Sample records for adaptive behavior assessment

  1. Cross-National Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Iliescu, Dragos; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Juliet Honglei

    2013-01-01

    Measures of adaptive behaviors provide an important tool in the repertoire of clinical and school/educational psychologists. Measures that assess adaptive behaviors typically have been built in Western cultures and developed in light of behaviors common to them. Nevertheless, these measures are used elsewhere despite a paucity of data that examine…

  2. Methodology for assessing adaptive cruise control behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zevi Bareket; Paul S. Fancher; Huei Peng; Kangwon Lee; Charbel A. Assaf

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on nonintrusive methods for char- acterizing the longitudinal performance of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. It reports the experimental set-up and procedures for measuring ACC system performance, followed by the modeling and simulation of the measured ACC per- formance. To further assess the interaction of ACC vehicles with human-controlled traffic, microscopic simulation involving both

  3. State Norms for IQ, Adaptive Behavior, and Sociocultural Status: Implications for Nonbiased Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.; And Others

    Findings from the Iowa Assessment Project are examined regarding the assessment and use of information on adaptive behavior and sociocultural background in decisions about students with mild mental retardation. Background aspects reviewed include terminology regarding mild retardation; research, litigation, and legislation on the topic during the…

  4. Behavior and personality assessment in men labeled adaptive sociopaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia B. Sutker; Albert N. Allain

    1983-01-01

    Few efforts have been made to understand antisocial-prone individuals who maintain adaptive functioning. This study identified a sample of potentially deviant but adaptively functioning persons to determine whether they differed significantly from their more conforming peers. A small sample of men was selected by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-defined criteria for sociopathy and compared with MMPI-defined normals of similar ages,

  5. The Assessment of Minority Students: Are Adaptive Behavior Scales the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Leonard; Cervantes, Hermes

    1978-01-01

    The use of adaptive behavior scales in the assessment of minority children was discussed. Positive and negative characteristics of the scales developed by Mercer and Lambert were identified and discussed. Recommendations included cautions for the use of such scales in the evaluation of culturally different minority children. (Author)

  6. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the…

  7. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  8. Spectral assessment of mesh adaptations for the analysis of the dynamical longitudinal behavior of railway bridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Toth; P. Ruge

    2001-01-01

    Summary  ?Extensive studies, [1], concerning the longitudinal behavior of long railway bridges due to braking forces have been done\\u000a by measurements in situ, [2], and by statical, [3, 4], as well as dynamical simulations. Thereby, the only consistent numerical\\u000a realization with respect to the measured data was the dynamical one. However, the consecutive discretizations in space and\\u000a time with time-dependent system

  9. Original Paper Adaptive Behavior

    E-print Network

    Hartline, Daniel K.

    adaptations for predator avoidance in planktonic copepods Edward J Buskey1 , Petra H Lenz2 and Daniel K Introduction Copepods are among the more common and diverse planktonic metazoans in the sea (Humes, 1994 author: Edward J Buskey, Marine Science Institute, University of Texas at Austin, 750 Channel

  10. Assessing pain in non-intubated critically ill patients unable to self report: an adaptation of the Behavioral Pain Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérald Chanques; Jean-François Payen; Grégoire Mercier; Sylvie de Lattre; Eric Viel; Boris Jung; Moussa Cissé; Jean-Yves Lefrant; Samir Jaber

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To validate an adaptation of the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) for its use in non-intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients\\u000a unable to self-report their pain because of the occurrence of delirium. The “vocalization” domain was inserted to construct\\u000a the BPS-non intubated (BPS-NI) scale, ranging from 3 (no pain) to 12 (most pain).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective psychometric study in a medical-surgical ICU.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The

  11. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  12. Projective-Cognitive Assessment of Thoughts and Feelings and Their Relationship to Adaptive Behavior in a Dental Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. Michael, III; Cholera, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the interrelationships among coping statements, a self-report measure of anxiety, and maladaptive overt behavior in a dental situation. Subjects were 23 adolescents. Found that as disruptive "in-chair" overt behavior increased, so did the percentage of coping statements; as self-report levels of anxiety increased, the percentage of coping…

  13. Robot Behavior Adaptation for Formation Maintenance

    E-print Network

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    1 Robot Behavior Adaptation for Formation Maintenance Maite López-Sánchez maite@maia.ub.es WAI) Acknowledgements: Bernat Grau Index · Introduction · Basic behaviors · Formation maintenance · Performance ­ inverted-V or wedge ­ rectangle or roman manipulus · Local information (behaviors) · No notion about

  14. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. Methods The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Results Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38–81% individuals, 50–100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. PMID:26004993

  15. Adaptive Behavior of Subtypes of Learning Disabled Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Carol; Strawser, Sherr

    1987-01-01

    The unique adaptive behavior characteristics of five subtypes of students identified as learning disabled (LD) are described: (1) non-LD (though classified as such); (2) production deficits; (3) verbal organization disorders; (4) nonverbal organization disorders; (5) global functional disorders. Implications for assessment, programming, and…

  16. Adaptive Assessment in Web-Based Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunwei Wen; Sabine Graf; Chung Hsien Lan; Terry Anderson; Kinshuk; Ken Dickson

    2007-01-01

    Web-based assessment is used in different contexts with the aim to support students and help to make learning easier and more effective for them. Typically, the individual characteristics and needs of students are used to personalize and customize existing approaches to assessment. In this paper, we show the potential of adaptive web-based assessment in different learning applications. We introduce adaptive

  17. Trajectory of adaptive behavior in males with fragile X syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth M. Dykens; Robert M. Hodapp; Sharon I. Ort; James F. Leckman

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in males with fragile X syndrome was longitudinally examined in 17 subjects, ages 1 to 17. Subjects received adaptive behavior evaluations on two occasions within one of three age periods. All domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales increased from youngest to oldest age groups, yet older subjects (ages 10 to 17) shoed significant declines in their adaptive

  18. Adaptive Channel Behavior in Financial Information Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Maurino; Barbara Pernici; Fabio A. Schreiber

    2003-01-01

    The design and the development of multichannel information systems require new approaches, mainly based on the definition of adaptive behavior with the goal of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of solutions. In this paper, we show a simplified example of financial information system, where several ser- vices impose constraints. The approach we propose tries to solve these service limitations by

  19. Cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning in fragile X and non-fragile X retarded men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Dykens; James Leckman; Rhea Paul; Michael Watson

    1988-01-01

    The cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of 12 men with fragile X syndrome (aged 23 to 62 years) was systematically assessed and compared to two matched groups of retarded men without fragile X syndrome residing at the same institution. The fragile X group was largely indistinguishable from the camparison groups on the cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive measures. Fragile X patients

  20. Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M. G.; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A. Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J.; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost–benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological–economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

  1. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  2. Risperidone and Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…

  3. Adaptive behavior and Uzgiris-Hunt Scale performance of young, developmentally disabled children.

    PubMed

    Wachs, T D; De Remer, P

    1978-09-01

    The relationship between performance on a Piaget-based infant scale and adaptive behavior was assessed for 25 developmentally disabled infants and preschool children. Results indicated a significant relationship between these measures. Canonical analysis suggested the relevance of the Piagetian abilities of object permanence and foresight and the adaptive behavior skills of self-help and social behavior for this relationship. Discussion centered on research implications emerging from these findings. PMID:696766

  4. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  5. Adaptive behavior and problem behavior in young children with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Laura J; Fidler, Deborah J; Hepburn, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-Interview edition and the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Primary Caregiver version (WS only). Children with WS had higher adaptive communication scores than children with other developmental disabilities. Children with WS demonstrated relative strengths in adaptive communication and socialization, coupled with relative weaknesses in daily living. Adaptive communication and socialization were negatively associated with problem behaviors in social relating in WS. PMID:24450321

  6. Trends in Adaptive Behavior Research over the Past Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Charles P.

    The paper offers a brief history of adaptive behavior measurement; the concept of adaptation was first introduced by Herber in 1959. An Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) sponsored by the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) was applied to schools--the Public School Version (PSV)--about 10 years ago, the first of many such measures. To…

  7. Sensation seeking, risky driving and behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    Jonah, B A; Thiessen, R; Au-Yeung, E

    2001-09-01

    A study on the relationship between sensation seeking (SS) and risky driving, aggressive driving and behavioral adaptation is reported on. College students completed a questionnaire concerning their driving behavior and level of sensation seeking. Results indicated that high SS's were significantly more likely than low SS's to speed, not wear belts, drink frequently, drive after drinking, perceive a low risk of detection for impaired driving, and perceive that they could drink more beer before being impaired. High SS's were also more likely to report aggressive driving habits. High SS's were significantly more likely than low SS's to say that they would drive faster on highways and on wet roads and drive after drinking, if operating a vehicle equipped with anti-lock brakes. The results are consistent with previous research. PMID:11491249

  8. Spatial perception and adaptive sonar behavior.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Murat; Mao, Beatrice; Moss, Cynthia F

    2010-12-01

    Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time adaptations in the timing and spectro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular task and environment. To enable detailed, quantitative analyses of adaptive sonar behavior, echolocation call design was investigated in big brown bats, trained to rest on a stationary platform and track a tethered mealworm that approached from a starting distance of about 170 cm in the presence of a stationary sonar distracter. The distracter was presented at different angular offsets and distances from the bat. The results of this study show that the distance and the angular offset of the distracter influence sonar vocalization parameters of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Specifically, the bat adjusted its call duration to the closer of two objects, distracter or insect target, and the magnitude of the adjustment depended on the angular offset of the distracter. In contrast, the bat consistently adjusted its call rate to the distance of the insect, even when this target was positioned behind the distracter. The results hold implications for understanding spatial information processing and perception by echolocation. PMID:21218910

  9. Learning Driver's Behavior to Improve Adaptive Cruise Control

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Sarit

    Learning Driver's Behavior to Improve Adaptive Cruise Control Avi Rosenfeld1 , Zevi Bareket2@cs.biu.ac.il, leblanc@umich.edu, omer.tsimhoni@gm.com ABSTRACT Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is a technology that allows]. In this paper, we focus on a second generation of cruise controls­ adaptive cruise control (ACC). ACC

  10. The Reading Behavior Inventory: An Outcome Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Gregory L.; Kirby, Jennine; Wood, Jennifer; Peters, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Many questionnaires attempt to assess the quality of life of individuals who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), but few apply to those who are undergoing visual rehabilitation and hence are difficult to adapt as an outcome measure Massof & Rubin, 2001). The Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI) was developed as a…

  11. Nature of Adaptive Behavior Deficits among Individuals Who Are Moderately-Severely Mentally Retarded in the West Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ahmad M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of assessing the adaptive behavior of 200 individuals classified as mentally retarded and living in the West Bank region of the Middle East suggest that the nature and development of adaptive behavior of the mentally retarded in Third World areas may not conform to expected trends. (Author/DB)

  12. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  13. Analogue Assessment of the Replacement Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2008-01-01

    The use of experimental analyses in determining behavioral function for problems behaviors is well established. Such analyses lead to functional treatment prescriptions for the target problem behavior. However, data indicative of the strength of the replacement behavior are often not collected during a functional behavioral assessment. I examine…

  14. Behavioral assessment of visual toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, H L

    1978-01-01

    A wide variety of behavioral methods has been employed with animals to assess visual changes induced by drugs or toxicants. The methods range from simple to complex, from broad screening devices to narrowly focused techniques. Their relative advantages for the environmental toxicologist are discussed. Manipulation of stimulus values is an essential ingredient in the identification of specific sensory functions. The percentage of correct choices from a discrete-trial, multiple-choice discrimination procedure is to be preferred to measures of response rate, speed or reaction time when experiments require answers about specific visual functions. PMID:363420

  15. The nature of behavioral assessment: A commentary

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Rosemery O.; Hayes, Steven C.

    1979-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis provides the reader with a sample of current work in behavioral assessment. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of behavioral assessment and to place the other articles in context of this developing area. PMID:16795607

  16. Informant scoring errors on the Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    PubMed

    Spreat, S

    1979-01-01

    Adaptive Behavior Scale Booklets (N = 284) completed by institutional direct-care personnel were examined for scoring errors. An average of over 2 errors per booklet was calculated, with the most prevalent errors involving simple addition or failure to subtract when directed. It was suggested that the format of the Adaptive Behavior Scale fosters errors of underestimation. Possible solutions to this problem were discussed. PMID:420266

  17. An adaptive multiagent routing algorithm inspired by ants behavior

    E-print Network

    Ducatelle, Frederick

    An adaptive multi­agent routing algorithm inspired by ants behavior Gianni Di Caro and Marco Dorigo introduces AntNet, a novel adaptive approach to routing tables learning in connectionless communications networks. AntNet is inspired by the stigmergy communication model observed in ant colonies. We compare Ant

  18. Confronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Confronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation: A Conceptual Framework to climate change adaptation. This paper proposes a framework for modeling climate impacts and adaptation into a conceptual model that distinguishes three different classes of adaptation-related activities. Based

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2003 123 Methodology for Assessing Adaptive Cruise Control

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    Methodology for Assessing Adaptive Cruise Control Behavior Zevi Bareket, Paul S. Fancher, Huei Peng, Kangwon the longitudinal performance of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. It reports Terms--Adaptive cruise control (ACC), clearance, global positioning system (GPS), range measurement

  20. Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles and associations with toddlers’ externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina M. Rinaldi; Nina Howe

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers’ and fathers’ reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers’ externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers independently completed the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PDSQ; Robinson, Mandleco,

  1. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  2. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  3. Coordination pattern adaptability: energy cost of degenerate behaviors.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: 'freely-chosen', 'maximal glide' and 'minimal glide'. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under 'maximal glide' compared to 'freely-chosen' instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). In the 'minimal glide' condition, the swimmers did not show significantly shorter glide and lower energy cost, but they exhibited significantly lower deceleration of the center of mass, as well as modified limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). These results highlight that a variety of structural adaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal. PMID:25255016

  4. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  5. Family behavior, adaptation, and treatment adherence of pediatric nephrology patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha C. Davis; Carolyn M. Tucker; Robert S. Fennell

    1996-01-01

    In this exploratory study we investigated the relationships among family behavior variables (e.g., family expressiveness), adaptive functioning skills, maladaptive behavior, and adherence to treatment in pediatric renal failure patients. The study included 22 pediatric outpatients with renal failure who had not yet received dialysis or transplantation (RF) and their parents, and 12 pediatric outpatients with kidney transplants (TX) and their

  6. [Adaptive behaviors to HIV risk of transmission in different populations].

    PubMed

    Grémy, I

    2005-05-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in France, surveys aimed at better understanding risk perceptions of HIV infection and preventive sexual behaviors have been implemented in the general population, and in populations such as IVDU and homosexual men, more concerned by risks of HIV transmission. The objective of this article is to describe these surveys, to present their main results and to assess what has been the overall impact of prevention campaigns on the adoption of preventive sexual behaviors in these populations. The results show that very early after the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, both general and homosexual populations have adopted preventive sexual behaviors, mainly increasing condom use and implementing other preventive strategies. However, with the introduction of HAART in 1996, a slackening of these preventive behaviors is noted. The use of condom is less frequent, especially in the youngest generations of both general and homosexual populations. On the opposite, among IVDU, the use of sterile syringes increased dramatically as soon as over-the-counter sales of syringes was authorized in 1987, as well as the adoption of ways other than intravenous to take drugs. Both have contributed to almost stop the HIV epidemic in this specific group. The results of these surveys show that the benefits of prevention campaigns are different between populations and are reversible. It is necessary to renew the messages, campaigns and programs of prevention with the renewal of generations. It is also necessary to adapt these messages to the new scientific data, and to the evolution of social and individual representations of the disease. PMID:15878250

  7. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Schizotypy Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Menéndez, Luis Fernando; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. Objective The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) to evaluate schizotypy through “The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment” (ESQUIZO-Q), in non-clinical adolescents. Methods The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD?=?1.2). Results The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ?0.30 was of 34 items. Conclusion The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings. PMID:24019907

  8. Assessing dangerous driving behavior during driving inattention: Psychometric adaptation and validation of the Attention-Related Driving Errors Scale in China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2015-07-01

    Driver inattention is a significant cause of motor vehicle collisions and incidents. The purpose of this study was to translate the Attention-Related Driving Error Scale (ARDES) into Chinese and to verify its reliability and validity. A total of 317 drivers completed the Chinese version of the ARDES, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI), the Attention-Related Cognitive Errors Scale (ARCES) and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) questionnaires. Specific sociodemographic variables and traffic violations were also measured. Psychometric results confirm that the ARDES-China has adequate psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha=0.88) to be a useful tool for evaluating proneness to attentional errors in the Chinese driving population. First, ARDES-China scores were positively correlated with both DDDI scores and number of accidents in the prior year; in addition, ARDES-China scores were a significant predictor of dangerous driving behavior as measured by DDDI. Second, we found that ARDES-China scores were strongly correlated with ARCES scores and negatively correlated with MAAS scores. Finally, different demographic groups exhibited significant differences in ARDES scores; in particular, ARDES scores varied with years of driving experience. PMID:25912099

  9. Correlational Study of the Scales of Independent Behavior and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joseph J.

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) were administered to the mothers of 40 preschoolers (23 females and 17 males) in a day care situation. The children ranged in age from 47 to 74 months. Mothers were interviewed to determine if any changes had taken place in the behavior of the children…

  10. Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Outcomes of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldevik, Sigmund; Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptive behavior

  11. Biological and environmental contributions to adaptive behavior in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Bronwyn; Hessl, David; Dyer-Friedman, Jennifer; Johnston, Cindy; Wisbeck, Jacob; Taylor, Annette; Reiss, Allan

    2003-02-15

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common cause of inherited developmental disability. The purpose of the present study is to understand how both biological and environmental influences affect the development of adaptive behavior in children with fragile X. In-home assessments were conducted on 120 children (80 boys and 40 girls) with the fragile X full mutation and their unaffected siblings (58 boys and 62 girls). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized. Independent variables included biological or demographic variables specific to the child (age, gender, full-scale IQ, and FMRP percentage), as well as factors specific to his/her environment (household income, home environment, maternal psychopathology, and effectiveness of educational/therapeutic services). Results of these analyses showed that for both boys with fragile X and the control sibling group, adaptive behavior was predicted by IQ, age, gender, and home environment. For girls with fragile X, adaptive behavior was most strongly associated with IQ. Adaptive behavior was not significantly associated with FMRP in boys or girls with fragile X. By examining the relative influences of biological and environmental factors on adaptive behavior in children with fragile X, we begin to lay the foundation for the development of more specific treatment studies in children with this disorder. PMID:12548736

  12. Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K

    2006-01-01

    We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in their local schools or social service agencies via videoconference. Case descriptions for 2 participants whose evaluations were conducted via telemedicine, and a brief summary of all outpatient assessments conducted over a 4-year period by the Biobehavioral Service, are provided. This report extends previous applications of functional analysis procedures by examining brief behavioral assessments conducted via telemedicine. PMID:17020213

  13. Unanticipated partial behavioral reflection: Adapting applications at runtime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Röthlisberger; Marcus Denker; Éric Tanter

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic, unanticipated adaptation of running systems is of interest in a variety of situations, ranging from functional upgrades to on-the-fly debugging or monitoring of critical applications. In this paper we study a particular form of computational reflection, calledunanticipated partial behavioral reflection(UPBR), which is particularly well suited for unanticipated adaptation of real- world systems. Our proposal combines the dynamicity of unanticipated

  14. PESTICIDE SPRAY APPLICATIONT BEHAVIOR. AND ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    PESTICIDE SPRAY APPLICATIONT BEHAVIOR. AND ASSESSMENT: WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS PACIFIC SOUTHWEST. BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA 94701 USDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW- 15 11976 #12;Pesticide Spray................................................ 3 Harry Camp APPLICATION Physical Parameters Relating to Pesticide Application.......... 4

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

  16. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  17. Trichotillomania: Behavioral Assessment and Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Brandy L.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the behavioral treatment of Trichotillomania. A brief overview of the diagnosis and assessment of Trichotillomania is provided. Guidelines for a structured clinical evaluation when working with people diagnosed with Trichotillomania are supplied. The most effective behavioral interventions and treatments for working with…

  18. Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

  19. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-11-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  20. The blind breeding the blind: Adaptive behavior without looking

    E-print Network

    Todd, Peter M.

    The blind breeding the blind: Adaptive behavior without looking Peter M. Todd, Stewart W. Wilson Anil B. Somayaji Holly A. Yanco The Rowland Institute for Science Department of Mathematics MIT AI Lab Cambridge, MA 02139 ptodd@spo.rowland.org somayaji@mit.edu holly@ai.mit.edu wilson@smith.rowland

  1. The Animat Path to Intelligent Adaptive Behavior Peter M. Todd

    E-print Network

    Todd, Peter M.

    The Animat Path to Intelligent Adaptive Behavior Peter M. Todd Rowland Institute for Science 100 Cambridge Parkway Cambridge, MA 02142 ptodd@spo.rowland.org The traditional approach to building at the Rowland Institute for Science, constructs artificial creatures or agents (animats) existing in some

  2. A Peripheral Mechanism for Behavioral Adaptation to Specific \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John I. Glendinning; Hannah Brown; Maya Capoor; Adrienne Davis; Amakoe Gbedemah; Eliza Long

    2001-01-01

    Animals have evolved several chemosensory systems for de- tecting potentially dangerous foods in the environment. Activa- tion of specific sensory cells within these chemosensory sys- tems usually elicits an aversive behavioral response, leading to avoidance of the noxious foods. Although this aversive behav- ioral response can be adaptive, there are many instances in which it generates \\

  3. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Performance of EMR and TMR Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patti L.; And Others

    Data were collected to develop special norms for the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABSs) for educable mentally retarded (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children. These scales currently report special norms for retarded adults. The study also sought to determine if the low to moderate relationship typically found between…

  4. Standard Errors of Prediction for the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    Offers standard errors of prediction and confidence intervals for Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) that help in deciding whether variation in obtained scores of scale administered to the same person more than once is a result of measurement error or whether it reflects actual change in examinee's functional level. Presented values were…

  5. Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

  6. Animat Market - Trading Interactions as Collective Social Adaptive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Cliff; Janet Bruten

    1999-01-01

    We argue that human economic interactions, particularly bargaining and trading in market envi ronments, can be considered as collective social adaptive behaviors. Such interactions are social in the sense that they depend on socially-agreed market regulations and communication protocols, and are collective in the sense that global market dynamics depend on the interactions of groups of traders. Moreover, the tools

  7. Adaptive Behavior in Young Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Colon, Alina M.; Brei, Natalie; Casnar, Christina L.; Janke, Kelly M.; Siegel, Dawn H.; Walker, Jasmine A.

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis-1 is the most common single gene disorder affecting 1 in 3000. In children, it is associated not only with physical features but also with attention and learning problems. Research has identified a downward shift in intellectual functioning as well, but to date, there are no published studies about the everyday adaptive behavior of children with NF1. In this study, parental reports of adaptive behavior of 61 children with NF1 ages 3 through 8 were compared to an unaffected contrast group (n = 55) that comprised siblings and community members. Significant group differences in adaptive skills were evident and were largely related to group differences in intellectual functioning. In a subsample of children with average-range intellectual functioning, group differences in parent-reported motor skills were apparent even after controlling statistically for group differences in intellectual functioning. The implications of the findings for the care of children with NF1 are discussed. PMID:24348581

  8. The Contribution of Children's Self-Regulation and Classroom Quality to Children's Adaptive Behaviors in the Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Curby, Tim W.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Brock, Laura L.; Nathanson, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of…

  9. Behavior model for performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1999-07-01

    Identifying individual mental mechanisms or processes, organizing the individual strategies of these mechanisms into useful patterns, and formulating these into models for success and knowledge-based outcomes is easily done and can be accomplished through the use of neurological cues. Once identified, analog models can be constructed from the cues, and tree analysis models can be developed and then digitized through such methods as Bayesian concepts or a continuous wavelet transform. The authors are intent upon understanding behavior and constructing models from a macro level of understanding the process. The author has yet to accept the fact that the author needs to understand the how at the micro level of strategy building. Knowing what to observe and how to state questions so as to gather precise information regarding strategies being processed provides the means to refine those models existing today to be more effective in their analysis of human behaviors.

  10. A New Approach to the Measurement of Adaptive Behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer…

  11. The Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) and IQ: How Much Unshared Variance Is There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roszkowski, Michael J.; Bean, Andrew G.

    1980-01-01

    The adaptive behaviors measured by Part I of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) showed relatively large associations with IQ. In contrast, Part II domains, which deal primarily with conduct disorders, showed low to negligible associations with IQ. (Author)

  12. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone,dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or changes in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. PMID:9182042

  13. Adaptive Behavioral Outcomes in Adolescents with Developmental Language Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano, Deborah; Paul, Rhea

    Eighteen people (with ages ranging from 7 to 22 years) who had been diagnosed as aphasic 10 years previously were assessed in terms of current functioning to test the hypothesis that, since the subjects had a specific language disorder, other areas of adaptive development should be relatively spared, and communication scores should be…

  14. Day 1 Day 5 Adaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscusAdaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    E-print Network

    Moss, Cynthia

    Day 1 Day 5 Adaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscusAdaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus Ben Falk1,2, Lasse Jakobsen3 in a complex environment. We recorded the navigation behavior of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

  15. Issues on functional analysis in behavioral assessment.

    PubMed

    Cone, J D

    1997-03-01

    The rebirth of interest in functional analysis is described. Clarification among conflicting terms is offered as a way of facilitating research in the area. Three phases of functional approach to assessment are identified: (a) descriptive, (b) interpretive, and (c) verification. Five assessment methods common to assessment, generally, are shown to be useful in both descriptive and verification phases. Evaluation of functional approaches requires attention to the psychometric adequacy of these methods. Accuracy, reliability, and validity concepts are reviewed briefly and their application to functional strategies is described. The use of treatment validity in the functional analysis of functional analysis is mentioned as the ultimate strategy for evaluating the adequacy of this assessment approach. The paper ends with a discussion of problems of multiple control of behavior, behavioral classification systems, training parents and other mediators in the functional approach, cost-effectiveness, and the place of functional analysis in a reorganized health care delivery system. PMID:9125107

  16. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Profiles in Children with Autism and Moderate to Severe Developmental Delay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Gemma; D'Ardia, Caterina; Valente, Donatella; Vecchio, Ilaria del; Fabrizi, Anna; Bernabei, Paola

    2003-01-01

    A study examined adaptive behavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptive behavior profiles. (Contains references.)…

  17. An Adaptive Testing System for Supporting Versatile Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cheng, Shu-Chen

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test (CBT) with mobile learning (m-learning) especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test (CAT) is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves. In CAT, students are…

  18. CCSF Lunch Summary 20 August, 2008 Assessing climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies for agriculture and

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    CCSF Lunch Summary ­ 20 August, 2008 Assessing climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation), to assess climate change impacts and adaptations in the areas of water resources and agriculture. Discussion

  19. Adaptations and Access to Assessment of Common Core Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces theory that undergirds the role of testing adaptations in assessment, provides examples of item modifications and testing accommodations, reviews research relevant to each, and introduces a new paradigm that incorporates opportunity to learn (OTL), academic enablers, testing adaptations, and inferences that can be made from…

  20. Calibrated Methodology for Assessing Adaptation Costs for Urban Drainage Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in precipitation patterns associated with climate change may pose significant challenges for storm water management systems across much of the U.S. In particular, adapting these systems to more intense rainfall events will require significant investment. The assessment ...

  1. Using Behavioral Questionnaires to Identify Adaptive Deficits in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David

    1994-01-01

    Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…

  2. Child-focused behavioral assessment and modification.

    PubMed

    Evans, I M

    1999-12-01

    Argues that behavioral principles have been translated into practice with children too literally and that a more integrative framework is required to guide assessment and treatment. The framework advocated is Staats's (1996) psychological behaviorism. This is a consistently behavioristic, positivist paradigm, using multilevel theory to emphasize the integration of social learning, developmental, and personality principles. Psychological behaviorism thus allows for a much more expansive approach than has typically been the case within child behavior therapy. Given the complexity of this perspective, I selected four broad tenets of the theory and suggested their implications for clinical contexts. The further translation from clinical models to specific clinical practices is quite difficult but may yield more flexible and substitutable practices than do unidimensional treatment outcome studies. Of special importance, the principles demonstrate how children themselves can retain the central focus of child behavioral assessment and modification. Specific practices still need to be constructed according to an understanding of the multiple sources of influence on children as well as the culture of childhood itself. PMID:10587900

  3. The PDD Behavior Inventory: a rating scale for assessing response to intervention in children with pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ira L; Schmidt-Lackner, Susan; Romanczyk, Raymond; Sudhalter, Vicki

    2003-02-01

    The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) is a rating scale filled out by caregivers or teachers that was designed to assess children having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD; autism, Asperger disorder, PDD-NOS, or childhood disintegrative disorder). Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are assessed in the scale, making it useful for treatment studies in which decreases in maladaptive behaviors and improvements in adaptive social and language skills relevant to PDD are expected. The adaptive behaviors assessed include core features of the disorder such as joint attention skills, pretend play, and referential gesture. The maladaptive behaviors sample a wide variety of behaviors observed in both lower- and higher-functioning individuals and include stereotyped behaviors, fears, aggression, social interaction deficits, and aberrant language. The inventory was found to have a high degree of internal consistency. Inter-rater reliability was better for adaptive behaviors than for maladaptive behaviors. Factor analyses confirmed the structure of the PDDBI and indicated good construct validity. In a subsample of children between 3 and 6 years of age, raw scores for adaptive behaviors increased with age in the parent and teacher versions, as did measures of social pragmatic problems. It was concluded that the PDDBI is both reliable and valid and is useful in providing information not typically available in most instruments used to assess children with PDD. PMID:12708578

  4. Adapted Assessment of Phonological Sensitivity Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Children with little or no functional speech are at risk for literacy acquisition. Assessment of early literacy skills is particularly challenging among this population due to the need for children to provide a spoken response to tasks. This study explored the effects of adapted response modes on measures of phonological sensitivity. Assessment

  5. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Sex Moderate the Pathway from Clinical Symptoms to Adaptive Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73?±?4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p?=?0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders. PMID:25988942

  6. Human Adaptive Behavior in Common Pool Resource Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Gunnar; Merico, Agostino; Vollan, Björn; Schlüter, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users’ expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users’ current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users’ perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns. PMID:23285180

  7. Analysis and modeling of human driving behaviors using adaptive cruise control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Ohno

    2001-01-01

    We describe a driver model based on the feedback-error learning scheme using neural network (NN) for adaptive cruise control (ACC) use in driving and show the applicability of the feedback-error learning scheme as a behavior model of adaptability of human. The focus of the study is on the adaptation process of driving behaviors using ACC. The driver model for computer

  8. In-Home Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Depression: An Adapted Treatment for First-Time Mothers in Home Visitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Ammerman; Frank W. Putnam; Jack Stevens; Lauren J. Holleb; Amy L. Novak; Judith B. Van Ginkel

    This study examined the impact of In-Home Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT), an adaptation of standard cognitive-behavioral therapy, for 26 mothers with depres- sion. All mothers were concurrently receiving home visitation services from either a Healthy Families America (HFA) or Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) agency. Pre- treatment and posttreatment assessments were conducted using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), the

  9. Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

  10. Behavior of an adaptive bio-inspired spider web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Huie, Andrew; Hartman, Alex; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of an artificial adaptive spider web with comparable behavior to a real spider web. First, the natural frequency and energy absorption ability of a passive web is studied. Next, a control system that consists of stepper motors, load cells and an Arduino, is constructed to mimic a spider's ability to control the tension of radial strings in the web. The energy related characteristics in the artificial spider web is examined while the pre-tension of the radial strings are varied. Various mechanical properties of a damaged spider web are adjusted to study their effect on the behavior of the web. It is demonstrated that the pre-tension and stiffness of the web's radial strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and the total energy of the full and damaged webs.

  11. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. PMID:25461715

  12. Current Status and New Developments in Behavioral Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Rosemery O.

    Current status and new developments in behavioral assessment for clinicians and researchers are discussed. The field of behavioral assessment has attained a recognizable identity in recent years. Behavioral assessment can be defined as the identification of meaningful response units and their controlling variables for the purposes of…

  13. Conducting a Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Applied Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, David B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    Three methods used in applied behavioral analysis research and appropriate for conducting a functional assessment of problem behavior in persons with mental retardation are described. They are informant assessment (e.g., behavioral interviews, rating scales, and questionnaires), direct observation assessment, and experimental analysis. (Author/DB)

  14. Habitat Utilization Assessment - Building in Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Blume, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Habitability, and the associated architectural and design attributes of an environment, is a powerful performance shaping factor. By identifying how inhabitants use an area, we can draw conclusions about what design or architectural attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance. We are analyzing how a crew uses a long duration habitat and work environment during a four-day underwater mission and identifying certain architectural and design attributes that are related to, and potential enablers of, certain crew behaviors. By identifying how inhabitants use the habitat, we can draw conclusions about what habitability attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance (applicable to NASA's Bioastronautics Human Behavior and Performance Critical Path Roadmap question 6.12). This assessment replicates a methodology reported in a chapter titled "Sociokinetic Analysis as a Tool for Optimization of Environmental Design" by C. Adams.' That study collected video imagery of certain areas of a closed habitat during a 91 day test and from that data calculated time spent in different volumes during the mission, and characterized the behaviors occurring in certain habitat volumes thus concluding various rules for design of such habitats. This study assesses the utilization of the Aquarius Habitat, an underwater station, which will support six Aquanauts for a fourteen-day mission during which the crew will perform specific scientific and engineering studies. Video is recorded for long uninterrupted periods of time during the mission and from that data the time spent in each area is calculated. In addition, qualitative and descriptive analysis of the types of behaviors in each area is performed with the purpose of identifying any behaviors that are not typical of a certain area. If a participant uses an area in a way different from expected, a subsequent analysis of the features of that area may result in conclusions of performance shaping factors. With the addition of this study, we can make comparisons between the two different habitats and begin drawing correlation judgments about design features and behavior. Ideally, this methodology should be repeated in additional Aquarius missions and other analog environments because the real information will come from comparisons between habitats.

  15. Robot Behavior Adaptation for Human-Robot Interaction based on Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning

    E-print Network

    Mitsunaga, Noriaki

    learning (PGRL), human-robot interaction, behavior adaptation, proxemics. I. INTRODUCTION When humans learning of behavior decision through inter- action with a human [6] has been proposed. They used a kindRobot Behavior Adaptation for Human-Robot Interaction based on Policy Gradient Reinforcement

  16. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors

  17. Influence of an unexpected perturbation on adaptive gait behavior.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Christopher K; Rietdyk, Shirley

    2011-07-01

    During locomotion over uneven terrain, gait must be adapted to avoid a trip. In the event of a foot-obstacle contact, the body reactively responds to the perturbation. However, it is unknown if any proactive adjustments are made in subsequent strides to reduce the likelihood of another contact, and how long any proactive adaptations persist. This study examined gait behavior while stepping over a 10cm obstacle placed in the middle of an 8m walkway. The four obstacle crossings that preceded a spontaneous obstacle contact were compared to the eight obstacle crossings subsequent to the contact. Foot position before the obstacle was not modified following the obstacle contact. However, toe clearance and peak toe elevation increased in the limb that was tripped; the unperturbed limb showed no differences. These findings demonstrate that the sensory information of the perturbed limb proactively influenced the ipsilateral but not the contralateral limb, supporting the idea that the lead and trail limb are controlled independently during obstacle crossing. The proactive adaptation lasted for at least eight trials, suggesting that an unexpected perturbation influences the control of adafptive gait well after obstacle contact. PMID:21764314

  18. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-Text Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonseca, Enrique; Carro, Rosa M.; Freire, Manuel; Ortigosa, Alvaro; Perez, Diana; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Adaptation techniques can be applied not only to the multimedia contents or navigational possibilities of a course, but also to the assessment. In order to facilitate the authoring of adaptive free-text assessment and its integration within adaptive web-based courses, Adaptive Hypermedia techniques and Free-text Computer Assisted Assessment are…

  19. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  20. Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  1. Curriculum Alignment and Assessment: An Adaptable Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice-Crenshaw, Mary; Howard, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    South Carolina adopted grade-level content standards in 1997 and required curriculum assessment in 1999. A model for implementation of these requirements is presented that includes rationale, definitions, a planning activity chart, and 10 elements of planning and implementation. A case study illustrates how one rural school district with limited…

  2. A CRC Usefulness Assessment for Adaptation Layers in Satellite Systems

    E-print Network

    Mailhes, Corinne

    delivery inherit their architecture from a broadcast- oriented design, originally intended to provide mediaA CRC Usefulness Assessment for Adaptation Layers in Satellite Systems Juan Cantillo , Jérôme with them, and paving the way for enhanced transport of IP over DVB-S2. Mathematical and experi- mental

  3. Emotion Assessment From Physiological Signals for Adaptation of Game Difficulty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Chanel; Cyril Rebetez; Mireille Bétrancourt; Thierry Pun

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to maintain player's engage- ment by adapting game difficulty according to player's emotions assessed from physiological signals. The validity of this approach was first tested by analyzing the questionnaire responses, electro- encephalogram (EEG) signals, and peripheral signals of the players playing a Tetris game at three difficulty levels. This anal- ysis confirms that the different difficulty levels

  4. REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION ASSESSMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel B. Smith; Gregory J. Pitts

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the regional climate change scenarios that are recommended for use in the U.S. Country Studies Program (CSP) and evaluates how well four general circulation models (GCMs) simulate current climate over Europe. Under the umbrella of the CSP, 50 countries with varying skills and experience in developing climate change scenarios are assessing vulnerability and adaptation. We considered the

  5. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Fraser Valley & Metro Vancouver snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry

  6. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Livestock Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

  7. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Wine Grape & Tree Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

  8. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Grain & Oilseed Production Peace Region snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri

  9. A Risk-based Model Predictive Control Approach to Adaptive Interventions in Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Zafra-Cabeza, Ascensión; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Ridao, Miguel A.; Camacho, Eduardo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how control engineering and risk management techniques can be applied in the field of behavioral health through their use in the design and implementation of adaptive behavioral interventions. Adaptive interventions are gaining increasing acceptance as a means to improve prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders, such as abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, mental illness, and obesity. A risk-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is developed for a hypothetical intervention inspired by Fast Track, a real-life program whose long-term goal is the prevention of conduct disorders in at-risk children. The MPC-based algorithm decides on the appropriate frequency of counselor home visits, mentoring sessions, and the availability of after-school recreation activities by relying on a model that includes identifiable risks, their costs, and the cost/benefit assessment of mitigating actions. MPC is particularly suited for the problem because of its constraint-handling capabilities, and its ability to scale to interventions involving multiple tailoring variables. By systematically accounting for risks and adapting treatment components over time, an MPC approach as described in this paper can increase intervention effectiveness and adherence while reducing waste, resulting in advantages over conventional fixed treatment. A series of simulations are conducted under varying conditions to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:21643450

  10. Using Course Assessments to Train Teachers in Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavioral Intervention Plan Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Moira A.; Zhang, Jie; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2011-01-01

    As the need to train more teachers to work in inclusive classrooms increases, college instructors should identify and implement course assessments measuring their effectiveness in training practices. Skills in managing the challenging behaviors of students with disabilities, such as autism and emotional disturbances are important for teachers…

  11. Iron Supplementation in Infancy Contributes to More Adaptive Behavior at 10 Years of Age1234

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.; Sturza, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14–0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  12. DMM assessments of attachment and adaptation: Procedures, validity and utility.

    PubMed

    Farnfield, Steve; Hautamäki, Airi; Nørbech, Peder; Sahhar, Nicola

    2010-07-01

    This article gives a brief over view of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM; Crittenden, 2008) together with the various DMM assessments of attachment that have been developed for specific stages of development. Each assessment is discussed in terms of procedure, outcomes, validity, advantages and limitations, comparable procedures and areas for further research and validation. The aims are twofold: to provide an introduction to DMM theory and its application that underlie the articles in this issue of CCPP; and to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to DMM assessments. PMID:20603420

  13. Spontaneous neuronal network dynamics reveal circuit's functional adaptations for behavior.

    PubMed

    Romano, Sebastián A; Pietri, Thomas; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Jouary, Adrien; Haudrechy, Mathieu; Sumbre, Germán

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous neuronal activity is spatiotemporally structured, influencing brain computations. Nevertheless, the neuronal interactions underlying these spontaneous activity patterns, and their biological relevance, remain elusive. Here, we addressed these questions using two-photon calcium imaging of intact zebrafish larvae to monitor the neuron-to-neuron spontaneous activity fine structure in the tectum, a region involved in visual spatial detection. Spontaneous activity was organized in topographically compact assemblies, grouping functionally similar neurons rather than merely neighboring ones, reflecting the tectal retinotopic map despite being independent of retinal drive. Assemblies represent all-or-none-like sub-networks shaped by competitive dynamics, mechanisms advantageous for visual detection in noisy natural environments. Notably, assemblies were tuned to the same angular sizes and spatial positions as prey-detection performance in behavioral assays, and their spontaneous activation predicted directional tail movements. Therefore, structured spontaneous activity represents "preferred" network states, tuned to behaviorally relevant features, emerging from the circuit's intrinsic non-linear dynamics, adapted for its functional role. PMID:25704948

  14. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Input-Driven Components of Spike-Frequency Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Input-Driven Components of Spike-Frequency Adaptation Can Be Unmasked-frequencyadaptationaffectstheresponsecharacteristicsofmanysensoryneurons,anddifferentbiophysicalprocessescontribute to this phenomenon. Many cellular mechanisms underlying adaptation are triggered by the spike output of the neuron adaptation in hair cells, and short-term synaptic depression. For a functional characterization of spike

  15. AHA! Adding Adaptive Behavior to Websites Paul De Bra, Natalia Stash, Barend de Lange

    E-print Network

    De Bra, Paul

    websites are often called adaptive. With the AHA! system we provide an environment that can be used(s) of a website, they are not an inherent property of the techniques that are used. In AHA! adaptation is basedAHA! Adding Adaptive Behavior to Websites Paul De Bra, Natalia Stash, Barend de Lange {debra

  16. Learning Driver's Behavior to Improve the Acceptance of Adaptive Cruise Control Avi Rosenfeld1

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Sarit

    Learning Driver's Behavior to Improve the Acceptance of Adaptive Cruise Control Avi Rosenfeld1@cs.biu.ac.il, leblanc@umich.edu, omer.tsimhoni@gm.com Abstract Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is a technology that allows (Bishop 2000). In this paper, we focus on a second generation of cruise controls­ adaptive cruise control

  17. On the convergence behavior of recursive adaptive noise cancellation structure in the presence of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    cancellation in the presence of crosstalk. We focus on an important characteristic of adaptive filters, namely of the feedback structure for two-channel adaptive noise cancellation in the presence of crosstalk have beenOn the convergence behavior of recursive adaptive noise cancellation structure in the presence

  18. A Risk-Based Model Predictive Control Approach to Adaptive Interventions in Behavioral Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ascensión Zafra-Cabeza; Daniel E. Rivera; Linda M. Collins; Miguel A. Ridao; Eduardo F. Camacho

    2011-01-01

    This brief examines how control engineering and risk management techniques can be applied in the field of behavioral health through their use in the design and implementation of adaptive behavioral interventions. Adaptive interventions are gaining increasing acceptance as a means to improve prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders, such as abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, mental illness,

  19. Effects of Age and IQ on Adaptive Behavior Domains for Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Jeffrey; Hamdan-Allen, Ghada

    1995-01-01

    Scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale were compared to age and performance IQ for 72 children and adolescents with autism and 37 nonautistic controls with mental retardation. The relationship between the two groups' adaptive behavior profiles was stable from preschool age through adolescence. Increasing IQ was associated with lower…

  20. Analysis and modeling of human driving behaviors using adaptive cruise control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ohno

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a driver model based on the feedback-error learning scheme for adaptive cruise control (ACC) use on driver behaviors. The driver model for simulations is implemented by using a neural network The focus of the study is on the adaptation process of driving behaviors using ACC. The developed simulation model is used for predicting control performance of a

  1. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  2. Signal behavior of adaptive filtering algorithms in a nonstationary environment with singular data covariance matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eweda Eweda

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the signal behavior of adaptive filtering algorithms when the target weights of the adaptive filter are time varying and the covariance matrix of the filter input is singular. The signal behavior is evaluated in terms of moments of the excess output error of the filter. Two algorithms are considered: the LMS algorithm and the sign algorithm. The

  3. Robot Behavior Learning with a Dynamically Adaptive RBF Network: Experiments in Offline and Online Learning

    E-print Network

    Duckett, Tom

    Robot Behavior Learning with a Dynamically Adaptive RBF Network: Experiments in Offline and Online, a learning system should be able to adapt in online mode such that the learning process can be speeded up (in process [6]. Some researchers have examined ANN online learning algorithms and robot behavior learn- ing

  4. Behavioral assay for assessing effects of pollutants on fish chemoreception

    SciTech Connect

    Lemly, A.D.; Smith, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Behavioral assays are sensitive to sublethal levels of pollution but they usually require highly trained personnel and long observation periods. We describe a system that combines the sensitivity of a behavioral assay with commercially available automated monitoring equipment. The observation system consists of a special aquarium coupled to a recirculating water system, and an Opto-Varimex-Aqua activity tracking meter (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, Ohio) interfaced to a microcomputer. The tracking meter forms an intersecting, planar grid of light beams which, when interrupted by fish movements, is translated into a digitized signal and fed to the computer. The assay is based on the response of fish to natural chemical stimuli such as food odors or pheromones. When these stimulus solutions are injected into the water circulation the response of the fish is monitored by the computer system, which is capable of discriminating and quantifying changes in eight parameters. Normal responses to stimuli are compared with the response of fish that have been exposed to pollutants. We have successfully used this technique to examine effects of reduced pH on the response of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, to chemical feeding stimuli. The system should be easily adapted to any laboratory concerned with testing for effects of toxic substances, and will identify effects of pollution that have thus far been difficult or impossible to assess.

  5. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  6. Behavioral Tolerance to Endotoxin is Enhanced by Adaptation to Winter Photoperiods

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Seasonal changes in day length enhance or suppress aspects of immune function in mammals. Following adaptation to short, winter-like short photoperiods, cytokine and behavioral responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced simulated infections are attenuated in LPS-naive Siberian hamsters. This experiment examined whether diminished initial responses to LPS in short days are accompanied by decrements in the development of innate immunological memory that leads to endotoxin tolerance. Male hamsters exposed to short days (9h-light/day; SD) or kept in their natal long-day photoperiod (15h-light/day; LD) for 12–13 weeks were injected with bacterial LPS (625 µg/kg, i.p.) or sterile saline. Ten days later all hamsters were challenged with LPS (625 ug/kg, i.p.), and behavioral sickness responses (anorexia and reductions in nest building) were assessed. In LD hamsters, behavioral responses to the second LPS injection were markedly attenuated but still evident, indicative of partial tolerance. SD hamsters, in contrast, failed to exhibit anorexic or thermoregulatory responses to the second LPS injection, indicative of complete behavioral tolerance to LPS. Thus despite engaging greater naive responses to LPS, LD hamsters exhibited incomplete LPS tolerance relative to SD hamsters. The expression of behavioral tolerance to endotoxin is relatively diminished during the breeding season, a time of year when naive responses to endotoxin are at their greatest. During winter, enhancements in behavioral endotoxin tolerance may conserve energy and facilitate survival in the face of energetically-challenging conditions. PMID:18291598

  7. A qualitative assessment of cross-cultural adaptation of intermediate measures for schizophrenia in multisite international studies

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M.; Velligan, Dawn I.

    2012-01-01

    In this substudy of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia we examined qualitative feedback on the cross-cultural adaptability of 4 intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment, Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia, and Cognitive Assessment Interview). Feedback was provided by experienced English-fluent clinical researchers at 31 sites in 8 countries familiar with medication. Researchers provided feedback on test subscales and items which were rated as having adaptation challenges. They noted the specific concern and made suggestions for adaptation to their culture. We analyzed the qualitative data using a modified Grounded Theory approach guided by the International Testing Commission Guidelines model for test adaptation. For each measure except the CAI, the majority of subscales were reported to require major adaptations in terms of content and concepts contained in the subscale. In particular, social, financial, transportation and health care systems varied widely across countries – systems which are often used to assess performance capacity in the U.S. We provide suggestions for how to address future international test development and adaptation. PMID:23167987

  8. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  9. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed.

  10. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed. PMID:17106464

  11. Adaptive, robotic and mobile sensor systems for structural assessment Dryver Huston*a

    E-print Network

    Huston, Dryver R.

    sensing system, i.e. data processing, data acquisition, signal conditioning, sensor type and sensor1 Adaptive, robotic and mobile sensor systems for structural assessment Dryver Huston*a , Jonathan adaptive sensing techniques including adaptive signal processing, adaptive data acquisition protocols

  12. Using an Adaptive Gene Network Model for Self-Organizing Multicellular Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Ali H.; Shen, Xiling

    2015-01-01

    Using the transient interleukin (IL)-2 secretion of effector T helper (Teff) cells as an example, we show that self-organizing multicellular behavior can be modeled and predicted by an adaptive gene network model. Incorporating an adaptation algorithm we established previously, we construct a network model that has the parameter values iteratively updated to cope with environmental change governed by diffusion and cell-cell interactions. In contrast to non-adaptive models, we find that the proposed adaptive model for individual Teff cells can generate transient IL-2 secretory behavior that is observed experimentally at the population level. The proposed adaptive modeling approach can be a useful tool in the study of self-organizing behavior observed in other contexts in biology, including microbial pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, embryonic development, tumor formation, etc. PMID:23367162

  13. Applications of Risk Assessment in the Development of Climate Change Adaptation Policy

    E-print Network

    Michalak, Anna M.

    1 Applications of Risk Assessment in the Development of Climate Change Adaptation Policy A of climate change will affect both natural systems and human populations. Adaptation policies that provide to perform risk assessments allowing decision-makers to select optimal adaptation choices given available

  14. A Critical Analysis of the Behavioral Adaptation Explanation of the Probing Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Documents three problems with the behavioral adaption explanation (BAE) that, taken together, suggest that it cannot account for the probing effect, i.e., the finding that sources interrogatively probed appear more honest to message recipients than nonprobed sources. (TB)

  15. Can Behavioral Adaptation Explain the Probing Effect? Rejoinder to Buller et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.

    1996-01-01

    Responds to David Buller's defense of Behavioral Adaption Explanation (BAE), which was, in turn, written in response to the authors' critical analysis of BAE as an explanation for the probing effect. (TB)

  16. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers. Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American fathers. Some received a brief overview of the program before giving feedback (series A) and others received the entire intervention (series B). Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze transcripts and codebooks were developed through an iterative process. Series B fathers had fewer negative perceptions and a more detailed perspective. Limited exposure to an intervention may cause participants to provide inaccurate data on intervention acceptability. The fathers’ initial perceptions of interventions, regardless of accuracy, will affect recruitment and engagement and must be addressed. One strategy is to tailor program examples and language to reflect the experiences of African American fathers.

  17. Brief Report: Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Depressed Low-Income African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura P. Kohn; Tatia Oden; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Ayinka Robinson; Daria Leavitt

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examine the degree to which a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention can be adapted to be culturally sensitive in treating depressed low-income African American women with multiple stressors. We describe the adaptations we made to an existing intervention, a group treatment developed for depressed low-income medical patients. We also describe our evaluation of the adapted treatment in

  18. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Origin of Adaptation in the Auditory Pathway of Locusts

    E-print Network

    Benda, Jan

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Origin of Adaptation in the Auditory Pathway of Locusts Physiology and 2Theoretical Biology, Biology Department, Humboldt-Universita¨t zu Berlin, 10115 Berlin, Germany We investigated the origin of spike frequency adaptation within a layered sensory network

  19. Translation, Cultural Adjustment, and Operationalization of the Construct of Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombokan-Runtukahu, Juliana; Nitko, Anthony J.

    Whether the construct of adaptive behavior, which has been developed and operationalized in western countries, could be successfully operationalized in a non-western country, Indonesia, was studied. Focus was on delineating procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and operationalization of the construct; creating an operationalization of the…

  20. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Motor Adaptation as a Process of Reoptimization

    E-print Network

    Shadmehr, Reza

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Motor Adaptation as a Process of Reoptimization Jun Izawa,1 Tushar Rane,1 Opher Donchin,2 and Reza Shadmehr1 1Laboratory for Computational Motor Control, Department, Israel Adaptation is sometimes viewed as a process in which the nervous system learns to predict

  1. Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

  2. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  3. Adaptation processes in insect olfactory receptors. Mechanisms and behavioral significance.

    PubMed

    Kaissling, K E; Zack Strausfeld, C; Rumbo, E R

    1987-01-01

    Adaptation was studied in single olfactory receptor cells of male moths of Bombyx mori and Antheraea polyphemus. Receptor potential and nerve impulse generators have different and very likely, spatially separate adaptation mechanisms possibly located in the outer dendritic segment and the cell soma, respectively. Restricted portions of the receptor cell dendrite can be locally adapted. The impulse generator may exhibit at least two distinct adaptation processes with different kinetics, as deduced from a consideration of the phasic-tonic response and the different adaptation properties of each of these phases. The response characteristics of cells in the same sensillum are different. The "faster" responding cell types resolve odor pulses with frequencies up to 10 per second--a performance that is probably needed for orientation during flight toward a small odor source. PMID:3324874

  4. Conceptualizing Functional Behavior Assessment as Prevention Practice within Positive Behavior Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terrance M.; Caron, Deborah B.

    2005-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is an integral component of a positive behavior support approach to preventing problem behavior across all students in the school. As primary prevention, FBA is a collaborative school-wide practice to predict common problems and to develop school-wide interventions. As secondary prevention, FBA involves simple…

  5. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Alternate Definitions to Assess Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra; Jaffery, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) incorporates aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to provide an efficient means to collect time series data. This study extended the development and evaluation of DBR Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) as a behavior assessment tool. Eighty-eight undergraduate students used…

  6. The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

  7. Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Self-injurious Thoughts and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Darren B; Flament, Martine F

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore clinical changes observed in suicidal adolescents treated with an adapted form of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (A-DBT-A) in a tertiary care setting. We conducted an open-label naturalistic study including 61 adolescents with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and associated features of borderline personality disorder, who underwent a 15-week course of A-DBT-A. Pre- and post-treatment measures were administered, the primary outcome being the total score on the Suicidal Ideas Questionnaire. Self-harm, symptoms of borderline personality disorder, resiliency measures, predictors of response, and predictors of attrition were also explored. Among participants who completed post-treatment measures, we found a significant reduction in suicidal ideation (n = 31, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes also suggested improvement. Baseline substance use predicted attrition (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.03-6.14; p < 0.05), as did baseline impulsivity score on the Life Problems Inventory (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.004-1.06; p < 0.05). Overall, we observed clinical improvements in adolescents receiving A-DBT-A. PMID:26075841

  8. Adolescent Risk Behavior Subgroups: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Childs, Kristina K.; O'Connell, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Theories and prior research have outlined a constellation of adolescent risk behaviors that tend to co-occur, reflecting a general pattern. Although their generality has largely been supported, there is some question about how to best study and portray the relationship among these behaviors. This study used data from a survey administered to high…

  9. Assessment of Social Behavior in Children with Autism: The Development of the Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Jennifer M.; Callahan, Emily H.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2011-01-01

    There are a limited number of assessments available to examine social skills deficits in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children (BASYC) was developed as a direct assessment of social deficits in young children with ASD relative to children without ASD. The BASYC is a…

  10. Structure Learning of a Behavior Network for Context Dependent Adaptability

    E-print Network

    Hu, Xiaolin

    architecture that uses structure change as the main mechanism to generate different behavior patterns according in remarkably new circumstances that demand intelligent systems to significantly change their behavior patterns of the dominant [1]. This type of environmental change that dramatically affects a system's behavior

  11. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  12. Developmental Pathways among Adaptive Functioning and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavioral Problems: Cascades from Childhood into Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2013-01-01

    A developmental cascade describes a longitudinal cross-domain unique relation. Here, a 3-wave multivariate design and developmental cascade analysis were used to investigate pathways among adaptive functioning and externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in a community sample of 134 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. Nested path analytic models tested the plausible cascades among the three domains apart from their covariation at each age and rank-order stability across age. Adaptive functioning in early adolescence was predicted by early childhood adaptive functioning and externalizing behavioral problems, with both effects mediated by late childhood adaptive functioning and internalizing behavioral problems; externalizing behavioral problems in early adolescence were predicted by early childhood internalizing behavioral problems with the effect mediated by late childhood externalizing behavioral problems. These developmental cascades obtained independent of child intelligence; child age and maternal education and social desirability were also considered but were not related to any outcome variables. The findings suggest that strategically timed and targeted interventions designed to address young children's behavioral problems may return investment in terms of an enhanced epidemiology of adaptively functioning teens. PMID:23585713

  13. Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. MIT-ICLEI Climate Adaptation Survey Instrument

    E-print Network

    Carmin, JoAnn

    2014-09-14

    The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

  14. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    .15 mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral

  15. Issues in Grouping Items from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the structure, reliability, stability, validity and usefulness of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) and the results of factor and regression analyses of data collected using the NBAS. (Author/BH)

  16. Increasing adaptive behavior skill deficits from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorder: role of executive function.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-06-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive behavior, with specific attention to the role of executive function (EF) in youth with HFASD aged 4-23. There was a negative relationship between age and adaptive behavior and the discrepancy between IQ and adaptive behavior increased with age. EF problems contributed to lower adaptive behavior scores across domains. As such, it is important to target adaptive skills, and the EF problems that may contribute to them, in youth with HFASD. PMID:25398602

  17. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  18. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  19. Adaptive Skills and Maladaptive Behavior of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Attending Special Schools in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the profile of and relationships between adaptive skills and the maladaptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending special schools in Singapore. Parents of 20 adolescents with ASD attending special schools completed the Development Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995;…

  20. Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

  1. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  2. Increasing Adaptive Behavior Skill Deficits from Childhood to Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive

  3. Assessment of the Massachusetts Behavioral Health Program Year 6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Beinecke; Renee Woliver

    2000-01-01

    After a difficult transition from the previous vendor to the Massachusetts Behavioral Health Partnership (MBHP), Year 6 was a year of stability and incremental changes for the Massachusetts Behavioral Health Program. This assessment of Year 6 is based on interviews with key players, data provided by the MBHP, a survey of providers, as well as on the fifth year of

  4. Social Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: Observations and Impressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    The author was favorably impressed with the breadth, scope, and quality of the articles in this issue that dealt with the various aspects and correlates of social behavioral functioning as well as assessment and intervention considerations. Each of these articles dealt with a unique aspect of social behavioral functioning in children and youth and…

  5. The Social Validity Assessment of Social Competence Intervention Behavior Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Feurer, Irene D.

    2010-01-01

    Social validation is the value judgment from society on the importance of a study. The social validity of behavior goals used in the social competence intervention literature was assessed using the Q-sort technique. The stimulus items were 80 different social competence behavior goals taken from 78 classroom-based social competence intervention…

  6. Assessment of Prelinguistic Behaviors in Deaf Children: Parents as Collaborators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dromi, Esther

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the prelinguistic behaviors of 43 deaf children (ages 8 to 49 months) of hearing parents in Israel found only partial resemblance to the theoretical model of prelinguistic communication in hearing infants. Unique interrelationships among pointing and early noncommunicative behaviors were found with no correlation between use of…

  7. School Refusal Behavior: Classification, Assessment, and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcella I.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses diagnostic and functional classification, assessment, and treatment approaches for school refusal behavior. Diagnostic classification focuses on separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, depression, and truancy. Functional classification focuses on the maintaining consequences of the behavior, such as avoidance of…

  8. Neural Adaptation and Behavioral Measures of Temporal Processing and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Murphy, Dora; Boian, Melissa; Scott, Michael; Keith, Robert; Xiang, Jing; Abbas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine if one of the neural temporal features, neural adaptation, can account for the across-subject variability in behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception performance in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Neural adaptation is the phenomenon in which neural responses are the strongest at the beginning of the stimulus and decline following stimulus repetition (e.g., stimulus trains). It is unclear how this temporal property of neural responses relates to psychophysical measures of temporal processing (e.g., gap detection) or speech perception. The adaptation of the electrical compound action potential (ECAP) was obtained using 1000 pulses per second (pps) biphasic pulse trains presented directly to the electrode. The adaptation of the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) was obtained using a sequence of 1-kHz tone bursts presented acoustically, through the cochlear implant. Behavioral temporal processing was measured using the Random Gap Detection Test at the most comfortable listening level. Consonant nucleus consonant (CNC) word and AzBio sentences were also tested. The results showed that both ECAP and LAEP display adaptive patterns, with a substantial across-subject variability in the amount of adaptation. No correlations between the amount of neural adaptation and gap detection thresholds (GDTs) or speech perception scores were found. The correlations between the degree of neural adaptation and demographic factors showed that CI users having more LAEP adaptation were likely to be those implanted at a younger age than CI users with less LAEP adaptation. The results suggested that neural adaptation, at least this feature alone, cannot account for the across-subject variability in temporal processing ability in the CI users. However, the finding that the LAEP adaptive pattern was less prominent in the CI group compared to the normal hearing group may suggest the important role of normal adaptation pattern at the cortical level in speech perception. PMID:24386403

  9. From impacts assessment to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Burton; Saleemul Huq; Bo Lim; Olga Pilifosova; Emma Lisa Schipper

    2002-01-01

    Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adaptation has recently gained importance, yet adaptation is much less developed than mitigation as a policy response. Adaptation research has been used to help answer to related but distinct questions. (1) To what extent can adaptation reduce impacts of climate change? (2) What adaptation policies are needed, and how can

  10. Alternative Approaches to the Measurement of Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Andrew S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relative efficacy of rating and testing approaches for predicting criterion behavior was examined with mildly retarded secondary students. Three tests from the Social and Prevocational Information Battery were selected as a foundation for development of analogous behavior rating and applied performance instruments. All three types of…

  11. Field behavior and adaptive strategies of appendicularians (Chordata: Tunicata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Alldredge

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of 7 species of appendicularians from the family Oikopleuridae was observed using SCUBA in the Gulf of California and the Florida Current. The frequency and orientation of feeding and the pattern of swimming while within the house varied considerably among species. Appendicularians expanded new houses in 1 1\\/2 to 5 min. House-expansion behavior was complex and variable among

  12. Assessment of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment

  13. A Comparison of the Adaptive Behavior of Retarded Individuals Successfully and Unsuccessfully Placed in Group Living Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, James R.

    Compared were the adaptive behavior and IQ scores of educable retarded persons 16- to 45-years-old who were successful (N=47) in group living. Scores of parts 1 and 2 of the Adaptive Behavior Scale, including domains of independent functioning, language development, antisocial behavior, and unacceptable or eccentric habits were correlated to house…

  14. Assessing treatment fidelity in a cultural adaptation of motivational interviewing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christina S; Tavares, Tonya; Popat-Jain, Ami; Naab, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) for addictions is well documented. Grounding MI in social/cultural priorities may enhance treatment response. We evaluate the method of assessing competence using the motivational interviewing treatment integrity system (MITI) for standard MI and culturally adapted MI (CAMI) delivered to Latino heavy drinkers. Twenty audiotapes (MI, n = 10; CAMI, n = 10) were MITI coded by two raters unaware of treatment assignment. Inter-rater reliabilities were excellent (.78-.99) except for CAMI complex reflections, global ratings of empathy, and MI spirit. The MITI reliably evaluates MI and CAMI treatment fidelity. Future research should investigate lower reliabilities for MI global and complex reflections cross-culturally. PMID:25984959

  15. Residual interference assessment in adaptive wall wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, A. V.

    1989-01-01

    A two-variable method is presented which is suitable for on-line calculation of residual interference in airfoil testing in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-M TCT). The method applies the Cauchy's integral formula to the closed contour formed by the contoured top and bottom walls, and the upstream and downstream ends. The measured top and bottom wall pressures and position are used to calculate the correction to the test Mach number and the airfoil angle of attack. Application to specific data obtained in the 0.3-M TCT adaptive wall test section demonstrates the need to assess residual interference to ensure that the desired level of wall streamlining is achieved. A FORTRAN computer program was developed for on-line calculation of the residual corrections during airfoil tests in the 0.3-M TCT.

  16. THEORY AND PRACTICE IN ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND FACILITATING ADAPTATION

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Mick

    THEORY AND PRACTICE IN ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND FACILITATING ADAPTATION P. M and adaptation. In search of a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms of the capacity of individuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recover from or adapt to

  17. Behavioral Insomnias of Childhood: Assessment and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Lewin; Edward Huntley

    \\u000a The Behavioral Insomnias of Childhood (BIC) include a series of problems of sleep initiation, continuity, maintenance, and\\u000a bedtime resistance. These sleep problems can place a significant burden on the parents who may be required to attend to a\\u000a child at the beginning or in the middle of the night. The resulting sleep loss can impact parents’ and children’s daytime\\u000a functioning

  18. Parental genetic effects in a cavefish adaptive behavior explain disparity between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Ashida, Go; Jeffery, William R

    2012-09-01

    Epigenetic parental genetic effects are important in many biological processes but their roles in the evolution of adaptive traits and their consequences in naturally evolving populations remain to be addressed. By comparing two divergent blind cave-dwelling cavefish populations with a sighted surface-dwelling population (surface fish) of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, we report here that convergences in vibration attraction behavior (VAB), the lateral line sensory receptors underlying this behavior, and the feeding benefits of this behavior are controlled by parental genetic effects, either maternal or paternal inheritance. From behavioral studies and mathematical evolutionary simulations, we further demonstrate that disparity in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in one of these cavefish populations that has hybridized with surface fish can be explained by paternal inheritance of VAB. The results suggest that parental genetic effects in adaptive behaviors may be important factors in biasing mitochondrial DNA inheritance in natural populations that are subject to introgression. PMID:22946818

  19. Relevance of Functional Behavioral Assessment Research for School-Based Interventions and Positive Behavioral Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Olson-Tinker, Heidi; Dolstra, Lisa; McLaughlin, Veronica; Van, Mai

    2004-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of functional analysis over the past 15 years, the extent to which these…

  20. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

  1. Lateral cascade of indirect effects in food webs with different types of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Kamran-Disfani, Ahmad R; Golubski, Antonio J

    2013-12-21

    It is widely recognized that indirect effects due to adaptive behaviors can have important effects on food webs. One consequence may be to change how readily perturbations propagate through the web, because species' behaviors as well as densities may respond to perturbations. It is not well understood which types of behavior are more likely to facilitate versus inhibit propagation of disturbances through a food web, or how this might be affected by the shape of a food web or the patterns of interaction strengths within it. We model two simple, laterally expanded food webs (one with three trophic levels and one with four), and compare how various adaptive behaviors affect the potential for a newly introduced predator to change the equilibrium densities of distant species. Patterns of changes in response to the introduction were qualitatively similar across most models, as were the ways in which patterns of direct interaction strengths affected those responses. Depending on both the web structure and the specific adaptive behavior, the potential for density changes to propagate through the web could be either increased or diminished relative to the no-behavior model. Two behaviors allowed density changes to propagate through a four-level web that precluded such propagation in the no-behavior model, and each of these two behaviors led to qualitatively different patterns of density changes. In the one model (diet choice) in which density changes were able to propagate in both web structures, patterns of density changes differed qualitatively between webs. Some of our results flowed from the fact that behaviors did not interact directly in the systems we considered, so that indirect effects on distant species had to be at least partly density-mediated. Our models highlight this as an inherent limitation of considering in isolation behaviors that are strictly foraging-related or strictly defense-related, making a case for the value of simultaneously considering multiple interacting types of behavior in the same model. PMID:23810934

  2. Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested). We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between protein states are mediated by other molecular species in the system, such as phosphatases and kinases. PMID:21291524

  3. Cybernetic control model from ethology for adaptive coordination of robot behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Bernd

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we propose a cybernetic approach to behavior based robotics. We present a distributed adaptive control architecture for coordination of different motivations and behaviors of an autonomous vehicle. The system is based on the Zurich Model of Social Motivation, a cybernetic approach to mammalian behavior by the Swiss ethologist BISCHOF. Our system controls a simulated autonomous robot by teaching a reflective associative memory to propose an action based on the input of eight range sensors. The emerging behavior at every stage reflects the system's experience, and the robust in unexpected situations.

  4. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  5. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Axia, Giovanna

    2011-04-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  6. Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

    Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

  7. Introduction. Organization and Stability of Newborn Behavior: A Commentary on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry

    1978-01-01

    Provides an overview of the development of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), the nature of the instrument and conditions for its proper administration, and issues underlying the use of the NBAS in research (e.g., reliability). The first in a series of articles in a single monograph assessing the NBAS. (BH)

  8. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

  9. Adapting to changing buying behavior -A challenge for relationship management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Holma

    This paper addresses the changing buying behavior in travel purchase from relationship management perspective. The focus is on corporate travel, and on the long-term relationships between the three core actors in corporate travel management, i.e. the buyer, its travel management company, and service supplier partners. The network approach by the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing group is taken to analyze the

  10. Aggression and Adaptive Functioning: The Bright Side to Bad Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Patricia H.; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that effective children and adolescents can engage in socially undesirable behavior to attain personal goals at relatively little personal or interpersonal cost, implying that relations between adjustment and aggression may not be optimally described by standard linear models. Suggests that if researchers recognize that some aggression…

  11. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students

    PubMed Central

    RAEE, HOJAT; AMINI, MITRA; MOMEN NASAB, AMENEH; MALEK POUR, ABDOLRASOUL; JAFARI, MOHAMMAD MORAD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale.  After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83). Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57) for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD= 4.49±0.53) for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32) for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25512933

  12. Nonsocial Play Patterns of Young Children With Communication Disorders: Implications for Behavioral Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Guralnick; Mary A. Hammond; Robert Connor

    2006-01-01

    It has been well established that young children with communication disorders (CD) have considerable difficulties interacting socially with peers in free-play settings. The central purpose of this study was to determine whether behavioral adaptations of children with CD could contribute to their peer interaction problems. To accomplish this, the behavioral patterns of reticent, solitary-passive, and solitary-active sub- types of nonsocial

  13. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We have further analyzed the FMT data to characterize strategic and adaptive components during the postflight readaptation period. Crewmembers walked at a preferred pace through an obstacle course set up on a base of 10 cm thick medium density foam (Sunmate Foam, Dynamic Systems, Inc., Leicester, NC). The 6.0m X 4.0m course consisted of several pylons made of foam; a Styrofoam barrier 46.0cm high that crewmembers stepped over; and a portal constructed of two Styrofoam blocks, each 31cm high, with a horizontal bar covered by foam and suspended from the ceiling which was adjusted to the height of the crewmember s shoulder. The portal required crewmembers to bend at the waist and step over a barrier simultaneously. All obstacles were lightweight, soft and easily knocked over. Crewmembers were instructed to walk through the course as quickly and as safely as possible without touching any of the objects on the course. This task was performed three times in the clockwise direction and three times in the counterclockwise direction that was randomly chosen. The dependent measures for each trial were: time to complete the course (seconds) and the number of obstacles touched or knocked down. For each crewmember, the time to complete each FMT trial from postflight days 1, 2, 4, 7 and 25 were further analyzed. A single logarithmic curve using a least squares calculation was fit through these data to produce a single comprehensive curve (macro). This macro curve composed of data spanning 25 days, illustrates the re-adaptive learning function over the longer time scale term. Additionally, logarithmic curves were fit to the 6 data trials within each individual post flight test day to produce 5 separate daily curves. These micro curves, produced from data obtained over the course of minutes, illustrates the strategic learning function exhibited over a relative shorter time scale. The macro curve for all subjects exhibited adaptive motor learning patterns over the 25 day period. Howev, 9/16 crewmembers exhibited significant strategic motor learning patterns in their micro curves,

  14. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the sub-population that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, i.e. increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors, and to develop strategies to minimize their impact. PMID:23470300

  15. Adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy for religious individuals with mental disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Caroline; Sim, Kang; Renjan, Vidhya; Sam, Hui Fang; Quah, Soo Li

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence-based psychological intervention for various mental disorders. However, mental health clinicians should be cognizant of the population that was used to validate the intervention and assess its acceptability to a target group that is culturally different. We systematically reviewed published empirical studies of CBT adapted for religious individuals with mental disorder to determine the extent to which religiously modified CBT can be considered an empirically supported treatment following the criteria delineated by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Overall, nine randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study were included that compared the effectiveness of religiously modified CBT to standard CBT or other treatment modalities for the treatment of depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. The majority of these studies either found no difference in effectiveness between religiously modified CBT compared to standard CBT or other treatment modalities, or early effects that were not sustained. Considering the methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, religiously modified CBT cannot be considered a well-established psychological intervention for the treatment of the foregoing mental disorders following the a priori set criteria at this juncture. Nevertheless, melding religious content with CBT may be an acceptable treatment modality for individuals with strong religious convictions. PMID:24813028

  16. Display device-adapted video quality-of-experience assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Abdul; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Today's viewers consume video content from a variety of connected devices, including smart phones, tablets, notebooks, TVs, and PCs. This imposes significant challenges for managing video traffic efficiently to ensure an acceptable quality-of-experience (QoE) for the end users as the perceptual quality of video content strongly depends on the properties of the display device and the viewing conditions. State-of-the-art full-reference objective video quality assessment algorithms do not take into account the combined impact of display device properties, viewing conditions, and video resolution while performing video quality assessment. We performed a subjective study in order to understand the impact of aforementioned factors on perceptual video QoE. We also propose a full reference video QoE measure, named SSIMplus, that provides real-time prediction of the perceptual quality of a video based on human visual system behaviors, video content characteristics (such as spatial and temporal complexity, and video resolution), display device properties (such as screen size, resolution, and brightness), and viewing conditions (such as viewing distance and angle). Experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art video quality measures in terms of accuracy and speed.

  17. Behavioral Adaptation, Confidence, and Heuristic-based Explanations of the Probing Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.

    2001-01-01

    Notes that researchers have found that asking probing questions of message source does not enhance deception detection accuracy. Considers how probing does increase recipient and observer perceptions of source honesty, a finding labeled the "probing effect." Examines three potential explanations for the probing effect: behavior adaptation,…

  18. Sensorimotor Period and Adaptive Behavior Development of Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, James V.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of the Uzgiris and Hunt Scales of Sensorimotor Development with six of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) domains and the Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language (REEL) Scale was investigated with 76 severely profoundly retarded children (mean age 6 years). Results were generally consistent with prior theory and research. (Author/CL)

  19. DARA: Estimating the Behavior of Data Rate Adaptation Algorithms in WLAN Hotspots

    E-print Network

    Wichmann, Felix

    DARA: Estimating the Behavior of Data Rate Adaptation Algorithms in WLAN Hotspots Sven Wieth of relatively long observations. This work presents a novel solution, denoted as Data Rate Estimation (DARA in the order of just some beacon intervals and making an "educated guess" afterwards. Furthermore, DARA does

  20. Intelligence, Parental Depression, and Behavior Adaptability in Deaf Children Being Considered for Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…

  1. Behavior Generation for a Mobile Robot Based on the Adaptive Fitness Function

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Behavior Generation for a Mobile Robot Based on the Adaptive Fitness Function Eiji Uchibe, Masakazu the evaluation (fitness) function to evaluate the performance of the robot when we apply the ma- chine learning techniques to the robot application. In many cases, the fitness function is composed of several aspects

  2. Introduction to Symposium and Intercorrelations, Sex, and Race Differences on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, John S.; And Others

    Preliminary findings are presented from a study of the performance of 99 institutionalized retarded children on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), a revised form of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS). No significant sex or race differences were revealed on test performances. Mental age was found to correlate with VABS scores with…

  3. An ICF-CY-Based Content Analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Kara; Coster, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and its version for children and youth (ICF-CY), has been increasingly adopted as a system to describe function and disability. A content analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was conducted to examine congruence with the functioning…

  4. Neural circuit mechanisms for adaptive modulation of the chemosenosory behaviors in the nematode C. elegans

    E-print Network

    Kazama, Hokto

    Neural circuit mechanisms for adaptive modulation of the chemosenosory behaviors in the nematode C of the whole neural circuit composed of 302 neurons is already known. In addition, its strong genetics makes of this organism because input-output relationship of the neural circuit can be precisely studied

  5. Assessing Students with Serious Mental Health and Behavioral Problems: Clinical Assessment for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Conlon, Amy L.

    The current intervention trend for many of the mental health and behavioral problems faced by today's youth is an integrative approach that involves the community, families, and schools. Clinical assessment for serious mental health and behavioral problems can be an important component in the development of school-based screening programs. The…

  6. Tracking Behavior Assessment Methodology and Support Strategies: A National Survey of How Schools Utilize Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couvillon, Michael A.; Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Although functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) have been utilized since the 1960s, their use has steadily increased since the passing of IDEA 1997 which mandated their use in specified circumstances. References to FBAs and BIPs in No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the 2004 re-authorization of IDEA, and in…

  7. A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Seong A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

  8. Assessing Problem Behaviors by Videotape: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; And Others

    A methodology that will allow teachers to assess a child's behavior problems within both Disruptive (D) and Nondisruptive (ND) contexts was developed, and a questionnaire that would attend to the issues of Manageability and Contagion, as well as Tolerance and Severity, was prepared. Initial questionnaire research using the Devereux Elementary…

  9. Behavioral Assessment of Couples' Communication in Female Orgasmic Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary P. Kelly; Donald S. Strassberg; Charles M. Turner

    2006-01-01

    Communication problems are believed to play a central role in many sexual dysfunctions. The present study behaviorally assessed communication patterns within heterosexual couples in which the woman was experiencing female orgasmic disorder and within two groups of control couples. The sexually dysfunctional couples evidenced significantly poorer communication than controls, primarily but not exclusively when discussing sexual topics. Specifically, women with

  10. Assessing Recent Efforts to Reduce Student Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Daniel L.; Jones, Vernon F.

    The theory, research, and prescription done during the 1970's in the areas of classroom management and school discipline are reviewed in this analysis, and the effects of this work on student behavior problems is assessed. An analysis of the sociopolitical context in which scholarly models, research paradigms, and systems for running schools were…

  11. An Inventory for Assessing Food Behaviors of Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanslow, Alyce M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes development, field-testing, and summary statistics of a series of inventories designed to assess food behaviors of 1,673 elementary school students (grades 1-6). Content focuses on personal cleanliness, personal safety, and food quality. Students respond to cartoon items by selecting one of three responses to indicate their typical…

  12. A Systems Approach To Assess Severe Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Brian R.; Meyer, John K.

    1998-01-01

    The systems approach assembles in a single assessment setting four basic instruments to determine the current functioning status of the individual for the purpose of better understanding the dynamics involved in severe behavior problems: (1) the Democratic Maturity Test ; (2) the Life Fulfillment Inventory; (3) the Voluntary Control Test; and (4)…

  13. Contrasting adaptive behavior ratings of male and female institutionalized residents across two settings.

    PubMed

    Weber, D B; Epstein, H R

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-two mentally retarded male and 22 retarded female residents from a state institution in central Ohio were compared on Adaptive Behavior Scale, Part Two, ratings across two settings (cottage and classroom). A multivariate analysis of variance did not reveal an overall interaction of sex and setting nor an overall effect for sex differences. Results did indicate a significant overall effect for setting. Significant differences were found in the following domains: Rebellious Behavior, Stereotyped Behavior and Odd Mannerisms, Unacceptable Vocal Habits, Hyperactive Tendencies, and Psychological Tendencies. Higher scores (negative direction) were noted in the classroom setting. PMID:7355915

  14. Quantitative Adaptation Analytics for Assessing Dynamic Systems of Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl [Sandia National Laboratories, Unknown, Unknown; Vander Meer, Robert Charles,

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  15. Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas; Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

    2012-10-16

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers' child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank-behavior associations. PMID:23045637

  16. Adoption, Reach, Implementation, and Maintenance of a Behavioral and Mental Health Assessment in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Alex H.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Sabo, Roy T.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Ory, Marcia G.; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Sheinfeld-Gorin, Sherri N.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Guidelines recommend screening patients for unhealthy behaviors and mental health concerns. Health risk assessments can systematically identify patient needs and trigger care. This study seeks to evaluate whether primary care practices can routinely implement such assessments into routine care. METHODS As part of a cluster-randomized pragmatic trial, 9 diverse primary care practices implemented My Own Health Report (MOHR)—an electronic or paper-based health behavior and mental health assessment and feedback system paired with counseling and goal setting. We observed how practices integrated MOHR into their workflows, what additional practice staff time it required, and what percentage of patients completed a MOHR assessment (Reach). RESULTS Most practices approached (60%) agreed to adopt MOHR. How they implemented MOHR depended on practice resources, informatics capacity, and patient characteristics. Three practices mailed patients invitations to complete MOHR on the Web, 1 called patients and completed MOHR over the telephone, 1 had patients complete MOHR on paper in the office, and 4 had staff help patients complete MOHR on the Web in the office. Overall, 3,591 patients were approached and 1,782 completed MOHR (Reach = 49.6%). Reach varied by implementation strategy with higher reach when MOHR was completed by staff than by patients (71.2% vs 30.2%, P <.001). No practices were able to sustain the complete MOHR assessment without adaptations after study completion. Fielding MOHR increased staff and clinician time an average of 28 minutes per visit. CONCLUSIONS Primary care practices can implement health behavior and mental health assessments, but counseling patients effectively requires effort. Practices will need more support to implement and sustain assessments. PMID:25384814

  17. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  18. Clinical Diagnosis, Behavioral Assessment, and Functional Analysis: Examining the Connection between Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; McGivern, Julia E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents methodologies for diagnostic problem solving, including clinical diagnosis using the DSM-IV, multiaxial empirically based assessment, and behavioral assessment. Reviews these approaches within the context of methodological and conceptual issues pertaining to the construct of treatment utility. Argues that clinical diagnosis and…

  19. Studying the neural basis of adaptive locomotor behavior in insects.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bollhagen, Hans-Peter; Bueschges, Ansgar

    2011-01-01

    Studying the neural basis of walking behavior, one often faces the problem that it is hard to separate the neuronally produced stepping output from those leg movements that result from passive forces and interactions with other legs through the common contact with the substrate. If we want to understand, which part of a given movement is produced by nervous system motor output, kinematic analysis of stepping movements, therefore, needs to be complemented with electrophysiological recordings of motor activity. The recording of neuronal or muscular activity in a behaving animal is often limited by the electrophysiological equipment which can constrain the animal in its ability to move with as many degrees of freedom as possible. This can either be avoided by using implantable electrodes and then having the animal move on a long tether (i.e. Clarac et al., 1987; Duch & Pflüger, 1995; Böhm et al., 1997; Gruhn & Rathmayer, 2002) or by transmitting the data using telemetric devices (Kutsch et al, 1993; Fischer et al., 1996; Tsuchida et al. 2004; Hama et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2008). Both of these elegant methods, which are successfully used in larger arthropods, often prove difficult to apply in smaller walking insects which either easily get entangled in the long tether or are hindered by the weight of the telemetric device and its batteries. In addition, in all these cases, it is still impossible to distinguish between the purely neuronal basis of locomotion and the effects exerted by mechanical coupling between the walking legs through the substrate. One solution for this problem is to conduct the experiments in a tethered animal that is free to walk in place and that is locally suspended, for example over a slippery surface, which effectively removes most ground contact mechanics. This has been used to study escape responses (Camhi and Nolen, 1981; Camhi and Levy, 1988), turning (Tryba and Ritzman, 2000a,b; Gruhn et al., 2009a), backward walking (Graham and Epstein, 1985) or changes in velocity (Gruhn et al., 2009b) and it allows the experimenter easily to combine intra- and extracellular physiology with kinematic analyses (Gruhn et al., 2006). We use a slippery surface setup to investigate the timing of leg muscles in the behaving stick insect with respect to touch-down and lift-off under different behavioral paradigms such as straight forward and curved walking in intact and reduced preparations. PMID:21525839

  20. Frontal Theta Links Prediction Errors to Behavioral Adaptation in Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.; Klein, Theresa J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a fronto-central voltage deflection in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the Feedback Related Negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Medio-frontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations: with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice. PMID:19969093

  1. Assessing an Assessment: Conceptual considerations, Methodological Issues, and a Perspective on the Future of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise

    1978-01-01

    Describes the conceptual model of newborn organization underlying the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Argues that while the NBAS allows for the identification of an individual's behavioral repertoire, attempts to synthesize the resulting data have been plagued with difficulties. Briefly outlines an alternative model for…

  2. Online model adaptation for aircraft operational reliability assessment Kossi Tiassou1, 2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Online model adaptation for aircraft operational reliability assessment Kossi Tiassou1, 2 , Karama.Papadopoulos@Airbus.com ABSTRACT This paper addresses the reliability modeling of an aircraft considering the aircraft operational of aircraft missions and possible adjustment and adaptation in case of unpredicted events during the mission

  3. Using Item Response Theory and Adaptive Testing in Online Career Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Turner, Brandon M.

    2011-01-01

    The present article describes the potential utility of item response theory (IRT) and adaptive testing for scale evaluation and for web-based career assessment. The article describes the principles of both IRT and adaptive testing and then illustrates these with reference to data analyses and simulation studies of the Career Confidence Inventory…

  4. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES R. Julian Preston Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA There ...

  5. Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. A Research Agenda

    E-print Network

    Carmin, JoAnn

    2014-09-13

    The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

  6. Assessing Adaptive Instructional Design Tools and Methods in ADAPT[IT].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Spector, J. Michael

    ADAPT[IT] (Advanced Design Approach for Personalized Training - Interactive Tools) is a European project within the Information Society Technologies program that is providing design methods and tools to guide a training designer according to the latest cognitive science and standardization principles. ADAPT[IT] addresses users in two significantly…

  7. Stability of Adaptive Behaviors in Middle-School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Ivers, Bonnie Jean; Hill, Dina E.; Agnew, John A.; McNeill, John

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year follow-up study examined the stability of adaptive functioning in two cognitive ability groups of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nonverbal intelligence (NVIQ) was assessed at the time of this study and no participant changed cognitive group membership from the previous study (High NVIQ greater than or equal to 97; Low…

  8. Behavior Completion Versus Stimulus Control in Compulsive GamblingImplications for Behavioral Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel Mcconaghy; Michael S. Armstrong; Alex Blaszczynski; Clive Allcock

    1988-01-01

    Twenty subjects were randomly allocated to receive either imaginal relaxation (IR) or imaginal desensitization (ID) to reduce compulsive gambling. As predicted from a behavioral completion model, but not a stimulus control model, subjects' response to IR was comparable with that to ID. Also as predicted, response correlated with subjects' levels of tension following treatment. Detailed assessment of the situations in

  9. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  10. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  11. Supporting Web-based Learning through Adaptive Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunwei Wen; Sabine Graf; Chung Hsien Lan; Terry Anderson; Ken Dickson

    Web-based assessments can be used in different phases of education in order to support students and make learning easier and more effective for them. This support can range from the assessment of readiness for a particular educational institution, over methods which improve the learning process itself such as peer assessment, to the assessment of the progress and knowledge level by

  12. Employee recruitment: using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K

    2007-01-01

    The labor shortage of skilled health care professionals continues to make employee recruitment and retention a challenge for health care managers. Greater accountability is being placed on health care managers to retain their employees. The urgency to retain health care professionals is largely an issue that should be considered during the initial recruitment of potential employees. Health care managers should analyze candidates rigorously to ensure that appropriate hiring decisions are made. Behavioral assessments can be used as a useful employee selection tool to assist managers in the appropriate placement and training of potential new employees. When administered appropriately, these tools can provide managers with a variety of useful information. This information can assist health care managers in demystifying the hiring process. Although there are varying organizational concerns to address when using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool, the potential return on investment is worth the effort. PMID:17938588

  13. Evolutionary tuning of an adaptive behavior requires enhancement of the neuromast sensory system.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R

    2011-01-01

    Cave animals are faced with the challenge of carrying out fundamental life processes in a completely dark environment. Evolution of behavioral changes could be one of the key steps that adapt these animals to the absence of light. Astyanax mexicanus is a teleost with sighted surface dwelling (surface fish) and blind cave dwelling (cavefish) forms. Cavefish, a descendant of surface fish ancestors, have evolved a suite of constructive traits including an increase in the number and diameter of superficial neuromasts (SN). Prior to our study, no clear relationships had been established between constructive traits and the evolution of behavior. The current results link SN enhancement to vibration attraction behavior (VAB), a behavioral shift that is beneficial for feeding in a dark environment. We discuss a possible scenario in which the evolution of VAB may be a key factor in the establishment and survival of cavefish ancestors in the dark cave environment. PMID:21509190

  14. Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2013-08-01

    In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

  15. [Scale for assessment of aggressive behavior of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Melo, Monica Cristina Batista de; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Alchieri, João Carlos; Figueiroa, José Natal

    2015-06-01

    This study consists of the validation of a scale for the analysis of violent behavior in adolescents. It is a cross-sectional observational study. A total of 437 adolescent students from public and private schools in the city of Recife in Pernambuco state participated in the study by responding to a questionnaire. Semantic and Content Validation was performed, followed by Dimensionality, Reliability, Discriminant, Trust and Convergent Analysis. The extraction method was Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization. The analysis resulted in a scale for assessment of aggressive behavior of teenagers with 39 items. Seven factors were selected and Cronbach's total alpha was 0.830. Discriminant analysis revealed groups of items that distinguish subjects between high and low level of violent behavior and between groups of items revealed a positive correlation among 17 items and the reliability of the instrument was confirmed in the retest. The scale revealed evidence of validity as a tool for assessing violent behavior among adolescents. PMID:26060964

  16. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  17. Behavioral assessment of depressive-like symptoms in a rodent model of spinal cord injury 

    E-print Network

    Luedtke, Kelsey 1988-

    2011-05-05

    -like behavior in rats) to assess depression following a moderate contusion injury. The proposed ethogram consisted of the sucrose preference test (SPT) and the forced swim test (FST), both common rodent paradigms for assessing depressive-like behavior...

  18. On the Consequences of Behavioral Adaptations in the Cost–Benefit Analysis of Road Safety Measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Gossner; Pierre Picard

    2005-01-01

    AbstractIt is sometimes argued that road safety measures or automobile safety standards fail to save lives because safer highways or safer cars induce more dangerous driving. A similar but less extreme view is that ignoring the behavioral adaptation of drivers would bias the cost–benefit analysis of a traffic safety measure. This article derives cost–benefit rules for automobile safety regulation when

  19. User—robot personality matching and assistive robot behavior adaptation for post-stroke rehabilitation therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Tapus; Cristian ??pu?; Maja J. Matari?

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a hands-off socially assistive therapist robot designed to monitor, assist, encourage, and socially interact\\u000a with post-stroke users engaged in rehabilitation exercises. We investigate the role of the robot’s personality in the hands-off\\u000a therapy process, focusing on the relationship between the level of extroversion–introversion of the robot and the user. We\\u000a also demonstrate a behavior adaptation system capable

  20. ToappearinSimulationofAdaptiveBehavior1994. Evolution of Corridor Following Behavior in a Noisy World

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    and leads to the evolution of robust, noise-tolerant controllers. Genetic Program- ming is used to model alternative is to evolve the controllers, using their ability to perform the de- sired behavior as a measure sensory input (range data) into motor output (steering action). In those experiments all fitness tests

  1. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  2. Biodiversity and agricultural sustainagility: from assessment to adaptive management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Jackson; Meine van Noordwijk; Janne Bengtsson; William Foster; Leslie Lipper; Mirjam Pulleman; Mohammed Said; Jake Snaddon; Raymond Vodouhe

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in land use, food systems, and livelihoods require social–ecological systems that keep multiple options open and prepare for future unpredictability. Sustainagility refers to the properties and assets of a system that sustain the ability (agility) of agents to adapt and meet their needs in new ways. In contrast, sustainability tends to invoke persistence along current trajectories, and the

  3. Assessing the Process of Marital Adaptation: The Marital Coping Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zborowski, Lydia L.; Berman, William H.

    Studies on coping with life events identify marriage as a distinct situational stressor, in which a wide range of coping strategies specific to the marital relationship are employed. This study examined the process of martial adaptation, identified as a style of coping, in 116 married volunteers. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the…

  4. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  5. When prior knowledge overrules new evidence: Adaptive use of decision strategies and the role of behavioral routines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tilmann Betsch; Babette Julia Brinkmann; Klaus Fiedler; Katja Breining

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavioral routines in adaptive decision making. In an experiment consisting of two phases, participants worked on recurrent, multiattribute choice problems. In the first phase, routines were induced by relying upon the human ability to adapt to situational changes by changing decision strategies. To induce strategy change, time pressure was varied as a within factor. Payoffs were

  6. First-Year Students' Psychological and Behavior Adaptation to College: The Role of Coping Strategies and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Aiping; Chen, Lang; Zhao, Bo; Xu, Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavior adaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…

  7. National Hydroclimatic Change and Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment: Region-Specific Adaptation Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change, land use and socioeconomic developments are principal variables that define the need and scope of adaptive engineering and management to sustain water resource and infrastructure development. As described in IPCC (2007), hydroclimatic changes in the next 30-50 ye...

  8. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  9. Successfully Translating Language and Culture when Adapting Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornman, Juan; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Pae, Hye Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    A need exists for culturally valid and reliable developmental assessment tools for children with disabilities that are able to accommodate multiple languages. One way in which this goal can be achieved is through test translations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the use of translations of select developmental assessment

  10. Foundation for the Development and Use of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) to Assess and Evaluate Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) is a method of social--emotional and behavior assessment that combines the immediacy of systematic direct observation and the efficiency of behavior rating scales. The purpose of this article is to discuss the defensibility and usability of DBR. This article provides a brief summary of (a) the past, present, and future…

  11. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24/28% HVAC energy savings in the winter/summer while also reducing thermal unacceptability; however, it is shown that the source of energy being saved must be considered in each case, as local heating options end up replacing cheaper, more carbon-friendly gas heating with expensive, emissions-heavy plug load electricity. The dissertation concludes with a summary of key outcomes and suggests how HABIT may be further developed in the future.

  12. Adapting the VOICES HIV behavioral intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Joseph, Heather A; Flores, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, but few behavioral interventions address their prevention needs. Adaptation of evidence-based interventions is a pragmatic strategy that builds upon lessons learned and has the potential to fill gaps in prevention programming. Yet there are few reports of how transfers are executed and whether effectiveness is achieved. This research reports on the adaptation of VOICES/VOICES, a single-session intervention designed for heterosexual adults, into No Excuses/Sin buscar excuses for Latino MSM. To test the adapted intervention, 370 at-risk Latino MSM were enrolled in a randomized trial. At a three-month follow-up, there was a sharper decrease in unprotected intercourse in the intervention group compared to controls (59 % vs. 39 %, ANOVA p < 0.05, F = 4.10). Intervention participants also reported more condom use at last intercourse (AOR = 1.69; 95 % CI 1.02-2.81, p < 02). Findings support use of adapted models for meeting prevention needs of high-priority populations. PMID:24419993

  13. Role for GDNF in Biochemical and Behavioral Adaptations to Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Chad J.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Carlezon, William A.; Whisler, Kim; Shen, Liya; Wolf, Daniel H.; Westphal, Heiner; Collins, Frank; Russell, David S.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The present study examined a role for GDNF in adaptations to drugs of abuse. Infusion of GDNF into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopaminergic brain region important for addiction, blocks certain biochemical adaptations to chronic cocaine or morphine as well as the rewarding effects of cocaine. Conversely, responses to cocaine are enhanced in rats by intra-VTA infusion of an anti-GDNF antibody and in mice heterozygous for a null mutation in the GDNF gene. Chronic morphine or cocaine exposure decreases levels of phosphoRet, the protein kinase that mediates GDNF signaling, in the VTA. Together, these results suggest a feedback loop, whereby drugs of abuse decrease signaling through endogenous GDNF pathways in the VTA, which then increases the behavioral sensitivity to subsequent drug exposure. PMID:10798408

  14. Assessing driver's mental representation of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and its possible effects on behavioural adaptations.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Giulio Francesco; Simões, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) could be very helpful for making the longitudinal driving task more comfortable for the drivers and, as a consequence, it could have a global beneficial effect on road safety. However, before or during the usage of the device, due to several reasons, drivers might generate in their mind incomplete or flawed mental representations about the fundamental operation principles of ACC; hence, the resulting usage of the device might be improper, negatively affecting the human-machine interaction and cooperation and, in some cases, leading to negative behavioural adaptations to the system that might neutralise the desirable positive effects on road safety. Within this context, this paper will introduce the methodology which has been developed in order to analyse in detail the topic and foresee, in the future, adequate actions for the recovery of inaccurate mental representations of the system. PMID:22317395

  15. INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes,...

  16. Adapting the Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool for health care

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Cynthia Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool (LESAT) is a product of the Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This tool has been applied by many organizations to gage their progress ...

  17. Adaptations in humans for assessing physical strength from the voice

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Aaron; Bryant, Gregory A.; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Krauss, Andre; Gurven, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has shown that humans, like many other animals, have a specialization for assessing fighting ability from visual cues. Because it is probable that the voice contains cues of strength and formidability that are not available visually, we predicted that selection has also equipped humans with the ability to estimate physical strength from the voice. We found that subjects accurately assessed upper-body strength in voices taken from eight samples across four distinct populations and language groups: the Tsimane of Bolivia, Andean herder-horticulturalists and United States and Romanian college students. Regardless of whether raters were told to assess height, weight, strength or fighting ability, they produced similar ratings that tracked upper-body strength independent of height and weight. Male voices were more accurately assessed than female voices, which is consistent with ethnographic data showing a greater tendency among males to engage in violent aggression. Raters extracted information about strength from the voice that was not supplied from visual cues, and were accurate with both familiar and unfamiliar languages. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that both men and women can accurately assess men's physical strength from the voice, and suggest that estimates of strength are used to assess fighting ability. PMID:20554544

  18. The Treatment of Severe Self-Injurious Behavior by the Systematic Fading of Restraints: Effects of Self-Injury, Self-Restraint, Adaptive Behavior, and Behavioral Correlates of Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott; Hales, Jackie; Watts, Derek; Murphy, Glynis

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of introducing flexion into a straight-arm splint, on self-injurious behavior (SIB), self-restraint, adaptive behavior, and behavioral correlates of affect for three individuals with severe mental retardation. For two individuals, SIB was reduced to zero, while overall level of restriction was also significantly…

  19. Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Mélanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children. PMID:23667360

  20. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  1. The Stanford Climate Change Behavior Survey (SCCBS): assessing greenhouse gas emissions-related behaviors in individuals and populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Carrie Armel; Katy Yan; Annika Todd; Thomas N. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Many individual-level behaviors are associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reliable and valid assessment instruments\\u000a are needed to (1) identify behaviors and populations to target with emissions-reduction programs and policies, (2) evaluate\\u000a the effectiveness of such programs, (3) link self-reported and objective measures of GHG emissions to establish the impact\\u000a of specific behaviors, and (4) estimate frequencies of behaviors and

  2. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light?dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence of long-term behavioral deficits in TETS-intoxicated mice on these six assays suggests that the neurobehavioral consequences of TETS exposure described in human survivors of acute TETS intoxication are likely due to sustained seizure activity, rather than a direct effect of the chemical itself. Future research efforts are directed toward developing an animal model that better recapitulates the SE and seizure duration reported in humans acutely intoxicated with TETS. PMID:25446016

  3. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2005-09-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

  4. Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    1999-09-01

    Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery resolution 20 percent, extending countermeasures keep-out range by a factor of 5, doubling the range for ladar detection and identification, and compensating for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft boundary layers. Innovative concepts are required for atmospheric pat hand boundary layer compensation. We have developed design that perform these tasks using high speed scene-based wavefront sensing, IR aerosol laser guide stars, and extended-object wavefront beacons. We have developed a number of adaptive optics system configurations that met the spatial resolution requirements and we have determined that sensing and signal processing requirements can be met. With the help of micromachined deformable mirrors and sensor, we will be able to integrate the systems into existing airborne pods and missiles as well as next generation electro-optical systems.

  5. Sensorimotor period and adaptive behavior development of severely and profoundly mentally retarded children.

    PubMed

    Kahn, J V

    1983-07-01

    The relationship of the Uzgiris and Hunt Scales of Sensorimotor Development with six of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) domains and the Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language (REEL) Scale was investigated. One significant canonical root was found. Three independent variables (vocal imitation, object permanence, and gestural imitation) and six dependent variables (ABS domains Language, Socialization, Independent Functioning, and Self-Direction and REEL-Receptive and REEL-Expressive) loaded highly on the canonical root. Regression was used to analyze these variables further. The results were interpreted as generally consistent with prior theory and research, although there were some difficult interpretations and contradictions of previous research. PMID:6614064

  6. A Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) to assess spatial behavior in open-field and structured mazes.

    PubMed

    Jarlier, Frédéric; Arleo, Angelo; Petit, Géraldine H; Lefort, Julie M; Fouquet, Céline; Burguière, Eric; Rondi-Reig, Laure

    2013-05-15

    Spatial navigation calls upon mnemonic capabilities (e.g. remembering the location of a rewarding site) as well as adaptive motor control (e.g. fine tuning of the trajectory according to the ongoing sensory context). To study this complex process by means of behavioral measurements it is necessary to quantify a large set of meaningful parameters on multiple time scales (from milliseconds to several minutes), and to compare them across different paradigms. Moreover, the issue of automating the behavioral analysis is critical to cope with the consequent computational load and the sophistication of the measurements. We developed a general purpose Navigation Analysis Tool (NAT) that provides an integrated architecture consisting of a data management system (implemented in MySQL), a core analysis toolbox (in MATLAB), and a graphical user interface (in JAVA). Its extensive characterization of trajectories over time, from exploratory behavior to goal-oriented navigation with decision points using a wide range of parameters, makes NAT a powerful analysis tool. In particular, NAT supplies a new set of specific measurements assessing performances in multiple intersection mazes and allowing navigation strategies to be discriminated (e.g. in the starmaze). Its user interface enables easy use while its modular organization provides many opportunities of extension and customization. Importantly, the portability of NAT to any type of maze and environment extends its exploitation far beyond the field of spatial navigation. PMID:23507084

  7. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  8. Behavioral assessment of manual dexterity in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Eric; Kaeser, Mélanie; Gindrat, Anne-Dominique; Savidan, Julie; Chatagny, Pauline; Badoud, Simon; Hamadjida, Adjia; Beaud, Marie-Laure; Wannier, Thierry; Belhaj-Saif, Abderraouf; Rouiller, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    The corticospinal (CS) tract is the anatomical support of the exquisite motor ability to skillfully manipulate small objects, a prerogative mainly of primates(1). In case of lesion affecting the CS projection system at its origin (lesion of motor cortical areas) or along its trajectory (cervical cord lesion), there is a dramatic loss of manual dexterity (hand paralysis), as seen in some tetraplegic or hemiplegic patients. Although there is some spontaneous functional recovery after such lesion, it remains very limited in the adult. Various therapeutic strategies are presently proposed (e.g. cell therapy, neutralization of inhibitory axonal growth molecules, application of growth factors, etc), which are mostly developed in rodents. However, before clinical application, it is often recommended to test the feasibility, efficacy, and security of the treatment in non-human primates. This is especially true when the goal is to restore manual dexterity after a lesion of the central nervous system, as the organization of the motor system of rodents is different from that of primates(1,2). Macaque monkeys are illustrated here as a suitable behavioral model to quantify manual dexterity in primates, to reflect the deficits resulting from lesion of the motor cortex or cervical cord for instance, measure the extent of spontaneous functional recovery and, when a treatment is applied, evaluate how much it can enhance the functional recovery. The behavioral assessment of manual dexterity is based on four distinct, complementary, reach and grasp manual tasks (use of precision grip to grasp pellets), requiring an initial training of adult macaque monkeys. The preparation of the animals is demonstrated, as well as the positioning with respect to the behavioral set-up. The performance of a typical monkey is illustrated for each task. The collection and analysis of relevant parameters reflecting precise hand manipulation, as well as the control of force, are explained and demonstrated with representative results. These data are placed then in a broader context, showing how the behavioral data can be exploited to investigate the impact of a spinal cord lesion or of a lesion of the motor cortex and to what extent a treatment may enhance the spontaneous functional recovery, by comparing different groups of monkeys (treated versus sham treated for instance). Advantages and limitations of the behavioral tests are discussed. The present behavioral approach is in line with previous reports emphasizing the pertinence of the non-human primate model in the context of nervous system diseases(2,3). PMID:22105161

  9. Behavioral Assessment of Manual Dexterity in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Gindrat, Anne- Dominique; Savidan, Julie; Chatagny, Pauline; Badoud, Simon; Hamadjida, Adjia; Beaud, Marie-Laure; Wannier, Thierry; Belhaj-Saif, Abderraouf; Rouiller, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    The corticospinal (CS) tract is the anatomical support of the exquisite motor ability to skillfully manipulate small objects, a prerogative mainly of primates1. In case of lesion affecting the CS projection system at its origin (lesion of motor cortical areas) or along its trajectory (cervical cord lesion), there is a dramatic loss of manual dexterity (hand paralysis), as seen in some tetraplegic or hemiplegic patients. Although there is some spontaneous functional recovery after such lesion, it remains very limited in the adult. Various therapeutic strategies are presently proposed (e.g. cell therapy, neutralization of inhibitory axonal growth molecules, application of growth factors, etc), which are mostly developed in rodents. However, before clinical application, it is often recommended to test the feasibility, efficacy, and security of the treatment in non-human primates. This is especially true when the goal is to restore manual dexterity after a lesion of the central nervous system, as the organization of the motor system of rodents is different from that of primates1,2. Macaque monkeys are illustrated here as a suitable behavioral model to quantify manual dexterity in primates, to reflect the deficits resulting from lesion of the motor cortex or cervical cord for instance, measure the extent of spontaneous functional recovery and, when a treatment is applied, evaluate how much it can enhance the functional recovery. The behavioral assessment of manual dexterity is based on four distinct, complementary, reach and grasp manual tasks (use of precision grip to grasp pellets), requiring an initial training of adult macaque monkeys. The preparation of the animals is demonstrated, as well as the positioning with respect to the behavioral set-up. The performance of a typical monkey is illustrated for each task. The collection and analysis of relevant parameters reflecting precise hand manipulation, as well as the control of force, are explained and demonstrated with representative results. These data are placed then in a broader context, showing how the behavioral data can be exploited to investigate the impact of a spinal cord lesion or of a lesion of the motor cortex and to what extent a treatment may enhance the spontaneous functional recovery, by comparing different groups of monkeys (treated versus sham treated for instance). Advantages and limitations of the behavioral tests are discussed. The present behavioral approach is in line with previous reports emphasizing the pertinence of the non-human primate model in the context of nervous system diseases2,3. PMID:22105161

  10. Functional Behavioral Assessment as a Collaborative Process among Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolivette, Kristine; Barton-Arwood, Sally; Scott, Terrance M.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents seven sequential steps to completing a functional behavioral analysis and a behavioral intervention plan for a student with emotional/behavior disorders: (1) description of the behavior; (2) refinement of the behavior; (3) data collection; (4) data analysis; (5) hypothesis generation; (6) behavior intervention plan…

  11. Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

  12. Assessing Online Learning and Teaching: Adapting the Minute Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma

    2004-01-01

    Online learning is impacting current university practices and policies and quickly changing the fabric of higher education (Rowley, Lujan, & Dolence, 1998). Effective assessment techniques can improve an instructor's understanding of student needs and provide a learner-centered classroom. Understanding and evaluating student learning becomes…

  13. CONSTRUCTING PARALLEL SIMULATION EXERCISES FOR ASSESSMENT CENTERS AND OTHER FORMS OF BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRADLEY J. BRUMMEL; DEBORAH E. RUPP; SETH M. SPAIN

    2009-01-01

    Assessment centers rely on multiple, carefully constructed behavioral simulation exercises to measure individuals on multiple performance dimensions. Although methods for establishing parallelism among al- ternate forms of paper-and-pencil tests have been well researched (i.e., to equate tests on difficulty such that the scores can be compared), little re- search has considered the why and how of parallel simulation exercises. This

  14. Adapting the helpful responses questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: preliminary psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-08-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues' (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write 'what they would say next.' In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870

  15. To Appear: Journal of Adaptive Behavior, June 2007 On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence

    E-print Network

    To Appear: Journal of Adaptive Behavior, June 2007 On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence Appear: Journal of Adaptive Behavior, June 2007 On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence Abstract of situations these network effects typically predict 40% or more of the variation in human behavior. Key Words

  16. Assessing Problem Behaviors. Innovations: AAMR Research to Practice Series, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchak, MaryAnn; Bossert, Karen W.

    This guide shows how principles of functional assessment can be applied to behavior problems of students with mental retardation to identify the behavior's purposes and plan for more effective intervention in classrooms, supported living settings, and work settings. It shows how to conduct a functional assessment and link assessment results to…

  17. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was relatively ancient (fifteen years on Aude case study), we collected precise data on flood damage and the recovery process. We will also present some results concerning a specific type of individual adaptation i.e relocation. In particular, we found out that relocation was a long term process which required then long term post-flood assessments to be analyzed. Interviews also revealed that even if it is an action often promoted, in practice, a lot of constraints have to be overcome by households and enterprises. Finally, we will give some insights for operational applications of this research. Mainly, it can be useful to improve flood damage functions or to help decision makers to define adaptation policies.

  18. Relationship between Adaptation after Returning to Competition and Psycho-behavioral Attitudes during Injury Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Tomonori

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation after returning to competition and psychological and behavioral variables during the rehabilitation period. [Subjects] Athletes (N =113) that had experienced an injury (mean age = 20.22?years, SD = 1.07; mean weeks after stopping sports = 7.98 weeks, SD = 11.74) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to respond to the athletic injury version of the Temporal Perspective Scale (TP-S), existing scales including the DDF-S, AIPA-S, and ARD-S, and the outcome indices for rehabilitation. [Results] The results of a cluster analysis indicated three modalities of temporal perspective (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative sequences). The results of an analysis of variance showed that the positive chain modality was adaptive for future dominance. The subjects in this group demonstrated higher levels of acceptance of injuries during the rehabilitation period than the other groups, devotion to rehabilitation, and awareness of the recovery in competitive performance and a feeling of personal growth. [Conclusion] The level of acceptance of injury during the rehabilitation period, as well as the devotion to rehabilitation, influenced adaptation after returning to competition. PMID:25435708

  19. Model-on-Demand Predictive Control for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive behavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character. PMID:21874087

  20. Assessment and Treatment of Excessive Straightening and Destructive Behavior in an Adolescent Diagnosed with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Sweeney, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors such as excessive straightening are commonly observed among individuals with autism. Attempts to prevent these behaviors may increase the likelihood of other problem behaviors. The present study was designed to assess and treat the excessive straightening and associated destructive behaviors of a 16-year-old boy who had been…

  1. Using Functional Behavioral Assessment Data to Infer Learning Histories and Guide Interventions: A Consultation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Booher, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    A teacher requested behavioral consultation services to address a first-grade student's disruptive behavior. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) suggested the behavior was being reinforced by "negative" teacher attention (e.g., reprimands, redirections, response cost). Based on this analysis, the teacher and consultant posited that this student…

  2. Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.

    PubMed

    Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  3. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  4. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  5. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: motor, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2011-10-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study in the United States and United Kingdom that enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, valproate). In this article, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on motor, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning in 229 children who completed at least one of these tests at 3 years of age. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for motor functioning, parental ratings of adaptive functioning, and parental ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning. A significant dose-related performance decline in motor functioning was seen for both valproate and carbamazepine. A significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was also seen for valproate, with a marginal performance decline evident for carbamazepine. Further, parents endorsed a significant decline in social skills for valproate that was dose related. Finally, on the basis of parent ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy appear to be at a significantly greater risk for a future diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, examine risks of other AEDs, define the risks in the neonate associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and determine the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:21783425

  6. Adapting the Cognitive Walkthrough Method to Assess the Usability of a Knowledge Domain Visualization

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chaomei

    Adapting the Cognitive Walkthrough Method to Assess the Usability of a Knowledge Domain. Cognitive Walkthrough (CW) is a well-known usability inspection method that focuses on how easily users can learn software through exploration. Typical applications of CW follow structured tasks where user goals

  7. Assessing the Impact of Adaptive Generation in the COMIC Multimodal Dialogue System

    E-print Network

    Foster, Mary Ellen

    Assessing the Impact of Adaptive Generation in the COMIC Multimodal Dialogue System Mary Ellen Foster and Michael White Institute for Communicating and Collaborative Systems School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh 2 Buccleuch Place, Edinburgh EH8 9LW United Kingdom {M.E.Foster,Michael.White

  8. Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Manful; K. Tscherning; K. Kersebaum; J. Dietz; O. Dietrich; C. Gomani; H. Böhm; M. Büchner; G. Lischeid; M. Ojoyi

    2009-01-01

    Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in

  9. Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riis, Jason; Loewenstein, George; Baron, Jonathan; Jepson, Christopher; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    Healthy people generally underestimate the self-reported well-being of people with disabilities and serious illnesses. The cause of this discrepancy is in dispute, and the present study provides evidence for 2 causes. First, healthy people fail to anticipate hedonic adaptation to poor health. Using an ecological momentary assessment measure of…

  10. Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes

    1998-01-01

    Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…

  11. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  12. Test Adaptation and Cross-Cultural Assessment From a Business Perspective: Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steven B.

    2005-01-01

    Test adaptation and cross-cultural assessment activities are skyrocketing as the demand for educational opportunities and personnel selection grow both within the United States and across the industrializing world. We chose a qualitative, case study approach to identify central themes encountered by ACT, a not-for-profit organization that has…

  13. Adaptive Acoustical-Environmental Assessment for the Focused Acoustic Field-05 At-sea Exercise

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Henrik

    column extremely complex. The properties of the seabed are also variable, which impact acousticAdaptive Acoustical-Environmental Assessment for the Focused Acoustic Field-05 At-sea Exercise Ding environment span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. From an acoustic viewpoint, the limited

  14. Theory and Practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change andFacilitating Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Kelly; W. N. Adger

    2000-01-01

    We discuss approaches to the assessment of vulnerability to climatevariability and change andattempt to clarify the relationship between the concepts of vulnerability andadaptation. In searchof a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms ofthe capacity ofindividuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recoverfrom or adapt to, anyexternal stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being.

  15. Objective and projective personality assessment: the TEMAS and the Behavior Assessment System for Children, self-report of personality.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, R

    1999-06-01

    The TEMAS and Self-report of Personality of the Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to 71 youngsters aged 8 to 13 years. Preliminary data suggest that, although the two measures assess several similarly named constructs, the data are complementary. This appears to reflect the fact that the TEMAS Personality Functions measure children's skills in coping with emotionally laden situations, whereas the Behavior Assessment System for Children measures the emotion or skill in question independent of situational context. PMID:10408208

  16. Uncertainty assessment of urban pluvial flood risk in a context of climate change adaptation decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Zhou, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    There has been a significant increase in climatic extremes in many regions. In Central and Northern Europe, this has led to more frequent and more severe floods. Along with improved flood modelling technologies this has enabled development of economic assessment of climate change adaptation to increasing urban flood risk. Assessment of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis of current risk, drivers of change of risk over time, and measures to reduce the risk. However, such studies are often associated with large uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from basic assumptions in the economic analysis and the hydrological model, but also from the projection of future societies to local climate change impacts and suitable adaptation options. This presents a challenge to decision makers when trying to identify robust measures. We present an integrated uncertainty analysis, which can assess and quantify the overall uncertainty in relation to climate change adaptation to urban flash floods. The analysis is based on an uncertainty cascade that by means of Monte Carlo simulations of flood risk assessments incorporates climate change impacts as a key driver of risk changes over time. The overall uncertainty is then attributed to six bulk processes: climate change impact, urban rainfall-runoff processes, stage-depth functions, unit cost of repair, cost of adaptation measures, and discount rate. We apply the approach on an urban hydrological catchment in Odense, Denmark, and find that the uncertainty on the climate change impact appears to have the least influence on the net present value of the studied adaptation measures-. This does not imply that the climate change impact is not important, but that the uncertainties are not dominating when deciding on action or in-action. We then consider the uncertainty related to choosing between adaptation options given that a decision of action has been taken. In this case the major part of the uncertainty on the estimated net present values is identical for all adaptation options and will therefore not affect a comparison between adaptation measures. This makes the chose among the options easier. Furthermore, the explicit attribution of uncertainty also enables a reduction of the overall uncertainty by identifying the processes which contributes the most. This knowledge can then be used to further reduce the uncertainty related to decision making, as a substantial part of the remaining uncertainty is epistemic.

  17. Prenatal Organochlorine Exposure and Measures of Behavior in Infancy Using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)

    PubMed Central

    Sagiv, Sharon K.; Nugent, J. Kevin; Brazelton, T. Berry; Choi, Anna L.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Altshul, Larisa M.; Korrick, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous literature suggests an association between organochlorines and behavioral measures in childhood, including inattention. Objective This study was designed to assess whether prenatal organochlorine exposure is associated with measures of attention in early infancy. Methods We investigated an association between cord serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) levels and measures of attention from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) in a cohort of 788 infants born 1993–1998 to mothers residing near a PCB-contaminated harbor and Superfund site in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Results Medians (ranges) for the sum of four prevalent PCB congeners and DDE levels were 0.19 (0.01–4.41) and 0.30 (0–10.29) ng/g serum, respectively. For the 542 subjects with an NBAS exam at 2 weeks, we observed consistent inverse associations between cord serum PCB and DDE levels and NBAS measures of alertness, quality of alert responsiveness, cost of attention, and other potential attention-associated measures including self-quieting and motor maturity. For example, the decrement in quality of alert responsiveness score was ?0.51 (95% confidence interval, ?0.99 to ?0.03) for the highest quartile of exposure to the sum of four prevalent PCB congeners compared with the lowest quartile. We found little evidence for an association with infant orientation, habituation, and regulation of state, assessed as summary cluster measures. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for an association between low-level prenatal PCB and DDE exposures and poor attention in early infancy. Further analyses will focus on whether organochlorine-associated decrements in attention and attention-related skills in infancy persist in later childhood. PMID:18470320

  18. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.

    PubMed

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  19. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wende, Wolfgang, E-mail: W.Wende@ioer.de [Head of Research Area on Landscape Change and Management, Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [InteREAM, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Bobylev, Nikolai, E-mail: nikolaibobylev@gmail.com [School of Innovation Science, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251, Politechnicheskaya, 29, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg Research Centre for Ecological Safety of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 197110, Korpusnaya, 18, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Stratmann, Lars, E-mail: l.stratmann@ioer.de [Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  20. A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  1. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  2. Behavioral and content components of the structured interview assessment of the Type A behavior pattern in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith R. Anderson; Ingrid Waldron

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze relationships among (1) the global assessment of the Type A behavior pattern determined by the Structured Interview (SI), (2) the Type A score of the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), and (3) ratings of individual behaviors and content items in the SI. These relationships were analyzed in a sample of 88 white suburban

  3. Applying Positive Behavioral Support and Functional Behavioral Assessment in Schools. Technical Assistance Guide 1, Version 1.4.3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugai, George; Horner, Robert H.; Dunlap, Glen; Hieneman, Meme; Lewis, Timothy J.; Nelson, C. Michael; Scott, Terrance; Liaupsin, Carl; Sailor, Wayne; Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Wickham, Donna; Ruef, Michael; Wilcox, Brennan

    This paper discusses how educators can apply positive behavioral support (PBS) to students with and without disabilities and conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). It begins by describing the challenges that educators face in educating an increasingly heterogeneous population of students, including students with external and internal…

  4. The Utility, Acceptability, and Practicality of Functional Behavioral Assessment for Students with High-Incidence Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert; Nelson, J. Ron

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen studies were reviewed to examine the utility, acceptability, and practicality of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) conducted with students with high-incidence behavior problems in school settings. Results indicate FBA was effective, that FBA could be performed in typical school environments, and that FBA produced socially valid…

  5. Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention with Emotional/Behaviorally Disordered Students: In Pursuit of State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waguespack, Angela; Vaccaro, Terrence; Continere, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    The application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures for the purposes of developing interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) has received considerable attention since the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this paper is to review the…

  6. Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

    PubMed

    Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat; Moss, Cynthia F

    2011-05-01

    This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S-), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat's three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat's sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat's directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S-. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S- stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S- were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S-. PMID:21246202

  7. Experimental assessment of the internal flow behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    Yang, David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental assessment of the internal flow behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide. The investigation focused mainly on assessing condensation onset during rapid expansion of CO? into the two-phase ...

  8. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of executive function. PMID:22587709

  9. "Adaptive" behavior of ligand-gated ion channels: constraints by thermodynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, M D

    1996-01-01

    The calcium-induced calcium release channel of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum has been reported to inactivate in a novel manner (termed "adaptation"), which permits reactivation by exposure to successively higher concentrations of calcium. I examined the limitations placed by thermodynamics on the possible kinetic mechanisms for such behavior. The mechanism suggested by Gyorke and Fill, in which the affinity of a calcium-binding site decreases during adaptation, is not thermodynamically feasible for a passive system, but requires an external input of free energy. Possible sources of such energy are 1) metabolic energy, which is excluded by the fact that adaptation was observed in isolated channels in the absence of ATP, or 2) coupling of ion permeation to gating, for which there is currently no evidence. I derived a general limit on the thermodynamic feasibility of a sequence of channel activations and adaptations, irrespective of channel kinetics, from the requirement that the free energy must decrease during the spontaneous evolution of the system from the state existing immediately after a step increase in [Ca2+] to the state of maximum open probability that follows. The opening of the channel must involve an increase in free energy, which must be compensated by the free energy released by the incremental binding of calcium. This requirement leads to a complicated system of inequalities, which was simplified and manipulated algebraically into the form of a linear programming problem. Numerical solution of this problem showed that the sequence of adaptations of the SR channel observed by Gyorke and Fill requires the presence of at least 10 calcium-binding sites on the channel if it is to occur in the absence of exogenous sources of free energy. This indicates either that a large number of calcium-binding sites participate in the regulation of the SR calcium release channel, or that the existing data are significantly flawed with respect to the low open probability in the resting state, the importance of "calcium spike" artifacts from flash photolysis, or both. PMID:9172734

  10. Functional Assessment and Treatment of Challenging Behavior: A Review with Implications for Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndorfer, Richard E.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1993-01-01

    This review of the literature on functional assessment and treatment of challenging behavior in children and adults with developmental disabilities first discusses functional assessment methods and then research issues, including informant assessment, direct observation assessment, and experimental (functional) analysis. The implications of this…

  11. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Assessing Demand for Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand - purchases at lowest price; Omax - max. spent on marijuana; Pmax - price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants “purchased” high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2-weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine its reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  12. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    This text presents 13 chapters on the assessment of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders for the purpose of making educational placement and programming decisions consistent with federal and state diagnostic guidelines. Chapters are grouped into four sections focusing on: basic considerations for assessment of youth in this…

  13. Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

    2005-10-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status. PMID:16287384

  14. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (<7.5 years at Time 1). Furthermore, correlations between Time 1 and Time 2 SSs were larger for the older cohort than for the younger cohort, indicating that SS stability was greater for older children than for younger children. Although mean SSs declined for most measures, indicating that children with WS as a group were not making the expected amount of progress relative to their general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25989316

  15. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

  16. Cognitive Adaptations for n-person Exchange: The Evolutionary Roots of Organizational Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda; Price, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are composed of stable, predominantly cooperative interactions or n-person exchanges. Humans have been engaging in n-person exchanges for a great enough period of evolutionary time that we appear to have evolved a distinct constellation of species-typical mechanisms specialized to solve the adaptive problems posed by this form of social interaction. These mechanisms appear to have been evolutionarily elaborated out of the cognitive infrastructure that initially evolved for dyadic exchange. Key adaptive problems that these mechanisms are designed to solve include coordination among individuals, and defense against exploitation by free riders. Multi-individual cooperation could not have been maintained over evolutionary time if free riders reliably benefited more than contributors to collective enterprises, and so outcompeted them. As a result, humans evolved mechanisms that implement an aversion to exploitation by free riding, and a strategy of conditional cooperation, supplemented by punitive sentiment towards free riders. Because of the design of these mechanisms, how free riding is treated is a central determinant of the survival and health of cooperative organizations. The mapping of the evolved psychology of n-party exchange cooperation may contribute to the construction of a principled theoretical foundation for the understanding of human behavior in organizations. PMID:23814325

  17. A Matter of Scale: Climatic Assessment of Projected Urban Expansion and Adaptation in California 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Matei

    2015-04-01

    Recent projections indicate the U.S. will add about 300 million inhabitants through the end of the current century, leading to roughly 250,000km2 of new urban land use to meet the increase in commercial, housing, and transportation demand. Multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations are conducted with the WRF model, for the U.S., to assess impacts owing to end of century megapolitan expansion, and to examine consequences of commonly proposed adaptation strategies. Warming of 1-2°C is simulated for all expanding urban areas, with local warming exceeding 3°C for some regions during some seasons. Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibit regionally and seasonally dependent hydroclimatic impacts, displaying intended effects for some urban areas while exhibiting unintended consequences for others. To assess the multi-scale dependency of simulated results, high-resolution (2km grid spacing) seasonal timescale simulations are conducted for urbanizing regions in California (USA). In addition to emphasizing the need for integrated assessment that also incorporates biophysically induced urban impacts, I argue in favor of examining scale dependency of simulated outcomes to comprehensively address tradeoff assessment of various urban adaptation approaches, with important hydroclimatic implications extending to potential impacts for air quality.

  18. Adapting the Ethnocultural Assessment to Gay and Lesbian Clients: The Sexual Orientation Enculturation Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Connie R.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    2001-01-01

    Applies the concept of the Ethnocultural Assessment to the areas of sexual orientation. Offers a model for assessing how gay and lesbian clients have integrated their sexual orientation into their lives, a means for counselors to assess their own status with respect to working with this population, and a useful tool for training graduate students.…

  19. Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior: Dispelling Myths, Overcoming Implementation Obstacles, and Developing New Lore

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Gregory P

    2012-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have shown the efficacy of treatments for problem behavior based on an understanding of its function. Assertions regarding the legitimacy of different types of functional assessment vary substantially across published articles, and best practices regarding the functional assessment process are sometimes difficult to cull from the empirical literature or from published discussions of the behavioral assessment process. A number of myths regarding the functional assessment process, which appear to be pervasive within different behavior-analytic research and practice communities, will be reviewed in the context of an attempt to develop new lore regarding the functional assessment process. Frequently described obstacles to implementing a critical aspect of the functional assessment process, the functional analysis, will be reviewed in the context of solutions for overcoming them. Finally, the aspects of the functional assessment process that should be exported to others versus those features that should remain the sole technological property of behavior analysts will be discussed. PMID:23326630

  20. A review: Development of a microdose model for analysis of adaptive response and bystander dose response behavior.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Bobby E

    2008-01-01

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type (125)I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite primary unresolved questions regarding adaptive response behavior and bystander behavior. The five features of major significance provided by the Microdose Model so far are 1. Single Specific Energy Hits initiate Adaptive Response. 2. Mammogram and diagnostic X-rays induce a protective Bystander Effect as well as Adaptive Response radio-protection. 3. For mammogram X-rays the Adaptive Response protection is retained at high primer dose levels. 4. The dose range of the AR protection depends on the value of the Specific Energy per Hit, 1 >. 5. Alpha particle induced deleterious Bystander damage is modulated by low LET radiation. PMID:18648579

  1. Pre-School Norms for the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale Public School Version. Field Study of the Efficacy of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale-Public School Version. Substudy 4 of 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    Six school districts in California provided data on the Public School Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale for 373 children, ages three through six, who were enrolled in regular and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) preschool programs. The results of the study are reported as means and standard deviations of the domain scores for Part One and…

  2. Best practices for assessing competence and performance of the behavioral Health workforce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip G. Bashook

    2005-01-01

    The need for mechanisms to assess the competence and performance of the behavioral health workforce has received increasing attention. This article reviews strategies used in general medicine and other disciplines for assessing trainees and practitioners. The possibilities and limitations of various approaches are reviewed, and the implications for behavioral health are addressed. A conceptual model of competence is presented, and

  3. ASSESSMENT OF ADOPTION BEHAVIOR OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE KOGA WATERSHED, HIGHLANDS OF

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    ASSESSMENT OF ADOPTION BEHAVIOR OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE KOGA WATERSHED Ethiopia. Even though a number of soil and water conservation methods were introduced to combat land' views on land degradation and to assess their adoption behavior of soil and water conservation knowledge

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  5. A randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive behavior therapy, cognitive adaptation training, their combination and treatment as usual in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn I; Tai, Sara; Roberts, David L; Maples-Aguilar, Natalie; Brown, Matt; Mintz, Jim; Turkington, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Following baseline assessment, 166 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center who were experiencing both persistent positive symptoms of schizophrenia and impairments in functioning were randomized to 1 of 4 treatments for 9 months: (1) Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychosis (CBTp)-a therapy designed to identify and alter reasoning and appraisal biases that contribute to the formation and maintenance of positive symptoms, (2) Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT)-a treatment using environmental supports including signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established at weekly home visits to compensate for impairments in cognitive functioning and improve everyday functional outcomes, (3) Multi-modal Cognitive treatment-a combination of CBTp and CAT, and (4) Treatment as Usual. Data on symptoms and functional outcomes were obtained every 3 months. A mixed effects regression model with repeated measures using a 2 (CAT/no CAT) × 2 (CBT/no CBT) design indicated that functioning as measured by the Multnomah Community Ability Scale improved more in groups receiving CAT than other treatment groups. Auditory hallucinations and associated distress improved slightly more in groups receiving CAT. In this study, CBTp did not improve outcomes. Combining CAT with CBTp did not improve outcomes more than CAT alone. PMID:25193976

  6. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options?

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.; Schwilch, G.; Stringer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change. PMID:25844020

  7. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-06-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and type of constraints and in task objectives, and can adapt to changes in kinematics configurations (change of module, change of tool, joint failure adaptation, etc.).

  8. On the Consequences of Behavioral Adaptations in the Cost-Benefi tA nalysis of Road Safety Measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Gossner; Pierre Picard

    It is sometimes argued that road safety measures or automobile safety standards fail to save lives because safer highways or safer cars induce more dangerous driving. A similar but less extreme view is that ignoring the behavioral adaptation of drivers would bias the cost- benefi ta nalysis of a traffic safety measure. This paper derives cost- benefit rules for automobile

  9. An Overview of Intervention Options for Promoting Adaptive Behavior of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury and Minimally Conscious State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bosco, Andrea; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the studies directed at helping post-coma persons with minimally conscious state improve their adaptive behavior. Twenty-one studies were identified for the 2000-2010 period (i.e., a period in which an intense debate has occurred about diagnostic, rehabilitative, prognostic, and ethical issues concerning people…

  10. Brief Report: The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders at Different Cognitive Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; Flanagan, Helen E.; Dunn Geier, Jennifer; Freeman, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) data were examined in a large sample of young children with ASD (n = 290) of varying cognitive levels. IQ was higher than VABS composite score among high functioning children only; the opposite pattern was found in lower IQ subgroups. Profile analysis of VABS domains across cognitive levels demonstrated…

  11. 96 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 15, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 Adaptation of Orienting Behavior: From

    E-print Network

    Rucci, Michele

    96 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 15, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 Adaptation of Orienting Behavior: From the Barn Owl to a Robotic System Michele Rucci, Member, IEEE, Gerald M. Edelman, and Jonathan Wray Abstract-- Autonomous robotic systems need to adjust their sensorimotor coordinations so

  12. An Adaptive Approach to Family Intervention: Linking Engagement in Family-Centered Intervention to Reductions in Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Arin M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Yasui, Miwa; Kavanagh, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This study used Complier Average Causal Effect analysis (CACE; see G. Imbens & D. Rubin, 1997) to examine the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in the public schools on rates of substance use and antisocial behavior among students ages 11-17. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in 6th…

  13. An Adaptive Approach to Family Intervention: Linking Engagement in Family-Centered Intervention to Reductions in Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arin M. Connell; Thomas J. Dishion; Miwa Yasui; Kathryn Kavanagh

    2007-01-01

    This study used Complier Average Causal Effect analysis (CACE; see G. Imbens & D. Rubin, 1997) to examine the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in the public schools on rates of substance use and antisocial behavior among students ages 11–17. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in 6th grade and offered a

  14. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  15. A bottomup approach with a clear view of the top: How human evolutionary psychology can inform adaptive behavior research

    E-print Network

    Todd, Peter M.

    research methods and mentalistic concepts, in an attempt to make psychology a positivistic and independent adaptive behavior research Geoffrey F. Miller School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences University, reason). But the full power of Darwinian theory is almost never used in day­to­day psychology research

  16. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation

  17. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Wilson; Marc D. Hauser; Richard W. Wrangham

    2005-01-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including

  18. An Assessment of Self-Echoic Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, John W.; Esch, Barbara E.; McCart, Jordon D.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    In the behavioral literature, self-echoic behavior has been hypothesized to play an important role in, for example, emergent conditional discriminations (e.g., Lowenkron, 1991), emergent verbal operants (Horne & Lowe, 1996), and problem solving (Skinner, 1957). Although early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism emphasize the…

  19. An approach for assessing human health vulnerability and public health interventions to adapt to climate change.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie L; Kovats, R Sari; Menne, Bettina

    2006-12-01

    Assessments of the potential human health impacts of climate change are needed to inform the development of adaptation strategies, policies, and measures to lessen projected adverse impacts. We developed methods for country-level assessments to help policy makers make evidence-based decisions to increase resilience to current and future climates, and to provide information for national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The steps in an assessment should include the following: a) determine the scope of the assessment; b) describe the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; c) identify and describe current strategies, policies, and measures designed to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; d) review the health implications of the potential impacts of climate variability and change in other sectors; e) estimate the future potential health impacts using scenarios of future changes in climate, socioeconomic, and other factors; f) synthesize the results; and g) identify additional adaptation policies and measures to reduce potential negative health impacts. Key issues for ensuring that an assessment is informative, timely, and useful include stakeholder involvement, an adequate management structure, and a communication strategy. PMID:17185287

  20. Effects of risperidone and parent training on adaptive functioning in children with pervasive developmental disorders and serious behavioral problems

    PubMed Central

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Ritz, Louise; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patrcia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have deficits in social interaction, delayed communication and repetitive behavior as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show decline in adaptive skills compared to age mates over time. Method This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial randomized 124 children (4 through 13 years of age) with PDDs and serious behavior problems to medication alone (MED; N=49; risperidone 0.5 to 3.5 mg/day (if ineffective, switch to aripiprazole was permitted) or medication plus parent training (PT) (COMB; N=75). Parents of children in COMB received an average of 11.4 PT sessions. Standard scores and Age Equivalent scores on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were the outcome measures of primary interest. Results Seventeen subjects did not have a post-randomization Vineland. Thus, we used a mixed model with outcome conditioned on the baseline Vineland scores. Both groups showed improvement over the 24-week trial on all Vineland domains. Compared to MED, Vineland Socialization and Adaptive Composite Standard scores showed greater improvement in the COMB group (p = 0.01 and 0.05; effect sizes = 0.35.and 0.22, respectively). On Age Equivalent scores, Socialization and Communication domains showed greater improvement in COMB versus MED (p=0.03, 0.05; effect sizes = 0.33 and 0.14 respectively). Using logistic regression, children in the COMB group were twice as likely to make at least 6 months gain (equal to the passage of time) in the Vineland Communication Age Equivalent score compared to MED (p = 0.02). After controlling for IQ, this difference was no longer significant. Conclusion Reduction of serious maladaptive behavior promotes improvement in adaptive behavior. Medication plus PT shows modest additional benefit over medication alone. PMID:22265360

  1. Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

    2009-04-01

    Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

  2. The Behavior Assessment Battery: A Preliminary Study of Non-Stuttering Pakistani Grade-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Mukati, Samad A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the importance of a multimodal approach to the assessment of the person who stutters (PWS) has become increasingly recognized. The Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB), which is a normed test procedure developed by G. Brutten, makes it possible to assess the multidimensional facets of this disorder. The emotional and…

  3. Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. Semi-Structured Interview Instrument

    E-print Network

    Carmin, JoAnn

    2014-09-13

    The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

  4. Adapting Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Methods to Assess Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressor Combinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation based on the following abstract: Chemical mixtures risk assessment methods are routinely used. To address combined chemical and nonchemical stressors, component-based approaches may be applicable, depending on the toxic action among diverse stressors. Such methods a...

  5. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale as a biomarker of the effects of environmental agents on the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Tronick, E.Z.

    1987-10-01

    The organization of the newborn's brain and the nature of the effects of toxins and pollutants conspire to produce complex and difficult problems for the assessment of the behavioral effects of environmental agents. The newborn's brain can be characterized as relatively undifferentiated, and more vulnerable to, but potentially more capable of recovery from, the effects of environmental agents specific to this time period than it will be later in development. Environmental agents tend to have nonspecific, possibly subtle, effects that invade many areas of newborn functioning. These characteristics of the newborn and the behavioral effects of teratogens make assessment at this point in development difficult. Further exacerbating this difficulty is the nature of development. Development is critically dependent on the care the newborn receives. Distortions of a newborn's behavior can produce disturbances in the caretaking environment, and these caretaking disturbances can amplify the original behavioral distortion and produce other distortions. Attention to these types of effects must be built into an assessment. These considerations lead to the conclusion that an apical assessment of newborn behavior is required. The most standardized, valid, and reliable instrument currently available is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale developed by Brazelton. It assesses the integrated actions of the infant that function to regulate simultaneously the infant's internal state and exchanges with the animate (caretaking) and inanimate environment. The scale uses a set of reflex and behavioral items to assess the critical domains of infant functioning (e.g., the infant's ability to control his states of consciousness). 52 references.

  6. Assessing regional impacts and adaptation strategies for climate change: the Washington Climate Change Impacts Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Miles; Marketa M. Elsner; Jeremy S. Littell; Lara Whitely Binder; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

    2010-01-01

    Climate change in the twenty-first century will strongly affect the processes that define natural and human systems. The Washington\\u000a Climate Change Impacts Assessment (WACCIA) was intended to identify the nature and effects of climate change on natural and\\u000a human resources in Washington State over the next century. The assessment focused on eight sectors that were identified as\\u000a being potentially most

  7. Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  8. Use of a structured descriptive assessment methodology to identify variables affecting problem behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Long, Ethan S

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated a variation of functional assessment methodology, the structured descriptive assessment (SDA). The SDA is conducted in an individual's natural environment and involves systematically manipulating antecedent variables while leaving consequences free to vary. Results were evaluated by comparing the results of an SDA with results obtained from an analogue functional analysis with 4 children who exhibited problem behavior. For 3 of 4 participants, the results of the two assessments suggested similar hypotheses about variables maintaining problem behavior. Interventions based on the results of the SDA were implemented for 3 children and resulted in significant reductions in rates of problem behavior. PMID:12102134

  9. Assessment of the Quality of an Organizational Citizenship Behavior Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokturk, Soheyda

    2011-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been associated with organizational effectiveness in many studies. Therefore, it is important to learn more about how these behaviors can be improved in schools. Creating a reliable and valid measure of OCB that has conceptual equivalence across cultures is a first step in understanding and…

  10. Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Pituch, Keenan A.; Itchon, Jonathan; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers associate an insistence on sameness or lack of behavioral flexibility with autism and Asperger syndrome, but few studies have sought to identify specific situations in which individuals insist on sameness. Along these lines, we developed the "Behavioral Flexibility Rating Scale" (BFRS) and conducted an Internet survey of parents of…

  11. Assessing Water Quality by Video Monitoring Fish Swimming Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Serra-Toro; Raúl Montoliu; V. Javier Traver; Isabel M. Hurtado-Melgar; Manuela Nunez-Redo; Pablo Cascales

    2010-01-01

    Animals are known to alter their behavior in response to changes in their environments. Therefore, automatic visual monitoring of animal behavior is currently of great interest because of its many applications. In this paper, a video-based system is proposed for analyzing the swimming patterns of fishes so that the presence of toxic in the water can be inferred. This problem

  12. [Behavior therapy of schizophrenia patients during convalescent period].

    PubMed

    Xin, X Y; Liu, Y

    1996-01-01

    58 of schizophrenia patients at restoration stage in the hospital were studied. The ineffective adaptive behaviors were assessed and behavior therapy plans were made. The behavior therapy was provided in group or individually. The result indicated that patients' ineffective adaptive behaviors such as laziness, passive, withdrawal, role conflict, sexual dysfunction, ineffective adaptation in the society, and aggressive were improved a lot than those before receiving therapy (P < 0.01). PMID:8716709

  13. Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

    Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

  14. Morphological and behavioral evidence for adaptive diversification of sympatric Hawaiian limpets (Cellana spp.).

    PubMed

    Bird, Christopher E

    2011-09-01

    The endemic Hawaiian limpets (Cellana exarata, Cellana sandwicensis, and Cellana talcosa), reside at different elevations on wave-exposed rocky shores and comprise a monophyletic lineage that diversified within Hawai'i. Here, I report phenotypic differences in shell, soft tissue, and behavioral characters among these limpets and discuss their potential utility in exploiting their respective niches. The high-shore limpet, C. exarata, is characterized by a tall round shell, short mantle tentacles, and long evasion distance when confronted by a predatory gastropod. The mid-shore limpet, C. sandwicensis, is characterized by a shorter oblong shell, long mantle tentacles, and a short evasion distance when confronted by a predatory snail. The low-shore, shallow-subtidal limpet, C. talcosa, is characterized by a flat shell that is thin in juveniles and disproportionately massive in large adults (relative to the other two species), and mantle tentacles of varying lengths (some individuals exhibit short tentacles, some long). These species-specific suites of characters are likely to confer specific fitness advantages on the high shore (C. exarata) where thermal and desiccation stress is severe, on the mid shore (C. sandwicensis) where hydrodynamic forces are severe, and on the low-shallow subtidal shore (C. talcosa) where pelagic predators have free access to the limpets. These data add to the growing body of evidence for adaptive diversification and speciation in the Hawaiian Cellana, and in marine species in general. PMID:21700576

  15. [Physical activity adapted to the obese patients' needs: which assessments for what kind of prescription?].

    PubMed

    Lecoultre, V; Giusti, V

    2015-03-25

    Physical activity is a key element for the obese patient willing to lose weight. The main aim of physical activity is to contribute to produce, and maintain, a negative energy balance. A recent approach suggests to focus on the intensity eliciting the maximal lipid oxidation rate. Physical activity prescription should however be adapted to the patient's physiological and metabolic profile. Determining the physical fitness of the patient during an incremental test and assessing body composition may be central elements determining physical activity prescription. Provided the activities are adapted to the patient's profile, numerous physical activities may be performed by the obese patient. A practical, clinical approach, based upon the metabolic profiling of the patient is proposed in this article. PMID:26027201

  16. Urban seventh graders and smoking: a health risk behavior assessment.

    PubMed

    Dowdell, Elizabeth Burgess

    2002-01-01

    Health risk behaviors undertaken in adolescence, such as smoking, can have a lasting impact on both short-term and long-term health developments. To better describe the health risk behaviors of an adolescent urban population, a study was conducted at two parochial middle schools in the southwest section of Philadelphia. The study purpose was to describe (1) the types of health risk behaviors being undertaken by a seventh grade student population, (2) the frequency of health risk behaviors, and (3) the age of initiation of the health risk behavior, e.g., age when they first began smoking. A descriptive, correlational study was undertaken with 106 urban seventh graders (ages of 11-13 years) from two seventh grade classes. Using the Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance System Questionnaire, information was collected about health risk behaviors. Correlational statistics indicated significant correlations between students who smoke and alcohol use, dieting, and not feeling safe in their neighborhood. Interestingly, girls were more likely to use smoking as their primary method of weight control and dieting. Because the long-term impact of smoking is known to be negative, nurses should provide support to this at-risk population and also should be prepared to educate adolescents who come under their care. PMID:12542884

  17. Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

    2009-01-01

    Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

  18. The Structure of Workplace Adaptive Skill in a Career Inexperienced Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronshaw, Steven F.; Jethmalani, Shefali

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive skill is a central concept to understanding vocational behavior. In this study, a theory of behavioral functionality is proposed that describes the underlying structure of workplace adaptive skill. The propositions of the theory are formalized in a facet theory mapping sentence, then 12 adaptive skills are assessed on a group of career…

  19. Treatment Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions for Children: An Assessment by Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melanie L.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Adams, Christina D.; Boggs, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    Study assesses the acceptability of six child-management interventions as rated by mothers (N=20) of children referred for treatment for a disruptive-behavior disorder. Positive reinforcement was rated as a more acceptable treatment than response time, time-out, differential attention, overcorrection, and spanking. Results validate findings of…

  20. Computerized Assessment of Social Approach Behavior in Mouse

    E-print Network

    Page, Damon T.

    Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological basis of sociability and how this ...

  1. The Developmental Behavior Checklist: The development and validation of an instrument to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart L. Einfeld; Bruce J. Tonge

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC), a standardized instrument completed by lay informants to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR). Items describing common behavioral and emotional problems in this population were generated by extracting descriptions from 664 case files of children and adolescents with behavior disorders seen at

  2. A Multivariate Analysis of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in Several Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Milton E.; Rourke, Daniel L.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses differences in results of factor analyses of ten diverse samples which have been studied using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Concludes that a single common factor structure accounts for the intercorrelations among NBAS items. (Author/BH)

  3. Assessment of adaptation measures to high-mountain risks in Switzerland under climate uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccione, Veruska; Lontzek, Thomas; Huggel, Christian; Ott, Philipp; Salzmann, Nadine

    2015-04-01

    The economic evaluation of different adaptation options is important to support policy-makers that need to set priorities in the decision-making process. However, the decision-making process faces considerable uncertainties regarding current and projected climate impacts. First, physical climate and related impact systems are highly complex and not fully understood. Second, the further we look into the future, the more important the emission pathways become, with effects on the frequency and severity of climate impacts. Decision on adaptation measures taken today and in the future must be able to adequately consider the uncertainties originating from the different sources. Decisions are not taken in a vacuum but always in the context of specific social, economic, institutional and political conditions. Decision finding processes strongly depend on the socio-political system and usually have evolved over some time. Finding and taking decisions in the respective socio-political and economic context multiplies the uncertainty challenge. Our presumption is that a sound assessment of the different adaptation options in Switzerland under uncertainty necessitates formulating and solving a dynamic, stochastic optimization problem. Economic optimization models in the field of climate change are not new. Typically, such models are applied for global-scale studies but barely for local-scale problems. In this analysis, we considered the case of the Guttannen-Grimsel Valley, situated in the Swiss Bernese Alps. The alpine community has been affected by high-magnitude, high-frequency debris flows that started in 2009 and were historically unprecendented. They were related to thaw of permafrost in the rock slopes of Ritzlihorn and repeated rock fall events that accumulated at the debris fan and formed a sediment source for debris flows and were transported downvalley. An important transit road, a trans-European gas pipeline and settlements were severely affected and partly destroyed. Several adaptation measures were discussed by the responsible authorities but decision making is particularly challenging under multiple uncertainties. For this area, we developed a stochastic optimization model for concrete and real-case adaptation options and measures and use dynamic programming to explore the optimal adaptation decisions under uncertainty in face of uncertain impacts from climate change of debris flows and flooding. Even though simplification needed to be made the results produced were concrete and tangible, indicating that excavation is a preferable adaptation option based on our assumption and modeling in comparison to building a dam or relocation, which is not necessarily intuitive and adds an additional perspective to what has so far been sketched and evaluated by cantonal and communal authorities for Guttannen. Moreover, the building of an alternative cantonal road appears to be more expensive than costs incurring due to road closure.

  4. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are most appropriate. For climate related health effects for which rough risk estimates are available, ‘robust decision-making’ is recommended. For health effects with limited societal and policy relevance, we recommend focusing on no-regret measures. For highly relevant health effects, precautionary measures can be considered. This study indicated that analysing and characterising uncertainty by means of a typology can be a very useful approach for selection and prioritization of preferred adaptation policies to reduce future climate related health risks. PMID:22992311

  5. Sexual behavior in the bull: assessment by seminal vesicle size and response to gonadotropin releasing hormone 

    E-print Network

    Rocha, Antonio Madureira

    1990-01-01

    SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE BULL: ASSESSMENT BY SEMINAL VESICLE SIZE AND RESPONSE TO GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE A Thesis by ANTONIO MADUREIRA ROCHA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE BULL: ASSESSMENT BY SEMINAL VESICLE SIZE AND RESPONSE TO GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE A Thesis by ANTONIO MADUREIRA ROCHA...

  6. Behavioral assessment of language brain processing in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Guzzetta, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    An up-to-date review of the behavioral assessments of language development in the first year of life is reported. After recalling the anatomical bases of the early development of the auditory system, the different stages of language development during the first year of life are considered: discrimination, transition and perception. The different kinds of behavioral assessment during the course of the first year are then described by stressing their indications and limitations. PMID:25022340

  7. Functional Assessment and Intervention for Disruptive Classroom Behaviors in Preschool and Head Start Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad A. Dufrene; R. Anthony Doggett; Carlen Henington; T. Steuart Watson

    2007-01-01

    Functional assessment procedures have proven useful for developing effective individualized interventions for a wide variety\\u000a of populations and behavioral concerns. However, fewer studies have been conducted with preschool students who exhibit high\\u000a incidence problem behaviors. The current study includes data from comprehensive functional assessments and interventions implemented\\u000a in preschool and Head Start classrooms. Three preschool students and five teachers participated

  8. Challenging Behavior and Early Academic Skill Development: An Integrated Approach to Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnoski, Robin L.; Wood, Brenna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an approach to assessment and intervention of challenging behavior in early education settings that integrates a focus on instructional conditions and early academic skill development. The authors suggest this approach allows for a better understanding of the relationship between social behavior and child performance with…

  9. The Validity of Functional Behavioral Assessment with Students of Average Intellectual Ability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Stage

    2000-01-01

    In the United States, functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a new requirement of the 1997 Amendments to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act for students who exhibit challenging behavior. FBA has been extensively studied with persons with severe and profound intellectual disabilities within clinical settings. However, there is limited research with students with average intellectual ability in public education settings. This

  10. A Multimethod Assessment of Behavioral and Emotional Adjustment in Children With Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary D. Klinnert; Elizabeth L. McQuaid; David McCormick; Allen D. Adinoff; Nona E. Bryant

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Examine behavioral adjustment and emotion regulation among 6-year-old children with asthma and a group of healthy controls. Method: Subjects were 81 children with asthma and 22 healthy controls. Asthma and allergy statuses were confirmed by objective measures. Emotional and behavioral functioning were assessed through parent re- port, child interview, and child participation in an emotional regulation paradigm. Results: Maternal

  11. Assessing Treatment Acceptability with Consumers of Outpatient Child Behavior Management Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Parents' and grandparents' ratings of alternative treatments for children with behavior disorders were assessed. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), time-out, response cost, spanking, and medication were applied to noncompliance, aggression, tantrums, and hyperactivity. DRO, response cost, and time-out were found significantly more…

  12. The Effect of Emotional Feedback on Behavioral Intention to Use Computer Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Vasileios; Moridis, Christos N.; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces emotional feedback as a construct in an acceptance model. It explores the effect of emotional feedback on behavioral intention to use Computer Based Assessment (CBA). A female Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) with empathetic encouragement behavior was displayed as emotional feedback. More specifically, this research aims…

  13. A Comparison of Functional Behavior Assessment Methodologies with Young Children: Descriptive Methods and Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Peter J.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Mancil, G. Rich; Haydon, Todd

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) to guide the development of behavior intervention plans continues to increase since they were first mandated in IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, 20 U.S.C. Section 1400 et seq, 1997). A variety of indirect and direct instruments have been developed to facilitate…

  14. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  15. Methodological Issues in Assessing the Effects of Maltreatment Characteristics on Behavioral Adjustment in Maltreated Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Milling Kinard

    2004-01-01

    This paper explored methodological issues in examining the impact of maltreatment characteristics on behavioral adjustment in a sample of maltreated school-age children. Different approaches to assessing the effects of maltreatment type were used to determine whether maltreatment characteristics differed by type of maltreatment and whether relationships between maltreatment characteristics and child behavioral functioning differed according to type of maltreatment. Results

  16. Imagery Assessment by Means of Self-Report and Behavioral Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Brian G.; Thoresen, Carl E.

    Three procedures for use in assessing imagery behavior were examined with the intent of finding a prognastic tool that would help the behavior therapist evaluate the applicability and/or the progress of an imagery intervention such as covert sensitization or implosion therapy. The authors attempted to replicate and extend portions of earlier…

  17. Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.

    2013-01-01

    A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral

  18. Assessing and Analyzing Behavior Strategies of Instructors in College Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, William C., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Analyzed are university instructor behaviors in introductory and advanced level laboratories of botany, chemistry, geology, physics and zoology. Science Laboratory Interaction Categories--Teacher (SLIC) was used to assess 15 individual categories of teacher behaviors in the areas of questioning, giving directions, transmitting information,…

  19. Construct Validation of a Measure to Assess Sustainability of School-Wide Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…

  20. Assessment of Dysregulated Children Using the Child Behavior Checklist: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Robert R.; Ayer, Lynsay A.; Rettew, David C.; Hudziak, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Disorders of self-regulatory behavior are common reasons for referral to child and adolescent clinicians. Here, the authors sought to compare 2 methods of empirically based assessment of children with problems in self-regulatory behavior. Using parental reports on 2,028 children (53% boys) from a U.S. national probability sample of the Child…

  1. Comparing Indirect, Descriptive, and Experimental Functional Assessments of Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Tarbox; Arthur E. Wilke; Adel C. Najdowski; Rachel S. Findel-Pyles; Susie Balasanyan; Amy C. Caveney; Vardui Chilingaryan; Deidra M. King; Sarah M. Niehoff; Kelly Slease; Betty Tia

    2009-01-01

    Current standards of practice in psychological and educational services dictate the need for ascertaining the function of\\u000a challenging behaviors before treating them and for behavioral interventions to be based on the function of behavior. At least\\u000a three broad categories of functional assessments have been developed, including indirect, descriptive, and experimental procedures.\\u000a Although experimental functional analyses are common in empirical research

  2. The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...

  3. Adapting Tests of Sign Language Assessment for Other Sign Languages--A Review of Linguistic, Cultural, and Psychometric Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from…

  4. Web-based computer adaptive assessment of individual perceptions of job satisfaction for hospital workplace employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To develop a web-based computer adaptive testing (CAT) application for efficiently collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job satisfaction, we examined whether a 37-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ-37) could evaluate the job satisfaction of individual employees as a single construct. Methods The JCQ-37 makes data collection via CAT on the internet easy, viable and fast. A Rasch rating scale model was applied to analyze data from 300 randomly selected hospital employees who participated in job-satisfaction surveys in 2008 and 2009 via non-adaptive and computer-adaptive testing, respectively. Results Of the 37 items on the questionnaire, 24 items fit the model fairly well. Person-separation reliability for the 2008 surveys was 0.88. Measures from both years and item-8 job satisfaction for groups were successfully evaluated through item-by-item analyses by using t-test. Workers aged 26 - 35 felt that job satisfaction was significantly worse in 2009 than in 2008. Conclusions A Web-CAT developed in the present paper was shown to be more efficient than traditional computer-based or pen-and-paper assessments at collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job content. PMID:21496311

  5. Stability Metrics for Simulation and Flight-Software Assessment and Monitoring of Adaptive Control Assist Compensators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodel, A. S.; Whorton, Mark; Zhu, J. Jim

    2008-01-01

    Due to a need for improved reliability and performance in aerospace systems, there is increased interest in the use of adaptive control or other nonlinear, time-varying control designs in aerospace vehicles. While such techniques are built on Lyapunov stability theory, they lack an accompanying set of metrics for the assessment of stability margins such as the classical gain and phase margins used in linear time-invariant systems. Such metrics must both be physically meaningful and permit the user to draw conclusions in a straightforward fashion. We present in this paper a roadmap to the development of metrics appropriate to nonlinear, time-varying systems. We also present two case studies in which frozen-time gain and phase margins incorrectly predict stability or instability. We then present a multi-resolution analysis approach that permits on-line real-time stability assessment of nonlinear systems.

  6. The behavioral summarized evaluation: Validity and reliability of a scale for the assessment of autistic behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Barthelemy; J. L. Adrien; P. Tanguay; B. Garreau; J. Fermanian; S. Roux; D. Sauvage; G. Lelord

    1990-01-01

    The Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (BSE), is a 20-item paper- and-pencil rating scale specifically designed for the measurement of behavioral parameters which could be related to biological data in autistic children involved in educational programs, neurophysiological studies, and therapeutic trials. The development of the scale, the validity, and reliability studies are presented in this paper. The results suggest that the BSE

  7. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

  8. Evaluation of the Rate of Problem Behavior Maintained by Different Reinforcers across Preference Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Fragale, Christina L.; Aguilar, Jeannie M.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem…

  9. Assessment of Social Skills in Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the process of assessing social skills with students who have emotional and/or behavioral disorders. It describes a three-stage problem-solving model of problem identification, problem analysis, and treatment evaluation. Specific social skills assessment strategies are described and linked to a classification system of…

  10. Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

  11. Teaching Behavioral Therapists to Conduct Brief Preference Assessments during Therapy Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Michele R.; Kenzer, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group classroom instruction and the need for in vivo feedback when teaching 11 behavioral therapists how to conduct a brief paired-stimulus preference assessment, when to conduct preference assessments, and how to interpret the data during regular therapy sessions. Group classroom instruction, consisting of…

  12. Assessment-Based Intervention for Severe Behavior Problems in a Natural Family Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Bobbie J.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    1997-01-01

    Functional assessments and assessment-based interventions were conducted with an 8-year-old boy with disabilities and severe problem behavior in the context of two family routines: using the home bathroom and dining in a fast-food restaurant. A multiple baseline design demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention package as implemented by…

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; ?oboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; ?oboz-Grudzie?, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

  14. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  15. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  16. Assessing the Health Behaviors of Texas College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Using telephone surveys, researchers examined the health behaviors of 1,408 Texas college students. Results indicated that most had consumed alcohol at least once, and nearly one-third were regular smokers. Most were sexually active but did not use condoms. Over half had never received HIV/AIDS education in college. (SM)

  17. [Assessment of adaptation to on-board conditions on "The Ship for World Youth"].

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, H; Kurabayashi, L; Yamato, H; Inamura, H

    1992-01-01

    The adaptation process of youth from 13 countries on board "The 3rd Ship for World Youth" cruise which was held from January 18 to March 20 in 1991 was analyzed. The age of almost all of the participants was in the 20's (average age was 24.9 yrs), and there were 103 participants (47 males, 56 females) from Japan, 171 participants (86 males, 85 females) from North, Middle and South America, and Oceanian countries for total of 274 participants (133 males, 141 females). The living environment on board differed significantly from daily living conditions of the participants, particularly due to the need to communicate in a foreign language, and to live in harmony with different cultures in a confinement situation, such that they were inevitably susceptible to various stressors. Among the participants there were some who needed psychiatric care and treatment. In order to assess quantitatively psychosomatic reactions to those stressors, a 28-item scaled GHQ (= General Health Questionnaire) assessment was performed four times on board with the following findings: 1. Highest scores were seen shortly after embarkment and decreased as the participants got accustomed to the living conditions on board. 2. The scores of the Japanese participants were higher than those of foreign participants, possibly indicating awkward adaptational skill on the part of Japanese participants especially during the first stage. 3. Japanese females scored slightly higher than Japanese males throughout the course of the program. 4. No clear difference in scores between Japanese participants aged under 25 y and over 26 y was observed. 5. A large proportion (77.3%) of Japanese participants had Y-G personality test results classifying them in the 'stable positive' group (D group). These participants had significantly lower scaled GHQ scores than those in the non-D group, indicating a high adaptational ability of D group participants. PMID:1600208

  18. Rating Scale Systems for Assessing Psychopathology: The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children2 (BASC2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie A. Rescorla

    Over the past three decades, standardized rating forms obtained from multiple informants have become increasingly common in\\u000a both clinical and school settings for assessing children's behavioral and emotional problems. Two widely used systems that\\u000a assess a broad range of problems from the perspectives of parents, teachers, and children themselves are the Achenbach System\\u000a of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA; Achenbach &

  19. Designing Automated Adaptive Support to Improve Student Helping Behaviors in a Peer Tutoring Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Erin; Rummel, Nikol; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive collaborative learning support systems analyze student collaboration as it occurs and provide targeted assistance to the collaborators. Too little is known about how to design adaptive support to have a positive effect on interaction and learning. We investigated this problem in a reciprocal peer tutoring scenario, where two students take…

  20. Functional imaging for radiation treatment planning, response assessment, and adaptive therapy in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priya; Subesinghe, Manil; Patel, Chirag; Prestwich, Robin; Scarsbrook, Andrew F

    2013-01-01

    Patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck are increasingly treated nonsurgically. Imaging plays a critical role in helping define the targets for radiation therapy, especially intensity-modulated radiation therapy, in which the dose gradients are steep. Anatomic imaging with conventional modalities, particularly computed tomography (CT), has been used in patients with head and neck SCCs, but this approach has limitations. Functional imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET) combined with CT or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, offer complementary information and can be used noninvasively to assess a range of biomarkers in patients with head and neck SCCs, including hypoxia, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and epidermal growth factor receptor status. These biologic markers can be monitored before, during, and after treatment to improve patient selection for specific therapeutic strategies, guide adaptation of therapy, and potentially facilitate more accurate assessment of disease response. This article discusses the practical aspects of integrating functional imaging into head-and-neck radiation therapy planning and reviews the potential of molecular imaging biomarkers for response assessment and therapy adaptation. The uses of PET tracers for imaging cellular processes such as metabolism, proliferation, hypoxia, and cell membrane synthesis are explored, and applications for MR techniques such as dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging, and MR spectroscopy are reviewed. The potential of integrated PET/CT perfusion imaging and hybrid PET/MR imaging also is highlighted. These developments may allow more individualized treatment planning in patients with head and neck SCCs in the emerging era of personalized medicine. PMID:24224586

  1. Measuring Mesh Qualities and Application to Variational Mesh Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weizhang Huang

    2005-01-01

    The mesh assessment problem is investigated in this paper by taking into account the shape and size of elements and the solution behavior. Three elementwise mesh quality measures characterizing the shape, alignment, and adaptation features of elements are introduced according to the estimates of interpolation error developed on a general mesh. An adaptive mesh is assessed by an overall quality

  2. The Behavioral Risk Assessment and Consultation Team (BRACT) has been established to assist the UMBC community in addressing situations

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    and/or the Vice President for Administration and Finance; Behavioral Risk Assessment and ConsultationThe Behavioral Risk Assessment and Consultation Team (BRACT) has been established to assist or threatening behaviors. BRACT is an interdisciplinary team that examines reports of disruptive or dis- turbing

  3. Web application security assessment by fault injection and behavior monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao-Wen Huang; Shih-Kun Huang; Tsung-Po Lin; Chung-Hung Tsai

    2003-01-01

    As a large and complex application platform, the World Wide Web is capable of delivering a broad range of sophisticated applications. However, many Web applications go through rapid development phases with extremely short turnaround time, making it difficult to eliminate vulnerabilities. Here we analyze the design of Web application security assessment mechanisms in order to identify poor coding practices that

  4. Evaluating Curriculum-Based Measurement from a Behavioral Assessment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Roof, Claire M.; Klubnick, Cynthia; Carfolite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement Reading (CBM-R) is an assessment procedure used to evaluate students' relative performance compared to peers and to evaluate their growth in reading. Within the response to intervention (RtI) model, CBM-R data are plotted in time series fashion as a means modeling individual students' response to varying levels of…

  5. Assessing Levels of Adaptation during Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions: Introducing the Rogers-Rutten Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Richter, Donna L.; Hussey, Jim; Elder, Keith; Lindley, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV-prevention funding agencies require the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions, tested and proven to be effective through outcome evaluation. Adaptation of programs during implementation is common and may be influenced by many factors, including agency mission, time constraints, and funding streams. There are few theoretical…

  6. Repeated Assessment of Exploration and Novelty Seeking in the Human Behavioral Pattern Monitor in Bipolar Disorder Patients and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.; Masten, Virginia; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2011-01-01

    Background Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD) and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM), a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. Methodology and Principal Findings Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability) patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. Conclusions/Significance Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design to characterize exploration and novelty seeking and, in parallel with animal studies, can contribute to developing treatments that target neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:21912623

  7. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  8. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, J. J.; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…

  9. Assessing current and future exposure to flood hazards - proceedings of the project RiskAdapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löschner, Lukas; Seher, Walter

    2013-04-01

    The project RiskAdapt, funded by the Climate and Energy Fund Austria, applies a novel dynamic flood risk assessment approach. It analyses both aspects of risk - hazard and vulnerability - and considers their potential spatial and temporal developments under climate change scenarios on a macro scale (federal territory of Austria) and a micro scale (regional/local case studies). The conceptual framework of RiskAdapt integrates analytical perspectives of hazard and vulnerability, the latter comprising the analysis of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacities. In the framework of the macro scale risk assessment, a nationwide GIS based analysis of current hazard exposure is conducted based on the indicators "affected persons" and "traffic infrastructure" (roads and railroads) in calculated flooding areas. Provided by the Environment Agency Austria (UBA) for 500m river stretches, these indicators are evaluated for each municipality in Austria. To assess their future exposure to flood hazards, demographic and land-use change scenarios (timeframe: 2030) are established based on existing projections and available data suitable for extrapolation. Regarding population change, extrapolations of local demographic developments are correlated with regional forecasts provided by the Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning (ÖROK). Land-use change scenarios are established by extrapolating trends in the development of highly vulnerable land uses (including building land for housing, commercial and industrial purposes as well as land used for traffic infrastructure). Data on highly vulnerable land uses is available for the years 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2012 for each municipality of Austria (provided by UBA). Based on this analysis, municipalities will be clustered according to the present and expected degree of exposure. This simplified approach in exposure assessment contains uncertainties, in particular with regard to demographic and land-use change scenarios: -) While population growth usually leads to an increase in built up land, basing settlement scenarios on population developments/forecasts does not take into account housing densities and usage of existing buildings. Furthermore, demographic scenarios reflect the growth in industrial and commercial land uses only to a certain extent; -) Growth of highly vulnerable land uses does not automatically imply an increase in vulnerability to flood hazards. This is essentially determined by the location and the direction of future land use developments. These uncertainties cannot be taken into account in the nationwide exposure assessment. However, in order to reflect these uncertainties and their effects on the vulnerability assessments and to evaluate the influence of spatial planning on vulnerability reduction, additional research will be conducted in three local and/or regional case studies. Exposure information from the nationwide exposure assessment will be completed and refined by integrating detailed land-use information and demographic data (derived from document analyses of spatial planning instruments, (retrospective) analyses of orthophotos and expert interviews with regional and local stakeholders.

  10. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence—favorably evaluated in the West—for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adapting behavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources. PMID:23667305

  11. Length adaptive pressure assessment (L.A.P.A.) of metal loss data

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, K.; Wheeler, T.

    1999-07-01

    Pipeline Integrity International has developed a method for the assessment of pipeline inspection tool data that will likely reduce the conservatism inherent in methods currently employed. This development has been undertaken in response to the industry's requirements for more accurate prioritization of anomalies and allows for precise excavation and repair of those defects that pose a threat to the integrity of the pipeline. Such analysis enables rehabilitation strategies to be developed on sound engineering principles rather than in reaction to codes that are recognized as being ultra-conservative. In recent years, the introduction of RSTRENG has led to a more precise way of assessing metal loss and therefore the actual strength of the remaining pipe wall. The use of RSTRENG has gained wide acceptance in the pipeline industry. However, it is a tool that must be used 'in the ditch' after the excavation has been performed. One can argue that once the costs of excavating the defect have been incurred, the value of RSTRENG as a cost saving tool is significantly diminished. What is needed then is a method for analyzing metal loss data collected by an accurate inspection tool, incorporating the benefits of RSTRENG'S more accurate evaluation of remaining pipe strength prior to incurring the costs of excavation. This document addresses the evolution of defect assessment methods and subsequent evolution of data processing and reporting techniques, a more specific overview of the RSTRENG method, and describes the new approach for assessing metal loss data from an inspection tool: Length Adaptive Pressure Assessment (LAPA). Pipeline operators who use LAPA have experienced lower populations of metal loss called out as 'significant'. Although the LAPA method is relatively new, the information the authors receive from clients indicates that the approach holds a great deal of promise for realistic prioritization of repairs while still maintaining a consistent and prudent safety factor.

  12. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  13. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12-16years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning. PMID:25234119

  14. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: Neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Tobias U.; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12–16 years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning. PMID:25234119

  15. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  16. in vivo laser speckle imaging by adaptive contrast computation for microvasculature assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Kausik; Dey, Goutam; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mandal, Mahitosh; Dutta, Pranab Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Interference of light backscattered from a diffused surface leads to speckle formation in laser speckle imaging. These time integrated speckle patterns can be statistically analyzed to study the flow profile of moving scatterers. Simple speckle contrast analysis techniques have limited ability to distinguish thin structures due to presence of corrupting speckles. This paper presents a high resolution imaging technique by adaptive computation of contrast for laser speckle contrast analysis (adLASCA). Speckle images of retinal microvasculature in mice model are acquired during normal and reduced blood flow conditions. Initially, the speckle images are registered to compensate for movements, associated with heart beating and respiration. Adaptive computation is performed using local image statistics, estimated within a spatially moving window over successive time frames. Experimental evidence suggests that adLASCA outperforms other contrast analysis methods, substantiating significant improvement in contrast resolution. Fine vessels can be distinguished more efficiently with reduced fluctuations in contrast level. Quantitative performance of adLASCA is evaluated by computing standard deviation, corresponding to speckle fluctuations due to unwanted speckles. There is a significant reduction in standard deviation compared to other methods. Therefore, adLASCA can be used for enhancing microvasculature in high resolution perfusion imaging with reduced effect of corrupting speckles for effective assessment.

  17. Screening, Assessment, and Care of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Adults With Cancer: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Guideline Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Berman, Barry S.; Gruman, Jessie; Champion, Victoria L.; Massie, Mary Jane; Holland, Jimmie C.; Partridge, Ann H.; Bak, Kate; Somerfield, Mark R.; Rowland, Julia H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A Pan-Canadian Practice Guideline on Screening, Assessment, and Care of Psychosocial Distress (Depression, Anxiety) in Adults With Cancer was identified for adaptation. Methods American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for adapting clinical practice guidelines developed by other organizations. The guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor and content applicability. Results On the basis of content review of the pan-Canadian guideline, the ASCO panel agreed that, in general, the recommendations were clear, thorough, based on the most relevant scientific evidence, and presented options that will be acceptable to patients. However, for some topics addressed in the pan-Canadian guideline, the ASCO panel formulated a set of adapted recommendations based on local context and practice beliefs of the ad hoc panel members. It is recommended that all patients with cancer be evaluated for symptoms of depression and anxiety at periodic times across the trajectory of care. Assessment should be performed using validated, published measures and procedures. Depending on levels of symptoms and supplementary information, differing treatment pathways are recommended. Failure to identify and treat anxiety and depression increases the risk for poor quality of life and potential disease-related morbidity and mortality. This guideline adaptation is part of a larger survivorship guideline series. Conclusion Although clinicians may not be able to prevent some of the chronic or late medical effects of cancer, they have a vital role in mitigating the negative emotional and behavioral sequelae. Recognizing and treating effectively those who manifest symptoms of anxiety or depression will reduce the human cost of cancer. PMID:24733793

  18. Assessment of Behavioral and Emotional Strengths in Black Children: Development of the Behavioral Assessment for Children of African Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; Rowan, George T.; Kim, Soyoun; Rowan, Scott A.; An Shin, Jeong; Kirsch, Elizabeth A.; Williams, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    Absence of culturally relevant measures of Black children's strengths inhibits psychometrically sound strength-based assessment, research, and appropriate use of strengths as scaffolds or targets for clinical intervention. Moreover, the sparse research literature on Black children is primarily deficit focused. Beginning to address these problems,…

  19. Assessing family caregiver skill in managing behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Farran, Carol J.; Fogg, Louis G.; McCann, Judith J.; Etkin, Caryn; Dong, Xinqi; Barnes, Lisa L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This measurement study operationalized family caregiver skill in managing behavioral symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by testing a Caregiver Assessment of Behavioral Skill-Self Report measure (CAB-SR). Method A cross-sectional design was used. Caregivers had a family member with possible/probable AD, resided at home with the care recipient and provided the majority of care (N=82). The mail-administered assessment included the CAB-SR and other care recipient and caregiver measures. Results Preliminary CAB-SR reliability and validity were determined, using reliability, factor analytic and correlational procedures. Conclusion This measure provides a preliminary assessment of caregiver skill in managing behavioral symptoms of AD and shows promise for use in research and clinical intervention settings. PMID:21500018

  20. Adaptation and validation of the patient assessment of chronic illness care in the French context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are major causes of disability worldwide with rising prevalence. Most patients suffering from chronic conditions do not always receive optimal care. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been developed to help general practitioners making quality improvements. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire was increasingly used in several countries to appraise the implementation of the CCM from the patients’ perspective. The objective of this study was to adapt the PACIC questionnaire in the French context and to test the validity of this adaptation in a sample of patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods The PACIC was translated into French language using a forward/backward procedure. The French version was validated using a sample of 150 patients treated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and having multiple chronic co-morbidities. Several forms of validity were analysed: content; face; construct; and internal consistency. The construct validity was investigated with an exploratory factorial analysis. Results The French-version of the PACIC consisted in 18 items, after merging two pairs of items due to redundancy. The high number of items exhibiting floor/ceiling effects and the non-normality of the ratings suggested that a 5-points rating scale was somewhat inappropriate to assess the patients’ experience of care. The construct validity of the French-PACIC was verified and resulted in a bi-dimensional structure. Overall this structure showed a high level of internal consistency. The PACIC score appeared to be significantly related to the age and self-reported health of the patients. Conclusions A French-version of the PACIC questionnaire is now available to evaluate the patients’ experience of care and to monitor the quality improvements realised by the medical structures. This study also pointed out some methodological issues about the PACIC questionnaire, related to the format of the rating scale and to the structure of the questionnaire. PMID:24947538

  1. Nesting behavior of Palila, as assessed from video recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laut, M.E.; Banko, P.C.; Gray, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    We quantified nesting behavior of Palila (Loxiodes bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, by recording at nests during three breeding seasons using a black-and-white video camera connected to a Videocassette recorder. A total of seven nests was observed. We measured the following factors for daylight hours: percentage of time the female was on the nest (attendance), length of attendance bouts by the female, length of nest recesses, and adult provisioning rates. Comparisons were made between three stages of the 40-day nesting cycle: incubation (day 1-day 16), early nestling stage (day 17-day 30 [i.e., nestlings ??? 14 days old]), and late nestling stage (day 31-day 40 [i.e., nestlings > 14 days old]). Of seven nests observed, four fledged at least one nestling and three failed. One of these failed nests was filmed being depredated by a feral cat (Felis catus). Female nest attendance was near 82% during the incubation stage and decreased to 21% as nestlings aged. We did not detect a difference in attendance bout length between stages of the nesting cycle. Mean length of nest recesses increased from 4.5 min during the incubation stage to over 45 min during the late nestling stage. Mean number of nest recesses per hour ranged from 1.6 to 2.0. Food was delivered to nestlings by adults an average of 1.8 times per hour for the early nestling stage and 1.5 times per hour during the late nestling stage and did not change over time. Characterization of parental behavior by video had similarities to but also key differences from findings taken from blind observations. Results from this study will facilitate greater understanding of Palila reproductive strategies.

  2. Self-assessment and modification of a division I strength and conditioning coach's instructional behavior.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Gerry J; De Marco, George M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of self-assessment in the modification of a Division I strength and conditioning coach's instructional behavior. The coach and 16 members of the university's women's volleyball team were the subjects. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized. Sources of data included the Self-Assessment Feedback Instrument (SAFI) and the coach's personal journal. The study consisted of 12 practices divided into 3 phases. Each phase consisted of 4 videotaped practices. Practices were coded with the SAFI to determine the type and frequency of the coach's behaviors. Phase I data depicted the coach's behavioral profile. Following phase I, the coach formulated goals and targeted behaviors for improvement or change. During phase II, interventions to generate improvements and changes were developed with the primary investigator after each practice. Phase III, conducted in the off-season, was the postintervention phase, during which the coach resumed his regular instructional routine and did not receive intervention. At the conclusion of the study, descriptive statistics were used to compare phase I and III data to determine the effectiveness of the self-assessment process. Qualitative data collected from the coach's journal were subject to content analyses. All behaviors targeted for modification were successfully changed. The most frequently observed behavior during phase III was Instruction During Performance (42.2%), followed by Extended Information (15.2%) and Questions (11.2%). Analysis of the coach's journal revealed a heightened self-awareness of his instructional behavior. It was determined that the process of self-assessment was effective in improving the coach's instructional behavior. Practical application of the results of this study will support strength and conditioning coaches' efforts to efficiently improve the quality of instruction provided to their athletes. PMID:18545184

  3. Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Challinor; Elisabeth S. Simelton; Evan D. G. Fraser; Debbie Hemming; Mathew Collins

    2010-01-01

    Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic

  4. Assessing nest-building behavior of mice using a 3D depth camera.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Toyoda, Atsushi

    2015-08-15

    We developed a novel method to evaluate the nest-building behavior of mice using an inexpensive depth camera. The depth camera clearly captured nest-building behavior. Using three-dimensional information from the depth camera, we obtained objective features for assessing nest-building behavior, including "volume," "radius," and "mean height". The "volume" represents the change in volume of the nesting material, a pressed cotton square that a mouse shreds and untangles in order to build its nest. During the nest-building process, the total volume of cotton fragments is increased. The "radius" refers to the radius of the circle enclosing the fragments of cotton. It describes the extent of nesting material dispersion. The "radius" averaged approximately 60mm when a nest was built. The "mean height" represents the change in the mean height of objects. If the nest walls were high, the "mean height" was also high. These features provided us with useful information for assessment of nest-building behavior, similar to conventional methods for the assessment of nest building. However, using the novel method, we found that JF1 mice built nests with higher walls than B6 mice, and B6 mice built nests faster than JF1 mice. Thus, our novel method can evaluate the differences in nest-building behavior that cannot be detected or quantified by conventional methods. In future studies, we will evaluate nest-building behaviors of genetically modified, as well as several inbred, strains of mice, with several nesting materials. PMID:26051553

  5. Using Information Technology to Prepare Personnel to Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavior Support.

    E-print Network

    Sailor, Wayne; Freeman, Rachel L.; Britten, Jody; McCart, Amy; Smith, Christopher; Scott, Terry; Nelson, Mike

    2000-01-01

    reliable implementation. School Discipline Policies Discipline policies often are more political in nature than they are educational or therapeutic (Noguera, 1995). When a school, for example, takes a public stance of zero tolerance for a set... data. Skiba, R.J., & Peterson, R.L. (2000). School discipline at a crossroads: From zero tolerance to early response. Exceptional Children, 66, 335-347. Sugai, G., & Horner, R.H. (1999). Discipline and behavioral support: Practices, pitfalls...

  6. Regional-scale yield simulations using crop and climate models: assessing uncertainties, sensitivity to temperature and adaptation options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Challinor

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress in assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on crops using multiple regional-scale simulations of crop and climate (i.e. ensembles) is presented. Simulations for India and China used perturbed responses to elevated carbon dioxide constrained using observations from FACE studies and controlled environments. Simulations with crop parameter sets representing existing and potential future adapted varieties were also

  7. Adaptive Behavior Selection of Autonomous Objects in the Bio-Networking Architecture

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Jun

    massive failures and attacks. We believe that key features of the future network applications called cyber-entities. A cyber-entity provides a functional service related to the application, and performs biological behaviors. Some behaviors are explained below: · Energy exchange and storage. Cyber

  8. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to 23%…

  9. Adaptive Intrusion Detection of Malicious Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Behavior Rule

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ing-Ray

    and opportunistic attacker behaviors (modes which many historical cyber attacks have used) on the effectiveness. Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are security appliances that review audit data to identify cyber attacks of our paper are the behavior-rule based intrusion detection theory, the modeling and analysis of our

  10. Generalizability and Dependability of Behavior Assessment Methods to Estimate Academic Engagement: A Comparison of Systematic Direct Observation and Direct Behavior Rating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2010-01-01

    Although substantial attention has been directed toward building the psychometric evidence base for academic assessment methods (e.g., state mastery tests, curriculum-based measurement), similar examination of behavior assessment methods has been comparatively limited, particularly with regard to assessment purposes most desirable within…

  11. Culturally adapted cognitive behavioral guided self-help for binge eating: a feasibility study with Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Cachelin, Fary M; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G Terence; Thompson, Douglas R; Striegel, Ruth H

    2014-07-01

    Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating, or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at posttreatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides "proof of concept" for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955

  12. REM sleep facilitation of adaptive waking behavior: A review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. McGrath; David B. Cohen

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the literature on REM sleep in regard to whether REM sleep prepares the S for subsequent learning or facilitates the retention of learning and\\/or the adaptation to prior stimulation. It is concluded that when studies are classified paradigmatically, E. M. Dewan's (1969) REM sleep metaprogramming hypothesis provides a useful conceptual scheme for interpreting the relevant literature. Suggested modifications to

  13. Aggressive Behavior in Response to Violence Exposure: Is It Adaptive for Middle-School Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2008-01-01

    The role of aggression in adaptation to family and community violence was examined in a sample of 667 inner-city schoolchildren studied annually over three years in middle school. Regression analyses indicated that the association between Year 1 exposure to family and community violence and Year 2 aggression was mediated by aggression occurring…

  14. Object and Behavior-oriented Stereo Vision for Robust and Adaptive Robot Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Graefe

    1995-01-01

    A novel concept for vision-based robot control is introduced. It eliminates the need for a calibration of the robot and of the vision system and comprises an automatic adaptation to changing parameters. A key point of the concept is the newly proposed method of \\

  15. Individual Differences in Behavioral, Physiological, and Genetic Sensitivities to Contexts: Implications for Development and Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Thomas Boyce

    2009-01-01

    Although exposure to adversity places children at high risk for developmental problems, there is considerable variation in the adaptation of children exposed to both low and high levels of adversity. In recent years, researchers have made significant progress in understanding how social environments shape children’s development. Studies indicate that not all children are equally susceptible to environmental effects. In this

  16. A MULTI-AGENT, MICROSCOPIC TRAFFIC SIMULATION ARCHITECTURE INCORPORATING ENTITIES WITH ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos Manouselis; Pythagoras Karampiperis; Elias Kosmatopoulos

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an agent-based architecture for microscopic traffic simulations. Agents representing vehicles utilize database modules containing microscopic models and adaptive algorithms, in order to achieve precise simulation of real-life traffic entities. The analysis and design of the simulation system is made using the Gaia methodology, a formal way of going from a statement of requirements to an

  17. Combined Ecological Momentary Assessment and Global Positioning System Tracking to Assess Smoking Behavior: A Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John T.; Schick, Robert S.; Hallyburton, Matt; Dennis, Michelle F.; Kollins, Scott H.; Beckham, Jean C.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have provided a rich assessment of the contextual factors associated with a wide range of behaviors including alcohol use, eating, physical activity, and smoking. Despite this rich database, this information has not been linked to specific locations in space. Such location information, which can now be easily acquired from global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices, could provide unique information regarding the space-time distribution of behaviors and new insights into their determinants. In a proof of concept study, we assessed the acceptability and feasibility of acquiring and combining EMA and GPS data from adult smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Participants were adults with ADHD who were enrolled in a larger EMA study on smoking and psychiatric symptoms. Among those enrolled in the latter study who were approached to participate (N = 11), 10 consented, provided daily EMA entries, and carried a GPS device with them during a 7-day assessment period to assess aspects of their smoking behavior. Results The majority of those eligible to participate were willing to carry a GPS device and signed the consent (10 out of 11, 91%). Of the 10 who consented, 7 participants provided EMA entries and carried the GPS device with them daily for at least 70% of the sampling period. Data are presented on the spatial distribution of smoking episodes and ADHD symptoms on a subset of the sample to demonstrate applications of GPS data. Conclusions We conclude by discussing how EMA and GPS might be used to study the ecology of smoking and make recommendations for future research and analysis. PMID:24883050

  18. Assessing Citizenship Behavior in Educational Contexts: The Role of Personality, Motivation, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Carey, Timothy Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The present study developed a measure to assess citizenship behavior in educational settings and examined its antecedents and consequences in the cultural context. The results of this study provided discriminant validity for the newly extracted two-factor structure, that is, self-regulation and other-orientation. The authors identified both…

  19. Conducting School-Based Assessments of Child and Adolescent Behavior. The Guilford School Practitioner Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Edward S., Ed.; Kratochwill, Thomas R., Ed.

    This guide brings educational practitioners up to date on how to administer and interpret a wide range of assessment methods for students presenting with emotional and behavioral difficulties. It offers insights and tools for K-12 practitioners and trainees in regular and special education. Delineating a concise conceptual framework, the first…

  20. The assessment of treatment strategy in cognitive–behavior therapy: Using the pivotal topic measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Linden; M. Staats; T. Bär; D. Zubrägel

    2005-01-01

    A new method of how to assess treatment strategy is presented. In a controlled clinical trial of cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 12 therapists and 30 patients were asked, after each of 25 sessions, to write down what they viewed to be the most important topic of that particular session. A content analytic scheme for the classification

  1. Functional Analysis of Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement: Assessments of Specific Sensory Reinforcers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Meeta R.; Carr, James E.; Kim, Christine; Robles, Adel; Eastridge, Dixie

    2000-01-01

    A study developed a systematic functional assessment package to reduce the stereotypy and self-injurious behaviors maintained by nonsocial reinforcement in two individuals with mental retardation. Differential reinforcement of zero rates of responding (DRO) procedures using stimuli within the targeted sensory classes were successful in eliminated…

  2. The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberg, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

  3. Using Functional Behavioral Assessment with Individuals with Mental Retardation/Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of inherent cognitive and language difficulties, individuals with mental retardation/developmental disabilities often are considered difficult to assess appropriately. When cognitive and language difficulties occur in conjunction with behavioral issues, this difficulty is compounded. The IDEA requirement to include a form of…

  4. Putting Functional Behavioral Assessment into Practice: A Conversation with Dr. Richard Van Acker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    In this interview, Dr. Richard Van Acker discusses federal requirements for functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and the teamwork involved in conducting an FBA. Various components of FBAs and the approximate time required are outlined and examples are provided of structured data collection for use in the FBA. (CR)

  5. An Assessment of Treatment Integrity in Behavioral Intervention Studies Conducted with Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, John J.; Mayton, Michael R.; Carter, Stacy L.; Chitiyo, Morgan; Menendez, Anthony L.; Huang, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which behavioral intervention studies conducted with persons with mental retardation operationally defined the independent variables and evaluated and reported measures of treatment integrity. The study expands the previous work in this area reported by Gresham, Gansle, and Noell (1993) and…

  6. Project STOP: Cognitive Behavioral Assessment and Treatment for Sex offenders with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nezu, Christine Maguth; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Nezu, Arthur M.

    2005-01-01

    In this brief article, we provide relevant background concerning the prevalence, characteristics and vulnerabilities of intellectually disabled (ID) sex offenders, as well as scientifically-informed guidelines for treatment. Finally, we provide a description of Project STOP, an outpatient cognitive behavioral assessment an treatment program.

  7. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  8. Assessing the Introduction of A Computer Laboratory Experience into a Behavioral Science Statistics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymondo, James C.; Garrett, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the introduction of a computer-laboratory experience using a popular statistical package into a behavioral-science statistics class required of all sociology, psychology, and business-administration majors at a liberal arts college. Indicates that the laboratory did not improve student comprehension or performance, possibly due to poor…

  9. Better Methods, Better Solutions: Developments in School-Based Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    A "big idea" is a concept that gives meaning to discrete facts. In this article, the author proposes a small number of big ideas, as well as his own views on where he thinks the field needs to move to achieve its full promise in school-based behavioral and social-emotional assessment. The three big ideas he has selected include: (1) universal…

  10. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  11. Assessment of the United States Military Academy's Academic Program Outcome Goal: Understand Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Johnston

    The assessment model used to examine the human behavior outcome goal had three components: purpose, principles, and process. The purpose was to improve programs and respond to external agencies. Six principles provided a framework and addressed three general criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy. The process contained four components:…

  12. Improving Homework Compliance in Career Counseling With a Behavioral Activation Functional Assessment Procedure: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Baruch; Jonathan W. Kanter; William M. Bowe; Sherri L. Pfennig

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation has emerged as a widely used treatment for depression in a number of health care settings due to its concrete, straightforward emphasis on out-of-session client homework, but it lacks explicit guidelines for identifying and overcoming barriers that interfere with homework completion. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the Homework Assignment

  13. OSHA enforcement and workplace injuries: A behavioral approach to risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Scholz; Wayne B. Gray

    1990-01-01

    We develop a model of risk assessment that incorporates assumptions from the behavioral theory of the firm into conventional expected utility models of compliance, and test the model using data on injuries and OSHA inspections for 6842 manufacturing plants between 1979 and 1985. Four hypotheses are supported-the specific deterrence effect of an inspection, the importance of lagged effects of general

  14. Assessment of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Infancy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Gabriela M.; Blake, Clair A.; Linares, Dainelys; Carter, Alice S.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral and emotional problems are highly prevalent in early childhood and represent an important focus of practice for clinical child and pediatric psychologists. Although psychological or psychiatric disorders are not typically diagnosed in children under the age of 2 years, recent research has demonstrated the appropriateness of assessing behavioral and emotional problems during the first 2 years of life (defined throughout as “infancy”). The current paper provides a systematic review of assessment procedures used to identify behavioral and emotional problems during infancy. Existing assessment procedures for infants take the form of parent- or caregiver-report questionnaires, observational coding procedures, and diagnostic classification systems. The questionnaires and observational coding procedures both had substantial psychometric evidence for use with infants, although observational coding may have limited utility in clinical practice. The classification systems have less empirical support for use with infants, and further research is necessary to demonstrate the appropriateness of these procedures with infants. Utilizing the reviewed procedures to assess behavioral and emotional problems in infants can have a substantial impact in research and practice settings, and further research is needed to determine the usefulness of these procedures in developing, testing, and implementing preventive and early intervention programs for infants and their families. PMID:22262040

  15. Examining the Efficacy of a Basic Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, Sheldon L.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of manualized training in "Basic" functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for typical school professionals on the ability of these professionals to complete technically adequate FBAs. Twelve school professionals participated in four 1-hr training sessions using the Basic FBA training handbook. After…

  16. Use of Analog Functional Analysis in Assessing the Function of Mealtime Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girolami, Peter A.; Scotti, Joseph R.

    2001-01-01

    This study applied the methodology of an analog experimental (functional) analysis of behavior to the specific interaction between parents and three children with mental retardation exhibiting food refusal and related mealtime problems. Analog results were highly consistent with other forms of functional assessment data, including interviews,…

  17. Conceptual modeling for adaptive environmental assessment and management in the Barycz Valley, lower Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed

    Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2005-08-01

    The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments ("hard path") as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This "soft path" requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between "experts" and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs "Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment". The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and "green" local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region's sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability Models as well as more detailed sub-models of particular factors, processes, and feedback loops that appear critical to a sustainable future. The Regional Sustainability Model was used to identify a subset of key interacting factors (variables). For each variable, several sustainability indicators were suggested. The growing understanding and acceptance of the AM framework and systems analysis created a momentum both locally and within the region, which makes continued successful use of these indicators quite likely. In contrast to expert-driven projects that inject outside knowledge into a local context, this project established a broad basis for stakeholder-driven discussion that is articulated into goals, objectives, conceptual models, and indicators. The ability to learn and adapt in the AM framework increases the capacity to innovate and find policies and practices that enhance resilience and sustainability in a world in transition. PMID:16705818

  18. Conceptual Modeling for Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management in the Barycz Valley, Lower Silesia, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments (“hard path”) as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This “soft path” requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between “experts” and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs “Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment”. The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and “green” local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region’s sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability Models as well as more detailed sub-models of particular factors, processes, and feedback loops that appear critical to a sustainable future. The Regional Sustainability Model was used to identify a subset of key interacting factors (variables). For each variable, several sustainability indicators were suggested. The growing understanding and acceptance of the AM framework and systems analysis created a momentum both locally and within the region, which makes continued successful use of these indicators quite likely. In contrast to expert-driven projects that inject outside knowledge into a local context, this project established a broad basis for stakeholder-driven discussion that is articulated into goals, objectives, conceptual models, and indicators. The ability to learn and adapt in the AM framework increases the capacity to innovate and find policies and practices that enhance resilience and sustainability in a world in transition. PMID:16705818

  19. An analysis of choice making in the assessment of young children with severe behavior problems.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, J W; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; Asmus, J; Mlela, K; Muller, J

    1999-01-01

    We examined how positive and negative reinforcement influenced time allocation, occurrence of problem behavior, and completion of parent instructions during a concurrent choice assessment with 2 preschool-aged children who displayed severe problem behavior in their homes. The children were given a series of concurrent choice options that varied availability of parent attention, access to preferred toys, and presentation of parent instructions. The results showed that both children consistently allocated their time to choice areas that included parent attention when no instructions were presented. When parent attention choice areas included the presentation of instructions, the children displayed differential patterns of behavior that appeared to be influenced by the presence or absence of preferred toys. The results extended previous applications of reinforcer assessment procedures by analyzing the relative influence of both positive and negative reinforcement within a concurrent-operants paradigm. PMID:10201104

  20. BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS TO SPATIALLY INTERMITTENT STREAMS BY THE LONGFIN DACE, 'AGOSIA CHRYSOGASTER', (CYPRINIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatially intermittent stream, with areas containing surface water separated by lengths of dry streambed, represents a common aquatic habitat in the Sonoran Desert. The longfin dace (Agosia chrysogaster) is the only fish to utilize this habitat consistently. Behavioral adapta...

  1. Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction in: Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems: ABIALS 2008

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction W. Schenck in: Anticipatory Behavior;Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction Wolfram Schenck Computer Engineering Group, Faculty space perception within the framework of the "perception through anticipation" approach is proposed

  2. Autonomous data processing and behaviors for adaptive and collaborative underwater sensing

    E-print Network

    Rowe, Keja S

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I designed, simulated and developed behaviors for active riverine data collection platforms. The current state-of-the-art in riverine data collection is plagued by several issues which I identify and address. ...

  3. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: Psychosocial intervention effects on adaptation, disease course, and biobehavioral processes in cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 30 (2013) S88–S98 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Brain, Behavior, and Immunity j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / y b r b i Invited Minireview Psychosocial

  4. Runtime Behavior Monitoring and Self-Adaptation in Service-Oriented Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Psaier; Lukasz Juszczyk; Florian Skopik; Daniel Schall; Schahram Dustdar

    2010-01-01

    Mixed service-oriented systems composed of human actors and software services build up complex interaction networks. Without any coordination, such systems may exhibit undesirable properties due to unexpected behavior. Also, communications and interactions in such networks are not preplanned by top-down composition models. Consequently, the management of service-oriented applications is difficult due to changing interaction and behavior patterns that possibly contradict

  5. Variation in songbird migratory behavior offers clues about adaptability to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Anna M; Mackenzie, Stuart A; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Taylor, Philip D; Walde, Sandra J

    2012-03-01

    For seasonally migrating birds, aspects of migratory behavior, such as the use of temperate versus tropical wintering areas, may influence their ability to respond to environmental change. Here, we infer potential flexibility in songbird migration from variation in two alternative stopover behaviors. Hierarchical Bayesian mark-recapture modeling was used to quantify stopover decisions over 19 years for four temperate and four tropical migratory species at a stopover site in southern Canada. Short-distance temperate migrants exhibited higher variability in behavior and greater responses to local weather than longer-distance tropical migrants, as measured by transience (the proportion of birds stopping <24 h, i.e. seeking brief sanctuary or subsequently relocating) and departure (re-initiation of migration by birds that stopped over for >24 h). In contrast to many previous works on climate-migration associations, annual variation in stopover behavior did not show strong links to broad-scale climatic fluctuations for either temperate or tropical migrants, nor was there any indication of directional changes in stopover behavior over the past two decades. In addition to suggesting that migratory songbirds-particularly tropical-wintering species-may face increasing threats with future climatic variability, our study highlights the potential importance of flexibility in en-route behavior for resilience to environmental change. PMID:21927912

  6. Linear prediction of atmospheric wave-fronts for tomographic adaptive optics systems: modelling and robustness assessment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kate; Correia, Carlos; Lardière, Olivier; Andersen, Dave; Bradley, Colin

    2015-01-15

    We use a theoretical framework to analytically assess temporal prediction error functions on von-Kármán turbulence when a zonal representation of wavefronts is assumed. The linear prediction models analyzed include auto-regressive of an order up to three, bilinear interpolation functions, and a minimum mean square error predictor. This is an extension of the authors' previously published work Correia et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, 101 (2014)JOAOD61084-752910.1364/JOSAA.31.000101], in which the efficacy of various temporal prediction models was established. Here we examine the tolerance of these algorithms to specific forms of model errors, thus defining the expected change in behavior of the previous results under less ideal conditions. Results show that ±100% wind speed error and ±50??deg are tolerable before the best linear predictor delivers poorer performance than the no-prediction case. PMID:25679829

  7. Improving the Usability of Integrated Assessment for Adaptation Practice: Insights from the U.S. Southeast Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    de Bremond, Ariane; Preston, Benjamin; Rice, Jennie S.

    2014-10-01

    Energy systems comprise a key sector of the U.S. economy, and one that has been identified as potentially vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. However, understanding of adaptation processes in energy companies and private entities more broadly is limited. It is unclear, for example, the extent to which energy companies are well-served by existing knowledge and tools emerging from the impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV) and integrated assessment modeling (IAM) communities and/or what experiments, analyses, and model results have practical utility for informing adaptation in the energy sector. As part of a regional IAM development project, we investigated available evidence of adaptation processes in the energy sector, with a particular emphasis on the U.S. Southeast and Gulf Coast region. A mixed methods approach of literature review and semi-structured interviews with key informants from energy utilities was used to compare existing knowledge from the IAV community with that of regional stakeholders. That comparison revealed that much of the IAV literature on the energy sector is climate-centric and therefore disconnected from the more integrated decision-making processes and institutional perspectives of energy utilities. Increasing the relevance of research and assessment for the energy sector will necessitate a greater investment in integrated assessment and modeling efforts that respond to practical decision-making needs as well as greater collaboration between energy utilities and researchers in the design, execution, and communication of those efforts.

  8. Measurement of Mealtime Behaviors in Rural Overweight Children: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ann M.; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Patton, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Objective?The current study presents results of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) in a sample of rural children with overweight and obesity. Relationships between mealtime behavior and health outcomes are also explored.?Methods?EFA was used to assess the fit of the BPFAS in a group of 160 treatment-seeking children (Mage = 9.11, SD = 1.77) living in rural Midwest communities. Correlations were also computed between factor scores and select health variables (child body mass index z-score and diet variables).?Results?The EFA identified a 5-factor solution as the best fitting model (Tucker–Lewis Index = .96, root mean square error of approximation = .05), although several items (i.e., 7 of 25) did not load on any factor. 2 factors were correlated with health variables of interest.?Conclusion?Study results suggest that certain items on the BPFAS may not be appropriate for use with rural children with pediatric overweight or obesity. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:24326908

  9. The Brazelton-Neonatal Assessment Scale as a Predictor of One- and Two-Year-Old Mastery Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donal B.; And Others

    This exploratory study investigated whether the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) can predict an infant's behavior on mastery motivation tasks at 1 and 2 years of age. Subjects were 31 normal, full-term infants from white, mostly middle class families. Infants were assessed using the NBAS with Kansas Supplements (NBAS-K) at a…

  10. Family Quality of Life and ASD: The Role of Child Adaptive Functioning and Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Emily, Gardiner; Grace, Iarocci

    2015-04-01

    The family is the key support network for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in many cases into adulthood. The Family Quality of Life (FQOL) construct encompasses family satisfaction with both internal and external dynamics, as well as support availability. Therefore, although these families face considerable risk in raising a child with a disability, the FQOL outcome is conceptualized as representative of a continuum of family adaptation. This study examined the role of child characteristics, including adaptive functioning and behaviour problems, in relation to FQOL. Eighty-four caregivers of children and adolescents (range?=?6-18 years) with ASD participated, completing questionnaires online and by telephone. Adaptive functioning, and specifically daily living skills, emerged as a significant predictor of FQOL satisfaction, after accounting for behavioural and demographic characteristics, including child age, gender, perceived disability severity, and behavioural problems, as well as family income. Furthermore, there were significant differences across each domain of FQOL when groups were separated by daily living skill functioning level ('low,' 'moderately low,' and 'adequate'). The results suggest that intervention strategies targeting daily living skills will likely have beneficial effects for both individual and family well-being, and may reduce family support demands. Autism Res 2015, 8: 199-213. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641930

  11. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing prediction and factor structures across measures.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Matthew R; Kite, Benjamin A; Henson, James M

    2012-09-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS), or drinking control strategies, are specific behaviors one can utilize to minimize the harmful consequences of alcohol consumption. As there is not currently a standard measure of PBS, the goal of the present study was to examine the factor structure and concurrent validity of three scales designed to assess PBS: Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale (PBSS; Martens, M. P., Ferrier, A. G., Sheehy, M. J., Corbett, K., Anderson, D. A., & Simmons, A., 2005 Development of the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66, 698-705), Protective Behavioral Strategies Measure (Novik, M. G., & Boekeloo, B. O., 2011, Dimensionality and psychometric analysis of an alcohol protective behavioral strategies scale. Journal of Drug Education, 41, 65-78. doi:10.2190/DE.41.1.d), and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ); (Sugarman, D. E., & Carey, K. B., 2007), The relationship between drinking control strategies and college student alcohol use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21, 338-345. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.21.3.338). In a sample of college students (n=291), we used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the proposed factor structures of each scale. Although the theorized three-factor structure fit the data moderately well for the PBSS, the theorized factor structures for the Protective Behavioral Strategies Measure and SQ did not fit the data well. Further, the composite scores from the PBSS were all significantly negatively correlated with alcohol-related problems, whereas the composites of the SQ were not significantly correlated with alcohol-related problems. Although we have evidence in favor of 1 PBS measure over others, we discuss broader issues related to assessment of PBS. We consider the different instructions, response scales, and time intervals for various PBS measures in terms of how they relate to the advancement of PBS research. PMID:22612255

  12. Social cognitive model of career self-management: toward a unifying view of adaptive career behavior across the life span.

    PubMed

    Lent, Robert W; Brown, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) currently consists of 4 overlapping, segmental models aimed at understanding educational and occupational interest development, choice-making, performance and persistence, and satisfaction/well-being. To this point, the theory has emphasized content aspects of career behavior, for instance, prediction of the types of activities, school subjects, or career fields that form the basis for people's educational/vocational interests and choice paths. However, SCCT may also lend itself to study of many process aspects of career behavior, including such issues as how people manage normative tasks and cope with the myriad challenges involved in career preparation, entry, adjustment, and change, regardless of the specific educational and occupational fields they inhabit. Such a process focus can augment and considerably expand the range of the dependent variables for which SCCT was initially designed. Building on SCCT's existing models, we present a social cognitive model of career self-management and offer examples of the adaptive, process behaviors to which it can be applied (e.g., career decision making/exploration, job searching, career advancement, negotiation of work transitions and multiple roles). PMID:23815631

  13. Converging Indicators for Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles W.; Taylor, Bruce; Hines, Seleimah; Bright, Andrew; Dodds, Anika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new methodology for assessing the deleterious effects of spaceflight on crew health and performance. It is well known that microgravity results in various physiological alterations, e.g., headward fluid shifts which can impede physiological adaptation. Other factors that may affect crew operational efficiency include disruption of sleep-wake cycles, high workload, isolation, confinement, stress and fatigue. From an operational perspective, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be most or least affected in this unique environment given that most astronauts are first-time flyers. During future lunar and Mars missions space crews will include both men and women of multi-national origins, different professional backgrounds, and various states of physical condition. Therefore, new methods or technologies are needed to monitor and predict astronaut performance and health, and to evaluate the effects of various countermeasures on crew during long duration missions. This paper reviews several studies conducted in both laboratory and operational environments with men and women ranging in age between 18 to 50 years. The studies included the following: soldiers performing command and control functions during mobile operations in enclosed armored vehicles; subjects participating in laboratory tests of an anti-motion sickness medication; subjects exposed to chronic hypergravity aboard a centrifuge, and subject responses to 36-hours of sleep deprivation. Physiological measurements, performance metrics, and subjective self-reports were collected in each study. The results demonstrate that multivariate converging indicators provide a significantly more reliable method for assessing environmental effects on performance and health than any single indicator.

  14. Communicative Alternatives to Challenging Behavior: Integrating Functional Assessment and Intervention Strategies. Volume 3. Communication and Language Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Joe, Ed.; Wacker, David P., Ed.

    Emphasizing the use of communication training as the foundation for effective behavioral programming, this book explains how challenging behavior can be redirected into socially acceptable behavior through functional communication intervention. The book offers hands-on assessment and intervention strategies that can be used in school, home, work,…

  15. An integrated stochastic approach to the assessment of agricultural water demand and adaptation to water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Butler, A. P.; McIntyre, N.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing water demands from growing populations coupled with changing water availability, for example due to climate change, are likely to increase water scarcity. Agriculture will be exposed to risk due to the importance of reliable water supplies as an input to crop production. To assess the efficiency of agricultural adaptation options requires a sound understanding of the relationship between crop growth and water application. However, most water resource planning models quantify agricultural water demand using highly simplified, temporally lumped estimated crop-water production functions (CWPFs). Such CWPFs fail to capture the biophysical complexities in crop-water relations and mischaracterise farmers ability to respond to water scarcity. Application of these models in policy analyses will be ineffective and may lead to unsustainable water policies. Crop simulation models provide an alternative means of defining the complex nature of the CWPF. Here we develop a daily water-limited crop model for this purpose. The model is based on the approach used in the FAO's AquaCrop model, balancing biophysical and computational complexities. We further develop the model by incorporating improved simulation routines to calculate the distribution of water through the soil profile. Consequently we obtain a more realistic representation of the soil water balance with concurrent improvements in the prediction of water-limited yield. We introduce a methodology to utilise this model for the generation of stochastic crop-water production functions (SCWPFs). This is achieved by running the model iteratively with both time series of climatic data and variable quantities of irrigation water, employing a realistic rule-based approach to farm irrigation scheduling. This methodology improves the representation of potential crop yields, capturing both the variable effects of water deficits on crop yield and the stochastic nature of the CWPF due to climatic variability. Application to a case study in East Anglia, England, where many catchments are water scarce and irrigation is of significant value, is used to test the methodology within a robust modelling structure which couples biophysical and economic components. SCWPFs for key crops are combined with farm-level microeconomic data to evaluate current agricultural water demand economically and hydrologically. This process is repeated for a range of future climatic and socio-economic scenarios. For each scenario the effect of introducing adaptation measures, such as improved irrigation efficiency or scheduling, is explored by modifying relevant model parameters and repeating the methodology. The functions are then linked to a farm-level microeconomic decision model to assess the impacts of future changes in water availability and demand in the region. The results provide a valuable insight into possible shifts in agricultural water demand and potential adaptive options for growers, including the value of changing cropping patterns and improving water use efficiency. It is anticipated that the integrated modelling framework developed and the conclusions drawn will contribute to sustainable governance of water resources in rural areas of southern England.

  16. Use of a local cone model to predict essential CSF light adaptation behavior used in the design of luminance quantization nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Scott; Golestaneh, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The human visual system's luminance nonlinearity ranges continuously from square root behavior in the very dark, gamma-like behavior in dim ambient, cube-root in office lighting, and logarithmic for daylight ranges. Early display quantization nonlinearities have been developed based on luminance bipartite JND data. More advanced approaches considered spatial frequency behavior, and used the Barten light-adaptive Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) modelled across a range of light adaptation to determine the luminance nonlinearity (e.g., DICOM, referred to as a GSDF {grayscale display function}). A recent approach for a GSDF, also referred to as an electrical-to-optical transfer function (EOTF), using that light-adaptive CSF model improves on this by tracking the CSF for the most sensitive spatial frequency, which changes with adaptation level. We explored the cone photoreceptor's contribution to the behavior of this maximum sensitivity of the CSF as a function of light adaptation, despite the CSF's frequency variations and that the cone's nonlinearity is a point-process. We found that parameters of a local cone model could fit the max sensitivity of the CSF model, across all frequencies, and are within the ranges of parameters commonly accepted for psychophysicallytuned cone models. Thus, a linking of the spatial frequency and luminance dimensions has been made for a key neural component. This provides a better theoretical foundation for the recently designed visual signal format using the aforementioned EOTF.

  17. Assessing DUI risk: examination of the Behaviors & Attitudes Drinking & Driving Scale (BADDS).

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jeremy D; Hupp, Stephen D A; Segrist, Daniel J

    2008-07-01

    Despite research findings indicating attitudinal differences among drivers with and without a history of driving under the influence (DUI) offenses, there are no well-established instruments specifically designed to clinically assess drinking and driving attitudes and behaviors among adults. The purpose of this current series of three studies was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Behaviors & Attitudes Drinking & Driving Scale (BADDS). The BADDS was developed in previous studies by the authors and assesses respondents' rationalizations for drinking and driving, likelihood of future drinking and driving, drinking and driving behaviors, and riding with a drinking driver behavior in the previous month. Study 1 (N=179) and Study 2 (N=338) assessed college participants, while Study 3 gathered data from adult DUI offenders (N=160) and non-DUI offenders (N=166). Results indicate good to excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency estimates for BADDS scale scores. Support for the construct validity as well as concurrent and predictive criterion validity of BADDS scores was also demonstrated. Potential applications for the measure, as well as need for future research are described. PMID:18374495

  18. Flood Risks, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Benefits in Mumbai: An Initial Assessment of SocioEconomic Consequences of Present and Climate Change Induced Flood Risks and of Possible Adaptation Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Hallegatte; Fanny Henriet; Anand Patwardhan; K. Narayanan; Subimal Ghosh; Subhankar Karmakar; Unmesh Patnaik; Abhijat Abhayankar; Sanjib Pohit; Jan Corfee-Morlot; Celine Herweijer; Nicola Ranger; Sumana Bhattacharya; Murthy Bachu; Satya Priya; K. Dhore; Farhat Rafique; P. Mathur; Nicolas Naville

    2010-01-01

    Managing risks from extreme events will be a crucial component of climate change adaptation. In this study, we demonstrate an approach to assess future risks and quantify the benefits of adaptation options at a city-scale, with application to flood risk in Mumbai. In 2005, Mumbai experienced unprecedented flooding, causing direct economic damages estimated at almost two billion USD and 500

  19. Emotional and behavioral problems after pediatric liver transplantation: a quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Antonella; Sicca, Federico; Di Sarno, Angela Maria; Di Cosmo, Nicolina; Vajro, Serena; Vajro, Pietro

    2006-03-01

    Several uncertainties regarding psychological problems in children who underwent liver transplantation and the need to differentiate these disturbances from those related to the underlying previous chronic liver disease itself exist. This background triggered the present pilot study to investigate, using quantitative assessment methods, the incidence and the type of emotional and behavioral disturbances after liver transplantation. Sixteen liver transplant recipients (aged 5.7-14.4 yr) and 12 age-matched controls with stable chronic liver disease were assessed through the parent report form of Child Behavior Checklist/ 4-18. The mean time elapsed since transplantation was 8.1 yr. No patient or family had received psychological support during chronic liver disease or at any phase of the transplantation process. Transplanted children scored within borderline range for Internalizing and Total Behavioral Problems and within pathological range for Competences, except for the Activity Scale. Transplanted children showed more Total Behavioral (p = 0.005) and Externalizing Problems (p = 0.0005) than controls. Both groups scored within the pathological range for Total Competences with no significant differences between the two groups. Our findings suggest that in the absence of support programs a psychological risk does exist for a long period of time, after transplantation. Regarding Total Behavioral Problems and Externalizing Problems, this risk is higher than in children with chronic liver disease. PMID:16573608

  20. Development of a Tool for Assessment and Care Planning for Dementia-Related Problem Behaviors in Home and Community-Based Services Programs: The Problem Behavior Inventory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. Phillips; Sadhna Diwan; Amanda Egner

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe development, validity, and application of the Problem Behavior Inventory (PBI), a tool to assess dementia-related problem behaviors (DRPBs) in community-based populations.Data Sources and Study Setting: Demographic, contact, and disease-specific data were extracted from client files from a Medicaid-funded home and community-based services program. Primary caregivers completed standard surveys relating to the care recipients' memory, mood, and behaviors.

  1. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Francois G.

    2003-06-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives and modular configuration.

  2. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Grancois G.

    2004-06-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives, and modular configuration.

  3. Treating Adaptive Living Skills of Persons with Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…

  4. Information security knowledge and behavior: An adapted model of technology acceptance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping An Wang

    2010-01-01

    Information security risks have become a significant concern for users of computer information technology. However, users' behavior of acceptance and actual use of available information security solutions has not been commensurate with the level of their information security concerns. Traditional technology acceptance theory (TAM) emphasizes the factors of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use in acceptance of technology. There

  5. Is egg-damaging behavior by great spotted cuckoos an accident or an adaptation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Soler; Juan G. Martinez

    2000-01-01

    Adult great spotted cuckoos Clamator glandarius damage the eggs of their magpie Pica pica host without removing them from the nest or eating them but by producing the death of the embryo. Observations as well as experiments were used to test several predictions of two different possibilities: great spotted cuckoo egg-damaging behavior is a parasitic tactic resulting from a direct

  6. Acquisition of adaptive walking behaviors using machine learning with Central Pattern Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sato; K. Watanabe; H. Igarashi

    2010-01-01

    Recently, biologically inspired approaches have received much attention for robot control. A typical example of them is control of rhythmic behaviors by Central Pattern Generator (CPG). However, this control has a problem that there are few theories to determine parameters of CPG. For this reason, they are determined experimentally. In this paper, we propose a combination method of Genetic Algorithm

  7. Reliability and Construct Validity of Scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory: A Measure of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, David; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Speight, Joan; Reuter, Jeanette

    1999-01-01

    Examined the reliability and construct validity in an older adult population (n=149 older adults and their informants) of scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory (BCI) (P. Hartman-Stein). Results indicate that scores on the BCI's seven scales show adequate internal consistencies and represent seven overlapping but distinct constructs in this…

  8. Twenty Years of Student Sexual Behavior: Subcultural Adaptations to a Changing Health Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, Nancy S.; Burnett, Matthew L.

    2004-01-01

    This twenty-year study analyzes changes in sexual behavior among students at Okanagan University College in British Columbia, Canada. Surveys conducted in 1980, 1990, and 2000 reveal a steady increase in safer sexual practices. Most students now question potential partners about their past, use condoms with a new sexual partner, and maintain…

  9. A novel automated behavioral test battery assessing cognitive rigidity in two genetic mouse models of autism.

    PubMed

    Pu?cian, Alicja; L?ski, Szymon; Górkiewicz, Tomasz; Meyza, Ksenia; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Knapska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors are a key feature of many pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism. As a heterogeneous group of symptoms, repetitive behaviors are conceptualized into two main subgroups: sensory/motor (lower-order) and cognitive rigidity (higher-order). Although lower-order repetitive behaviors are measured in mouse models in several paradigms, so far there have been no high-throughput tests directly measuring cognitive rigidity. We describe a novel approach for monitoring repetitive behaviors during reversal learning in mice in the automated IntelliCage system. During the reward-motivated place preference reversal learning, designed to assess cognitive abilities of mice, visits to the previously rewarded places were recorded to measure cognitive flexibility. Thereafter, emotional flexibility was assessed by measuring conditioned fear extinction. Additionally, to look for neuronal correlates of cognitive impairments, we measured CA3-CA1 hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP). To standardize the designed tests we used C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, representing two genetic backgrounds, for induction of autism by prenatal exposure to the sodium valproate. We found impairments of place learning related to perseveration and no LTP impairments in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice. In contrast, BALB/c valproate-treated mice displayed severe deficits of place learning not associated with perseverative behaviors and accompanied by hippocampal LTP impairments. Alterations of cognitive flexibility observed in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice were related to neither restricted exploration pattern nor to emotional flexibility. Altogether, we showed that the designed tests of cognitive performance and perseverative behaviors are efficient and highly replicable. Moreover, the results suggest that genetic background is crucial for the behavioral effects of prenatal valproate treatment. PMID:24808839

  10. A novel automated behavioral test battery assessing cognitive rigidity in two genetic mouse models of autism

    PubMed Central

    Pu?cian, Alicja; ??ski, Szymon; Górkiewicz, Tomasz; Meyza, Ksenia; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Knapska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors are a key feature of many pervasive developmental disorders, such as autism. As a heterogeneous group of symptoms, repetitive behaviors are conceptualized into two main subgroups: sensory/motor (lower-order) and cognitive rigidity (higher-order). Although lower-order repetitive behaviors are measured in mouse models in several paradigms, so far there have been no high-throughput tests directly measuring cognitive rigidity. We describe a novel approach for monitoring repetitive behaviors during reversal learning in mice in the automated IntelliCage system. During the reward-motivated place preference reversal learning, designed to assess cognitive abilities of mice, visits to the previously rewarded places were recorded to measure cognitive flexibility. Thereafter, emotional flexibility was assessed by measuring conditioned fear extinction. Additionally, to look for neuronal correlates of cognitive impairments, we measured CA3-CA1 hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP). To standardize the designed tests we used C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, representing two genetic backgrounds, for induction of autism by prenatal exposure to the sodium valproate. We found impairments of place learning related to perseveration and no LTP impairments in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice. In contrast, BALB/c valproate-treated mice displayed severe deficits of place learning not associated with perseverative behaviors and accompanied by hippocampal LTP impairments. Alterations of cognitive flexibility observed in C57BL/6 valproate-treated mice were related to neither restricted exploration pattern nor to emotional flexibility. Altogether, we showed that the designed tests of cognitive performance and perseverative behaviors are efficient and highly replicable. Moreover, the results suggest that genetic background is crucial for the behavioral effects of prenatal valproate treatment. PMID:24808839

  11. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    PubMed Central

    Lamarão, Andressa M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken. PMID:25003273

  12. Both Movement-End and Task-End Are Critical for Error Feedback in Visuomotor Adaptation: A Behavioral Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    An important issue in motor learning/adaptation research is how the brain accepts the error information necessary for maintaining and improving task performance in a changing environment. The present study focuses on the effect of timing of error feedback. Previous research has demonstrated that adaptation to displacement of the visual field by prisms in a manual reaching task is significantly slowed by delayed visual feedback of the endpoint, suggesting that error feedback is most effective when given at the end of a movement. To further elucidate the brain mechanism by which error information is accepted in visuomotor adaptation, we tested whether error acceptance is linked to the end of a given task or to the end of an executed movement. We conducted a behavioral experiment using a virtual shooting task in which subjects controlled their wrist movements to meet a target with a cursor as accurately as possible. We manipulated the timing of visual feedback of the impact position so that it occurred either ahead of or behind the true time of impact. In another condition, the impact timing was explicitly indicated by an additional cue. The magnitude of the aftereffect significantly varied depending on the timing of feedback (p < 0.05, Friedman's Test). Interestingly, two distinct peaks of aftereffect were observed around movement-end and around task-end, irrespective of the existence of the timing cue. However, the peak around task-end was sharper when the timing cue was given. Our results demonstrate that the brain efficiently accepts error information at both movement-end and task-end, suggesting that two different learning mechanisms may underlie visuomotor transformation. PMID:23393602

  13. Assessment of Multi-Joint Coordination and Adaptation in Standing Balance: a Novel Device and System Identification Technique.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, Denise; Schouten, Alfred C; Aarts, Ronald G K M; van der Kooij, Herman

    2014-11-20

    The ankles and hips play an important role in maintaining standing balance and the coordination between joints adapts with task and conditions, like the disturbance magnitude and type, and changes with age. Assessment of multijoint coordination requires the application of multiple continuous and independent disturbances and closed loop system identification techniques (CLSIT). This paper presents a novel device, the double inverted pendulum perturbator (DIPP), which can apply disturbing forces at the hip level and between the shoulder blades. In addition to the disturbances, the device can provide force fields to study adaptation of multi-joint coordination. The performance of the DIPP and a novel CLSIT was assessed by identifying a system with known mechanical properties and model simulations. A double inverted pendulum was successfully identified, while force fields were able to keep the pendulum upright. The estimated dynamics were similar as the theoretical derived dynamics. The DIPP has a sufficient bandwidth of 7 Hz to identify multi-joint coordination dynamics. An experiment with human subjects where a stabilizing force field was rendered at the hip (1500 N/m), showed that subjects adapt by lowering their control actions around the ankles. The stiffness from upper and lower segment motion to ankle torque dropped with 30% and 48% respectively. Our methods allow to study (pathological) changes in multi-joint coordination as well as adaptive capacity to maintain standing balance. PMID:25423654

  14. Using behavioral observations and keeper questionnaires to assess social relationships among captive female African elephants.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Schulte, Bruce A; Brown, Janine L

    2010-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants are highly social animals that live in a society where age, size, kinship, and disposition all contribute to social rank. Although captive elephant herds are small and largely comprises of unrelated females, dominance hierarchies are common. The goal of this study was to delineate how the behavior of captive female African elephants varies with respect to age and social rank based on a combination of keeper questionnaires and behavioral observations. "Body movements" and "trunk to" behaviors of 33 nonpregnant female African elephants housed at 14 North American zoos were recorded over 8 hr. Keepers at each facility also rated each elephant based on a series of questions about interactions with herdmates. The assessment of social rank based on observations correlated strongly with ranks assigned by keepers via the questionnaires. Observations and questionnaire responses indicated that body weight of the female, and to a lesser extent age, were significantly related to rates and types of "body movements" and that these demographic factors dictate the captive elephant hierarchy, similar to that observed in the wild. Many of the observed "body movements," such as back away, displace, push, and present, were correlated with keeper questionnaire responses about elephant interactions. However, none of the "trunk to" behaviors were related to age, size, or questionnaire responses even though they occurred frequently. In conclusion, we demonstrated that short-term behavioral observations and keeper questionnaires provided similar behavioral profiles for female African elephants housed in North American zoos. PMID:19434684

  15. Autonomous adaptive environmental assessment and feature tracking via autonomous underwater vehicles

    E-print Network

    Petillo, Stephanie Marie

    In the underwater environment, spatiotemporally dynamic environmental conditions pose challenges to the detection and tracking of hydrographic features. A useful tool in combating these challenge is Autonomous Adaptive ...

  16. Psychometric properties of a culture-adapted Spanish version of AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The construct “identity” was discussed to be integrated as an important criterion for diagnosing personality disorders in DSM-5. According to Kernberg, identity diffusion is one of the relevant underlying structures in terms of personality organization for developing psychopathology, especially borderline personality disorder. Therefore, it would be important to differentiate healthy from pathological development already in adolescence. With the questionnaire termed AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence), a reliable and valid self-rating inventory was introduced by Goth, Foelsch, Schlueter-Mueller, & Schmeck (2012) to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents. To test the usefulness of the questionnaire in Mexico, we contributed to the development of a culture-specific Spanish translation of AIDA and tested the reliability and aspects of validity of the questionnaire in a juvenile Mexican sample. Methods An adapted Spanish translation of AIDA was developed by an expert panel from Chile, Mexico, and Spain in cooperation with the original authors, focusing on content equivalence and comprehensibility by considering specific idioms, life circumstances, and culture-specific aspects. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version were first tested in Mexico. Participants were 265 students from a state school (N?=?110) and private school (N?=?155), aged between 12 and 19 years (mean 14.15 years). Of these, 44.9% were boys and 55.1% were girls. Item characteristics were analyzed by several parameters, scale reliability by Cronbach’s Alpha, and systematic effects of gender, age, and socioeconomics by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). We evaluated aspects of criterion validity in a juvenile justice system sample (N?=?41) of adolescent boys in conflict with the law who displayed various types of behavioral problems by comparing the AIDA scores of a subgroup with signs for borderline pathology (N?=?14) with the scores obtained in the student sample using T-tests. Results The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of AIDA proved satisfactory in the Mexican sample for items as well as scales. The reliability coefficients were ??=?.94 for the total scale “Identity Diffusion”, ??=?.85 and .92 for the two primary scales “Discontinuity” and “Incoherence”, and between ??=?.70 and .83 for the subscales. However, some items of the item pool in the Spanish version of AIDA did not meet all criteria for test equivalence and should thus be reformulated, taking the Mexican culture into account. Significant effects for gender and age were found. In line with our theory, the AIDA scores in the domains “Discontinuity” (high effect size) and “Incoherence” (medium effect size) were markedly higher in the delinquent boys than in the student group. Conclusion The Spanish version of AIDA can be used in Mexico with satisfying psychometric properties, with only minor adaptions required. Our study contributes to the intercultural applicability of the AIDA instrument using the construct “identity integration vs. diffusion” as it was defined in the AIDA model for diagnostic purposes. Cultural differences, even those present in the various Spanish-speaking countries, should be modeled carefully. PMID:23899385

  17. Ecogeographical land characterization maps as a tool for assessing plant adaptation and their implications in agrobiodiversity studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio Parra-Quijano; José M. Iriondo; Elena Torres

    Information on plant adaptation can be very useful in agrobiodiversity studies. Ecogeographical land characterization (ELC)\\u000a maps constitute a new tool in this direction with great potential. To assess the usefulness of this approach, an ELC map of\\u000a Spain was created through multivariate methods. Its performance to characterize plant habitat preferences was compared with\\u000a existing ecological regions and land cover maps.

  18. Endocannabinoid signaling in the amygdala: anatomy, synaptic signaling, behavior, and adaptations to stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Ramikie; S. Patel

    The molecular constituents of endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling are abundantly expressed within the mammalian amygdaloid complex, consistent with the robust role of eCB signaling in the modulation of emotional behavior, learning, and stress-response physiology. Here, we detail the anatomical distribution of eCB signaling machinery in the amygdala and the role of this system in the modulation of excitatory and inhibitory neuroplasticity

  19. The consciousness disciplines and the behavioral sciences: questions of comparison and assessment.

    PubMed

    Walsh, R

    1980-06-01

    In recent years a number of assessments of the non-Western consciousness disciplines have been undertaken by Western behavioral scientists. The author suggests that a variety of conceptual, methodological, experimential, and content inadequacies render the conclusions of these investigations of doubtful validity. He then describes the models of human nature postulated by these disciplines and the Western behavioral sciences, suggesting that comparing them results in a paradigm clash. The failure to recognize this clash seems to have resulted in inappropriate pathologizing interpretations. Attention is drawn to the relevance of recent findings in state-dependent learning, meditation studies, peak and transcendental experiences, transpersonal psychology, and quantum physics to an assessment of the consciousness disciplines, and suggestions for more adequate investigation are provided. PMID:6990799

  20. Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) modulates ethanol-induced behavioral adaptive changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Rial, Daniel; Pandolfo, Pablo; Bitencourt, Rafael M; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Moreira, Karin M; Hipolide, Débora; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Da Cunha, Claudio; Walz, Roger; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Prediger, Rui D

    2014-09-01

    Chronic consumption of drugs with addictive potential induces profound synaptic changes in the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic pathway that underlie the long-term behavioral alterations seen in addicted subjects. Thus, exploring modulation systems of dopaminergic function may reveal novel targets to interfere with drug addiction. We recently showed that cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) affects the homeostasis of the dopaminergic system by interfering with dopamine synthesis, content, receptor density and signaling pathways in different brain areas. Here we report that the genetic deletion of PrP(C) modulates ethanol (EtOH)-induced behavioral alterations including the maintenance of drug seeking, voluntary consumption and the development of EtOH tolerance, all pivotal steps in drug addiction. Notably, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a significant depletion of dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex and reduced dopamine D1 receptors in PrP(C) knockout mice. Furthermore, the pharmacological blockade of dopamine D1 receptors, but not D2 receptors, attenuated the abnormal EtOH consumption in PrP(C) knockout mice. Altogether, these findings provide new evidence that the PrP(C)/dopamine interaction plays a pivotal role in EtOH addictive properties in mice. PMID:24975422