These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Cross-National Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Three Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of adaptive behaviors provide an important tool in the repertoire of clinical and school/educational psychologists. Measures that assess adaptive behaviors typically have been built in Western cultures and developed in light of behaviors common to them. Nevertheless, these measures are used elsewhere despite a paucity of data that examine…

Oakland, Thomas; Iliescu, Dragos; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Juliet Honglei

2013-01-01

2

Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent Form, Ages 5-21  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AAIDD has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model stressing 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. In previous studies on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II), researchers found support for a model including both 10 adaptive skills and three conceptual…

Wei, Youhua; Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

2008-01-01

3

Behavior and personality assessment in men labeled adaptive sociopaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few efforts have been made to understand antisocial-prone individuals who maintain adaptive functioning. This study identified a sample of potentially deviant but adaptively functioning persons to determine whether they differed significantly from their more conforming peers. A small sample of men was selected by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-defined criteria for sociopathy and compared with MMPI-defined normals of similar ages,

Patricia B. Sutker; Albert N. Allain

1983-01-01

4

Applying Computer Adaptive Testing to Optimize Online Assessment of Suicidal Behavior: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce response burden and improve accuracy, and make the available pencil-and-paper tools more appropriate for online administration. Objective The aim was to test whether an item response–based computer adaptive simulation can be used to reduce the length of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS). Methods The data used for our simulation was obtained from a large multicenter trial from The Netherlands: the Professionals in Training to STOP suicide (PITSTOP suicide) study. We applied a principal components analysis (PCA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), a graded response model (GRM), and simulated a CAT. Results The scores of 505 patients were analyzed. Psychometric analyses showed the questionnaire to be unidimensional with good internal consistency. The computer adaptive simulation showed that for the estimation of elevation of risk of future suicidal behavior 4 items (instead of the full 19) were sufficient, on average. Conclusions This study demonstrated that CAT can be applied successfully to reduce the length of the Dutch version of the BSS. We argue that the use of CAT can improve the accuracy and the response burden when assessing the risk of future suicidal behavior online. Because CAT can be daunting for clinicians and applied scientists, we offer a concrete example of our computer adaptive simulation of the Dutch version of the BSS at the end of the paper. PMID:25213259

de Vries, Anton LM; de Groot, Marieke H; de Keijser, Jos; Kerkhof, Ad JFM

2014-01-01

5

Adaptive Behavior Profiles of Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of adaptive behavior traditionally has been associated with the identification of individuals with mental retardation. Information on adaptive behavior increasingly is being used for comprehensive assessment, treatment planning, intervention, and program evaluation for individuals with various disorders. Data from the normative samples…

Ditterline, Jeffrey; Banner, Diane; Oakland, Thomas; Becton, Daniel

2008-01-01

6

Behavioral Adaptation and Late-Life Disability: A New Spectrum for Assessing Public Health Impacts  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Promoting independent functioning of older adults requires attention to how older adults carry out basic activities. This paper provides the first national estimates of late-life disability that explicitly recognize behavioral adaptations to functioning. METHODS We analyzed the National Health and Aging Trends Study, a study of Medicare enrollees ages 65 and older (N=8,077). For seven mobility and self-care activities we identify five hierarchical stages—fully able, successful accommodation with devices, activity reduction, difficulty despite accommodations, and receipt of help—and explore disparities and associations with quality of life measures. RESULTS 31% of older adults are fully able to complete self-care and mobility activities. The remaining groups successfully accommodate with devices (25%); reduce their activities (6%), report difficulty despite accommodations (18%), or receive help (21%). With successive stages physical and cognitive capacity decrease and symptoms and multi-morbidity increase. Successful accommodation is associated with maintaining participation in valued activities and high wellbeing, but substantial disparities by race, ethnicity and income exist. CONCLUSION Increased public health attention to behavioral adaptations to functional change can promote independence for older adults and may also enhance quality of life. PMID:24328656

Freedman, Vicki A.; Kasper, Judith D.; Spillman, Brenda C.; Agree, Emily M.; Mor, Vincent; Wallace, Robert B.; Wolf, Douglas A.

2014-01-01

7

ADAPTATION OF THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH SYSTEM (BARS) FOR EVALUATING NEUROBEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE IN FILIPINO CHILDREN  

PubMed Central

Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, combines computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with non-computerized tests. The goal of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using standardized neurobehavioral tests in preschool and school-aged Filipino children. Test instructions were translated into the vernacular, Tagalog or Tagalog-English (“Taglish”) and some instructions and materials were modified to be appropriate for the target populations. The battery was administered to 4 to 6 year old Filipino children (N=50). The performance of the Filipino children was compared to data previously collected from Spanish- and English-speaking children tested in the US. The majority of children had no difficulty completing the tests in the battery with the exception of the Symbol-Digit test and Digit Span-reverse. The three groups showed similar patterns of performance on the tests and the older children performed better than the younger children on all of the tests. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of using this test battery to assess cognitive and motor performance in Filipino children. Tests in the battery assess a range of functions and the measures are sensitive to age differences. The current battery has been utilized in several cultures and socio-economic status classes, with only minor modifications needed. This study demonstrates the importance of pilot testing the methods before use in a new population, to ensure that the test is valid for that culture. PMID:18067971

Rohlman, Diane S.; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M.; Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M.

2008-01-01

8

Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

2013-01-01

9

Adaptive capacity and its assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

Engle, Nathan L.

2011-04-20

10

Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

2011-01-01

11

Projective-Cognitive Assessment of Thoughts and Feelings and Their Relationship to Adaptive Behavior in a Dental Situation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the interrelationships among coping statements, a self-report measure of anxiety, and maladaptive overt behavior in a dental situation. Subjects were 23 adolescents. Found that as disruptive "in-chair" overt behavior increased, so did the percentage of coping statements; as self-report levels of anxiety increased, the percentage of coping…

Nelson, W. Michael, III; Cholera, S. N.

1986-01-01

12

http://adb.sagepub.com Adaptive Behavior  

E-print Network

to bear any resemblance to either real animals or real behav- ioral systems, while in adaptive behavior the study of real animal or human behavior is common. It should perhaps be pointed out that for somebody be treated as models and thus as theories or hypotheses of animal behavior and not only be seen in its

13

http://adb.sagepub.com/ Adaptive Behavior  

E-print Network

of autopoiesis and behavior. We report on three clarifications of the theory provided by the model: (a of the intrinsic origin of behavior. Agents act. Moreover, natural agents are self-produced entitieshttp://adb.sagepub.com/ Adaptive Behavior http://adb.sagepub.com/content/17/5/387 The online

14

Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs  

PubMed Central

Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a) document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses); (b) examine the extent to which these measures yielded similar scores on comparable scales; and (c) assess potential discrepancies between cognitive ability and adaptive behavior across the measures. All three adaptive measures revealed significant deficits overall for the sample, with the VABS-II and ABAS-II indicating relative weaknesses in social skills and strengths in academic-related skills. Cross-measure comparisons indicated significant differences in the absolute magnitude of scores. In general, the VABS-II yielded significantly higher scores than the BASC-2 and ABAS-II. However, the VABS-II and ABAS-II yielded scores that did not significantly differ for adaptive social skills which is a critical area to assess for children with HFASDs. Results also indicated significant discrepancies between the children's average IQ score and their scores on the adaptive domains and composites of the three adaptive measures. PMID:23819048

Smith, Rachael A.; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; McDonald, Christin A.

2013-01-01

15

Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

2014-01-01

16

Relationships Between Adaptive Behavior and Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adaptive behavior generally refers to one's ability to meet daily living responsibilities and to respond to the needs of others.\\u000a The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) defines adaptive behavior as “the collection\\u000a of conceptual, social, and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives”\\u000a (American Association on Mental Retardation

Jeffrey Ditterline; Thomas Oakland

17

Adapting simulated behaviors for new characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an algorithm for automatically adapting exist- ing simulated behaviors to new characters. Animating a new char- acter is difficult because a control system tuned for one character will not, in general, work on a character with different limb lengths, masses, or moments of inertia. The algorithm presented here adapts the control system to a new character in

Jessica K. Hodgins; Nancy S. Pollard

1997-01-01

18

Generating Adaptive Presentations of Hydrologic Behavior  

E-print Network

Generating Adaptive Presentations of Hydrologic Behavior Martin Molina and Victor Flores Department-based approach for summarizing and presenting the behavior of hydrologic networks. This approach has been. It follows a solution for event summarization that exploits physical properties of the dynamic system

Molina, Martín

19

Adaptive Behavioral Modeling for Crowd Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we design an adaptive behavioral model for a dynamic virtual environment. We model the dynamic environment with behavior maps which are constructed with information theory quantities. These maps are capable of capturing the dynamic nature of the environment by changing temporally and spatially. Subsequent to building this model, agents' responses to these maps are represented with a

Cagatay Turkay; Emre Koc; Kamer Yuksel; Selim Balcisoy

20

Assessment of adaptive walking performance.  

PubMed

Although mostly negative aspects are reported to be associated with gait variability, irregular walking is needed when walking performance has to be adapted to specific environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability and discriminative ability of a measure to assess adaptive walking performance and to identify parameters associated with test performance in young and elderly subjects. Eighteen older (mean age 78.1 years) and 19 young women (mean age 30.8 years) were instructed to walk as precisely as possible over a defined course targeting 26 arbitrarily positioned rectangle boxes fixed on an instrumented walk way with embedded pressure sensors. ICC(1,1) of 0.79 demonstrated sufficient reliability in the cohort of older women. Targeting was significantly worse (or deviation was larger) in older women than in young women (mean 3.20cm versus 2.27cm, p=0.005). Mean gait speed of the older women was higher during the test (0.50m/s versus 0.40m/s, p=0.020), but not during unconstrained walking (1.15m/s versus 1.50m/s, p<0.001). The deviation measure classified 78% of the subjects into correct age group (sensitivity 67%, specificity 90%, p=0.003). Adaptive walking performance was associated with parameters describing physical performance as well as with cognitive executive function. This study shows that this test of adaptive walking performance is a reliable measure of irregular walking with ability to discriminate between young and older subjects. Our results suggest that older persons might try to camouflage their lack of accuracy during adaptive walking by higher gait speed. PMID:23201276

Lindemann, U; Klenk, J; Becker, C; Moe-Nilssen, R

2013-02-01

21

Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

Huntsberger, Terrance

2009-01-01

22

Students’ communicative behavior adaptability in CSCL environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the proliferation of online courses, the social dimension of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is becoming\\u000a more important than before. Research shows that communicative behavior adaptation to the computer medium is a critical issue\\u000a in CSCL social relationship development. Two dominant theories in the CSCL field, social information processing theory and\\u000a adaptive structuration theory, argue that individuals do not

Babak Abedin; Farhad Daneshgar; John D’Ambra

2011-01-01

23

Adaptive rapid environmental assessment system simulation framework  

E-print Network

Adaptive Rapid Environmental Assessment (AREA) is a new concept for minimizing the non model-based sonar performance prediction uncertainty and improving the model-based sonar performance by adaptive and rapid in situ ...

Wang, Ding, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

24

Behavior and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: Specifying Targets for Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with Down syndrome can demonstrate increased behavior problems as compared with typical peers. Few studies have explored whether behavior impacts adaptive functioning. Caregiver report from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL;…

Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

2014-01-01

25

The Construct of Adaptive Behavior: Its Conceptualization, Measurement, and Use in the Field of Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article updates the current conceptualization, measurement, and use of the adaptive behavior construct. Major sections of the article address an understanding of the construct, the current approaches to its measurement, four assessment issues and challenges related to the use of adaptive behavior information for the diagnosis of intellectual…

Tasse, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Hank, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Thissen, David; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun

2012-01-01

26

Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

2010-01-01

27

Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

2013-01-01

28

Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

2011-01-01

29

Patterns of Adaptive Behavior in Very Young Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to investigate patterns of adaptive behavior in 30 children with autism who were under 3 years. Relative to controls, participants demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptive behavior and mental age. The utility of the scales is discussed.…

Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Brown, Christia S.

1999-01-01

30

Patterns of adaptive behavior in very young children with autism.  

PubMed

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were used to investigate patterns of adaptive behavior in children with autism who were under 36 months of age. Subjects were 30 children with autism and 30 children with developmental delay matched on CA and MA. Relative to controls, the autistic group demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptive behavior and MA. Different patterns of relations between adaptive behavior domains and cognitive and language skills were obtained for the two groups. Preliminary support for the utility of adaptive behavior profiles in identifying subgroups of children with autism is provided. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for early diagnosis of autism. PMID:10207581

Stone, W L; Ousley, O Y; Hepburn, S L; Hogan, K L; Brown, C S

1999-03-01

31

Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

2012-01-01

32

Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

2013-01-01

33

Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

2014-01-01

34

Spatial perception and adaptive sonar behavior.  

PubMed

Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time adaptations in the timing and spectro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular task and environment. To enable detailed, quantitative analyses of adaptive sonar behavior, echolocation call design was investigated in big brown bats, trained to rest on a stationary platform and track a tethered mealworm that approached from a starting distance of about 170 cm in the presence of a stationary sonar distracter. The distracter was presented at different angular offsets and distances from the bat. The results of this study show that the distance and the angular offset of the distracter influence sonar vocalization parameters of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Specifically, the bat adjusted its call duration to the closer of two objects, distracter or insect target, and the magnitude of the adjustment depended on the angular offset of the distracter. In contrast, the bat consistently adjusted its call rate to the distance of the insect, even when this target was positioned behind the distracter. The results hold implications for understanding spatial information processing and perception by echolocation. PMID:21218910

Aytekin, Murat; Mao, Beatrice; Moss, Cynthia F

2010-12-01

35

Confronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation  

E-print Network

and adaptation into IAMs. However, systemic challenges to modeling adaptation continue to impede progressConfronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation: A Conceptual Framework limitations of integrated assessment models (IAMs) are their highly stylized and aggregated representation

Wing, Ian Sue

36

Quality assessment of adaptive 3D video streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The streaming of 3D video contents is currently a reality to expand the user experience. However, because of the variable bandwidth of the networks used to deliver multimedia content, a smooth and high-quality playback experience could not always be guaranteed. Using segments in multiple video qualities, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) of video content is a relevant advancement with respect to classic progressive download streaming. Mainly, it allows resolving these issues by offering significant advantages in terms of both user-perceived Quality of Experience (QoE) and resource utilization for content and network service providers. In this paper we discuss the impact of possible HAS client's behavior while adapting to the network capacity on enduser. This has been done through an experiment of testing the end-user response to the quality variation during the adaptation procedure. The evaluation has been carried out through a subjective test of the end-user response to various possible clients' behaviors for increasing, decreasing, and oscillation of quality in 3D video. In addition, some of the HAS typical impairments during the adaptation has been simulated and their effects on the end-user perception are assessed. The experimental conclusions have made good insight into the user's response to different adaptation scenarios and visual impairments causing the visual discomfort that can be used to develop the adaptive streaming algorithm to improve the end-user experience.

Tavakoli, Samira; Gutiérrez, Jesús; García, Narciso

2013-03-01

37

Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

2010-01-01

38

The Reading Behavior Inventory: An Outcome Assessment Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many questionnaires attempt to assess the quality of life of individuals who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), but few apply to those who are undergoing visual rehabilitation and hence are difficult to adapt as an outcome measure Massof & Rubin, 2001). The Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI) was developed as a…

Goodrich, Gregory L.; Kirby, Jennine; Wood, Jennifer; Peters, Laura

2006-01-01

39

Adapting Robot Behavior to User's Capabilities: ance Instruction Study  

E-print Network

Adapting Robot Behavior to User's Capabilities: ance Instruction Study Raquel Ros, Yiannis Demiris. In the first stage, the robot is supposed to establish a bond with the child through verbal and non-verbal

Demiris, Yiannis

40

An adaptive multiagent routing algorithm inspired by ants behavior  

E-print Network

An adaptive multi­agent routing algorithm inspired by ants behavior Gianni Di Caro and Marco Dorigo introduces AntNet, a novel adaptive approach to routing tables learning in connectionless communications networks. AntNet is inspired by the stigmergy communication model observed in ant colonies. We compare Ant

Ducatelle, Frederick

41

Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles and associations with toddlers’ externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers’ and fathers’ reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers’ externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers independently completed the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PDSQ; Robinson, Mandleco,

Christina M. Rinaldi; Nina Howe

42

Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

2014-01-01

43

The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

2005-01-01

44

Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors  

PubMed Central

This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.

Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

1984-01-01

45

Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Schizotypy Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. Objective The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) to evaluate schizotypy through “The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment” (ESQUIZO-Q), in non-clinical adolescents. Methods The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD?=?1.2). Results The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ?0.30 was of 34 items. Conclusion The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings. PMID:24019907

Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Menéndez, Luis Fernando; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

2013-01-01

46

http://adb.sagepub.com/ Adaptive Behavior  

E-print Network

resulting from activation dynamics within the memory system. Keywords Memory, cognitive systems, robotics the application of this methodology ultimately seeks to produce more general, adaptive and robust cognitive. The biological implementation of memory shares little with memory in synthetic cognitive systems where

Belpaeme, Tony

47

Translation and cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Behavioral Pain Scale  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Behavioral Pain Scale to Brazilian Portuguese and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale. Methods This study was conducted in two phases: the Behavioral Pain Scale was translated and culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese and the psychometric properties of this scale were subsequently assessed (reliability and clinical utility). The study sample consisted of 100 patients who were older than 18 years of age, admitted to an intensive care unit, intubated, mechanically ventilated, and subjected or not to sedation and analgesia from July 2012 to December 2012. Pediatric and non-intubated patients were excluded. The study was conducted at a large private hospital that was situated in the city of São Paulo (SP). Results Regarding reproducibility, the results revealed that the observed agreement between the two evaluators was 92.08% for the pain descriptor “adaptation to mechanical ventilation”, 88.1% for “upper limbs”, and 90.1% for “facial expression”. The kappa coefficient of agreement for “adaptation to mechanical ventilation” assumed a value of 0.740. Good agreement was observed between the evaluators with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.807 (95% confidence interval: 0.727-0.866). Conclusion The Behavioral Pain Scale was easy to administer and reproduce. Additionally, this scale had adequate internal consistency. The Behavioral Pain Scale was satisfactorily adapted to Brazilian Portuguese for the assessment of pain in critically ill patients. PMID:25607266

Morete, Márcia Carla; Mofatto, Sarah Camargo; Pereira, Camila Alves; Silva, Ana Paula; Odierna, Maria Tereza

2014-01-01

48

Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.  

PubMed

An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. PMID:19941941

McDowell, J J

2010-05-01

49

Day 1 Day 5 Adaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscusAdaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus  

E-print Network

Day 1 Day 5 Adaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscusAdaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus Ben Falk1,2, Lasse Jakobsen3 of prey. In this study, we examined how adaptive sonar and flight behaviors change with experience

Moss, Cynthia

50

Behavioral assessment for pediatric intensive care units.  

PubMed Central

Two studies were conducted to analyze behaviors of staff and patients on a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). In the first study, behavioral observation procedures were employed to assess patient state, physical position, affect, verbal behaviors, visual attention and activity engagement, and staff verbal behavior. On the average, one-third of the patients were judged to be conscious and alert but markedly nonengaged with their environment. In the second study, a member of the hospital staff provided alert patients with individual activities to determine whether a simple environmental manipulation could positively affect behavior of children in intensive care. Employing a reversal design, the activity intervention was found to increase attention and engagement and positive affect, and to decrease inappropriate behavior. Both studies demonstrate that behavioral assessment procedures can provide an empirical basis for designing PICU routines affecting children's psychosocial status, and, thus, complement current procedures designed to provide quality medical care. PMID:468750

Cataldo, M F; Bessman, C A; Parker, L H; Pearson, J E; Rogers, M C

1979-01-01

51

Adaptive Behavior for Fighting Game Characters  

E-print Network

all behavior ! Leads to a static world ! Promising game AI techniques[4]: ! Neural networks, genetic, vel, acc) ! Collision detection ­ spheres & capsules ! Collision reaction ­ body part state #12;Game Architecture: Collision Detection/Reaction Blocking Neutral Attacking Sphere Capsule h r #12;UML Class Diagram

Pollett, Chris

52

http://adb.sagepub.com Adaptive Behavior  

E-print Network

-to-one correspondence between ant and robot and between food-item and energy units. Foraging can, in principle Behavior Wenguo Liu, Alan F. T. Winfield, Jin Sa, Jie Chen and Lihua Dou Towards Energy Optimization: Emergent Task Allocation in a Swarm of Foraging Robots http://adb.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/15

Winfield, Alan FT

53

The adaptive significance of cultural behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I argue that human social behavior is a product of the coevolution of human biology and culture. While critical of attempts by anthropologists to explain cultural practices as if they were independent of the ability of individual human beings to survive and reproduce, I am also leery of attempts by biologists to explain the consistencies between neo-Darwinian

William H. Durham

1976-01-01

54

Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

1990-01-01

55

Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

2009-01-01

56

Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

Wysocki, Tim

2006-01-01

57

Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

2006-01-01

58

Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in…

Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K.

2006-01-01

59

Endogenous nuclear RNAi mediates behavioral adaptation to odor.  

PubMed

Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), remains unclear. Here, we show that the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which acts in AWC, is loaded with siRNAs targeting odr-1, a gene whose downregulation is required for adaptation. Concomitant with increased odr-1 siRNA in AWC, we observe increased binding of the HP1 homolog HPL-2 at the odr-1 locus in AWC and reduced odr-1 mRNA in adapted animals. Phosphorylation of HPL-2, an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly as a rheostat allowing prolonged stimulation to dampen gene expression and promote cellular memory formation. PAPERFLICK: PMID:23993094

Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda; Palladino, Francesca; Goga, Andrei; Kennedy, Scott; L'Etoile, Noelle D

2013-08-29

60

Endogenous Nuclear RNAi Mediates Behavioral Adaptation to Odor  

PubMed Central

Summary Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) remains unclear. Here we show the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which acts in AWC, is loaded with siRNAs targeting odr-1, a gene who's down regulation is required for adaptation. Concomitant with increased odr-1 siRNA in AWC, we observe increased binding of the HP1 homolog HPL-2 at the odr-1 locus in AWC and reduced odr-1 mRNA in adapted animals. Phosphorylation of HPL-2, an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioral adaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly as a rheostat allowing prolonged stimulation to dampen gene expression and promote cellular memory formation. PMID:23993094

Juang, Bi-Tzen; Gu, Chen; Starnes, Linda; Palladino, Francesca; Goga, Andrei; Kennedy, Scott; L'Etoile, Noelle D.

2014-01-01

61

Adaptations for Rural Behavior Disordered Pupils in the Mainstream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses instructional modifications to increase the academic success of rural behavior-disordered students in regular classes. Describes adaptations of teaching mode, media use, presentation of academic content, textbook content and organization, and test construction and administration. Contains 10 references. (SV)

Wood, Judy W.; And Others

1988-01-01

62

Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

2014-01-01

63

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

1993-01-01

64

Adaptive Behavior in Young Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis-1 is the most common single gene disorder affecting 1 in 3000. In children, it is associated not only with physical features but also with attention and learning problems. Research has identified a downward shift in intellectual functioning as well, but to date, there are no published studies about the everyday adaptive behavior of children with NF1. In this study, parental reports of adaptive behavior of 61 children with NF1 ages 3 through 8 were compared to an unaffected contrast group (n = 55) that comprised siblings and community members. Significant group differences in adaptive skills were evident and were largely related to group differences in intellectual functioning. In a subsample of children with average-range intellectual functioning, group differences in parent-reported motor skills were apparent even after controlling statistically for group differences in intellectual functioning. The implications of the findings for the care of children with NF1 are discussed. PMID:24348581

Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Colon, Alina M.; Brei, Natalie; Casnar, Christina L.; Janke, Kelly M.; Siegel, Dawn H.; Walker, Jasmine A.

2013-01-01

65

A Strategy for Assessing Occupational Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory study was conducted at the Occupational Therapy Section of Dwight David Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, Georgia to develop a clinical instrument for assessment and follow-up documentation of progress for psychosocial inpatients. A wheel diagram was designed for graphic portrayal of competency levels. The four areas selected for the Occupational Behavioral Assessment were: Work, Leisure, Social Competence

Clyde H. Bell Jr; Peter L. Ingeman

1983-01-01

66

Adaptive Assessment of Young Children with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…

Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul

2011-01-01

67

Health and flood risk: A strategic assessment of adaptation  

E-print Network

Health and flood risk: A strategic assessment of adaptation processes and policies Roger Few, Mike Technical Report 17 #12;Health and flood risk: A strategic assessment of adaptation processes and policies, UEA) Mike Ahern (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, LSHTM) Franziska Matthies (UEA) Sari

Watson, Andrew

68

Shaping Embodied Neural Networks for Adaptive Goal-directed Behavior  

PubMed Central

The acts of learning and memory are thought to emerge from the modifications of synaptic connections between neurons, as guided by sensory feedback during behavior. However, much is unknown about how such synaptic processes can sculpt and are sculpted by neuronal population dynamics and an interaction with the environment. Here, we embodied a simulated network, inspired by dissociated cortical neuronal cultures, with an artificial animal (an animat) through a sensory-motor loop consisting of structured stimuli, detailed activity metrics incorporating spatial information, and an adaptive training algorithm that takes advantage of spike timing dependent plasticity. By using our design, we demonstrated that the network was capable of learning associations between multiple sensory inputs and motor outputs, and the animat was able to adapt to a new sensory mapping to restore its goal behavior: move toward and stay within a user-defined area. We further showed that successful learning required proper selections of stimuli to encode sensory inputs and a variety of training stimuli with adaptive selection contingent on the animat's behavior. We also found that an individual network had the flexibility to achieve different multi-task goals, and the same goal behavior could be exhibited with different sets of network synaptic strengths. While lacking the characteristic layered structure of in vivo cortical tissue, the biologically inspired simulated networks could tune their activity in behaviorally relevant manners, demonstrating that leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks have an innate ability to process information. This closed-loop hybrid system is a useful tool to study the network properties intermediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral adaptation. The training algorithm provides a stepping stone towards designing future control systems, whether with artificial neural networks or biological animats themselves. PMID:18369432

Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

2008-01-01

69

A New Approach to the Measurement of Adaptive Behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer…

Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

2012-01-01

70

[Psychophysiological adaptation and communication behavior of human operator during 105-day isolation].  

PubMed

Purpose of the study was to assess effects of 105-d isolation on language behavior and psychophysiological status of volunteered subjects. Software NOOJ was used to determine frequency of mentioning in written reports notions falling into the categories of "Needs", "Activity", "Negation" and "Social regulation". Well-being, activity and mood were assessed with the SAN questionnaire and urine cortisol measurement. Correlation of the content-analysis results with phases of adaptation to extended isolation and confinement made it possible to elicit specific features of language behavior of the small group members, at the time of simulated autonomy, specifically. Besides, the computerized content-analysis enabled a quantitative description of communication strategy as a function of psychophysiological adaptation to stressful factors of the simulation experiment. PMID:21675191

Shved, D M; Gushchin, V I; Vinokhodova, A G; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasil'eva, G Iu

2011-01-01

71

LSCI in Functional Behavior Assessment and Positive Behavioral Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandated a shift from reactive strategies toward proactive interventions with students who experience both disability and behavioral challenges. The author describes how the methodology of Life Space Crisis Intervention can provide a source of data for functional assessment

Marston, John R.

2001-01-01

72

Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n?=?26), normally-developing children matched for mental age (MA, n?=?30), and normally-developing children matched for chronological age (CA, n?=?40). We compared the mean scores for each domain between the three groups. Results Children with WS had more siblings than children in the two control groups. The educational level of the caregivers of WS children was lower than that of the control children. We found no differences in locomotion, work skill, socialization, or self-management between the WS and MA groups. WS children obtained higher scores of self-dependence (df?=?54, Z?=??2.379, p?=?0.017) and had better communication skills (df?=?54, Z?=??2.222, p?=?0.026) compared with MA children. The CA children achieved higher scores than the WS children for all dimensions of adaptive behavior. Conclusions WS children have better adaptive behavior skills regarding communication and self-dependence than normal children matched for mental age. Targeted intervention techniques should be designed to promote social development in this population. PMID:24708693

2014-01-01

73

Team Assessment of Geriatric Mental Patients: The Care of Functional Dementia Produced by Hysterical Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multidisciplinary team identified hysterical behavior, rather than depression, as one form of pseudodementia in many cases of cognitive impairment observed in geriatric patients. Seven cases required thorough medical and neuropsychological assessment and careful functional analysis of patients' behavior patterns to determine the adaptive utility…

Kirby, Henry B.; Harper, Robert G.

1987-01-01

74

Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.  

PubMed Central

Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone,dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or changes in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. PMID:9182042

Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R

1996-01-01

75

Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

1996-04-01

76

Sensory processing subtypes in autism: association with adaptive behavior.  

PubMed

Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes were differentiated by taste and smell sensitivity and movement-related sensory behavior. Further, sensory processing subtypes predicted communication competence and maladaptive behavior. The findings of this study lay the foundation for the generation of more specific hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of sensory processing dysfunction in autism, and support the continued use of sensory-based interventions in the remediation of communication and behavioral difficulties in autism. PMID:19644746

Lane, Alison E; Young, Robyn L; Baker, Amy E Z; Angley, Manya T

2010-01-01

77

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Profiles in Children with Autism and Moderate to Severe Developmental Delay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined adaptive behavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptive behavior profiles. (Contains references.)…

Fenton, Gemma; D'Ardia, Caterina; Valente, Donatella; Vecchio, Ilaria del; Fabrizi, Anna; Bernabei, Paola

2003-01-01

78

Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

2011-01-01

79

Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots  

PubMed Central

Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

2014-01-01

80

Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.  

PubMed

Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

2014-01-01

81

Behavioral Model for Assessing Cognitive Decline  

PubMed Central

The water maze task can be used to assess sensory motor and cognitive function in rodents. When properly employed, this task can behaviorally assess acquisition of a spatial search strategy, as well as working and reference memory. The following section uses research on age-related, cognitive decline to illustrate the methods employed and highlight areas that can, if not properly controlled, confound a study. PMID:22231811

Guidi, Michael; Foster, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

82

An Adaptive Testing System for Supporting Versatile Educational Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test (CBT) with mobile learning (m-learning) especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test (CAT) is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves. In CAT, students are…

Huang, Yueh-Min; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cheng, Shu-Chen

2009-01-01

83

Assessing the Determinants of School Refusal Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report defines school refusal behavior as the refusal to attend school or difficulties going to school or remaining in school for the entire day, and sees school refusal as a significant problem that may occur in 8% of all school-aged children. It discusses difficulties of previous classification and assessment strategies for students who…

Kearney, Christopher; Silverman, Wendy

84

Adaptive Assessment of Student's Knowledge in Programming Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents Programming Adaptive Testing (PAT), a Web-based adaptive testing system for assessing students' programming knowledge. PAT was used in two high school programming classes by 73 students. The question bank of PAT is composed of 443 questions. A question is classified in one out of three difficulty levels. In PAT, the levels of…

Chatzopoulou, D. I.; Economides, A. A.

2010-01-01

85

Industry Cluster's Adaptive Co-competition Behavior Modeling Inspired by Swarm Intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation helps the individual enterprise to adjust its behavior to uncertainties in environment and hence determines a healthy growth of both the individuals and the whole industry cluster as well. This paper is focused on the study on co-competition adaptation behavior of industry cluster, which is inspired by swarm intelligence mechanisms. By referencing to ant cooperative transportation and ant foraging behavior and their related swarm intelligence approaches, the cooperative adaptation and competitive adaptation behavior are studied and relevant models are proposed. Those adaptive co-competition behaviors model can be integrated to the multi-agent system of industry cluster to make the industry cluster model more realistic.

Xiang, Wei; Ye, Feifan

86

805ARTIFICIAL LIFE, ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR, AND AGENTS 806 ARTIFICIAL LIFE, ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR, AND AGENTS  

E-print Network

, AND AGENTS #12;A Single Queen Single Worker Honey­Bees Approach to 3-SAT Hussein A. Abbass School of Computer for intelligent behavior, up to our knowledge, no attempt for using honey-bees as a basis for optimization has been made in the literature. Some of the features that distinguish honey­bees are division of labor

Fernandez, Thomas

87

A mathematical model of adaptive behavior in quadruped locomotion.  

PubMed

Locomotion involves repetitive movements and is often executed unconsciously and automatically. In order to achieve smooth locomotion, the coordination of the rhythms of all physical parts is important. Neurophysiological studies have related that basic rhythms are produced in the spinal network called, the central pattern generator (CPG), where some neural oscillators interact to self-organize coordinated rhythms. We present a model of the adaptation of locomotion patterns to a variable environment, and attempt to elucidate how the dynamics of locomotion pattern generation are adjusted by the environmental changes. Recent experimental results indicate that decerebrate cats have the ability to learn new gait patterns in a changed environment. In those experiments, a decerebrate cat was set on a treadmill consisting of three moving belts. This treadmill provides a periodic perturbation to each limb through variation of the speed of each belt. When the belt for the left forelimb is quickened, the decerebrate cat initially loses interlimb coordination and stability, but gradually recovers them and finally walks with a new gait. Based on the above biological facts, we propose a CPG model whose rhythmic pattern adapts to periodic perturbation from the variable environment. First, we design the oscillator interactions to generate a desired rhythmic pattern. In our model, oscillator interactions are regarded as the forces that generate the desired motion pattern. If the desired pattern has already been realized, then the interactions are equal to zero. However, this rhythmic pattern is not reproducible when there is an environmental change. Also, if we do not adjust the rhythmic dynamics, the oscillator interactions will not be zero. Therefore, in our adaptation rule, we adjust the memorized rhythmic pattern so as to minimize the oscillator interactions. This rule can describe the adaptive behavior of decerebrate cats well. Finally, we propose a mathematical framework of an adaptation in rhythmic motion. Our framework consists of three types of dynamics: environmental, rhythmic motion, and adaptation dynamics. We conclude that the time scale of adaptation dynamics should be much larger than that of rhythmic motion dynamics, and the repetition of rhythmic motions in a stable environment is important for the convergence of adaptation. PMID:9691263

Ito, S; Yuasa, H; Luo, Z W; Ito, M; Yanagihara, D

1998-05-01

88

Assessment of Lower Extremity Motor Adaptation via an Extension of the Force Field Adaptation Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Lower extremity rehabilitation has seen recent increased interest. New tools are available to improve gait retraining in both adults and children. However, it remains difficult to determine optimal ways to plan interventions due to difficulties in continuously monitoring outcomes in patients undergoing rehabilitation. In this paper, we introduce an extension of the Force Field Adaptation Paradigm, used to quantitatively assess upper extremity motor adaptation, to the lower extremity. The algorithm is implemented on the Lokomat lower extremity gait orthosis and utilized to assess short-term motor adaptation. Establishing an understanding of how healthy adults’ motor systems adapt to external perturbations will be important to understanding how the adaptive mechanisms involved in gait are altered by disease. PMID:21095786

Cajigas, Iahn; Goldsmith, Mary T.; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert; Smith, Maurice A.; Brown, Emery N.; Bonato, Paolo

2012-01-01

89

Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats  

PubMed Central

Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

2011-01-01

90

Effects of age and IQ on adaptive behavior domains for children with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have examined adaptive behavior in autism, but few studies have looked for different patterns of adaptive skills according to age and intelligence. Domain scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) were compared in relation to age and Performance IQ for 72 children and adolescents with autism and 37 nonautistic children and adolescents with mental retardation. Age and IQ

Jeffrey Schatz; Ghada Hamdan-Allen

1995-01-01

91

Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

2011-01-01

92

Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. PMID:25461715

Pujol, Jesus; Del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

2014-10-28

93

Habitat Utilization Assessment - Building in Behaviors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Habitability, and the associated architectural and design attributes of an environment, is a powerful performance shaping factor. By identifying how inhabitants use an area, we can draw conclusions about what design or architectural attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance. We are analyzing how a crew uses a long duration habitat and work environment during a four-day underwater mission and identifying certain architectural and design attributes that are related to, and potential enablers of, certain crew behaviors. By identifying how inhabitants use the habitat, we can draw conclusions about what habitability attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance (applicable to NASA's Bioastronautics Human Behavior and Performance Critical Path Roadmap question 6.12). This assessment replicates a methodology reported in a chapter titled "Sociokinetic Analysis as a Tool for Optimization of Environmental Design" by C. Adams.' That study collected video imagery of certain areas of a closed habitat during a 91 day test and from that data calculated time spent in different volumes during the mission, and characterized the behaviors occurring in certain habitat volumes thus concluding various rules for design of such habitats. This study assesses the utilization of the Aquarius Habitat, an underwater station, which will support six Aquanauts for a fourteen-day mission during which the crew will perform specific scientific and engineering studies. Video is recorded for long uninterrupted periods of time during the mission and from that data the time spent in each area is calculated. In addition, qualitative and descriptive analysis of the types of behaviors in each area is performed with the purpose of identifying any behaviors that are not typical of a certain area. If a participant uses an area in a way different from expected, a subsequent analysis of the features of that area may result in conclusions of performance shaping factors. With the addition of this study, we can make comparisons between the two different habitats and begin drawing correlation judgments about design features and behavior. Ideally, this methodology should be repeated in additional Aquarius missions and other analog environments because the real information will come from comparisons between habitats.

Whitmore, Mihriban; Blume, Jennifer

2004-01-01

94

ASSOCIATING NONLINEAR EFFECTS IN NLMS ADAPTATION WITH DYNAMIC WEIGHT BEHAVIOR A. A. (Louis) Beex & James R. Zeidler  

E-print Network

are strongest when involving narrowband processes and when adaptive filter stepsizes are relatively large-Wiener behavior, have been observed in several adaptive filtering applications, such as adaptive equalization of wideband communication signals contaminated by narrowband interference, adaptive narrowband noise

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

95

Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

2013-01-01

96

Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

2011-01-01

97

Adding adaptive assessment capabilities to an e-learning system Ioannis Hatzilygeroudis, Constantinos Koutsojannis, Nikolaos Papachristou*  

E-print Network

of pedagogical devices and adaptive communication, it lacks facilities for adaptive student assessment. EX, such as student modelling and adaptive content presentation, also provides means for adaptive use of pedagogical devices and adaptive communication support. According to [3], a system, in order to facilitate adaptive

98

Gender differences in adapting driving behavior to accommodate visual health limitations.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether men and women are equally likely to adapt their driving behaviors in response to visual limitations. Participants were 376 (222 women and 154 men) pre-surgical cataract patients from the Shiley Eye Center in La Jolla, California. All participants completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire, which assesses self-reported visual symptoms, functional limitations, and behaviors including driving during the day, at night, or in difficult conditions. Visual acuity was assessed using the log of the minimal angle of resolution (LogMAR) scale. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between men and women who reported either that they stopped driving at night because of visual impairment or reported having no difficulty driving at night. Of participants who reported having difficulty driving at night, mean weighted LogMAR scores indicated significantly better visual acuity for women than men. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between women and men in any of the difficult driving condition categories. Significantly more women than men reported that they stopped driving in difficult conditions because of eyesight, despite the lack of gender differences in visual acuity for this sample. We found no evidence that cataract disease had different effects on the visual acuity of older adult men and women. However, there was a significant difference between genders in self-reported driving behavior. It is possible that some women are more cautious or have less need to drive. However, failing to adapt driving behaviors to accommodate visual limitations may represent a potential behavioral public health risk for men. PMID:23852327

Sarkin, Andrew J; Tally, Steven R; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Choi, Kyle; Shieh, Marian; Kaplan, Robert M

2013-12-01

99

A Risk-based Model Predictive Control Approach to Adaptive Interventions in Behavioral Health.  

PubMed

This paper examines how control engineering and risk management techniques can be applied in the field of behavioral health through their use in the design and implementation of adaptive behavioral interventions. Adaptive interventions are gaining increasing acceptance as a means to improve prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders, such as abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, mental illness, and obesity. A risk-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is developed for a hypothetical intervention inspired by Fast Track, a real-life program whose long-term goal is the prevention of conduct disorders in at-risk children. The MPC-based algorithm decides on the appropriate frequency of counselor home visits, mentoring sessions, and the availability of after-school recreation activities by relying on a model that includes identifiable risks, their costs, and the cost/benefit assessment of mitigating actions. MPC is particularly suited for the problem because of its constraint-handling capabilities, and its ability to scale to interventions involving multiple tailoring variables. By systematically accounting for risks and adapting treatment components over time, an MPC approach as described in this paper can increase intervention effectiveness and adherence while reducing waste, resulting in advantages over conventional fixed treatment. A series of simulations are conducted under varying conditions to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:21643450

Zafra-Cabeza, Ascensión; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Ridao, Miguel A; Camacho, Eduardo F

2011-07-01

100

Diagnosis and situation assessment in self-adaptive networked systems  

E-print Network

identification: what is the fault ? ADREAM #12;Diagnosis : more formally Fault detection: trigger an alarm whenDiagnosis and situation assessment in self-adaptive networked systems Louise Travé-Massuyès #12, scheduling Control Advanced control, diagnosis and supervision laws Which topics for MOCOSY ? What does

Ingrand, François

101

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Livestock Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

102

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Grain & Oilseed Production Peace Region snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri

Pedersen, Tom

103

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Fraser Valley & Metro Vancouver snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

104

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Wine Grape & Tree Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

105

Iron supplementation in infancy contributes to more adaptive behavior at 10 years of age.  

PubMed

Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14-0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M; Smith, Julia B; Sturza, Julie

2014-06-01

106

Cross-Cultural Normative Assessment: Translation and Adaptation Issues Influencing the Normative Interpretation of Assessment Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues affecting measures that are translated or adapted from an initial language or culture to a new one are described. Notions of test validation, fairness, and norms are addressed, and it is argued that such adaptations may be necessary when assessing members of subpopulations of the U.S. culture. (SLD)

Geisinger, Kurt F.

1994-01-01

107

Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.  

SciTech Connect

This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

Senglaub, Michael E.

2007-01-01

108

Adopting, Adapting, or Developing an Aligned Assessment for Your Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a set of research-based guidelines for developing assessment methods in the K-12 classroom. A winner of multiple awards, the site was named a "Page of Excellence" by the NSTA SciLinks Program. It features step-by-step support in four assessment processes: 1) Choosing a content standard and describing performance expectations; 2) Communicating expectations to students and parents; 3) Developing and adapting assessments that are aligned with the performance description; and 4) Using the results to improve student performance and teaching practice.

2009-11-23

109

DMM assessments of attachment and adaptation: Procedures, validity and utility.  

PubMed

This article gives a brief over view of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM; Crittenden, 2008) together with the various DMM assessments of attachment that have been developed for specific stages of development. Each assessment is discussed in terms of procedure, outcomes, validity, advantages and limitations, comparable procedures and areas for further research and validation. The aims are twofold: to provide an introduction to DMM theory and its application that underlie the articles in this issue of CCPP; and to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to DMM assessments. PMID:20603420

Farnfield, Steve; Hautamäki, Airi; Nørbech, Peder; Sahhar, Nicola

2010-07-01

110

Psychopathological Manifestations of Children with Intellectual Disabilities According to Their Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior which increase the risk of psychopathological disorders. This exploratory study aims at delineating profiles of children based on their cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviors, and to compare them on psychopathological manifestations. A…

Tremblay, Karine N.; Richer, Louis; Lachance, Lise; Cote, Alain

2010-01-01

111

Development of an Instrument for Diagnosing Significant Limitations in Adaptive Behavior in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although adaptive behavior became a diagnostic criterion in the 5th edition of the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, AAIDD (Heber, 1959, 1961), there are no measures with adequate psychometric properties for diagnosing significant limitations in adaptive behavior according to the current conception of the…

Navas, Patricia; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Arias, Benito; Gomez, Laura E.

2012-01-01

112

Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

113

Review of Adaptive Behavior Studies in Mentally Retarded Persons with Autism\\/Pervasive Developmental Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of the investigations carried out concerning the adaptive behavior of persons with the dual disability of mental retardation and autism\\/PDD. A close correspondence is found between the results obtained by means of a Dutch set of scales, the SRZ, SGZ, and SMZ, and those obtained by means of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Compared with matched

Dirk Kraijer

2000-01-01

114

Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation Planning for the Southeast US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climate change assessment is carried out for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the southeast US following an integrated water resources assessment and planning framework. The assessment process begins with the development/selection of consistent climate, demographic, socio-economic, and land use/cover scenarios. Historical scenarios and responses are analyzed first to establish baseline conditions. Future climate scenarios are based on GCMs available through the IPCC. Statistical and/or dynamic downscaling of GCM outputs is applied to generate high resolution (12x12 km) atmospheric forcing, such as rainfall, temperature, and ET demand, over the ACF River Basin watersheds. Physically based watershed, aquifer, and estuary models (lumped and distributed) are used to quantify the hydrologic and water quality river basin response to alternative climate and land use/cover scenarios. Demand assessments are carried out for each water sector, for example, water supply for urban, agricultural, and industrial users; hydro-thermal facilities; navigation reaches; and environmental/ecological flow and lake level requirements, aiming to establish aspirational water use targets, performance metrics, and management/adaptation options. Response models for the interconnected river-reservoir-aquifer-estuary system are employed next to assess actual water use levels and other sector outputs under a specific set of hydrologic inputs, demand targets, and management/adaptation options. Adaptive optimization methods are used to generate system-wide management policies conditional on inflow forecasts. The generated information is used to inform stakeholder planning and decision processes aiming to develop consensus on adaptation measures, management strategies, and performance monitoring indicators. The assessment and planning process is driven by stakeholder input and is inherently iterative and sequential.

Georgakakos, A. P.; Yao, H.; Zhang, F.

2012-12-01

115

Abstract Behavior Representations for Self-Assessment Scott A. Wallace  

E-print Network

Abstract Behavior Representations for Self-Assessment Scott A. Wallace Washington State University which might be derived, for example, from observations of human experts (Wallace & Laird 2003). However

Wallace, Scott

116

Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Develop Behavior Interventions for Students in Head Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A withdrawal design repeated across three children enrolled in two Head Start classrooms was used to investigate the effectiveness of functional assessment-based interventions to decrease inappropriate behavior. The two questions addressed in the study were (a) Will a behavior intervention plan based on functional behavior assessment conducted in…

McLaren, Elizabeth M.; Nelson, C. Michael

2009-01-01

117

A qualitative assessment of cross-cultural adaptation of intermediate measures for schizophrenia in multisite international studies.  

PubMed

In this substudy of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia we examined qualitative feedback on the cross-cultural adaptability of four intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment, Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia, and Cognitive Assessment Interview). Feedback was provided by experienced English-fluent clinical researchers at 31 sites in eight countries familiar with medication trials. Researchers provided feedback on test subscales and items which were rated as having adaptation challenges. They noted the specific concern and made suggestions for adaptation to their culture. We analyzed the qualitative data using a modified Grounded Theory approach guided by the International Testing Commission Guidelines model for test adaptation. For each measure except the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), the majority of subscales were reported to require major adaptations in terms of content and concepts contained in the subscale. In particular, social, financial, transportation and health care systems varied widely across countries-systems which are often used to assess performance capacity in the U.S. We provide suggestions for how to address future international test development and adaptation. PMID:23167987

Gonzalez, Jodi M; Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M; Velligan, Dawn I

2013-04-30

118

Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy  

PubMed Central

Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

2013-01-01

119

Functional Assessment in Behavioral Consultation: A Treatment Utility Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the treatment utility of functional assessment within a behavioral consultation framework to determine the effect of different uses of assessment data on child treatment outcome. Participants were 19 preschool children enrolled in Head Start and their teachers who worked with consultants to identify target behaviors and implement…

Schill, Melissa Twernbold; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Elliott, Stephen N.

1998-01-01

120

Assessment of social behavior in children with autism: The development of the Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a limited number of assessments available to examine social skills deficits in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children (BASYC) was developed as a direct assessment of social deficits in young children with ASD relative to children without ASD. The BASYC is a semi-structured assessment designed to be administered

Jennifer M. Gillis; Emily H. Callahan; Raymond G. Romanczyk

2011-01-01

121

Using an Adaptive Gene Network Model for Self-Organizing Multicellular Behavior  

PubMed Central

Using the transient interleukin (IL)-2 secretion of effector T helper (Teff) cells as an example, we show that self-organizing multicellular behavior can be modeled and predicted by an adaptive gene network model. Incorporating an adaptation algorithm we established previously, we construct a network model that has the parameter values iteratively updated to cope with environmental change governed by diffusion and cell-cell interactions. In contrast to non-adaptive models, we find that the proposed adaptive model for individual Teff cells can generate transient IL-2 secretory behavior that is observed experimentally at the population level. The proposed adaptive modeling approach can be a useful tool in the study of self-organizing behavior observed in other contexts in biology, including microbial pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, embryonic development, tumor formation, etc. PMID:23367162

Sayed, Ali H.; Shen, Xiling

2015-01-01

122

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Adaptive Control of Saccades via Internal Feedback  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Adaptive Control of Saccades via Internal Feedback Haiyin Chen rates. It appears that in controlling saccades, the brain relies on an internal feedback that has the brain relies on an internal forward model that monitorsthemotorcommands

Shadmehr, Reza

123

The Development of Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers and Preschoolers with Fragile X versus Autism  

PubMed Central

Although there is extensive research in the early detection of autism, no study has compared the adaptive behavior of young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and children with autism across ages. We investigated the cross-sectional development of adaptive behavior in children with FXS and children with autism between 18 and 83 months of age. Analyses revealed a significant relationship between age and adaptive behavior standard scores for children with FXS, with decreased performance across ages. Analyses also revealed that children with FXS had a relatively flat performance across domains while children with autism are typically more variable with lower scores in the communication domain relative to other domains. Delays in adaptive behavior were evident for children with FXS and children with autism at 24 months of age as reported in previous literature. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:25191537

McCary, Lindsay M.; Machlin, Laura; Roberts, Jane E.

2014-01-01

124

AN ADAPTIVE E-ASSESSMENT GRADING (AEAG) MODEL FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment is an integral part of learning and plays a significant role in education. Adaptive testing is a form assessment in which the tests are tailored to the individual's ability. This paper presents an adaptive assessment system realized in PHP and MYSQL. The motivation was to investigate the techniques for the improvement of student assessment. The paper also focuses on

V. Geetha; B. Surendiran; R. Nadarajan; G. S. Nandakumar

2012-01-01

125

Adaptation processes in insect olfactory receptors. Mechanisms and behavioral significance.  

PubMed

Adaptation was studied in single olfactory receptor cells of male moths of Bombyx mori and Antheraea polyphemus. Receptor potential and nerve impulse generators have different and very likely, spatially separate adaptation mechanisms possibly located in the outer dendritic segment and the cell soma, respectively. Restricted portions of the receptor cell dendrite can be locally adapted. The impulse generator may exhibit at least two distinct adaptation processes with different kinetics, as deduced from a consideration of the phasic-tonic response and the different adaptation properties of each of these phases. The response characteristics of cells in the same sensillum are different. The "faster" responding cell types resolve odor pulses with frequencies up to 10 per second--a performance that is probably needed for orientation during flight toward a small odor source. PMID:3324874

Kaissling, K E; Zack Strausfeld, C; Rumbo, E R

1987-01-01

126

Brief Report: Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Depressed Low-Income African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examine the degree to which a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention can be adapted to be culturally sensitive in treating depressed low-income African American women with multiple stressors. We describe the adaptations we made to an existing intervention, a group treatment developed for depressed low-income medical patients. We also describe our evaluation of the adapted treatment in

Laura P. Kohn; Tatia Oden; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Ayinka Robinson; Daria Leavitt

2002-01-01

127

The association of benefit finding to psychosocial and health behavior adaptation among HIV+ men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV\\u000a has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation,\\u000a such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of\\u000a benefit

Rae A. Littlewood; Peter A. Vanable; Michael P. Carey; Donald C. Blair

2008-01-01

128

A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.  

PubMed

The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24219847

McDowell, J J

2013-10-01

129

Conjoint Effects of Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior on Achievement in a Nonreferred Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the conjoint effects of intelligence and adaptive behavior on subsequent achievement in a nonreferred sample. Scores from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Classroom Edition (VABS-CE) were collected for 51 kindergarten children. These kindergarten scores subsequently were compared with the children's second-grade achievement in reading, spelling, language, and math.

Mary diSibio

1993-01-01

130

Adaptive behaviors of reactive mobile robot with Bayesian inference in nonstationary environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique for a reactive mobile robot to adaptively behave in unforeseen and dynamic circumstances.\\u000a A robot in nonstationary environments needs to infer how to adaptively behave to the changing environment. Behavior-based\\u000a approach manages the interactions between the robot and its environment for generating behaviors, but in spite of its strengths\\u000a of fast response, it has not

Hyeun-Jeong Min; Sung-Bae Cho

2010-01-01

131

Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a\\u000a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age?=?18) with\\u000a average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about the presence of broader\\u000a autism phenotype symptoms and major psychiatric disorders

Carla A. Mazefsky; Diane L. Williams; Nancy J. Minshew

2008-01-01

132

Modeling and dynamic behavior of rotating blades carrying a tip mass and incorporating adaptive capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The problems of the mathematical modeling and dynamical behavior of rotating blades carrying a tip mass and incorporating adaptive capabilities are considered. The blade is modeled as a thinwalled beam incorporating non-classical features such as anisotropy, transverse shear, secondary warping, and includes the centrifugal and Coriolis force fields. For non-adaptive rotating blades, a thorough validation of the structural model

O. Song; L. Librescu

1999-01-01

133

Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

2009-01-01

134

Initial moments of adaptation to microgravity of human orientation behavior, in parabolic flight conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first ethological studies of astronauts' adaptation to microgravity dealt with the behavioral strategies observed during short-term space missions. No attempts had however been made to consider the initial moments of adaptation dynamics, when the subject is first submitted to conditions allowing body orientations in the full three dimensions of space. The present experimental approach was both longitudinal and transversal.

Carole Tafforin

1996-01-01

135

A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

2008-01-01

136

Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining.  

PubMed

During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others' intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others' behaviors will be consistent with one's expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others' demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining. PMID:24493841

Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

2014-12-01

137

Applications of Risk Assessment in the Development of Climate Change Adaptation Policy  

E-print Network

1 Applications of Risk Assessment in the Development of Climate Change Adaptation Policy A of climate change will affect both natural systems and human populations. Adaptation policies that provide. Present applications of risk assessment for climate change adaptation have taken two main approaches

Michalak, Anna M.

138

Adolescent Risk Behavior Subgroups: An Empirical Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories and prior research have outlined a constellation of adolescent risk behaviors that tend to co-occur, reflecting a general pattern. Although their generality has largely been supported, there is some question about how to best study and portray the relationship among these behaviors. This study used data from a survey administered to high…

Sullivan, Christopher J.; Childs, Kristina K.; O'Connell, Daniel

2010-01-01

139

Translation, cultural adaptation and content re-validation of the observational teamwork assessment for surgery tool.  

PubMed

Background. Poor teamwork and nontechnical skill performance are increasingly recognized as important contributing factors to errors and adverse events in the operating room. Assessment of these safety critical skills is important to facilitate improvement, however there are no tools available to assess these safety skills in Latin America. This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and content validate the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool for use in Latin America. Methods. A multi-phase, multi-method study was conducted: Phase 1: translation and back-translation; Phase 2: content validity assessed via expert consensus; Phase 3: inter-rater reliability assessed via real-time observation in 98 general surgical procedures using OTAS-S. Results. The first change in OTAS-S, was to distinguish between the surgical nurses and scrub technicians (both OR team members are captured in the nursing sub-team in the original OTAS). OTAS-S consists of 168 exemplar behaviors: 60/114 identical to the exemplars listed in the original OTAS tool, 48/114 original exemplars underwent minor modifications, 13 were duplicated (to account for the additional sub-team distinguished in OTAS-S), 6 original exemplars were removed, and 47 new exemplar behaviors were added. Inter-observer agreement was substantial (KW = 0.602; IC: 0.581-0.620). The calculated KW by phase, behaviors and teams were between 0.534 and 0.678. Conclusions. The study provides a content validated teamwork assessment tool for use within Colombian operating rooms and potentially Latin-American. OTAS-S can be used to assess the quality of teamwork in ORs, facilitate structured debriefing and thus improve patient safety and reduce team-related errors. PMID:25462706

Amaya Arias, Ana Carolina; Barajas, Rocío; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H; Wheelock, Ana; Gaitán Duarte, Hernando; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

2014-12-01

140

Development of the key behaviors change inventory: A traumatic brain injury behavioral outcome assessment instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kolitz BP, Vanderploeg RD, Curtiss G. Development of the Key Behaviors Change Inventory: a traumatic brain injury behavioral outcome assessment instrument. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2003;84:277-84. Objective: To describe the development and initial validation of a neurobehavioral outcome measure, the Key Behaviors Change Inventory (KBCI), for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Scale construction and development, and validity study.

Brent P. Kolitz; Rodney D. Vanderploeg; Glenn Curtiss

2003-01-01

141

Truncated Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedure For Children With Disruptive Classroom Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are now required by law to create behavior support plans based on functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for students with behavior problems. Although FBA has been shown to be effective, there are questions as to its feasibility in the schools. In this pilot study we examined the effectiveness of a truncated FBA procedure. The FBA used a…

Packenham, Melissa; Shute, Rosalyn; Reid, Robert

2004-01-01

142

FOOD NEEDS OF ADULT PARASITOIDS: BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS AND CONSEQUENCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most parasitoids need both carbohydrates and hosts to maximize their reproductive potential. We reviewed the literature for potential interactions between food resource acquisition of adult parasitoids and determined that they are influenced mainly by morphological adaptations for feeding, the dete...

143

Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2014-06-01

144

Assessment of Social Behavior in Children with Autism: The Development of the Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a limited number of assessments available to examine social skills deficits in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children (BASYC) was developed as a direct assessment of social deficits in young children with ASD relative to children without ASD. The BASYC is a…

Gillis, Jennifer M.; Callahan, Emily H.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

2011-01-01

145

Avoid, attack or do both? Behavioral and physiological adaptations in natural enemies faced with novel hosts  

PubMed Central

Background Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation), neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation) or both? Although simultaneous investment in both adaptations may first appear to be redundant, several empirical studies have suggested a reinforcement of physiological resistance to host defenses with additional avoidance behaviors. To explain this paradox, we develop a mathematical model describing the joint evolution of behavioral and physiological adaptations on the part of natural enemies to their host defenses. Our specific goals are (i) to derive the conditions that may favor the simultaneous investment in avoidance and physiological resistance and (ii) to study the factors that govern the relative investment in each adaptation mode. Results Our results show that (i) a simultaneous investment may be optimal if the fitness costs of the adaptive traits are accelerating and the probability of encountering defended hosts is low. When (i) holds, we find that (ii) the more that defended hosts are rare and/or spatially aggregated, the more behavioral adaptation is favored. Conclusion Despite their interference, physiological resistance to host defensive innovations and avoidance of these same defenses are two strategies in which it may be optimal for an enemy to invest in simultaneously. The relative allocation to each strategy greatly depends on host spatial structure. We discuss the implications of our findings for the management of invasive plant species and the management of pest resistance to new crop protectants or varieties. PMID:16271142

Vacher, Corinne; Brown, Sam P; Hochberg, Michael E

2005-01-01

146

Using Information Technology to Prepare Personnel to Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavior Support.  

E-print Network

Topic: Positive Behavior Support BOTTOM LINE TIPS Sailor, W., Freeman, R.L., Britten, J., McCart, A., & Smith, C.L. (2000). Using information technology to pre- pare personnel to implement functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral...., Beech, S., Free- man, R., Guess, D., Hale, N., Lassen, S., McCart, A., Riffel, L., Schmerchek, D., Turnbull, H. R., Warren, J., & Wilcox, B. (2002). A blueprint for schoolwide positive behavioral support: Full implementation of three compo- nents...

Sailor, Wayne; Freeman, Rachel L.; Britten, Jody; McCart, Amy; Smith, Christopher; Scott, Terry; Nelson, Mike

2000-01-01

147

Behavior adaptation from negative social signal based on own goal awareness  

E-print Network

Behavior adaptation from negative social signal based on own goal awareness Antoine de Rengerv to perform actions in a human environment where they will have to learn both how and when to act. Social representations and thus its behavior in the context of latent learning with rewards. In this paper the focus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation  

PubMed Central

Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

2012-01-01

149

Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

2010-01-01

150

Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

2011-01-01

151

Adaptive Characteristics and Suicidal Behavior: A Gender Comparison of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a…

Ellis, Jon B.; Lamis, Dorian A.

2007-01-01

152

Adaptive Skills and Maladaptive Behavior of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Attending Special Schools in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the profile of and relationships between adaptive skills and the maladaptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending special schools in Singapore. Parents of 20 adolescents with ASD attending special schools completed the Development Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995;…

Poon, Kenneth K.

2011-01-01

153

Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. MIT-ICLEI Climate Adaptation Survey Instrument  

E-print Network

The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

Carmin, JoAnn

2014-09-14

154

Evolution of Adaptive Synapses: Robots with Fast Adaptive Behavior in New Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with adaptation capabilities of evolved neural controllers. We propose to evolve mechanisms for parameter self-organization instead of evolving the parameters themselves. The method consists of encoding a set of local adaptation rules that synapses follow while the robot freely moves in the environment. In the experiments presented here, the performance of the robot is measured in

Joseba Urzelai; Dario Floreano

2001-01-01

155

Field behavior and adaptive strategies of appendicularians (Chordata: Tunicata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of 7 species of appendicularians from the family Oikopleuridae was observed using SCUBA in the Gulf of California and the Florida Current. The frequency and orientation of feeding and the pattern of swimming while within the house varied considerably among species. Appendicularians expanded new houses in 1 1\\/2 to 5 min. House-expansion behavior was complex and variable among

A. L. Alldredge

1976-01-01

156

The Social Validity Assessment of Social Competence Intervention Behavior Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social validation is the value judgment from society on the importance of a study. The social validity of behavior goals used in the social competence intervention literature was assessed using the Q-sort technique. The stimulus items were 80 different social competence behavior goals taken from 78 classroom-based social competence intervention…

Hurley, Jennifer J.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Feurer, Irene D.

2010-01-01

157

Relative preference and adaptiveness of behavioral blame for observers of rape victims.  

PubMed

Observers viewed one of nine dramatized videotaped interviews of a rape victim describing her rape. Information in the interview varied the prudence of the victim's behavior (careful, careless, no information provided) and the respectability of her character (good, bad, no information provided). Behavioral blame was significantly greater than characterological blame when the victim was careless or when no information was provided about behavior, regardless of the victim's character. When the behavior was careful, behavioral blame was equal in magnitude to characterological blame. In no case was characterological blame preferred. The adaptive value of behavioral blame for preserving a belief in a controllable and meaningful world was examined using a hierarchical multiple regression. After removing the effects of the prebeliefs of the subjects and the independent variable manipulations, only behavioral blame was significantly related to the maintenance of adaptive beliefs. Implications of the adaptive value of behavioral blame are discussed along with the importance of distinguishing observers' behavioral and characterological blaming strategies in the victimization literature. PMID:6491861

Karuza, J; Carey, T O

1984-09-01

158

Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

Simon, Robert I.

2008-01-01

159

Functional Behavioral Assessment in Practice: Concepts and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of functional assessment is among the most important developments in several decades for the education and treatment of people with mental retardation, autism, and other developmental disabilities. These powerful methods for understanding maladaptive behavior and linking intervention closely to assessment have made a difference in the lives of countless people with developmental disabilities and should be part of

SANDRA L. HARRIS; BETH A. GLASBERG

160

Tracking behavior assessment methodology and support strategies: a national survey of how schools utilize functional behavioral assessments and behavior intervention plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) have been utilized since the 1960s, their use has steadily increased since the passing of IDEA 1997 which mandated their use in specified circumstances. References to FBAs and BIPs in No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the 2004 re-authorization of IDEA, and in positive behavioral supports programming has also

Michael A. Couvillon; Lyndal M. Bullock; Robert A. Gable

2009-01-01

161

Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the student), pedagogy ontology, and learner ontology (defines time constraint, comment, profile).

Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

2014-05-01

162

Modeling bee swarming behavior through diffusion adaptation with asymmetric information sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeybees swarm when they move to a new site for their hive. During the process of swarming, their behavior can be analyzed by classifying them as informed bees or uninformed bees, where the informed bees have some information about the destination while the uninformed bees follow the informed bees. The swarm's movement can be viewed as a network of mobile nodes with asymmetric information exchange about their destination. In these networks, adaptive and mobile agents share information on the fly and adapt their estimates in response to local measurements and data shared with neighbors. Diffusion adaptation is used to model the adaptation process in the presence of asymmetric nodes and noisy data. The simulations indicate that the models are able to emulate the swarming behavior of bees under varied conditions such as a small number of informed bees, sharing of target location, sharing of target direction, and noisy measurements.

Li, Jinchao; Sayed, Ali H.

2012-12-01

163

Biomarkers for assessing population and individual health and disease related to stress and adaptation.  

PubMed

Biomarkers are important in stress biology in relation to assessing individual and population health. They facilitate tapping meaningfully into the complex, non-linear interactions that affect the brain and multiple systems of the body and promote adaptation or, when dysregulated, they can accelerate disease processes. This has demanded a multifactorial approach to the choice of biomarkers. This is necessary in order to adequately describe and predict how an individual embedded in a particular social and physical environment, and with a unique genotype and set of lifetime experiences, will fare in terms of health and disease risk, as well as how that individual will respond to an intervention. Yet, at the same time, single biomarkers can have a predictive or diagnostic value when combined with carefully designed longitudinal assessment of behavior and disease related to stress. Moreover, the methods of brain imaging, themselves the reflection of the complexity of brain functional architecture, have provided new ways of diagnosing, and possibly differentiating, subtypes of depressive illness and anxiety disorders that are precipitated or exacerbated by stress. Furthermore, postmortem assessment of brain biomarkers provides important clues about individual vulnerability for suicide related to depression and this may lead to predictive biomarkers to better treat individuals with suicidal depression. Once biomarkers are available, approaches to prevention and treatment should take advantage of the emerging evidence that activating brain plasticity together with targeted behavioral interventions is a promising strategy. PMID:25496803

McEwen, Bruce S

2015-03-01

164

Relevance of functional behavioral assessment research for school-based interventions and positive behavioral support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of functional analysis over the past 15 years, the extent to which these findings can be generalized across clients, methods, settings, and response

Frank M Gresham; Laura Lee McIntyre; Heidi Olson-Tinker; Lisa Dolstra; Veronica McLaughlin; Mai Van

2004-01-01

165

Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

Myers, Carl L.

2013-01-01

166

ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY  

PubMed Central

On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

2010-01-01

167

Options for Managing Student Behavior: Adaptations for Individual Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…

Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

168

LIFE ON THE EDGE: MORPHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS FOR  

E-print Network

. The final section describes the role of behavior in barnacles in compensating for limits in the phenotypic plasticity of their feeding appendages. By directly monitoring the feeding activity of barnacles under breaking waves, I show that fast reaction times allow barnacles to avoid damaging water flows while still

Denny, Mark

169

Assessing the role of sexual selection in adaptive radiation of the auklets (Alcidae, Aethiini)  

E-print Network

Assessing the role of sexual selection in adaptive radiation of the auklets (Alcidae, Aethiini) Ian, I.L. 1999. Assessing the role of sexual selection in adaptive radiation of the auklets (Alcidae: CD-ROM. The auklets provide an enigmatic comparative example of sexual selection, with expression

Jones, Ian L.

170

Urban climate resilience : a global assessment of city adaptation plans  

E-print Network

As policy makers accept climate change as an irrefutable threat, adaptation planning has emerged as a necessary action for countries, states, and municipalities. This thesis explores adaptive responses to climate change ...

Katich, Kristina Noel

2009-01-01

171

The spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity: regulatory, attention, social, and adaptive dimensions.  

PubMed

Advances in obstetrics and neonatology have increased the survival rates of premature infants with very preterm (<32 weeks) and extremely preterm (<28 weeks) gestations. However, survivors have a high frequency of challenges in academic and social skills. There has been an increased emphasis on examination of outcomes beyond survival rates and rates of neurosensory disabilities at ages 18 to 24 months (eg, cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, global development delay). One of the key strategies for understanding pathways of risk and resilience is to examine behavioral, social-emotional, and adaptive competencies. The purpose of this paper is to apply the International Classification of Functioning framework to a spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity, describe useful tools for measuring behavioral, social, and adaptive competencies, as well as review model outcome studies before middle childhood. Thus, we can use current information to begin to understand pathways underlying behavioral health, well-being, and social competence. PMID:18249239

Msall, Michael E; Park, Jennifer J

2008-02-01

172

Behavioral Metabolution: The Adaptive and Evolutionary Potential of Metabolism-Based Chemotaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a minimal model of metabolism-based chemotaxis to show how a coupling between metabolism and behavior can affect evolutionary dynamics in a process we refer to as behavioral metabolution. This mutual influence can function as an in-the-moment, intrinsic evaluation of the adaptive value of a novel situation, such as an encounter with a compound that activates new metabolic pathways.

Matthew D. Egbert; Xabier E. Barandiaran; Ezequiel A. Di Paolo

2012-01-01

173

A tool for creating eye-aware applications that adapt to changes in user behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development tool is described that can be used to create eye-aware software applications that adapt in real-time to changes in a user’s natural eye-movement behaviors and intentions. The research involved in developing this tool focuses on identifying patterns of eye-movement that describe three behaviors: Knowledgeable Movement, Searching, and Prolonged Searching. In the process of doing the research, two important

Gregory W. Edwards; Archimedes Project

1998-01-01

174

Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China  

PubMed Central

Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher risk perception and fewer adaptation behaviors during heat waves may be more vulnerable to heat waves. PMID:24088302

2013-01-01

175

Fish behavior, migration and environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Studies at the Pacific Northwst Laboratory have evaluated fish behavior and migration in response to thermal discharge, gas supersaturated water, water-soluble fractions of coal liquids, and other environmental stresses. Major findings including thermal discharges did not block upstream migration of sonic-tagged adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the Columbia River. Juvenile chinook slamon avoided thermal discharges in the laboratory when ..delta..ts exceeded 9 to 11)degree)C above ambient. However juvenile salmon were more susceptible to predation at 10 to 20% of the thermal dose causing loss of equilibrium. Radio-tagged adult chinook salmon swam deeper in supersaturated water than in normally saturated water in the Snake River and, thereby, avoided the upper, critical zone. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and black bullhead (Ictalurus melas) did not always avoid lethal gas levels in the laboratory and some fish died in the test apparatus. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) avoided the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a coal liquid at concentrations causing acute effects but not at those causing chronic effects. Rainbow trout did not avoid coal liquid WSFs although they reportedly avid the major constituent, phenol, tested a as pure compound. Susceptibility to predation of juvenile rainbow trout did not increase until phenol concentrations reached the acute LC/sub 50/. 67 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Gray, R.H.

1988-02-01

176

control subjects adapted to the load (P o 0.01; Fig. 3c). The amount of adaptation was assessed on a per subject basis by computing the  

E-print Network

feedback may also change because the load might affect speech acoustics by altering the shape of the vocal#12;control subjects adapted to the load (P o 0.01; Fig. 3c). The amount of adaptation was assessed of the curvature resulting from the introduction of load. A value of 1.0 indicates complete adaptation. Adaptation

177

Hypothetical Use of Multidimensional Adaptive Testing for the Assessment of Student Achievement in the Programme for International Student Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usefulness of multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) for the assessment of student literacy in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) was examined within a real data simulation study. The responses of N = 14,624 students who participated in the PISA assessments of the years 2000, 2003, and 2006 in Germany were used to…

Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils

2011-01-01

178

The Effects of Sociodrama on the Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors of Elementary School Boys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of sociodrama on the adaptive and maladaptive behaviors of elementary school boys were examined in three groups of six boys each. One group was used as a control for the Hawthorne effect; the second, as a control for teacher expectation effects and for changes as a function of involvement with a male counselor. In the experimental…

Bell, Steven Harvey

179

Intelligence, Parental Depression, and Behavior Adaptability in Deaf Children Being Considered for Cochlear Implantation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…

Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

2007-01-01

180

Surviving winter hypoxia: behavioral adaptations of fishes in a northern Wisconsin winterkill lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winterkill lakes often have a characteristic fish community, presumably composed of species able to survive winter hypoxia. Our research on a small winterkill lake in northern Wisconsin indicates that fishes common in winterkill lakes have behavioral adaptations for tolerating or avoiding winter hypoxia. We examined the distribution of fishes within the lake during one winter (December through May), and fish

John J. Magnusonl; Annamarie L. Beckel; Ken Mills; Stephen B. Brandt

1985-01-01

181

CitiSense Adaptive Services for Community-Driven Behavioral and Environmental Monitoring to Induce  

E-print Network

CitiSense ± Adaptive Services for Community-Driven Behavioral and Environmental Monitoring RI³FLWL]HQ LQIUDVWUXFWXUH´ for the monitoring of pollution and environmental conditions that users the vision of ubiquitous environmental sensing in San Diego, and preliminary results for energy management

Simunic, Tajana

182

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Supplementary Norms for Individuals with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Special Population norms are presented for four groups of individuals with autism: (a) mute children under 10 years of age; (b) children with at least some verbal skills under 10 years of age; (c) mute individuals who are 10 years of age or older; and (d) individuals with at least some verbal skills who are 10

Alice S. Carter; Fred R. Volkmar; Sara S. Sparrow; Jing-Jen Wang; Catherine Lord; Geraldine Dawson; Eric Fombonne; Katherine Loveland; Gary Mesibov; Eric Schopler

1998-01-01

183

Adaptive but non-optimal visual search behavior with highlighted displays q  

E-print Network

Adaptive but non-optimal visual search behavior with highlighted displays q Action editor: Andrea performance in visual search tasks. But interface designers cannot always anticipate users' intended targets attend to highlighting less than what an algebraic visual search model of highlighted displays [Fisher, D

Byrne, Mike

184

Heuristics as Beliefs and as Behaviors: The Adaptiveness of the ''Hot Hand''  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gigerenzer (2000) and Anderson (1990) analyzed reasoning by asking: what are the reasoner's goals? This emphasizes the adaptiveness of behavior rather than whether a belief is normative. Belief in the ''hot hand'' in basketball suggests that players experiencing streaks should be given more shots, but this has been seen as a fallacy due to…

Burns, Bruce D.

2004-01-01

185

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

2005-01-01

186

Review of Adaptive Behavior Studies in Mentally Retarded Persons with Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research on the adaptive behavior of persons with both mental retardation and autism/pervasive developmental disorder finds the performances of these dually disabled individuals to be particularly poor in the domain of social skills/socialization and somewhat less poor in the communication domain. In addition, autistic mentally…

Kraijer, Dirk

2000-01-01

187

Patterns of Intellectual, Adaptive and Behavioral Functioning in Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many researchers have studied the population of individuals with mild mental retardation (MIMR) as if it is a clear entity. Few researchers have investigated potential subtypes within the MIMR population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate which subtypes can be identified on the basis of intellectual, adaptive and behavioral

Soenen, Sarah; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

2009-01-01

188

Interpersonal Pattern Dynamics and Adaptive Behavior in Multiagent Neurobiological Systems: Conceptual Model and Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological dynamics characterizes adaptive behavior as an emergent, self-organizing property of interpersonal interactions in complex social systems. The authors conceptualize and investigate constraints on dynamics of decisions and actions in the multiagent system of team sports. They studied coadaptive interpersonal dynamics in rugby union to model potential control parameter and collective variable relations in attacker–defender dyads. A videogrammetry analysis revealed

Pedro Passos; Duarte Araújo; Keith Davids; Luis Gouveia; Sidónio Serpa; João Milho; Sofia Fonseca

2009-01-01

189

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders  

E-print Network

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders Todd A independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb- weaving-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web

Blackledge, Todd

190

Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors  

EPA Science Inventory

Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

191

one that refers to anything that has autonomous behaviors. Agents in the network interact, adapt and  

E-print Network

agents. This approach allows the application of agent-based modeling along with social network formation, and relationships change over time. Dynamic social network technology is based on agent-based modelingone that refers to anything that has autonomous behaviors. Agents in the network interact, adapt

Kemner, Ken

192

Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…

Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

2009-01-01

193

School Social Behavior Scales: an adaptation study of the Portuguese version of the social competence scale from SSBS-2.  

PubMed

This study analyses the psychometric proprieties of a Portuguese version of the social competence scale from the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS-2, Merrell, 2002). It is a rating instrument of children and adolescents behavior, to be used by teachers and other school personnel. This scale includes 3 subscales: self-management/compliance, peer relations and academic behavior. In our first sample, 175 teachers rated 344 students from grade 1 through 12. On the second sample 13 teachers rated 251 3rd and 4th grades students. The results from the Portuguese adaptation support the multidimensional structure of the social competence scale from the SSBS-2, although an alternative model demonstrated a better fit to the data than the model originally proposed by the author. The scale showed good internal consistency and good intercorrelations between subscales, as well as between subscales and the total scale. The final model was well replicated in the second sample. These results encourage us to pursue the SSBS-2 Portuguese adaptation, in order to provide a useful and validated instrument for the assessment of social competence and for educational interventions. PMID:23156949

Raimundo, Raquel; Carapito, Elsa; Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques Pinto, Alexandra; Lima, Maria Luísa; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa

2012-11-01

194

Interpersonal pattern dynamics and adaptive behavior in multiagent neurobiological systems: conceptual model and data.  

PubMed

Ecological dynamics characterizes adaptive behavior as an emergent, self-organizing property of interpersonal interactions in complex social systems. The authors conceptualize and investigate constraints on dynamics of decisions and actions in the multiagent system of team sports. They studied coadaptive interpersonal dynamics in rugby union to model potential control parameter and collective variable relations in attacker-defender dyads. A videogrammetry analysis revealed how some agents generated fluctuations by adapting displacement velocity to create phase transitions and destabilize dyadic subsystems near the try line. Agent interpersonal dynamics exhibited characteristics of chaotic attractors and informational constraints of rugby union boxed dyadic systems into a low dimensional attractor. Data suggests that decisions and actions of agents in sports teams may be characterized as emergent, self-organizing properties, governed by laws of dynamical systems at the ecological scale. Further research needs to generalize this conceptual model of adaptive behavior in performance to other multiagent populations. PMID:19482724

Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Gouveia, Luis; Serpa, Sidónio; Milho, João; Fonseca, Sofia

2009-10-01

195

Social Interactions Model and Adaptability of Human Behavior  

PubMed Central

Human social networks evolve on the fast timescale of face-to-face interactions and of interactions mediated by technology such as a telephone calls or video conferences. The resulting networks have a strong dynamical component that changes significantly the properties of dynamical processes. In this paper we study a general model of pairwise human social interaction intended to model both face-to-face interactions and mobile-phone communication. We study the distribution of durations of social interactions in within the model. This distribution in one limit is a power-law, for other values of the parameters of the model this distribution is given by a Weibull function. Therefore the model can be used to model both face-to-face interactions data, where the distribution of duration has been shown to be fat-tailed, and mobile-phone communication data where the distribution of duration is given by a Weibull distribution. The highly adaptable social interaction model propose in this paper has a very simple algorithmic implementation and can be used to simulate dynamical processes occurring in dynamical social interaction networks. PMID:22194724

Zhao, Kun; Bianconi, Ginestra

2011-01-01

196

Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk  

PubMed Central

Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

2014-01-01

197

Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers’ child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank–behavior associations. PMID:23045637

Boyce, W. Thomas; Obradovi?, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

2012-01-01

198

Statistical Methods for Assessing the Behavioral Genetic Component of Reactive  

E-print Network

Statistical Methods for Assessing the Behavioral Genetic Component of Reactive Attachment Disorder Statistics Background Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a condition which results in indi- viduals having with data of this type. References [1] Hanson, R.F. and Spratt, E.G. (2000). Reactive Attachment Disorder

Mottram, Nigel

199

Safety Assessment Using Behavior Trees and Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the use of Behavior Trees and model checking to assess system safety requirements for a system containing substantial redundancy. The case study concerns the hydraulics systems for the Airbus A320 aircraft, which are critical for aircraft control. The system design is supposed to be able to handle up to 3 different components failing individually, without loss of

Peter A. Lindsay; K. Winter; N. Yatapanage

2010-01-01

200

A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

Koh, Seong A.

2010-01-01

201

Assessing Dysfunctional Behaviors in Long-term Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The Geriatric Level of Dysfunction Scale (GLDS) was developed to assess the intensity, fre- quency, and duration of 19 behavioral disturbance categories that can potentially interfere with long- term care. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from res- idents in long-term care facilities. Participants: Participants were 399 adults aged 60 and older residing in one of 16 long-term care

P. Andrew Clifford; Daisha J. Cipher; Kristi D. Roper

2005-01-01

202

Toward the Automatic Assessment of Behavioral Disturbances of Dementia  

E-print Network

Toward the Automatic Assessment of Behavioral Disturbances of Dementia S. J. Allin1 , A. Bharucha2 of dementia among persons age 65 and older. The current annual direct and indirect cost of 100 billion dollars devoted to dementia care will increase as the number of Americans suffering from AD nearly triples to 14

Wactlar, Howard D.

203

Quantitative Adaptation Analytics for Assessing Dynamic Systems of Systems.  

SciTech Connect

Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl [Sandia National Laboratories, Unknown, Unknown; Vander Meer, Robert Charles,

2015-01-01

204

A Comparison of Adaptive Behaviors among Mentally Retarded and Normal Individuals: A guide to Prevention and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Because of the importance of adaptive behaviors in social and domestic lives, this study aimed at a comparison of various domains of adaptive behaviors, between mentally retarded and normal individuals. Methods: A number of 246 normal and 74 mentally retarded individuals (7-18 years of age, mean: 12±3.5 years), participated this study in Tehran, Iran. Their adaptive behaviors scores, were obtained using “Adaptive Behavioral Scale, Residential & Community” (ABS-RC: 2), consisting of 18 domains of behavior. The scale was first translated into Persian by the professionals and then retranslated into English by another translator, to ensure content non-distortion. Results: The following domains were significantly lower in mentally retarded than in normal individuals: independent functioning, economic activity, language development, number & time, prevocational/vocational activity, self-direction, responsibility, socialization, disturbing interpersonal behavior, domestic activity, social engagement, conformity and trustworthiness. No significant difference was documented in the physical development, stereotype & hyperactive behaviors, sexual behavior as well as self abuse behavior domains, between the two groups. Conclusions: As mentally deficient subjects did worse than normal ones in terms of many adaptive behavioral domains, it implies that the adaptive behavioral issues in such people might need a great deal of attention and intervention. For these retarded people to function better in their social and residential environment, it would be necessary to develop their adaptive behaviors. This study may shed light on the importance of attention to the adaptive behavioral domains of mentally retarded people and also indicates the necessity of preventive measures, even for normal individuals. PMID:21677764

Sadrossadat, Leyla; Moghaddami, Alireza; Sadrossadat, Seyyed Jalal

2010-01-01

205

Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for the depressed elderly: Issues and adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of group cognitive-behavioral therapy to depressed geriatric outpatients is illustrated through case examples. Age changes in intellectual functioning may cause the therapy to proceed more slowly than expected and may make behavioral components the most useful aspects of the treatment for some people. Health status may affect the assessment of severity of depression as well as the pace

Joanne L. Steuer; Constance L. Hammen

1983-01-01

206

Task Oriented Behavior-Based State-Adaptive PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) Control for Low-Cost Mobile Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how state-adaptive PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) control can be applied to a low-cost mobile robot. Behavior-based state-adaptive control for this mobile robot behaviors was designed using only three infrared sensors, a low-cost 8 bit microcontroller, and an electronic compass, with size of 22 cm ?? 21 cm ?? 16 cm. The task oriented behavior-based approach is implemented

Igi Ardiyanto

2010-01-01

207

Leader personality and 360-degree assessments of leader behavior.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between personality and multi-source feedback, we assessed 190 health care managers by applying the Understanding Personal Potential personality test, which provides comprehensive measurement of the Big Five dimensions and eight narrower personality traits. Managers' leadership behaviors were assessed by colleagues, supervisors, a random sample of each manager's subordinates as well as the managers themselves using a 360-degree change, production, employee (CPE) instrument. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis showed that the Big Five variables were significantly related to the Managers' leadership behavior in all CPE dimensions. Also, addition of narrow personality variables to the Big Five increased explained variance in leadership behavior. This study is the first of its kind to include the full range of viewpoints in a 360-degree instrument, along with a large number of subordinate assessments. We found that both the strength of the relationship between personality and behavior and the configuration of different predictors varied depending on who did the rating and what leadership orientation was investigated, and this observation merits further investigation. PMID:24833326

Bergman, David; Lornudd, Caroline; Sjöberg, Lennart; Von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

2014-08-01

208

Chronic Assessment of Diaphragm Muscle EMG Activity across Motor Behaviors  

PubMed Central

The diaphragm muscle is main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ~29–42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ~22–29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ~13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation. PMID:21414423

Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

2011-01-01

209

Brazilian Version of the Functional Assessment Measure: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…

Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.

2011-01-01

210

Stability of Adaptive Behaviors in Middle-School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 5-year follow-up study examined the stability of adaptive functioning in two cognitive ability groups of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nonverbal intelligence (NVIQ) was assessed at the time of this study and no participant changed cognitive group membership from the previous study (High NVIQ greater than or equal to 97; Low…

Gabriels, Robin L.; Ivers, Bonnie Jean; Hill, Dina E.; Agnew, John A.; McNeill, John

2007-01-01

211

Assessing Adaptive Instructional Design Tools and Methods in ADAPT[IT].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ADAPT[IT] (Advanced Design Approach for Personalized Training - Interactive Tools) is a European project within the Information Society Technologies program that is providing design methods and tools to guide a training designer according to the latest cognitive science and standardization principles. ADAPT[IT] addresses users in two significantly…

Eseryel, Deniz; Spector, J. Michael

212

Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

2011-01-01

213

[Assessment of hyper- and hypodopaminergic behaviors in Parkinson's disease].  

PubMed

The common perception that Parkinson's disease patients tend to be depressed, anxious, apathetic and harm-avoiding has currently been challenged by the recognition that they can also exhibit a hedonistic, novelty-seeking personality. Thus, Parkinson's disease patients may indulge in their passions in an irresponsible and disinhibited manner, and engage in repetitive, compulsive behaviors that may be harmful and destructive to their social or professional lives. The dopamine dysregulation syndrome includes hypersexuality, pathological gambling, and compulsive shopping; it is associated with addiction to dopaminergic medication. However, not all behavioral changes are necessarily accompanied by a dopaminergic addiction. After antiparkinson treatment is initiated, patients enter a 'honeymoon period' during which changes in mood and behavior reflect a return to the patients' premorbid personality. The increased motivation and higher level of activity in professional as well as leisure activities are considered positive changes by both the patients and their relatives. With prolonged and increased dopaminergic treatment, these positive behavioral changes can become excessive and evolve into nocturnal hyperactivity and stereotyped, repetitive and time consuming behaviors which ultimately disorganize the patient's everyday routine and herald behavioral addictions. These drug-induced behavioral changes are under-appreciated by neurologists and under-reported by the patients who neither complain about the behaviors nor understand the relationship between motivated behavior and dopaminergic medication. For these reasons, we propose a new scale for the assessment of behavior and mood to quantify and track changes related to Parkinson's disease, to dopaminergic medication, and to non-motor fluctuations. This scale is based on the concept of hypo- and hyperdopaminergic mood and behavior. The scale consists of 18 items addressing non-motor symptoms, grouped in four parts: general psychological evaluation, apathy, non-motor fluctuations and hyperdopaminergic behaviors. The rating in five points (0-4 from absent to severe) is carried out during a semi-structured interview. Open-ended questions introduce each item, allowing patients to express themselves as freely as possible. Close-ended questions permit the rating of severity and intensity. This new instrument can be used by psychologists, psychiatrists or neurologists familiar with Parkinson's disease. Designed to detect changes in mood and behavior of Parkinson's disease patients resulting either from the disease or its treatment, this tool can be used in conjunction with the neurocognitive evaluation, to help tailor the treatment of motor and non-motor symptoms to each individual's needs. PMID:19683776

Ardouin, C; Chéreau, I; Llorca, P-M; Lhommée, E; Durif, F; Pollak, P; Krack, P

2009-11-01

214

In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic  

E-print Network

crystal formation pose serious challenges to cell structure and function. Consequently, species livingIn Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic systems, we aimed at evaluating their potential to observe cold adaptations in living insect larvae

Hammerton, James

215

Using Item Response Theory and Adaptive Testing in Online Career Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article describes the potential utility of item response theory (IRT) and adaptive testing for scale evaluation and for web-based career assessment. The article describes the principles of both IRT and adaptive testing and then illustrates these with reference to data analyses and simulation studies of the Career Confidence Inventory…

Betz, Nancy E.; Turner, Brandon M.

2011-01-01

216

Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Leisure Assessment Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Participation"--defined as engagement in life situations, including leisure and recreational activities--is associated with the improvement of people with disabilities' quality of life. Several specific instruments assess leisure, but none of them has been adapted to the Spanish context. The goal of this study is to adapt and validate the Spanish…

Badia, Marta; Orgaz-Baz, M. Begona; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Martinez-Aguirre, M. Magdalena; Longo-Araujo-de-Melo, Egmar; Ullan-de-la-Fuente, Ana M.

2012-01-01

217

Behavior Completion Versus Stimulus Control in Compulsive GamblingImplications for Behavioral Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty subjects were randomly allocated to receive either imaginal relaxation (IR) or imaginal desensitization (ID) to reduce compulsive gambling. As predicted from a behavioral completion model, but not a stimulus control model, subjects' response to IR was comparable with that to ID. Also as predicted, response correlated with subjects' levels of tension following treatment. Detailed assessment of the situations in

Nathaniel Mcconaghy; Michael S. Armstrong; Alex Blaszczynski; Clive Allcock

1988-01-01

218

BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES R. Julian Preston Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA There ...

219

Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. A Research Agenda  

E-print Network

The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

Carmin, JoAnn

2014-09-13

220

Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

Lee, Chuen-Chien

1991-01-01

221

A Health Impact Assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.  

PubMed

This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such,aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25587609

Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

2014-12-01

222

A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

2014-01-01

223

A health impact assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.  

PubMed

This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

2014-01-01

224

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining

J. Mark Eddy

2005-01-01

225

Adaptation of a Communication Interaction Behavior Instrument for use in Mechanically Ventilated, Nonvocal Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Valid and reliable instruments are needed to measure communication interaction behaviors between nurses and mechanically ventilated (MV) intensive care unit (ICU) patients who are without oral speech. Objectives To refine and evaluate preliminary validity and reliability of a Communication Interaction Behavior Instrument (CIBI) adapted for use with nonvocal, MV ICU patients. Methods Raters observed nurse-patient communication interactions using a checklist of nurse and patient behaviors, categorized as positive and negative behaviors. We used 3-minute video-recorded observations of 5 MV ICU adults (<60 years) and their nurses to establish preliminary inter-rater reliability and confirm appropriateness of definitions (4 observations per dyad, N=20). Based on expert input and reliability results, the behaviors and item definitions on the CIBI were revised. The revised tool was then tested in a larger sample of 38 MV ICU patients (?60 years) and their nurses (4 observations per dyad, N=152) to determine inter-rater reliability. Results For preliminary testing, percent agreement for individual items ranged from 60–100% for nurse behaviors and 20–100% for patient behaviors across the 5 pilot cases. Based on these results, 11 definitions were modified and 4 items were dropped. Using the revised 29-item instrument, percent agreement improved for nurse behaviors (73–100%) and patient behaviors (68–100%). Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.13–1.00, with lower coefficients for patient behaviors. Conclusion Preliminary results suggest that the revised CIBI has good face validity and demonstrates good inter-rater reliability for many of the behaviors but further refinement is needed. The use of dual raters with adjudication of discrepancies is the recommended method of administration for the revised CIBI. PMID:24335909

Nilsen, Marci; Happ, Mary Beth; Donovan, Heidi; Barnato, Amber; Hoffman, Leslie; Sereika, Susan M.

2014-01-01

226

Sleep disruption as a correlate to cognitive and adaptive behavior problems in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age (M = 5.5 years) were evaluated for the relationships of Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep (BEDS; Schreck, 1998) scores to measures of intelligence and adaptive behavior. Results suggested that children who slept fewer hours per night had lower overall intelligence, verbal skills, overall adaptive functioning, daily living skills, socialization skills, and motor development. Children who slept fewer hours at night with waking during the night had more communication problems. Breathing related sleep problems and fewer hours of sleep related most often to problems with perceptual tasks. The results indicate that quality of sleep--especially sleep duration--may be related to problems with day-time cognitive and adaptive functioning in children with autism and PDD-NOS. However, future research must be conducted to further understand these relationships. PMID:22522199

Taylor, Matthew A; Schreck, Kimberly A; Mulick, James A

2012-01-01

227

MPS II: adaptive behavior of patients and impact on the family system.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. It occurs in 1 in every 65,000 to 1 in 132,000 births. There are two distinct forms of the disease based on age of onset and clinical course: mild and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Complications can include vision problems, progressive hearing loss, thickened and elastic skin, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. We herein focus on the adaptive behavior of individuals with MPS II, and the impact of MPS II on the family system. Outcomes from the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales showed that the MPS II patient sample experienced significantly lower functioning in communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills compared to normative data. Patients with severe MPS II were found to have significantly lower adaptive functioning in all domains, as compared to those with mild MPS II. Length of time on ERT had no significant relationship to adaptive functioning. Results from the Peds QL Family Impact Module indicated that families of patients with MPS II experienced a lower overall health-related quality of life and overall lower family functioning (including lower emotional and cognitive functioning) than those with chronic illnesses residing in an inpatient setting. PMID:24190099

Needham, Mary; Packman, Wendy; Rappoport, Maxwell; Quinn, Natasha; Cordova, Matthew; Macias, Sandra; Morgan, Cynthia; Packman, Seymour

2014-06-01

228

Performance monitoring and behavioral adaptation during task switching: An fMRI study.  

PubMed

Despite significant advances, the neural correlates and neurochemical mechanisms involved in performance monitoring and behavioral adaptation are still a matter for debate. Here, we used a modified Eriksen-Flanker task in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study that required the participants to derive the correct stimulus-response association based on a feedback given after each flanker stimulus. Participants had to continuously monitor and adapt their performance as the stimulus-response association switched after a jittered time interval without notice. After every switch an increase of reaction times was observed. At the neural level, the feedback indicating the need to switch was associated with activation of the precuneus, the cingulate cortex, the insula and a brainstem region tentatively identified as the locus coeruleus. This brainstem system appears to interact with this cortical network and seems to be essential for performance monitoring and behavioral adaptation. In contrast, the cerebellum crus and prefrontal areas are activated during error feedback processing. Furthermore we found activations of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally after a correct feedback in learnable stimulus-response associations. These results highlight the contribution of brainstem nuclei to performance adaptation. PMID:25446349

von der Gablentz, J; Tempelmann, C; Münte, T F; Heldmann, M

2015-01-29

229

Hybrid Model Predictive Control for Sequential Decision Policies in Adaptive Behavioral Interventions  

PubMed Central

Control engineering offers a systematic and efficient method to optimize the effectiveness of individually tailored treatment and prevention policies known as adaptive or “just-in-time” behavioral interventions. The nature of these interventions requires assigning dosages at categorical levels, which has been addressed in prior work using Mixed Logical Dynamical (MLD)-based hybrid model predictive control (HMPC) schemes. However, certain requirements of adaptive behavioral interventions that involve sequential decision making have not been comprehensively explored in the literature. This paper presents an extension of the traditional MLD framework for HMPC by representing the requirements of sequential decision policies as mixed-integer linear constraints. This is accomplished with user-specified dosage sequence tables, manipulation of one input at a time, and a switching time strategy for assigning dosages at time intervals less frequent than the measurement sampling interval. A model developed for a gestational weight gain (GWG) intervention is used to illustrate the generation of these sequential decision policies and their effectiveness for implementing adaptive behavioral interventions involving multiple components.

Dong, Yuwen; Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E.; Downs, Danielle S.; Savage, Jennifer S.

2015-01-01

230

Control of cognition and adaptive behavior by the GLP/G9a epigenetic suppressor complex  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The genetic basis of cognition and behavioral adaptation to the environment remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the histone methyltransferase complex GLP/G9a controls cognition and adaptive responses in a region-specific fashion in the adult brain. Using conditional mutagenesis in mice, we show that postnatal, neuron-specific deficiency of GLP/G9a leads to de-repression of numerous non-neuronal and neuron progenitor genes in adult neurons. This transcriptional alteration is associated with complex behavioral abnormalities, including defects in learning, motivation and environmental adaptation. The behavioral changes triggered by GLP/G9a deficiency are similar to key symptoms of the human 9q34 mental retardation syndrome that is associated with structural alterations of the GLP gene. The likely causal role of GLP/G9a in mental retardation in mice and humans suggests a key role for the GLP/G9a controlled histone H3K9 di-methylation in regulation of brain function through maintenance of the transcriptional homeostasis in adult neurons. PMID:20005824

Schaefer, Anne; Sampath, Srihari C.; Intrator, Adam; Min, Alice; Gertler, Tracy S.; Surmeier, D. James; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Greengard, Paul

2009-01-01

231

Control of cognition and adaptive behavior by the GLP/G9a epigenetic suppressor complex.  

PubMed

The genetic basis of cognition and behavioral adaptation to the environment remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the histone methyltransferase complex GLP/G9a controls cognition and adaptive responses in a region-specific fashion in the adult brain. Using conditional mutagenesis in mice, we show that postnatal, neuron-specific deficiency of GLP/G9a leads to derepression of numerous nonneuronal and neuron progenitor genes in adult neurons. This transcriptional alteration is associated with complex behavioral abnormalities, including defects in learning, motivation, and environmental adaptation. The behavioral changes triggered by GLP/G9a deficiency are similar to key symptoms of the human 9q34 mental retardation syndrome that is associated with structural alterations of the GLP/EHMT1 gene. The likely causal role of GLP/G9a in mental retardation in mice and humans suggests a key role for the GLP/G9a-controlled histone H3K9 dimethylation in regulation of brain function through maintenance of the transcriptional homeostasis in adult neurons. PMID:20005824

Schaefer, Anne; Sampath, Srihari C; Intrator, Adam; Min, Alice; Gertler, Tracy S; Surmeier, D James; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Greengard, Paul

2009-12-10

232

Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

2010-01-01

233

Adapting Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Secure Juvenile Justice Settings: Improving Facility-Wide Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity and success of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in public schools across the United States has led professionals to advocate for its implementation in secure juvenile settings. Statewide implementation efforts have been mounted in several jurisdictions, and a number of secure facilities are applying it with…

Jolivette, Kristine; Nelson, C. Michael

2010-01-01

234

A Module for Adaptive Course Configuration and Assessment in Moodle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personalization and Adaptation are among the main challenges in the field of e-learning, where currently just few Learning Management Systems, mostly experimental ones, support such features. In this work we present an architecture that allows Moodle to interact with the Lecomps system, an adaptive learning system developed earlier by our research group, that has been working in a stand-alone modality so far. In particular, the Lecomps responsibilities are circumscribed to the sole production of personalized learning objects sequences and to the management of the student model, leaving to Moodle all the rest of the activities for course delivery. The Lecomps system supports the "dynamic" adaptation of learning objects sequences, basing on the student model, i.e., learner's Cognitive State and Learning Style. Basically, this work integrates two main Lecomps tasks into Moodle, to be directly managed by it: Authentication and Quizzes.

Limongelli, Carla; Sciarrone, Filippo; Temperini, Marco; Vaste, Giulia

235

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

Cegnar, T.

2010-09-01

236

Assessing social behavior phenotypes in adult zebrafish: shoaling, social preference and mirror biting tests  

E-print Network

1 Assessing social behavior phenotypes in adult zebrafish: shoaling, social preference their shoaling behaviors. Zebrafish also display strong social preference when placed in a tank with conspecific, social preference and mirror biting tests - for quantifying social behaviors in adult zebrafish

Kalueff, Allan V.

237

Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

Weissman, Alexander

238

Assessing the Process of Marital Adaptation: The Marital Coping Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies on coping with life events identify marriage as a distinct situational stressor, in which a wide range of coping strategies specific to the marital relationship are employed. This study examined the process of martial adaptation, identified as a style of coping, in 116 married volunteers. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the…

Zborowski, Lydia L.; Berman, William H.

239

Improved Behavior, Motor, and Cognition Assessments in Neonatal Piglets  

PubMed Central

Abstract The alterations of animal behavior after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be subtle, and their quantitative characterization can present significant methodological challenges. Meeting these challenges is a critical need, because quantitative measures are required in studies that compare the efficacy of different clinical interventions. We developed a battery of assessments to quantify behavioral, motor, and cognitive changes in neonatal piglets with good sensitivity and specificity to the detection of persistent deficits that correlate with axonal injury severity after a rapid non-impact head rotation with a diffuse pattern of axonal injury. The battery of measures developed included open field behaviors of sniffing and moving a toy, locomotion measures of Lempel-Ziv complexity and the probability of remaining in the current location, and a novel metric for evaluating motor performance. Our composite porcine disability score was able to detect brain injury with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.7% at day +4 post-injury for n=8 injured and n=7 sham piglets and significantly correlated with the percent axonal injury in these animals (day +4: ?=0.76, p=0.0011). A significant improvement over our previous assessments, this new porcine disability score has potential use in a wide variety of porcine disease and injury models. PMID:23758416

Sullivan, Sarah; Friess, Stuart H.; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen J.; Rapp, Paul E.

2013-01-01

240

Roughness assessment and wetting behavior of fluorocarbon surfaces.  

PubMed

The wetting behavior of fluorocarbon materials has been studied with the aim of assessing the influence of the surface chemical composition and surface roughness on the water advancing and receding contact angles. Diamond like carbon and two fluorocarbon materials with different fluorine content have been prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and characterized by X-ray photoemission, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. Very rough surfaces have been obtained by deposition of thin films of these materials on polymer substrates previously subjected to plasma etching to increase their roughness. A direct correlation has been found between roughness and water contact angles while a superhydrophobic behavior (i.e., water contact angles higher than 150° and relatively low adhesion energy) was found for the films with the highest fluorine content deposited on very rough substrates. A critical evaluation of the methods currently used to assess the roughness of these surfaces by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has evidenced that calculated RMS roughness values and actual surface areas are quite dependent on both the scale of observation and image resolution. A critical discussion is carried out about the application of the Wenzel model to account for the wetting behavior of this type of surfaces. PMID:22483335

Terriza, Antonia; Álvarez, Rafael; Borrás, Ana; Cotrino, José; Yubero, Francisco; González-Elipe, Agustín R

2012-06-15

241

First-Year Students' Psychological and Behavior Adaptation to College: The Role of Coping Strategies and Social Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…

Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan

2006-01-01

242

Revised July 21, 1992 for the Simulation of Adaptive Behavior journal. EVOLUTION OF FOOD FORAGING STRATEGIES FOR THE CARIBBEAN  

E-print Network

STRATEGIES FOR THE CARIBBEAN ANOLIS LIZARD USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING John R. Koza Computer Science Department versions of the problem of finding an optimal food foraging strategy for the Caribbean Anolis lizard. A simulation of the adaptive behavior of the lizard is required to evaluate each possible adaptive control

Fernandez, Thomas

243

Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

2008-01-01

244

Adapting Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Social Work Students' Performance and Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…

Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn

2011-01-01

245

Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed

Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

2014-01-01

246

Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies  

PubMed Central

Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

2014-01-01

247

Developing Credible Vulnerability Indicators for Climate Adaptation Policy Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the issue of how to develop credible indicators of vulnerability to climate change that can be used to guide the\\u000a development of adaptation policies. We compare the indicators and measures that five past national-level studies have used\\u000a and examine how and why their approaches have differed. Other relevant indicator studies of social facets of society as well\\u000a as

S. H. Eriksen; P. M. Kelly

2007-01-01

248

Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24/28% HVAC energy savings in the winter/summer while also reducing thermal unacceptability; however, it is shown that the source of energy being saved must be considered in each case, as local heating options end up replacing cheaper, more carbon-friendly gas heating with expensive, emissions-heavy plug load electricity. The dissertation concludes with a summary of key outcomes and suggests how HABIT may be further developed in the future.

Langevin, Jared

249

Successfully Translating Language and Culture when Adapting Assessment Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need exists for culturally valid and reliable developmental assessment tools for children with disabilities that are able to accommodate multiple languages. One way in which this goal can be achieved is through test translations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the use of translations of select developmental assessment

Bornman, Juan; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Pae, Hye Kyeong

2010-01-01

250

Adapting the VOICES HIV behavioral intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, but few behavioral interventions address their prevention needs. Adaptation of evidence-based interventions is a pragmatic strategy that builds upon lessons learned and has the potential to fill gaps in prevention programming. Yet there are few reports of how transfers are executed and whether effectiveness is achieved. This research reports on the adaptation of VOICES/VOICES, a single-session intervention designed for heterosexual adults, into No Excuses/Sin buscar excuses for Latino MSM. To test the adapted intervention, 370 at-risk Latino MSM were enrolled in a randomized trial. At a three-month follow-up, there was a sharper decrease in unprotected intercourse in the intervention group compared to controls (59 % vs. 39 %, ANOVA p < 0.05, F = 4.10). Intervention participants also reported more condom use at last intercourse (AOR = 1.69; 95 % CI 1.02-2.81, p < 02). Findings support use of adapted models for meeting prevention needs of high-priority populations. PMID:24419993

O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Joseph, Heather A; Flores, Stephen

2014-04-01

251

Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches  

PubMed Central

Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

2013-01-01

252

The significance of dynamical architecture for adaptive responses to mechanical loads during rhythmic behavior.  

PubMed

Many behaviors require reliably generating sequences of motor activity while adapting the activity to incoming sensory information. This process has often been conceptually explained as either fully dependent on sensory input (a chain reflex) or fully independent of sensory input (an idealized central pattern generator, or CPG), although the consensus of the field is that most neural pattern generators lie somewhere between these two extremes. Many mathematical models of neural pattern generators use limit cycles to generate the sequence of behaviors, but other models, such as a heteroclinic channel (an attracting chain of saddle points), have been suggested. To explore the range of intermediate behaviors between CPGs and chain reflexes, in this paper we describe a nominal model of swallowing in Aplysia californica. Depending upon the value of a single parameter, the model can transition from a generic limit cycle regime to a heteroclinic regime (where the trajectory slows as it passes near saddle points). We then study the behavior of the system in these two regimes and compare the behavior of the models with behavior recorded in the animal in vivo and in vitro. We show that while both pattern generators can generate similar behavior, the stable heteroclinic channel can better respond to changes in sensory input induced by load, and that the response matches the changes seen when a load is added in vivo. We then show that the underlying stable heteroclinic channel architecture exhibits dramatic slowing of activity when sensory and endogenous input is reduced, and show that similar slowing with removal of proprioception is seen in vitro. Finally, we show that the distributions of burst lengths seen in vivo are better matched by the distribution expected from a system operating in the heteroclinic regime than that expected from a generic limit cycle. These observations suggest that generic limit cycle models may fail to capture key aspects of Aplysia feeding behavior, and that alternative architectures such as heteroclinic channels may provide better descriptions. PMID:25182251

Shaw, Kendrick M; Lyttle, David N; Gill, Jeffrey P; Cullins, Miranda J; McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Thomas, Peter J; Chiel, Hillel J

2015-02-01

253

Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

2008-01-01

254

Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action  

PubMed Central

Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception. PMID:24348358

Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

2013-01-01

255

Adapting the Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool for health care  

E-print Network

The Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool (LESAT) is a product of the Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This tool has been applied by many organizations to gage their progress ...

Hernandez, Cynthia Lynn

2010-01-01

256

INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes,...

257

Complex macroscopic behavior in systems of phase oscillators with adaptive coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using recent dimensionality reduction techniques in large systems of coupled phase oscillators exhibiting bistability, we analyze the complex macroscopic behavior arising when the coupling between oscillators is allowed to evolve slowly as a function of either macroscopic or local system properties. For example, we observe macroscopic excitability and intermittent synchrony in a system of time-delayed Kuramoto oscillators with Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by considering systems with increasing complexity, including time-delayed oscillators with adaptive network structure and community interaction, as well as a system with bimodally distributed frequencies.

Skardal, Per Sebastian; Taylor, Dane; Restrepo, Juan G.

2014-01-01

258

Fidelity of Implementing an Assessment Translation and Adaptation Framework in a Study of an Emerging International Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the complex process of translation and adaptation of two Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) performance tasks (PTs), originally developed in English for American students, into the languages and cultures of five participating countries. Focusing on confirming evidence bits (CEBs), disconfirming evidence bits (DEBs), and no…

Chia, Magda Yanira

2012-01-01

259

The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment.  

PubMed

The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience was awarded for the third time in September 2012, by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in Oslo. The accompanying Kavli Prize Symposium on Neuroscience, held in Bergen and Trondheim, was a showcase of excellence in neuroscience research. The common theme of the Symposium presentations was the mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. The symposium speakers--Michael Greenberg, Erin Schuman, Chiara Cirelli, Michael Meaney, Catherine Dulac, Hopi Hoekstra, and Stanislas Dehaene--covered topics ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons and dendrites, permitting local regulation (Schuman). The nature of the 'reset' function that makes animals dependent of sleep is being revealed (Cirelli). Maternal behavior can cause changes in gene expression that stably modify behavior in the offspring (Meaney). Removal of a single sensory channel protein in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated by the elaborate burrowing behavior in a rodent species, in which independent genetic regions regulate distinct modules of the burrowing pattern (Hoekstra). Finally, at the other extreme of the nature-nurture scale, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis in children and adults identified a brain area specifically involved in reading (Dehaene). As the area must originally have developed for a purpose other than reading, such as shape recognition, this illustrates the use of a previously formed neural structure to tackle a new challenge. PMID:23602885

Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K; Sander, M; Storm-Mathisen, J

2013-09-01

260

Adaptive Flexibility in the Foraging Behavior of Fishes' Simon Fra.~erUniversity, Departsnent of Biological Sciences, Bui-naby, B.C. V5A IS6  

E-print Network

Adaptive Flexibility in the Foraging Behavior of Fishes' Simon Fra.~erUniversity, Departsnent of fishes. Can. 5. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40: 398-408. Flexibility is an important adaptive feature of Biological Sciences, Bui-naby, B.C. V5A IS6 DILL,L. M. 1983. Adaptive flexibility in the foraging behavior

Dill, Lawrence M.

261

Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2014-01-01

262

Rapid assessment of sleep-wake behavior in mice.  

PubMed

Sleep is a fundamental biological rhythm involving the interaction of numerous brain structures and diverse neurotransmitter systems. The primary measures used to define sleep are the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG). However, EEG-based methods are often unsuitable for use in high-throughput screens as they are time-intensive and involve invasive surgery. As such, the dissection of sleep mechanisms and the discovery of novel drugs that modulate sleep would benefit greatly from further development of rapid behavioral assays to assess sleep in animal models. Here is described an automated noninvasive approach to evaluate sleep duration, latency, and fragmentation using video tracking of mice in their home cage. This approach provides a high correlation with EEG/EMG measures under both baseline conditions and following administration of pharmacological agents. Moreover, the dose-dependent effects of sedatives, stimulants, and light can be readily detected. This approach is robust yet relatively inexpensive to implement and can be easily incorporated into ongoing screening programs to provide a powerful first-pass screen for assessing sleep and allied behaviors. PMID:22306973

Fisher, Simon P; Godinho, Sofia I H; Pothecary, Carina A; Hankins, Mark W; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

2012-02-01

263

Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.  

PubMed

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light?dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence of long-term behavioral deficits in TETS-intoxicated mice on these six assays suggests that the neurobehavioral consequences of TETS exposure described in human survivors of acute TETS intoxication are likely due to sustained seizure activity, rather than a direct effect of the chemical itself. Future research efforts are directed toward developing an animal model that better recapitulates the SE and seizure duration reported in humans acutely intoxicated with TETS. PMID:25446016

Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

2015-01-01

264

Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.  

PubMed

Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (? > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (? between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (? > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures. PMID:25348356

Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C Dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2014-10-28

265

EVALUATION OF THE RATE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS ACROSS PREFERENCE ASSESSMENTS  

PubMed Central

The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior. PMID:22219533

Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

2011-01-01

266

Stanovich's arguments against the "adaptive rationality" project: An assessment.  

PubMed

This paper discusses Stanovich's appeal to individual differences in reasoning and decision-making to undermine the "adaptive rationality" project put forth by Gigerenzer and his co-workers. I discuss two different arguments based on Stanovich's research. First, heterogeneity in the use of heuristics seems to be at odds with the adaptationist background of the project. Second, the existence of correlations between cognitive ability and susceptibility to cognitive bias suggests that the "standard picture of rationality" (Stein, 1996, 4) is normatively adequate. I argue that, as matters stand, none of the arguments can be seen as fully compelling. Nevertheless, my discussion is not only critical of Stanovich's research, as I also show that (and how) his research can push forward the so-called "rationality debate" by encouraging greater theoretical and experimental work. PMID:25617703

Polonioli, Andrea

2015-02-01

267

LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

2013-01-01

268

Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

Liu, Chao-Lin

2005-01-01

269

The Colorado Climate Preparedness Project: A Systematic Approach to Assessing Efforts Supporting State-Level Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scholars and policy analysts often contend that an effective climate adaptation strategy must entail "mainstreaming," or incorporating responses to possible climate impacts into existing planning and management decision frameworks. Such an approach, however, makes it difficult to assess the degree to which decisionmaking entities are engaging in adaptive activities that may or may not be explicitly framed around a changing climate. For example, a drought management plan may not explicitly address climate change, but the activities and strategies outlined in it may reduce vulnerabilities posed by a variable and changing climate. Consequently, to generate a strategic climate adaptation plan requires identifying the entire suite of activities that are implicitly linked to climate and may affect adaptive capacity within the system. Here we outline a novel, two-pronged approach, leveraging social science methods, to understanding adaptation throughout state government in Colorado. First, we conducted a series of interviews with key actors in state and federal government agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and other entities engaged in state issues. The purpose of these interviews was to elicit information about current activities that may affect the state’s adaptive capacity and to identify future climate-related needs across the state. Second, we have developed an interactive database cataloging organizations, products, projects, and people actively engaged in adaptive planning and policymaking that are relevant to the state of Colorado. The database includes a wiki interface, helping create a dynamic component that will enable frequent updating as climate-relevant information emerges. The results of this project are intended to paint a clear picture of sectors and agencies with higher and lower levels of adaptation awareness and to provide a roadmap for the next gubernatorial administration to pursue a more sophisticated climate adaptation agenda. Project results can also inform numerous other ongoing database efforts connected to the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change.

Klein, R.; Gordon, E.

2010-12-01

270

Teacher Perceptions of the Usability of School-Based Behavior Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher perceptions of school-based behavior assessments were assessed over the course of a school year. Specifically, the utility and relevance of Direct Behavior Ratings-Single Item Scales, a hybrid direct observation method, relative to two school-based behavioral rating scales, the Social Skills Improvement System-Performance Screening Guide…

Miller, Faith G.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Fabiano, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

271

Relationship between Adaptation after Returning to Competition and Psycho-behavioral Attitudes during Injury Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation after returning to competition and psychological and behavioral variables during the rehabilitation period. [Subjects] Athletes (N =113) that had experienced an injury (mean age = 20.22?years, SD = 1.07; mean weeks after stopping sports = 7.98 weeks, SD = 11.74) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to respond to the athletic injury version of the Temporal Perspective Scale (TP-S), existing scales including the DDF-S, AIPA-S, and ARD-S, and the outcome indices for rehabilitation. [Results] The results of a cluster analysis indicated three modalities of temporal perspective (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative sequences). The results of an analysis of variance showed that the positive chain modality was adaptive for future dominance. The subjects in this group demonstrated higher levels of acceptance of injuries during the rehabilitation period than the other groups, devotion to rehabilitation, and awareness of the recovery in competitive performance and a feeling of personal growth. [Conclusion] The level of acceptance of injury during the rehabilitation period, as well as the devotion to rehabilitation, influenced adaptation after returning to competition. PMID:25435708

Tatsumi, Tomonori

2014-01-01

272

Relationship between Adaptation after Returning to Competition and Psycho-behavioral Attitudes during Injury Rehabilitation.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation after returning to competition and psychological and behavioral variables during the rehabilitation period. [Subjects] Athletes (N =113) that had experienced an injury (mean age = 20.22?years, SD = 1.07; mean weeks after stopping sports = 7.98 weeks, SD = 11.74) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to respond to the athletic injury version of the Temporal Perspective Scale (TP-S), existing scales including the DDF-S, AIPA-S, and ARD-S, and the outcome indices for rehabilitation. [Results] The results of a cluster analysis indicated three modalities of temporal perspective (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative sequences). The results of an analysis of variance showed that the positive chain modality was adaptive for future dominance. The subjects in this group demonstrated higher levels of acceptance of injuries during the rehabilitation period than the other groups, devotion to rehabilitation, and awareness of the recovery in competitive performance and a feeling of personal growth. [Conclusion] The level of acceptance of injury during the rehabilitation period, as well as the devotion to rehabilitation, influenced adaptation after returning to competition. PMID:25435708

Tatsumi, Tomonori

2014-11-01

273

Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health  

PubMed Central

Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

2014-01-01

274

Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.  

PubMed

This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

2014-11-01

275

Neocortical Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine promotes rapid behavioral adaptation.  

PubMed

5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel DNA modification that is highly enriched in the adult brain and dynamically regulated by neural activity. 5-hmC accumulates across the lifespan; however, the functional relevance of this change in 5-hmC and whether it is necessary for behavioral adaptation have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, although the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes is known to be essential for converting methylated DNA to 5-hmC, the role of individual Tet proteins in the adult cortex remains unclear. Using 5-hmC capture together with high-throughput DNA sequencing on individual mice, we show that fear extinction, an important form of reversal learning, leads to a dramatic genome-wide redistribution of 5-hmC within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Moreover, extinction learning-induced Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hmC is associated with the establishment of epigenetic states that promote gene expression and rapid behavioral adaptation. PMID:24757058

Li, Xiang; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R; D'Alessio, Ana; Zhang, Yi; Bredy, Timothy W

2014-05-13

276

Nanocrystalline coating design for extreme applications based on the concept of complex adaptive behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of effective hard coatings for high performance dry machining, which is associated with high stress/temperatures during friction, is a major challenge. Newly developed synergistically alloyed nanocrystalline adaptive Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N plasma vapor deposited hard coatings exhibit excellent tool life under conditions of high performance dry machining of hardened steel, especially under severe and extreme cutting conditions. The coating is capable of sustaining cutting speeds as high as 600 m/min. Comprehensive investigation of the microstructure and properties of the coating was performed. The structure of the coating before and after service has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micromechanical characteristics of the coating have been investigated at elevated temperatures. Oxidation resistance of the coating has been studied by using thermogravimetry within a temperature range of 25-1100 °C in air. The coefficient of friction of the coatings was studied within a temperature range of 25-1200 °C. To determine the causes of excellent tool life and improved wear behavior of the TiAlCrSiYN coatings, its surface structure characteristics after service have been investigated by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and extended energy-loss fine spectroscopy. One of the major features of this coating is the dynamic formation of the protective tribo-oxide films (dissipative structures) on the surface during friction with a sapphire and mullite crystal structure. Aluminum- and silicon-rich tribofilms with dangling bonds form on the surface as well. These tribofilms act in synergy and protect the surface so efficiently that it is able to sustain extreme operating conditions. Moreover, the Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N coating possesses some features of a complex adaptive behavior because it has a number of improved characteristics (tribological adaptability, ultrafine nanocrystalline structure, hot hardness and plasticity, and oxidation stability) that work synergistically as a whole. Due to the complex adaptive behavior, this coating represents a higher ordered system that has an ability to achieve unattainable wear resistance under strongly intensifying and extreme tribological conditions.

Fox-Rabinovich, G. S.; Veldhuis, S. C.; Dosbaeva, G. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kovalev, A. I.; Wainstein, D. L.; Gershman, I. S.; Shuster, L. S.; Beake, B. D.

2008-04-01

277

A Comparison of Experimental Functional Analysis and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) in the Assessment of Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared two functional behavioral assessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…

Healy, Olive; Brett, Denise; Leader, Geraldine

2013-01-01

278

Assessing Visitor Behavior and Attitudes in the medien.welten Exhibition  

E-print Network

Assessing Visitor Behavior and Attitudes in the medien.welten Exhibition Otmar Moritsch Technisches.card allows tracking of visitor movement and behavior. We are interesting in assessing visitor attitudes towards the card and in actual card usage. We also use data from all computer- enhanced devices to assess

Hornecker, Eva

279

Cultural Adaptation of an Intervention to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors among Patients Attending a STI Clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia  

PubMed Central

Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants’ engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as “triggers” and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants’ risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed. PMID:23322231

Grau, Lauretta E.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Abdala, Nadia

2014-01-01

280

A structured multi-block solution-adaptive mesh algorithm with mesh quality assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic solution adaptive grid algorithm, DSAGA3D, is extended to automatically adapt 2-D structured multi-block grids, including adaption of the block boundaries. The extension is general, requiring only input data concerning block structure, connectivity, and boundary conditions. Imbedded grid singular points are permitted, but must be prevented from moving in space. Solutions for workshop cases 1 and 2 are obtained on multi-block grids and illustrate both increased resolution of and alignment with the solution. A mesh quality assessment criteria is proposed to determine how well a given mesh resolves and aligns with the solution obtained upon it. The criteria is used to evaluate the grid quality for solutions of workshop case 6 obtained on both static and dynamically adapted grids. The results indicate that this criteria shows promise as a means of evaluating resolution.

Ingram, Clint L.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Mcrae, D. Scott

1995-01-01

281

An assessment of the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral grid, Euler Flow Solver Code FELISA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison of computational and wind tunnel data and enhancement of numerical solutions by means of grid adaptivity are discussed. The mesh generation is based on the advancing front technique. The FELISA code consists of two solvers, the Taylor-Galerkin and the Runge-Kutta-Galerkin schemes, both of which are spacially discretized by the usual Galerkin weighted residual finite-element methods but with different explicit time-marching schemes to steady state. The solution-adaptive grid procedure is based on either remeshing or mesh refinement techniques. An alternative geometry adaptive procedure is also incorporated.

Djomehri, M. Jahed; Erickson, Larry L.

1994-01-01

282

Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change  

E-print Network

Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change S I M O, Australia Abstract Elevated ocean temperatures can cause coral bleaching, the loss of colour from reef studies have warned that global climate change could increase the frequency of coral bleaching

Oppenheimer, Michael

283

Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Healthy people generally underestimate the self-reported well-being of people with disabilities and serious illnesses. The cause of this discrepancy is in dispute, and the present study provides evidence for 2 causes. First, healthy people fail to anticipate hedonic adaptation to poor health. Using an ecological momentary assessment measure of…

Riis, Jason; Loewenstein, George; Baron, Jonathan; Jepson, Christopher; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.

2005-01-01

284

Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats  

E-print Network

Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats John M. Ratcliffe1 University, Ithaca, New York, NY 14853, USA Moths and butterflies flying in search of mates risk detection bats. During such encounters, the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera uses the received intensity

Hoy, Ronald R.

285

Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

2010-01-01

286

Automatic assessment of articulation disorders using confident unit-based model adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to automatic assessment on articulation disorders using unsupervised acoustic model adaptation. Prior knowledge is obtained via the phonological analysis of the speech data from 453 articulation disordered children. A confusion matrix of the recognition units for a specific subject is re-estimated based on the prior knowledge and the recognition results to choose the confident units

Hung-Yu Su; Chung-Hsien Wu; Pei-Jen Tsai

2008-01-01

287

Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…

Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes

1998-01-01

288

Theory and Practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change andFacilitating Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss approaches to the assessment of vulnerability to climatevariability and change andattempt to clarify the relationship between the concepts of vulnerability andadaptation. In searchof a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms ofthe capacity ofindividuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recoverfrom or adapt to, anyexternal stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being.

P. M. Kelly; W. N. Adger

2000-01-01

289

Knowledge-Based Adaptive Assessment in a Web-Based Intelligent Educational System  

E-print Network

Intelligence Teaching System (AITS) to assist learning and teaching in the context of the "ArtificialKnowledge-Based Adaptive Assessment in a Web-Based Intelligent Educational System Ioannis}@ceid.upatras.gr Jim Prentzas Department of Informatics and Computer Technology Technological Educational Institute

290

Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.  

PubMed

This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S-), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat's three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat's sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat's directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S-. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S- stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S- were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S-. PMID:21246202

Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat; Moss, Cynthia F

2011-05-01

291

Intellectual, adaptive, and behavioral functioning in children with urea cycle disorders.  

PubMed

Inborn errors of urea synthesis lead to an accumulation of ammonia in blood and brain and result in high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental disability. This study seeks to characterize the cognitive, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning of children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). These domains were measured through testing and parent questionnaires in 92 children with UCDs [33 neonatal onset (NO), 59 late onset (LO)]. Results indicate that children who present with NO have poorer outcome than those who present later in childhood. Approximately half of the children with NO performed in the range of intellectual disability (ID), including a substantial number ( approximately 30%) who were severely impaired. In comparison, only a quarter of the LO group was in the range of ID. There is also evidence that the UCD group has difficulties in aspects of emotional/behavioral and executive skills domains. In conclusion, children with UCDs present with a wide spectrum of cognitive outcomes. Children with NO disease have a much higher likelihood of having an ID, which becomes even more evident with increasing age. However, even children with LO UCDs demonstrate evidence of neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, particularly in aspects of attention and executive functioning. PMID:19287347

Krivitzky, Lauren; Babikian, Talin; Lee, Hye-Seung; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Burk-Paull, Karen L; Batshaw, Mark L

2009-07-01

292

Intellectual, Adaptive, and Behavioral Functioning in Children with Urea Cycle Disorders  

PubMed Central

Inborn errors of urea synthesis lead to an accumulation of ammonia in blood and brain, and result in high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental disability. The current study seeks to characterize the cognitive, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning of children with Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs). These domains were measured through testing and parent questionnaires in 92 children with UCDs (33 neonatal onset, 59 late onset). Results indicate that children who present with neonatal onset have poorer outcome than those who present later in childhood. Approximately half of the children with neonatal onset performed in the range of intellectual disability (ID), including a substantial number (~30%) who were severely impaired. In comparison, only a quarter of the late onset group were in the range of ID. There is also evidence that the UCD group has difficulties in aspects of emotional/behavioral and executive skills domains. In conclusion, children with UCDs present with a wide spectrum of cognitive outcomes. Children with neonatal onset disease have a much higher likelihood of having an intellectual disability, which becomes even more evident with increasing age. However, even children with late onset UCDs demonstrate evidence of neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, particularly in aspects of attention and executive functioning. PMID:19287347

Krivitzky, Lauren; Babikian, Talin; Lee, HyeSeung; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Burk-Paull, Karen L.; Batshaw, Mark L.

2009-01-01

293

Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Measures of Behavior in Infancy Using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)  

PubMed Central

Background Previous literature suggests an association between organochlorines and behavioral measures in childhood, including inattention. Objective This study was designed to assess whether prenatal organochlorine exposure is associated with measures of attention in early infancy. Methods We investigated an association between cord serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) levels and measures of attention from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) in a cohort of 788 infants born 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor and Superfund site in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Results Medians (ranges) for the sum of four prevalent PCB congeners and DDE levels were 0.19 (0.01–4.41) and 0.30 (0–10.29) ng/g serum, respectively. For the 542 subjects with an NBAS exam at 2 weeks, we observed consistent inverse associations between cord serum PCB and DDE levels and NBAS measures of alertness, quality of alert responsiveness, cost of attention, and other potential attention-associated measures including self-quieting and motor maturity. For example, the decrement in quality of alert responsiveness score was ?0.51 (95% confidence interval, ?0.99 to ?0.03) for the highest quartile of exposure to the sum of four prevalent PCB congeners compared with the lowest quartile. We found little evidence for an association with infant orientation, habituation, and regulation of state, assessed as summary cluster measures. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for an association between low-level prenatal PCB and DDE exposures and poor attention in early infancy. Further analyses will focus on whether organochlorine-associated decrements in attention and attention-related skills in infancy persist in later childhood. PMID:18470320

Sagiv, Sharon K.; Nugent, J. Kevin; Brazelton, T. Berry; Choi, Anna L.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

2008-01-01

294

Uncertainty assessment of urban pluvial flood risk in a context of climate change adaptation decision making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a significant increase in climatic extremes in many regions. In Central and Northern Europe, this has led to more frequent and more severe floods. Along with improved flood modelling technologies this has enabled development of economic assessment of climate change adaptation to increasing urban flood risk. Assessment of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis of current risk, drivers of change of risk over time, and measures to reduce the risk. However, such studies are often associated with large uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from basic assumptions in the economic analysis and the hydrological model, but also from the projection of future societies to local climate change impacts and suitable adaptation options. This presents a challenge to decision makers when trying to identify robust measures. We present an integrated uncertainty analysis, which can assess and quantify the overall uncertainty in relation to climate change adaptation to urban flash floods. The analysis is based on an uncertainty cascade that by means of Monte Carlo simulations of flood risk assessments incorporates climate change impacts as a key driver of risk changes over time. The overall uncertainty is then attributed to six bulk processes: climate change impact, urban rainfall-runoff processes, stage-depth functions, unit cost of repair, cost of adaptation measures, and discount rate. We apply the approach on an urban hydrological catchment in Odense, Denmark, and find that the uncertainty on the climate change impact appears to have the least influence on the net present value of the studied adaptation measures-. This does not imply that the climate change impact is not important, but that the uncertainties are not dominating when deciding on action or in-action. We then consider the uncertainty related to choosing between adaptation options given that a decision of action has been taken. In this case the major part of the uncertainty on the estimated net present values is identical for all adaptation options and will therefore not affect a comparison between adaptation measures. This makes the chose among the options easier. Furthermore, the explicit attribution of uncertainty also enables a reduction of the overall uncertainty by identifying the processes which contributes the most. This knowledge can then be used to further reduce the uncertainty related to decision making, as a substantial part of the remaining uncertainty is epistemic.

Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Zhou, Qianqian

2014-05-01

295

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

296

Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

Wende, Wolfgang, E-mail: W.Wende@ioer.de [Head of Research Area on Landscape Change and Management, Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [InteREAM, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Bobylev, Nikolai, E-mail: nikolaibobylev@gmail.com [School of Innovation Science, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251, Politechnicheskaya, 29, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg Research Centre for Ecological Safety of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 197110, Korpusnaya, 18, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Stratmann, Lars, E-mail: l.stratmann@ioer.de [Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

2012-01-15

297

A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

298

Behavioral adaptations increase the value of enemy-free space for Heliothis subflexa, a specialist herbivore.  

PubMed

We investigated the importance of specialized behaviors in the use of enemy-free space by comparing the host-use behavior of two closely related moths, Heliothis subflexa Guenee and H. virescens Fabricius. Heliothis subflexa is a specialist on plants in the genus Physalis, whereas H. virescens is an extreme generalist, feeding on plants in at least 14 families. Heliothis subflexa uses the inflated calyx surrounding Physalis fruits as enemy-free space, and field rates of parasitism for H. subflexa on Physalis are much lower than for H. virescens on tobacco and cotton, common hosts found in the same habitat as Physalis. If Physalis, architecture were solely responsible for H. subflexa's low rates of parasitism on Physalis, we predicted that H. virescens larvae experimentally induced to feed on Physalis would experience parasitism rates similar to those of H. subflexa. We found, however, that specialized host-use and host-acceptance behaviors are integral to the use of enemy-free space on Physalis and strongly augment the effects of the structural refuge. In laboratory assays, we found considerable differences between the larval behavior of the specialist. H. subflexa, and the generalist, H. virescens, and these contributed to H. subflexa's superior use of enemy-free space on Physalis. We tested the importance of these behavioral differences in the field by comparing parasitism of H. virescens on Physalis, H. virescens on tobacco, and H. subflexa on Physalis by Cardiochiles nigriceps Vierick, a specialist braconid parasitoid. For H. virescens, a threefold decrease in parasitism occurred when feeding on Physalis (mean parasitism +/- SEM = 13 +/- 4%) rather than tobacco (43 +/- 4%), a difference we attribute to the structural refuge provided by Physalis. However, parasitism of H. virescens on Physalis was more than ten times as great as that of H. subflexa on Pliv.salis (1 +/- 4%), supporting the hypothesis that specialized behaviors have a substantial impact on use of Physalis as enemy-free space. Behavioral adaptations may be central to the use of enemy-free space by phytophagous insects and may act as an important selective force in the evolution of dietary specialization. PMID:12038526

Oppenheim, Sara J; Gould, Fred

2002-04-01

299

Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention with Emotional/Behaviorally Disordered Students: In Pursuit of State of the Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures for the purposes of developing interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) has received considerable attention since the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this paper is to review the…

Waguespack, Angela; Vaccaro, Terrence; Continere, Lauren

2006-01-01

300

Reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist for the Assessment of Behavioral Problems of Children and Youth with Mild Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist with 42 children and youth with mild mental retardation. Use of kappa coefficients and intra-class correlations at item and syndrome levels indicated that the Child Behavior Checklist may not always represent a reliable checklist for the assessment of psychopathology in this…

Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

2000-01-01

301

77 FR 48989 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials; Availability AGENCY: Food...Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials.'' The purpose of this guidance...suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials of drug and biological...

2012-08-15

302

Performance Monitoring and Assessment of Neuro-Adaptive Controllers for Aerospace Applications Using a Bayesian Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern exploration missions require modern control systems-control systems that can handle catastrophic changes in the system's behavior, compensate for slow deterioration in sustained operations, and support fast system ID. Adaptive controllers, based upon Neural Networks have these capabilities, but they can only be used safely if proper verification & validation (V&V) can be done. In this paper we present our V & V approach and simulation result within NASA's Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS).

Gupta, Pramod; Guenther, Kurt; Hodgkinson, John; Jacklin, Stephen; Richard, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Soares, Fola

2005-01-01

303

Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.  

PubMed

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status. PMID:16287384

Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

2005-10-01

304

Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth  

PubMed Central

American Indian (AI) adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample of 24 AI adolescents. Participants experienced significant decreases in anxiety and PTSD symptoms, and avoidant coping strategies, as well as a marginally significant decrease in depression symptoms. Improvements in anxiety and depression were maintained 6 months post-intervention; improvements in PTSD and avoidant coping strategies were not. Feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability of CBITS are discussed in the context of efforts to develop culturally sensitive interventions for AI youth. PMID:21058132

Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

2011-01-01

305

Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.  

PubMed

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

2014-01-01

306

Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams  

PubMed Central

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

2014-01-01

307

Antenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment Induces Adaptations in Adult Midbrain Dopamine Neurons, which Underpin Sexually Dimorphic Behavioral Resilience  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated previously that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT, gestational days 16–19) altered the size and organization of the adult rat midbrain dopaminergic (DA) populations. Here we investigated the consequences of these AGT-induced cytoarchitectural disturbances on indices of DA function in adult rats. We show that in adulthood, enrichment of striatal DA fiber density paralleled AGT-induced increases in the numbers of midbrain DA neurons, which retained normal basal electrophysiological properties. This was co-incident with changes in (i) striatal D2-type receptor levels (increased, both sexes); (ii) D1-type receptor levels (males decreased; females increased); (iii) DA transporter levels (males increased; females decreased) in striatal regions; and (iv) amphetamine-induced mesolimbic DA release (males increased; females decreased). However, despite these profound, sexually dimorphic changes in markers of DA neurotransmission, in-utero glucocorticoid overexposure had a modest or no effect on a range of conditioned and unconditioned appetitive behaviors known to depend on mesolimbic DA activity. These findings provide empirical evidence for enduring AGT-induced adaptive mechanisms within the midbrain DA circuitry, which preserve some, but not all, functions, thereby casting further light on the vulnerability of these systems to environmental perturbations. Furthermore, they demonstrate these effects are achieved by different, often opponent, adaptive mechanisms in males and females, with translational implications for sex biases commonly found in midbrain DA-associated disorders. PMID:23929547

Virdee, Kanwar; McArthur, Simon; Brischoux, Frédéric; Caprioli, Daniele; Ungless, Mark A; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Gillies, Glenda E

2014-01-01

308

Prospective Assessment of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: An Internet Survey of Pharmaceutical Sponsor Practices  

PubMed Central

Objective: To survey the current approaches of clinical trial sponsors in prospective suicidal ideation and behavior assessments and challenges encountered. Design: An internet-based survey. Setting: Inclusion of prospective assessments of suicidal ideation and behavior in industry-sponsored clinical studies were required following the release of the September 2010 United States Federal Drug Administration draft guidance. The International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and Methodology Suicidal Ideation and Behavior Assessment Workgroup conducted an online survey to understand industry practices and experiences in implementing suicidal ideation and behavior assessments in clinical trials. Participants: The survey was sent to 1,447 industry employees at 178 pharmaceutical companies. A total of 89 evaluable responses, representing 39 companies, were obtained. Measurements: A 30-item internet survey was developed asking about potential challenges and issues in implementing prospective suicidal ideation and behavior assessments. Results: Common factors in deciding whether to include suicidal ideation and behavior assessments in a clinical trial were psychiatric or neurologic drug product (95%); central nervous system activity (78%); disease (74%) and patient population (71%); and regulatory announcements and policies (74%). The most common challenges in implementing suicidal ideation and behavior assessments included cross-cultural differences in acceptance of SIB assessments (40%); obtaining adequate baseline history (36.8%); obtaining translations (35%); investigator/rater discomfort with asking about suicidal ideation and behavior (32%); and inadequate training of raters to administer suicidal ideation and behavior ratings (30%). Conclusion: Among sponsors surveyed, the implementation rate of suicidal ideation and behavior assessment in central nervous systems studies is very high. Most have used the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Challenges regarding standardization of retrospective assessment timeframes and differing approaches to summarizing and analyzing suicidal ideation and behavior-related study data were frequently reported. These results suggest that inconsistent reports of suicidal ideation and behavior within study datasets may occur and that integration of data across studies remains a concern. PMID:25520885

Mahableshwarkar, Atul R.; Alphs, Larry D.; Bangs, Mark E.; Butler, Adam; DuBrava, Sarah J.; Greist, John H.; Lenderking, William R.; Mundt, James C.; Stewart, Michelle

2014-01-01

309

A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior  

PubMed Central

Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite primary unresolved questions regarding adaptive response behavior and bystander behavior. The five features of major significance provided by the Microdose Model so far are 1.) Single Specific Energy Hits initiate Adaptive Response, 2.) Mammogram and diagnostic X-rays induce a protective Bystander Effect as well as Adaptive Response radio-protection. 3.) For mammogram X-rays the Adaptive Response protection is retained at high primer dose levels. 4.) The dose range of the AR protection depends on the value of the Specific Energy per Hit, . 5.) Alpha particle induced deleterious Bystander damage is modulated by low LET radiation. PMID:18648579

Leonard, Bobby E.

2008-01-01

310

Sensory extinction and sensory reinforcement principles for programming multiple adaptive behavior change.  

PubMed Central

The role of sensory reinforcement was examined in programming multiple treatment gains in self-stimulation and spontaneous play for developmentally disabled children. Two phases were planned. First, we attempted to identify reinforcers maintaining self-stimulation. Sensory Extinction procedures were implemented in which auditory, proprioceptive, or visual sensory consequences of self-stimulatory behavior were systematically removed and reintroduced in a reversal design. When self-stimulation was decreased or eliminated as a result of removing one of these sensory consequences, the functional sensory consequence was designated as a child's preferred sensory reinforcer. In Phase 2, we assessed whether children would play selectively with toys producing the preferred kind of sensory stimulation. The results showed the following. (1) Self-stimulatory behavior was found to be maintained by sensory reinforcement. When the sensory reinforcer was removed, self-stimulation extinguished. (2) The sensory reinforcers identified for self-stimulatory behavior also served as reinforcers for new, appropriate toy play. (3) The multiple treatment gains observed appeared to be relatively durable in the absence of external reinforcers for play or restraints on self-stimulation. These results illustrate one instance in which multiple behavior change may be programmed in a predictable, lawful fashion by using "natural communities of sensory reinforcement." PMID:489480

Rincover, A; Cook, R; Peoples, A; Packard, D

1979-01-01

311

Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text presents 13 chapters on the assessment of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders for the purpose of making educational placement and programming decisions consistent with federal and state diagnostic guidelines. Chapters are grouped into four sections focusing on: basic considerations for assessment of youth in this…

Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

312

Evidence-Based School Behavior Assessment of Externalizing Behavior in Young Children  

PubMed Central

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System (REDSOCS). Participants were 68 children ages 3 to 6 who completed parent-child interaction therapy for Oppositional Defiant Disorder as part of a larger efficacy trial. Interobserver reliability on REDSOCS categories was moderate to high, with percent agreement ranging from 47% to 90% (M = 67%) and Cohen’s kappa coefficients ranging from .69 to .95 (M = .82). Convergent validity of the REDSOCS categories was supported by significant correlations with the Intensity Scale of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised and related subscales of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale-Revised: Long Version (CTRS-R: L). Divergent validity was indicated by nonsignificant correlations between REDSOCS categories and scales on the CTRS-R: L expected not to relate to disruptive classroom behavior. Treatment sensitivity was demonstrated for two of the three primary REDSOCS categories by significant pre to posttreatment changes. This study provides psychometric support for the designation of REDSOCS as an evidence-based assessment procedure for young children. PMID:21687781

Bagner, Daniel M.; Boggs, Stephen R.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

2011-01-01

313

Evidence-Based School Behavior Assessment of Externalizing Behavior in Young Children.  

PubMed

This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System (REDSOCS). Participants were 68 children ages 3 to 6 who completed parent-child interaction therapy for Oppositional Defiant Disorder as part of a larger efficacy trial. Interobserver reliability on REDSOCS categories was moderate to high, with percent agreement ranging from 47% to 90% (M = 67%) and Cohen's kappa coefficients ranging from .69 to .95 (M = .82). Convergent validity of the REDSOCS categories was supported by significant correlations with the Intensity Scale of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised and related subscales of the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised: Long Version (CTRS-R: L). Divergent validity was indicated by nonsignificant correlations between REDSOCS categories and scales on the CTRS-R: L expected not to relate to disruptive classroom behavior. Treatment sensitivity was demonstrated for two of the three primary REDSOCS categories by significant pre to posttreatment changes. This study provides psychometric support for the designation of REDSOCS as an evidence-based assessment procedure for young children. PMID:21687781

Bagner, Daniel M; Boggs, Stephen R; Eyberg, Sheila M

2010-02-01

314

Some psychophysiological and behavioral aspects of adaptation to simulated autonomous Mission to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.

Gushin, V.; Shved, D.; Vinokhodova, A.; Vasylieva, G.; Nitchiporuk, I.; Ehmann, B.; Balazs, L.

2012-01-01

315

Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning  

SciTech Connect

Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and type of constraints and in task objectives, and can adapt to changes in kinematics configurations (change of module, change of tool, joint failure adaptation, etc.).

Pin, Francois G.

2002-06-01

316

Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior: Dispelling Myths, Overcoming Implementation Obstacles, and Developing New Lore  

PubMed Central

Hundreds of studies have shown the efficacy of treatments for problem behavior based on an understanding of its function. Assertions regarding the legitimacy of different types of functional assessment vary substantially across published articles, and best practices regarding the functional assessment process are sometimes difficult to cull from the empirical literature or from published discussions of the behavioral assessment process. A number of myths regarding the functional assessment process, which appear to be pervasive within different behavior-analytic research and practice communities, will be reviewed in the context of an attempt to develop new lore regarding the functional assessment process. Frequently described obstacles to implementing a critical aspect of the functional assessment process, the functional analysis, will be reviewed in the context of solutions for overcoming them. Finally, the aspects of the functional assessment process that should be exported to others versus those features that should remain the sole technological property of behavior analysts will be discussed. PMID:23326630

Hanley, Gregory P

2012-01-01

317

Cross-cultural normative assessment: Translation and adaptation issues influencing the normative interpretation of assessment instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes some of the issues affecting measures that are translated and\\/or adapted from an original language and culture to a new one. It addresses steps to ensure (a) that the test continues to measure the same psychological characteristics, (b) that the test content is the same, and (c) that the research procedures needed to document that it effectively

Kurt F. Geisinger

1994-01-01

318

Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence  

PubMed Central

The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680

Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

2014-01-01

319

Neuropsychological and Behavioral Measures of Attention Assess Different Constructs in Children With Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures are used to assess attention, but little convergence has been found between these two assessment methods. However, many prior studies have not considered attention as a multicomponent system, which may contribute to this lack of agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral measures. To address this the current study examined the relationship between the neuropsychological measures that comprise

Sally J. Barney; Daniel N. Allen; Nicholas S. Thaler; Brandon S. Park; Gregory P. Strauss; Joan Mayfield

2011-01-01

320

Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following study both synthesizes and builds on the efforts to conceptualize the effects of quality, satisfaction, and value on consumers’ behavioral intentions. Specifically, it reports an empirical assessment of a model of service encounters that simultaneously considers the direct effects of these variables on behavioral intentions. The study builds on recent advances in services marketing theory and assesses the

J. Joseph Cronin; MICHAEL K. BRADY; G. Tomas M Hult

2000-01-01

321

The Effects of Team-Based Functional Assessment on the Behavior of Students in Classroom Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the impact of functional assessment interventions on appropriate and challenging behaviors of 75 typical children (ages 3-6), 60 children at-risk, and 75 children with special needs. Functional assessment procedures resulted in a decrease in challenging behavior and nonengagement and an increase in active engagement and peer…

Chandler, Lynette K.; Dahlquist, Carol M.; Repp, Alan C.; Feltz, Carol

1999-01-01

322

ASSESSMENT OF ADOPTION BEHAVIOR OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE KOGA WATERSHED, HIGHLANDS OF  

E-print Network

ASSESSMENT OF ADOPTION BEHAVIOR OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE KOGA WATERSHED Ethiopia. Even though a number of soil and water conservation methods were introduced to combat land' views on land degradation and to assess their adoption behavior of soil and water conservation knowledge

Walter, M.Todd

323

Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

2009-01-01

324

96 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 15, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 Adaptation of Orienting Behavior: From  

E-print Network

96 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 15, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 Adaptation of Orienting Behavior: From the Barn Owl to a Robotic System Michele Rucci, Member, IEEE, Gerald M. Edelman, and Jonathan Wray Abstract-- Autonomous robotic systems need to adjust their sensorimotor coordinations so

Rucci, Michele

325

Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

2004-01-01

326

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale Scores as a Function of Age and Initial IQ in 210 Autistic Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human growth modeling statistics were utilized to examine how Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) scores changed in individuals with autistic disorder as a function of both age and initial IQ. Results revealed that subjects improved with age in all domains. The rate of growth in Communication and Daily Living Skills was related to initial IQ while rate of growth in

B. J. Freeman; M. Del'Homme; D. Guthrie; F. Zhang

1999-01-01

327

An Overview of Intervention Options for Promoting Adaptive Behavior of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury and Minimally Conscious State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of the studies directed at helping post-coma persons with minimally conscious state improve their adaptive behavior. Twenty-one studies were identified for the 2000-2010 period (i.e., a period in which an intense debate has occurred about diagnostic, rehabilitative, prognostic, and ethical issues concerning people…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bosco, Andrea; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

2010-01-01

328

Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

2012-01-01

329

Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

Dereli-Iman, Esra

2013-01-01

330

Identifying and Assessing Community-Based Social Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults with EBD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A battery of three measures for assessing the community-based social behavior of adolescents and young adults with emotional and behavioral disorders is described. The measures, in male and female forms, are "Test of Community-Based Social Skill Knowledge,""Scale of Community-Based Social Skill Performance," and "Behaviors That Are Undesirable for…

Bullis, Michael; And Others

1994-01-01

331

A Comparative Study of the Preliminary Effects in the Levels of Adaptive Behaviors: Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate preliminary intervention effects of the adaptive behavior on the autism intervention program known as the Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA). The adaptive behavior scores of two groups of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared, with one group…

Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook; Yeo, Moon-Hwan

2012-01-01

332

Convergent and discriminant validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Problem Behavior for Children (ASD-PBC) against the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate challenging behaviors. Since challenging behaviors are obstacles for social development and learning, it is important to determine if and what challenging behaviors are exhibited. Although there are some measures that asses for challenging behaviors, the majority were not specifically designed to assess for challenging behaviors among children with ASD, or do not

Sara Mahan; Johnny L. Matson

2011-01-01

333

A geospatial collaboration information system for city environment assessment based on adaptive workflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

City environment assessment based on cyber-infrastructure includes the activities of information exchange, information system collaboration and service integration among multiple departments. The method of adaptive service workflow (ASW) for geospatial collaborative system is proposed. With considering of the service quality and optimization algorithm, the virtual workflow (VW) and optimized selection of service (OSS) model are given for the selection of the best service in distributed computing environment. An application example of city environment assessment for poison gas diffusion is developed with the information collaboration between weather bureau, city construct department and environmental department, and the experiment result of diffusion plume is visualized and overlapped with base map on Web client.

Yi, Shanzhen; Zhou, Yaodi; Li, Lijun; Zhou, Jianzhong

2008-10-01

334

Respiratory therapists and critical-thinking behaviors: a self-assessment.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess critical-thinking behaviors of respiratory therapists through self-report. Using a quantitative survey research method, respiratory therapists rated themselves on seven critical thinking skills. The effects of personal variables on the self-assessments were also investigated. The respiratory therapists self-assessed their critical-thinking behaviors highest in the categories of prioritizing, troubleshooting, and communicating. Anticipating was self-assessed as the lowest-ranked critical-thinking behavior. Age and educational level were found to have no effect on the self-assessed behaviors, while years of experience in respiratory care and gender were found to affect self-assessed troubleshooting, decision making, and anticipating. The results of this study suggest that educators and clinicians should consider learning strategies that incorporate the use of experience when targeting novice practitioners. PMID:11265268

Goodfellow, L T

2001-01-01

335

QuizGuide: Increasing the Educational Value of Individualized Self-Assessment Quizzes with Adaptive Navigation Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces QuizGuide, an adaptive system that we developed to help our students select the most relevant self-assessment quizzes. QuizGuide uses adaptive navigation support to show every student which topics are currently most important and which require further work. Despite relatively simple user modeling and adaptation techniques used in QuizGuide, the system has achieved a remarkable impact on student

Peter Brusilovsky; Sergey Sosnovsky; Olena Shcherbinina

336

Assessment of Acute Pain in Farm Animals Using Behavioral and Physiological Measurements1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper various aspects of animal pain and methods for its assessment are considered. The responses of lambs and calves to castration and of lambs to tail docking are used to illustrate quantitative approaches to the recognition and assessment of acute pain in farm animals. The validation of physiological and behavioral measure- ments for assessment of pain is examined

V. Molony; J. E. Kent

337

The Behavior Assessment Battery: A Preliminary Study of Non-Stuttering Pakistani Grade-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In recent years, the importance of a multimodal approach to the assessment of the person who stutters (PWS) has become increasingly recognized. The Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB), which is a normed test procedure developed by G. Brutten, makes it possible to assess the multidimensional facets of this disorder. The emotional and…

Vanryckeghem, Martine; Mukati, Samad A.

2006-01-01

338

Neonatal behavioral assessment scale as a biomarker of the effects of environmental agents on the newborn  

SciTech Connect

The organization of the newborn's brain and the nature of the effects of toxins and pollutants conspire to produce complex and difficult problems for the assessment of the behavioral effects of environmental agents. The newborn's brain can be characterized as relatively undifferentiated, and more vulnerable to, but potentially more capable of recovery from, the effects of environmental agents specific to this time period than it will be later in development. Environmental agents tend to have nonspecific, possibly subtle, effects that invade many areas of newborn functioning. These characteristics of the newborn and the behavioral effects of teratogens make assessment at this point in development difficult. Further exacerbating this difficulty is the nature of development. Development is critically dependent on the care the newborn receives. Distortions of a newborn's behavior can produce disturbances in the caretaking environment, and these caretaking disturbances can amplify the original behavioral distortion and produce other distortions. Attention to these types of effects must be built into an assessment. These considerations lead to the conclusion that an apical assessment of newborn behavior is required. The most standardized, valid, and reliable instrument currently available is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale developed by Brazelton. It assesses the integrated actions of the infant that function to regulate simultaneously the infant's internal state and exchanges with the animate (caretaking) and inanimate environment. The scale uses a set of reflex and behavioral items to assess the critical domains of infant functioning (e.g., the infant's ability to control his states of consciousness). 52 references.

Tronick, E.Z.

1987-10-01

339

Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. Semi-Structured Interview Instrument  

E-print Network

The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

Carmin, JoAnn

2014-09-13

340

Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.  

PubMed

The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

2014-09-01

341

Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

342

Behavioral adaptation of young and older drivers to an intersection crossing advisory system.  

PubMed

An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about the right of way regulation and safety to cross an upcoming intersection. Effects were studied in a longer-term study involving 18 healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 18 healthy young drivers between the ages of 20 and 25 years. Participants repeatedly drove 25 km city routes in eight sessions on separate days over a period of two months in a driving simulator. In each age group, participants were randomly assigned to the control (no ADAS) and treatment (ADAS) group. The control group completed the whole experiment without the ADAS. The treatment group drove two sessions without (sessions 1 and 7) and six times with ADAS. Results indicate effects of ADAS on driving safety for young and older drivers, as intersection time and percentage of stops decreased, speed and critical intersection crossings increased, the number of crashes was lower for treatment groups than for control groups. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety. PMID:25463941

Dotzauer, Mandy; de Waard, Dick; Caljouw, Simone R; Pöhler, Gloria; Brouwer, Wiebo H

2015-01-01

343

Verbal and overt-behavioral assessment of a specific fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated self-ratings of fear on a modified Fear Survey Schedule and overt approach-avoidance responses to a large insect using 70 undergraduates. Professed fears of insects were negatively related (p < .001) to approach responses toward them. Sex of the E and whether or not E handled the insect were not associated with significant differences in approach behavior. Behavior described as

Anthony F. Fazio

1969-01-01

344

Adaptive Behavior in Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: Microanalysis of Scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings…

Paul, Rhea; Miles, Stephanie; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred; Coflin, Megan; Booker, Shelley

2004-01-01

345

Assessment of the Relationship Between Flexibility and Adaptive Capacity in Flood Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discussions around adapting water management systems to future changes often state the need to increase system flexibility. Intuitively, a flexible, easily modifiable system seems desirable when faced with a wide range of uncertain, but plausible future conditions. Yet, despite the frequent use of the terms flexibility, very little work has examined what exactly it means to have a flexible water management system, what makes one system more flexible than another, or the extent to which flexibility increases adaptive capacity. This study applies a methodology for assessing the inherent flexibility of the structural and non-structural components of flood management systems using original flexibility metrics in the categories of: slack, intensity, connectivity, adjustability, and coordination. We use these metrics to assess the flexibility of three sub-systems within the Sacramento Valley flood management system in California, USA under current system conditions as well as with proposed management actions in place. We then assess the range of hydrologic conditions under which each sub-system can meet flood risk targets in order to determine whether more flexible systems are also more robust and able to perform over a wider range of hydrologic conditions. In doing so, we identify flexible characteristics of flood management systems that enhance the ability of the system to preform over a wide range of conditions making them better suited to adapt to an uncertain hydrologic future. We find that the flexibility characteristics that increase the range of conditions under which the system can meet performance goals varies depending on whether the region is considered urban, rural, or a small community. In some cases, a decrease in certain flexibility characteristics is associated with an increase in robustness, indicating that more flexibility is not always desirable. Future work will assess the transferability of these results to other regions and systems.

DiFrancesco, K.; Tullos, D. D.

2013-12-01

346

Computerized Assessment of Social Approach Behavior in Mouse  

E-print Network

Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological basis of sociability and how this ...

Page, Damon T.

347

Effects of early maltreatment on development: a descriptive study using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II.  

PubMed

Children with histories of chronic early maltreatment within a caregiving relationship may develop complex trauma or developmental trauma and suffer from a variety of deficits in many domains. This study explored the effects of complex trauma on the development of 57 children, as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. This is the first descriptive study to report on the significant discrepancies between chronological and developmental ages in adopted and foster children. This study found that adopted and foster children with a psychiatric diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder show developmental delay in the domains of communication, daily living skills, and socialization. The average adaptive behavior composite score for the children in this study yielded a developmental age (age equivalency) of 4.4 years, while the average chronological age was 9.9 years. PMID:19777796

Becker-Weidman, Arthur

2009-01-01

348

The Developmental Behavior Checklist: The development and validation of an instrument to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the development and validation of the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC), a standardized instrument completed by lay informants to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR). Items describing common behavioral and emotional problems in this population were generated by extracting descriptions from 664 case files of children and adolescents with behavior disorders seen at

Stewart L. Einfeld; Bruce J. Tonge

1995-01-01

349

Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies  

PubMed Central

Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are most appropriate. For climate related health effects for which rough risk estimates are available, ‘robust decision-making’ is recommended. For health effects with limited societal and policy relevance, we recommend focusing on no-regret measures. For highly relevant health effects, precautionary measures can be considered. This study indicated that analysing and characterising uncertainty by means of a typology can be a very useful approach for selection and prioritization of preferred adaptation policies to reduce future climate related health risks. PMID:22992311

2012-01-01

350

A novel behavioral paradigm to assess multisensory processing in mice  

PubMed Central

Human psychophysical and animal behavioral studies have illustrated the benefits that can be conferred from having information available from multiple senses. Given the central role of multisensory integration for perceptual and cognitive function, it is important to design behavioral paradigms for animal models to provide mechanistic insights into the neural bases of these multisensory processes. Prior studies have focused on large mammals, yet the mouse offers a host of advantages, most importantly the wealth of available genetic manipulations relevant to human disease. To begin to employ this model species for multisensory research it is necessary to first establish and validate a robust behavioral assay for the mouse. Two common mouse strains (C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv) were first trained to respond to unisensory (visual and auditory) stimuli separately. Once trained, performance with paired audiovisual stimuli was then examined with a focus on response accuracy and behavioral gain. Stimulus durations varied from 50 ms to 1 s in order to modulate the effectiveness of the stimuli and to determine if the well-established “principle of inverse effectiveness” held in this model. Response accuracy in the multisensory condition was greater than for either unisensory condition for all stimulus durations, with significant gains observed at the 300 ms and 100 ms durations. Main effects of stimulus duration, stimulus modality and a significant interaction between these factors were observed. The greatest behavioral gain was seen for the 100 ms duration condition, with a trend observed that as the stimuli became less effective, larger behavioral gains were observed upon their pairing (i.e., inverse effectiveness). These results are the first to validate the mouse as a species that shows demonstrable behavioral facilitations under multisensory conditions and provides a platform for future mechanistically directed studies to examine the neural bases of multisensory integration.

Siemann, Justin K.; Muller, Christopher L.; Bamberger, Gary; Allison, John D.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Wallace, Mark T.

2015-01-01

351

Challenging Behavior and Early Academic Skill Development: An Integrated Approach to Assessment and Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses an approach to assessment and intervention of challenging behavior in early education settings that integrates a focus on instructional conditions and early academic skill development. The authors suggest this approach allows for a better understanding of the relationship between social behavior and child performance with…

Hojnoski, Robin L.; Wood, Brenna K.

2012-01-01

352

Assessing and Analyzing Behavior Strategies of Instructors in College Science Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed are university instructor behaviors in introductory and advanced level laboratories of botany, chemistry, geology, physics and zoology. Science Laboratory Interaction Categories--Teacher (SLIC) was used to assess 15 individual categories of teacher behaviors in the areas of questioning, giving directions, transmitting information,…

Kyle, William C., Jr.; And Others

1980-01-01

353

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

2005-01-01

354

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative \\

Erin C. Barney; Joel J. Mintzes; Chiung-Fen Yen

2005-01-01

355

Corrosion behavior of environmental assessment glass in product consistency tests of extended duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted static dissolution tests to study the corrosion behavior of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, which is the benchmark glass for high-level waste glasses being produced at US Department of Energy facilities. These tests were conducted to evaluate the behavior of the EA glass under the same long-term and accelerated test conditions that are being used to evaluate

J. K. Bates; E. C. Buck; W. L. Ebert; J. S. Luo; S. W. Tam

1998-01-01

356

Behavioral Assessment of Gambling: An Application of the Timeline Followback Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gambling Timeline Followback (G-TLFB), a measure of gambling behavior that uses the timeline followback methodology, was psychometrically evaluated with samples of frequent-gambling young adults. Seven dimensions of gambling behavior were assessed: type, frequency, duration, intent, risk, win-loss, and consumption of alcohol while gambling.…

Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.

2004-01-01

357

Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral

Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.

2013-01-01

358

A Contextual Approach to the Assessment of Social Skills: Identifying Meaningful Behaviors for Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted which assessed behaviors that characterize social competence in the second and fifth grades. A contextual approach was used to gather information from second- and fifth-grade children and their parents and teachers regarding the behaviors they perceived to be important for getting along well with peers. Data were…

Warnes, Emily D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Geske, Jenenne; Warnes, William A.

2005-01-01

359

Behavioral and neural correlates of visuomotor adaptation observed through a brain-computer interface in primary motor cortex  

PubMed Central

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a defined link between neural activity and devices, allowing a detailed study of the neural adaptive responses generating behavioral output. We trained monkeys to perform two-dimensional center-out movements of a computer cursor using a BCI. We then applied a perturbation by randomly selecting a subset of the recorded units and rotating their directional contributions to cursor movement by a consistent angle. Globally, this perturbation mimics a visuomotor transformation, and in the first part of this article we characterize the psychophysical indications of motor adaptation and compare them with known results from adaptation of natural reaching movements. Locally, however, only a subset of the neurons in the population actually contributes to error, allowing us to probe for signatures of neural adaptation that might be specific to the subset of neurons we perturbed. One compensation strategy would be to selectively adapt the subset of cells responsible for the error. An alternate strategy would be to globally adapt the entire population to correct the error. Using a recently developed mathematical technique that allows us to differentiate these two mechanisms, we found evidence of both strategies in the neural responses. The dominant strategy we observed was global, accounting for ?86% of the total error reduction. The remaining 14% came from local changes in the tuning functions of the perturbed units. Interestingly, these local changes were specific to the details of the applied rotation: in particular, changes in the depth of tuning were only observed when the percentage of perturbed cells was small. These results imply that there may be constraints on the network's adaptive capabilities, at least for perturbations lasting only a few hundreds of trials. PMID:22496532

Kass, Robert E.; Schwartz, Andrew B.

2012-01-01

360

Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)  

PubMed Central

Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

Uchmanowicz, Izabella; ?oboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; ?oboz-Grudzie?, Krystyna

2014-01-01

361

The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...

362

Stability Metrics for Simulation and Flight-Software Assessment and Monitoring of Adaptive Control Assist Compensators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to a need for improved reliability and performance in aerospace systems, there is increased interest in the use of adaptive control or other nonlinear, time-varying control designs in aerospace vehicles. While such techniques are built on Lyapunov stability theory, they lack an accompanying set of metrics for the assessment of stability margins such as the classical gain and phase margins used in linear time-invariant systems. Such metrics must both be physically meaningful and permit the user to draw conclusions in a straightforward fashion. We present in this paper a roadmap to the development of metrics appropriate to nonlinear, time-varying systems. We also present two case studies in which frozen-time gain and phase margins incorrectly predict stability or instability. We then present a multi-resolution analysis approach that permits on-line real-time stability assessment of nonlinear systems.

Hodel, A. S.; Whorton, Mark; Zhu, J. Jim

2008-01-01

363

Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2014-01-01

364

Assessing Error in Behavioral Data: Problems of Sequencing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus on the individual that is possible in analyzing behavioral data provides the possibility of investigating sequencing effects. Autocorrelation--as illustrated with classroom data from a previous study--can cause standard procedures to underestimate the magnitude of measurement error. Recommendations are made to reduce the effects of…

Rowley, Glenn L.

1989-01-01

365

An instrumented vehicle assessment of problem behavior and driving style  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumented vehicle was used to obtain behavioral data from 61 drivers ranging in age from 18 to 82. Each driver completed a personality questionnaire and participated in a study described as an evaluation of cognitive mapping and way-finding abilities. An evaluation of relationships between age, personality and driving style revealed that driver age and type A personality characteristics were

Thomas E Boyce; E. Scott Geller

2002-01-01

366

Behavioral Marital Therapy: Current Trends in Research, Assessment and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral Marital Therapy (BMT) is clinically useful because it includes elaborating procedures, modifying the spouse's self-defeating cognitions, and moving toward early intervention and prevention. Each article in this issue of American Journal of Family Therapy focuses on innovations in BMT, either in research or practice. (Author/NRB)

Jacobson, Neil S.

1980-01-01

367

The Behavioral Theory of the Firm: Assessment and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Behavioral Theory of the Firm has had an enormous influence on organizational theory, strategic management, and neighboring fields of socio-scientific inquiry. Its central concepts have become foundational to any theoretical and empirical work focussed on organizational phenomena. Unlike past reviews of this work, we start by focusing less on reviewing these concepts than we do on discussing the new

Giovanni Gavetti; Henrich R. Greve; Daniel A. Levinthal; William Ocasio

2012-01-01

368

Assessing dynamic spectral causality by lagged adaptive directed transfer function and instantaneous effect factor.  

PubMed

It is of significance to assess the dynamic spectral causality among physiological signals. Several practical estimators adapted from spectral Granger causality have been exploited to track dynamic causality based on the framework of time-varying multivariate autoregressive (tvMVAR) models. The nonzero covariance of the model's residuals has been used to describe the instantaneous effect phenomenon in some causality estimators. However, for the situations with Gaussian residuals in some autoregressive models, it is challenging to distinguish the directed instantaneous causality if the sufficient prior information about the "causal ordering" is missing. Here, we propose a new algorithm to assess the time-varying causal ordering of tvMVAR model under the assumption that the signals follow the same acyclic causal ordering for all time lags and to estimate the instantaneous effect factor (IEF) value in order to track the dynamic directed instantaneous connectivity. The time-lagged adaptive directed transfer function (ADTF) is also estimated to assess the lagged causality after removing the instantaneous effect. In this study, we first investigated the performance of the causal-ordering estimation algorithm and the accuracy of IEF value. Then, we presented the results of IEF and time-lagged ADTF method by comparing with the conventional ADTF method through simulations of various propagation models. Statistical analysis results suggest that the new algorithm could accurately estimate the causal ordering and give a good estimation of the IEF values in the Gaussian residual conditions. Meanwhile, the time-lagged ADTF approach is also more accurate in estimating the time-lagged dynamic interactions in a complex nervous system after extracting the instantaneous effect. In addition to the simulation studies, we applied the proposed method to estimate the dynamic spectral causality on real visual evoked potential (VEP) data in a human subject. Its usefulness in time-variant spectral causality assessment was demonstrated through the mutual causality investigation of brain activity during the VEP experiments. PMID:24956616

Xu, Haojie; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

2014-07-01

369

The Role of Cognition and Adaptive Behavior in Employment of People with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have specifically investigated the cognitive correlates of employment for persons with mental retardation. To evaluate the relationship of cognitive and adaptive functioning to work status, 56 competitively employed and 55 unemployed individuals with mental retardation underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological and adaptive

Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Chen, Ching-Chiang

2008-01-01

370

Designing Automated Adaptive Support to Improve Student Helping Behaviors in a Peer Tutoring Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive collaborative learning support systems analyze student collaboration as it occurs and provide targeted assistance to the collaborators. Too little is known about how to design adaptive support to have a positive effect on interaction and learning. We investigated this problem in a reciprocal peer tutoring scenario, where two students take…

Walker, Erin; Rummel, Nikol; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

2011-01-01

371

Nest sanitation behavior in hirundines as a pre-adaptation to egg rejection to counter brood parasitism.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggested that nest sanitation behavior may have been a pre-adaptation from which egg rejection of brood parasite eggs evolved. We tested this hypothesis in two swallow species, the red-rumped swallow (Cecropis daurica) and the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Our results indicated that the red-rumped swallow, which is an accepter of foreign eggs, rejected a low percentage of non-egg-shaped objects and did so less often than the barn swallow, which is an intermediate rejecter of foreign eggs. Furthermore, the egg rejection rates of the barn swallow increased with the increase in rejection rates of non-egg-shaped objects among different populations. These results showed that nest cleaning behavior could have evolved into a means of reducing the costs of brood parasitism, suggesting that egg recognition ability has evolved from recognition of non-egg-shaped objects. This finding advances our understanding of the evolution of egg recognition behavior in birds. PMID:25231538

Yang, Canchao; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

2015-01-01

372

Comparing Descriptive, Experimental and Informant-Based Assessments of Problem Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the outcomes of descriptive, experimental and informant-based methods of functional assessment were compared in four individuals with developmental disabilities who showed problem behaviors. Results indicated that the descriptive and experimental assessments were concordant in only one of the four cases whilst informant-based and…

Hall, Scott S.

2005-01-01

373

Assessing translocation outcome: Comparing behavioral and physiological aspects of translocated and resident African elephants ( Loxodonta africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating translocation outcomes is important for improving wildlife management and conservation actions. Often, when quick decisions need to be made and long-lived animals with slow reproduction rates are translocated, traditional assessment methods such as long-term survival and reproductive success cannot be used for assessing translocation outcomes. Thus, alternative, seldom used, measures such as comparing the behavior and physiology of translocated

Noa Pinter-Wollman; Lynne A. Isbell; Lynette A. Hart

2009-01-01

374

Effects of a Rubric-Driven Assessment on Teacher Performance with Regard to Behavioral Management Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this researcher was to evaluate the efficacy of an in-service training program in the use of a rubric-driven assessment system for classroom behavior management. Thirty randomly assigned teachers received in-service training and 30 teachers served as a control group. The use of a rubric-driven assessment provided both teachers and…

Simmons, Kevin R.

2010-01-01

375

Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

2013-01-01

376

Covert rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS): A hypothesis of hippocampal-prefrontal interactions for adaptive behavior.  

PubMed

Effective choices generally require memory, yet little is known regarding the cognitive or neural mechanisms that allow memory to influence choices. We outline a new framework proposing that covert memory processing of hippocampus interacts with action-generation processing of prefrontal cortex in order to arrive at optimal, memory-guided choices. Covert, rapid action-memory simulation (CRAMS) is proposed here as a framework for understanding cognitive and/or behavioral choices, whereby prefrontal-hippocampal interactions quickly provide multiple simulations of potential outcomes used to evaluate the set of possible choices. We hypothesize that this CRAMS process is automatic, obligatory, and covert, meaning that many cycles of action-memory simulation occur in response to choice conflict without an individual's necessary intention and generally without awareness of the simulations, leading to adaptive behavior with little perceived effort. CRAMS is thus distinct from influential proposals that adaptive memory-based behavior in humans requires consciously experienced memory-based construction of possible future scenarios and deliberate decisions among possible future constructions. CRAMS provides an account of why hippocampus has been shown to make critical contributions to the short-term control of behavior, and it motivates several new experimental approaches and hypotheses that could be used to better understand the ubiquitous role of prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in situations that require adaptively using memory to guide choices. Importantly, this framework provides a perspective that allows for testing decision-making mechanisms in a manner that translates well across human and nonhuman animal model systems. PMID:24752152

Wang, Jane X; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Joel L

2014-04-19

377

Behavioral assessment and treatment of acquired visuoperceptual disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visuoperceptual deficits are common sequelae of damage to either hemisphere of the brain, but are typically more pronounced following injuries involving the right cerebral hemisphere. Common visuoperceptual disorders include visual field cuts, hemi-inattention and hemi-spatial neglect, hemi-perceptual deficits, and gaze and visual pursuit disturbances. A number of behavioral interventions have been developed to teach patients to compensate for acquired visual

William Drew Gouvier

1991-01-01

378

The Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale (VerBAS): construct validity, reliability, and internal consistency.  

PubMed

A questionnaire, the Verbal Behavior Assessment Scale, was developed to assess the communicative functions of individuals with developmental disabilities and severe mental handicap. To assess its psychometric characteristics, the questionnaire, comprising 15 items, was administered to pairs of caregivers of 115 participants. Exploratory factor analysis, involving 11 more participants, revealed satisfactory evidence concerning the distinction of three different communicative functions with the present sample. The questionnaire had good levels of interrater reliability and internal consistency. PMID:10542970

Duker, P C

1999-01-01

379

Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…

McDowell, J. J.; Popa, Andrei

2010-01-01

380

ComSoc: adaptive transfer of user behaviors over composite social network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of user behaviors is important for many social media applications, including social marketing, personalization and recommendation, etc. A major challenge lies in that, the available behavior data or interactions between users and items in a given social network are usually very limited and sparse (e.g., >= 99.9% empty). Many previous works model user behavior from only historical user

Erheng Zhong; Wei Fan; Junwei Wang; Lei Xiao; Yong Li

2012-01-01

381

Adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Hebrew version of the Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (RPRS).  

PubMed

Recovery is supported by relationships that are characterized by human centeredness, empowerment and a hopeful approach. The Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (RPRS; Russinova, Rogers, & Ellison, 2006) assesses consumer-provider relationships from the consumer perspective. Here we present the adaptation and psychometric assessment of a Hebrew version of the RPRS. The RPRS was translated to Hebrew (RPRS-Heb) using multiple strategies to assure conceptual soundness. Then 216 mental health consumers were administered the RPRS-Heb as part of a larger project initiative implementing illness management and recovery intervention (IMR) in community settings. Psychometric testing included assessment of the factor structure, reliability, and validity using the Hope Scale, the Working Alliance Inventory, and the Recovery Assessment Scale. The RPRS-Heb factor structure replicated the two factor structures found in the original scale with minor exceptions. Reliability estimates were good: Cronbach's alpha for the total scale was 0.94. An estimate of 0.93 for the Recovery-Promoting Strategies factor, and 0.86 for the Core Relationship. Concurrent validity was confirmed using the Working Alliance Scale (rp = .51, p < .001) and the Hope Scale (rp = .43, p < .001). Criterion validity was examined using the Recovery Assessment Scale (rp = .355, p < .05). The study yielded a 23-item RPRS-Heb version with a psychometrically sound factor structure, satisfactory reliability, and concurrent validity tested against the Hope, Alliance, and Recovery Assessment scales. Outcomes are discussed in the context of the original scale properties and a similar Dutch initiative. The RPRS-Heb can serve as a valuable tool for studying recovery promoting relationships with Hebrew speaking population. PMID:24490768

Moran, Galia S; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Garber-Epstein, Paula; Roe, David

2014-03-01

382

A combined bottom-up and top-down approach for assessment of climate change adaptation options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focus of recent scientific research in the water sector has shifted from analysis of climate change impacts to assessment of climate change adaptation options. However, limited attention has been given to integration of bottom-up and top-down methods for assessment of adaptation options. The integrated approach used in this study uses hydrological modelling to assess the effect of stakeholder prioritized adaptation options for the Kangsabati river catchment in India. A series of 14 multi-level stakeholder consultations are used to ascertain locally relevant no-regret adaptation options using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and scenario analysis methods. A validated Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model is then used to project the effect of three options; option 1 check dams (CD), option 2 increasing forest cover (IFC) and option 3 combined CD and IFC, on future (2021-2050) streamflow. High resolution (˜25 km) climatic projections from four Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and their ensemble based on the SRES A1B scenario for the mid-21st century period are used to force the WEAP model. Results indicate that although all three adaptation options reduce streamflow, in comparison with scenario without adaptation, their magnitude, temporal pattern and effect on high and low streamflows are different. Options 2 and 3 reduce streamflow percentage by an order of magnitude greater than option 1. These characteristics affect their ability to address key adaptation requirements and therefore, we find that IFC emerges as a hydrologically suitable adaptation option for the study area. Based on study results we also conclude that such an integrated approach is advantageous and is a valuable tool for locally relevant climate change adaptation policymaking.

Bhave, Ajay Gajanan; Mishra, Ashok; Raghuwanshi, Narendra Singh

2014-10-01

383

Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and resource managers to document traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and integrate this knowledge with Western science for crafting adaptation response to climate impacts in rural Native Alaska.

White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

2008-12-01

384

The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence  

PubMed Central

China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence—favorably evaluated in the West—for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adapting behavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources. PMID:23667305

Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

2013-01-01

385

Assessing Levels of Adaptation during Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions: Introducing the Rogers-Rutten Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most HIV-prevention funding agencies require the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions, tested and proven to be effective through outcome evaluation. Adaptation of programs during implementation is common and may be influenced by many factors, including agency mission, time constraints, and funding streams. There are few theoretical…

Bowen, Shelly-Ann K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Richter, Donna L.; Hussey, Jim; Elder, Keith; Lindley, Lisa

2010-01-01

386

Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in terms of a neurobehavioral system that underlies incentive motivated behavior. Adolescence may be a time of elevated activity within this system. This review provides a summary of changes within cortical and subcortical dopaminergic systems that may account for changes in cognition and affect that characterize adolescent behavior. Because there is a dearth of information regarding neurochemical changes in human adolescents, models for assessing links between neurochemical activity and behavior in human adolescents will be described using molecular genetic techniques. Furthermore, we will suggest how these techniques can be combined with other methods such as pharmacology to measure the impact of dopamine activity on behavior and how this relation changes through the lifespan. PMID:19944514

Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

2009-01-01

387

Repeated Assessment of Exploration and Novelty Seeking in the Human Behavioral Pattern Monitor in Bipolar Disorder Patients and Healthy Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD) and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM), a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. Methodology and Principal Findings Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability) patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. Conclusions/Significance Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design to characterize exploration and novelty seeking and, in parallel with animal studies, can contribute to developing treatments that target neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:21912623

Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.; Masten, Virginia; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

2011-01-01

388

Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

389

Behavioral risk assessment in HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) clinical trials: a qualitative study exploring HVTN staff perspectives.  

PubMed

In HIV vaccine trials, the collection and analysis of participant behavior data associated with risk of acquiring HIV-infection is important for a number of reasons. Although the rationale for behavioral risk assessment in HIV vaccine clinical trials is clear, consistent collection of behavioral data over time and across protocols has been challenging for the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN). Integrating biomedical and behavioral research within the same preventive vaccine clinical trial has proven difficult. The HVTN conducted an internal landscape analysis to: (1) evaluate the challenges of behavioral risk assessment in HIV vaccine trials and observational studies; (2) explore the impact of the Step Study on behavioral risk assessment measures; and (3) identify strategies to overcome existing challenges and improve the quality of data resulting from behavioral risk analysis. These analyses of behavioral risk within the HVTN revealed several challenges and recommendations for improved behavioral risk data collection in future protocols. The recommendations for improvement include: (1) establishment of protocol-specific behavioral risk working groups that include social and behavioral experts; (2) provision of behavioral rationale and objectives to the development team; (3) creation of a template for geographic- and population-specific assessment of low and high risk behaviors; and (4) pilot testing of behavioral risk assessments. Results also underscored the need for routinely conducted analyses of behavioral data. PMID:23859840

Andrasik, Michele Peake; Karuna, Shelly T; Nebergall, Michelle; Koblin, Beryl A; Kublin, Jim G

2013-09-13

390

Using Information Technology To Prepare Personnel To Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavioral Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines impediments to effective dissemination of training in positive behavioral support, such as school discipline policies and the inadequacy of training models. It suggests ways new information technologies can overcome these obstacles and reviews some new approaches using CD-ROM and online instructional methodologies to advance…

Sailor, Wayne; Freeman, Rachel; Britten, Jody; McCart, Amy; Smith, Christopher; Scott, Terry; Nelson, Mike

2000-01-01

391

A Russian adaptation of the child behavior checklist: Psychometric properties and associations with child and maternal affective symptomatology and family functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Child Behavior Checklist's (CBCL) applicability to a sample of 105 Russian 9- and 10-year-old children was evaluated by examining the internal consistency of Russian adaptations of parent and teacher report forms. In addition, child behavior scores were correlated with child reports of internalizing symptoms and maternal reports of their own internalizing symptoms and general family functioning. Finally, rates of

Alice S. Carter; Elena L. Grigorenko; David L. Pauls

1995-01-01

392

Assessing Behavioral Coping Preferences of Psychiatric Inpatients: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Recently there has been increased concern about excessive restraint and seclusion on inpatient psychiatric units and the resulting injuries and deaths. Individual crisis management strategies may be one way to reduce restraint and seclusion, which may include active engagement of inpatients in behavioral coping plans. Method We developed a 5-question Coping Agreement Questionnaire (CAQ) asking inpatients for their preferences on how to prevent loss of control if they become agitated. Nurses completed the CAQ with each patient to find alternatives to restraint and seclusion. A total of 264 admissions were reviewed, with the following diagnoses: mood disorders (n = 111 [42%]), schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders (n = 69 [26%]), or substance use disorders (n = 58 [22%]). One hundred thirty-seven patients (52%) were male. Results Many CAQ answers differed by diagnosis, sex, age, and ethnicity. For example, when asked how staff could help if they were about to lose control, all groups rated “talk with me” highly, although substance abusers preferred to “sit by self in room.” Adolescent patients were more often upset by not having visitors, whereas elderly patients reported being upset by having visitors. Overall, white patients gave more answers to CAQ questions than did black or Hispanic patients. Conclusions The findings have implications for practice on 3 levels. First, overall implications for the milieu were suggested by patients' preferences. Second, responses that differed by group suggested that optimal case management strategies may vary according to population characteristics. Third, patients may be engaged on the basis of individual preferences as active partners in managing their behavior during inpatient hospitalization. PMID:19242577

Hellerstein, David J.; Seirmarco, Gretchen; Almeida, Goretti; Batchelder, Sarai

2008-01-01

393

in vivo laser speckle imaging by adaptive contrast computation for microvasculature assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interference of light backscattered from a diffused surface leads to speckle formation in laser speckle imaging. These time integrated speckle patterns can be statistically analyzed to study the flow profile of moving scatterers. Simple speckle contrast analysis techniques have limited ability to distinguish thin structures due to presence of corrupting speckles. This paper presents a high resolution imaging technique by adaptive computation of contrast for laser speckle contrast analysis (adLASCA). Speckle images of retinal microvasculature in mice model are acquired during normal and reduced blood flow conditions. Initially, the speckle images are registered to compensate for movements, associated with heart beating and respiration. Adaptive computation is performed using local image statistics, estimated within a spatially moving window over successive time frames. Experimental evidence suggests that adLASCA outperforms other contrast analysis methods, substantiating significant improvement in contrast resolution. Fine vessels can be distinguished more efficiently with reduced fluctuations in contrast level. Quantitative performance of adLASCA is evaluated by computing standard deviation, corresponding to speckle fluctuations due to unwanted speckles. There is a significant reduction in standard deviation compared to other methods. Therefore, adLASCA can be used for enhancing microvasculature in high resolution perfusion imaging with reduced effect of corrupting speckles for effective assessment.

Basak, Kausik; Dey, Goutam; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mandal, Mahitosh; Dutta, Pranab Kumar

2014-11-01

394

Design and assessment of novel artificial anal sphincter with adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system.  

PubMed

Abstract This paper presents the in vitro assessment of a novel elastic scaling artificial anal sphincter system (ES-AASS) with an adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) for treatment of severe faecal incontinence (FI). The proposed adaptive TETS has a phase control, which can maintain the output voltage at ??7?V across the full range of the coupling coefficient variation (from 0.09-0.31) during the whole process of charging with a phase shift of 177.5° to 79.1°. A maximum surface temperature of 42.2?°C was measured above the secondary coil during an energy transmission of 3.5?W in air. The specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density analysis of the biological three-layers structure, including the skin, fat and muscle) surrounding the coil pair were analysed and the results of simulation analysis showed that the value of SAR and current density were very small at any given transmission condition compared with the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In conclusion, in vitro experimental results showed that the ES-AASS can control simulated faecal behaviour effectively and the performance of TETS was validated. PMID:25626127

Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Sheng; Liu, Zhiqiang

2015-02-01

395

Community perception: the ability to assess the safety of unfamiliar neighborhoods and respond adaptively.  

PubMed

When entering an unfamiliar neighborhood, adaptive social decisions are dependent on an accurate assessment of the local safety. Studies of cities have shown that the maintenance of physical structures is correlated with the strength of ties between neighbors, which in turn is responsible for the crime level. Thus it should be theoretically possible to intuit neighborhood safety through the physical structures alone. Here we test whether people have this capacity for judging urban neighborhoods with 3 studies in which individuals observed photographs of unfamiliar neighborhoods in Binghamton, New York. Each study was facilitated by data collected during previous studies performed by the Binghamton Neighborhood Project studies. In the 1st study, observer ratings on neighborhood social quality agreed highly with reports by those living there. In the 2nd, a separate sample of participants played an economic game with adolescent residents from pictured neighborhoods. Players exhibited a lower level of trust toward adolescents from neighborhoods whose residents report lesser social quality. In the 3rd study, the maintenance of physical structures and the presence of businesses explained nearly all variation between neighborhoods in observer ratings (89%), whereas the specific features influencing play in Study 2 remained inconclusive. These and other results suggest that people use the general upkeep of physical structures when making wholesale judgments of neighborhoods, reflecting a adaptation for group living that has strong implications for the role of upkeep in urban environments. PMID:21443374

O'Brien, Daniel Tumminelli; Wilson, David Sloan

2011-04-01

396

Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women With Binge Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women’s (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation process and highlighted the importance of balancing the fidelity and cultural relevance of evidence-based treatment when disseminating it across diverse racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23645969

Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

2013-01-01

397

Assessing Adaptation with Asymmetric Climate Information: evidence from water bargaining field experiments in Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess how asymmetric climate information affects bargaining -- an adaptation institution. As often observed in the field, some actors lack information. This yields vulnerability, despite participation. We examine the loss for a participant from being uncertain about water quantity when bargaining with a fully informed participant in an ultimatum game in Northeast Brazil. When all are fully informed, our field populations in the capital city and an agricultural valley produce a typical 60-40 split between those initiating and responding in one-shot bargaining. With asymmetric information, when initiators know the water quantity is low they get 80%. Thus even within bargaining, i.e. given strong participation, better integrating climate science into water management via greater effort to communicate relevant information to all involved can help to avoid inequities that could arise despite all of the stakeholders being 'at the table', as may well occur within future water allocation along a large new canal in the case we study.

Pfaff, A.; Velez, M.; Taddei, R.; Broad, K.

2011-12-01

398

Assessment of US NRC fuel rod behavior codes to extended burnup  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the status of assessing the capabilities of the NRC fuel rod performance codes for calculating extended burnup rod behavior. As part of this effort, a large spectrum of fuel rod behavior phenomena was examined, and the phenomena deemed as being influential during extended burnup operation were identified. Then, the experiment data base addressing these identified phenomena was examined for availability and completeness at extended burnups. Calculational capabilities of the NRC's steady state FRAPCON-2 and transient FRAP-T6 fuel rod behavior codes were examined for each of the identified phenomenon. Parameters calculated by the codes were compared with the available data base, and judgments were made regarding model performance. Overall, the FRAPCON-2 code was found to be moderately well assessed to extended burnups, but the FRAP-T6 code cannot be adequately assessed until more transient high burnup data are available.

Laats, E.T.; Croucher, D.W.; Haggag, F.M.

1982-01-01

399

Maternal beliefs about adaptive and maladaptive social behaviors in normal, aggressive, and withdrawn preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare mothers of normal, aggressive, and anxious-withdrawn preschoolers with regard to their beliefs about how socially competent behaviors are learned and their beliefs concerning the origins of two types of maladaptive behaviors-aggression and withdrawal. 121 mothers of 4- year olds were questioned about how they think social skills are acquired. They were also

Kenneth H. Rubin; Rosemary S. L. Mills

1990-01-01

400

The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to 23%…

Newland, Jessica Marie

2010-01-01

401

Reproductive behavior of the cactus fly, Odontoloxozus longicornis , male territoriality and female guarding as adaptive strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Mating behavior in the cactus fly, Odontoloxozus longicornis Bigot, is investigated using a model modified from Parker (1974). Male territoriality at oviposition sites, repeated matings, and postcopulatory guarding behaviors are described for a population utilizing giant saguaro cacti (Carnega gigantea) in Pima County, Arizona. Observations of flies under varying physical conditions indicate that the males follow two general copulatory patterns.

Robert L. Mangan

1979-01-01

402

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

403

Promoting Behavior Change from Alcohol Use through Mobile Technology: The Future of Ecological Momentary Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Interactive and mobile technologies (i.e., smartphones such as Blackberries, iPhones, and palm-top computers) show promise as an efficacious and cost-effective means of communicating health-behavior risks, improving public health outcomes, and accelerating behavior change (Abroms and Maibach, 2008). The present study was conducted as a “needs assessment” to examine the current available mobile smartphone applications (e.g., apps) that utilize principles of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) -- daily self-monitoring or near real-time self-assessment of alcohol use behavior -- to promote positive behavior change, alcohol harm reduction, psycho-education about alcohol use, or abstinence from alcohol. Methods Data were collected and analyzed from iTunes for Apple iPhone©. An inventory assessed the number of available apps that directly addressed alcohol use and consumption, alcohol treatment, or recovery, and whether these apps incorporated empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Results Findings showed that few apps addressed alcohol use behavior change or recovery. Aside from tracking drinking consumption, a minority utilized empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Some apps claimed they could serve as an intervention, however no empirical evidence was provided. Conclusions More studies are needed to examine the efficacy of mobile technology in alcohol intervention studies. The large gap between availability of mobile apps and their use in alcohol treatment programs indicate several important future directions for research. PMID:21689119

Cohn, Amy M.; Hunter-Reel, Dorian; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica

2011-01-01

404

Parental Assessment of Executive Function and Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior in Primary Hypertension after Antihypertensive Therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the change in parental ratings of executive function and behavior in children with primary hypertension following antihypertensive therapy. Study design Parents of untreated hypertensive subjects and controls completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to assess behavioral correlates of executive function and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Hypertensive subjects subsequently received antihypertensive therapy to achieve casual BP < 95th percentile. After 12 months, all parents again completed the BRIEF and CBCL. Results Twenty-two subjects with hypertension and 25 normotensive control subjects had both baseline and 12-month assessments. Hypertensive subject’s blood pressure improved (24-hr systolic BP load: mean baseline vs. 12-months, 60 vs. 25%, p < 0.001). Parent ratings of executive function improved from baseline to 12-months in the hypertensives (BRIEF Global Executive Composite T-score, ? = ?5.9, p = 0.001) but not in the normotensive controls (? = ?0.36, p = 0.83). In contrast, T-scores on the Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing and Externalizing summary scales did not change significantly from baseline to 12-months in either hypertensive or control subjects. Conclusions Children with hypertension demonstrated improvement in parental ratings of executive function after 12 months of antihypertensive therapy. PMID:20227722

Lande, Marc B.; Adams, Heather; Falkner, Bonita; Waldstein, Shari R.; Schwartz, George J.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Wang, Hongyue; Palumbo, Donna

2010-01-01

405

Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions implemented in Africa in the past include food aid, drought relief programs, growing of drought tolerate crops, saving livestock, water efficiency and construction or rehabilitation of boreholes, wells and small dams. In the North Africa - Maghreb Region and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin, respectively 73 and 39 organisations involved in drought mitigation, are identified, dealing with agriculture extension services (28), food aid (11), policy (11), advocacy (10) and water supply (3). The most common adaptation actions identified are water harvesting, construction of water infrastructure, rehabilitation of traditional/cultural practices or implementation of technologies, water conservation, crop monitoring and crop diversification. Regarding involvement of organisations in drought adaptation, 18 organisations in the North Africa - Maghreb Region and 20 in Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin are identified. These organisations are involved in water infrastructure development or management (7), agriculture extension services (7) and policy development (13). The paper clearly shows that there is need to improve the existing monitoring and early warning systems at continental, regional, national and local scales. It also shows that a lot of organisations emerge when there is a drought and are involved in drought mitigation but only a few are involved in drought adaptation.

Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

2012-04-01

406

Behavioral experiments for assessing the abstract argumentation semantics of reinstatement.  

PubMed

Argumentation is a very fertile area of research in Artificial Intelligence, and various semantics have been developed to predict when an argument can be accepted, depending on the abstract structure of its defeaters and defenders. When these semantics make conflicting predictions, theoretical arbitration typically relies on ad hoc examples and normative intuition about what prediction ought to be the correct one. We advocate a complementary, descriptive-experimental method, based on the collection of behavioral data about the way human reasoners handle these critical cases. We report two studies applying this method to the case of reinstatement (both in its simple and floating forms). Results speak for the cognitive plausibility of reinstatement and yet show that it does not yield the full expected recovery of the attacked argument. Furthermore, results show that floating reinstatement yields comparable effects to that of simple reinstatement, thus arguing in favor of preferred argumentation semantics, rather than grounded argumentation semantics. Besides their theoretical value for validating and inspiring argumentation semantics, these results have applied value for developing artificial agents meant to argue with human users. PMID:21564255

Rahwan, Iyad; Madakkatel, Mohammed I; Bonnefon, Jean-François; Awan, Ruqiyabi N; Abdallah, Sherief

2010-11-01

407

Assessing bio-economic impacts and climate adaptation potential in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Global Circulation Model predictions, Belgium is situated on a wedge between a wetter and drier climatic regime. Observed changes show an increase of 1.3°C during the past decade, a higher frequency of warm summer days and a 6% increase in rainfall with a pronounced rise in winter precipitation of about 25% as compared to the normal (1961-1990). Since agriculture is particularly sensitive to climate variability and occupies more than 61% of the land surface in Flanders, the rural landscape will be confronted with profound changes. A combination of climate scenarios, production models and economic evaluation was used to assess climate impacts on agricultural goods & services, adaptation costs due to production losses and adaptation options. Agro-ecosystems offer a wide range of productive, supporting, regulating and cultural services to society. Productive services relate to crop, animal and energy production, but will alter with climate change. Supporting services such as biodiversity, soil and water quality will be negatively affected by a higher climate variability, increasing erosion and sediment transport, enhancing the breakdown of soil organic matter, lowering soil quality and increasing runoff or leaching of agri-chemicals. The effect of a warmer climate on regulating services is an intensification of most nutrient cycles with increased emissions, which may be compensated for by carbon storage in faster and longer growing crops. The need for flooding areas may result in a net-reduction of the agricultural area. A higher probability of dry weather during summer time and a longer growing season may enlarge the attraction of recreating in rural areas. Knowledge on the interaction of agro-ecosystem services and climate change is required to formulate sustainable adaptation measures. Heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields. The interaction between these effects depends on the crop type. The impact on crop production was simulated with a dynamic vegetation model for eight crops (winter wheat, potatoes, sugar beet, fodder maize, grass, grain maize, cauliflower spring, cauliflower autumn), three soil types (loamy sand, loam, clay) and four climatic data series (historic and three cc-scenarios). The three climate change scenarios were selected on the basis of multi-criteria analysis of the PRUDENCE RCM runs. In total 3480 year simulations were executed with a daily modelling step. Pronounced yield losses mainly due to water shortages and heat stress occur for all climate change scenario's, to a lesser extent in the case of winter and spring crops. Yield losses of up to 30% are simulated for sugar beet, whereas winter wheat losses are only 6 % on loamy sand. High critical temperatures lead to heat stress, decreased fodder uptake, outbreaks of diseases and ultimately to animal production losses. Changes in animal production were calculated with a threshold model, whereby a daily maximum temperature of 30°C was taken as the production limit. Calculated animal production losses are up to 9 % for sheep, 8 % for cattle, 6 % for pigs and 3% for poultry. An economic prognosis of the technical productivity, the price effect, the required agricultural area and number of animals was used to estimate the potential productivity for 16 agricultural activities. The impact of climate change was included through aggregating the modelled production losses for Flanders and assuming the agricultural area, the number of animals and the prices constant to the economic prognosis. The total financial impacts are 0.1 % or 6.6 million euro for the first scenario, 1.5% or 71 million euro for the second scenario and 4.1% or 201 million euro for the third scenario. The results represent the acceptable cost of adaptation measures to maintain current efficiencies and production levels. Three gradations of adaptation were defined as different adoption rates. In total 22 adaptation measures were identified. Meas

Gobin, A.

2009-04-01

408

REM sleep facilitation of adaptive waking behavior: A review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the literature on REM sleep in regard to whether REM sleep prepares the S for subsequent learning or facilitates the retention of learning and\\/or the adaptation to prior stimulation. It is concluded that when studies are classified paradigmatically, E. M. Dewan's (1969) REM sleep metaprogramming hypothesis provides a useful conceptual scheme for interpreting the relevant literature. Suggested modifications to

Michael J. McGrath; David B. Cohen

1978-01-01

409

Adaptation of motor behavior to preserve task success in the presence of muscle fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve task goals in the various contexts of everyday life, the CNS has to adapt to short time scale changes in the properties of the neuromuscular system, such as those induced by fatigue. Here we investigated how humans preserve task success despite fatigue-induced changes within the neuromuscular system, when they have to aim at a target as fast and

O. Missenard; D. Mottet; S. Perrey

2009-01-01

410

A MULTI-AGENT, MICROSCOPIC TRAFFIC SIMULATION ARCHITECTURE INCORPORATING ENTITIES WITH ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an agent-based architecture for microscopic traffic simulations. Agents representing vehicles utilize database modules containing microscopic models and adaptive algorithms, in order to achieve precise simulation of real-life traffic entities. The analysis and design of the simulation system is made using the Gaia methodology, a formal way of going from a statement of requirements to an

Nikos Manouselis; Pythagoras Karampiperis; Elias Kosmatopoulos

2001-01-01

411

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Multiple Time Scales of Adaptation in Auditory  

E-print Network

that is crucial for processing of natural auditory scenes in cats and of speech and music in humans. Key words University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel Neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) of cats show strong stimulus: auditory cortex; auditory thalamus; physiology; cat; adaptation; sensory memory Introduction The activity

Ulanovsky, Nachum

412

Aggressive Behavior in Response to Violence Exposure: Is It Adaptive for Middle-School Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of aggression in adaptation to family and community violence was examined in a sample of 667 inner-city schoolchildren studied annually over three years in middle school. Regression analyses indicated that the association between Year 1 exposure to family and community violence and Year 2 aggression was mediated by aggression occurring…

Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

2008-01-01

413

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats  

E-print Network

as tropical rainforests, arid deserts, and urban environments [1,2]. Over 1000 bat species echolocate's adaptive changes in sonar signal time­frequency structure as it detects, approaches, and intercepts food,10]. Frugivorous bats also feed on stationary food items, using a combination of echolocation and other sensory

Hill, Wendell T.

414

Individual Differences in Behavioral, Physiological, and Genetic Sensitivities to Contexts: Implications for Development and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although exposure to adversity places children at high risk for developmental problems, there is considerable variation in the adaptation of children exposed to both low and high levels of adversity. In recent years, researchers have made significant progress in understanding how social environments shape children’s development. Studies indicate that not all children are equally susceptible to environmental effects. In this

W. Thomas Boyce

2009-01-01

415

The Role of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Functional Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology was examined in 1,089 verbal youths with ASD examining results on Vineland-II, IQ, and measures of ASD severity. Strong positive relationships were found between Vineland subscales and IQ. Vineland Composite was negatively associated with age. IQ accounted a significant amount…

Kanne, Stephen M.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Quirmbach, Linda M.; Sparrow, Sara S.; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Saulnier, Celine A.

2011-01-01

416

Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

2012-01-01

417

Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework  

SciTech Connect

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to address the potential health impacts of climate change.

Spickett, Jeffery T., E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.a [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Brown, Helen L., E-mail: h.brown@curtin.edu.a [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne, E-mail: Dianne.Katscherian@health.wa.gov.a [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Western Australian Department of Health, Department of Health WA, PO Box 8172, Perth Business Centre WA 6849 (Australia)

2011-04-15

418

Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction in: Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems: ABIALS 2008  

E-print Network

Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction W. Schenck in: Anticipatory Behavior;Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction Wolfram Schenck Computer Engineering Group, Faculty space perception within the framework of the "perception through anticipation" approach is proposed

Moeller, Ralf

419

The Efficiency of Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Inattentive-Overactive and Oppositional-Defiant Behavior: Applying Generalizability Theory to Streamline Assessment  

PubMed Central

Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the assessment process, likely has a negative impact on the quality of data over time and the informant's willingness to participate. Two important determinants of informant load in progress monitoring are the length of the rating scale (i.e., the number of items) and how frequently informants are asked to provide ratings (i.e., the number of occasions). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the dependability of the IOWA Conners Teacher Rating Scale (Loney & Milich, 1982), which is used to differentiate inattentive-overactive from oppositional-defiant behaviors. Specifically, the facets of items and occasions were examined to identify combinations of these sources of error necessary to reach an acceptable level of dependability for both absolute and relative decisions. Results from D studies elucidated a variety of possible item–occasion combinations reaching the criteria for adequate dependability. Recommendations for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21215839

Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

2010-01-01

420

Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: Psychosocial intervention effects on adaptation, disease course, and biobehavioral processes in cancer  

Cancer.gov

Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 30 (2013) S88–S98 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Brain, Behavior, and Immunity j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / y b r b i Invited Minireview Psychosocial

421

Wild versus head-started hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata: post-release behavior and feeding adaptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To ensure the success of reintroduction programs, it is important to monitor the post- release behavior and survival of released animals. In this study, the post-release movement and behavior of 5 wild and 5 head-started hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata were monitored using ultrasonic telemetry. Their dispersal directions and recaptures may indicate that wild turtles perform homing migrations. However, the head-started

Junichi Okuyama; Tomohito Shimizu; Osamu Abe; Kenzo Yoseda; Nobuaki Arai

2010-01-01

422

Variation in songbird migratory behavior offers clues about adaptability to environmental change.  

PubMed

For seasonally migrating birds, aspects of migratory behavior, such as the use of temperate versus tropical wintering areas, may influence their ability to respond to environmental change. Here, we infer potential flexibility in songbird migration from variation in two alternative stopover behaviors. Hierarchical Bayesian mark-recapture modeling was used to quantify stopover decisions over 19 years for four temperate and four tropical migratory species at a stopover site in southern Canada. Short-distance temperate migrants exhibited higher variability in behavior and greater responses to local weather than longer-distance tropical migrants, as measured by transience (the proportion of birds stopping <24 h, i.e. seeking brief sanctuary or subsequently relocating) and departure (re-initiation of migration by birds that stopped over for >24 h). In contrast to many previous works on climate-migration associations, annual variation in stopover behavior did not show strong links to broad-scale climatic fluctuations for either temperate or tropical migrants, nor was there any indication of directional changes in stopover behavior over the past two decades. In addition to suggesting that migratory songbirds-particularly tropical-wintering species-may face increasing threats with future climatic variability, our study highlights the potential importance of flexibility in en-route behavior for resilience to environmental change. PMID:21927912

Calvert, Anna M; Mackenzie, Stuart A; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Taylor, Philip D; Walde, Sandra J

2012-03-01

423

Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285\\u000a urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having\\u000a knowledge of others’ victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to coping with CVE were created\\u000a by averaging across years 1–3 (Time 1; mean ages 14–16).

Sonya S. Brady; Deborah Gorman-Smith; David B. Henry; Patrick H. Tolan

2008-01-01

424

Bystander effects, genomic instability, adaptive response, and cancer risk assessment for radiation and chemical exposures  

SciTech Connect

There is an increased interest in utilizing mechanistic data in support of the cancer risk assessment process for ionizing radiation and environmental chemical exposures. In this regard, the use of biologically based dose-response models is particularly advocated. The aim is to provide an enhanced basis for describing the nature of the dose-response curve for induced tumors at low levels of exposure. Cellular responses that might influence the nature of the dose-response curve at low exposures are understandably receiving attention. These responses (bystander effects, genomic instability, and adaptive responses) have been studied most extensively for radiation exposures. The former two could result in an enhancement of the tumor response at low doses and the latter could lead to a reduced response compared to that predicted by a linear extrapolation from high dose responses. Bystander responses, whereby cells other than those directly traversed by radiation tracks are damaged, can alter the concept of target cell population per unit dose. Similarly, induced genomic instability can alter the concept of total response to an exposure. There appears to be a role for oxidative damage and cellular signaling in the etiology of these cellular responses. The adaptive response appears to be inducible at very low doses of radiation or of some chemicals and reduces the cellular response to a larger challenge dose. It is currently unclear how these cellular toxic responses might be involved in tumor formation, if indeed they are. In addition, it is not known how widespread they are as regards inducing agents. Thus, their impact on low dose cancer risk remains to be established.

Preston, R. Julian [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)]. E-mail: preston.julian@epa.gov

2005-09-01

425

An Assessment of the Potential Uses of Agonistic Behaviors in Termite Control1  

E-print Network

An Assessment of the Potential Uses of Agonistic Behaviors in Termite Control1 Barbara L. Thorne Michael I. Haverty2 Abstract: The potential use of termite-termite agonism in pest control is explored and evaluated. Intra- and interspecific en- counters among termites from different colonies are known to result

Standiford, Richard B.

426

Reliability of Arrest and Incarceration Questions on the Risk Behavior Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined 48-hour test-retest reliability of the arrest and incarceration questions on the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA; National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1993). Participants were 229 street-drug users recruited in 11 cities throughout the United States. Results revealed that lifetime arrest and incarceration items demonstrated good to…

Fisher, Dennis G.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Wood, Michele M.; Johnson, Mark E.

2004-01-01

427

Examining the Efficacy of a Basic Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package for School Personnel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of manualized training in "Basic" functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for typical school professionals on the ability of these professionals to complete technically adequate FBAs. Twelve school professionals participated in four 1-hr training sessions using the Basic FBA training handbook. After…

Loman, Sheldon L.; Horner, Robert H.

2014-01-01

428

Assessment of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Infancy: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral and emotional problems are highly prevalent in early childhood and represent an important focus of practice for clinical child and pediatric psychologists. Although psychological or psychiatric disorders are not typically diagnosed in children under the age of 2 years, recent research has demonstrated the appropriateness of assessing

Bagner, Daniel M.; Rodriguez, Gabriela M.; Blake, Clair A.; Linares, Dainelys; Carter, Alice S.

2012-01-01

429

An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Health Behaviors among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (i.e., recognizing, expressing, monitoring, managing, and reflecting on emotions) (Presbury, Echterling, & McKee, 2007) and self-reported health behaviors among college students. A convenience sample of 418 undergraduates completed online surveys…

Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.

2009-01-01

430

A Psychometric Assessment of the Alcohol Behavior, Attitude, and Awareness Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of the Alcohol Behavior, Attitude, and Awareness Inventory (ABAA Inventory) were assessed using data collected in 1987 from 799 university students. Results suggested that the ABAA Inventory was internally-consistent (alpha = .82) and stable over time (test-retest coefficient = .77). Subscale alphas ranged from .45 to .92,…

Sarvela, Paul D.; And Others

431

The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

Bamberg, Richard; And Others

1990-01-01

432

Young Children with Challenging Behavior: Function-Based Assessment and Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the five intervention elements described by Dunlap et al. (2006) as a guide, the authors of this article reviewed the functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and function-based intervention research of the past 17 years (1990-2007), focusing on a component analysis of FBA and function-based intervention procedures. Thirty-five studies were…

Wood, Brenna K.; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho; Ferro, Jolenea B.

2009-01-01

433

Early Identification of High-Ability Students: Clinical Assessment of Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the ability of teachers to accurately rate the cognitive and academic functioning of 1,375 students in kindergarten through the third grade on the Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), as compared to two objective cognitive ability tests. CAB teacher ratings were compared for high-ability students who were currently…

Bracken, Bruce A.; Brown, Elissa F.

2008-01-01

434

An Assessment of Treatment Integrity in Behavioral Intervention Studies Conducted with Persons with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which behavioral intervention studies conducted with persons with mental retardation operationally defined the independent variables and evaluated and reported measures of treatment integrity. The study expands the previous work in this area reported by Gresham, Gansle, and Noell (1993) and…

Wheeler, John J.; Mayton, Michael R.; Carter, Stacy L.; Chitiyo, Morgan; Menendez, Anthony L.; Huang, Ann

2009-01-01

435

Assessment of Adherence to Eating Habit and Exercise Components in a Behavioral Weight Control Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the augmental value of exercise to behavioral weight control programs has been suggested, demonstration of this value is dependent upon an assessment of adherence to change in eating habits and activity patterns. Self-report measures of adherence were obtained from overweight college women undergoing treatment that involved either dietary…

Zegman, Marilyn A.

436

Toward A Functional Model of Assessing and Treating Children and Adolescents with School Refusal Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document begins by providing a brief historical overview of past attempts at classification, assessment, and treatment of students with school refusal behaviors. Limitations of traditional classification strategies are explored. Recent accomplishments with this population are then discussed, including the development of the School Refusal…

Kearney, Christopher A.; Silverman, Wendy K.

437

Adaptation and Evaluation of the Clinical Impairment Assessment to Assess Disordered Eating Related Distress in an Adolescent Female Ethnic Fijian Population  

PubMed Central

Objective: Measurement of disease-related impairment and distress is central to diagnostic, therapeutic, and health policy considerations for eating disorders across diverse populations. This study evaluates psychometric properties of a translated and adapted version of the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) in an ethnic Fijian population. Method: The adapted CIA was administered to ethnic Fijian adolescent schoolgirls (N = 215). We calculated Cronbach's ? to assess the internal consistency, examined the association between indicators of eating disorder symptom severity and the CIA to assess construct and criterion validity, and compared the strength of relation between the CIA and measures of disordered eating versus with measures of generalized distress. Results: The Fijian version of the CIA is feasible to administer as an investigator-based interview. It has excellent internal consistency (? = 0.93). Both construct and criterion validity were supported by the data, and regression models indicated that the CIA predicts eating disorder severity, even when controlling for generalized distress and psychopathology. Discussion: The adapted CIA has excellent psychometric properties in this Fijian study population. Findings suggest that the CIA can be successfully adapted for use in a non-Western study population and that at least some associated distress and impairment transcends cultural differences. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2010 PMID:19308992

Becker, Anne E; Thomas, Jennifer J; Bainivualiku, Asenaca; Richards, Lauren; Navara, Kesaia; Roberts, Andrea L; Gilman, Stephen E; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

2010-01-01

438

Treatment satisfaction, adherence and behavioral assessment in patients de – escalating from natalizumab to interferon beta  

PubMed Central

Background De-escalating natalizumab (NTZ) to interferon beta 1b (IFN B 1B) is a possible treatment option in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients interrupting NTZ because of increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction and adherence to treatment, behavioral and fatigue changes in patients switched to IFN B 1B compared to continued NTZ treatment. Methods A 1 year, prospective, randomized, rater-blinded, parallel-group study. Nineteen relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients, randomly assigned to undergo either NTZ (n?=?10) or IFN B 1B (n?=?9) treatment, who had previously received NTZ for at least 12 months with disease stability and fearing or at risk for PML were included. Patients underwent behavioral and treatment assessments at baseline, after 24-week and 1 year follow-up. Behavioral assessment included measures of cognition, fatigue and quality of life. Treatment assessment included measures of satisfaction, persistence and adherence to treatment. Clinical-radiological disease activity and safety were also assessed. Results Baseline characteristics of patients were similar between groups except for Euro Quality Visual Analogue Scale, being higher in the NTZ group (p?=?0.04). Within-group comparisons at the three time points, as well as interaction analysis of treatment effect over time did not show any statistically significant differences in behavioral or treatment assessments, but a coherent trend favoring NTZ over IFN B 1B. Conclusions De-escalating NTZ to IFN B 1B is feasible and associated with overall good patient related outcome and persistently stable behavioral measures. PMID:24576156

2014-01-01

439

Adaptive Confidence Intervals for Regression  

E-print Network

dependent #12;8 88 Dynamic Treatments for Children with ADHD Adaptive Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments for Children with ADHD: Sequencing, Combining, and Escalating Doses Nonresponse: Assessed monthly multi-stage decision making in the medical field. Common approaches to constructing the dynamic

Murphy, Susan A.

440

Improving the Usability of Integrated Assessment for Adaptation Practice: Insights from the U.S. Southeast Energy Sector  

SciTech Connect

Energy systems comprise a key sector of the U.S. economy, and one that has been identified as potentially vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. However, understanding of adaptation processes in energy companies and private entities more broadly is limited. It is unclear, for example, the extent to which energy companies are well-served by existing knowledge and tools emerging from the impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV) and integrated assessment modeling (IAM) communities and/or what experiments, analyses, and model results have practical utility for informing adaptation in the energy sector. As part of a regional IAM development project, we investigated available evidence of adaptation processes in the energy sector, with a particular emphasis on the U.S. Southeast and Gulf Coast region. A mixed methods approach of literature review and semi-structured interviews with key informants from energy utilities was used to compare existing knowledge from the IAV community with that of regional stakeholders. That comparison revealed that much of the IAV literature on the energy sector is climate-centric and therefore disconnected from the more integrated decision-making processes and institutional perspectives of energy utilities. Increasing the relevance of research and assessment for the energy sector will necessitate a greater investment in integrated assessment and modeling efforts that respond to practical decision-making needs as well as greater collaboration between energy utilities and researchers in the design, execution, and communication of those efforts.

de Bremond, Ariane; Preston, Benjamin; Rice, Jennie S.

2014-10-01

441

ADApT: A rapid integrated assessment and decision support tool to respond to global change in coastal regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem change is happening at a rate faster than predicted, impacting the livelihoods of coastal peoples globally and precipitating the need for timely and effective response to global change. While knowledge about best practices in coping and adaptation are evolving, countries still struggle with ways to enhance coastal peoples' capacity to respond to change and reduce their vulnerability. The complexity of coastal marine ecosystems, and the multitude of challenges faced, make it difficult to know what natural and social attributes contribute to, or limit the success of adaptations to global change. We are developing a rapid integrated assessment decision support tool (ADApT: Assessment from Description, Appraisal, and Typology) based on a global database of coastal and marine case studies. The tool focuses on 1) description of the ecological and social impacts of ecosystem stresses, and responses to those stresses; 2) appraisal of how successful those responses are in mitigating impacts, as well as what risks and uncertainties are involved; and 3) development of a typology that will enable an efficient assessment of impacts and the appropriate response. ADApT will enable decision makers and local actors to triage and improve their responses to global change, to make decisions efficiently for transitions towards coastal sustainability, and to evaluate where to most effectively invest funds to reduce vulnerability and enhance resilience of coastal peoples to global change.

Cooley, S.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Isaacs, M.; Badjeck, M.; Defeo, O.; Glaeser, B.; Guillotreau, P.; Makino, M.; Perry, R. I.

2012-12-01

442

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Cortical Ensemble Adaptation to Represent Velocity of an  

E-print Network

behaviorally significant motor parameters, even if these are not associated with movements of the animal's own limb. Key words: brain­machine interface; motor cortex; macaque monkey; cortical plasticity; motor learning; body schema Introduction Ever since Evarts (1966) pioneered single-unit recordings from

Slatton, Clint

443

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Older Adults: Practical Guidelines for Adapting Therapy Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective approach for a wide range of problems affecting older adults. While a variety of empirical and clinical papers have examined modifications to the content and delivery of CBT to enhance its efficacy with older adults, changes to the structure of therapy with this population have not been as widely

David L. Secker; Nikolaos Kazantzis; Nancy A. Pachana

2004-01-01

444

Contextually appropriate emotional word use predicts adaptive health behavior: Emotion context sensitivity and treatment adherence.  

PubMed

Emotion context sensitivity is the ability to respond emotionally in a manner that is functionally appropriate for the context in which the emotion arises. This study examined the relationship between emotion context sensitivity and treatment adherence in adults with the chronic illness Thalassemia. Emotional responses were measured by examining the frequency of positive and negative emotional words used to answer two interview questions that created two different emotional contexts. Consistent with previous research on adaptive and contextually appropriate emotions, negative emotion words were related to adherence in the context of the disease itself, while positive emotion words were related to adherence in the context of coping. PMID:24801328

Harvey, Meredith M; Coifman, Karin G; Ross, Gail; Kleinert, Dorothy; Giardina, Patricia

2014-05-01

445

Comparison of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition, and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition.  

PubMed

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II), and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) were administered to 65 children between the ages of 12 and 42 months referred for developmental delays. Standard scores and age equivalents were compared across instruments. Analyses showed no statistical difference between Vineland-II ABC standard scores and cognitive levels obtained from the Bayley-III. However, Vineland-II Communication and Motor domain standard scores were significantly higher than corresponding scores on the Bayley-III. In addition, age equivalent scores were significantly higher on the Vineland-II for the fine motor subdomain. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:22238860

Scattone, Dorothy; Raggio, Donald J; May, Warren

2011-10-01

446

Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens  

PubMed Central

A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic interpersonal events (physical/sexual abuse or witnessing domestic violence). First, we provide an empirical rationale for targeting executive function deficits and trauma-related cognitions in the mCBT protocol. Second, we present promising results from 2 community clinic cases.

DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

447

Risk assessment for side-effects of neonicotinoids against bumblebees with and without impairing foraging behavior.  

PubMed

Bombus terrestris bumblebees are important pollinators of wild flowers, and in modern agriculture they are used to guarantee pollination of vegetables and fruits. In the field it is likely that worker bees are exposed to pesticides during foraging. To date, several tests exist to assess lethal and sublethal side-effects of pesticides on bee survival, growth/development and reproduction. Within the context of ecotoxicology and insect physiology, we report the development of a new bioassay to assess the impact of sublethal concentrations on the bumblebee foraging behavior under laboratory conditions. In brief, the experimental setup of this behavior test consists of two artificial nests connected with a tube of about 20 cm and use of queenless micro-colonies of 5 workers. In one nest the worker bees constructed brood, and in the other food (sugar and pollen) was provided. Before exposure, the worker bees were allowed a training to forage for untreated food; afterwards this was replaced by treated food. Using this setup we investigated the effects of sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, known to negatively affect the foraging behavior of bees. For comparison within the family of neonicotinoid insecticides, we also tested different concentrations of two other neonicotinoids: thiamethoxam and thiacloprid, in the laboratory with the new bioassay. Finally to evaluate the new bioassay, we also tested sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid in the greenhouse with use of queenright colonies of B. terrestris, and here worker bees needed to forage/fly for food that was placed at a distance of 3 m from their hives. In general, the experiments showed that concentrations that may be considered safe for bumblebees can have a negative influence on their foraging behavior. Therefore it is recommended that behavior tests should be included in risk assessment tests for highly toxic pesticides because impairment of the foraging behavior can result in a decreased pollination, lower reproduction and finally in colony mortality due to a lack of food. PMID:19757031

Mommaerts, Veerle; Reynders, Sofie; Boulet, Jana; Besard, Linde; Sterk, Guido; Smagghe, Guy

2010-01-01

448

Development of a Tool for Assessment and Care Planning for Dementia-Related Problem Behaviors in Home and Community-Based Services Programs: The Problem Behavior Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe development, validity, and application of the Problem Behavior Inventory (PBI), a tool to assess dementia-related problem behaviors (DRPBs) in community-based populations.Data Sources and Study Setting: Demographic, contact, and disease-specific data were extracted from client files from a Medicaid-funded home and community-based services program. Primary caregivers completed standard surveys relating to the care recipients' memory, mood, and behaviors.

V. L. Phillips; Sadhna Diwan; Amanda Egner

2002-01-01

449

Both movement-end and task-end are critical for error feedback in visuomotor adaptation: a behavioral experiment.  

PubMed

An important issue in motor learning/adaptation research is how the brain accepts the error information necessary for maintaining and improving task performance in a changing environment. The present study focuses on the effect of timing of error feedback. Previous research has demonstrated that adaptation to displacement of the visual field by prisms in a manual reaching task is significantly slowed by delayed visual feedback of the endpoint, suggesting that error feedback is most effective when given at the end of a movement. To further elucidate the brain mechanism by which error information is accepted in visuomotor adaptation, we tested whether error acceptance is linked to the end of a given task or to the end of an executed movement. We conducted a behavioral experiment using a virtual shooting task in which subjects controlled their wrist movements to meet a target with a cursor as accurately as possible. We manipulated the timing of visual feedback of the impact position so that it occurred either ahead of or behind the true time of impact. In another condition, the impact timing was explicitly indicated by an additional cue. The magnitude of the aftereffect significantly varied depending on the timing of feedback (p < 0.05, Friedman's Test). Interestingly, two distinct peaks of aftereffect were observed around movement-end and around task-end, irrespective of the existence of the timing cue. However, the peak around task-end was sharper when the timing cue was given. Our results demonstrate that the brain efficiently accepts error information at both movement-end and task-end, suggesting that two different learning mechanisms may underlie visuomotor transformation. PMID:23393602

Ishikawa, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Yutaka

2013-01-01

450

Both Movement-End and Task-End Are Critical for Error Feedback in Visuomotor Adaptation: A Behavioral Experiment  

PubMed Central

An important issue in motor learning/adaptation research is how the brain accepts the error information necessary for maintaining and improving task performance in a changing environment. The present study focuses on the effect of timing of error feedback. Previous research has demonstrated that adaptation to displacement of the visual field by prisms in a manual reaching task is significantly slowed by delayed visual feedback of the endpoint, suggesting that error feedback is most effective when given at the end of a movement. To further elucidate the brain mechanism by which error information is accepted in visuomotor adaptation, we tested whether error acceptance is linked to the end of a given task or to the end of an executed movement. We conducted a behavioral experiment using a virtual shooting task in which subjects controlled their wrist movements to meet a target with a cursor as accurately as possible. We manipulated the timing of visual feedback of the impact position so that it occurred either ahead of or behind the true time of impact. In another condition, the impact timing was explicitly indicated by an additional cue. The magnitude of the aftereffect significantly varied depending on the timing of feedback (p < 0.05, Friedman's Test). Interestingly, two distinct peaks of aftereffect were observed around movement-end and around task-end, irrespective of the existence of the timing cue. However, the peak around task-end was sharper when the timing cue was given. Our results demonstrate that the brain efficiently accepts error information at both movement-end and task-end, suggesting that two different learning mechanisms may underlie visuomotor transformation. PMID:23393602

Ishikawa, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Yutaka

2013-01-01

451

Adaptive Coding of Orofacial and Speech Actions in Motor and Somatosensory Spaces with and without Overt Motor Behavior.  

PubMed

Studies of speech motor control suggest that articulatory and phonemic goals are defined in multidimensional motor, somatosensory, and auditory spaces. To test whether motor simulation might rely on sensory-motor coding common with those for motor execution, we used a repetition suppression (RS) paradigm while measuring neural activity with sparse sampling fMRI during repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions. RS refers to the phenomenon that repeated stimuli or motor acts lead to decreased activity in specific neural populations and are associated with enhanced adaptive learning related to the repeated stimulus attributes. Common suppressed neural responses were observed in motor and posterior parietal regions in the achievement of both repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions, including the left premotor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, the superior parietal cortex and adjacent intraprietal sulcus, and the left IC and the SMA. Interestingly, reduced activity of the auditory cortex was observed during overt but not covert speech production, a finding likely reflecting a motor rather an auditory imagery strategy by the participants. By providing evidence for adaptive changes in premotor and associative somatosensory brain areas, the observed RS suggests online state coding of both orofacial and speech actions in somatosensory and motor spaces with and without motor behavior and sensory feedback. PMID:25203272

Sato, Marc; Vilain, Coriandre; Lamalle, Laurent; Grabski, Krystyna

2015-02-01

452

Preschool Temperament Assessment: A Quantitative Assessment of the Validity of Behavioral Style Questionnaire Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Child temperament is an important construct, but its measurement has been marked by a number of weaknesses that have diminished the frequency with which it is assessed in practice. We address this problem by presenting the results of a quantitative construct validation study. We calculated validity indices by hypothesizing the…

Huelsman, Timothy J.; Gagnon, Sandra Glover; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Griggs, Marissa Swaim

2014-01-01

453

The effects of a structured infant stimulation program on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale  

E-print Network

's interactions with his environment over a long period of time (Yar row et al. , 1972). Further research 1s recommended 1n order to examine how long the effects of this type of intervention can be seen in the infant 's behavior, and whether... Corporation, 1969. Brazelton, T. B. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale. Philadel- phia: J. B. Lippincott, 19 Denenbur g, V. H. , 6 Grota, L. J. Social-seeking and novelty-seeking behaviour as a function of differential rearing histories. Journal...

Garfield, Sharon Marie McCormick

2012-06-07

454

A novel automated behavioral test battery assessing cognitive rigidity in two genetic mouse models of autism  

PubMed Central

Repetitive behaviors are a key feature of many pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism. As a heterogeneous group of symptoms, repetitive behaviors are conceptualized into two main subgroups: sensory/motor (lower-order) and cognitive rigidity (higher-order). Although lower-order repetitive behaviors are measured in mouse models in several paradigms, so far there have been no high-throughput tests directly measuring cognitive rigidity. We describe a novel approach for monitoring repetitive behaviors during reversal learning in mice in the automated IntelliCage system. During the reward-motivated place preference reversal learning, designed to assess cognitive abilities of mice, visits to the previously rewarded places were recorded to measure cognitive flexibility. Thereafter, emotional flexibility was assessed by measuring conditioned fear extinction. Additionally, to look for neuronal correlates of cognitive impairments, we measured CA3-CA1 hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP). To standardize the designed tests we used C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, representing two genetic backgrounds, for induction of autism by prenatal exposure to the sodium valproate. We found impairments of place learning related to perseveration and no LTP impairments in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice. In contrast, BALB/c valproate-treated mice displayed severe deficits of place learning not associated with perseverative behaviors and accompanied by hippocampal LTP impairments. Alterations of cognitive flexibility observed in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice were related to neither restricted exploration pattern nor to emotional flexibility. Altogether, we showed that the designed tests of cognitive performance and perseverative behaviors are efficient and highly replicable. Moreover, the results suggest that genetic background is crucial for the behavioral effects of prenatal valproate treatment. PMID:24808839

Pu?cian, Alicja; ??ski, Szymon; Górkiewicz, Tomasz; Meyza, Ksenia; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Knapska, Ewelina

2014-01-01

455

Emotion in languaging: languaging as affective, adaptive, and flexible behavior in social interaction  

PubMed Central

This article argues for a view on languaging as inherently affective. Informed by recent ecological tendencies within cognitive science and distributed language studies a distinction between first order languaging (language as whole-body sense making) and second order language (language as system like constraints) is put forward. Contrary to common assumptions within linguistics and communication studies separating language-as-a-system from language use (resulting in separations between language vs. body-language and verbal vs. non-verbal communication etc.) the first/second order distinction sees language as emanating from behavior making it possible to view emotion and affect as integral parts languaging behavior. Likewise, emotion and affect are studied, not as inner mental states, but as processes of organism-environment interactions. Based on video recordings of interaction between (1) children with special needs, and (2) couple in therapy and the therapist patterns of reciprocal influences between interactants are examined. Through analyzes of affective stance and patterns of inter-affectivity it is exemplified how language and emotion should not be seen as separate phenomena combined in language use, but rather as completely intertwined phenomena in languaging behavior constrained by second order patterns. PMID:25076921

Jensen, Thomas W.

2014-01-01

456

A structured multi-block solution-adaptive mesh algorithm with mesh quality assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic solution adaptive grid algorithm, DSAGA3D, is extended to automatically adapt 2-D structured multi-block grids, including adaption of the block boundaries. The extension is general, requiring only input data concerning block structure, connectivity, and boundary conditions. Imbedded grid singular points are permitted, but must be prevented from moving in space. Solutions for workshop cases 1 and 2 are obtained

Clint L. Ingram; Kelly R. Laflin; D. Scott McRae

1995-01-01

457

Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA  

PubMed Central

Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken. PMID:25003273

Lamarão, Andressa M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

2014-01-01

458

Cross-species assessments of Motor and Exploratory Behavior related to Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Alterations in exploratory behavior are a fundamental feature of bipolar mania, typically characterized as motor hyperactivity and increased goal-directed behavior in response to environmental cues. In contrast, abnormal exploration associated with schizophrenia and depression can manifest as prominent withdrawal, limited motor activity, and inattention to the environment. While motor abnormalities are cited frequently as clinical manifestations of these disorders, relatively few empirical studies have quantified human exploratory behavior. This article reviews the literature characterizing motor and exploratory behavior associated with bipolar disorder and genetic and pharmacological animal models of the illness. Despite sophisticated assessment of exploratory behavior in rodents, objective quantification of human motor activity has been limited primarily to actigraphy studies with poor cross-species translational value. Furthermore, symptoms that reflect the cardinal features of bipolar disorder have proven difficult to establish in putative animal models of this illness. Recently, however, novel tools such as the Human Behavioral Pattern Monitor provide multivariate translational measures of motor and exploratory activity, enabling improved understanding of the neurobiology underlying psychiatric disorders. PMID:20398694

Henry, Brook L.; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W.; Paulus, Martin P.; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

2010-01-01

459

Assessment of Multi-Joint Coordination and Adaptation in Standing Balance: a Novel Device and System Identification Technique.  

PubMed

The ankles and hips play an important role in maintaining standing balance and the coordination between joints adapts with task and conditions, like the disturbance magnitude and type, and changes with age. Assessment of multijoint coordination requires the application of multiple continuous and independent disturbances and closed loop system identification techniques (CLSIT). This paper presents a novel device, the double inverted pendulum perturbator (DIPP), which can apply disturbing forces at the hip level and between the shoulder blades. In addition to the disturbances, the device can provide force fields to study adaptation of multi-join