a further increase in population from the assumed levels (SC1) might not increase the number of people under high water stress considerably. Most of the population increase towards 2100 occurs in the already water-stressed lower latitudes. Therefore, population reduction policies are recommended for this region as a method of adaptation to the future water stress conditions. Population reduction policies will facilitate more control over their future development pathways, even if these countries were not able to contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission cuts due to economic constraints. However, for the European region, the population living in water

  2. The effects of physiological adaptations to calorie restriction on global cell proliferation rates.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Matthew D; Thompson, Airlia C S; Aggarwal, Ishita; Khambatta, Cyrus F; Hellerstein, Marc K

    2011-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces the rate of cell proliferation in mitotic tissues. It has been suggested that this reduction in cell proliferation may mediate CR-induced increases in longevity. However, the mechanisms that lead to CR-induced reductions in cell proliferation rates remain unclear. To evaluate the CR-induced physiological adaptations that may mediate reductions in cell proliferation rates, we altered housing temperature and access to voluntary running wheels to determine the effects of food intake, energy expenditure, percent body fat, and body weight on proliferation rates of keratinocytes, liver cells, mammary epithelial cells, and splenic T-cells in C57BL/6 mice. We found that ∼20% CR led to a reduction in cell proliferation rates in all cell types. However, lower cell proliferation rates were not observed with reductions in 1) food intake and energy expenditure in female mice housed at 27°C, 2) percent body fat in female mice provided running wheels, or 3) body weight in male mice provided running wheels compared with ad libitum-fed controls. In contrast, reductions in insulin-like growth factor I were associated with decreased cell proliferation rates. Taken together, these data suggest that CR-induced reductions in food intake, energy expenditure, percent body fat, and body weight do not account for the reductions in global cell proliferation rates observed in CR. In addition, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that reduced cell proliferation rates could be useful as a biomarker of interventions that increase longevity. PMID:21285400

  3. Odor-context effects in free recall after a short retention interval: a new methodology for controlling adaptation.

    PubMed

    Isarida, Takeo; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kubota, Takayuki; Koga, Miho; Katayama, Yu; Isarida, Toshiko K

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated context effects of incidental odors in free recall after a short retention interval (5 min). With a short retention interval, the results are not confounded by extraneous odors or encounters with the experimental odor and possible rehearsal during a long retention interval. A short study time condition (4 s per item), predicted not to be affected by adaptation to the odor, and a long study time condition (8 s per item) were used. Additionally, we introduced a new method for recovery from adaptation, where a dissimilar odor was briefly presented at the beginning of the retention interval, and we demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique. An incidental learning paradigm was used to prevent overshadowing from confounding the results. In three experiments, undergraduates (N = 200) incidentally studied words presented one-by-one and received a free recall test. Two pairs of odors and a third odor having different semantic-differential characteristics were selected from 14 familiar odors. One of the odors was presented during encoding, and during the test, the same odor (same-context condition) or the other odor within the pair (different-context condition) was presented. Without using a recovery-from-adaptation method, a significant odor-context effect appeared in the 4-s/item condition, but not in the 8-s/item condition. Using the recovery-from-adaptation method, context effects were found for both the 8- and the 4-s/item conditions. The size of the recovered odor-context effect did not change with study time. There were no serial position effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:24222319

  4. Effect of Adaptation to Ethanol on Cytoplasmic and Membrane Protein Profiles of Oenococcus oeni

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, M. Graça; Baumgärtner, Maja; Rombouts, Frank M.; Abee, Tjakko

    2004-01-01

    The practical application of commercial malolactic starter cultures of Oenococcus oeni surviving direct inoculation in wine requires insight into mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and of acquired ethanol tolerance in this organism. Therefore, the site-specific location of proteins involved in ethanol adaptation, including cytoplasmic, membrane-associated, and integral membrane proteins, was investigated. Ethanol triggers alterations in protein patterns of O. oeni cells stressed with 12% ethanol for 1 h and those of cells grown in the presence of 8% ethanol. Levels of inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, which generate reduced nicotinamide nucleotides, were decreased during growth in the presence of ethanol, while glutathione reductase, which consumes NADPH, was induced, suggesting that maintenance of the redox balance plays an important role in ethanol adaptation. Phosphoenolpyruvate:mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS) components of mannose PTS, including the phosphocarrier protein HPr and EIIMan, were lacking in ethanol-adapted cells, providing strong evidence that mannose PTS is absent in ethanol-adapted cells, and this represents a metabolic advantage to O. oeni cells during malolactic fermentation. In cells grown in the presence of ethanol, a large increase in the number of membrane-associated proteins was observed. Interestingly, two of these proteins, dTDT-glucose-4,6-dehydratase and d-alanine:d-alanine ligase, are known to be involved in cell wall biosynthesis. Using a proteomic approach, we provide evidence for an active ethanol adaptation response of O. oeni at the cytoplasmic and membrane protein levels. PMID:15128528

  5. Modeling effects of cerebellar and basal ganglia lesions on adaptation and anticipation during sensorimotor synchronization.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, M C Marieke; Schwartze, Michael; Kotz, Sonja A; Keller, Peter E

    2015-03-01

    This study addressed the role of subcortical brain structures in temporal adaptation and anticipation during sensorimotor synchronization. The performance of patients with cerebellar or basal ganglia lesions was compared with that of healthy control participants on tasks requiring the synchronization of drum strokes with adaptive and tempo-changing auditory pacing sequences. The precision of sensorimotor synchronization was generally lower in patients relative to controls (i.e., variability of asynchronies was higher in patients), although synchronization accuracy (mean asynchrony) was commensurate. A computational model of adaptation and anticipation (ADAM) was used to examine potential sources of individual differences in precision by estimating participants' use of error correction, temporal prediction, and the amount of variability associated with central timekeeping and peripheral motor processes. Parameter estimates based on ADAM indicate that impaired precision was attributable to increased variability of timekeeper and motor processes as well as to reduced temporal prediction in both patient groups. Adaptive processes related to continuously applied error correction were, by contrast, intact in patients. These findings highlight the importance of investigating how subcortical structures, including the cerebellum and basal ganglia, interact with a broader network of cortical regions to support temporal adaptation and anticipation during sensorimotor synchronization. PMID:25773623

  6. A Synergism between Adaptive Effects and Evolvability Drives Whole Genome Duplication to Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Thomas D.; Hogeweg, Paulien

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome duplication has shaped eukaryotic evolutionary history and has been associated with drastic environmental change and species radiation. While the most common fate of WGD duplicates is a return to single copy, retained duplicates have been found enriched for highly interacting genes. This pattern has been explained by a neutral process of subfunctionalization and more recently, dosage balance selection. However, much about the relationship between environmental change, WGD and adaptation remains unknown. Here, we study the duplicate retention pattern postWGD, by letting virtual cells adapt to environmental changes. The virtual cells have structured genomes that encode a regulatory network and simple metabolism. Populations are under selection for homeostasis and evolve by point mutations, small indels and WGD. After populations had initially adapted fully to fluctuating resource conditions re-adaptation to a broad range of novel environments was studied by tracking mutations in the line of descent. WGD was established in a minority (≈30%) of lineages, yet, these were significantly more successful at re-adaptation. Unexpectedly, WGD lineages conserved more seemingly redundant genes, yet had higher per gene mutation rates. While WGD duplicates of all functional classes were significantly over-retained compared to a model of neutral losses, duplicate retention was clearly biased towards highly connected TFs. Importantly, no subfunctionalization occurred in conserved pairs, strongly suggesting that dosage balance shaped retention. Meanwhile, singles diverged significantly. WGD, therefore, is a powerful mechanism to cope with environmental change, allowing conservation of a core machinery, while adapting the peripheral network to accommodate change. PMID:24743268

  7. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    PubMed

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  8. Impacts of rainfall variability and expected rainfall changes on cost-effective adaptation of water systems to climate change.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, T D; van Ierland, E C; Gabbert, S; Weikard, H-P; Hendrix, E M T

    2015-05-01

    Stormwater drainage and other water systems are vulnerable to changes in rainfall and runoff and need to be adapted to climate change. This paper studies impacts of rainfall variability and changing return periods of rainfall extremes on cost-effective adaptation of water systems to climate change given a predefined system performance target, for example a flood risk standard. Rainfall variability causes system performance estimates to be volatile. These estimates may be used to recurrently evaluate system performance. This paper presents a model for this setting, and develops a solution method to identify cost-effective investments in stormwater drainage adaptations. Runoff and water levels are simulated with rainfall from stationary rainfall distributions, and time series of annual rainfall maxima are simulated for a climate scenario. Cost-effective investment strategies are determined by dynamic programming. The method is applied to study the choice of volume for a storage basin in a Dutch polder. We find that 'white noise', i.e. trend-free variability of rainfall, might cause earlier re-investment than expected under projected changes in rainfall. The risk of early re-investment may be reduced by increasing initial investment. This can be cost-effective if the investment involves fixed costs. Increasing initial investments, therefore, not only increases water system robustness to structural changes in rainfall, but could also offer insurance against additional costs that would occur if system performance is underestimated and re-investment becomes inevitable. PMID:25704748

  9. Effects of an adapted physical activity program on psychophysical health in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Alesi, Marianna; Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown the positive effects of adapted physical activity (APA) on physical and mental health (MH) during the lifetime. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific APA intervention program in the improvement of the health-related quality of life (QOL) and functional condition of spine in elderly women. Methods Thirty women were recruited from a senior center and randomly assigned to two groups: control group (CG; age: 69.69±7.94 years, height: 1.57±0.06 m, weight: 68.42±8.18 kg, body mass index [BMI]: 27.88±2.81) and trained group (TG; age: 68.35±6.04 years, height: 1.55±0.05 m, weight: 64.78±10.16 kg, BMI: 26.98±3.07). The APA program was conducted for 8 weeks, with two training sessions/week. CG did not perform any physical activity during the study. Spinal angles were evaluated by SpinalMouse® (Idiag, Volkerswill, Switzerland); health-related QOL was evaluated by SF-36 Health Survey, which assesses physical component summary (PCS-36), mental component summary (MCS-36), and eight subscales: physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perception, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, and MH. All measures were recorded before and after the experimental period. Results In TG, compared to CG, the two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures with Bonferroni post hoc test showed a relevant improvement in lumbar spinal angle (°) and in SF-36 outcomes after the intervention period. We showed a significant increase in physical functioning, bodily pain, and MH subscales and in PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores in TG compared to CG. In particular, from baseline to posttest, we found that in TG, the PCS-36 and MCS-36 scores increased by 13.20% and 11.64%, respectively. Conclusion We believe that an 8-week APA intervention program is able to improve psychophysical heath in elderly people. During the aging process, a dynamic lifestyle, including regular physical activity, is a crucial

  10. Effects of Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on external adaptation of restorations in caries-affected cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Tonetto, Mateus; Coelho Bandéca, Matheus; Henrique Borges, Alvaro; Souza Pinto, Shelon Cristina; Cury Saad, José Roberto; Alves de Campos, Edson; de Toledo Porto Neto, Sizenando; Ferrarezi de Andrade, Marcelo

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the external adaptation of composite resin restorations in caries-affected cavities. Mixed class V cavity preparations were performed in 36 intact human third molars, in half of which caries was artificially induced. Both healthy and carious dentin were etched with 35% phosphoric acid (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, Utah, USA), and the teeth were divided into three groups, i.e., (a) untreated etched dentin, (b) application of the Er, Cr:YSGG laser and (c) use of chlorhexidine as an adjunct in the bonding process. Restorations were fabricated with Z350 XT FiltekTM composite resin (3M ESPE) and subsequently the specimens were subjected to thermocycling to simulate artificial ageing. Quantitative analysis of external adaptation was performed by scanning electron microscopy in both healthy and affected dentin using epoxy resin replicas. It was concluded that the application of laser and chlorhexidine did not affect the percentages of marginal adaptation of class V restorations. Furthermore, thermocycling may influence adaptation values.

  11. Effects of a psychophysiological system for adaptive automation on performance, workload, and the event-related potential P300 component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J 3rd; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Mikulka, Peter J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of an electroencephalographic- (EEG-) based system for adaptive automation on tracking performance and workload. In addition, event-related potentials (ERPs) to a secondary task were derived to determine whether they would provide an additional degree of workload specificity. Participants were run in an adaptive automation condition, in which the system switched between manual and automatic task modes based on the value of each individual's own EEG engagement index; a yoked control condition; or another control group, in which task mode switches followed a random pattern. Adaptive automation improved performance and resulted in lower levels of workload. Further, the P300 component of the ERP paralleled the sensitivity to task demands of the performance and subjective measures across conditions. These results indicate that it is possible to improve performance with a psychophysiological adaptive automation system and that ERPs may provide an alternative means for distinguishing among levels of cognitive task demand in such systems. Actual or potential applications of this research include improved methods for assessing operator workload and performance.

  12. The Effects of Unilateral Adaptation of Hearing Aids on Symptoms of Depression and Social Activity Constraints of Elderly.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda Dutra Dos; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in the elderly population. Besides compromising oral communication, it directly affects social relations and prevents elderly patients from living actively in society, possibly leading to the onset of depression or other conditions. Objective To analyze the effects of unilateral adaptation of hearing aids on symptoms of depression and the social activity constraints of elderly subjects with hearing impairment. Methods The sample consisted of elderly subjects with hearing loss who did not use hearing aids. Data were collected in two phases. Initially, all participants underwent an audiological assessment and answered the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (summarized version) and the Geriatric Depression Scale. All subjects participated in the selection and hearing aid adaptation processes and became monaural hearing aid users. After 30 days of hearing aid use, they were assessed with the same instruments. The results of the questionnaires before and after hearing aid adaptation were compared. Results The sample consisted of 13 individuals, between 60 and 90 years old (mean 72.85 ± 11.05 years). Data analysis showed that there was significant improvement in social activity constraints (p < 0.001) and in symptoms of depression (p = 0.031). Conclusion Results show that, in the sample studied, unilateral hearing aid adaptation reduced social activity constraints and depression symptoms. PMID:26157497

  13. The Effects of Unilateral Adaptation of Hearing Aids on Symptoms of Depression and Social Activity Constraints of Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernanda Dutra dos; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is one of the most common problems in the elderly population. Besides compromising oral communication, it directly affects social relations and prevents elderly patients from living actively in society, possibly leading to the onset of depression or other conditions. Objective To analyze the effects of unilateral adaptation of hearing aids on symptoms of depression and the social activity constraints of elderly subjects with hearing impairment. Methods The sample consisted of elderly subjects with hearing loss who did not use hearing aids. Data were collected in two phases. Initially, all participants underwent an audiological assessment and answered the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (summarized version) and the Geriatric Depression Scale. All subjects participated in the selection and hearing aid adaptation processes and became monaural hearing aid users. After 30 days of hearing aid use, they were assessed with the same instruments. The results of the questionnaires before and after hearing aid adaptation were compared. Results The sample consisted of 13 individuals, between 60 and 90 years old (mean 72.85 ± 11.05 years). Data analysis showed that there was significant improvement in social activity constraints (p < 0.001) and in symptoms of depression (p = 0.031). Conclusion Results show that, in the sample studied, unilateral hearing aid adaptation reduced social activity constraints and depression symptoms. PMID:26157497

  14. Multi-allelic major effect genes interact with minor effect QTLs to control adaptive color pattern variation in Heliconius erato.

    PubMed

    Papa, Riccardo; Kapan, Durrell D; Counterman, Brian A; Maldonado, Karla; Lindstrom, Daniel P; Reed, Robert D; Nijhout, H Frederik; Hrbek, Tomas; McMillan, W Owen

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that relatively few genomic regions are repeatedly involved in the evolution of Heliconius butterfly wing patterns. Although this work demonstrates a number of cases where homologous loci underlie both convergent and divergent wing pattern change among different Heliconius species, it is still unclear exactly how many loci underlie pattern variation across the genus. To address this question for Heliconius erato, we created fifteen independent crosses utilizing the four most distinct color pattern races and analyzed color pattern segregation across a total of 1271 F2 and backcross offspring. Additionally, we used the most variable brood, an F2 cross between H. himera and the east Ecuadorian H. erato notabilis, to perform a quantitative genetic analysis of color pattern variation and produce a detailed map of the loci likely involved in the H. erato color pattern radiation. Using AFLP and gene based markers, we show that fewer major genes than previously envisioned control the color pattern variation in H. erato. We describe for the first time the genetic architecture of H. erato wing color pattern by assessing quantitative variation in addition to traditional linkage mapping. In particular, our data suggest three genomic intervals modulate the bulk of the observed variation in color. Furthermore, we also identify several modifier loci of moderate effect size that contribute to the quantitative wing pattern variation. Our results are consistent with the two-step model for the evolution of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius and support a growing body of empirical data demonstrating the importance of major effect loci in adaptive change. PMID:23533571

  15. Developing Adaptive Collaboration Support: The Example of an Effective Training for Collaborative Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deiglmayr, Anne; Spada, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive support for computer-mediated collaboration aims at supporting learners' collaboration in a way that is tailored to their actual needs and by fostering their self-regulation, leading to the acquisition of new collaboration skills. This review gives an example of developing support for a specific collaboration skill: the co-construction of…

  16. Effects of Selective Adaptation on Coding Sugar and Salt Tastes in Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Goyert, Holly F.; Formaker, Bradley K.; Hettinger, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about coding of taste mixtures in complex dynamic stimulus environments. A protocol developed for odor stimuli was used to test whether rapid selective adaptation extracted sugar and salt component tastes from mixtures as it did component odors. Seventeen human subjects identified taste components of “salt + sugar” mixtures. In 4 sessions, 16 adapt–test stimulus pairs were presented as atomized, 150-μL “taste puffs” to the tongue tip to simulate odor sniffs. Stimuli were NaCl, sucrose, “NaCl + sucrose,” and water. The sugar was 98% identified but the suppressed salt 65% identified in unadapted mixtures of 2 concentrations of NaCl, 0.1 or 0.05 M, and sucrose at 3 times those concentrations, 0.3 or 0.15 M. Rapid selective adaptation decreased identification of sugar and salt preadapted ambient components to 35%, well below the 74% self-adapted level, despite variation in stimulus concentration and adapting time (<5 or >10 s). The 96% identification of sugar and salt extra mixture components was as certain as identification of single compounds. The results revealed that salt–sugar mixture suppression, dependent on relative mixture-component concentration, was mutual. Furthermore, like odors, stronger and recent tastes are emphasized in dynamic experimental conditions replicating natural situations. PMID:22562765

  17. Effectiveness of Adaptive Pretend Play on Affective Expression and Imagination of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have difficulty participating in role-pretending activities. The concept of adaptive play makes play accessible by modifying play materials for different needs or treatment goals for children with CP. This study examines the affective expressions and imagination in children with CP as a function of…

  18. Effects of community structure on epidemic spread in an adaptive network.

    PubMed

    Tunc, Ilker; Shaw, Leah B

    2014-08-01

    When an epidemic spreads in a population, individuals may adaptively change the structure of their social contact network to reduce risk of infection. Here we study the spread of an epidemic on an adaptive network with community structure. We model two communities with different average degrees. The disease model is susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS), and adaptation is rewiring of links between susceptibles and infectives. Locations of rewired links are selected so that the community structure will be preserved if susceptible-infective links are homogeneously distributed. The bifurcation structure is obtained, and a mean field model is developed that accurately predicts the steady-state behavior of the system. In a static network, weakly connected heterogeneous communities can have significantly different infection levels. In contrast, adaptation promotes similar infection levels and alters the network structure so that communities have more similar average degrees. We estimate the time for network restructuring to allow infection incursion from one community to another and show that it is inversely proportional to the number of cross-links between communities. In extremely heterogeneous systems, periodic oscillations in infection level can occur due to repeated infection incursions. PMID:25215775

  19. Enhancing Mentors' Effectiveness: The Promise of the "Adaptive Mentorship[C]" Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralph, Edwin George; Walker, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    The "Adaptive Mentorship[C]" ("AM") model is described and implications are raised for its wider implementation. The researchers derived the AM model from earlier contingency leadership approaches; and during the last two decades, they have further refined AM through application and research. They suggest the benefits and transferability of AM to…

  20. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  1. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  2. Computerized Adaptive Testing for Effective and Efficient Measurement in Counseling and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is described and compared with conventional tests, and its advantages summarized. Some item response theory concepts used in CAT are summarized and illustrated. The author describes the potential usefulness of CAT in counseling and education and reviews some current issues in the implementation of CAT.

  3. Effects of community structure on epidemic spread in an adaptive network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Ilker; Shaw, Leah B.

    2014-08-01

    When an epidemic spreads in a population, individuals may adaptively change the structure of their social contact network to reduce risk of infection. Here we study the spread of an epidemic on an adaptive network with community structure. We model two communities with different average degrees. The disease model is susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS), and adaptation is rewiring of links between susceptibles and infectives. Locations of rewired links are selected so that the community structure will be preserved if susceptible-infective links are homogeneously distributed. The bifurcation structure is obtained, and a mean field model is developed that accurately predicts the steady-state behavior of the system. In a static network, weakly connected heterogeneous communities can have significantly different infection levels. In contrast, adaptation promotes similar infection levels and alters the network structure so that communities have more similar average degrees. We estimate the time for network restructuring to allow infection incursion from one community to another and show that it is inversely proportional to the number of cross-links between communities. In extremely heterogeneous systems, periodic oscillations in infection level can occur due to repeated infection incursions.

  4. Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability: Enhancing the positive and mitigating the negative effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability are needed to reduce enterprise risk, increase resilience of rangeland/grassland ecosystems and deliver sustainable provision of ecosystem goods (e.g., livestock production) and services (e.g., wildlife habitat) from western North ...

  5. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates…

  6. Adaptive Management and Monitoring as Fundamental Tools to Effective Salt Marsh Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management as applied to ecological restoration is a systematic decision-making process in which the results of restoration activities are repeatedly monitored and evaluated to provide guidance that can be used in determining any necessary future restoration actions. In...

  7. Who Do You Think I Am? Modeling Individual Differences for More Adaptive and Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of intelligent tutoring systems is to provide students with personalized instruction and feedback. The focus of these systems typically rests in the adaptability of the feedback provided to students, which relies on automated assessments of performance in the system. A large focus of my previous work has been to determine how natural…

  8. Talent Development Environment and Workplace Adaptation: The Mediating Effects of Organisational Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunasegaran, Mageswari; Ismail, Maimunah; Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Ismi Arif; Ramayah, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationship between talent development environment (TDE) variables of job focus and long-term development with the workplace adaptation (WA) of Malaysian professional returnees as mediated by the organisational support. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 respondents who are Malaysian professional…

  9. Comparison of cooperative and non-cooperative adaptive optics reference performance for propagation with thermal blooming effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Brian E.; Nitkowski, Arthur; Lawrence, Ryan; Horton, Kasey; Higgs, Charles

    2004-10-01

    Atmospheric turbulence and laser-induced thermal blooming effects can degrade the beam quality of a high-energy laser (HEL) weapon, and ultimately limit the amount of energy deliverable to a target. Lincoln Laboratory has built a thermal blooming laboratory capable of emulating atmospheric thermal blooming and turbulence effects for tactical HEL systems. The HEL weapon emulation hardware includes an adaptive optics beam delivery system, which utilizes a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor and a 349 actuator deformable mirror. For this experiment, the laboratory was configured to emulate an engagement scenario consisting of sea skimming target approaching directly toward the HEL weapon at a range of 10km. The weapon utilizes a 1.5m aperture and radiates at a 1.62 micron wavelength. An adaptive optics reference beam was provided as either a point source located at the target (cooperative) or a projected point source reflected from the target (uncooperative). Performance of the adaptive optics system was then compared between reference sources. Results show that, for operating conditions with a thermal blooming distortion number of 75 and weak turbulence (Rytov of 0.02 and D/ro of 3), cooperative beacon AO correction experiences Phase Compensation Instability, resulting in lower performance than a simple, open-loop condition. The uncooperative beacon resulted in slightly better performance than the open-loop condition.

  10. Effect of blocking the Na+/K+ ATPase on Ca2+ extrusion and light adaptation in mammalian retinal rods.

    PubMed Central

    Demontis, G C; Ratto, G M; Bisti, S; Cervetto, L

    1995-01-01

    Membrane current and light response were recorded from rods of monkey and guinea pig by means of suction electrodes. The correlation between adaptation and the Na+/K+ pump was investigated by measuring light-dependent changes in sensitivity with and without inhibition of Na+/K+ ATPase by strophanthidin. Strophanthidin was found to reduce the dark current, to slow the time course of the photoresponse, and to increase light sensitivity. At concentrations between 20 and 500 nM, the pump inhibitor suppressed in a reversible way the current re-activation occurring during prolonged illumination and modified the light-dependent decrease in sensitivity, which in control conditions approximates to a Weber-Fechner function. The effects of the pump inhibitor on the adaptive properties of rods are associated with an increased time constant of the membrane current attributed to the operation of the Na+:Ca2+,K+ exchanger. The effects of rapid application of the pump inhibitor on the current re-activation are consistent with the idea that significant changes in the internal sodium occur in rods of mammals during background illumination and that they play an important role in the process of light adaptation. PMID:8527658

  11. A Culturally Adapted Smoking Cessation Intervention for Korean Americans: A Mediating Effect of Perceived Family Norm toward Quitting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun S; Kim, Seong-Ho; Fang, Hua; Kwon, Simona; Shelley, Donna; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Background Korean men and women have the highest current smoking rates across all Asian ethnic subgroups in the United States. Methods This is a 2-arm randomized controlled study of a culturally adapted smoking cessation intervention. The experimental condition received eight weekly 40-minute individualized counseling sessions that incorporated Korean-specific cultural elements, whereas the control condition received eight weekly 10-minute individualized counseling sessions that were not culturally adapted. All participants also received nicotine patches for 8 weeks. Results One-hundred nine Korean immigrants (91 men and 18 women) participated in the study. The rate of biochemically verified 12-month prolonged abstinence was significantly higher for the experimental condition than the control condition (38.2% vs. 11.1%, χ2 = 10.7, p < 0.01). Perceived family norm significantly mediated the effect of cessation intervention on abstinence. Discussion Smoking cessation intervention for Korean Americans should be culturally adapted and involve family members to produce a long-term treatment effect. PMID:24878686

  12. The reduction of the effect of the Müller–Lyer illusion saccade amplitude by classic adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Paul C

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Müller-Lyer stimuli on saccade amplitude varies across studies. One methodological difference between studies is stimulus display time; studies with long stimulus display times tend to report smaller effects than studies with short display times. Is it possible that long display times might provide conditions in which saccade adaption takes place? Five adult subjects were exposed to runs of the same illusion-inducing Müller-Lyer stimulus, presented for 1 s, interspersed with probe trials in which a point target was presented for 200 ms. While saccade amplitude was consistently larger with ‘in-configurations’ than with ‘out-configurations’ at the beginning of runs, amplitude declined over runs with the in-configuration. On average, it was constant in out-configuration runs. The net effect was a decline in the apparent effect size (in-amp − out-amp / out-amp) of the Müller-Lyer stimulus. Probe trial saccade amplitude increased in ‘out’ runs and decreased in ‘in’ runs. These effects were not present in control experiments, in which stimulus display time was 200 ms. One explanation for this pattern of results is that long stimulus presentation times allow for the generation of retinal error signals. This in turn leads to saccade adaptation, causing an underestimation of the effect of this type of stimulus on saccade amplitude. PMID:23396270

  13. Effect of biomass adaptation to the degradation of anionic surfactants in laundry wastewater using EGSB reactors.

    PubMed

    Delforno, T P; Moura, A G L; Okada, D Y; Varesche, M B A

    2014-02-01

    Two expanded granular sludge bed reactors were operated. RAB (adapted biomass) was operated in two stages: Stage I, with standard LAS (13.2 mg L(-1)); and Stage II, in which the standard LAS was replaced by diluted laundry wastewater according to the LAS concentration (11.2 mg L(-1)). RNAB (not adapted biomass) had a single stage, using direct wastewater (11.5 mg L(-1)). Thus, the strategy of biomass adaptation did not lead to an increase of surfactant removal in wastewater (RAB-Stage II: 77%; RNAB-Stage I: 78%). By means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, an 80% similarity was verified in the phases with laundry wastewater (sludge bed) despite the different reactor starting strategies. By pyrosequencing, many reads were related to genera of degraders of aromatic compounds and sulfate reducers (Syntrophorhabdus and Desulfobulbus). The insignificant difference in LAS removal between the two strategies was most likely due to the great microbial richness of the inoculum. PMID:24384318

  14. Effect of curing unit and adhesive system on marginal adaptation of composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Casselli, Denise Sa Maia; Faria-e-Silva, Andre Luis; Casselli, Henrique; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how a curing unit and adhesive system affected the marginal adaptation of resin composite restorations. Class V cavities were prepared in bovine teeth with a gingival margin in dentin and an incisal margin in enamel. The cavities were restored with a micro-hybrid resin composite using one of four adhesives: Single Bond 2, Prime & Bond NT, Clearfil SE Bond, Xeno IV. The light-activations were performed using a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) lamp or a second-generation light-emitting diode (LED). Restorations were finished and polished and epoxy replicas were prepared. Marginal adaptation was analyzed by using scanning electronic microscopy (magnification 500X). The widest gaps in each margin were recorded, and data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Differences between the adhesives were observed only when the dentin margins were evaluated: Clearfil SE Bond demonstrated better marginal adaptation than Prime & Bond NT or Single Bond 2 (which demonstrated the widest gaps in the dentin margin). The type of curing unit only affected the results for Xeno IV when the enamel margin was analyzed; the LED lamp promoted smaller gaps than the QTH lamp. PMID:23220321

  15. Conjoined Effects of Low Birth Weight and Childhood Abuse on Adaptation and Well-being in Adolescence and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Yoko; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To characterize the conjoined effects of low birth weight (LBW) and childhood abuse on impaired adaptation and illness in adolescence and adulthood. Design Longitudinal study of a birth cohort. Setting Baltimore, Md. Participants Children (N=1748) were followed from birth to adulthood (mean age, 26 years) as part of the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal Study. Main Exposures Childhood abuse and LBW. Main Outcome Measures Indicators of adaptation were delinquency, school suspension, repeating grades, academic honors, quality of life, and socioeconomic status. Indicators of psychiatric and medical problems were depression, social dysfunction, somatization, asthma, and hypertension. Results Participants with both LBW and subsequent childhood abuse, relative to those with neither risk, were at a substantially elevated risk for psychological problems: 10-fold for depression; nearly 9-fold for social dysfunction, and more than 4-fold for somatization. However, they were not at an elevated risk for medical problems in adulthood. Those exposed to childhood abuse were more likely to report delinquency, school suspension, repeating grades during adolescence, and impaired well-being in adulthood, regardless of LBW status. For those with LBW alone, the prevalence of those problems was comparable with that of individuals without either risk factor. Conclusions Children with LBW and childhood abuse are at much greater risk for poor adaptation and psychiatric problems than those with LBW alone and those with neither risk. Preventive interventions should target families with LBW children who are at greater risk for childhood abuse. PMID:17283305

  16. [Effect of spatial location on the generality of block-wise conflict adaptation between different types of scripts].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yurina; Yoshizaki, Kazuhito

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the generality of conflict adaptation associated with block-wise conflict frequency between two types of stimulus scripts (Kanji and Hiragana). To this end, we examined whether the modulation of the compatibility effect with one type of script depending on block-wise conflict frequency (75% versus 25% generalized to the other type of script whose block-wise conflict frequency was kept constant (50%), using the Spatial Stroop task. In Experiment 1, 16 participants were required to identify the target orientation (up or down) presented in the upper or lower visual-field. The results showed that block-wise conflict adaptation with one type of stimulus script generalized to the other. The procedure in Experiment 2 was the same as that in Experiment 1, except that the presentation location differed between the two types of stimulus scripts. We did not find a generalization from one script to the other. These results suggest that presentation location is a critical factor contributing to the generality of block-wise conflict adaptation. PMID:25486848

  17. [Effect of spatial location on the generality of block-wise conflict adaptation between different types of scripts].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yurina; Yoshizaki, Kazuhito

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the generality of conflict adaptation associated with block-wise conflict frequency between two types of stimulus scripts (Kanji and Hiragana). To this end, we examined whether the modulation of the compatibility effect with one type of script depending on block-wise conflict frequency (75% versus 25% generalized to the other type of script whose block-wise conflict frequency was kept constant (50%), using the Spatial Stroop task. In Experiment 1, 16 participants were required to identify the target orientation (up or down) presented in the upper or lower visual-field. The results showed that block-wise conflict adaptation with one type of stimulus script generalized to the other. The procedure in Experiment 2 was the same as that in Experiment 1, except that the presentation location differed between the two types of stimulus scripts. We did not find a generalization from one script to the other. These results suggest that presentation location is a critical factor contributing to the generality of block-wise conflict adaptation. PMID:25508979

  18. Antidiuretic Effect of Eel ANP Infused at Physiological Doses in Conscious, Seawater-Adapted Eels, Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Takei, Y; Kaiya, H

    1998-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is known as a potent natriuretic/diuretic hormone in vertebrates. However, eel ANP infused at doses that did not alter arterial blood pressure (0.3-3.0 pmol/kg/min) decreased urine volume and increased urinary Na concentration in seawater (SW)-adapted eels but not in freshwater (FW)-adapted eels. The renal effects were dose-dependent and disappeared after infusate was switched back to a vehicle (0.9% NaCl). Urinary Na excretion (volume x Na concentration) did not change during ANP infusion. ANP infusion increased plasma ANP concentration, but the increase at the highest dose was still within those observed endogenously after injection of hypertonic saline. Urinary Mg and Ca concentrations increased during ANP infusion in SW eels, but urinary Ca excretion decreased in FW eels. Plasma Na concentration profoundly decreased during ANP infusion only in SW eels, suggesting that ANP stimulates Na extrusion via non-renal routes. These results indicate that ANP is a hormone which specifically extrudes Na ions and thereby promotes SW adaptation in the eel. This is in sharp contrast with mammals where ANP is a volume regulating hormone that extrudes both Na and water. PMID:18466004

  19. Effect of Cavity Configuration (C Factor) on the Marginal Adaptation of Low-Shrinking Composite: A Comparative Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghulman, Motaz A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the effect of C factor on marginal adaptation of low-shrinking composite (Silorane).The null hypothesis was that the marginal adaptation of “Silorane” is not affected by the cavity configuration. Materials and Methods. A Silorane based and a methacrylate based composites, with their corresponding self-etch adhesive systems “Filtek Silorane/Silorane Adhesive Bond System and Filtek Z250/Prompt L-Pop” respectively were used. Standardized cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 100 maxillary premolars. Teeth were grouped into 5 groups (n = 20), for the 5 C factors. Restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling. Microleakage testing was done and linear dye penetration was assessed using a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis was done using the Student's t-test. Results. For the methacrylate based systems' overall leakage score was significantly higher than the Silorane-based one (P = 0.034). For the methacrylate-based, leakage was found in all tested teeth groups except group 1 (C factor 1/5). For the Silorane, One-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant increase in dye penetration in the 5th group (P = 0.010). Conclusions. The null hypothesis was rejected. The Silorane-based resin although it resulted in a statistically significant good marginal adaptation, it showed tendency toward a high leakage score with C-factor of 5. PMID:21949664

  20. Effect of cyclic loading on marginal adaptation and bond strength in direct vs. indirect class II MO composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Logani, Ajay; Jain, Veena; Shah, Naseem

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cyclic loading on the marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength of direct vs indirect Class II composite restorations in an in-vitro model. Forty Class II cavities were prepared on the mesial surface of extracted human maxillary first premolars and divided into two groups: Group I--direct composite restorations and Group II--indirect composite restorations. Groups I and II were further divided into subgroups: A (without cyclic loading) and B (with cyclic loading of 150,000 cycles at 60N). The gingival margin of the proximal box was evaluated at 200x magnification for marginal adaptation in a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. The restorations were sectioned perpendicular to the bonded surface into 1 mm thickslabs. The slabswere further trimmed at the interface to produce a cross-sectional surface area of approximately 1 mm2. All specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. The marginal adaptation was analyzed using descriptive studies and bond strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. The indirect composite restorations performed better under cyclic loading. PMID:18833866

  1. Effect of chronic stress on short and long-term plasticity in dentate gyrus; study of recovery and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Radahmadi, M; Hosseini, N; Nasimi, A

    2014-11-01

    Stress dramatically affects synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus, disrupts paired-pulse facilitation and impairs long-term potentiation (LTP). This study was performed to find the effects of chronic restraint stress and recovery period on excitability, paired-pulse response, LTP and to find probable adaptation to very long stress in the dentate gyrus. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of Control, Rest-Stress (21 days stress), Stress-Rest (recovery) and Stress-Stress (42 days stress: adaptation). Chronic restraint stress was applied 6-h/day. Input-output functions, paired-pulse responses and LTP were recorded from the dentate gyrus while stimulating the perforant pathway. We found that chronic stress attenuated the responsiveness, paired-pulse response and LTP in the dentate gyrus. A 21-day recovery period, after the stress, improved all the three responses toward normal, indicating reversibility of these stress-related hippocampal changes. There was no significant adaptation to very long stress, probably due to severity of stress. PMID:25218805

  2. Effects of mating system on adaptive potential for leaf morphology in Crepis tectorum (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Stefan; Ofori, Jones K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims A shift from outcrossing to selfing is thought to reduce the long-term survival of populations by decreasing the genetic variation necessary for adaptation to novel ecological conditions. However, theory also predicts an increase in adaptive potential as more of the existing variation becomes expressed as homozygous genotypes. So far, relatively few studies have examined how a transition to selfing simultaneously affects means, variances and covariances for characters that might be under stabilizing selection for a spatially varying optimum, e.g. characters describing leaf morphology. Methods Experimental crosses within an initially self-sterile population of Crepis tectorum were performed to produce an outbred and inbred progeny population to assess how a shift to selfing affects the adaptive potential for measures of leaf morphology, with special emphasis on the degree of leaf dissection, a major target of diversifying selection within the study species. Key Results Three consecutive generations of selfing had a minor impact on survival, the total number of heads produced and the mean leaf phenotype, but caused a proportional increase in the genetic (co)variance matrix for foliar characters. For the degree of leaf dissection, the lowest 50th percentile of the inbred progeny population showed a disproportionate increase in the genetic variance, consistent with the recessive nature of the weakly lobed phenotype observed in interpopulation crosses. Comparison of inbreeding response with large-scale patterns of variation indicates a potential for selection in a (recently) inbred population to drive a large evolutionary reduction in degree of leaf dissection by increasing the frequency of particular sibling lines. Conclusions The results point to a positive role for inbreeding in phenotypic evolution, at least during or immediately after a rapid shift in mating system. PMID:23912696

  3. Adaptive compression therapy for venous leg ulcers: a clinically effective, patient-centred approach.

    PubMed

    Harding, Keith G; Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Partsch, Hugo; Caprini, Joseph A; Comerota, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    A prospective, randomised, 12-week study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of two compression methods for venous leg ulcers (VLUs); a new adaptive compression therapy (ACT) system, combining intermittent and sustained pneumatic compression (n = 38) and a conventional four-layer bandage system (n = 52). Primary outcomes were ulcer healing and safety. Secondary outcomes were comfort, compliance, ulcer pain, patient-perceived product performance and quality of life. Ulcer healing rate was similar (31·6% versus 42·3%, respectively, P = 0·30) between the treatments. Adverse events and patient-rated comfort were also similar. Average daily usage for the dual system was 10·5 and 1·8 hours in the sustained and intermittent modes, respectively, representing its use during 71% of waking hours. Predicted final ulcer pain was also similar (P = 0·68). Performance was subjectively better for adaptive compression and significantly higher for exudate management (P = 0·04), skin protection (P < 0·001), removal ease (P = 0·0007), bathing (P < 0·0001) and sleep comfort (P = 0·0405). The adjusted final quality-of-life score was 0·1025 higher for adaptive compression (P = 0·0375). Subjects with healed ulcers attained higher final scores than unhealed subjects (P = 0·0004). This study provides evidence that ACT is comparably efficacious to successfully heal VLUs compared with four-layer bandage management but is better accepted and achieves higher patient-reported quality-of-life scores in these challenging patients. PMID:24802769

  4. The effect of self-distancing on adaptive versus maladaptive self-reflection in children.

    PubMed

    Kross, Ethan; Duckworth, Angela; Ayduk, Ozlem; Tsukayama, Eli; Mischel, Walter

    2011-10-01

    Although children and adolescents vary in their chronic tendencies to adaptively versus maladaptively reflect over negative feelings, the psychological mechanisms underlying these different types of self-reflection among youngsters are unknown. We addressed this issue in the present research by examining the role that self-distancing plays in distinguishing adaptive versus maladaptive self-reflection among an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of fifth-grade public schoolchildren. Children were randomly assigned to analyze their feelings surrounding a recent anger-related interpersonal experience from either a self-immersed or self-distanced perspective. They then rated their negative affect and described in writing the stream of thoughts they experienced when they analyzed their feelings. Children's stream-of-thought essays were content analyzed for the presence of recounting statements, reconstruing statements, and blame attributions. Path analyses indicated that children who analyzed their feelings from a self-distanced perspective focused significantly less on recounting the "hot," emotionally arousing features of their memory (i.e., what happened to me?) and relatively more on reconstruing their experience. This shift in thought content--less recounting and more reconstruing--led children in the self-distanced group to blame the other person involved in their recalled experience significantly less, which in turn led them to display significantly lower levels of emotional reactivity. These findings help delineate the psychological mechanisms that distinguish adaptive versus maladaptive forms of self-reflection over anger experiences in children. Their basic findings and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21728415

  5. Renal effects of fresh water-induced hypo-osmolality in a marine adapted seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Costa, D. P.; Ortiz, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    With few exceptions, marine mammals are not exposed to fresh water; however quantifying the endocrine and renal responses of a marine-adapted mammal to the infusion of fresh water could provide insight on the evolutionary adaptation of kidney function and on the renal capabilities of these mammals. Therefore, renal function and hormonal changes associated with fresh water-induced diuresis were examined in four, fasting northern elephant seal ( Mirounga angustirostris) (NES) pups. A series of plasma samples and 24-h urine voids were collected prior to (control) and after the infusion of water. Water infusion resulted in an osmotic diuresis associated with an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but not an increase in free water clearance. The increase in excreted urea accounted for 96% of the increase in osmotic excretion. Following infusion of fresh water, plasma osmolality and renin activity decreased, while plasma aldosterone increased. Although primary regulators of aldosterone release (Na(+), K(+) and angiotensin II) were not significantly altered in the appropriate directions to individually stimulate aldosterone secretion, increased aldosterone may have resulted from multiple, non-significant changes acting in concert. Aldosterone release may also be hypersensitive to slight reductions in plasma Na(+), which may be an adaptive mechanism in a species not known to drink seawater. Excreted aldosterone and urea were correlated suggesting aldosterone may regulate urea excretion during hypo-osmotic conditions in NES pups. Urea excretion appears to be a significant mechanism by which NES pups sustain electrolyte resorption during conditions that can negatively affect ionic homeostasis such as prolonged fasting.

  6. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. PMID:26957629

  7. Effect of acid adaptation on inactivation of Salmonella during drying and storage of beef jerky treated with marinades.

    PubMed

    Calicioglu, Mehmet; Sofos, John N; Samelis, John; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C

    2003-12-15

    This study evaluated the influence of pre-drying marinade treatments on inactivation of acid-adapted or nonadapted Salmonella on beef jerky during preparation, drying and storage. The inoculated (five-strain composite, 6.0 log CFU/cm2) slices were subjected to the following marinades (24 h, 4 degrees C) prior to drying at 60 degrees C for 10 h and aerobic storage at 25 degrees C for 60 days: (1) no marinade, control (C), (2) traditional marinade (TM), (3) double amount of TM modified with added 1.2% sodium lactate, 9% acetic acid, and 68% soy sauce with 5% ethanol (MM), (4) dipping into 5% acetic acid and then TM (AATM), and (5) dipping into 1% Tween 20 and then into 5% acetic acid, followed by TM (TWTM). Bacterial survivors were determined on tryptic soy agar with 0.1% pyruvate and xylose-lysine-tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar. Results indicated that drying reduced bacterial populations in the order of pre-drying treatments TWTM (4.8-6.0 log CFU/cm2)> or =AATM> or =MM>TM> or =C (2.6-5.0 log CFU/cm2). Nonadapted Salmonella were significantly (P<0.05) more resistant to inactivation during drying than acid-adapted Salmonella in all treatments. Bacterial populations decreased below the detection limit (-0.4 log CFU/cm2) as early as 7 h during drying or remained detectable even after 60 days of storage, depending on acid adaptation, pre-drying treatment, and agar media. The results indicated that acid adaptation may not cause increased resistance of Salmonella to the microbial hurdles involved in jerky processing and that use of modified marinades in manufacturing jerky may improve the effectiveness of drying in inactivating Salmonella. PMID:14580973

  8. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Berti, Lisa; Presti, Chiara; Frizziero, Antonio; Giannini, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies at lower limbs in flexed

  9. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  10. The Effects of Climate Model Similarity on Local, Risk-Based Adaptation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinschneider, S.; Brown, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The climate science community has recently proposed techniques to develop probabilistic projections of climate change from ensemble climate model output. These methods provide a means to incorporate the formal concept of risk, i.e., the product of impact and probability, into long-term planning assessments for local systems under climate change. However, approaches for pdf development often assume that different climate models provide independent information for the estimation of probabilities, despite model similarities that stem from a common genealogy. Here we utilize an ensemble of projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to develop probabilistic climate information, with and without an accounting of inter-model correlations, and use it to estimate climate-related risks to a local water utility in Colorado, U.S. We show that the tail risk of extreme climate changes in both mean precipitation and temperature is underestimated if model correlations are ignored. When coupled with impact models of the hydrology and infrastructure of the water utility, the underestimation of extreme climate changes substantially alters the quantification of risk for water supply shortages by mid-century. We argue that progress in climate change adaptation for local systems requires the recognition that there is less information in multi-model climate ensembles than previously thought. Importantly, adaptation decisions cannot be limited to the spread in one generation of climate models.

  11. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  12. Effects of a Single Escape Mutation on T Cell and HIV-1 Co-adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoming; Shi, Yi; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Schönbach, Christian; Kuse, Nozomi; Appay, Victor; Gao, George F; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    The mechanistic basis for the progressive accumulation of Y(135)F Nef mutant viruses in the HIV-1-infected population remains poorly understood. Y(135)F viruses carry the 2F mutation within RW8 and RF10, which are two HLA-A(∗)24:02-restricted superimposed Nef epitopes recognized by distinct and adaptable CD8(+) T cell responses. We combined comprehensive analysis of the T cell receptor repertoire and cross-reactive potential of wild-type or 2F RW8- and RF10-specific CD8(+) T cells with peptide-MHC complex stability and crystal structure studies. We find that, by affecting direct and water-mediated hydrogen bond networks within the peptide-MHC complex, the 2F mutation reduces both TCR and HLA binding. This suggests an advantage underlying the evolution of the 2F variant with decreased CD8(+) T cell efficacy. Our study provides a refined understanding of HIV-1 and CD8(+) T cell co-adaptation at the population level. PMID:27239036

  13. Can We Translate Vitamin D Immunomodulating Effect on Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Vaccine Response?

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Pierre Olivier; Aspinall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D (VitD), which is well known for its classic role in the maintenance of bone mineral density, has now become increasingly studied for its extra-skeletal roles. It has an important influence on the body’s immune system and modulates both innate and adaptive immunity and regulates the inflammatory cascade. In this review our aim was to describe how VitD might influence immune responsiveness and its potential modulating role in vaccine immunogenicity. In the first instance, we consider the literature that may provide molecular and genetic support to the idea that VitD status may be related to innate and/or adaptive immune response with a particular focus on vaccine immunogenicity and then discuss observational studies and controlled trials of VitD supplementation conducted in humans. Finally, we conclude with some knowledge gaps surrounding VitD and vaccine response, and that it is still premature to recommend “booster” of VitD at vaccination time to enhance vaccine response. PMID:25803545

  14. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  15. Environmental adaptation in stomatal size independent of the effects of genome size.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Gregory J; Carpenter, Raymond J; Koutoulis, Anthony; Price, Aina; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Cell sizes are linked across multiple tissues, including stomata, and this variation is closely correlated with genome size. These associations raise the question of whether generic changes in cell size cause suboptimal changes in stomata, requiring subsequent evolution under selection for stomatal size. We tested the relationships among guard cell length, genome size and vegetation type using phylogenetically independent analyses on 67 species of the ecologically and structurally diverse family, Proteaceae. We also compared how genome and stomatal sizes varied at ancient (among genera) and more recent (within genus) levels. The observed 60-fold range in genome size in Proteaceae largely reflected the mean chromosome size. Compared with variation among genera, genome size varied much less within genera (< 6% of total variance) than stomatal size, implying evolution in stomatal size subsequent to changes in genome size. Open vegetation and closed forest had significantly different relationships between stomatal and genome sizes. Ancient changes in genome size clearly influenced stomatal size in Proteaceae, but adaptation to habitat strongly modified the genome-stomatal size relationship. Direct adaptation to the environment in stomatal size argues that new proxies for past concentrations of atmospheric CO2 that incorporate stomatal size are superior to older models based solely on stomatal frequency. PMID:25266914

  16. Environmental adaptation in stomatal size independent of the effects of genome size

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Gregory J; Carpenter, Raymond J; Koutoulis, Anthony; Price, Aina; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Cell sizes are linked across multiple tissues, including stomata, and this variation is closely correlated with genome size. These associations raise the question of whether generic changes in cell size cause suboptimal changes in stomata, requiring subsequent evolution under selection for stomatal size. We tested the relationships among guard cell length, genome size and vegetation type using phylogenetically independent analyses on 67 species of the ecologically and structurally diverse family, Proteaceae. We also compared how genome and stomatal sizes varied at ancient (among genera) and more recent (within genus) levels. The observed 60-fold range in genome size in Proteaceae largely reflected the mean chromosome size. Compared with variation among genera, genome size varied much less within genera (< 6% of total variance) than stomatal size, implying evolution in stomatal size subsequent to changes in genome size. Open vegetation and closed forest had significantly different relationships between stomatal and genome sizes. Ancient changes in genome size clearly influenced stomatal size in Proteaceae, but adaptation to habitat strongly modified the genome–stomatal size relationship. Direct adaptation to the environment in stomatal size argues that new proxies for past concentrations of atmospheric CO2 that incorporate stomatal size are superior to older models based solely on stomatal frequency. PMID:25266914

  17. Pilot Study: Unique Response of Bone Tissue During an Investigation of Radio-Adaptive Effects in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Iwaniec, U.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We obtained bone tissue to evaluate the collateral effects of experiments designed to investigate molecular mechanisms of radio-adaptation in a mouse model. Radio-adaptation describes a process by which the prior exposure to low dose radiation can protect against the toxic effect of a subsequent high dose exposure. In the radio-adaptation experiments, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to either a Sham or a priming Low Dose (5 cGy) of Cs-137 gamma rays before being exposed to either a Sham or High Dose (6 Gy) 24 hours later. ANALYSIS: Bone tissue were obtained from two experiments where mice were sacrificed at 3 days (n=3/group, 12 total) and at 14 days (n=6/group, 24 total) following high dose exposure. Tissues were analyzed to 1) evaluate a radio-adaptive response in bone tissue and 2) describe cellular and microstructural effects for two skeletal sites with different rates of bone turnover. One tibia and one lumbar vertebrae (LV2), collected at the 3-day time-point, were analyzed by bone histomorphometry and micro-CT to evaluate the cellular response and any evidence of microarchitectural impact. Likewise, tibia and LV2, collected at the 14-day time-point, were analyzed by micro-CT alone to evaluate resulting changes to bone structure and microarchitecture. The data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA to evaluate the effects of the priming low dose radiation, of the high dose radiation, and of any interaction between the priming low and high doses of radiation. Bone histomorphometry was performed in the cancellous bone (aka trabecular bone) compartments of the proximal tibial metaphysis and of LV2. RESULTS: Cellular Response @ 3 Days The priming Low Dose radiation decreased osteoblast-covered bone perimeter in the proximal tibia and the total cell density in the bone marrow in the LV2. High Dose radiation, regardless of prior exposure to priming dose, dramatically reduced total cell density in bone marrow of both the long bone and vertebra. However, in the proximal

  18. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age-related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60-81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form "The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice." Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym ("white"; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, "nice," versus the incongruous associated condition, "yellow"). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that - at both a neurophysiological and a functional level - the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to cognitive performance. PMID

  19. Full-Body Gaze Control Mechanisms Elicited During Locomotion: Effects Of VOR Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Houser, J.; Peters, B.; Miller, C.; Richards, J.; Marshburn, A.; Brady, R.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Control of locomotion requires precise interaction between several sensorimotor subsystems. During locomotion the performer must satisfy two performance criteria: maintain stable forward translation and to stabilize gaze (McDonald, et al., 1997). Precise coordination demands integration of multiple sensorimotor subsystems for fulfilling both criteria. In order to test the general hypothesis that the whole body can serve as an integrated gaze stabilization system, we have previously investigated how the multiple, interdependent full-body sensorimotor subsystems respond to changes in gaze stabilization task constraints during locomotion (Mulavara and Bloomberg, 2003). The results suggest that the full body contributes to gaze stabilization during locomotion, and that its different functional elements respond to changes in visual task constraints. The goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor subsystems aiding gaze stabilization during locomotion are functionally coordinated after the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain has been altered. We investigated the potential of adaptive remodeling of the full-body gaze control system following exposure to visual-vestibular conflict known to adaptively reduce the VOR. Subjects (n=14) walked (6.4 km/h) on the treadmill before and after they were exposed to 0.5X manifying lenses worn for 30 minutes during self-generated sinusoidal vertical head rotations performed while seated. In this study we measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. Results indicate that, following exposure to the 0.5X minifying lenses, there was a significant increase in the duration of stance and stride times, alteration in the amplitude of head movement with respect to space and a significant increase in

  20. Effects of acid adaptation and modified marinades on survival of postdrying Salmonella contamination on beef jerky during storage.

    PubMed

    Calicioglu, Mehmet; Sofos, John N; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C

    2003-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the survival of acid-adapted and nonadapted Salmonella cultures inoculated after drying on beef jerky that had been treated with marinades before drying at 60 degrees C for 10 h. Beef slices were (i) not treated prior to refrigeration at 4 degrees C for 24 h (control [C]); (ii) marinated with traditional marinade (TM), (iii) marinated with TM modified with 1.2% sodium lactate, 9% acetic acid, and 68% soy sauce containing 5% ethanol (MM) at twice the amount used in the TM treatment; (iv) dipped into 5% acetic acid and then marinated with TM (AATM); and (v) dipped into 1% Tween 20, then dipped into 5% acetic acid, and then marinated with TM (TWTM); after each treatment, meat slices were refrigerated at 4 degrees C for 24 h prior to drying. Dried slices were inoculated with acid-adapted or nonadapted Salmonella (ca. 5.7 log CFU/cm2) prior to aerobic storage at 25 degrees C for 60 days. Tryptic soy agar with 0.1% pyruvate, as well as xylose-lysine-tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar, was used to determine survivor counts. Bacterial decreases achieved with the different treatments were found to be in the following order: TWTM (5.4 to 6.3 log units) > or = AATM > or = MM > C > or = TM (2.9 to 5.1 log units). Acid-adapted Salmonella decreased faster than nonadapted Salmonella for all treatments. Bacterial populations decreased to below the detection limit (-0.4 log CFU/cm2) in as few as 14 days or remained detectable by direct plating after 60 days of storage, depending on acid adaptation, treatment, and agar media. The results of this study indicate that the modified marinades used in jerky processing and the low water activity of the dried product provide antimicrobial effects against possible postprocessing contamination with Salmonella, while the preparation of cultures under acid-adaptation conditions did not increase Salmonella survival during storage and may have reduced it. PMID:12636291

  1. Contrast Adaptation Implies Two Spatiotemporal Channels but Three Adapting Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Keith; Bex, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The contrast gain control model of adaptation predicts that the effects of contrast adaptation correlate with contrast sensitivity. This article reports that the effects of high contrast spatiotemporal adaptors are maximum when adapting around 19 Hz, which is a factor of two or more greater than the peak in contrast sensitivity. To explain the…

  2. Effect of the Adapted NASA Mission X International Child Fitness Program on Young Children and their Parents in South Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Jungwon; Kim, Gilsook; Lim, Hyunjung; Carvajal, Nubia A.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Wang, Youfa; Reeves, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. Childhood obesity is global public health concern including in South Korea where 16.2% of boys and 9.9% of girls are overweight or obese in 2011. Effective and sustainable intervention programs are needed for prevention of childhood obesity. Obesity prevention programs for young children may have a greater intervention effect than in older children. The NASA Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut (MX) program was developed to promote children's exercise and healthy eating by tapping into their excitement for training like an astronaut. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of the adapted NASA MX intervention in promoting PA in young children and in improving parents' related perspectives.

  3. Effect of Blood Contamination on Marginal Adaptation and Surface Microstructure of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A SEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Salem Milani, Amin; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Vahid Pakdel, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims In various clinical situations, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) may come into direct contact or even be mixed with blood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to blood on marginal adaptation and surface microstructure of MTA. Materials and methods Thirty extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. Standard root canal treatment was carried out. Root-ends were resected, and retrocavities were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n = 15): in group 1, the internal surface of the cavities was coated with fresh blood. Then, the cavities were filled with MTA. The roots were immersed in molds containing fresh blood. In group 2, the aforementioned procedures were performed except that synthetic tissue fluid (STF) was used instead of blood. To assess the marginal adaptation, “gap perimeter” and “maximum gap width” were measured under scanning electron microscope. The surface microstructure was also examined. Independent samples t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. Results Maximum gap width and gap perimeter in the blood-exposed group were significantly larger than those in the STF-exposed group (p < 0.01). In the blood-exposed group, the crystals tended to be more rounded and less angular compared with the STF-exposed group, and there was a general lack of needle-like crystals. Conclusion Exposure to blood during setting has a negative effect on marginal adaptation of MTA, and blood-exposed MTA has a different surface microstructure compared to STF-exposed MTA. PMID:24082987

  4. Effect of light-curing unit and adhesive system on marginal adaptation of class v composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Maia-Casseli, Denise S; Faria-e-Silva, André L; Cavalcanti, Andréa N; Romani, Eliene A O N; Martins, Luis R M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing units (LED or halogen) on the marginal adaptation of composite restorations performed with etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive. Class V cavities were prepared on bovine teeth with the gingival margin on dentin and the incisal margin on enamel. The cavities were restored with a micro-hybrid resin composite using an etch-and-rinse (Single Bond 2--SB) or a self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond--CL). The light-activations were performed using halogen lamp (Optilux 501--QTH) or second-generation light-emitting diode (Radii-Cal--LED) (n = 10). After finishing and polishing the restorations, epoxy replicas were prepared. The marginal adaptation was analyzed under scanning electronic microscopy with 500x of magnification. The greatest gap width at each margin was recorded. Data were submitted to Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (a = 0.05). SB and CL showed similar behavior of enamel margins when the light-activations were performed with QTH. The same was observed for dentin margins with LED. When the LED was used, higher gap measurements at enamel margins were observed with CL, while higher gap values in dentin were observed for SB within QTH. No significant difference between substrates was found when CL was used. However, SB had significantly higher gap measurements in dentin. The light-curing unit seems to affect the marginal adaptation of resin composite restorations. However this effect was dependent on the adhesive and the location of the margin. PMID:22928384

  5. Effects of Chemically Induced Ovarian Failure on Voluntary Wheel-Running Exercise and Cardiac Adaptation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jessica N; Chen, Hao; Regan, Jessica A; Emert, Ashlie; Constantopoulos, Eleni; Lynn, Melissa; Konhilas, John P

    2013-01-01

    The role of exercise in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women has not been studied sufficiently. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of voluntary wheel-running and forced treadmill exercise on cardiac adaptation in mice treated with 4-vinylcyclohexine diepoxide (VCD), which selectively accelerates the loss of primary and primordial follicles and results in a state that closely mimics human menopause. Two-month-old female C57BL/6 mice injected with VCD (160 mg/kg) for 20 consecutive days underwent ovarian failure by 60 to 90 d after injection. Responses to voluntary wheel running and treadmill exercise did not differ between VCD- and vehicle-treated 7-mo-old C57BL/6 or outbred B6C3F1 mice. Moreover, adaptive cardiac hypertrophy, hypertrophic marker expression, and skeletal muscle characteristics after voluntary cage-wheel exercise did not differ between VCD- and vehicle-treated mice. Because 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key component for the maintenance of cardiac energy balance during exercise, we determined the effect of exercise and VCD-induced ovarian failure on the AMPK signaling axis in the heart. According to Western blotting, VCD treatment followed by voluntary cage-wheel exercise differently affected the upstream AMPK regulatory components AMPKα1 and AMPKα2. In addition, net downstream AMPK signaling was reduced after VCD treatment and exercise. Our data suggest that VCD did not affect exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy but did alter cellular cardiac adaptation in a mouse model of menopause. PMID:23759526

  6. Effects of Selected Task Performance Criteria at Initiating Adaptive Task Real locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Demaris A.

    2001-01-01

    In the current report various performance assessment methods used to initiate mode transfers between manual control and automation for adaptive task reallocation were tested. Participants monitored two secondary tasks for critical events while actively controlling a process in a fictional system. One of the secondary monitoring tasks could be automated whenever operators' performance was below acceptable levels. Automation of the secondary task and transfer of the secondary task back to manual control were either human- or machine-initiated. Human-initiated transfers were based on the operator's assessment of the current task demands while machine-initiated transfers were based on the operators' performance. Different performance assessment methods were tested in two separate experiments.

  7. Branchial effects of epinephrine in the seawater-adapted mullet. II. Na+ and Cl- extrusion.

    PubMed

    Pic, P; Mayer-Gostan, N; Maetz, J

    1975-02-01

    Injection of epinephrine into Mugil capito adapted to seawater is followed by a 40-60% inhibition of the Na and Cl effluxes. Simultaneously the Na influx is decreased by 30%, the overall result being a reduction of the net sodium extrusion rate by the gill. The change in Na influx is in part explained by a 75-80% decrease of the oral ingestion of seawater. This branchial adrenergic response is sensitive to alpha-blockade by phentolamine and tolazoline and insensitive to beta-blockade by propranolol. Both alpha-blockers are ineffective when injected alone. Propranolol injected alone mimics epinephrine while simultaneous injection of phentolamine blocks the response to propranolol. Rapid transfer experiments suggest that epinephrine inhibits the branchial Cl pump and its associated Na/K exchange mechanism. The leak pathway for these ions remains insensitive to epinephrine. PMID:1119569

  8. Effects of molecular complexity and reservoir conditions on the discharge coefficient of adapted planar nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardone, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The transonic flow at throat section of a convergent-divergent nozzle is studied in adapted conditions to assess the influence of the fluid molecular complexity and total thermodynamic state on the discharge coefficient. The standard Sauer method is applied to solve the transonic perturbation potential equation in the vicinity of the nozzle throat. An analytic expression is derived that allows one to compute the discharge coefficient in terms of the nozzle curvature at the throat section and of the value of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics at sonic conditions, which depends on the fluid molecular complexity and on the thermodynamic state in the reservoir. A linear dependence of the discharge coefficient on the sonic value of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics is exposed.

  9. Effect of periodic fluctuation in the osmotic environment on the adaptation of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Zhou, K; George, S M; Li, P L; Baranyi, J

    2012-05-01

    The growth of Salmonella from different osmotic histories was studied in low water activity conditions. Cell cultures were successively diluted and grown in batch, in minimal medium, without and then with added NaCl, several times and from different inoculum levels. The viable count curves obtained in low water activity conditions showed an initial decline after which the culture either died out or recovered and entered the exponential phase. After the first batch with NaCl added, the subsequent curves at low water activity showed progressively smaller initial decline and shorter lag time as the number of transfers from high to low water activity conditions increased. The observed curves were analyzed by F-tests applying an extension of the model of Baranyi and Roberts (1994). The results suggest that periodic, systematic "training" can improve the adaptation capability of the organism without resulting in higher specific growth rate. PMID:22265315

  10. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-05-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD. PMID:24742755

  11. Human adaptation to smog

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W. Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.

    1982-10-01

    This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.

  12. Maternal effects may act as an adaptation mechanism for copepods facing pH and temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Vehmaa, Anu; Brutemark, Andreas; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Acidification of the seas, caused by increased dissolution of CO(2) into surface water, and global warming challenge the adaptation mechanisms of marine organisms. In boreal coastal environments, temperature and pH vary greatly seasonally, but sometimes also rapidly within hours due to upwelling events. We studied if copepod zooplankton living in a fluctuating environment are tolerant to climate change effects predicted for 2100, i.e., a temperature increase of 3°C and a pH decrease of 0.4. Egg production of the copepod Acartia sp. was followed over five consecutive days at four temperature and pH conditions (17°C/ambient pH; 17°C/low pH; 20°C/ambient pH; 20°C/low pH). Egg production was higher in treatments with warmer temperature but the increase was smaller when copepods were simultaneously exposed to warmer temperature and lowered pH. To reveal if maternal effects are important in terms of adaptation to a changing environment, we conducted an egg transplantation experiment, where the produced eggs were moved to a different environment and egg hatching was monitored for three days. When pH changed between the egg production and hatching conditions, it resulted in lower hatching success, but the effect was diminished over the course of the experiment possibly due to improved maternal provisioning. Warmer egg production temperature induced a positive maternal effect and increased the egg hatching rate. Warmer hatching temperature resulted also in earlier hatching. However, the temperature effects appear to be dependent on the ambient sea temperature. Our preliminary results indicate that maternal effects are an important mechanism in the face of environmental change. PMID:23119052

  13. Gravitational adaptation of animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Burton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational adaptation is studied in a group of five Leghorn cocks which had become physiologically adapted to 2 G after 162 days of centrifugation. After this period of adaptation, they are periodically exposed to a 2 G field, accompanied by five previously unexposed hatch-mates, and the degree of retained acceleration adaptation is estimated from the decrease in lymphocyte frequency after 24 hr at 2 G. Results show that the previously adapted birds exhibit an 84% greater lymphopenia than the unexposed birds, and that the lymphocyte frequency does not decrease to a level below that found at the end of 162 days at 2 G. In addition, the capacity for adaptation to chronic acceleration is found to be highly heritable. An acceleration tolerant strain of birds shows lesser mortality during chronic acceleration, particularly in intermediate fields, although the result of acceleration selection is largely quantitative (a greater number of survivors) rather than qualitative (behavioral or physiological changes).

  14. Retinal Imaging: Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. S.; Iroshnikov, N. G.; Larichev, Andrey V.

    This chapter describes several factors influencing the performance of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. Particular attention is paid to speckle modulation, temporal behavior of aberrations, and anisoplanatic effects. The implementation of a fundus camera with adaptive optics is considered.

  15. Skeletal muscle myofilament adaptations to aging, disease, and disuse and their effects on whole muscle performance in older adult humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark S.; Callahan, Damien M.; Toth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile function declines with aging, disease, and disuse. In vivo muscle contractile function depends on a variety of factors, but force, contractile velocity and power generating capacity ultimately derive from the summed contribution of single muscle fibers. The contractile performance of these fibers are, in turn, dependent upon the isoform and function of myofilament proteins they express, with myosin protein expression and its mechanical and kinetic characteristics playing a predominant role. Alterations in myofilament protein biology, therefore, may contribute to the development of functional limitations and disability in these conditions. Recent studies suggest that these conditions are associated with altered single fiber performance due to decreased expression of myofilament proteins and/or changes in myosin-actin cross-bridge interactions. Furthermore, cellular and myofilament-level adaptations are related to diminished whole muscle and whole body performance. Notably, the effect of these various conditions on myofilament and single fiber function tends to be larger in older women compared to older men, which may partially contribute to their higher rates of disability. To maintain functionality and provide the most appropriate and effective countermeasures to aging, disease, and disuse in both sexes, a more thorough understanding is needed of the contribution of myofilament adaptations to functional disability in older men and women and their contribution to tissue level function and mobility impairment. PMID:25309456

  16. Effects of ACE2 deficiency on physical performance and physiological adaptations of cardiac and skeletal muscle to exercise.

    PubMed

    Motta-Santos, Daisy; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Oliveira, Marilene; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Poglitsch, Marko; Mosienko, Valentina; Kappes Becker, Lenice; Campagnole-Santos, Maria Jose; M Penninger, Joseph; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is related to physiological adaptations induced by exercise. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a major regulator of the RAS in tissues, as it metabolizes angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ACE2 deficiency on physical performance and physiological adaptations induced by voluntary running. Physical performance, body composition and plasma angiotensin levels, as well as tissue morphology and gene expression of RAS components in the left ventricle (LV) and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius), were evaluated in ACE2-deficient (ACE2(-/y)) and wild-type (ACE2(+/y)) mice after 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running. ACE2(-/y) mice run less than ACE2(+/y) mice (19±4.7 vs. 26±12.6 revolutions per day × 100, P<0.01). The ACE2(+/y) group presented a lower fat mass (15±1.1%) and higher muscle mass (76.6±1.6%) after 6 weeks of voluntary running compared with the sedentary control group (fat mass: 18.3±2.1%; muscle mass: 72.7±2.2). However, no change in body composition was observed in ACE2(-/y) mice after exercise. Heart and skeletal muscle hypertrophy was observed only in trained ACE2(+/y) mice. Besides a small decrease in Ang I in ACE2(-/y) mice, plasma levels of angiotensin peptides remained unchanged by exercise or ACE2 deficiency. In the LV of trained animals, AT2 gene expression was higher in ACE2(+/y) compared with ACE2(-/y) mice. ACE2 deficiency leads to an increase in AT1 gene expression in skeletal muscle. ACE expression in soleus was increased in all exercised groups. ACE2 deficiency affects physical performance and impairs cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations to exercise. PMID:27053009

  17. Effect of tightening torque on the marginal adaptation of cement-retained implant-supported fixed dental prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarzadeh, Jalil; Dashti, Hossin; Karamad, Reza; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nakhaei, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The final position of the abutment changes with the amount of tightening torque. This could eventually lead to loss of passivity and marginal misfit of prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different tightening torques on the marginal adaptation of 3-unit cement-retained implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Materials and Methods: Two implants (Straumann) were inserted in an acrylic block so that one of the implants was placed vertically and the other at a 15° vertical angle. A straight abutment and a 15° angulated abutment were connected to the vertically and obliquely installed implants, respectively, so that the two abutments were parallel. Then, 10 cement-retained FDPs were waxed and cast. Abutments were tightened with 10, 20, and 35 Ncm torques, respectively. Following each tightening torque, FDPs were luted on respective abutments with temporary cement. The marginal adaptation of the retainers was evaluated using stereomicroscope. FDPs were then removed from the abutments and were sectioned at the connector sites. The retainers were luted again on their respective abutments. Luting procedures and marginal adaptation measurement were repeated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and least significant difference tests (α = 0.05). After cutting the FDP connectors, the independent samples t-test was used to compare misfit values (α = 0.05). Results: Following 10, 20, and 35 Ncm tightening torques, the marginal discrepancy of the retainers of FDPs significantly increased (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the marginal discrepancies of these two retainers (P > 0.05). The marginal gap values of angulated abutment retainers (ANRs) were significantly higher than those of the straight abutment after cutting the connectors (P = 0.026). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the marginal misfit of cement-retained FDPs increased continuously when the tightening torque increased. After

  18. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  19. Adaptive responses and disruptive effects: how major wildfire influences kinship-based social interactions in a forest marsupial.

    PubMed

    Banks, Sam C; Blyton, Michaela D J; Blair, David; McBurney, Lachlan; Lindenmayer, David B

    2012-02-01

    Environmental disturbance is predicted to play a key role in the evolution of animal social behaviour. This is because disturbance affects key factors underlying social systems, such as demography, resource availability and genetic structure. However, because natural disturbances are unpredictable there is little information on their effects on social behaviour in wild populations. Here, we investigated how a major wildfire affected cooperation (sharing of hollow trees) by a hollow-dependent marsupial. We based two alternative social predictions on the impacts of fire on population density, genetic structure and resources. We predicted an adaptive social response from previous work showing that kin selection in den-sharing develops as competition for den resources increases. Thus, kin selection should occur in burnt areas because the fire caused loss of the majority of hollow-bearing trees, but no detectable mortality. Alternatively, fire may have a disruptive social effect, whereby postfire home range-shifts 'neutralize' fine-scale genetic structure, thereby removing opportunities for kin selection between neighbours. Both predictions occurred: the disruptive social effect in burnt habitat and the adaptive social response in adjacent unburnt habitat. The latter followed a massive demographic influx to unburnt 'refuge' habitat that increased competition for dens, leading to a density-related kin selection response. Our results show remarkable short-term plasticity of animal social behaviour and demonstrate how the social effects of disturbance extend into undisturbed habitat owing to landscape-scale demographic shifts. We predicted long-term changes in kinship-based cooperative behaviour resulting from the genetic and resource impacts of forecast changes to fire regimes in these forests. PMID:21929555

  20. Effect of adaptive cruise control systems on mixed traffic flow near an on-ramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2007-06-01

    Mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and manually driven vehicles is analyzed using car-following simulations. Simulations of merging from an on-ramp onto a freeway reported in the literature have not thus far demonstrated a substantial positive impact of ACC. In this paper cooperative merging for ACC vehicles is proposed to improve throughput and increase distance traveled in a fixed time. In such a system an ACC vehicle senses not only the preceding vehicle in the same lane but also the vehicle immediately in front in the other lane. Prior to reaching the merge region, the ACC vehicle adjusts its velocity to ensure that a safe gap for merging is obtained. If on-ramp demand is moderate, cooperative merging produces significant improvement in throughput (20%) and increases up to 3.6 km in distance traveled in 600 s for 50% ACC mixed flow relative to the flow of all-manual vehicles. For large demand, it is shown that autonomous merging with cooperation in the flow of all ACC vehicles leads to throughput limited only by the downstream capacity, which is determined by speed limit and headway time.

  1. Stimulus-specific adaptation in the inferior colliculus of the mouse: anesthesia and spontaneous activity effects.

    PubMed

    Duque, Daniel; Malmierca, Manuel S

    2015-11-01

    Rapid behavioral responses to unexpected events in the acoustic environment are critical for survival. Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is the process whereby some auditory neurons respond better to rare stimuli than to repetitive stimuli. Most experiments on SSA have been performed under anesthesia, and it is unknown if SSA sensitivity is altered by the anesthetic agent. Only a direct comparison can answer this question. Here, we recorded extracellular single units in the inferior colliculus of awake and anesthetized mice under an oddball paradigm that elicits SSA. Our results demonstrate that SSA is similar, but not identical, in the awake and anesthetized preparations. The differences are mostly due to the higher spontaneous activity observed in the awake animals, which also revealed a high incidence of inhibitory receptive fields. We conclude that SSA is not an artifact of anesthesia and that spontaneous activity modulates neuronal SSA differentially, depending on the state of arousal. Our results suggest that SSA may be especially important when nervous system activity is suppressed during sleep-like states. This may be a useful survival mechanism that allows the organism to respond to danger when sleeping. PMID:25115620

  2. Effects of Protein Conformation in Docking: Improved Pose Prediction through Protein Pocket Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ajay N.

    2009-01-01

    Computational methods for docking ligands have been shown to be remarkably dependent on precise protein conformation, where acceptable results in pose prediction have been generally possible only in the artificial case of re-docking a ligand into a protein binding site whose conformation was determined in the presence of the same ligand (the “cognate” docking problem). In such cases, on well curated protein/ligand complexes, accurate dockings can be returned as top-scoring over 75% of the time using tools such as Surflex-Dock. A critical application of docking in modeling for lead optimization requires accurate pose prediction for novel ligands, ranging from simple synthetic analogs to very different molecular scaffolds. Typical results for widely used programs in the “cross-docking case” (making use of a single fixed protein conformation) have rates closer to 20% success. By making use of protein conformations from multiple complexes, Surflex-Dock yields an average success rate of 61% across eight pharmaceutically relevant targets. Following docking, protein pocket adaptation and rescoring identifies single pose families that are correct an average of 67% of the time. Consideration of the best of two pose families (from alternate scoring regimes) yields a 75% mean success rate. PMID:19340588

  3. Hybrid Adaptive Flight Control with Model Inversion Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates a hybrid adaptive flight control method as a design possibility for a flight control system that can enable an effective adaptation strategy to deal with off-nominal flight conditions. The hybrid adaptive control blends both direct and indirect adaptive control in a model inversion flight control architecture. The blending of both direct and indirect adaptive control provides a much more flexible and effective adaptive flight control architecture than that with either direct or indirect adaptive control alone. The indirect adaptive control is used to update the model inversion controller by an on-line parameter estimation of uncertain plant dynamics based on two methods. The first parameter estimation method is an indirect adaptive law based on the Lyapunov theory, and the second method is a recursive least-squares indirect adaptive law. The model inversion controller is therefore made to adapt to changes in the plant dynamics due to uncertainty. As a result, the modeling error is reduced that directly leads to a decrease in the tracking error. In conjunction with the indirect adaptive control that updates the model inversion controller, a direct adaptive control is implemented as an augmented command to further reduce any residual tracking error that is not entirely eliminated by the indirect adaptive control.

  4. Time for a change: what dominance durations reveal about adaptation effects in the perception of a bi-stable reversible figure.

    PubMed

    Toppino, Thomas C; Long, Gerald M

    2015-04-01

    The effect of adaptation on the perception of a reversible figure was examined in the context of the so-called "reverse-bias effect" in which prolonged exposure to an unambiguous version of a bi-stable ambiguous stimulus serves to bias an observer to report the alternative version of the subsequently viewed ambiguous stimulus. Exposure to the unambiguous stimulus presumably selectively adapts and weakens the neural structures underlying that particular interpretation of the ambiguous figure. We extended previous research by examining the dominance durations for the two alternatives of the reversible figure (i.e., how long each alternative was perceived when it was dominant) in addition to the measures of response rate and choice preference used by other researchers. We replicated earlier findings with the previously used measures. Interestingly, adaptation with an unambiguous version of the ambiguous stimulus produced an asymmetrical effect on the dominance durations of the subsequently presented ambiguous stimulus, relative to a no-adaptation control. The dominance durations were lengthened for the perceptual organization that was the opposite of the adaptation stimulus while they were relatively unaffected for the perceptual organization that was the same as the adaptation stimulus. Our findings are consistent with the argument that adaptation effects play an important role in perceptual bistability. The asymmetrical dominance-duration findings further suggest that adaptation operates in a perceptual system in which the alternative perceptual representations of an ambiguous figure reciprocally inhibit one another via cross-inhibitory processes, consistent with views developed in other forms of bistable perception (e.g., binocular rivalry). PMID:25522830

  5. Adaptation and dissemination of an evidence-based obesity prevention intervention: design of a comparative effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Odoms-Young, Angela; Stolley, Melinda L; Blumstein, Lara; Schiffer, Linda; Berbaum, Michael L; McCaffrey, Jennifer; Montoya, Anastasia McGee; Braunschweig, Carol; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2014-07-01

    Low-income youth are at increased risk for excess weight gain. Although evidence-based prevention programs exist, successful adaptation to provide wide dissemination presents a challenge. Hip-Hop to Health (HH) is a school-based obesity prevention intervention that targets primarily preschool children of low-income families. In a large randomized controlled trial, HH was found to be efficacious for prevention of excessive weight gain. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) are USDA-funded nutrition education programs offered to low-income families, and may provide an ideal platform for the wide dissemination of evidence-based obesity prevention programs. A research-practice partnership was established in order to conduct formative research to guide the adaptation and implementation of HH through EFNEP and SNAP-Ed. We present the design and method of a comparative effectiveness trial that will determine the efficacy of HH when delivered by peer educators through these programs compared to the standard EFNEP and SNAP-Ed nutrition education (NE) curriculum. Results from this trial will inform larger scale dissemination. The dissemination of HH through government programs has the potential to increase the reach of efficacious obesity prevention programs that target low-income children and families. PMID:24952282

  6. Tenderization effect of cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperature and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-Yan; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhao, Hui-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Xi-Ying; He, Hai-Lun; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-10-15

    The enzymes currently used to increase meat tenderness are all mesophilic or thermophilic proteases. This study provides insight into the tenderization effect and the mechanism of a cold-adapted collagenolytic enzyme MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperatures. MCP-01 (10 U of caseinolytic activity) reduced the meat shear force by 23% and increased the relative myofibrillar fragmentation index of the meat by 91.7% at 4 °C, and it also kept the fresh colour and moisture of the meat. Compared to the commercially used tenderizers papain and bromelain, MCP-01 showed a unique tenderization mechanism. MCP-01 had a strong selectivity for degrading collagen at 4 °C, showed a distinct digestion pattern on the myofibrillar proteins, and had a different disruption pattern on the muscle fibres under scanning electron micrograph. These results suggest that the cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 may be promising for use as a meat tenderizer at low and moderate temperatures. PMID:23442615

  7. Glomerular and tubular adaptive responses to acute nephron loss in the rat. Effect of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Pelayo, J C; Shanley, P F

    1990-01-01

    These studies, using in vivo micropuncture techniques in the Munich-Wistar rat, document the magnitude of changes in glomerular and tubular function and structure 24 h after approximately 75% nephron loss (Nx) and compared these results with those obtained in sham-operated rats. The contribution of either nephron hypertrophy or renal prostaglandin to these adjustments in nephron function was also explored. After acute Nx, single nephron GFR (SNGFR) was increased, on average by approximately 30%, due primarily to glomerular hyperperfusion and hypertension. The approximately 45% reduction in preglomerular and the constancy in postglomerular vascular resistances was entirely responsible for these adaptations. Although increases in fluid reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubules correlated closely with increase in SNGFR, the fractional fluid reabsorption between late proximal and early distal tubular segments was depressed. Nephron hypertrophy could not be substantiated based on either measurements of protein content in renal tissue homogenates or morphometric analysis of proximal convoluted tubules. However, acute Nx was associated with increased urinary excretory rates per functional nephron for 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and TXB2. Prostaglandin synthesis inhibition did not affect function in control nephrons, but this maneuver was associated with normalization of glomerular and tubular function in remnant nephrons. The results suggest that enhanced synthesis of cyclooxygenase-dependent products is one of the earliest responses to Nx, and even before hypertrophy the pathophysiologic effects of prostaglandin may be important contributors to the adaptations in remnant nephron function. PMID:1693376

  8. Adaptation and Dissemination of an Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention: Design of a Comparative Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Joanna; Odoms-Young, Angela; Stolley, Melinda L.; Blumstein, Lara; Schiffer, Linda; Berbaum, Michael L.; McCaffrey, Jennifer; Montoya, Anastasia McGee; Braunschweig, Carol; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2014-01-01

    Low-income youth are at increased risk for excess weight gain. Although evidence-based prevention programs exist, successful adaptation to provide wide dissemination presents a challenge. Hip-Hop to Health (HH) is a school-based obesity prevention intervention that targets primarily preschool children of low-income families. In a large randomized controlled trial, HH was found to be efficacious for prevention of excessive weight gain. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program--Education (SNAP-Ed) are USDA-funded nutrition education programs offered to low-income families, and may provide an ideal platform for the wide dissemination of evidence-based obesity prevention programs. A research-practice partnership was established in order to conduct formative research to guide the adaptation and implementation of HH through EFNEP and SNAP-Ed. We present the design and method of a comparative effectiveness trial that will determine the efficacy of HH when delivered by peer educators through these programs compared to the standard EFNEP and SNAP-Ed nutrition education (NE) curriculum. Results from this trial will inform larger scale dissemination. The dissemination of HH through government programs has the potential to increase the reach of efficacious obesity prevention programs that target low-income children and families. PMID:24952282

  9. Molecular Dynamics of Mesophilic-Like Mutants of a Cold-Adapted Enzyme: Insights into Distal Effects Induced by the Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Papaleo, Elena; Pasi, Marco; Tiberti, Matteo; De Gioia, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Networks and clusters of intramolecular interactions, as well as their “communication” across the three-dimensional architecture have a prominent role in determining protein stability and function. Special attention has been dedicated to their role in thermal adaptation. In the present contribution, seven previously experimentally characterized mutants of a cold-adapted α-amylase, featuring mesophilic-like behavior, have been investigated by multiple molecular dynamics simulations, essential dynamics and analyses of correlated motions and electrostatic interactions. Our data elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of single and multiple mutations to globally modulate dynamic properties of the cold-adapted α-amylase, including both local and complex unpredictable distal effects. Our investigation also shows, in agreement with the experimental data, that the conversion of the cold-adapted enzyme in a warm-adapted variant cannot be completely achieved by the introduction of few mutations, also providing the rationale behind these effects. Moreover, pivotal residues, which are likely to mediate the effects induced by the mutations, have been identified from our analyses, as well as a group of suitable candidates for protein engineering. In fact, a subset of residues here identified (as an isoleucine, or networks of mesophilic-like salt bridges in the proximity of the catalytic site) should be considered, in experimental studies, to get a more efficient modification of the features of the cold-adapted enzyme. PMID:21915299

  10. Suppression of Background Odor Effect in Odor Sensing System Using Olfactory Adaptation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, Tsuneaki; Yamanaka, Takao

    In this study, a new method for suppressing the background odor effect is proposed. Since odor sensors response to background odors in addition to a target odor, it is difficult to detect the target odor information. In the conventional odor sensing systems, the effect of the background odors are compensated by subtracting the response to the background odors (the baseline response). Although this simple subtraction method is effective for constant background odors, it fails in the compensation for time-varying background odors. The proposed method for the background suppression is effective even for the time-varying background odors.

  11. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Today, space systems are largely specialized and built on a case-by-case basis. The notion of modularity however, is nothing new to NASA. The 1970's saw the development of the Multi-Mission Modular spacecraft (MMS). From 1980 to 1992 at least six satellites were built under this paradigm, and included such Goddard Space Flight Center missions as SSM, EUVE, UARS, and Landsat 4 and 5. Earlier versions consisted of standard subsystem "module" or "box" components that could be replaced within a structure based on predefined form factors. Although the primary motivation for MMS was faster/cheaper integration and test, standardization of interfaces, and ease of incorporating new subsystem technology, it lacked the technology maturity and programmatic "upgrade infrastructure" needed to satisfy varied mission requirements, and ultimately it lacked user buy-in. Consequently, it never evolved and was phased out. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) with its regularly updated catalogue of prequalified busses became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years since MMS inception, technology has advanced considerably and now modularity can be extended beyond the traditional MMS module or box to cover levels of integration, from the chip, card, box, subsystem, to the space system and to the system-of-systems. This paper will present the MARS architecture, cast within the historical context of MMS. Its application will be highlighted by comparing a state-of-the-art point design vs. a MARS

  12. The Effect of Dietary Adaption on Cranial Morphological Integration in Capuchins (Order Primates, Genus Cebus)

    PubMed Central

    Makedonska, Jana; Wright, Barth W.; Strait, David S.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C.apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C.albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback foods. This is the

  13. Adaptations for economical bipedal running: the effect of limb structure on three-dimensional joint mechanics.

    PubMed

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Heliams, Denham B; Besier, Thor F; Fournier, Paul A

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanical adaptations linked to economical locomotion in cursorial bipeds. We addressed this question by comparing mass-matched humans and avian bipeds (ostriches), which exhibit marked differences in limb structure and running economy. We hypothesized that the nearly 50 per cent lower energy cost of running in ostriches is a result of: (i) lower limb-swing mechanical power, (ii) greater stance-phase storage and release of elastic energy, and (iii) lower total muscle power output. To test these hypotheses, we used three-dimensional joint mechanical measurements and a simple model to estimate the elastic and muscle contributions to joint work and power. Contradictory to our first hypothesis, we found that ostriches and humans generate the same amounts of mechanical power to swing the limbs at a similar self-selected running speed, indicating that limb swing probably does not contribute to the difference in energy cost of running between these species. In contrast, we estimated that ostriches generate 120 per cent more stance-phase mechanical joint power via release of elastic energy compared with humans. This elastic mechanical power occurs nearly exclusively at the tarsometatarso-phalangeal joint, demonstrating a shift of mechanical power generation to distal joints compared with humans. We also estimated that positive muscle fibre power is 35 per cent lower in ostriches compared with humans, and is accounted for primarily by higher capacity for storage and release of elastic energy. Furthermore, our analysis revealed much larger frontal and internal/external rotation joint loads during ostrich running than in humans. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that a primary limb structure specialization linked to economical running in cursorial species is an elevated storage and release of elastic energy in tendon. In the ostrich, energy-saving specializations may also include passive frontal and internal

  14. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable Systems: Technology for Sustainable, Reliable, Effective, and Affordable Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2005-02-01

    In order to execute the Vision for Space Exploration, we must find ways to reduce cost, system complexity, design, build, and test times, and at the same time increase flexibility to satisfy multiple functions. Modular, Adaptive, Reconfigurable System (MARS) technologies promise to set the stage for the delivery of system elements that form the building blocks of increasingly ambitious missions involving humans and robots. Today, space systems are largely specialized and built on a case-by-case basis. The notion of modularity however, is nothing new to NASA. The 1970's saw the development of the Multi-Mission Modular spacecraft (MMS). From 1980 to 1992 at least six satellites were built under this paradigm, and included such Goddard Space Flight Center missions as SSM, EUVE, UARS, and Landsat 4 and 5. Earlier versions consisted of standard subsystem ``module'' or ``box'' components that could be replaced within a structure based on predefined form factors. Although the primary motivation for MMS was faster/cheaper integration and test, standardization of interfaces, and ease of incorporating new subsystem technology, it lacked the technology maturity and programmatic ``upgrade infrastructure'' needed to satisfy varied mission requirements, and ultimately it lacked user buy-in. Consequently, it never evolved and was phased out. Such concepts as the Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) with its regularly updated catalogue of pre-qualified busses became the preferred method for acquiring satellites. Notwithstanding, over the past 30 years since MMS inception, technology has advanced considerably and now modularity can be extended beyond the traditional MMS module or box to cover levels of integration, from the chip, card, box, subsystem, to the space system and to the system-of-systems. This paper will present the MARS architecture, cast within the historical context of MMS. Its application will be highlighted by comparing a state-of-the-art point design vs. a

  15. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L; Jager, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10-17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen's d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476

  16. The effect of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on nutrient removal in SBR with biomass adapted to dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Czaplicka, Kamila; Kłodowska, Izabella; Mielcarek, Artur

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of volatile fatty acids on nitrates and orthophosphate removal in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with activated sludge biomass adapted to process dairy wastewater. The research also determine whether it is the type of fatty acid applied that is responsible for the effectiveness of denitrification and dephosphatation at varying nitrate:orthophosphate ratios, or whether these processes are additionally affected by the presence of microorganisms that have adapted to the specific carbon composition of the wastewater being treated. At the beginning of an operating cycle SBRs were dosed with VFAs to provide a source of carbon. A comparative analysis was performed of nitrate and orthophosphate removal at initial nitrate concentrations of 1.22, 7.3 and 15.2 mgN(NO3)L⁻¹. Doses of fatty acids were approximately 10.5 mg⁻¹COD·mgP(PO4). They consisted of acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and caproic acids. Increases of nitrate concentration from 1.22 to 15.2 mg N(NO3)L⁻¹ were observed to reduce the quantity of removed orthophosphate depending on the fatty acid applied, from 7.2-9.2 mgP(PO4)L to 4.5 - 6.7 mgP(PO4)L. Every increase in the removed nitrates by 5.0 mgN(NO3)L⁻¹ was accompanied by a decrease in the removed orthophosphate of around 1 mgP(PO4)L⁻¹. The reactor containing acetic acid was found to remove the highest amount of orthophosphate irrespective of the nitrates concentration. Acids present in significant amount in dairy wastewaters (i.e. acetic, propionic and butyric) were more effective source of carbon in the denitrification process compared to low concentration acids. PMID:23445424

  17. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thymann, Thomas; Stoll, Barbara; Mecklenburg, Lars; Burrin, Douglas G; Vegge, Andreas; Qvist, Niels; Eriksen, Thomas; Jeppesen, Palle B; Sangild, Per T

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal short bowel syndrome following massive gut resection is associated with malabsorption of nutrients. The intestinotrophic factor glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) improves gut function in adult patients with short bowel syndrome, but its effect in pediatric patients remains unknown. Our objective was to test the efficacy of the long-acting synthetic human GLP-2 analogue, teduglutide (ALX-0600), in a neonatal piglet jejunostomy model. Two-day-old pigs were subjected to resection of 50% of the small intestine (distal part), and the remnant intestine was exteriorized on the abdominal wall as a jejunostomy. All pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 7 days and a single daily injection of the following doses of teduglutide: 0.01 (n = 6), 0.02 (n = 6), 0.1 (n = 5), or 0.2 mg · kg · day (n = 6), and compared with placebo (n = 9). Body weight increment was similar for all 4 teduglutide groups but higher than placebo (P < 0.05). There was a dose-dependent increase in weight per length of the remnant intestine (P < 0.01) and fractional protein synthesis rate in the intestine was increased in the 0.2 mg · kg · day group versus placebo (P < 0.001); however, functional and structural endpoints including activity of digestive enzymes, absorption of enteral nutrients, and immunohistochemistry (Ki67, villin, FABP2, ChgA, and GLP-2R) were not affected by the treatment. Teduglutide induces trophicity on the remnant intestine but has limited acute effects on functional endpoints. Significant effects of teduglutide on gut function may require a longer adaptation period and/or a more frequent administration of the peptide. In perspective, GLP-2 or its analogues may be relevant to improve intestinal adaptation in pediatric patients with short bowel syndrome. PMID:24399211

  18. Effect of Acid Adaptation on the Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in THP-1 Human Macrophages Activated by Gamma Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Maria Pia; Petrone, Gloria; Di Biase, Assunta Maria; Longhi, Catia; Penta, Michela; Tinari, Antonella; Superti, Fabiana; Fabozzi, Giulia; Visca, Paolo; Seganti, Lucilla

    2002-01-01

    In Listeria monocytogenes the acid tolerance response (ATR) takes place through a programmed molecular response which ensures cell survival under unfavorable conditions. Much evidence links ATR with virulence, but the molecular determinants involved in the reactivity to low pHs and the behavior of acid-exposed bacteria within host cells are still poorly understood. We have investigated the effect of acid adaptation on the fate of L. monocytogenes in human macrophages. Expression of genes encoding determinants for cell invasion and intracellular survival was tested for acid-exposed bacteria, and invasive behavior in the human myelomonocytic cell line THP-1 activated with gamma interferon was assessed. Functional approaches demonstrated that preexposure to an acidic pH enhances the survival of L. monocytogenes in activated human macrophages and that this effect is associated with an altered pattern of expression of genes involved in acid resistance and cell invasion. Significantly decreased transcription of the plcA gene, encoding a phospholipase C involved in vacuolar escape and cell-to-cell spread, was observed in acid-adapted bacteria. This effect was due to a reduction in the quantity of the bicistronic plcA-prfA transcript, concomitant with an increase in the level(s) of the monocistronic prfA mRNA(s). The transcriptional shift from distal to proximal prfA promoters resulted in equal levels of the prfA transcript (and, as a consequence, of the inlA, hly, and actA transcripts) under neutral and acidic conditions. In contrast, the sodC and gad genes, encoding a cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase and the glutamate-based acid resistance system, respectively, were positively regulated at a low pH. Morphological approaches confirmed the increased intracellular survival and growth of acid-adapted L. monocytogenes cells both in vacuoles and in the cytoplasm of interferon gamma-activated THP-1 macrophages. Our data indicate that preexposure to a low pH has a positive

  19. Variable effect of a fiber length QTL deployed within several regionally adapted cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Originally identified from Sealand 883, this QTL had a significant effect on fiber length in the testing population, but varied by as much as 3 to 4 fold depending on the genetic background in which it was deployed. It is the purpose of this project to examine the effect of this QTL in four differen...

  20. Adapting to climate change on Western public lands: addressing the ecological effects of domestic, wild, and feral ungulates.

    PubMed

    Beschta, Robert L; Donahue, Debra L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Rhodes, Jonathan J; Karr, James R; O'Brien, Mary H; Fleischner, Thomas L; Deacon Williams, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production-the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands-can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates. PMID:23151970

  1. Adapting to Climate Change on Western Public Lands: Addressing the Ecological Effects of Domestic, Wild, and Feral Ungulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beschta, Robert L.; Donahue, Debra L.; DellaSala, Dominick A.; Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Karr, James R.; O'Brien, Mary H.; Fleischner, Thomas L.; Deacon Williams, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production—the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands—can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates.

  2. Age-Related Changes in Predictive Capacity Versus Internal Model Adaptability: Electrophysiological Evidence that Individual Differences Outweigh Effects of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Philipp, Markus; Alday, Phillip M.; Kretzschmar, Franziska; Grewe, Tanja; Gumpert, Maike; Schumacher, Petra B.; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical predictive coding has been identified as a possible unifying principle of brain function, and recent work in cognitive neuroscience has examined how it may be affected by age–related changes. Using language comprehension as a test case, the present study aimed to dissociate age-related changes in prediction generation versus internal model adaptation following a prediction error. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured in a group of older adults (60–81 years; n = 40) as they read sentences of the form “The opposite of black is white/yellow/nice.” Replicating previous work in young adults, results showed a target-related P300 for the expected antonym (“white”; an effect assumed to reflect a prediction match), and a graded N400 effect for the two incongruous conditions (i.e. a larger N400 amplitude for the incongruous continuation not related to the expected antonym, “nice,” versus the incongruous associated condition, “yellow”). These effects were followed by a late positivity, again with a larger amplitude in the incongruous non-associated versus incongruous associated condition. Analyses using linear mixed-effects models showed that the target-related P300 effect and the N400 effect for the incongruous non-associated condition were both modulated by age, thus suggesting that age-related changes affect both prediction generation and model adaptation. However, effects of age were outweighed by the interindividual variability of ERP responses, as reflected in the high proportion of variance captured by the inclusion of by-condition random slopes for participants and items. We thus argue that – at both a neurophysiological and a functional level – the notion of general differences between language processing in young and older adults may only be of limited use, and that future research should seek to better understand the causes of interindividual variability in the ERP responses of older adults and its relation to

  3. Heat and drought adaptive QTL in a wheat population designed to minimize confounding agronomic effects

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, R. Suzuky; Mathews, Ky L.; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Olivares-Villegas, Juan-Jose; Chapman, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    A restricted range in height and phenology of the elite Seri/Babax recombinant inbred line (RIL) population makes it ideal for physiological and genetic studies. Previous research has shown differential expression for yield under water deficit associated with canopy temperature (CT). In the current study, 167 RILs plus parents were phenotyped under drought (DRT), hot irrigated (HOT), and temperate irrigated (IRR) environments to identify the genomic regions associated with stress-adaptive traits. In total, 104 QTL were identified across a combination of 115 traits × 3 environments × 2 years, of which 14, 16, and 10 QTL were associated exclusively with DRT, HOT, and IRR, respectively. Six genomic regions were related to a large number of traits, namely 1B-a, 2B-a, 3B-b, 4A-a, 4A-b, and 5A-a. A yield QTL located on 4A-a explained 27 and 17% of variation under drought and heat stress, respectively. At the same location, a QTL explained 28% of the variation in CT under heat, while 14% of CT variation under drought was explained by a QTL on 3B-b. The T1BL.1RS (rye) translocation donated by the Seri parent was associated with decreased yield in this population. There was no co-location of consistent yield and phenology or height-related QTL, highlighting the utility of using a population with a restricted range in anthesis to facilitate QTL studies. Common QTL for drought and heat stress traits were identified on 1B-a, 2B-a, 3B-b, 4A-a, 4B-b, and 7A-a confirming their generic value across stresses. Yield QTL were shown to be associated with components of other traits, supporting the prospects for dissecting crop performance into its physiological and genetic components in order to facilitate a more strategic approach to breeding. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1351-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20523964

  4. Robust Optimal Adaptive Control Method with Large Adaptive Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly. However, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient stability robustness. Simulations were conducted for a damaged generic transport aircraft with both standard adaptive control and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model while maintaining a sufficient time delay margin.

  5. Effects of a realistic adaptive optics system on the atmospheric propagation of a high energy laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digumarthi, Ramji V.; Mehta, Naresh C.; Blankinship, Ross M.

    1990-05-01

    An adaptive optics (AO) correction system is generally required to compensate for beam degradations caused by interactions between a high energy laser (HEL) beam and the atmosphere. The GRAND propagation code includes a model of a realistic AO system representing many features of a state-of-the-art beam control system. This AO system includes models of a wavefront sensor, a tilt mirror, a focus (secondary) mirror, and a woofer-tweeter deformable mirror arrangement. This paper reports the results of a study to assess the impact of the realistic AO system on the correctability of HEL-atmosphere interactions. The GRAND code results compare the performance of the low-pass filter model and the realistic AO system model in the presence of turbulence and moderate-to-severe thermal blooming. In addition, the effects of low frequency Kolmogorov turbulence were studied in terms of its impact on the AO system requirements.

  6. Synergistic Effect of S224P and N383D Substitutions in the PA of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Contributes to Mammalian Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiasheng; Xu, Jing; Shi, Jianzhong; Li, Yanbing; Chen, Hualan

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of H5N1 avian influenza viruses to human poses a great threat to public health. Previous studies indicate the adaptive mutations in viral polymerase of avian influenza viruses are major contributors in overcoming the host species barrier, with the majority of mammalian adaptive mutations occurring in the PB2 protein. However, the adaptive mutations in the PA protein of the H5N1 avian influenza virus are less defined and poorly understood. In this study, we identified the synergistic effect of the PA/224P + 383D of H5N1 avian influenza viruses and its ability to enhance the pathogenicity and viral replication in a mammalian mouse model. Interestingly, the signature of PA/224P + 383D mainly exists in mammalian isolates of the H5N1 influenza virus and pdmH1N1 influenza virus, providing a potential pathway for the natural adaptation to mammals which imply the effects of natural adaptation to mammals. Notably, the mutation of PA/383D, which is highly conserved in avian influenza viruses, increases the polymerase activity in both avian and human cells, and may have roles in maintaining the avian influenza virus in their avian reservoirs, and jumping species to infect humans. PMID:26000865

  7. Adaptation is automatic.

    PubMed

    Samuel, A G; Kat, D

    1998-04-01

    Two experiments were used to test whether selective adaptation for speech occurs automatically or instead requires attentional resources. A control condition demonstrated the usual large identification shifts caused by repeatedly presenting an adapting sound (/wa/, with listeners identifying members of a /ba/-/wa/ test series). Two types of distractor tasks were used: (1) Subjects did a rapid series of arithmetic problems during the adaptation periods (Experiments 1 and 2), or (2) they made a series of rhyming judgments, requiring phonetic coding (Experiment 2). A control experiment (Experiment 3) demonstrated that these tasks normally impose a heavy attentional cost on phonetic processing. Despite this, for both experimental conditions, the observed adaptation effect was just as large as in the control condition. This result indicates that adaptation is automatic, operating at an early, preattentive level. The implications of these results for current models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:9599999

  8. Roads and traffic: Effects on ecology and wildlife habitat use; applications for cooperative adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    The land of the United States in dissected by more than 4 million miles of roads that fragment wildlife habitat on both public and private lands. Traffic on these roads causes additional effects. On secondary roads, which provide access to the most natural habitat, the levels, timing, and types of traffic are seldom known. In order to understand the effects of traffic on wildlife, USGS is conducting research cooperatively with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife.

  9. Effectiveness and Tradeoffs between Portfolios of Adaptation Strategies Addressing Future Climate and Socioeconomic Uncertainties in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansey, M. K.; Van Lienden, B.; Das, T.; Munevar, A.; Young, C. A.; Flores-Lopez, F.; Huntington, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Valley of California is one of the major agricultural areas in the United States. The Central Valley Project (CVP) is operated by the Bureau of Reclamation to serve multiple purposes including generating approximately 4.3 million gigawatt hours of hydropower and providing, on average, 5 million acre-feet of water per year to irrigate approximately 3 million acres of land in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Tulare Lake basins, 600,000 acre-feet per year of water for urban users, and 800,000 acre-feet of annual supplies for environmental purposes. The development of effective adaptation and mitigation strategies requires assessing multiple risks including potential climate changes as well as uncertainties in future socioeconomic conditions. In this study, a scenario-based analytical approach was employed by combining three potential 21st century socioeconomic futures with six representative climate and sea level change projections developed using a transient hybrid delta ensemble method from an archive of 112 bias corrected spatially downscaled CMIP3 global climate model simulations to form 18 future socioeconomic-climate scenarios. To better simulate the effects of climate changes on agricultural water demands, analyses of historical agricultural meteorological station records were employed to develop estimates of future changes in solar radiation and atmospheric humidity from the GCM simulated temperature and precipitation. Projected changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide were computed directly by weighting SRES emissions scenarios included in each representative climate projection. These results were used as inputs to a calibrated crop water use, growth and yield model to simulate the effects of climate changes on the evapotranspiration and yields of major crops grown in the Central Valley. Existing hydrologic, reservoir operations, water quality, hydropower, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and both urban and agricultural economic models were integrated

  10. The Child Whisperer: Effective Parenting Strategies Adapted from "The Dog Whisperer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Durr, Brandi

    2013-01-01

    Behavior modification with children has been popularized through television shows such as "Super Nanny" and "Nanny 911". The popularity of these shows may be related to the demand parents have for improving their children's behavior. Interestingly, an approach adopted by "The Dog Whisperer" may prove effective when used with children. The purpose…

  11. Effects of Video Adaptations on Comprehension of Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evmenova, Anna S.; Behrmann, Michael M.; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Baker, Pamela H.; Graff, Heidi J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of alternative narration, highlighted text, picture/word-based captions, and interactive video searching features for improving comprehension of nonfiction academic video clips by students with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD). Combined multiple baselines across participants and alternating…

  12. ADAPTATION OF MIXED FLASK CULTURE MICROCOSMS FOR TESTING THE SURVIVAL AND EFFECTS OF INTRODUCED MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microcosm test was used to evaluate the survival and effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelinsis (Bti) in aquatic systems. wo commercial formulations (Vectobac tm from Abbot; Mosquito Attack tm form Aeuters Laboratories) and a laboratory preparation of Bti spores were te...

  13. The Influence of Adaptation and Inhibition on the Effects of Onset Asynchrony on Auditory Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stephen D.; Roberts, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Onset asynchrony is an important cue for auditory scene analysis. For example, a harmonic of a vowel that begins before the other components contributes less to the perceived phonetic quality. This effect was thought primarily to involve high-level grouping processes, because the contribution can be partly restored by accompanying the leading…

  14. Documenting Training Effectiveness in Terms of Worker Performance and Adaptability. EQW Working Papers WP23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Wayne F.

    This report reviews the personnel psychology literature related to training effectiveness and summarizes it into a three-dimensional matrix. Following an introduction, section II discusses how three components of training studies--training content, training method, and transfer of training--can be considered within a three-dimensional framework.…

  15. Effects of chronic hypergravity: from adaptive to deleterious responses in growing mouse skeleton.

    PubMed

    Gnyubkin, Vasily; Guignandon, Alain; Laroche, Norbert; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Normand, Myriam; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Vico, Laurence

    2015-10-15

    One of the most important but least studied environmental factors playing a major role in bone physiology is gravity. While the knowledge of deleterious effects of microgravity on the skeleton is expanding, little is known about hypergravity and its osteogenic potential. Centrifugation was used to assess effects of 21-day continuous 2- or 3-g acceleration on femur and L2-vertebra of 7-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice. Under 3 g, body mass growth slowed down, and deleterious skeletal effects were found (P < 0.05 compared with control): cortical thinning, osteoclasts surface increase (+41% in femur, +20% in vertebra), and bone formation rate decrease (-34% in femur, -38% in vertebra). A 2-g centrifugation did not reduce body mass and improved trabecular volume (+18% in femur, +13% in vertebra) and microarchitecture (+32% connectivity density in femur, +9% trabecular thickness in vertebra, P < 0.05 compared with control). Centrifugation at 2 g also decreased osteoclast surfaces (-36% in femur, -16% in vertebra) and increased the extent of mineralized surfaces (+31% in femur, +48% in vertebra, P < 0.05 compare to control). Quantitative immunohistochemistry revealed an increase of dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1) and decrease of sclerostin (+60% and -35% respectively, P < 0.001 compared with control) in the femur cortex of 2-g mice. In the distal femur metaphysis, the number and volume of blood vessels increased by 22 and 44%, respectively (P < 0.05 compared with control). In conclusion, the effects of continuous hypergravity were bone compartment-specific and depended on the gravity level, with a threshold between beneficial 2-g and deleterious 3-g effects. PMID:26228999

  16. A quantitative comparison of the effects of intracellular calcium injection and light adaptation on the photoresponse of Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Calcium ions were iontophoretically injected into ventral photoreceptors of Limulus by passing current between two intracellular pipettes. Changes in sensitivity and photoresponse time course were measured for both light adaptation and Ca++ injection. We found for some photoreceptors that there was no significant difference in the photoresponse time course for desensitization produced by light adaptation or by Ca++ injection. In other photoreceptors, the time delay of photoresponse for Ca++ injection was slightly longer than for light adaptation. The variability of threshold response amplitude and time delay decreases when the photoreceptor is desensitized by either light adaptation or Ca++ injection. The peak amplitude versus log stimulus intensity relationships for controls, light adaptation, and Ca++ injection all could be described very closely by a single template curve shifted along the log intensity axis. A 40- to 50-fold change in sensitivity is associated with a 2-fold change in photoresponse time delay for both light adaptation and Ca++ injection. PMID:591913

  17. Adaptive center determination for effective suppression of ring artifacts in tomography images

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, D. Sørensen, H. O. Dobberschütz, S.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Feidenhans'l, R.

    2014-10-06

    Ring artifacts on tomogram slices hinder image interpretation. They are caused by minor variation in the response from individual elements in a two dimensional (2D) X-ray detector. Polar space decreases the suppression complexity by transforming the rings on the tomogram slice to linear stripes. However, it requires that the center of rings lie at the origin of polar transformation. If this is not the case, all methods employing polar space become ineffective. We developed a method based on Gaussian localization of the ring center in Hough parameter space to assign the origin for the polar transformation. Thus, obtained linear stripes can be effectively suppressed by already existing methods. This effectively suppresses ring artifacts in the data from a variety of experimental setups, sample types and also handles tomograms that are previously cropped. This approach functions automatically, avoids the need for assumptions and preserves fine details, all critical for synchrotron based nanometer resolution tomography.

  18. [The effect of the genome of the variety on the adaptive characteristics of alloplasmic strains of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V K; Khangil'din, V V; Vlasenko, V A

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of adaptability and genetical distances between 12 cytoplasms of Aegilops, Triticum and Haynaldia villosa for three winter wheat genomes showed an existence of genome-plasmon interactions. The plasmons of Ae. variabilis, Ae. cylindrica, Ae. squarrosa var. strangulata, T. dicoccoides appeared to be perspective in practical breeding for adaptability. Interactions are revealed as alteration of productivity and adaptability, and as genetic divergence. PMID:10920857

  19. Reinforcer-ratio variation and its effects on rate of adaptation.

    PubMed Central

    Landon, J; Davison, M

    2001-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained in sessions that consisted of six or seven concurrent-schedule components, each of which could have a different reinforcer ratio arranged in it. The components were unsignaled and occurred in a random order separated by 10-s blackouts. The overall reinforcer rate arranged in each component was 2.22 reinforcers per minute. In Experiment 1, the range of reinforcer ratios in the seven components was varied from a condition in which the ratios were always 1:1, to a condition in which the ratios varied between concurrent variable-interval 27 s extinction (EXT) and concurrent extinction variable-interval 27 s (ratios of 1:EXT, 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:9, EXT:1). In Experiment 2, the range of reinforcer ratios was always 27:1 to 1:27, and the presence and absence of the intermediate reinforcer ratios used in Experiment 1 (9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:9) were investigated. Log response-allocation ratios in components changed rapidly with increasing numbers of reinforcers in components, and Experiment 1 showed that sensitivity to reinforcement was usually higher when the range of reinforcer ratios was greater. When the range of reinforcer ratios was kept constant in Experiment 2, the presence or absence of less extreme reinforcer ratios had no clear effect on sensitivity. At a local level, individual reinforcers had predictable quantitative effects on response ratios: Successive same-alternative reinforcers in a component had rapidly diminishing effects in both experiments. Reinforcers obtained on the opposite alternative to one or more prior reinforcers always had large effects on preference, and these changes were greater when the range of reinforcer ratios was greater. The effects of such reinforcers in changing preference were enhanced, and produced clear preference reversals, when intermediate reinforcer ratios were absent in Experiment 2. Two processes, one local to reinforcers and one with a longer time course, may be necessary to account for these

  20. Effect of imperfect detectability on adaptive and conventional sampling: simulated sampling of freshwater mussels in the upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Smith, David R; Gray, Brian R; Newton, Teresa J; Nichols, Doug

    2010-11-01

    Adaptive sampling designs are recommended where, as is typical with freshwater mussels, the outcome of interest is rare and clustered. However, the performance of adaptive designs has not been investigated when outcomes are not only rare and clustered but also imperfectly detected. We address this combination of challenges using data simulated to mimic properties of freshwater mussels from a reach of the upper Mississippi River. Simulations were conducted under a range of sample sizes and detection probabilities. Under perfect detection, efficiency of the adaptive sampling design increased relative to the conventional design as sample size increased and as density decreased. Also, the probability of sampling occupied habitat was four times higher for adaptive than conventional sampling of the lowest density population examined. However, imperfect detection resulted in substantial biases in sample means and variances under both adaptive sampling and conventional designs. The efficiency of adaptive sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Also, the probability of encountering an occupied unit during adaptive sampling, relative to conventional sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Thus, the potential gains in the application of adaptive sampling to rare and clustered populations relative to conventional sampling are reduced when detection is imperfect. The results highlight the need to increase or estimate detection to improve performance of conventional and adaptive sampling designs. PMID:19946742

  1. Effect of imperfect detectability on adaptive and conventional sampling: Simulated sampling of freshwater mussels in the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Gray, B.R.; Newton, T.J.; Nichols, D.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive sampling designs are recommended where, as is typical with freshwater mussels, the outcome of interest is rare and clustered. However, the performance of adaptive designs has not been investigated when outcomes are not only rare and clustered but also imperfectly detected. We address this combination of challenges using data simulated to mimic properties of freshwater mussels from a reach of the upper Mississippi River. Simulations were conducted under a range of sample sizes and detection probabilities. Under perfect detection, efficiency of the adaptive sampling design increased relative to the conventional design as sample size increased and as density decreased. Also, the probability of sampling occupied habitat was four times higher for adaptive than conventional sampling of the lowest density population examined. However, imperfect detection resulted in substantial biases in sample means and variances under both adaptive sampling and conventional designs. The efficiency of adaptive sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Also, the probability of encountering an occupied unit during adaptive sampling, relative to conventional sampling declined with decreasing detectability. Thus, the potential gains in the application of adaptive sampling to rare and clustered populations relative to conventional sampling are reduced when detection is imperfect. The results highlight the need to increase or estimate detection to improve performance of conventional and adaptive sampling designs.

  2. Micro- and Macro-Geographic Scale Effect on the Molecular Imprint of Selection and Adaptation in Norway Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Scalfi, Marta; Mosca, Elena; Di Pierro, Erica Adele; Troggio, Michela; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sperisen, Christoph; La Porta, Nicola; Neale, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Forest tree species of temperate and boreal regions have undergone a long history of demographic changes and evolutionary adaptations. The main objective of this study was to detect signals of selection in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), at different sampling-scales and to investigate, accounting for population structure, the effect of environment on species genetic diversity. A total of 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing 290 genes were genotyped at two geographic scales: across 12 populations distributed along two altitudinal-transects in the Alps (micro-geographic scale), and across 27 populations belonging to the range of Norway spruce in central and south-east Europe (macro-geographic scale). At the macrogeographic scale, principal component analysis combined with Bayesian clustering revealed three major clusters, corresponding to the main areas of southern spruce occurrence, i.e. the Alps, Carpathians, and Hercynia. The populations along the altitudinal transects were not differentiated. To assess the role of selection in structuring genetic variation, we applied a Bayesian and coalescent-based FST-outlier method and tested for correlations between allele frequencies and climatic variables using regression analyses. At the macro-geographic scale, the FST-outlier methods detected together 11 FST-outliers. Six outliers were detected when the same analyses were carried out taking into account the genetic structure. Regression analyses with population structure correction resulted in the identification of two (micro-geographic scale) and 38 SNPs (macro-geographic scale) significantly correlated with temperature and/or precipitation. Six of these loci overlapped with FST-outliers, among them two loci encoding an enzyme involved in riboflavin biosynthesis and a sucrose synthase. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between genetic and environmental variation at both geographic scales. It also suggests that an

  3. Effects of Arachidonic Acid Supplementation on Acute Anabolic Signaling and Chronic Functional Performance and Body Composition Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Eduardo O.; Lowery, Ryan P.; Wilson, Jacob M.; Sharp, Matthew H.; Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Fox, Carlton D.; Lopez, Hector L.; Shields, Kevin A.; Rauch, Jacob T.; Healy, James C.; Thompson, Richard M.; Ormes, Jacob A.; Joy, Jordan M.; Roberts, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA) supplementation on functional performance and body composition in trained males. In addition, we performed a secondary study looking at molecular responses of ARA supplementation following an acute exercise bout in rodents. Methods Thirty strength-trained males (age: 20.4 ± 2.1 yrs) were randomly divided into two groups: ARA or placebo (i.e. CTL). Then, both groups underwent an 8-week, 3-day per week, non-periodized training protocol. Quadriceps muscle thickness, whole-body composition scan (DEXA), muscle strength, and power were assessed at baseline and post-test. In the rodent model, male Wistar rats (~250 g, ~8 weeks old) were pre-fed with either ARA or water (CTL) for 8 days and were fed the final dose of ARA prior to being acutely strength trained via electrical stimulation on unilateral plantar flexions. A mixed muscle sample was removed from the exercised and non-exercised leg 3 hours post-exercise. Results Lean body mass (2.9%, p<0.0005), upper-body strength (8.7%, p<0.0001), and peak power (12.7%, p<0.0001) increased only in the ARA group. For the animal trial, GSK-β (Ser9) phosphorylation (p<0.001) independent of exercise and AMPK phosphorylation after exercise (p-AMPK less in ARA, p = 0.041) were different in ARA-fed versus CTL rats. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ARA supplementation can positively augment strength-training induced adaptations in resistance-trained males. However, chronic studies at the molecular level are required to further elucidate how ARA combined with strength training affect muscle adaptation. PMID:27182886

  4. Effects of global change in the Czech Part of the River Elbe Basin and adaptation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Hagen; Kaltofen, Michael; Kaden, Stefan; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    In Integrated Water Resources Management planning the effects of changing natural conditions (natural water availability) and socio-economic development (water demand) must be taken into consideration. Climate change will influence the water availability. In some sectors, e.g. agricultural irrigation, also the water demand is influenced by climatic conditions. Both, the development of natural water availability and water demand, are connected with certain levels of uncertainty. Therefore, scenarios of socio-economic development and climate change are required for Integrated Water Resources Management planning. The river Elbe basin (catchment area approximately 150,000 km²) is located in central Europe. The river Elbe basin is a trans boundary river basin. One third is located in the Czech Republic upstream of Germany, where two thirds of the basin is located. Therefore, inflows from the Czech part are important for instance for navigation in the German part. For navigation an inflow to Germany of 100 m3/s is required. Due to climate change the inflows are expected to decline. In the project GLOWA-Elbe a water management model for the whole river Elbe basin was developed. The model for the Czech part includes among others 52 reservoirs, 20 thermoelectric power plants, 70 hydroelectric power plants, 30 industrial users, 15 agricultural irrigation users, 40 public water utilities, and 160 waste water treatment plants. Two global socio-economic trends are renationalized and used in the simulations. Renationalized climate data are used to simulate the effects of climate change on natural discharges. Using the water management model the effects of global change on inflows from the Czech Republic to Germany are simulated. Using this model is it analyzed, if reservoir management in the Czech part can sustain a required inflow of 100 m3/s to Germany.

  5. The Penefit of Salience: Salient Accented, but Not Unaccented Words Reveal Accent Adaptation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Grohe, Ann-Kathrin; Weber, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments, the effects of salience in accent training and speech accentedness on spoken-word recognition were investigated. Salience was expected to increase a stimulus' prominence and therefore promote learning. A training-test paradigm was used on native German participants utilizing an artificial German accent. Salience was elicited by two different criteria: production and listening training as a subjective criterion and accented (Experiment 1) and canonical test words (Experiment 2) as an objective criterion. During training in Experiment 1, participants either read single German words out loud and deliberately devoiced initial voiced stop consonants (e.g., Balken—“beam” pronounced as *Palken), or they listened to pre-recorded words with the same accent. In a subsequent eye-tracking experiment, looks to auditorily presented target words with the accent were analyzed. Participants from both training conditions fixated accented target words more often than a control group without training. Training was identical in Experiment 2, but during test, canonical German words that overlapped in onset with the accented words from training were presented as target words (e.g., Palme—“palm tree” overlapped in onset with the training word *Palken) rather than accented words. This time, no training effect was observed; recognition of canonical word forms was not affected by having learned the accent. Therefore, accent learning was only visible when the accented test tokens in Experiment 1, which were not included in the test of Experiment 2, possessed sufficient salience based on the objective criterion “accent.” These effects were not modified by the subjective criterion of salience from the training modality. PMID:27375540

  6. Amplifying effect of a release mechanism for fast adaptation in the hair bundle.

    PubMed

    Sul, Bora; Iwasa, Kuni H

    2009-07-01

    A "release" mechanism, which has been experimentally observed as the fast component in the hair bundle's response to mechanical stimulation, appears similar to common mechanical relaxation with a damping effect. This observation is puzzling because such a response is expected to have an amplifying role in the mechanoelectrical transduction process in hair cells. Here it is shown that a release mechanism can indeed have a role in amplification, if it is associated with negative stiffness due to the gating of the mechonoelectric transducer channel. PMID:19603855

  7. Adapting teaching styles to accommodate learning preferences for effective hospital development.

    PubMed

    Eshleman, Kelly Y

    2008-12-01

    Hospital development professionals in organ procurement organizations engage in many roles in the hospital. The important role of educator requires making the most of each teaching opportunity by understanding the characteristics of the learning audience and applying proven principles of adult educational design, with a focus on collaborative learning and variety in presentation techniques. The goal is to provide effective education, enabling hospital staff to transfer this learning to the job setting, with the outcome of facilitating a supportive process that saves lives through organ donation. PMID:19186583

  8. Effects of High Altitude on Sleep and Respiratory System and Theirs Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    San, Turhan; Polat, Senol; Cingi, Cemal; Eskiizmir, Gorkem; Oghan, Fatih; Cakir, Burak

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude (HA) environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbondioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2. PMID:23690739

  9. Effects of high altitude on sleep and respiratory system and theirs adaptations.

    PubMed

    San, Turhan; Polat, Senol; Cingi, Cemal; Eskiizmir, Gorkem; Oghan, Fatih; Cakir, Burak

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude (HA) environments have adverse effects on the normal functioning body of people accustomed to living at low altitudes because of the change in barometric pressure which causes decrease in the amount of oxygen leading to hypobaric hypoxia. Sustained exposure to hypoxia has adverse effects on body weight, muscle structure and exercise capacity, mental functioning, and sleep quality. The most important step of acclimatization is the hyperventilation which is achieved by hypoxic ventilatory response of the peripheral chemoreceptors. Hyperventilation results in increase in arterial carbon-dioxide concentration. Altitude also affects sleep and cardiac output, which is the other determinant of oxygen delivery. Upon initial exposure to HA, the resting pulse rate increases rapidly, but with acclimatization, heart rate and cardiac output tend to fall. Another important component that leads to decrease in cardiac output is the reduction in the stroke volume with acclimatization. During sleep at HA, the levels of CO2 in the blood can drop very low and this can switch off the drive to breathe. Only after the body senses a further drop in O2 levels breathing is started again. Periodic breathing is thought to result from instability in the control system through the hypoxic drive or the response to CO2. PMID:23690739

  10. Adaption strategies to the effect of climate change on a coastal area in Northwest Germany with different land management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeff, Thomas; Krause, Stefan; Maier, Martin; Oswald, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change and handling is difficult. Adaption to two different situations has to be taken into account. On the one hand, increasing global sea level in combination with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency has to be handled. On the other hand, in summer periods due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration and an increase of salty seawater intrusion into groundwater have to be managed. In this study we present different landuse management scenarios on a coastal area in Northwest Germany, East Frisia, and their effect on the hydrological response. Landuse is dominated by dairy farming and intensive crop farming. 30 percent of the area lies below sea level. A dense channel network in combination with several pumping stations allows permeant drainage. The soils are characterised by marsh soils and impermeable layers which prevent an interaction with the confined brackish aquifer. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. The landuse strategies include a scenario that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration. A second scenario includes the adaptation to increasing precipitation and the sea level with a polder system and wetland areas designated as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods. Two scenarios use large polder areas in the future as potential buffer for winter storm surges and inland floods and as freshwater storage for dry summer periods, additional usage for nature conservation and as the storage of carbon sequestration or extensive farming are planned. Also, stakeholders have developed a system of several smaller polders in combination with an intensification of the water resource management, and this is

  11. Adapting to confined and isolated environment: Emotional effects and countermeasures in LUNAR PALACE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya; Wu, Ruilin

    Most operations in manned spaceflight originate in mental work, and numerous factors in aerospace can cause psychological problems. Among these problems, negative emotions are the most important and critical. Confined isolated environment, limited communication with outside and unpredictable risks may lead to the aggravation and acceleration of depression, anxiety and monotony, which could deteriorate astronauts’ effectiveness and safety.Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify possible change rules over time of emotional states in 90-day isolation period. The experiment is conducted in an analogue space station in Beihang University called LUNAR PALACE 1, which forms 100 percent of carbon and oxygen cycle closed environment, containing one comprehensive cabin and one plant cabin. Three healthy subjects (so called crews) are selected in the research, and they are assigned to tasks every day to imitate astronaut schedule. In order to monitor their emotional states, all crews will complete a questionnaire named profile of mood states (POMS) every week. Considering the limitation of questionnaire survey, we employ another method of automatic analysis. We set a network camera in the staff room (for meal and entertainment) in comprehensive cabin, and the videos will be analyzed through FaceReader, a facial expressions recognition software, to indicate their emotions. In addition, interviews will also be conducted after the experiment isolation period.Previous researches have shown that mission positive impact on crews, support from outside psychologists and surgeons, or surprise presents and favorite foods act well to against negative effects of the Third quarter phenomenon, displacement and other conflictions. Beyond these countermeasures, in LUNAR PALACE 1 we used open network environment to increase crews’ communication with family or friends and provide them digital camera to record their daily life as a kind of recreation.From all these measures, we will

  12. Modeling of topographic effects on Antarctic sea ice using multivariate adaptive regression splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Veaux, Richard D.; Gordon, Arnold L.; Comiso, Joey C.; Bacherer, Nadine E.

    1993-01-01

    The role of seafloor topography in the spatial variations of the southern ocean sea ice cover as observed (every other day) by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer satellite in the years 1980, 1983, and 1984 is studied. Bottom bathymetry can affect sea ice surface characteristics because of the basically barotropic circulation of the ocean south of the Antarctic Circumpolar current. The main statistical tool used to quantify this effect is a local nonparametric regression model of sea ice concentration as a function of the depth and its first two derivatives in both meridional and zonal directions. First, we model the relationship of bathymetry to sea ice concentration in two sudy areas, one over the Maud Rise and the other over the Ross Sea shelf region. The multiple correlation coefficient is found to average 44% in the Maud Rise study area and 62% in the Ross Sea study area over the years 1980, 1983, and 1984. Second, a strategy of dividing the entire Antarctic region into an overlapping mosaic of small areas, or windows is considered. Keeping the windows small reduces the correlation of bathymetry with other factors such as wind, sea temperature, and distance to the continent. We find that although the form of the model varies from window to window due to the changing role of other relevant environmental variables, we are left with a spatially consistent ordering of the relative importance of the topographic predictors. For a set of three representative days in the Austral winter of 1980, the analysis shows that an average of 54% of the spatial variation in sea ice concentration over the entire ice cover can be attributed to topographic variables. The results thus support the hypothesis that there is a sea ice to bottom bathymetry link. However this should not undermine the considerable influence of wind, current, and temperature which affect the ice distribution directly and are partly responsible for the observed bathymetric effects.

  13. Improving adaptation to weaning: effect of intermittent suckling regimens on piglet feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics.

    PubMed

    Berkeveld, M; Langendijk, P; Soede, N M; Kemp, B; Taverne, M A M; Verheijden, J H M; Kuijken, N; Koets, A P

    2009-10-01

    Daily separation of sows and piglets during lactation, intermittent suckling (IS), improves feed intake and postweaning adaptation in piglets. The aim of the current study was to determine how, in piglets that have been subjected to IS, age at weaning and the duration of the preceding IS period contribute to postweaning adaptation through effects on feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from d 7. Litters were subjected to conventional weaning (CW) or to 1 of 3 IS regimens. In CW, litters (n = 29) had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 26, d 0 = farrowing). During IS, litters had access to the sow between 1600 and 0600 h. Litters in the IS treatments were subjected to IS 1) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 26 (IS19-7D, n = 33), 2) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS19-14D, n = 28), or 3) from d 26 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS26-7D, n = 33). The IS19-7D regimen resulted in a relative growth check within the first 2 d after weaning similar to CW litters (72 +/- 13 and 90 +/- 7%, respectively), but in a greater piglet growth (P = 0.014) and feed intake (P = 0.001) between d 2 and 7 postweaning. Moreover, IS19-7D was not associated with a (further) reduction in villus height as observed at d 2 postweaning in CW litters. In IS piglets weaned after an extended lactation (d 33), a markedly smaller weaning-associated relative growth check was observed shortly postweaning (11 +/- 18 and 32 +/- 19% for IS19-14D and IS26-7D litters, respectively). In these litters, feed intake and growth within the first 2 d after weaning were slightly greater when piglets were subjected to IS for 2 wk (IS19-14D) rather than for 1 wk (IS26-7D; P = 0.032 and P = 0.037 for feed intake and growth, respectively). Irrespective of duration of IS, weaning at d 33 with IS was not associated with a reduction in villus height. Irrespective of treatment, plasma citrulline concentrations were reduced at d 2 and 8 postweaning compared

  14. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological And Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Nalcakan, Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and continuous endurance training (CET) on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m) were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model. PMID:25713670

  15. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological And Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nalcakan, Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and continuous endurance training (CET) on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m) were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4–6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30–50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model. PMID:25713670

  16. Long-term effects of early life microbiota disturbance on adaptive immunity in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; Verwoolde, M B; Zhang, J; Smidt, H; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2016-07-01

    Due to an interplay between intestinal microbiota and immune system, disruption of intestinal microbiota composition during immune development may have consequences for immune responses later in life. The present study investigated the effects of antibiotic treatment in the first weeks of life on the specific antibody response later in life in chickens. Layer chicks received an antibiotic cocktail consisting of vancomycin, neomycin, metronidazole, and amphotericin-B by oral gavage every 12 h, and ampicillin and colistin in drinking water for the first week of life. After the first week of life, chicks received ampicillin and colistin in drinking water for two more weeks. Control birds received no antibiotic cocktail and plain drinking water. Fecal microbiota composition was determined during antibiotic treatment (d 8 and 22), two weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment (d 36), and at the end of the experimental period at d 175 using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene targeted microarray, the Chicken Intestinal Tract Chip (ChickChip). During antibiotic treatment fecal microbiota composition differed strongly between treatment groups. Fecal microbiota of antibiotic treated birds consisted mainly of Proteobacteria, and in particular E.coli, whereas fecal microbiota of control birds consisted mainly of Firmicutes, such as lactobacilli and clostridia. Two weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment fecal microbiota composition of antibiotic treated birds had recovered and was similar to that of control birds. On d 105, 12 weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment, chicks of both treatment groups received an intra-tracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/human serum albumin (HuSA) challenge. Antibody titers against LPS and HuSA were measured 10 days after administration of the challenge. While T cell independent antibody titers (LPS) were not affected by antibiotic treatment, antibiotic treated birds showed lower T cell dependent antibody titers (HuSA) compared with control

  17. Sociocultural Adaptation of U.S. Education Abroad Students in Greece: The Effects of Program Duration and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonakopoulou, Efi

    2013-01-01

    There is no evidence in the literature for direct comparison of the sociocultural adaptation brought by the participation of U.S. students in education abroad programs of different lengths. This study attempts to address this gap by comparing the sociocultural adaptation of education abroad students that results from their participation in both…

  18. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  19. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    No significant differences in performance on a self-adapted test or anxiety were found for college students (n=218) taking a self-adapted test who selected item difficulty without any prior information, inspected an item before selecting, or answered a typical item and received performance feedback. (SLD)

  20. Examining the Effect of Teachers' Adaptations of a Middle School Science Inquiry-Oriented Curriculum Unit on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogleman, Jay; McNeill, Katherine L.; Krajcik, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Reform based curriculum offer a promising avenue to support greater student achievement in science. Yet teachers frequently adapt innovative curriculum when they use them in their own classrooms. In this study, we examine how 19 teachers adapted an inquiry-oriented middle school science curriculum. Specifically, we investigate how teachers'…

  1. Local adaptation and effects of grazing among seedlings of two native California bunchgrass species: implications for restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptation to environmental factors may influence the germination and establishment of focal species in ecological restoration. Reciprocal transplants remain one of the best methods to detect local adaptation, but long-term studies are often not feasible. We conducted reciprocal transplants of the...

  2. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Crucian, Brian; Huff, Janice L.; Klein, Sabra L.; Morens, David; Murasko, Donna; Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This review is focused on sex and gender effects on immunological alterations occurring during space flight. Sex differences in immune function and the outcome of inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune diseases are well documented. The work of the Immunology Workgroup identified numerous reasons why there could be sex and/or gender differences observed during and after spaceflight, but thus far, there has been very little investigation in this area of research. In most cases, this is due to either a low total number of subjects or the minimal number of female flight crew members available for these studies. Thus, the availability of a sufficient number of female subjects to enable statistical analysis of the data has been a limiting factor. As the inclusion of female crew members has increased in the recent past, such studies should be possible in the future. It is very difficult to obtain immunologic and infectious data in small animals that can be usefully extrapolated to humans undergoing spaceflight. Thus, it is recommended by the Immunology Workgroup that a greater emphasis be placed on studying astronauts themselves, with a focus on long-term evaluations of specific, known infectious risks. PMID:25401940

  3. From cause-effect-analysis to adaptation to hydrological change: Impacts of environmental change on catchment hydrology and water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Helge

    2010-05-01

    The water cycle of catchments is influenced by different forcings and boundary conditions causing an observed or a possible future hydrological change. Regional climate is variable or even changing, land use is altered due socioeconomic drivers, and humans are taking actions directly in rivers or in the natural groundwater storage in order to regulate the water flows in a catchment. In those cases where hydrological change is observed, very often focus is set on single cause-effect-relationships, first. Sometimes, satisfying correlation is found, and a single cause-effect-relationship can be derived. But just as often correlations cannot sufficiently explain the hydrological change. Integrative approaches are required in order to consider that different changes occur simultaneously. However, interactions between the different causes of hydrological change are complex, and the differentiation of their individual share of hydrological change is difficult. This presentation points out that different strategies are required to investigate the effects of historical and future changes on catchment hydrological behaviour. These differences are due to limitations in data availability and model validity under changing environmental conditions. Examples on the value and the limitation of the analysis of individual cause-effect-relationships between environmental change (land use and climate change) and hydrological change are provided. Despite their limited consideration of the ‘complexity' of environmental change they can contribute to analyse the system. The problem of model validity for future environmental conditions is discussed, which can be reduced by applying multi-model-ensembles. Finally, it will be illustrated that scenario analysis is a valuable tool to quantify possible future hydrological change. Knowing reliable ‘numbers' of change is a prerequisite for a successful adaptation to changing environmental conditions, i.e. of the regional water management to

  4. Effectiveness of an Activity Tracker- and Internet-Based Adaptive Walking Program for Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Josée; Bennett, Wendy L; Jerome, Gerald J; Shah, Nina G; Lazo, Mariana; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Clark, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of physical activity are well documented, but scalable programs to promote activity are needed. Interventions that assign tailored and dynamically adjusting goals could effect significant increases in physical activity but have not yet been implemented at scale. Objective Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of an open access, Internet-based walking program that assigns daily step goals tailored to each participant. Methods A two-arm, pragmatic randomized controlled trial compared the intervention to no treatment. Participants were recruited from a workplace setting and randomized to a no-treatment control (n=133) or to treatment (n=132). Treatment participants received a free wireless activity tracker and enrolled in the walking program, Walkadoo. Assessments were fully automated: activity tracker recorded primary outcomes (steps) without intervention by the participant or investigators. The two arms were compared on change in steps per day from baseline to follow-up (after 6 weeks of treatment) using a two-tailed independent samples t test. Results Participants (N=265) were 66.0% (175/265) female with an average age of 39.9 years. Over half of the participants (142/265, 53.6%) were sedentary (<5000 steps/day) and 44.9% (119/265) were low to somewhat active (5000-9999 steps/day). The intervention group significantly increased their steps by 970 steps/day over control (P<.001), with treatment effects observed in sedentary (P=.04) and low-to-somewhat active (P=.004) participants alike. Conclusions The program is effective in increasing daily steps. Participants benefited from the program regardless of their initial activity level. A tailored, adaptive approach using wireless activity trackers is realistically implementable and scalable. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02229409, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02229409 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eiWCvBYe) PMID:26860434

  5. Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

  6. Effects of birth asphyxia on the modulation of pharyngeal provocation-induced adaptive reflexes.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ish K; Shubert, Theresa R; Sitaram, Swetha; Wei, Lai; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2015-10-15

    Perinatal asphyxia and aerodigestive symptoms are troublesome. We tested the hypothesis that pharyngeal provocation alters proximal and distal aerodigestive reflex coordination and kinetics in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), compared with healthy controls. Specifically, we characterized the sensory-motor properties of pharyngeal provocation-induced effects on upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) reflexes. Ten orally fed controls (32.0 ± 1.5 wk gestation) and 25 infants with HIE (38.1 ± 0.4 wk gestation) were evaluated at 39.7 ± 0.9 and 41.9 ± 0.6 wk postmenstrual age respectively. Pharyngo-esophageal reflexes evoked upon graded water stimuli were tested using water-perfusion micromanometry methods. Analysis included sensory-motor characteristics of pharyngeal reflexive swallow (PRS), pharyngo-UES-contractile reflex (PUCR), esophageal body-waveform kinetics, and pharyngo-LES-relaxation reflex (PLESRR). For controls vs. infants with HIE, median appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration (APGAR) scores were 6 vs. 1 at 1 min (P < 0.001) and 8 vs. 3 at 5 min (P < 0.001). Upon pharyngeal- stimulation, HIE infants (vs. controls) had frequent PUCR (P = 0.01); increased UES basal tone (P = 0.03); decreased LES basal tone (P = 0.002); increased pharyngeal-waveforms per stimulus (P = 0.03); decreased frequency of LES relaxation (P = 0.003); and decreased proximal esophageal contractile amplitude (P = 0.002), with prolonged proximal esophageal contractile duration (P = 0.008). Increased tonicity and reactivity of the UES and dysregulation of LES may provide the pathophysiological basis for pooling of secretions, improper bolus clearance, and aspiration risk. Deficits in function at the nuclear or supranuclear level involving glossopharyngeal and vagal neural networks and respiratory regulatory pathways involved with aerodigestive protection may be contributory. PMID:26272260

  7. Classification of ring artifacts for their effective removal using type adaptive correction schemes.

    PubMed

    Anas, Emran Mohammad Abu; Lee, Soo Yeol; Hasan, Kamrul

    2011-06-01

    High resolution tomographic images acquired with a digital X-ray detector are often degraded by the so called ring artifacts. In this paper, a detail analysis including the classification, detection and correction of these ring artifacts is presented. At first, a novel idea for classifying rings into two categories, namely type I and type II rings, is proposed based on their statistical characteristics. The defective detector elements and the dusty scintillator screens result in type I ring and the mis-calibrated detector elements lead to type II ring. Unlike conventional approaches, we emphasize here on the separate detection and correction schemes for each type of rings for their effective removal. For the detection of type I ring, the histogram of the responses of the detector elements is used and a modified fast image inpainting algorithm is adopted to correct the responses of the defective pixels. On the other hand, to detect the type II ring, first a simple filtering scheme is presented based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to smooth the sum curve derived form the type I ring corrected projection data. The difference between the sum curve and its smoothed version is then used to detect their positions. Then, to remove the constant bias suffered by the responses of the mis-calibrated detector elements with view angle, an estimated dc shift is subtracted from them. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using real micro-CT images and is compared with three recently reported algorithms. Simulation results demonstrate superior performance of the proposed technique as compared to the techniques reported in the literature. PMID:21513928

  8. Effects of Perspective Sentences in Social Stories[TM] on Improving the Adaptive Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Shingo; Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Yanagihara, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of adding perspective sentences to Social Stories[TM] on improving the adaptive behaviors of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and related disabilities. In Study 1, two students with ASD read two different types of Social Stories: Social Story without perspective sentences (SS without PS) and Social…

  9. Effects of a Peer-Delivered System of Least Prompts Intervention and Adapted Science Read-Alouds on Listening Comprehension for Participants with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Melissa E.; Browder, Diane M.; Jimenez, Bree A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a peer-delivered system of least prompts intervention and adapted grade-level science read-alouds on correct listening comprehension responses for participants with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention package included prompts in which selected text was read again. Participants directed the…

  10. Effect of the Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend Intervention on the Reading Achievement of Middle and High School Readers Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmer, Barbara R.; Schaffer, Laura; Therrien, William J.; Schirmer, Todd N.

    2016-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine if the Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (RAAC) repeated reading fluency intervention is effective in improving the reading achievement of deaf middle school and high school students. Participants included six middle school students and eight high school students. We found consistently good comprehension…

  11. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  12. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-10-15

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. PMID:26253462

  13. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus phages: effect of translation initiation efficiency on differential codon adaptation mediated by virulent and temperate lifestyles

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Chithambaram, Shivapriya

    2015-01-01

    Rapid biosynthesis is key to the success of bacteria and viruses. Highly expressed genes in bacteria exhibit a strong codon bias corresponding to the differential availability of tRNAs. However, a large clade of lambdoid coliphages exhibits relatively poor codon adaptation to the host translation machinery, in contrast to other coliphages that exhibit strong codon adaptation to the host. Three possible explanations were previously proposed but dismissed: (1) the phage-borne tRNA genes that reduce the dependence of phage translation on host tRNAs, (2) lack of time needed for evolving codon adaptation due to recent host switching, and (3) strong strand asymmetry with biased mutation disrupting codon adaptation. Here, we examined the possibility that phages with relatively poor codon adaptation have poor translation initiation which would weaken the selection on codon adaptation. We measured translation initiation by: (1) the strength and position of the Shine–Dalgarno (SD) sequence, and (2) the stability of the secondary structure of sequences flanking the SD and start codon known to affect accessibility of the SD sequence and start codon. Phage genes with strong codon adaptation had significantly stronger SD sequences than those with poor codon adaptation. The former also had significantly weaker secondary structure in sequences flanking the SD sequence and start codon than the latter. Thus, lambdoid phages do not exhibit strong codon adaptation because they have relatively inefficient translation initiation and would benefit little from increased elongation efficiency. We also provided evidence suggesting that phage lifestyle (virulent versus temperate) affected selection intensity on the efficiency of translation initiation and elongation. PMID:25614589

  14. Effect of the Keck telescope`s segmented primary on the performance on the Keck adaptive optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.

    1997-06-01

    The 349 degree of freedom Keck adaptive optics system will be mapped on to the 36 segment Keck primary mirror. Each telescope segment is independently controlled in piston and tilt by an active control system and each segment also has its own set of aberrations. This presents a unique set of problems for the Keck adaptive optics system, not encountered with continuous primaries. To a certain extent the low order segment aberrations, beginning with focus, can be corrected statically by the adaptive optic system. However, the discontinuous surface at the segment edges present special problems in sensing and correcting wavefront with laser guide stars or natural guide stars.

  15. Effects of rigid or adaptive confinement on colloidal self-assembly. Fixed vs. fluctuating number of confined particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PÈ©kalski, J.; Almarza, N. G.; Ciach, A.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of confinement on colloidal self-assembly in the case of fixed number of confined particles are studied in the one dimensional lattice model solved exactly in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) in Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014903 (2015)]. The model considers a pair interaction defined by a short-range attraction plus a longer-range repulsion. We consider thermodynamic states corresponding to self-assembly into clusters. Both fixed and adaptive boundaries are studied. For fixed boundaries, there are particular states in which, for equal average densities, the number of clusters in the GCE is larger than in the canonical ensemble. The dependence of pressure on density has a different form when the system size changes with fixed number of particles and when the number of particles changes with fixed size of the system. In the former case, the pressure has a nonmonotonic dependence on the system size. The anomalous increase of pressure for expanding system is accompanied by formation of a larger number of smaller clusters. In the case of elastic confining surfaces, we observe a bistability, i.e., two significantly different system sizes occur with almost the same probability. The mechanism of the bistability in the closed system is different to that of the case of permeable walls, where the two equilibrium system sizes correspond to a different number of particles.

  16. Adaptation of Slow Myofibers: The Effect of Sustained BDNF Treatment of Extraocular Muscles in Infant Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Christy L.; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M.; Mustari, Michael J.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated promising new treatment options for strabismus. Neurotrophic factors have emerged as a potential treatment for oculomotor disorders because of diverse roles in signaling to muscles and motor neurons. Unilateral treatment with sustained release brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to a single lateral rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop in correlation with extraocular muscle (EOM) changes during the critical period for development of binocularity. Methods. The lateral rectus muscles of one eye in two infant macaques were treated with sustained delivery of BDNF for 3 months. Eye alignment was assessed using standard photographic methods. Muscle specimens were analyzed to examine the effects of BDNF on the density, morphology, and size of neuromuscular junctions, as well as myofiber size. Counts were compared to age-matched controls. Results. No change in eye alignment occurred with BDNF treatment. Compared to control muscle, neuromuscular junctions on myofibers expressing slow myosins had a larger area. Myofibers expressing slow myosin had larger diameters, and the percentage of myofibers expressing slow myosins increased in the proximal end of the muscle. Expression of BDNF was examined in control EOM, and observed to have strongest immunoreactivity outside the endplate zone. Conclusions. We hypothesize that the oculomotor system adapted to sustained BDNF treatment to preserve normal alignment. Our results suggest that BDNF treatment preferentially altered myofibers expressing slow myosins. This implicates BDNF signaling as influencing the slow twitch properties of EOM. PMID:26030102

  17. Adaptive response of trivial activated sludge towards toxic effect of oNP, PCP and combination oNP/PCP

    SciTech Connect

    Topalova, Y.; Dimkov, R. . Faculty of Biology); Kozuharov, D. )

    1999-01-01

    The reaction of the real aerobic activated sludge taken from the Sofia Waste Water Treatment Plant (SWWTP) and treated with the xenobiotics pentachlorphenol (PCP) (0.16 mMol), ortho-nitrophenol (oNP) (0.58 mMol) and with a combination of PCP (0.08 mMol), oNP (0.29 mMol) has been investigated in a model detoxification process. The adaptive changes are studied in the microbial structure level and at the level of changes in the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the macro-organisms in the activated sludge (consuments of 1 and 2 level). The presence of several different taxonomic groups has been shown by other researchers to be essential in the detoxification process. The quantitative changes in these taxonomic and physiological groups of micro-organisms are studied. The number of micro-organisms from Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and the bacteria from the xenobiotic-catabolizing complex considerably increased with the individual and the combined effect of the xenobiotics oNP, PCP and oNP PCP. At the same time the toxic shock leads to a remarkable reduction of NH[sub 3] releasing, nitrifying bacteria and those from family Enterobacteriaceae. It is ascertained that the number of Ciliata, Flagellata apochromata, Oligochaeta and Rotatoria is strongly decreased in the series of samples treated with xenobiotics. The leading role of micro-organisms in the real detoxification of hazardous pollutants was experimentally confirmed by research.

  18. Effects of rigid or adaptive confinement on colloidal self-assembly. Fixed vs. fluctuating number of confined particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A.; Almarza, N. G.

    2015-05-28

    The effects of confinement on colloidal self-assembly in the case of fixed number of confined particles are studied in the one dimensional lattice model solved exactly in the grand canonical ensemble (GCE) in Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 014903 (2015)]. The model considers a pair interaction defined by a short-range attraction plus a longer-range repulsion. We consider thermodynamic states corresponding to self-assembly into clusters. Both fixed and adaptive boundaries are studied. For fixed boundaries, there are particular states in which, for equal average densities, the number of clusters in the GCE is larger than in the canonical ensemble. The dependence of pressure on density has a different form when the system size changes with fixed number of particles and when the number of particles changes with fixed size of the system. In the former case, the pressure has a nonmonotonic dependence on the system size. The anomalous increase of pressure for expanding system is accompanied by formation of a larger number of smaller clusters. In the case of elastic confining surfaces, we observe a bistability, i.e., two significantly different system sizes occur with almost the same probability. The mechanism of the bistability in the closed system is different to that of the case of permeable walls, where the two equilibrium system sizes correspond to a different number of particles.

  19. Effects of mandibular advancement surgery on the temporomandibular joint and muscular and articular adaptive changes-a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bermell-Baviera, A; Bellot-Arcís, C; Montiel-Company, J M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the anatomical changes to the condyle and articular disc following mandibular advancement surgery, the adaptation of the masticatory muscles, and the improvement or worsening of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients with pre-existing disorders and those who developed them following surgery. Four databases were searched systematically: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Of the 544 articles initially selected, 219 were duplicates and a further 165 were excluded on the basis of their titles and abstracts. On reading the full text, 89 were excluded because they were of no interest and 43 because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 28 articles, six were excluded because they were considered of low quality and 22 articles were reviewed. Mandibular advancement surgery with condyle repositioning is associated with less TMD. Condylar resorption is a physiological process with a multifactorial aetiology. It is accelerated following mandibular advancement surgery but is not a contraindication to this procedure. Despite the large number of studies on the effects of mandibular advancement surgery on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), this surgery can neither be said to improve nor to worsen TMJ health. PMID:26644217

  20. Effect of heterologous expression of molecular chaperone DnaK from Tetragenococcus halophilus on salinity adaptation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Nakayama, Jiro; Fukuda, Daisuke; Sonezaki, Shino; Watanabe, Maki; Tosukhowong, Amonlaya; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Molecular chaperone DnaK of halophilic Tetragenococcus halophilus JCM5888 was characterized under salinity conditions both in vitro and in vivo. The dnaK gene was cloned into an expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. The DnaK protein obtained from the recombinant E. coli showed a significantly higher refolding activity of denatured lactate dehydrogenase than that from non-halophilic Lactococcus lactis under NaCl concentrations higher than 1 M. E. coli without the overexpression of DnaK exhibited a growth profile with a prolonged lag phase and suppressed maximum cell density in Luria-Bertani medium containing 5% (0.86 M) NaCl. On the contrary, the overexpression of T. halophilus DnaK greatly shortened this prolonged lag phase with no effect on maximum growth, while that of L. lactis DnaK decreased maximum growth. The amount of protein aggregates was increased by salt stress in the E. coli cells, while this aggregation was greatly suppressed by the overexpression of T, halophilus DnaK. These results suggest that heterologous overexpression of T. halophilus DnaK, via its chaperone activity, promotes salinity adaptation of E. coli. PMID:16233497

  1. Studies on effects of feedback delay on the convergence performance of adaptive time-domain equalizers for fiber dispersive channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qun; Xu, Bo; Qiu, Kun

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive time-domain equalizer (TDE) is an important module for digital optical coherent receivers. From an implementation perspective, we analyze and compare in detail the effects of error signal feedback delay on the convergence performance of TDE using either least-mean square (LMS) or constant modulus algorithm (CMA). For this purpose, a simplified theoretical model is proposed based on which iterative equations on the mean value and the variance of the tap coefficient are derived with or without error signal feedback delay for both LMS- and CMA-based methods for the first time. The analytical results show that decreased step size has to be used for TDE to converge and a slower convergence speed cannot be avoided as the feedback delay increases. Compared with the data-aided LMS-based method, the CMA-based method has a slower convergence speed and larger variation after convergence. Similar results are confirmed using numerical simulations for fiber dispersive channels. As the step size increases, a feedback delay of 20 clock cycles might cause the TDE to diverge. Compared with the CMA-based method, the LMS-based method has a higher tolerance on the feedback delay and allows a larger step size for a faster convergence speed.

  2. Deep turbulence effects compensation experiments with a cascaded adaptive optics system using a 3.63 m telescope.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Mikhail; Riker, Jim; Carhart, Gary; Gudimetla, V S Rao; Beresnev, Leonid; Weyrauch, Thomas; Roberts, Lewis C

    2009-01-01

    Compensation of extended (deep) turbulence effects is one of the most challenging problems in adaptive optics (AO). In the AO approach described, the deep turbulence wave propagation regime was achieved by imaging stars at low elevation angles when image quality improvement with conventional AO was poor. These experiments were conducted at the U.S. Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing Site (AMOS) by using the 3.63 m telescope located on Haleakala, Maui. To enhance compensation performance we used a cascaded AO system composed of a conventional AO system based on a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror with 941 actuators, and an AO system based on stochastic parallel gradient descent optimization with four deformable mirrors (75 control channels). This first-time field demonstration of a cascaded AO system achieved considerably improved performance of wavefront phase aberration compensation. Image quality was improved in a repeatable way in the presence of stressing atmospheric conditions obtained by using stars at elevation angles as low as 15 degrees. PMID:19107154

  3. [Bystander effect development in human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to adaptive dose of X-radiation].

    PubMed

    Ermakov, A V; Kon'kova, M S; Kostiuk, S V; Smirnova, T D; Kameneva, L V; Veĭko, R V; Kubasova, I Iu; Liubchenko, L N; Veĭko, N N

    2010-01-01

    Transposition and mutual approaching of pericentromeric loci 1q12 of homological chromosomes from the nuclear membrane towards the nuclear centre as well as activation of the chromosomal nucleolus-forming regions (NFR) are observed in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as an initial stages of the adaptive response (AR) after exposure to low doses of X-radiation (10 cGy). All these reactions are also induced after addition of cultivation medium from irradiated cells to intact bystander-cells and this phenomenon called bystander effect (BE). Recently the same AR and BE induction results were obtained for human G0-lymphocytes. All these data indicate the existence of universal reaction of homological chromosome loci transposition which was revealed during AR development in differentiated (lymphocytes) and non-differentiated (hMSCs) and also it shows possibility of radiational BE development in suspension and monolayer cell cultures upon addition of stress-signalization factors in incubation medium. We suppose that these factors are extracellular genome DNA fragments apoptotic cells. PMID:20297680

  4. Two-dimensional geomagnetic forward modeling using adaptive finite element method and investigation of the topographic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeshvaghani, Mehdi Shahmirzae; Darijani, Mehrdad

    2014-06-01

    Forward modeling approach is a major concept in geophysical exploration and also a key factor in the development of inversion algorithms. Finite element method for two-dimensional (2-D) geomagnetic forward modeling is based on numerical solution of the Laplace equation. In this paper we present a fast and accurate adaptive finite element algorithm for forward modeling of 2-D geomagnetic structures. Our method is stable and is reliable to recover 2-D magnetization distribution with complex shapes. It uses an unstructured triangular grid which allows modeling the complex geometry with the presence of topography. The Galerkin's method is used to derive the systems of equations. Then, the conjugate gradient solver with incomplete LU decomposition as the pre-conditioner is used to solve the system of equations. To ensure numerical accuracy, iterative mesh refinement is guided by a posteriori error estimator. We validate our algorithm in simple geometry by analytical technique. The tests on synthetic data illustrate a good performance of the method in mapping the complex geometry of the magnetic sources with topography. The magnetic responses of the model have proved to be different in the presence of topography. Therefore, it is highly recommended to consider the effects of topography on interpretation. Finally, we applied numerical FEM algorithm to real data set providing fine recovery model of the shallow high mineralized crustal setting of Soltanieh region, Iran.

  5. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it real pilot prevention program: linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Booth, Jaime M; Ayers, Stephanie L; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2014-10-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin'it REAL (Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a binational team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and posttest survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin'it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin'it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use; however, the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective, but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin'it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted. PMID:23877541

  6. Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it REAL pilot prevention program: Linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Booth, Jaime M.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Nuño-Gutierrez, Bertha L.; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the short-term effects of a pilot study of keepin' it REAL(Manténte REAL) conducted in central Mexico by a bi-national team of investigators. This middle school-based model program for preventing substance use was adapted for Mexico linguistically but not culturally. Two Guadalajara public middle schools were recruited and randomly assigned to either implement the prevention program or serve as a control site. The program was implemented in the treatment site by the students' regular teachers, who were trained by the research team. Seventh graders in ten classrooms in the treatment and control schools (N = 432) completed a pretest and post-test survey in Spanish similar to the survey utilized in the original efficacy trial of keepin' it REAL in the US. T-tests and OLS regressions were conducted to determine the effects of the intervention on substance use outcomes. Differences between treatment and control groups in frequency of use of alcohol and tobacco, the two substances of choice in this sample, were significant and in the desired direction. Differences in amount of use were also in the preferred direction but were not significant for alcohol and only marginally significant for tobacco. When the sample was split by gender, statistically significant treatment effects remained for females but were not observed among males. Effects of the linguistically adapted version of keepin' it REAL appears to be driven by the change in female use, however the difference in male and female outcomes was not statistically significant. Implications for cultural adaptation and prevention in Mexico are discussed from a communication competency perspective. The promising results of the pilot study suggest that the linguistic adaptation was effective but that a comprehensive cultural adaptation of keepin' it REAL in partnership with Mexican investigators and communities may be warranted. PMID:23877541

  7. Adaptively Forward Modelling the Spatial Magnetic Effects Due to a Magnetized Structure by Tesseroids in Spherical Coordinate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jinsong; Chen, Chao

    2015-04-01

    GLQI when nodes are ones. The RP method shows a better accuracy when the computing point nears the source located in the low latitude but worse in the high latitude where the RP fails to depict the actual geometric shape of the tesseroid. Because the error decays most quickly as the distance between the source and the computing point increasing, the 3D GLQI with higher than first-order Gaussian nodes is most efficiently combined with the reasonable subdivision technique. Investigation of computational efficiency indicates that, in practical applications, combination of different methods and reasonable choices for the number of subdivision and the Gaussian nodes of the GLQI can produce the most accurate results in an acceptable computational time. The calculated magnetic effects of the global lithospheric magnetization model show that there are little differences between the results at the satellite altitude by the MD method and by the 3D GLQI method but very large differences at the low altitude, which means that the MD method will introduce large errors and become worse and worse as the altitude decreasing. However, the corresponding computation is very time-consuming, especially when the geometric size of the source is large or the DSO is short. Because the error decays most quickly as the DSO increasing, the 3D GLQI with higher than first-order Gaussian nodes is most efficiently combined with the reasonable subdivision technique. Therefore, in order to reduce the computing time while maintaining the desired accuracy, an adaptive forward modeling scheme that consists of using a fixed Gaussian order and recursively subdivision is employed. As a key point in this approach, the relationships between the accuracy of the magnetic effects and the size-to-DSO ratio are focused and investigated. Numerical test shows that this adaptive approach improves the computational efficiency significantly.

  8. Effects of formal support on mothers' adaptation to the hospital-to-home transition of high-risk infants: the benefits and costs of helping.

    PubMed

    Affleck, G; Tennen, H; Rowe, J; Roscher, B; Walker, L

    1989-04-01

    94 mothers were randomly assigned to a control group or to a group who received a formal support program designed to aid their adaptation to the transition from hospital to home care of high-risk infants. Mothers' predischarge need for support and the severity of infants' predischarge medical problems moderated program effects assessed 6 months after NICU discharge. Positive effects of the program on mothers' sense of competence, perceived control, and responsiveness were evident for mothers who had needed the most support. But at low levels of need for support, participation in the program had negative effects on these outcomes. A similar pattern was found for the effects of the program on mothers' positive mood as a function of the severity of infants' medical problems. Secondary findings suggest why some mothers may benefit from formal support after NICU discharge and others may experience at least temporary disruptions in their adaptation from such support. PMID:2494024

  9. Do you really represent my task? Sequential adaptation effects to unexpected events support referential coding for the joint Simon effect.

    PubMed

    Klempova, Bibiana; Liepelt, Roman

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings suggest that a Simon effect (SE) can be induced in Individual go/nogo tasks when responding next to an event-producing object salient enough to provide a reference for the spatial coding of one's own action. However, there is skepticism against referential coding for the joint Simon effect (JSE) by proponents of task co-representation. In the present study, we tested assumptions of task co-representation and referential coding by introducing unexpected double response events in a joint go/nogo and a joint independent go/nogo task. In Experiment 1b, we tested if task representations are functionally similar in joint and standard Simon tasks. In Experiment 2, we tested sequential updating of task co-representation after unexpected single response events in the joint independent go/nogo task. Results showed increased JSEs following unexpected events in the joint go/nogo and joint independent go/nogo task (Experiment 1a). While the former finding is in line with the assumptions made by both accounts (task co-representation and referential coding), the latter finding supports referential coding. In contrast to Experiment 1a, we found a decreased SE after unexpected events in the standard Simon task (Experiment 1b), providing evidence against the functional equivalence assumption between joint and two-choice Simon tasks of the task co-representation account. Finally, we found an increased JSE also following unexpected single response events (Experiment 2), ruling out that the findings of the joint independent go/nogo task in Experiment 1a were due to a re-conceptualization of the task situation. In conclusion, our findings support referential coding also for the joint Simon effect. PMID:25833374

  10. Acute hemodynamic effects of nebulized iloprost via the I-neb Adaptive Aerosol Delivery system in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Manuel J.; Ghofrani, Hossein A.; Voswinckel, Robert; Seeger, Werner; Schulz, Richard; Reichenberger, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Inhaled iloprost has proven to be an effective therapy in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the acute hemodynamic effect of nebulized iloprost delivered via the I-neb Adaptive Aerosol Delivery (AAD) system remains unclear and needs to be assessed. In this study, 126 patients with PH were classified according to current guidelines (59, 34, 29, and 4 patients in groups 1/1′, 3, 4, and 5, respectively; 20 patients had idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension [iPAH]), were randomly assigned to inhale iloprost 2.5 g (n = 67) or 5.0 g (n = 59) via the I-neb AAD system, and were assessed by right heart catheterization. In seven patients with iPAH, iloprost plasma levels were measured. The two iloprost doses caused decreases from baseline in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR; 2.5 g: –14.7%; 5.0 g: –15.6%) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP; 2.5 g: –11.0%; 5.0 g: –10.1%) while cardiac index (CI) increased (2.5 g: +6.5%; 5.0 g: +6.4%). The subset with iPAH also showed decreases from baseline in PVR and mPAP and an increase in CI. Peak iloprost plasma levels showed no significant difference after inhalation of 2.5 g or 5.0 g iloprost (95.5 pg/mL vs. 73.0 pg/mL; P = 0.06). In summary, nebulized iloprost delivered via the I-neb AAD system reduced mPAP and PVR and increased CI from baseline in a heterogeneous group of patients with PH and in the subset with iPAH. In patients with iPAH, inhalation of 2.5 g or 5.0 g iloprost resulted in broadly similar peak iloprost plasma levels. PMID:25992279

  11. Effects of additional external weight on posture and movement adaptations to fatigue induced by a repetitive pointing task.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Hiram; Emery, Kim; Côté, Julie N

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue and additional weight are risk factors of injuries by falls. Posture and trunk movement changes occur with fatigue induced by a repetitive pointing task. These changes facilitate arm movement but they may also jeopardize postural stability. When equilibrium is challenged, e.g. with additional weight, strategies that represent less postural threat could develop with fatigue. Nineteen participants performed two sessions (without, with 20% body weight added load (Load)) of a repetitive pointing task until shoulder fatigue (8 on Borg CR-10). There was no difference in time to fatigue between the two sessions. Anterior deltoid, biceps and upper trapezius muscle activity significantly increased with fatigue. Peak medial-lateral center-of-pressure (CoP) velocity and the mean vertical position of the reaching shoulder were both significantly lower with fatigue, though these fatigue-induced decreases were smaller with the added load. Reach-to-reach variability in CoP displacement significantly increased with fatigue, and more so with the added load. With fatigue, significant contralateral shifts occurred at the reaching shoulder and elbow joints, and ranges of motion (RoM) significantly increased at most joints but not at the center-of-mass (CoM). Conversely, Load main effects were mostly seen in CoM dependent measures. Significantly increased variability in mean and range values was seen with fatigue and Load in most of our kinematic and CoP dependent measures, with the most notable effects on CoM dependent measures. Findings suggest that the postural control system adapts to combined perturbing factors of fatigue and added load, likely by using parallel control mechanisms. PMID:24786737

  12. Investigation on the effect of MR elastomer based adaptive vibration absorbers on the radiated sound from circular elastic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmatian, M.; Sedaghati, R.

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of using magnetorheological elastomer (MRE)-based adaptive tuned vibration absorbers (ATVA) on the sound transmission in an elastic plate. Sound transmission loss (STL) of an elastic circular thin plate is analytically studied. The plate is excited by a plane acoustic wave as an incident sound and the displacement of the plate is calculated using corresponding mode shapes of the system for clamped boundary condition. Rayleigh integral approach is used to express the transmitted sound pressure in terms of the plate's displacement modal amplitude. In order to increase sound transmission loss of the plate, the MRE-based ATVA is considered. The basic idea is to be able to change the stiffness of the ATVA by varying magnetic field in order to reduce the transmitted acoustic energy of the host structure in a wide frequency range. Here, a MRE-based ATVA under the shear mode consisting of an oscillator mass, magnetic conductor, coils and MRE is investigated. In order to predict the viscoelastic characteristics of the field-dependent MRE based on the applied magnetic field, the double pole model is used. Finally, MRE-based ATVAs are integrated with the plate to absorb the plate energy with the aim of decreasing the transmitted sound power. Results show that plate with integrated MRE-based ATVAs suppresses the axisymmetric vibration of the plate and thus considerably improves the STL. Parametric studies on the influence of the position of MRE-based ATVAs and the effects of applied current on their performance are also presented.

  13. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  14. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  15. Adaptive homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kelvin J A

    2016-06-01

    Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity. These transient adaptations typically occur in response to relatively mild changes in conditions, to programs of exercise training, or to sub-toxic, non-damaging levels of chemical agents; thus, the terms hormesis, heterostasis, and allostasis are not accurate descriptors. Therefore, an operational adjustment to our understanding of homeostasis suggests that the modified term, Adaptive Homeostasis, may be useful especially in studies of stress, toxicology, disease, and aging. Adaptive Homeostasis may be defined as follows: 'The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events.' PMID:27112802

  16. Adaptation of the phase of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) and effects on the oculomotor neural integrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegemann, S.; Shelhamer, M.; Kramer, P. D.; Zee, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    The phase of the translational linear VOR (LVOR) can be adaptively modified by exposure to a visual-vestibular mismatch. We extend here our earlier work on LVOR phase adaptation, and discuss the role of the oculomotor neural integrator. Ten subjects were oscillated laterally at 0.5 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration, while sitting upright on a linear sled. LVOR was assessed before and after adaptation with subjects tracking the remembered location of a target at 1 m in the dark. Phase and gain were measured by fitting sine waves to the desaccaded eye movements, and comparing sled and eye position. To adapt LVOR phase, the subject viewed a computer-generated stereoscopic visual display, at a virtual distance of 1 m, that moved so as to require either a phase lead or a phase lag of 53 deg. Adaptation lasted 20 min, during which subjects were oscillated at 0.5 Hz/0.3 g. Four of five subjects produced an adaptive change in the lag condition (range 4-45 deg), and each of five produced a change in the lead condition (range 19-56 deg), as requested. Changes in drift on eccentric gaze suggest that the oculomotor velocity-to-position integrator may be involved in the phase changes.

  17. Reducing the Social Gradient in Uptake of the NHS Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme Using a Narrative-Based Information Leaflet: A Cluster-Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Lesley M; von Wagner, Christian; Atkin, Wendy; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Halloran, Stephen P; Handley, Graham; Logan, Richard F; Rainbow, Sandra; Smith, Steve; Snowball, Julia; Thomas, Mary C; Smith, Samuel G; Vart, Gemma; Howe, Rosemary; Counsell, Nicholas; Hackshaw, Allan; Morris, Stephen; Duffy, Stephen W; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To test the effectiveness of adding a narrative leaflet to the current information material delivered by the NHS English colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme on reducing socioeconomic inequalities in uptake. Participants. 150,417 adults (59-74 years) routinely invited to complete the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood test (gFOBt) in March 2013. Design. A cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN74121020) to compare uptake between two arms. The control arm received the standard NHS CRC screening information material (SI) and the intervention arm received the standard information plus a supplementary narrative leaflet, which had previously been shown to increase screening intentions (SI + N). Between group comparisons were made for uptake overall and across socioeconomic status (SES). Results. Uptake was 57.7% and did not differ significantly between the two trial arms (SI: 58.5%; SI + N: 56.7%; odds ratio = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.81-1.06; p = 0.27). There was no interaction between group and SES quintile (p = 0.44). Conclusions. Adding a narrative leaflet to existing information materials does not reduce the SES gradient in uptake. Despite the benefits of using a pragmatic trial design, the need to add to, rather than replace, existing information may have limited the true value of an evidence-based intervention on behaviour. PMID:27069473

  18. Reducing the Social Gradient in Uptake of the NHS Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme Using a Narrative-Based Information Leaflet: A Cluster-Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Lesley M.; von Wagner, Christian; Atkin, Wendy; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Halloran, Stephen P.; Handley, Graham; Logan, Richard F.; Rainbow, Sandra; Smith, Steve; Snowball, Julia; Thomas, Mary C.; Smith, Samuel G.; Vart, Gemma; Howe, Rosemary; Counsell, Nicholas; Hackshaw, Allan; Morris, Stephen; Duffy, Stephen W.; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To test the effectiveness of adding a narrative leaflet to the current information material delivered by the NHS English colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme on reducing socioeconomic inequalities in uptake. Participants. 150,417 adults (59–74 years) routinely invited to complete the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood test (gFOBt) in March 2013. Design. A cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN74121020) to compare uptake between two arms. The control arm received the standard NHS CRC screening information material (SI) and the intervention arm received the standard information plus a supplementary narrative leaflet, which had previously been shown to increase screening intentions (SI + N). Between group comparisons were made for uptake overall and across socioeconomic status (SES). Results. Uptake was 57.7% and did not differ significantly between the two trial arms (SI: 58.5%; SI + N: 56.7%; odds ratio = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.81–1.06; p = 0.27). There was no interaction between group and SES quintile (p = 0.44). Conclusions. Adding a narrative leaflet to existing information materials does not reduce the SES gradient in uptake. Despite the benefits of using a pragmatic trial design, the need to add to, rather than replace, existing information may have limited the true value of an evidence-based intervention on behaviour. PMID:27069473

  19. Adaptation through proportion.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Liyang; Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is a ubiquitous feature in biological sensory and signaling networks. It has been suggested that adaptive systems may follow certain simple design principles across diverse organisms, cells and pathways. One class of networks that can achieve adaptation utilizes an incoherent feedforward control, in which two parallel signaling branches exert opposite but proportional effects on the output at steady state. In this paper, we generalize this adaptation mechanism by establishing a steady-state proportionality relationship among a subset of nodes in a network. Adaptation can be achieved by using any two nodes in the sub-network to respectively regulate the output node positively and negatively. We focus on enzyme networks and first identify basic regulation motifs consisting of two and three nodes that can be used to build small networks with proportional relationships. Larger proportional networks can then be constructed modularly similar to LEGOs. Our method provides a general framework to construct and analyze a class of proportional and/or adaptation networks with arbitrary size, flexibility and versatile functional features. PMID:27526863

  20. The effects of density dependence and immigration on local adaptation and niche evolution in a black-hole sink environment.

    PubMed

    Gomulkiewicz, R; Holt, R D; Barfield, M

    1999-06-01

    We examine the effects of density dependence and immigration on local adaptation in a "black-hole sink" habitat, i.e., a habitat in which isolated populations of a species would tend to extinction but where a population is demographically maintained by recurrent one-way migration from a separate source habitat in which the species persists. Using a diploid, one-locus model of a discrete-generation sink population maintained by immigration from a fixed source population, we show that a locally favored allele will spread when rare in the sink if the absolute fitness (or, in some cases, the geometric-mean absolute fitness) of heterozygotes with the favored allele is above one in the sink habitat. With density dependence, the criterion for spread can depend on the rate of immigration, because immigration affects local densities and, hence, absolute fitness. Given the successful establishment of a locally favored allele, it will be maintained by a migration-selection balance and the resulting polymorphic population will be sustained deterministically with either stable or unstable dynamics. The densities of stable polymorphic populations tend to exceed densities that would be maintained in the absence of the favored allele. With strong density regulation, spread of the favored allele may destabilize population dynamics. Our analyses show that polymorphic populations which form subsequent to the establishment of favorable alleles have the capacity to persist deterministically without immigration. Finally, we examined the probabilistic rate at which new favored alleles arise and become established in a sink population. Our results suggest that favored alleles are established most readily at intermediate levels of immigration. PMID:10366553

  1. Cellular Effects and Epistasis among Three Determinants of Adaptation in Experimental Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿†

    PubMed Central

    Parreiras, Lucas S.; Kohn, Linda M.; Anderson, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Epistatic interactions in which the phenotypic effect of an allele is conditional on its genetic background have been shown to play a central part in various evolutionary processes. In a previous study (J. B. Anderson et al., Curr. Biol. 20:1383-1388, 2010; J. R. Dettman, C. Sirjusingh, L. M. Kohn, and J. B. Anderson, Nature 447:585-588, 2007), beginning with a common ancestor, we identified three determinants of fitness as mutant alleles (each designated with the letter “e”) that arose in replicate Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations propagated in two different environments, a low-glucose and a high-salt environment. In a low-glucose environment, MDS3e and MKT1e interacted positively to confer a fitness advantage. Also, PMA1e from a high-salt environment interacted negatively with MKT1e in a low-glucose environment, an example of a Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility that confers reproductive isolation. Here we showed that the negative interaction between PMA1e and MKT1e is mediated by alterations in intracellular pH, while the positive interaction between MDS3e and MKT1e is mediated by changes in gene expression affecting glucose transporter genes. We specifically addressed the evolutionary significance of the positive interaction by showing that the presence of the MDS3 mutation is a necessary condition for the spread and fixation of the new mutations at the identical site in MKT1. The expected mutations in MKT1 rose to high frequencies in two of three experimental populations carrying MDS3e but not in any of three populations carrying the ancestral allele. These data show how positive and negative epistasis can contribute to adaptation and reproductive isolation. PMID:21856932

  2. Revealing the brain's adaptability and the transcranial direct current stimulation facilitating effect in inhibitory control by multiscale entropy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Kuang; Lo, Men-Tzung; Yang, Albert C; Peng, Chung-Kang; Cheng, Shih-Kuen; Tseng, Philip; Juan, Chi-Hung

    2014-04-15

    The abilities to inhibit impulses and withdraw certain responses are critical for human's survival in a fast-changing environment. These processes happen fast, in a complex manner, and sometimes are difficult to capture with fMRI or mean electrophysiological brain signal alone. Therefore, an alternative measure that can reveal the efficiency of the neural mechanism across multiple timescales is needed for the investigation of these brain functions. The present study employs a new approach to analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) signal: the multiscale entropy (MSE), which groups data points with different timescales to reveal any occurrence of repeated patterns, in order to theoretically quantify the complexity (indicating adaptability and efficiency) of neural systems during the process of inhibitory control. From this MSE perspective, EEG signals of successful stop trials are more complex and information rich than that of unsuccessful stop trials. We further applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), with anodal electrode over presupplementary motor area (preSMA), to test the relationship between behavioral modification with the complexity of EEG signals. We found that tDCS can further increase the EEG complexity of the frontal lobe. Furthermore, the MSE pattern was found to be different between high and low performers (divided by their stop-signal reaction time), where the high-performing group had higher complexity in smaller scales and less complexity in larger scales in comparison to the low-performing group. In addition, this between-group MSE difference was found to interact with the anodal tDCS, where the increase of MSE in low performers benefitted more from the anodal tDCS. Together, the current study demonstrates that participants who suffer from poor inhibitory control can efficiently improve their performance with 10min of electrical stimulation, and such cognitive improvement can be effectively traced back to the complexity within the

  3. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  4. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  5. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  6. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  7. Effect of a large gaming neighborhood and a strategy adaptation neighborhood for bolstering network reciprocity in a prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    In 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma (PD) games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, leading to a cooperative equilibrium. In this paper, we explain how gaming neighborhoods and strategy-adaptation neighborhoods affect network reciprocity independently in spatial PD games. We explore an appropriate range of strategy adaptation neighborhoods as opposed to the conventional method of making the gaming and strategy adaptation neighborhoods coincide to enhance the level of cooperation. In cases of expanding gaming neighborhoods, network reciprocity falls to a low level relative to the conventional setting. In the discussion below, which is based on the results of our simulation, we explore how these enhancements come about. Essentially, varying the range of the neighborhoods influences how cooperative clusters form and expand in the evolutionary process.

  8. Differentiation of reproductive and competitive ability in the invaded range of Senecio inaequidens: the role of genetic Allee effects, adaptive and nonadaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Lachmuth, Susanne; Durka, Walter; Schurr, Frank M

    2011-10-01

    Genetic differentiation in the competitive and reproductive ability of invading populations can result from genetic Allee effects or r/K selection at the local or range-wide scale. However, the neutral relatedness of populations may either mask or falsely suggest adaptation and genetic Allee effects. In a common-garden experiment, we investigated the competitive and reproductive ability of invasive Senecio inaequidens populations that vary in neutral genetic diversity, population age and field vegetation cover. To account for population relatedness, we analysed the experimental results with 'animal models' adopted from quantitative genetics. Consistent with adaptive r/K differentiation at local scales, we found that genotypes from low-competition environments invest more in reproduction and are more sensitive to competition. By contrast, apparent effects of large-scale r/K differentiation and apparent genetic Allee effects can largely be explained by neutral population relatedness. Invading populations should not be treated as homogeneous groups, as they may adapt quickly to small-scale environmental variation in the invaded range. Furthermore, neutral population differentiation may strongly influence invasion dynamics and should be accounted for in analyses of common-garden experiments. PMID:21736567

  9. Effects of Climate Change on Natural and Regulated Flood Risks in the Skagit River Basin and Prospects for Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, S.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    Based on global climate model (GCM) scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) and subsequent hydrologic modeling studies for the Pacific Northwest, the impacts of climate change on flooding in Western Washington are likely to be substantial. Many rivers draining to Puget Sound show timing shifts of peak flows from spring to winter and increases in the simulated natural 100-year flood (Q100) of 20-30% by the mid-21st century. A regional climate model (RCM) scenario, which provides greatly improved representation of mountain topography and important feedback mechanisms, is also used in this study. Preliminary results based on a RCM scenario (Echam5 A1B) for the 2050s also show substantial increases in future flood risk in many Pacific Northwest River basins. In comparison with GCM scenarios, a RCM scenario shows more apparent timing shifts of peak flows from spring to fall/winter. To assess the combined effects of increasing natural flood risks and dam operations that determine impacts to regulated flow, a new integrated daily time step reservoir operations model was built for the Skagit River Basin. The model simulates current operating policies for historical flow conditions and for projected flow for the 2040s and 2080s associated with the Echam5 A1B scenario (a global climate model scenario which approximates the average conditions simulated by all models). By simulating alternative reservoir operating policies that provide increased flood storage and starting flood evacuation one month earlier, prospects for the adaptation are considered. Preliminary results from daily time step reservoir operations modeling (based on a single climate change scenario) suggest that the regulated 100-year flood will increase substantially in the future in comparison with historical baselines (20% by the 2040s and 24% by the 2080s). Proposed increases in flood storage are simulated to decrease the magnitude of the regulated 100

  10. Effect of beef heifer development system on average daily gain, reproduction, and adaptation to corn residue during first pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Summers, A F; Weber, S P; Lardner, H A; Funston, R N

    2014-06-01

    Postweaning heifer development systems were evaluated at 2 locations in a 4-yr study for their effect on performance and subsequent adaptation to grazing corn residue as a pregnant heifer. In Exp. 1, heifers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to graze winter range (WR) or graze winter range and corn residue (CR). In Exp. 2, heifers were assigned to graze winter range and corn residue (CR) or graze winter range and placed in a drylot (DL). Artificial insemination and natural mating were used at breeding on the basis of location. In Exp. 1, heifers developed on corn residue tended (P = 0.11) to have reduced ADG compared with WR heifers. Subsequently, BW at the end of the 82-d corn residue grazing period tended (P = 0.09) to be lower for CR compared with WR heifers. However, the proportion of heifers attaining puberty before the breeding season and pregnancy rates were similar (P ≥ 0.29) for CR and WR heifers. Developing heifers on winter range tended (P = 0.09) to reduce heifer development costs $36/pregnant heifer compared with CR heifers. In Exp. 2, DL heifers had greater (P < 0.01) overall ADG during development compared with CR heifers, resulting in greater (P < 0.01) prebreeding BW for DL heifers compared with CR heifers (355 vs. 322 ± 9 kg). At pregnancy diagnosis BW remained greater (P = 0.02) for DL compared with CR heifers (423 vs. 406 ± 7 kg). Corn-residue-developed heifers had increased (P = 0.03) AI conception rates compared with DL heifers (78% vs. 67% ± 6%). However, there was no difference (P ≥ 0.21) in percent pubertal before the breeding season or final pregnancy rates for CR and DL heifers. Developing heifers on corn residue reduced (P = 0.02) heifer development costs $38/pregnant heifer compared with DL-developed heifers. A subset of pregnant heifers from both experiments grazed corn residue fields in late gestation. As pregnant heifers grazing corn residue, WR heifers (Exp. 1) tended to have reduced ADG compared with CR heifers (0

  11. Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

  12. Effect of lining with a flowable composite on internal adaptation of direct composite restorations using all-in-one adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Yahagi, Chika; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Ikeda, Masaomi; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lining with a flowable composite on internal adaptation of composite restorations using three all-in-one adhesive systems; Bond Force (BF), G-Bond Plus (GP), and OptiBond All-in-one (OP), and a two-step self-etching adhesive system; Clearfil SE Bond (SE). They were applied to each cylindrical cavity prepared on the human dentin. The cavity surface was lined with/without a flowable resin composite prior to filling with a resin composite (FL/NL). After water storage for 24 h, the specimens were sectioned and polished, and internal adaptation of the restorations was assessed using a confocal laser scanning microscopy. For SE, a perfect cavity adaptation was recognized in both FL and NL. For BF, GP and OP, cavity adaptation was material dependent in NL, whereas no gap formation was observed in FL. However, voids formation was observed at the composite-adhesive-dentin interface in every all-in-one adhesive system. PMID:22673475

  13. To Adapt or Not to Adapt: Navigating an Implementation Conundrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing the effectiveness of evidence-based practices (EBPs) requires an optimal balance of implementation fidelity and adaptation so EBPs fit local contexts and meet the individual learning needs of students with disabilities. The framework for classifying adaptations presented in this article can help educators make decisions about whether…

  14. A CFD-Based Study of the Feasibility of Adapting an Erosion Burner Rig for Examining the Effect of CMAS Deposition Corrosion on Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic and computational fluid dynamics modeling has been conducted to examine the feasibility of adapting the NASA-Glenn erosion burner rigs for use in studies of corrosion of environmental barrier coatings by the deposition of molten CMAS. The effect of burner temperature, Mach number, particle preheat, duct heating, particle size, and particle phase (crystalline vs. glass) were analyzed. Detailed strategies for achieving complete melting of CMAS particles were developed, thereby greatly improving the probability of future successful experimental outcomes.

  15. Effect of Rasch Calibration on Ability and DIF Estimation in Computer-Adaptive Tests. Research Report RR-94-32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; And Others

    A previous simulation study of methods for assessing item functioning (DIF) in computer-adaptive tests (CATs) showed that modified versions of the Mantel-Haenszel and standardization methods work well with CAT data. In that study, data were generated using the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model, and this same model was assumed in obtaining item…

  16. Effects of Adaptive Training on Working Memory and Academic Achievement of Children with Learning Disabilities: A School-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Rhonda Phillips

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested many children with learning disabilities (LD) have deficits in working memory (WM) that hinder their academic achievement. Cogmed RM, a computerized intervention, uses adaptive training over 25 sessions and has shown efficacy in improving WM in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a variety of…

  17. Effects of Informed Item Selection on Test Performance and Anxiety for Examinees Administered a Self-Adapted Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    In self-adapted testing (SAT), examinees select the difficulty level of items administered. This study investigated three variations of prior information provided when taking an SAT: (1) no information (examinees selected item difficulty levels without prior information); (2) view (examinees inspected a typical item from each difficulty level…

  18. Conflict Adaptation and Congruency Sequence Effects to Social-Emotional Stimuli in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsham, Whitney; Gray, Whitney E.; Larson, Michael J.; South, Mikle

    2015-01-01

    Background: The modification of performance following conflict can be measured using conflict adaptation tasks thought to measure the change in the allocation of cognitive resources in order to reduce conflict interference and improve performance. While previous studies have suggested atypical processing during nonsocial cognitive control tasks,…

  19. Adaptive Agent Modeling of Distributed Language: Investigations on the Effects of Cultural Variation and Internal Action Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the "grounded adaptive agent" computational framework for studying the emergence of communication and language. This modeling framework is based on simulations of population of cognitive agents that evolve linguistic capabilities by interacting with their social and physical environment (internal and external symbol…

  20. Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part III - Evidence of Influence of Combined Bystander and Adaptive Response Effects on Radon Case-Control Studies - A Microdose Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of the BEIR VI (1999) report on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, in particular the potentially deleterious Bystander Effect (BE) and the potentially beneficial Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). The case-control radon lung cancer risk data of the pooled 13 European countries radon study (Darby et al 2005, 2006) and the 8 North American pooled study (Krewski et al 2005, 2006) have been evaluated. The large variation in the odds ratios of lung cancer from radon risk is reconciled, based on the large variation in geological and ecological conditions and variation in the degree of adaptive response radio-protection against the bystander effect induced lung damage. The analysis clearly shows Bystander Effect radon lung cancer induction and Adaptive Response reduction in lung cancer in some geographical regions. It is estimated that for radon levels up to about 400 Bq m−3 there is about a 30% probability that no human lung cancer risk from radon will be experienced and a 20% probability that the risk is below the zero-radon, endogenic spontaneous or perhaps even genetically inheritable lung cancer risk rate. The BEIR VI (1999) and EPA (2003) estimates of human lung cancer deaths from radon are most likely significantly excessive. The assumption of linearity of risk, by the Linear No-Threshold Model, with increasing radon exposure is invalid. PMID:22942874

  1. Effects of prepartum stocking density on innate and adaptive leukocyte responses and serum and hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Silva, P R B; Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Cerri, R L A; Haines, D M; Ballou, M A; Endres, M I; Chebel, R C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of prepartum stocking density on innate and adaptive leukocyte responses, serum cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations and hair cortisol concentration of Jersey cows. The cows (254 ± 3d of gestation) were balanced for parity (nulliparous vs. parous) and previous lactation projected 305-d mature equivalent milk yield and assigned to one of two treatments: 80SD=80% stocking density (38 animals/48 headlocks) and 100SD=100% stocking density (48 animals/48 headlocks). Pens (n=4) were identical in size and design and each pen received each treatment a total of 2 times (4 replicates; 80SD: n=338; 100SD: n=418). A sub-group of cows (n=48/treatment per parity) was randomly selected on week 1 of each replicate from which blood was sampled weekly from d -14 to 14 (d 0=calving) to determine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and expression of CD18 and L-selectin, and hemogram. The same sub-group of cows was treated with chicken egg ovalbumin on d -21, -7, and 7 and had blood sampled weekly from d -21 to 21 for determination of serum IgG anti-ovalbumin concentration. Blood was sampled weekly from d -21 to 21 to determine glucose, cortisol, and haptoglobin concentrations in serum. Hair samples collected at enrollment and within 24h of calving were analyzed for cortisol concentration. The percentage of leukocytes classified as granulocyte and the granulocyte to the lymphocyte ratio were not affected by treatment. Treatment did not affect the percentage of PMNL positive for phagocytosis and oxidative burst or the intensity of phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Similarly, treatment did not affect the percentage of PMNL expressing CD18 and L-selectin or the intensity of expression of CD18 and L-selectin. Concentration of IgG anti-ovalbumin was not affected by treatment. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol were not affected by treatment. Similarly, hair cortisol concentration at calving was not

  2. Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Lathers, Claire M.

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on the rate of adaptation of the human cardiovascular system to conditions of spaceflight, with particular attention given to data obtained during spaceflight in the U.S. Space Shuttle Program. It is pointed out that many of the cardiovascular changes that occurred during spaceflights that lasted from 2 to 11 days can be traced directly to changes in the body fluid volume. The beneficial effects of a fluid loading countermeasure (oral rehydration) and of the supine body position on the heart rate during the spaceflight are demonstrated. It is noted that, after hours or a few days of spaceflight, a state of adaptation is reached, in which the subject is well adapted and appropriately hydrated for the weightless environment. However, the return to the normal gravity of the earth leaves the individual especially sensitive to orthostatic stress.

  3. fMRI adaptation revisited.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jonas; Solomon, Samuel G; Kohn, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Adaptation has been widely used in functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies to infer neuronal response properties in human cortex. fMRI adaptation has been criticized because of the complex relationship between fMRI adaptation effects and the multiple neuronal effects that could underlie them. Many of the longstanding concerns about fMRI adaptation have received empirical support from neurophysiological studies over the last decade. We review these studies here, and also consider neuroimaging studies that have investigated how fMRI adaptation effects are influenced by high-level perceptual processes. The results of these studies further emphasize the need to interpret fMRI adaptation results with caution, but they also provide helpful guidance for more accurate interpretation and better experimental design. In addition, we argue that rather than being used as a proxy for measurements of neuronal stimulus selectivity, fMRI adaptation may be most useful for studying population-level adaptation effects across cortical processing hierarchies. PMID:26703375

  4. Effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity on coherence resonance and synchronization transitions by time delay in adaptive neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huijuan; Gong, Yubing; Wang, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we numerically study how time delay induces multiple coherence resonance (MCR) and synchronization transitions (ST) in adaptive Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). It is found that MCR induced by time delay STDP can be either enhanced or suppressed as the adjusting rate Ap of STDP changes, and ST by time delay varies with the increase of Ap, and there is optimal Ap by which the ST becomes strongest. It is also found that there are optimal network randomness and network size by which ST by time delay becomes strongest, and when Ap increases, the optimal network randomness and optimal network size increase and related ST is enhanced. These results show that STDP can either enhance or suppress MCR and optimal STDP can enhance ST induced by time delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide a new insight into STDP's role for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  5. Comparative evaluation of effects of bleaching on color stability and marginal adaptation of discolored direct and indirect composite laminate veneers under in vivo conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Veena; Das, Taposh K.; Pruthi, Gunjan; Shah, Naseem; Rajendiran, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Change in color and loss of marginal adaptation of tooth colored restorative materials is not acceptable. Bleaching is commonly used for treating discolored teeth. However, the literature is scanty regarding its effect on color and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite laminate veneers (CLVs) under in vivo conditions. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the effect of bleaching on color change and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect CLVs over a period of time when exposed to the oral environment. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a total of 14 subjects irrespective of age and sex indicated for CLV restorations on maxillary anterior teeth were selected following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For each subject, indirect CLVs were fabricated and looted in the first quadrant (Group 1) and direct CLV's (Group 2), were given in the second quadrant. Color change was assessed clinically using intra-oral digital spectrophotometer and marginal adaptation was assessed on epoxy resin replica of the tooth-restoration interface under scanning electron microscope. After 6 months, the subjects underwent a home bleaching regimen for 14 days using 10% carbamide peroxide. The assessment of color change and marginal adaptation was done at 6 months after veneering (0–180 days), immediately after the bleaching regimen (0–194 days) and 3 months after the bleaching regimen (0–284 days). Results: The difference in median color change (ΔE) between the groups was tested using Wilcoxon rank sum test while the median color change with time within the groups was tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The difference in the rates of marginal adaptation was tested between the groups using Chi-square/Fisher's exact test. Bleaching led to statistically significant color change at cervical (CE), middle and incisal (IE) regions when direct and indirect composites were compared (P < 0.05). During intra-group comparison, direct

  6. Effects of proposed preflight adaptation training on eye movements, self-motion perception, and motion sickness - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.; Reschke, M. F.; Von Gierke, H. E.; Lessard, C. S.

    1987-01-01

    The preflight adaptation trainer (PAT) was designed to produce rearranged relationships between visual and otolith signals analogous to those experienced in space. Investigations have been undertaken with three prototype trainers. The results indicated that exposure to the PAT sensory rearrangement altered self-motion perception, induced motion sickness, and changed the amplitude and phase of the horizontal eye movements evoked by roll stimulation. However, the changes were inconsistent.

  7. The effects of HCN and KLT ion channels on adaptation and refractoriness in a stochastic auditory nerve model.

    PubMed

    Negm, Mohamed H; Bruce, Ian C

    2014-11-01

    An accurate model of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) may assist in developing improved cochlear implant (CI) stimulation strategies. Previous studies have shown that the original Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model may be better at describing nodes of Ranvier in ANFs than models for other mammalian axon types. However, the HH model is still unable to explain a number of phenomena observed in auditory nerve responses to CI stimulation such as adaptation to high-rate stimulation and the time course of relative refractoriness. Recent physiological investigations of ANFs have shown the presence of a number of ion channel types not considered in the previous modeling studies, including low-threshold potassium (KLT) channels and hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels. In this paper, we investigate inclusion of these ion channel types in a stochastic HH model of a single node of Ranvier. Simulation results for pulse trains with rates of 200, 800, and 2000 pulse/s suggests that both the KLT channels and HCN channels can produce adaptation in the spike rate. However, the adaptation due to KLT is restricted to higher stimulation rates, whereas the adaptation due to HCN is observed across all stimulation rates. Additionally, using pulse pairs it was found that KLT increased both the absolute and the relative refractory periods. HCN on its own increased just the relative refractory period, but produced a synergistic increase in the absolute refractory period when combined with KLT. Together these results argue strongly for the need to consider HCN and KLT channels when studying CI stimulation of ANFs. PMID:24893366

  8. Transcriptional profiling suggests that multiple metabolic adaptations are required for effective proliferation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Thusitha S; Striebich, Richard C; Mueller, Susan S; Strobel, Ellen M; Ruiz, Oscar N

    2013-01-01

    Fuel is a harsh environment for microbial growth. However, some bacteria can grow well due to their adaptive mechanisms. Our goal was to characterize the adaptations required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa proliferation in fuel. We have used DNA-microarrays and RT-PCR to characterize the transcriptional response of P. aeruginosa to fuel. Transcriptomics revealed that genes essential for medium- and long-chain n-alkane degradation including alkB1 and alkB2 were transcriptionally induced. Gas chromatography confirmed that P. aeruginosa possesses pathways to degrade different length n-alkanes, favoring the use of n-C11-18. Furthermore, a gamut of synergistic metabolic pathways, including porins, efflux pumps, biofilm formation, and iron transport, were transcriptionally regulated. Bioassays confirmed that efflux pumps and biofilm formation were required for growth in jet fuel. Furthermore, cell homeostasis appeared to be carefully maintained by the regulation of porins and efflux pumps. The Mex RND efflux pumps were required for fuel tolerance; blockage of these pumps precluded growth in fuel. This study provides a global understanding of the multiple metabolic adaptations required by bacteria for survival and proliferation in fuel-containing environments. This information can be applied to improve the fuel bioremediation properties of bacteria. PMID:24164330

  9. The effect of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on external adaptation of healthy and decayed cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabbach, William; Rodrigues Tonetto, Mateus; Frizzera, Fausto; Zezéll, Denise Maria; Coelho Bandéca, Matheus; Alves Campos, Edson; Henrique Borges, Alvaro; Ferrarezi Andrade, Marcelo

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the bond strength and external adaptation in mixed healthy and caries-affected class V cavities before and after thermal cycling. Thirty-six cavity preparations were made in mixed class V buccal human molars, half of them being artificially caries-induced. Any remaining affected dentin was removed from the cavity with a round burr at low speed. The teeth were divided into six groups, according to cleaning agent for both healthy and caries-induced dentin: no treatment, chlorhexidine and erbium, chromium-doped: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation. A Filtek P90 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) silorane adhesive restorative system was used. The specimens were subjected to 5000 thermal cycles (5-55 °C 60 min). Epoxy replicas were obtained to characterize the external adaptation under scanning electron microscopy. The average percentages of non-continuous margins were 5.41% and 6.49% in enamel dentin before thermal cycling and 25% and 33.7% after thermal cycling, respectively. The caries-affected and laser irradiated cavities showed higher non-continuous margins. Thermal cycling was able to raise the percentage of non-continuous margin for all groups. Chlorhexidine did not affect the marginal adaptation results, and the Er,Cr: YSGG laser irradiation showed significantly worse results compared with the control group.

  10. Effects of egg-adaptation on receptor-binding and antigenic properties of recent influenza A (H3N2) vaccine viruses.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lauren; Wharton, Stephen A; Martin, Stephen R; Cross, Karen; Lin, Yipu; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Daniels, Rodney S; McCauley, John W

    2016-06-01

    Influenza A virus (subtype H3N2) causes seasonal human influenza and is included as a component of influenza vaccines. The majority of vaccine viruses are isolated and propagated in eggs, which commonly results in amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. These substitutions can affect virus receptor-binding and alter virus antigenicity, thereby, obfuscating the choice of egg-propagated viruses for development into candidate vaccine viruses. To evaluate the effects of egg-adaptive substitutions seen in H3N2 vaccine viruses on sialic acid receptor-binding, we carried out quantitative measurement of virus receptor-binding using surface biolayer interferometry with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays to correlate changes in receptor avidity with antigenic properties. Included in these studies was a panel of H3N2 viruses generated by reverse genetics containing substitutions seen in recent egg-propagated vaccine viruses and corresponding cell culture-propagated wild-type viruses. These assays provide a quantitative approach to investigating the importance of individual amino acid substitutions in influenza receptor-binding. Results show that viruses with egg-adaptive HA substitutions R156Q, S219Y, and I226N, have increased binding avidity to α2,3-linked receptor-analogues and decreased binding avidity to α2,6-linked receptor-analogues. No measurable binding was detected for the viruses with amino acid substitution combination 156Q+219Y and receptor-binding increased in viruses where egg-adaptation mutations were introduced into cell culture-propagated virus. Substitutions at positions 156 and 190 appeared to be primarily responsible for low reactivity in HI assays with post-infection ferret antisera raised against 2012-2013 season H3N2 viruses. Egg-adaptive substitutions at position 186 caused substantial differences in binding avidity with an insignificant effect on antigenicity. PMID:26974849

  11. Adaptive sequential controller

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  12. Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-02-01

    The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian. PMID:23467723

  13. Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-01-01

    The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian. PMID:23467723

  14. Effects of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists and antagonists on slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors in the rat sinus hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Cahusac, Peter M B

    2009-12-01

    The possible functional role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels was investigated by testing various TRP agonists and antagonists in an isolated rat sinus hair follicle preparation. Extracellular recordings from slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptor units were made. The antagonist capsazepine depressed spontaneous and mechanically evoked activity, with an IC(50) of 82 microM. In one-third of units, capsazepine caused a selective depression of mechanically evoked firing, such that the existing spontaneous firing was interrupted by an absence of activity during the mechanical stimulus. The broad spectrum TRP blocker ruthenium red (30 microM) had inconsistent effects, although in some units a delayed onset (following wash) bursting and paroxysmal firing ensued. The agonist icilin (50-100 microM) had an excitatory effect on spontaneous firing, and (-)-menthol (200 microM) had inconsistent effects. Cinnamaldehyde (1-2 mM) depressed all types of activity equally, mechanically evoked and spontaneous. Camphor (0.5-2 mM) also depressed all types of activity, although it had a preferential effect on spontaneous activity. Capsaicin (1-10 microM) and allyl isothiocyanate (50-100 microM) had no clear effects. These results rule out any role for TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in mechanotransduction processes of slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors. PMID:20021572