Note: This page contains sample records for the topic adaptive behavior assessment from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: November 12, 2013.
Nearly 25 years ago, Allen-Meares and Lane appraised the status of adaptivebehaviorassessments in use at the time, citing their usefulness and relevance to the overall assessment of school children. This article revisits those instruments and examines select current instruments to gauge whether they include the multicultural sensitivity required to fairly assess the growing diverse populations of school children. Many of the popular adaptivebehaviorassessment instruments have not been normed with a wide array of racial groups or with cultural considerations in mind. This leads to suggestions of how social workers in particular may ensure that referred students are assessed fairly. PMID:18853667
The AAIDD has promulgated various models of adaptivebehavior, including its 1992 model stressing 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. In previous studies on the AdaptiveBehaviorAssessment System-II (ABAS-II), researchers found support for a model including both 10 adaptive skills and three conceptual…
|This paper addresses several objectives of the special issue on universal screening by addressing gaps in the current research base concerning universal screening for mental, emotional, and behavioral health and by providing a framework for addressing the limitations of extant approaches. Specifically, an adaptive model of behavioralassessment…
Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
There are essentially three main prongs to the definition and diagnosis of the condition known as mental retardation: deficits in intellectual functioning, deficits in adaptivebehavior, and onset of these deficits during the developmental period. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 2002 in a decision known as Atkins v. Virginia that it was essentially cruel and unusual punishment to execute a person with mental retardation, thus violating the Eighth Amendment of the American Constitution. For the purpose of this article, we focused on the issues as they relate to the second prong of the definition of mental retardation, that is, adaptivebehavior. We present and discuss the primary concerns and issues related to the assessment of adaptivebehavior when making a diagnosis of mental retardation in an Atkins claim case. Issues related to standardized assessment instruments, self-report, selection of respondents, use of collateral information, malingering, and clinical judgment are discussed. PMID:19430993
The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptivebehavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The AdaptiveBehaviorAssessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…
Assessment of adaptivebehavior traditionally has been associated with the identification of individuals with mental retardation. Information on adaptivebehavior increasingly is being used for comprehensive assessment, treatment planning, intervention, and program evaluation for individuals with various disorders. Data from the normative samples of adaptivebehavior measures in the United States provide information on the adaptive skill profiles of individuals
Jeffrey Ditterline; Diane Banner; Thomas Oakland; Daniel Becton
Adaptive selling is defined as the flexibility of salespersons to recognize their clients' or potential clients' needs, environment, and behaviors, in order to enhance the sales relationship, by altering their normal communication style to a behavior with which the customer feels comfortable. A literature review and an exploratory study were conducted to further understand the role of adaptive selling. The
A follow-up program for high-risk infants included the administration of the Short and Early Develop ment Forms of the Scales of Independent Behavior, the Survey Form of the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales, and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development to 66 1-year-olds and their parents. Results suggested comparability between adaptive scales in terms of standard scores, but not age scores.
Donald J. Goldstein; Karen B. Smith; Ellen L. Waldrep; Heidi M. Inderbitzen
There are essentially three main prongs to the definition and diagnosis of the condition known as mental retardation: deficits in intellectual functioning, deficits in adaptivebehavior, and onset of these deficits during the developmental period. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 2002 in a decision known as Atkins v. Virginia that it was essentially cruel and unusual punishment to execute
Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, combines computerized tests from the BehavioralAssessment and Research System (BARS) with non-computerized tests. The goal of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using standardized neurobehavioral tests in preschool and school-aged Filipino children. Test instructions were translated into the vernacular, Tagalog or Tagalog-English (“Taglish”) and some instructions and materials were modified to be appropriate for the target populations. The battery was administered to 4 to 6 year old Filipino children (N=50). The performance of the Filipino children was compared to data previously collected from Spanish- and English-speaking children tested in the US. The majority of children had no difficulty completing the tests in the battery with the exception of the Symbol-Digit test and Digit Span-reverse. The three groups showed similar patterns of performance on the tests and the older children performed better than the younger children on all of the tests. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of using this test battery to assess cognitive and motor performance in Filipino children. Tests in the battery assess a range of functions and the measures are sensitive to age differences. The current battery has been utilized in several cultures and socio-economic status classes, with only minor modifications needed. This study demonstrates the importance of pilot testing the methods before use in a new population, to ensure that the test is valid for that culture.
Rohlman, Diane S.; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M.; Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M.
In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…
|In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…
Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery
Diane S. Rohlman; Esterlita Villanueva-Uy; Essie Ann M. Ramos; Patrocinio C. Mateo; Dawn M. Bielawski; Lisa M. Chiodo; Virginia Delaney-Black; Linda McCauley; Enrique M. Ostrea Jr.
An evaluation was made of the efficacy of a digital feedback equalization algorithm employed by the Central Institute for the Deaf Wearable Adaptive Digital Hearing Aid. Three questions were addressed: 1) Does acoustic feedback limit gain adjustments made by hearing aid users? 2) Does feedback equalization permit users with hearing-impairment to select more gain without feedback? and, 3) If more gain is used when feedback equalization is active, does word identification performance improve? Nine subjects with hearing impairment participated in the study. Results suggest that listeners with hearing impairment are indeed limited by acoustic feedback when listening to soft speech (55 dB A) in quiet. The average listener used an additional 4 dB gain when feedback equalization was active. This additional gain resulted in an average 10 rationalized arcsine units (RAU) improvement in word identification score. PMID:8263825
This paper provides an overview of the bottom-up approach to artificial intelligence (AI), commonly referred to as behavior-oriented AI. The behavior-oriented approach, with its focus on the interaction between autonomous agents and their environments, is introduced by contrasting it with the traditional approach of knowledge-based AI. Different notions of autonomy are discussed, and key problems of generating adaptive and complex
This study examined the in- and out-of-school adaptivebehavior of 154 randomly selected Black, Hispanic and White 7-year-old children. Six mea sures of adaptivebehavior were used, two ad ministered to each of three sources of information (parents, teachers, and children themselves)— AdaptiveBehavior Inventory for Children; Mer cer's Teacher Questionnaire; Children's AdaptiveBehavior Scale; and Behavior Rating Profile- Parent,
Purpose To validate an adaptation of the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) for its use in non-intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients\\u000a unable to self-report their pain because of the occurrence of delirium. The “vocalization” domain was inserted to construct\\u000a the BPS-non intubated (BPS-NI) scale, ranging from 3 (no pain) to 12 (most pain).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Prospective psychometric study in a medical-surgical ICU.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The
Gérald Chanques; Jean-François Payen; Grégoire Mercier; Sylvie de Lattre; Eric Viel; Boris Jung; Moussa Cissé; Jean-Yves Lefrant; Samir Jaber
Objective The Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) is an assessment for adolescent health risk behaviors and exposures, supported by the World Health Organization. Although already widely implemented—and intended for youth assessment across diverse ethnic and national contexts—no reliability data have yet been reported for GSHS-based assessment in any ethnicity or country-specific population. This study reports test-retest reliability for GSHS content adapted for a female adolescent ethnic Fijian study sample in Fiji. Design We adapted and translated GSHS content to assess health risk behaviors as part of a larger study investigating the impact of social transition on ethnic Fijian secondary schoolgirls in Fiji. In order to evaluate the performance of this measure for our ethnic Fijian study sample (n=523), we examined its test-retest reliability with kappa coefficients, % agreement, and prevalence estimates in a sub-sample (n=81). Reliability among strata defined by topic, age, and language was also examined. Results Average agreement between test and retest was 77%, and average Cohen's kappa was 0.47. Mean kappas for questions from core modules about alcohol use, tobacco use, and sexual behavior were substantial, and higher than those for modules relating to other risk behaviors. Conclusions Although test-retest reliability of responses within this country-specific version of GSHS content was substantial in several topical domains for this ethnic Fijian sample, only fair reliability for the module assessing dietary behaviors and other individual items suggests that population-specific psychometric evaluation is essential to interpreting language and country-specific GSHS data.
Becker, Anne E.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Perloe, Alexandra; Bainivualiku, Asenaca; Richards, Lauren K.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.
This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.
|Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptivebehavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessedadaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…
Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.
We would like the behavior of the artificial agents that we construct to be as well-adapted to their environments as natural animals are to theirs. Unfortunately, designing controllers with these properties is a very difficult task. In this article, we demonstrate that continuous-time recurrent neural networks are a viable mechanism for adaptive agent control and that the genetic algorithm can
The ATR community has a strong and growing interest in ATR systems that adapt to changing circumstances and is developing means to solve these dynamic and difficult ATR problems. To facilitate this research, the AFRL COMPASE and SDMS organizations have developed an AdaptSAPS framework for developing and assessing such adaptive ATR systems. This framework, in the form of AdaptSAPS Version 1.0, provides MATLAB code, organized procedures, and an organized database for adaptive ATR systems. SAIC is applying their Ellipse Detector (ED) to this framework to validate the AdaptSAPS procedures and to test the AdaptSAPS database. The ED previously has shown utility on a variety of sensors and ATR problems. Although computationally efficient, the ED is more complex and much more powerful than simpler detectors such as a two parameter CFAR. However, the ED is not currently implemented as an adaptive ATR. In this paper, we show the utility of the AdaptSAPS framework for developing and assessing a non-trivial adaptive ATR by embedding the SAIC ED in the AdaptSAPS framework. We point out the strong points and weak points of AdaptSAPS Version 1.0 and recommend enhancements for future versions. In particular, we comment on AdaptSAPS as delivered, the current missions and data bases in AdaptSAPS, and the current performance measures in AdaptSAPS.
Williams, Arnold C.; Pachowicz, Peter W.; Leonard, James D.
The present study explored the total adaptivebehavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptivebehavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptivebehavior were investigated. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales (Survey Form).
Konstantinos Papadopoulos; Katerina Metsiou; Ioannis Agaliotis
Assessing the level of functioning of elderly clients is important in allocating services and in ensuring that the least restrictive environment is achieved. We examine the relationship between adaptivebehavior and level of care, using placement level as an index of level of care. Subjects were 25 elderly clients, aged 55 to 77 years (M= 66.2), having a life-long diagnosis
ObjectiveTo evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptivebehavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales to measure change.
SUSAN K. WILLIAMS; LAWRENCE SCAHILL; BENEDETTO VITIELLO; MICHAEL G. AMAN; L. EUGENE ARNOLD; CHRISTOPHER J. MCDOUGLE; JAMES T. MCCRACKEN; ELAINE TIERNEY; LOUISE RITZ; DAVID J. POSEY; NAOMI B. SWIEZY; JILL HOLLWAY; PEGEEN CRONIN; JASWINDER GHUMAN; COURTNEY WHEELER; DOMENIC CICCHETTI; SARA SPARROW
A major distinguishing characteristic of behavioralassessment is the direct assessment of overt behavior. Direct assessment is assumed to provide a sample of behavior that reflects client performance in the situation in which behavior is assessed, even if the assessment procedures were not implemented. Yet, in the majority of investigations, behavioralassessment procedures are obtrusive, i.e., subjects are aware that their behavior is being assessed. The potential problem with obtrusive assessment is that it may be reactive, i.e., affect how subjects perform. Recent research has demonstrated that obtrusive observations often are reactive and that behaviorsassessed under obtrusive and unobtrusive conditions bear little relation. From methodological and applied perspectives, additional attention needs to be given to unobtrusive measures of behavior change. The present paper illustrates unobtrusive measures in behavior modification including direct observations, archival records, and physical traces of performance. In addition, validation and assessment problems, questions about the obtrusiveness of the measures, and ethical issues are discussed.
In 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court heard Atkins v. Virginia and held that it was unconstitutional to execute a mentally retarded individual in violation of the Eighth Amendment. Since then, state supreme courts are entertaining arguments concerning adaptive functioning assessment in the context of the defendant's criminal history and role in the homicide. This article will outline the reasoning in
Adaptive composite structures using actuation materials, such as piezoelectric fibers, were assessed probabilistically utilizing intraply hybrid composite mechanics in conjunction with probabilistic composite structural analysis. Uncertainties associated ...
Nonlinear effects, or non-Wiener behavior, have been observed in several adaptive filtering applications, such as adaptive equalization of wideband communications signals contaminated by narrowband interference, adaptive narrowband noise cancellation, and...
Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution. PMID:23410390
Consumer concern with the environmental problems and the related adaptivebehavior have been investigated. For purposes of\\u000a analysis the respondents are categorized into high concern and low concern groups on the basis of the degree of concern expressed\\u000a by the respondents. Differences between the groups were analyzed in relation to the following consumer response variables:\\u000a (1) attitudes towards pollution control;
|The present study explored the total adaptivebehavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptivebehavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptivebehavior were investigated. Instrumentation…
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis
|A study used the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales to investigate patterns of adaptivebehavior in 30 children with autism who were under 3 years. Relative to controls, participants demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptivebehavior and mental age. The utility of the scales is discussed.…
Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Brown, Christia S.
This study examined relationships between general adaptivebehavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the AdaptiveBehaviorAssessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…
Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas
The cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of 12 men with fragile X syndrome (aged 23 to 62 years) was systematically assessed and compared to two matched groups of retarded men without fragile X syndrome residing at the same institution. The fragile X group was largely indistinguishable from the camparison groups on the cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive measures. Fragile X patients
Elisabeth Dykens; James Leckman; Rhea Paul; Michael Watson
This article discusses behavioralassessment as a way of obtaining and evaluating information used to individualize programming for special needs pupils. Behavioralassessment offers a range of techniques for gathering and for evaluating information. Strategies for obtaining information that are described are self-monitoring, direct observation, permanent product review, and retrospective ratings using behavior checklists. Strategies for evaluating information that are
A study on the relationship between sensation seeking (SS) and risky driving, aggressive driving and behavioraladaptation is reported on. College students completed a questionnaire concerning their driving behavior and level of sensation seeking. Results indicated that high SS's were significantly more likely than low SS's to speed, not wear belts, drink frequently, drive after drinking, perceive a low risk of detection for impaired driving, and perceive that they could drink more beer before being impaired. High SS's were also more likely to report aggressive driving habits. High SS's were significantly more likely than low SS's to say that they would drive faster on highways and on wet roads and drive after drinking, if operating a vehicle equipped with anti-lock brakes. The results are consistent with previous research. PMID:11491249
In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175?ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30?s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.
We conducted two multicenter studies on adaptive trajectories and profiles in males with fragile X syndrome. Study 1 longitudinally assessed 29 males ages 1–20 years using ageequivalent scores from the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales. Fragile X boys ages 1–10 years showed significant gains in adaptive skills from first to second testing; males ages 11–20 years were stable in their adaptive
Elisabeth Dykens; Sharon Ort; Ira Cohen; Brenda Finucane; Gail Spiridigliozzi; Ave Lachiewicz; Allan Reiss; Lisa Freund; Randi Hagerman; Rebecca O'Connor
Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time adaptations in the timing and spectro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular task and environment. To enable detailed, quantitative analyses of adaptive sonar behavior, echolocation call design was investigated in big brown bats, trained to rest on a stationary platform and track a tethered mealworm that approached from a starting distance of about 170 cm in the presence of a stationary sonar distracter. The distracter was presented at different angular offsets and distances from the bat. The results of this study show that the distance and the angular offset of the distracter influence sonar vocalization parameters of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Specifically, the bat adjusted its call duration to the closer of two objects, distracter or insect target, and the magnitude of the adjustment depended on the angular offset of the distracter. In contrast, the bat consistently adjusted its call rate to the distance of the insect, even when this target was positioned behind the distracter. The results hold implications for understanding spatial information processing and perception by echolocation.
Social interactions are a fundamental and adaptive component of the biology of numerous species. Social recognition is critical for the structure and stability of the networks and relationships that define societies. For animals, such as mice, recognition of conspecifics may be important for maintaining social hierarchy and for mate choice 1. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social recognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. Studies of humans as well as animal models (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus) have identified genes involved in the regulation of social behavior 2. To assess sociability in animal models, several behavioral tests have been developed (reviewed in 3). Integrative research using animal models and appropriate tests for social behavior may lead to the development of improved treatments for social psychopathologies. The three-chamber paradigm test known as Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty protocol has been successfully employed to study social affiliation and social memory in several inbred and mutant mouse lines (e.g. 4-7). The main principle of this test is based on the free choice by a subject mouse to spend time in any of three box's compartments during two experimental sessions, including indirect contact with one or two mice with which it is unfamiliar. To quantitate social tendencies of the experimental mouse, the main tasks are to measure a) the time spent with a novel conspecific and b) preference for a novel vs. a familiar conspecific. Thus, the experimental design of this test allows evaluation of two critical but distinguishable aspects of social behavior, such as social affiliation/motivation, as well as social memory and novelty. "Sociability" in this case is defined as propensity to spend time with another mouse, as compared to time spent alone in an identical but empty chamber 7. "Preference for social novelty" is defined as propensity to spend time with a previously unencountered mouse rather than with a familiar mouse 7. This test provides robust results, which then must be carefully analyzed, interpreted and supported/confirmed by alternative sociability tests. In addition to specific applications, Crawley's sociability test can be included as an important component of general behavioral screen of mutant mice.
Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Lipina, Tatiana; Vukobradovic, Igor; Roder, John; Woodgett, James R.
Social interactions are a fundamental and adaptive component of the biology of numerous species. Social recognition is critical for the structure and stability of the networks and relationships that define societies. For animals, such as mice, recognition of conspecifics may be important for maintaining social hierarchy and for mate choice. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social recognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. Studies of humans as well as animal models (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus) have identified genes involved in the regulation of social behavior. To assess sociability in animal models, several behavioral tests have been developed (reviewed in (3)). Integrative research using animal models and appropriate tests for social behavior may lead to the development of improved treatments for social psychopathologies. The three-chamber paradigm test known as Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty protocol has been successfully employed to study social affiliation and social memory in several inbred and mutant mouse lines (e.g. (4-7)). The main principle of this test is based on the free choice by a subject mouse to spend time in any of three box's compartments during two experimental sessions, including indirect contact with one or two mice with which it is unfamiliar. To quantitate social tendencies of the experimental mouse, the main tasks are to measure a) the time spent with a novel conspecific and b) preference for a novel vs. a familiar conspecific. Thus, the experimental design of this test allows evaluation of two critical but distinguishable aspects of social behavior, such as social affiliation/motivation, as well as social memory and novelty. "Sociability" in this case is defined as propensity to spend time with another mouse, as compared to time spent alone in an identical but empty chamber. "Preference for social novelty" is defined as propensity to spend time with a previously unencountered mouse rather than with a familiar mouse. This test provides robust results, which then must be carefully analyzed, interpreted and supported/confirmed by alternative sociability tests. In addition to specific applications, Crawley's sociability test can be included as an important component of general behavioral screen of mutant mice. PMID:21403628
Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Lipina, Tatiana; Vukobradovic, Igor; Roder, John; Woodgett, James R
In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics. PMID:21876133
In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics.
Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J. P.; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H. Eugene
The streaming of 3D video contents is currently a reality to expand the user experience. However, because of the variable bandwidth of the networks used to deliver multimedia content, a smooth and high-quality playback experience could not always be guaranteed. Using segments in multiple video qualities, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) of video content is a relevant advancement with respect to classic progressive download streaming. Mainly, it allows resolving these issues by offering significant advantages in terms of both user-perceived Quality of Experience (QoE) and resource utilization for content and network service providers. In this paper we discuss the impact of possible HAS client's behavior while adapting to the network capacity on enduser. This has been done through an experiment of testing the end-user response to the quality variation during the adaptation procedure. The evaluation has been carried out through a subjective test of the end-user response to various possible clients' behaviors for increasing, decreasing, and oscillation of quality in 3D video. In addition, some of the HAS typical impairments during the adaptation has been simulated and their effects on the end-user perception are assessed. The experimental conclusions have made good insight into the user's response to different adaptation scenarios and visual impairments causing the visual discomfort that can be used to develop the adaptive streaming algorithm to improve the end-user experience.
|States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavioradaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…
Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol
Caregiver report on the AdaptiveBehaviorAssessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptivebehavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…
|Caregiver report on the AdaptiveBehaviorAssessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptivebehavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…
This document provides guidelines for the evaluation of factors that affect the human performance component of systems performance. Behavioral climate may be used to assess elements in the workplace that effect human performance. An analytical tree is included as a structure to aid in this human performance evaluation. This study is not meant to be exhaustive. Certainly, there are other
D. I. Gertman; L. N. Haney; H. S. Blackman; D. L. Schurman
This document provides guidelines for the evaluation of factors that affect the human performance component of systems performance. Behavioral climate may be used to assess elements in the workplace that affect human performance. An analytical tree is included as a structure to aid in this human performance evaluation. This study is not meant to be exhaustive. Certainly, there are other
D. I. Gertman; L. N. Haney; H. S. Blackman; D. L. Schurman
Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for.
|Reports on the preliminary study of a time-limited, out-patient treatment for suicidal adolescents designed to reduce suicidal behavior and psychiatric inpatient admissions along with drop-out rates. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for adolescents seems to be effective in keeping them out of hospital and in treatment. DBT appears to be a…
|Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…
Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.
Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptivebehavior scores were statistically significant in favor of the behavioral intervention
Sigmund Eldevik; Erik Jahr; Svein Eikeseth; Richard P. Hastings; Carl J. Hughes
Adaptive networks appear in biological and social applications. They combine topological evolution of network with dynamics of the network nodes. Considering the friendship network in a community, members tend to choose those who share the similar interests to be their friends. With the growth of the social network, the interests of a member could change with the interests of their
|The Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) is designed to assess both adaptive and problematic behaviors of children and adolescents from age 2 to 18 years. It can be individually or group administered, measures behaviors in different contexts, and includes both parent and teacher forms. The test was developed to be consistent with current…
Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.
The present study explored the total adaptivebehavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptivebehavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptivebehavior were investigated. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales (Survey Form). Forty-six children and adolescents with visual impairments participated. The results reveal the effect of age on total adaptivebehavior and on each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization; the older individuals with visual impairments present better performance but also a higher rate of delay in comparison with younger individuals. Moreover, the ability of independent movement is a predictor of performance and developmental delay on the Daily Living Skills and Socialization. The more independent the mobility of individuals with visual impairments is the better the performance and the lower the level of developmental delay. Moreover, the educational level of parents is a predictor of performance and developmental delay on the Communication and Socialization. The higher the educational level of parents the better the performance and the lower the developmental delay. PMID:21320765
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis
Intelligent agent technology can be considered as a step towards the next stage of artificial intelligence. This new technology attempts to bridge the gap between man and machine. When bridging the man-machine gap, one of the main issues to address is how to make agents capable of autonomous actions in a dynamic environment. Inspired by human behavior, psychology and brain
The traditional approach to building artificially intelligent systems can be characterized as a top- down methodology: creating large complex systems with massive amounts of knowledge dedicated to solving one particular aspect of supposedly intelligent behavior, such as theorem-proving, or playing chess, or understanding natural language. At some point, it is hoped, all of these separate modules can be connected together
Presents an experiment on mouse behavior in which students learn to observe, pay attention to details, record field notes, and ask questions about their observations. Uses a white mouse to eliminate the risk of disease that a wild rodent might carry. Lists materials, set up, and procedure. (YDS)
In this article, I argue that human social behavior is a product of the coevolution of human biology and culture. While critical of attempts by anthropologists to explain cultural practices as if they were independent of the ability of individual human beings to survive and reproduce, I am also leery of attempts by biologists to explain the consistencies between neo-Darwinian
Dynamic, unanticipated adaptation of running systems is of interest in a variety of situations, ranging from functional upgrades to on-the-fly debugging or monitoring of critical applications. In this paper we study a particular form of computational reflection, calledunanticipated partial behavioral reflection(UPBR), which is particularly well suited for unanticipated adaptation of real- world systems. Our proposal combines the dynamicity of unanticipated
This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed these hypotheses. As hypothesized, popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent
Joseph P. Allen; Maryfrances R. Porter; F. Christy McFarland; Penny Marsh; Kathleen Boykin McElhaney
The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers’ and fathers’ reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers’ and fathers’ parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers’ externalizing, internalizing, and adaptivebehaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers independently completed the Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PDSQ; Robinson, Mandleco,
|The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptivebehaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…
Background Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. Objective The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) to evaluate schizotypy through “The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment” (ESQUIZO-Q), in non-clinical adolescents. Methods The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD?=?1.2). Results The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ?0.30 was of 34 items. Conclusion The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings.
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Menendez, Luis Fernando; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Muniz, Jose
|The rationale for using a behavioralassessment approach in the evaluation of hyperactivity is explained, and the various procedures for behaviorallyassessing hyperactivity are reviewed. Guidelines and resources are also suggested for the practitioner to use in behavioralassessment of hyperactivity. (SW)|
|Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptivebehavior…
Eldevik, Sigmund; Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, Carl J.
|Many questionnaires attempt to assess the quality of life of individuals who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), but few apply to those who are undergoing visual rehabilitation and hence are difficult to adapt as an outcome measure Massof & Rubin, 2001). The Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI) was developed as a…
Goodrich, Gregory L.; Kirby, Jennine; Wood, Jennifer; Peters, Laura
An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptivebehavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptivebehavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. PMID:19941941
A wide variety of behavioral methods has been employed with animals to assess visual changes induced by drugs or toxicants. The methods range from simple to complex, from broad screening devices to narrowly focused techniques. Their relative advantages for the environmental toxicologist are discussed. Manipulation of stimulus values is an essential ingredient in the identification of specific sensory functions. The percentage of correct choices from a discrete-trial, multiple-choice discrimination procedure is to be preferred to measures of response rate, speed or reaction time when experiments require answers about specific visual functions.
Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific\\u000a patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptivebehavior. Model-based\\u000a cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes were differentiated by taste\\u000a and smell sensitivity and movement-related sensory behavior. Further, sensory processing subtypes
Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), remains unclear. Here, we show that the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which acts in AWC, is loaded with siRNAs targeting odr-1, a gene whose downregulation is required for adaptation. Concomitant with increased odr-1 siRNA in AWC, we observe increased binding of the HP1 homolog HPL-2 at the odr-1 locus in AWC and reduced odr-1 mRNA in adapted animals. Phosphorylation of HPL-2, an in vitro substrate of the EGL-4 kinase that promotes adaption, is necessary and sufficient for behavioraladaptation. Thus, environmental stimulation amplifies an endo-siRNA negative feedback loop to dynamically repress cognate gene expression and shape behavior. This class of siRNA may act broadly as a rheostat allowing prolonged stimulation to dampen gene expression and promote cellular memory formation. PAPERFLICK: PMID:23993094
|This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales Second Edition…
Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet
This paper presents a behavioral ecologist's view on adaptive responses to early stress. I first summarize two approaches to this topic drawn from other papers in this Special Issue: the ‘inoculation model’ and the ‘adaptive calibration model’. I then describe three relevant modeling approaches from behavioral and evolutionary ecology: models of adaptive plasticity, models of adaptive prey behavior under uncertainty
The complex relationship between learning disabilities and delinquent behavior is discussed. Two groups of learning disabled adolescents are identified: (1) a group adapting by learning to compensate for their disabilities; (2) a group who had more academic, interpersonal and legal difficulties. (JAZ)
Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptivebehavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…
Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.
Behavioral flexibility is an important adaptive response to changing environments for many animal species. Such plasticity may also promote the invasion of novel habitats by introduced species by providing them with the ability to expand or change their ecological niche, a longstanding idea with recent empirical support. At the individual level, flexibility may arise through innovation, in which an individual
T. F. Wright; J. R. Eberhard; E. A. Hobson; M. L. Avery; M. A. Russello
Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioraladaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…
Long lifetime autonomous ground vehicles traveling in rough terrain will need a higher level of autonomy with behaviors that must also adapt to declining vehicle health and unknown environmental conditions. For example, the MER (Mars Exploration Rovers) Spirit and Opportunity have both passed 1900 days of life on the Martian surface, with possible extensions to 2200 days and beyond depending
Climate change assessments which have considered climate impacts of a 2xCO2 climate, using models of the global agricultural system, have found small impacts on overall production, but larger regional changes. Production shifts among regions can be considered one mechanism for adaptation. Adaptation at the farm level, through changes in crops, cultivars, and production practices, is another adaptation mechanism. Existing studies
This study provides a clear example of female-mimicking behavior by males in insects and evaluates quantitatively the adaptive significance of this behavior, which is poorly understood in many other organisms. Males of Hylobittacus apicalis provide females with a prey arthropod during copulation. Some males mimic female behavior when interacting with males that have captured nuptial prey, resulting in males stealing prey which they will use for copulation. Males that pirate prey copulate more frequently and probably incur fewer predation-related risks. PMID:17790854
|The Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF), a 25-item rating scale, was developed to identify the function(s) of maladaptive behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. The authors adapted it for use with individuals with serious mental illness who engage in maladaptive behavior and assessed the psychometric characteristics of…
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Matson, Johnny L.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Adkins, Angela D.; McKeegan, Gerald F.; Brown, Stephen W.
The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the AdaptiveBehaviorAssessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the BehaviorAssessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508
Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W
|This article provides guidance on the use of functional behavioralassessment (FBA) techniques to identify the function of problem behaviors by recording antecedents and consequences of each behavior. It includes a case study illustrating application of FBA as well as a sample form for recording observations, developing a behavioral hypothesis,…
Shippen, Margaret E.; Simpson, Robert G.; Crites, Steven A.
Most studies of adaptive radiations focus on morphological aspects of differentiation, yet behavior is also an important component of evolutionary diversification, often mediating the relationship between animal ecology and morphology. In species within radiations that are convergent in ecology and morphology, we then also expect convergence in behavior. Here, we examined 13 Anolis lizard species to determine whether territorial strategies
Michele A. Johnson; Liam J. Revell; Jonathan B. Losos
|Reviews basic principles and practices of child behavioralassessment. Examines the effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions in the treatment of school refusal. Concludes that these interventions can be enhanced by a prescriptive treatment approach in which assessment information is used to tailor treatment to the specified problem of a…
Objectives: To examine the rates of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties among youth who never had sleep disordered breathing (SDB), had remitted SDB, had incident SDB, or had persistent SDB; and to determine if there were increased odds of behavioral difficulties among youth with varying SDB histories relative to those who never had SDB. Methods: 263 youth had valid polysomnography and neurobehavioral data at two time points approximately 5 years apart from the prospective Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study. Primary outcomes were the BehaviorAssessment Scale for Children-2nd Edition Parent Report Form (BASC-PRF) and Self-Report of Personality (SRP), and the AdaptiveBehaviorAssessment System-2nd Edition (ABAS-2). Results: Compared to those who never had SDB, individuals with persistent SDB had significant odds and met more cutoff scores on the BASC-2-PRF Externalizing Problems Composite (odds ratio [OR] 3.29; 8.92% vs. 35.3%), Behavioral Symptoms Index (OR 6.82; 7.4% vs. 35.3%) and Hyperactivity subscale (OR 6.82; 11.1% vs. 41.2%). Similarly, greater difficulties was seen for the group with persistent SDB (relative to never) on the ABAS-2 Social Domain (OR 3.39; 22% vs. 50%), and Communication (OR 4.26; 15% vs. 42.9%) and Self-Care subscales (OR = 2.97; 25.2% vs. 50%). Relative to youth who never had SDB, youth who developed SDB at Time 2 had compromised adaptive skills as evidenced by the BASC-2 PRF AdaptiveBehavior Composite (OR 3.34; 15.6% vs. 38.1%) and the ABAS-2 General Adaptive Composite (OR 2.83; 20.5% vs. 42.1%). Conclusions: Youth with current SDB exhibited hyperactivity, attention problems, aggressivity, lower social competency, poorer communication, and/or diminished adaptive skills. Citation: Perfect MM; Archbold K; Goodwin JL; Levine-Donnerstein D; Quan SF. Risk of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties in youth with previous and current sleep disordered breathing. SLEEP 2013;36(4):517-525.
Perfect, Michelle M.; Archbold, Kristen; Goodwin, James L.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Quan, Stuart F.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) are high prevalence developmental disabilities that co-occur at high rates. Furthermore, Axis I psychopathology is known to occur more frequently in individuals with ID than the general population. The problems are lifelong and can be major impediments to independent living. Despite this, little research with adults is available to determine the effects of these disabilities on specific adaptive skills. In this study, 337 adults were evaluated using the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scale to assess the effects of these disabilities on looking at an ID, ID plus ASD, and ID and ASD plus Axis I psychopathology group. Adaptive skills were greatest for the ID group followed by the ID plus ASD, and ID and ASD plus psychopathology. Thus, the more handicapping conditions, the greater the skills deficits observed, particularly where psychopathology was concerned. As such, accurately identifying the causes of adaptive skill deficits will likely result in more precise and effective treatment. PMID:19540717
Matson, Johnny L; Rivet, Tessa T; Fodstad, Jill C; Dempsey, Timothy; Boisjoli, Jessica A
The Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before\\u000a age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales\\u000a of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD\\/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal development were
\\u000a This paper describes the state-of-the art of an elderly companion robot project, aimed towards the development of personal\\u000a service robots for the elderly population. We propose a behavioradaptation method that reads interaction signals from the\\u000a old people, and then adjust interaction output such as daily dialogues, news and whether broadcasting, motion speed and navigation-assist.\\u000a The method uses detecting the
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of functional auditory skills, language, and adaptivebehavior in deaf children with cochlear implants (CI) who also have additional disabilities (AD). Design A two-group, pre-test versus post-test design was used. Study sample Comparisons were made between 23 children with CIs and ADs, and an age-matched comparison group of 23 children with CIs without ADs (No-AD). Assessments were obtained pre-CI and within 12 months post-CI. Results All but two deaf children with ADs improved in auditory skills using the IT-MAIS. Most deaf children in the AD group made progress in receptive but not expressive language using the Preschool Language Scale, but their language quotients were lower than the No-AD group. Five of eight children with ADs made progress in daily living skills and socialization skills; two made progress in motor skills. Children with ADs who did not make progress in language, did show progress in adaptivebehavior. Conclusions Children with deafness and ADs made progress in functional auditory skills, receptive language, and adaptivebehavior. Expanded assessment that includes adaptive functioning and multi-center collaboration is recommended to best determine benefits of implantation in areas of expected growth in this clinical population.
Beer, Jessica; Harris, Michael S.; Kronenberger, William G.; Holt, Rachael Frush; Pisoni, David B.
Fifty-eight adults with Down syndrome (ages 31 to 56 years at time of first testing, mean age, 43.5) were assessed longitudinally over 10 years for the purpose of modeling aging-related change in cognitive function and adaptivebehavior. Cognitive function was assessed seven times using the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised Early Development Battery. Adaptivebehavior was evaluated five times using the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning. Multi-level (hierarchical linear) modeling procedures were used to model change with age. Findings provided further evidence of changes in performance with age and included selected effects for participants who completed the 10 years of study and those who were lost to follow-up as well as for age cohorts. PMID:12597720
Hawkins, Barbara A; Eklund, Susan J; James, David R; Foose, Alice K
Purpose of the study was to assess effects of 105-d isolation on language behavior and psychophysiological status of volunteered subjects. Software NOOJ was used to determine frequency of mentioning in written reports notions falling into the categories of "Needs", "Activity", "Negation" and "Social regulation". Well-being, activity and mood were assessed with the SAN questionnaire and urine cortisol measurement. Correlation of the content-analysis results with phases of adaptation to extended isolation and confinement made it possible to elicit specific features of language behavior of the small group members, at the time of simulated autonomy, specifically. Besides, the computerized content-analysis enabled a quantitative description of communication strategy as a function of psychophysiological adaptation to stressful factors of the simulation experiment. PMID:21675191
Shved, D M; Gushchin, V I; Vinokhodova, A G; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasil'eva, G Iu
This study explored the adaptivebehavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptivebehavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational setting had an effect on Daily Living Skills and Socialization. Students with visual
Katerina Metsiou; Konstantinos Papadopoulos; Ioannis Agaliotis
|A study examined adaptivebehavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptivebehavior profiles. (Contains…
|This study explored the adaptivebehavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptivebehavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…
Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis
Objective To develop and test a prototype dyspnea computer adaptive test. Design Prospective study. Setting Two outpatient medical facilities. Participants A convenience sample of 292 adults with COPD. Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measure We developed a modified and expanded item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) for the Dyspnea Management Questionnaire (DMQ), an outcome measure consisting of four dyspnea dimensions: dyspnea intensity, dyspnea anxiety, activity avoidance, and activity self-efficacy. Results Factor analyses supported a four-dimensional model underlying the 71 DMQ items. The DMQ item bank achieved acceptable Rasch model fit statistics, good measurement breadth with minimal floor and ceiling effects, and evidence of high internal consistency reliability (? = 0.92 to 0.98). Using CAT simulation analyses, the DMQ-CAT showed high measurement accuracy compared to the total item pool (r = .83 to .97, p < .0001) and evidence of good to excellent concurrent (r = ?.61 to ?0.80, p < .0001) validity. All DMQ-CAT domains showed evidence for known-groups validity (p ? 0.001). Conclusions The DMQ-CAT reliably and validly captured four distinct dyspnea domains. Multidimensional dyspnea assessment in COPD is needed to better measure the effectiveness of pharmacologic, pulmonary rehabilitation, and psychosocial interventions in not only alleviating the somatic sensation of dyspnea but also reducing dysfunctional emotions, cognitions, and behaviors associated with dyspnea, especially for anxious patients.
Norweg, Anna; Ni, Pengsheng; Garshick, Eric; O'Connor, George; Wilke, Kira; Jette, Alan M.
Functional behavioralassessment (FBA) is the process of identifying the events in the environment that consistently precede and follow challenging behavior. The use of FBA has increased significantly following the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997, which mandated FBAs be conducted when children with disabilities demonstrate challenging behavior. The purposes of this paper are to review
|In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of…
Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Curby, Tim W.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Brock, Laura L.; Nathanson, Lori
This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.
Developing effective interventions for students with challenging behaviors may require functional behavioralassessment (FBA), now mandated by IDEA '97. While the assistance of students, parents, and teachers is crucial, it is the educational diagnostician who likely will be responsible for orchestrating the tasks involved in conducting a proper FBA. It stands to reason that diagnosticians, as assessment professionals, must be
The adaptivebehavior and psychopathology of children between the ages of 5 and 12 years, in kinship and non-kinship foster care from a large city child welfare system, were assessed with the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales-Interview Edition (Sparrow, Balla, & Cicchetti, 1984) and the Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (Naglieri, LeBuffe, & Pfeiffer, 1994) respectively. The temperament “match,” defined as
The Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF), a 25-item rating scale, was developed to identify the function(s) of maladaptive behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. The authors adapted it for use with individuals with serious mental illness who engage in maladaptive behavior and assessed the psychometric characteristics of the new scale (Questions About Behavioral Function in Mental Illness; QABF-MI) in a
Nirbhay N. Singh; Johnny L. Matson; Giulio E. Lancioni; Ashvind N. Singh; Angela D. Adkins; Gerald F. McKeegan; Stephen W. Brown
This paper describes the development of an adaptiveassessment called Interactive Computerised Assessment System (InCAS) that is aimed at children of a wide age and ability range to identify specific reading problems. Rasch measurement has been used to create the equal interval scales that form each part of the assessment. The rationale for the…
|With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test (CBT) with mobile learning (m-learning) especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test (CAT) is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves. In CAT, students are…
Two studies were conducted to analyze behaviors of staff and patients on a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). In the first study, behavioral observation procedures were employed to assess patient state, physical position, affect, verbal behaviors, visual attention and activity engagement, and staff verbal behavior. On the average, one-third of the patients were judged to be conscious and alert but markedly nonengaged with their environment. In the second study, a member of the hospital staff provided alert patients with individual activities to determine whether a simple environmental manipulation could positively affect behavior of children in intensive care. Employing a reversal design, the activity intervention was found to increase attention and engagement and positive affect, and to decrease inappropriate behavior. Both studies demonstrate that behavioralassessment procedures can provide an empirical basis for designing PICU routines affecting children's psychosocial status, and, thus, complement current procedures designed to provide quality medical care.
Cataldo, M F; Bessman, C A; Parker, L H; Pearson, J E; Rogers, M C
Vertebrate sickness behaviors, which include lethargy, anorexia, and decreased libido, can facilitate defense against pathogens by conserving energy for use in other immune responses and by limiting parasites' access to nutrients. Such benefits come with considerable costs, however, as lethargy decreases the time available for other fitness-enhancing activities and dampened libido directly reduces reproductive prospects. While the degree of sickness behaviors expressed varies among individuals, populations, and species, the ecological and physiological factors driving this diversity remain unclear. Here, we consider how an organism's ecological context and life-history strategy may impact the ways in which it balances the costs and benefits of sickness behaviors to enable or suppress its expression. Striking an appropriate balance requires physiological assimilation of information about external ecological conditions as well as about the status of infection and host nutrition. This integration requires multi-directional communication among the endocrine, nervous, and immune systems, the purview of the field of psychoneuroimmunology. This discipline portrays cytokines, signaling molecules originally characterized solely by their roles within the immune system, as key mediators of a brain-immune network that ensures the adaptive expression of sickness behaviors. Study of these molecules and the behaviors they coordinate in an ecological context will greatly augment our understanding of the natural variation in immune function found among wild animals. PMID:21665814
Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene.
Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat's perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213
Abstract—Intelligent agents,working,in real time,domains need,to adapt,to changing,circumstance,so that,they,can improve,their performance,and,avoid their mistakes. AI agents designed for interactive games, however, typically lack this ability. Game agents are , traditionally implemented using static, hand- authored,behaviors,or scripts that are brittle to changing,world dynamics,and,cause,a break,in player,experience,when,they repeatedly fail. Furthermore, their static nature causes a lot of effort for the,game,designers,as they,have,to think,of all imaginable,circumstances,that can,be
Assessment of social influence on health behavior is often approached through a situational context. The current study adapted an existing, theory-based instrument from another content domain to assess Perceived Social Influence on Health Behavior (PSI-HB) among African Americans, using an individual difference approach. The adapted instrument was found to have high internal reliability (? = .81–.84) and acceptable testretest reliability (r = .68–.85). A measurement model revealed a three-factor structure and supported the theoretical underpinnings. Scores were predictive of health behaviors, particularly among women. Future research using the new instrument may have applied value assessing social influence in the context of health interventions.
HOLT, CHERYL L.; CLARK, EDDIE M.; ROTH, DAVID L.; CROWTHER, MARTHA; KOHLER, CONNIE; FOUAD, MONA; FOUSHEE, RUSTY; LEE, PATRICIA A.; SOUTHWARD, PENNY L.
People with intellectual disabilities (ID) often engage in problem behaviors, such as verbal or physical aggression, property destruction, or self-injury. These behaviors become a challenge for the families and for professionals. Functional behavioralassessment (FBA) is a method used to identify variables that influence or maintain challenging behaviors (CB) and aid in the development of intervention plans. Two major concerns of FBA are that it is time-consuming and requires specialized professionals to interpret data from the natural or experimental environment. Therefore, indirect FBA methods can be used as an alternative. An instrument with excellent psychometric properties that aims to identify the function of behavior is the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF). This study presents the adaptation of the QABF in Spain. Data from 300 participants with ID and 328 behavioral problems were obtained. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify the components of the QABF, and the test-retest reliability was assessed to evaluate the stability of the QABF over time. PMID:23417130
Researchers have examined adaptivebehavior in autism, but few studies have looked for different patterns of adaptive skills according to age and intelligence. Domain scores from the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scale (VABS) were compared in relation to age and Performance IQ for 72 children and adolescents with autism and 37 nonautistic children and adolescents with mental retardation. Age and IQ
The use of methods for assessing cognitions is crucial for the development of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Seven approaches to assessing cognitions are described and discussed: in vivo thought sampling, and the assessment of imagery, cognitive style, beliefs, attributions, self-efficacy expectations, and self-statements. Emphasis is placed upon a description of the assessment methods, a consideration of their role in the validation of
|To clarify the role of the cerebral cortex in neonatal behavior, the Neonatal BehavioralAssessment Scale--Kansas Revision was administered to a hydranencephalic infant. Extremely deviant responses on portions of the exam were found, including responses to items measuring response decrement and orientation. (Author/RH)|
|This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioralassessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…
|Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…
|Functional behavioralassessment (FBA) is the process of identifying the events in the environment that consistently precede and follow challenging behavior. The use of FBA has increased significantly following the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997, which mandated FBAs be conducted when children with…
|The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of training special education teachers in the process of functional behavioralassessment (FBA) and subsequent development of recommendations to promote behavior change. An original evaluation instrument was developed that included measures of special education teachers' knowledge of…
|Functional behavioralassessment (FBA) is the process of identifying the events in the environment that consistently precede and follow challenging behavior. The use of FBA has increased significantly following the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1997, which mandated FBAs be conducted when children with…
This article examines the behavioral treatment of Trichotillomania. A brief overview of the diagnosis and assessment of Trichotillomania is provided. Guidelines for a structured clinical evaluation when working with people diagnosed with Trichotillomania are supplied. The most effective behavioral interventions and treatments for working with…
Identifying individual mental mechanisms or processes, organizing the individual strategies of these mechanisms into useful patterns, and formulating these into models for success and knowledge-based outcomes is easily done and can be accomplished through the use of neurological cues. Once identified, analog models can be constructed from the cues, and tree analysis models can be developed and then digitized through such methods as Bayesian concepts or a continuous wavelet transform. The authors are intent upon understanding behavior and constructing models from a macro level of understanding the process. The author has yet to accept the fact that the author needs to understand the how at the micro level of strategy building. Knowing what to observe and how to state questions so as to gather precise information regarding strategies being processed provides the means to refine those models existing today to be more effective in their analysis of human behaviors.
This paper describes a general approach for the unsupervised learning of behaviors in a behavior-based robot. The key idea is to formalize a behavior produced by a Motor Map driven by an adaptive reward function. Aim of the adaptive reward function is to select the most significant sensory inputs and to use them in the best way. The greatest challenge
Paolo Arena; Luigi Fortuna; Mattia Frasca; Luca Patané; M. Pavone
The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptivebehavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptivebehaviors…
|The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptivebehavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptivebehaviors…
Costello syndrome is a rare rasopathy resulting from germline mutations of the proto-oncogene HRAS. Its phenotype includes severe failure-to-thrive, cardiac abnormalities, a predisposition to benign and malignant tumors, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Costello syndrome is associated with cognitive impairment, including intellectual functioning generally in the mild to moderate range of disability, commensurate adaptive functioning, and increased anxiety. Relative strengths have been found for nonverbal fluid reasoning (FR). Gender effects have been reported, with females showing better adaptive functioning across domains. Developmentally, nonverbal skills plateau in late childhood/early adolescence, whereas the rate of vocabulary acquisition may increase in adolescence into early adulthood. Here we review the literature assessing cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning in Costello syndrome, and we provide data from an ongoing longitudinal study. Severity of cognitive impairment may depend upon the specific HRAS mutation, as three individuals with the p.G13C change showed average nonverbal FR skills and borderline-to-low average overall nonverbal IQ. Further, separation anxiety is more common in Costello syndrome than in the general population, affecting 39% of this cohort, and males are more often overly anxious than females. Interrelations between anxiety and cognitive and adaptive functioning were found, pointing to functional difficulties as a likely source of stress and anxiety. Taking into account data from animal models, cognitive and behavioral changes likely originate from abnormal differentiation of neuronal precursor cells, which result in structural and functional brain differences. PMID:21495179
Axelrad, Marni E; Schwartz, David D; Katzenstein, Jennifer M; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Gripp, Karen W
The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) is a rating scale filled out by caregivers or teachers that was designed to assess children having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD; autism, Asperger disorder, PDD-NOS, or childhood disintegrative disorder). Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are assessed in the scale, making it useful for treatment studies in which decreases in maladaptive behaviors and improvements in
Ira L. Cohen; Susan Schmidt-Lackner; Raymond Romanczyk; Vicki Sudhalter
Bimanual movement training (BMT) may be an effective rehabilitative protocol for movement-related deficits following a stroke; however, it is unclear how varying types of BMT induce cortical adaptations in the healthy population. Moreover, we lack a methodology to measure cortical adaptations in response to modes of movement training. Therefore, the present study measured the cued movement-related potential (MRP) to investigate cortical adaptations during cued inphase versus antiphase BMT that transferred to a unimanual task and how cortical modulations related to behavior. Three specific hypotheses were investigated: (1) cued inphase BMT would induce cortical adaptations within regions subserving motor preparation and movement execution, (2) repetitive cued unimanual training would induce cortical activity modulations associated with motor execution, and (3) increased cortical activity would be associated with enhanced performance. On three separate days, EEG was recorded from 22 electrodes during three types of cued movement training: inphase BMT, antiphase BMT and repetitive unimanual movement, in addition to pre- and post-training unimanual movement trials involving cued right wrist flexion. The MRP was measured for each repetition during each trial. Results showed a significant training-related increase in preparatory activation correlated with a behavioral enhancement following cued inphase BMT. This effect was not attributable to a change in arousal. No significant training-related modulation occurred in response to cued antiphase BMT or repetitive unimanual movement training. These results suggest that cortical adaptations in relation to the preparation of a cued movement enhance in response to cued inphase BMT, and the MRP is an effective measurement tool to assess training-related adaptations in response to inphase BMT specifically. PMID:20711566
\\u000a Whether by nature or nurture, humans often respond differently when facing the same situation. Yet, the role of behavioral\\u000a differences between individuals when immersed in their social network remains largely ignored in most problems of natural\\u000a and social sciences. Here, we investigate how diversity in the way individuals assess their adverse social partners affects\\u000a the evolution of cooperation. We resort
Sven Van Segbroeck; Francisco C. Santos; Tom Lenaerts; Jorge Pacheco
The Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal development were selected, differences were found only on Vineland Receptive Communication and Daily Living. Correlation analyses to explore connection of these areas of difference with cognition and autistic symptoms suggested that Vineland Daily Living scores were significantly correlated with nonverbal ability and with ADOS total algorithm scores. Vineland Receptive Communication scores correlated significantly only with ADOS total algorithms. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21573835
Theories of social-emotional growth propose that repeatedly-experienced parent–infant interactions shape the individual's adaptation across development, yet few studies examined interactive behaviors repeatedly from infancy to adolescence. This study assessed the trajectories of four mother–child relational behaviors at six time-points from 3 months to 13 years: maternal sensitivity, child social engagement, mother intrusiveness, and dyadic reciprocity. Trajectories were examined separately for
This study examined the impact of In-Home Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT), an adaptation of standard cognitive-behavioral therapy, for 26 mothers with depres- sion. All mothers were concurrently receiving home visitation services from either a Healthy Families America (HFA) or Nurse Family Partnership (NFP) agency. Pre- treatment and posttreatment assessments were conducted using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), the
Robert T. Ammerman; Frank W. Putnam; Jack Stevens; Lauren J. Holleb; Amy L. Novak; Judith B. Van Ginkel
This study explored the adaptivebehavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptivebehavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational setting had an effect on Daily Living Skills and Socialization. Students with visual impairments visiting special schools present worse adaptivebehavior (higher developmental delay) compared to students visiting mainstream schools. Moreover, the educational level of parents influences the developmental delay on the Communication and Socialization. The higher the educational level of parents the lower the developmental delay. PMID:21862285
Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis
This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.
Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.
Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)
The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptivebehavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30–88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptivebehaviors (i.e., strengths in domestic daily living) and behavioral challenges (i.e., high
Robustness assessment is important for every newly developed method. This paper presents robustness assessment of a new adaptive on-board fault diagnosis algorithm for the air-path of spark ignition (SI) engines. The method uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to classify pre-defined possible faults from engine measurements, reporting fault occurrence as well as the type and size of a
|We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the AdaptiveBehaviorAssessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…
Seasonal changes in day length enhance or suppress aspects of immune function in mammals. Following adaptation to short, winter-like short photoperiods, cytokine and behavioral responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced simulated infections are attenuated in LPS-naive Siberian hamsters. This experiment examined whether diminished initial responses to LPS in short days (SDs) are accompanied by decrements in the development of innate immunological memory that leads to endotoxin tolerance. Male hamsters exposed to SDs (9h-light/day) or kept in their natal long-day (LD) photoperiod (15h-light/day) for 12-13 weeks were injected with bacterial LPS (625microg/kg, i.p.) or sterile saline. Ten days later all hamsters were challenged with LPS (625microg/kg, i.p.), and behavioral sickness responses (anorexia and reductions in nest building) were assessed. In LD hamsters, behavioral responses to the second LPS injection were markedly attenuated but still evident, indicative of partial tolerance. SD hamsters, in contrast, failed to exhibit anorexic or thermoregulatory responses to the second LPS injection, indicative of complete behavioral tolerance to LPS. Thus despite engaging greater naive responses to LPS, LD hamsters exhibited incomplete LPS tolerance relative to SD hamsters. The expression of behavioral tolerance to endotoxin is relatively diminished during the breeding season, a time of year when naive responses to endotoxin are at their greatest. During winter, enhancements in behavioral endotoxin tolerance may conserve energy and facilitate survival in the face of energetically challenging conditions. PMID:18291598
The purpose of this study was to examine adaptive behaviour profiles in children with autism and moderate to severe developmental delay. Previous research has found that children with autism present a characteristic pattern of adaptive behaviour, as measured by the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales (VABS) (deficit in the domain of socialization, relative deficit in the domain of communication and relative
Gemma Fenton; Caterina D’ardia; Donatella Valente; Ilaria Del Vecchio; Anna Fabrizi; Paola Bernabei
A novel adaptive mixture-based neural network is presented for exploiting track data to learn normal patterns of motion behavior and detect deviations from normalcy. We have extended our prior approach by introducing multidimensional probability density components to represent class density using an adaptive mixture of such components. The number of components in the adaptive mixture algorithm, as well as the
Denis Garagic; Bradley J. Rhodes; Neil A. Bomberger; Majid Zandipour
Adaptation techniques can be applied not only to the multimedia contents or navigational possibilities of a course, but also to the assessment. In order to facilitate the authoring of adaptive free-text assessment and its integration within adaptive web-based courses, Adaptive Hypermedia techniques and Free-text Computer Assisted Assessment are combined in what could be called Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-text
Enrique Alfonseca; Rosa M. Carro; Manuel Freire; Alvaro Ortigosa; Diana Pérez; Pilar Rodríguez
Two studies on the use of the AAMD AdaptiveBehavior Scale (ABS) with autistic children are reported. The first study compared ratings by parents and teachers on the same child. For Part I (Adaptive), significant correlations were found on total score and on 7 out of 10 individual scales. For Part II (Behavior), significant correlations were found on only 3
This research project explored the impact of one special education preschool program in helping developmentally delayed children improve their adaptivebehaviors across the domains of communication, motor skill, daily living and socialization. A measure of parental stress was also employed to provide information about the relationship of parental stress, adaptivebehavior and preschool programing.^ To ensure that 93 current and
Although adaptivebehavior became a diagnostic criterion in the 5th edition of the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, AAIDD (Heber, 1959, 1961), there are no measures with adequate psychometric properties for diagnosing significant limitations in adaptivebehavior according to the current conception of the…
Navas, Patricia; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Arias, Benito; Gomez, Laura E.
|This article provides a general description of the features and steps of the functional behavioralassessment (FBA) process. It is organized around frequently asked questions and provides information on who conducts an FBA, when an FBA should be done, the components of an FBA, and outcomes of an FBA. (Contains references.) (CR)|
|This article synthesizes information from the special education literature about functional behavioralassessments (FBAs), including the law and FBA, working definitions, basic assumptions underlying FBA, the role of the diagnosticians, the role of special educators, the steps to conducting an FBA, the methods of FBA, and tools for the…
This article gives a brief over view of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM; Crittenden, 2008) together with the various DMM assessments of attachment that have been developed for specific stages of development. Each assessment is discussed in terms of procedure, outcomes, validity, advantages and limitations, comparable procedures and areas for further research and validation. The aims are twofold: to provide an introduction to DMM theory and its application that underlie the articles in this issue of CCPP; and to provide researchers and clinicians with a guide to DMM assessments. PMID:20603420
Behavior, even in simple metazoans, depends upon integrated processes at the subcellular, cellular, and organismal level, and thus is susceptible to disruption by a broad spectrum of chemicals. Locomotor behavior (movement) of the small free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be useful in assessing toxicity. Recently reported observations suggest that behavioral change (reduced movement) occurs after 4 h of exposure to heavy metals, and that with abbreviated exposure, the concentration-response relationship for Pb (a known neurotoxic metal) differs from that for Cu. In this study, movement was evaluated after 4-h exposures for nine compounds from three chemical classes: organic pesticides, organic solvents, and heavy metals. Concentration-dependent reduction of movement was observed for all test compounds with the exception of mebendazole, for which test concentrations were limited by solubility. Within each chemical class, movement was more sensitive to the neurotoxic compounds than to substances not believed to be neurotoxic, as evidenced by behavioral effective concentration to reduce average worm movement to 50% of the control movement values (e.g., levamisole and chlorpyrifos < mebendazole, ethanol and acetone < dimethylsulfoxide, and Pb and Al < Cu). These observations are discussed as they relate to the use of acute behavioral tests in assessing general chemical toxicity, and the enhanced value of 4-h testing for the detection of neural toxicants. PMID:15180374
Anderson, Gary L; Cole, Russell D; Williams, Phillip L
The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) is a rating scale filled out by caregivers or teachers that was designed to assess children having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD; autism, Asperger disorder, PDD-NOS, or childhood disintegrative disorder). Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are assessed in the scale, making it useful for treatment studies in which decreases in maladaptive behaviors and improvements in adaptive social and language skills relevant to PDD are expected. The adaptivebehaviorsassessed include core features of the disorder such as joint attention skills, pretend play, and referential gesture. The maladaptive behaviors sample a wide variety of behaviors observed in both lower- and higher-functioning individuals and include stereotyped behaviors, fears, aggression, social interaction deficits, and aberrant language. The inventory was found to have a high degree of internal consistency. Inter-rater reliability was better for adaptivebehaviors than for maladaptive behaviors. Factor analyses confirmed the structure of the PDDBI and indicated good construct validity. In a subsample of children between 3 and 6 years of age, raw scores for adaptivebehaviors increased with age in the parent and teacher versions, as did measures of social pragmatic problems. It was concluded that the PDDBI is both reliable and valid and is useful in providing information not typically available in most instruments used to assess children with PDD. PMID:12708578
Cohen, Ira L; Schmidt-Lackner, Susan; Romanczyk, Raymond; Sudhalter, Vicki
The reliability assessment of complex active systems requires simulation methods, which reproduce complex system performance and also account for failure and fatigue scenarios. More and more, test methods traditionally carried out experimentally are replaced by computational or 'virtual' methods. Reliability of these complex adaptive systems is hard to estimate for several reasons. A priori undetermined interaction between various influencing parameters, unknown fatigue properties of the multifunctional materials employed in sensors and actuators and very complex system performance requirements make it difficult to predict under which circumstances the system may fail. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) of the comprehensive adaptive system model has proven to be a valuable tool for the identification and assessment of scenarios that are relevant for system reliability. For the example of an active oil pan, which is equipped with piezoelectric sensors and actuators to suppress structural vibrations, the method is outlined.
Many children experience chronic headaches, particularly migraine and tension headaches. These can be quite debilitating for\\u000a the child and produce much concern from caregivers and health professionals. Following a discussion of pathophysiology and\\u000a epidemiological findings, we emphasize the need for nonpharmacological interventions for chronic headaches. This review explores\\u000a advances in the behavioralassessment and treatment of childhood headaches. We outline
Neville J. King; Greg C. Murphy; Thomas H. Ollendick; Bruce J. Tonge
Continuous presentation of an olfactory stimulus causes a decrement of the chemotaxis response in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the differences between the learning process of habituation (a readily reversible decrease in behavioral response) and other types of olfactory plasticity such as adaptation (a decrement in response due to sensory fatigue, which cannot be dishabituated) have not been addressed. The volatile odorant diacetyl (DA) was used within a single paradigm to assess the distinct processes of olfactory adaptation and habituation. Preexposing and testing worms to 100% DA vapors caused a chemotaxis decrement that was not reversible despite the presentation of potentially dishabituating stimuli. This DA adaptation was abolished in worms with an odr-10 mutation (encoding a high-affinity DA receptor on the AWA neuron), even though naive chemotaxis remained unaffected. Conversely, DA adaptation remained intact in odr-1 mutants (defective in AWC neuron-mediated olfactory behavior), even though naive chemotaxis to DA decreased. Surprisingly, exposure to vapors of intermediate concentrations of DA (0.01% and 25%) did not cause worms to exhibit any response decrement. In contrast to preexposure to high DA concentrations, preexposure to low DA concentrations (0.001%) produced habituation of the chemotaxis response (a dishabituating stimulus could reverse the response decrement back to baseline levels). The distinct behavioral effects produced by DA preexposure highlight a concentration-dependent dissociation between two decremental olfactory processes: adaptation at high DA concentrations versus habituation at low DA concentrations. PMID:10940320
|This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptivebehavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and…
Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.
Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
Background Low health literacy has a detrimental effect on health outcomes, as well as ability to use online health resources. Good health literacy assessment tools must be brief to be adopted in practice; test development from the perspective of item-response theory requires pretesting on large participant populations. Our objective was to develop a novel classification method for developing brief assessment instruments that does not require pretesting on large numbers of research participants, and that would be suitable for computerized adaptive testing. Methods We present a new algorithm that uses principles of measurement decision theory (MDT) and Shannon's information theory. As a demonstration, we applied it to a secondary analysis of data sets from two assessment tests: a study that measured patients' familiarity with health terms (52 participants, 60 items) and a study that assessed health numeracy (165 participants, 8 items). Results In the familiarity data set, the method correctly classified 88.5% of the subjects, and the average length of test was reduced by about 50%. In the numeracy data set, for a two-class classification scheme, 96.9% of the subjects were correctly classified with a more modest reduction in test length of 35.7%; a three-class scheme correctly classified 93.8% with a 17.7% reduction in test length. Conclusions MDT-based approaches are a promising alternative to approaches based on item-response theory, and are well-suited for computerized adaptive testing in the health domain.
Climate change adaptationassessments aim at assisting policy-makers in reducing the health risks associated with climate change and variability. This paper identifies key characteristics of the climate-health relationship and of the adaptation decision problem that require consideration in climate change adaptationassessments. It then analyzes whether these characteristics are appropriately considered in existing guidelines for climate impact and adaptationassessment and in pertinent conceptual models from environmental epidemiology. The review finds three assessment guidelines based on a generalized risk management framework to be most useful for guiding adaptationassessments of human health. Since none of them adequately addresses all key challenges of the adaptation decision problem, actual adaptationassessments need to combine elements from different guidelines. Established conceptual models from environmental epidemiology are found to be of limited relevance for assessing and planning adaptation to climate change since the prevailing toxicological model of environmental health is not applicable to many climate-sensitive health risks. PMID:18231945
This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptivebehavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically developing children (n = 20). The participants were administered standardised tests of structural language skills, and parents completed the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales and the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Results indicated that for children with autism, communication skills, and in particular receptive communication skills, were associated with social and daily living skills, and behavior problems. Receptive structural language skills were associated with expressive communication skills. There were no associations found between structural language skills and social or daily living skills, nor behavior problems. The results of this study suggest that communication skills are more closely linked to functional and behavioral outcomes in autism than structural language skills. PMID:22527707
Park, Carlie J; Yelland, Gregory W; Taffe, John R; Gray, Kylie M
The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed.
Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher
Many factors challenge water management in Southern Europe: scarce water resources, climate change, population growth, environmental concerns and economic development, among others. Water policy in the region is designed to ensure future sustainability of water resources under strong socioeconomic forcing while maintaining the strategic ecological and social services of water. Climate change is projected to intensify these conflicts, since most models agree that Southern Europe will show a significant drying trend, especially during the second half of the century. For this reason, there is a strong need to integrate climate change adaptation into implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. From the policy perspective, there are many studies on how climate change might lead to changes in hydrologic regime, water demands, water quality or ecosystems, but there little knowledge on how much water demand might be met with future hydrologic regime. In water scarce regions, water demands are supplied by means of hydraulic infrastructure, which performs functions of storage, transportation and distribution, to overcome the spatio-temporal irregularities of hydrologic regime. Knowledge on the relationship between natural water resources, reservoir storage and water demands is essential to assess the effectiveness of alternative policy options to ensure adequate public water supply. In this paper we provide a simple way to account for the influence of socioeconomic factors (hydraulic infrastructure and water policy) on climate change impacts on water resources in the Mediterranean region. We present a methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation policies in this context. The methodology is based on the application of the WAAPA (Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Assessment) model, which computes net water availability for consumptive use for a river basin taking into account the regulation capacity of its water supply system and a set of management standards defined through water policy. The model was applied to 47 River Basin Districts in Southern Europe to estimate water availability under different climate change projections and several adaptation policy scenarios. Climate change projections were taken from the results of the Regional Climate Models applied in the ENSEMBLES European project. The WAAPA model allows to obtain the maximum demand that could be supplied under certain conditions (demand seasonal distribution, water supply system management, reliability criteria) for different policy alternatives. Adaptation policy targets may be defined in terms of maintaining social services of water by comparison between water availability in current and future time horizons. Several possible options, like increasing the efficiency of water use or improving the management of water supply systems, were analyzed and compared in quantitative terms. It was found that, although significant reductions in water availability can be expected, the effectiveness of certain adaptation policies might mitigate the expected impacts to a large extent.
|THIS PAPER PRESENTS INDEFINITIVE APPROACHES FOR THE BEHAVIORALASSESSMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. IT REVIEWS THE STATE OF THE ART OF BEHAVIOR MEASUREMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND SUGGESTS SOME NEW OR MODIFIED MEASURES. AN INTRODUCTORY OVERVIEW DISCUSSES REASONS FOR BEHAVIORASSESSMENT AND FACTORS WHICH AFFECT ANY BEHAVIORAL APPROACH. SOME…
Neuroadaptations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are hypothesized to play an important role in the behavioral changes associated with repeated psychostimulant exposure, but there are few published studies that measure neuronal activity during the development and expression of sensitization. To address this, we recorded single neuron activity in the medial PFC (mPFC) of male rats that were exposed for five days to saline or amphetamine (AMPH; 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and then given saline or AMPH challenges following a three-day withdrawal. We found that rats exposed to AMPH developed locomotor sensitization to the drug that emerged on the fifth treatment session and became statistically significant at AMPH challenge. This was associated with no change in baseline (i.e., pre-injection) activity of mPFC neurons across the treatment or challenge sessions. Following the first AMPH injection, mPFC neurons responded primarily with reductions in firing, with the overall pattern and magnitude of responses remaining largely similar following repeated treatment. The exception was in the minority of cells that respond to AMPH with increases in firing rate. In this population, the magnitude of excitations peaked during the fifth AMPH exposure and was still relatively elevated at the AMPH challenge. Furthermore, these units increased firing during a saline challenge that was given to assess associative conditioning. These results suggest that AMPH-induced adaptations in mPFC function are not as apparent as AMPH-induced adaptations in behavior. When mPFC adaptations do occur, they appear limited to the population of neurons that increase their firing in response to AMPH.
Clinicians have observed that psychiatric patients with correctional histories evidence attitudes and behaviors that seem adaptive in penal environments but are maladaptive in mental health settings. This study sought to assess the reliability and concurrent validity of a rating scale designed to measure correctional adaptation using a sample of 64 patients from a state psychiatric hospital. Scale ratings were obtained
W. Amory Carr; Merrill Rotter; Michael Steinbacher; Debbie Green; Tia Dole; Alexandra Garcia-Mansilla; Sara Goldberg; Barry Rosenfeld
|Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…
|This study examined adaptivebehavior and cognitive skills for 125 toddlers on the autism spectrum using the recently updated Vineland-II and Bayley-III. Delays in adaptive skills were apparent at 2 years of age. As a group, toddlers on the autism spectrum had a profile of Vineland-II standard scores in which Motor Skills greater than Daily…
Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Huai, Nan; Weismer, Susan Ellis
|Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adaptbehavior therapy for primary care…
Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.
Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adaptbehavior therapy for primary care patients (n = 12) with persistent
Lisa A. Uebelacker; Risa B. Weisberg; Ryan Haggarty; Ivan W. Miller
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…
Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.
Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adaptbehavior therapy for primary care…
Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.
People display adaptive language behaviors in face-to-face conversations, but will computer users do the same during HCI? We report an experiment (N=20) demonstrating that users' use of language (in terms of lexical choice) is influenced by their beliefs and expectations about a system: When users believe that the system is unsophisticated and restricted in capability, they adapt their language to
Jamie Pearson; Jiang Hu; Holly P. Branigan; Martin J. Pickering; Clifford I. Nass
Adaptivebehavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a\\u000a potential source of variability in adaptivebehavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age?=?18) with\\u000a average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about the presence of broader\\u000a autism phenotype symptoms and major psychiatric disorders
Carla A. Mazefsky; Diane L. Williams; Nancy J. Minshew
Studies of mechanisms of adaptivebehavior generally focus on neurons and circuits. But adaptivebehavior also depends on interactions among the nervous system, body and environment: sensory preprocessing and motor post-processing filter inputs to and outputs from the nervous system; co-evolution and co-development of nervous system and periphery create matching and complementarity between them; body structure creates constraints and opportunities
|One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…
Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.
Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adaptation has recently gained importance, yet adaptation is much less developed than mitigation as a policy response. Adaptation research has been used to help answer to related but distinct questions. (1) To what extent can adaptation reduce impacts of climate change? (2) What adaptation policies are needed, and how can
Ian Burton; Saleemul Huq; Bo Lim; Olga Pilifosova; Emma Lisa Schipper
Despite annual increases in the amount of material solid waste (MSW) that is recycled in the United States, the overall amount of MSW generated continues to increase. In an effort to identify and test specific predictors of curbside recycling behavior, the current study adapted the empirically validated Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills model (IMB), traditionally used to predict personal health behavior, to explain
Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in young adults. In Brazil, traffic accidents are proportionally more prevalent among motorcyclists as compared to automobile drivers. Although numerous data indicate that individual characteristics are involved in traffic accident risk, there is no instrument in Brazil to assess motorcyclists' traffic behavior. The authors thus proposed to perform translation and cultural adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ) into Brazilian Portuguese. The translation process consisted of: two independent translations into Brazilian Portuguese; unification of the translations; back-translation into English; formal assessment of semantic equivalence; application of a summary version in a convenience sample of motorcyclists; generation of a final version; and back-translation and submission to the original author, who approved this version. The Brazilian version maintained its semantic equivalence and was accepted by the convenience sample, an important characteristic for a self-completed instrument. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the questionnaire's psychometric properties in the Brazilian cultural context. PMID:22666824
Coelho, Roberta Paula Schell; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Machado, Mônica; Williams, Anna Virginia; Matte, Breno Córdova; Pechansky, Flavio; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Szobot, Claudia Maciel
A developmental cascade describes a longitudinal cross-domain unique relation. Here, a 3-wave multivariate design and developmental cascade analysis were used to investigate pathways among adaptive functioning and externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in a community sample of 134 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. Nested path analytic models tested the plausible cascades among the three domains apart from their covariation at each age and rank-order stability across age. Adaptive functioning in early adolescence was predicted by early childhood adaptive functioning and externalizing behavioral problems, with both effects mediated by late childhood adaptive functioning and internalizing behavioral problems; externalizing behavioral problems in early adolescence were predicted by early childhood internalizing behavioral problems with the effect mediated by late childhood externalizing behavioral problems. These developmental cascades obtained independent of child intelligence; child age and maternal education and social desirability were also considered but were not related to any outcome variables. The findings suggest that strategically timed and targeted interventions designed to address young children's behavioral problems may return investment in terms of an enhanced epidemiology of adaptively functioning teens. PMID:23585713
Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D
The transportation infrastructure, with long design life of 50 years and more, is susceptible to climate change. This paper describes an approach for assessing climate change adaptation strategies for transportation infrastructure, principally roadways and bridges. It is acknowledged that the affects and timing of climate changes are difficult to anticipate and that planning and design has its own inherent risks that must be considered on top of the uncertainty of climate change. Those conditions notwithstanding, climatologists, planners, and engineers are working on ways to reduce uncertainty and deal with risks in ways that can result in facilities that can provide reasonable levels of service, appropriate to their requirements in ways that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. This paper first identifies the potential changes in climate and local environmental conditions and impacts that will be of interest to the transportation designer; then discusses the status of climate forecasting, one of the great uncertainties in climate adaptation planning; and finally addresses climate and design risk and suggests approaches to dealing with expected changes. The adaptation strategy must be responsive to future conditions that can be very different than those of the past. Therefore, the paper describes approaches that include allowing for flexibility in designs, developing alternative scenarios and responses, performing sensitivity analysis, incorporating risk assessment / management techniques integrated with climate forecasting and infrastructure design. By utilizing these approaches, transportation facilities can be designed so that they can be expected to meet their requirements without being over designed. Such an approach will also minimize the total life-cycle cost.
Armstrong, A.; Keller, J.; Meyer, M. D.; Flood, M.
Mission success in military operations depends upon optimal functioning of all system components, including the human operator. The cognitive demands of current systems can exceed the capabilities of the human operator. In some situations, such as Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) operations, one operator may be required to supervise several vehicles simultaneously. The functional state of the human operator is not currently considered in the overall system assessment. It has been assumed that the operator could "manage" any situation given a well designed system. However, with the requirement to monitor and remotely monitor several vehicles simultaneously during combat comes the possibility of cognitive overload. This increases the probability of committing errors. We have developed on-line measures of operator functional state using psychophysiological measures. These measures provide estimates of how well an operator can deal with the current task demands. When the operator is cognitively overloaded the system may be able to implement adaptive aiding procedures. This will reduce the task demands on the operator thereby improving mission success. We have demonstrated correct assessment of the functional state of the operator with accuracies of 95% or better. Psychophysiological measures were used with classifiers such as artificial neural networks. In one study, adaptive aiding was applied when the classifier determined operator overload. The aiding resulted in significantly improved performance.
|Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a…
This study describes the profile of and relationships between adaptive skills and the maladaptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending special schools in Singapore. Parents of 20 adolescents with ASD attending special schools completed the Development Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995;…
This study employed a visitor survey to analyze the influence that changing climatic conditions have on the substitution behaviors of alpine skiers (activity, spatial, temporal). It further focuses on the role that activity involvement plays in influencing behavioraladaptations (i.e., substitution) and also the extent to which place loyalty is affected. The Modified Involvement Scale (MIS) was used to segment
|This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavioradaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…
Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre
Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioraladaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat.
Cardoso, Goncalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.
|Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…
Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.
Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected based on previous failure to obtain or maintain employment. The participants had a
Cedar R. Koons; Alexander L. Chapman; Bette B. Betts; Beth O’'Rourke; Nesha Morse; Clive J. Robins
Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioraladaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840
Atwell, Jonathan W; Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Whittaker, Danielle J; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W; Ketterson, Ellen D
Fish organize themselves into schools as a way to defend against predators and improve foraging efficiency. In this work we develop a model for food foraging and explain how a school of fish can move as a group if every fish were to employ a distributed strategy, known as diffusion adaptation. The algorithm assumes the fish sense the general direction
In a navigation-oriented interaction paradigm, such as desktop, mixed and augmented virtual reality, recognizing the user needs is a valuable improvement, provided that the system is able to correctly anticipate the user actions. Methodologies for adapting both navigation and content allow the user to interact with a customized version of the 3D world, lessening the cognitive load needed for accomplishing
|As the need to train more teachers to work in inclusive classrooms increases, college instructors should identify and implement course assessments measuring their effectiveness in training practices. Skills in managing the challenging behaviors of students with disabilities, such as autism and emotional disturbances are important for teachers…
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to provide readers with an understanding of how the assessment protocol for executive coaching can be adapted to more effectively meet the different needs of clients who are seeking developmental, transitional, or remedial coaching. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article is based on the author's 20 years of experience as both an internal executive
Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a demographic questionnaire. Results of this study suggest that there are significant differences between levels of adaptive characteristics in women and men. Women consistently scored higher on the Survival and Coping Beliefs, Responsibility to Family, Child-Related Concerns, and Fear of Suicide subscales of the RFL. No difference between genders was found for suicidal behavior. The current study provides insight into the similarities as well as the differences in adaptive characteristics and suicidal behavior between genders. The results of this study should be useful in preparing more specific target interventions for preventing suicide and strengthening coping skills among young adults. PMID:17886414
This 5-year follow-up study examined the stability of adaptive functioning in two cognitive ability groups of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nonverbal intelligence (NVIQ) was assessed at the time of this study and no participant changed cognitive group membership from the previous study (High NVIQ?97; Low NVIQ?56). In each group, adaptive skills, as measured by the Vineland Adaptive
Robin L. Gabriels; Bonnie Jean Ivers; Dina E. Hill; John A. Agnew; John McNeill
|This article advocates the use of functional behavioralassessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) in the development of Individualized Family Service Plans for children with or at risk of developing behavioral disorders. It describes the FBA and BIP processes and proposes a parent collaborative model for assessment and…
LaRocque, Michelle; Brown, Sharan E.; Johnson, Kurt L.
A developmental perspective is useful to understand how intelligent human behavior comes to be performed because it combines insight of evolutionary factors that enable dynamic genetic-environmental interactions within individual humans. Such developmenta...
The Munitions Directorate at Eglin AFB FL supported research at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) in Cleveland OH describing transitional behaviors in insect walking and in flight. Quantitative descriptions of the complex decisions that a cockroach m...
R. E. Ritzmann R. D. Quinn M. A. Willis C. E. Perry
OBJECTIVE. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is an instrument that aids clinicians in detecting mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease. The study aimed to adapt the MoCA for use in the Philippines, and determine its psychometric validity when used in the Filipino setting. METHODS. The MoCA was adapted by a multidisciplinary team working at the Memory Center of St. Luke's Medical Center, Manila, the Philippines. Contextual adaptation, rather than direct translation, was done. Pilot testing of the Filipino version of the MoCA (MoCA-P) was done on 12 grade 6 pupils and subsequently on 14 cognitively intact elderly people. Reliability testing of the MoCA-P was done on 25 elderly people by trained psychologists. Internal consistency, inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, as well as convergent and divergent validity of the MoCA-P were determined. RESULTS. The MoCA-P yielded a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha; = 0.938). Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were 0.887 (p ? 0.05) and 0.969 (p ? 0.05), respectively. The MoCA-P correlated negatively with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = -0.233) and had a positive but low correlation with the Mini-Mental State Examination (r = 0.555). CONCLUSION. Contextual translation and pilot testing yielded several modifications of the MoCA. The MoCA-P is a reliable instrument for use in elderly Filipino patients. Further diagnostic validation of the MoCA-P to establish cutoff scores that would discriminate elderly individuals with normal cognition from those with dementia is needed to establish the clinical utility of the test. PMID:24088400
Dominguez, J C; Orquiza, M Gs; Soriano, J R; Magpantay, C D; Esteban, R C; Corrales, M L; Ampil, E R
We examine a parent-report version of the measure of behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation of Carver and White (1994), the BIS/BAS scales. Participants included 42 children (mean age = 4 years, 9 months) attending Head Start programs. Information was collected on aspects of physiological and cognitive regulation, temperamental emotionality, BIS/BAS sensitivity, and teacher report of social competence and on-task behavior in the classroom. Physiological regulation was assessed by cardiac vagal tone and was measured during a baseline period and during the administration of a mildly effortful cognitive task. Cognitive regulation was assessed by executive function and was measured using two tasks that require children to inhibit a prepotent response while remembering and executing the rule for correct responding. Parents reported on behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation and aspects of child negative emotionality associated with fear and anger. Results indicated that the BIS scale was positively related to teacher reported social competence but negatively related to on-task behavior. Associations between the BIS and each of the outcome variables were independent of relations of physiological and cognitive regulation to outcomes and were present when relations between fearful emotionality and the outcomes were not. No relations were observed between any of the BAS scales and the outcome measures. Results recommend the application of neurobiological and psychophysiological approaches to the study of children's adaptation to preschool. PMID:12621656
In this paper a frame-loss adaptive temporal pooling method for video quality assessment is proposed. Extensive subjective tests have been carried out to determine the duration of successive frames based on which steady quality judgment can be made by human observers. The resulting duration is applied to the determination of the length of Group of Frames (GOF), where a flexible algorithm is used to separate the input video into variable sized GOFs. Short-term temporal pooling is first performed for each of the GOF to get the GOF quality, where quality contribution of each frame is incorporated with the context and frame loss well taken into account. The video quality is then obtained by long-term temporal pooling of the GOF quality considering the fact that perceptual video quality is predominately determined by the worst parts of the video. Extensive experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method both for regular and irregular frame loss.
The ever present threat of viral, bacterial, protozoan and metazoan parasites in the environment of wild animals is viewed as responsible for the natural selection of a variety of behavioral patterns that enable animals to survive and reproduce in this type of environment. Several lines of research, some quite recent, point to five behavioral strategies that vertebrates utilize to increase their personal or inclusive fitness in the face of parasites (broadly defined to include pathogens). These are: 1) avoidance of parasites; 2) controlled exposure to parasites to potentiate the immune system; 3) behavior of sick animals including anorexia and depression to overcome systemic febrile infections; 4) helping sick animals; 5) sexual selection for mating partners with the genetic endowment for resistance to parasites. The point is made that to consider a behavioral pattern as having evolved to serve a parasite control function the parasite or causative agent should be shown to adversely impact the animal's fitness and the behavior in question must be shown to help animals, or their offspring or group mates, in combating their exposure, or reducing their vulnerability, to the parasite. PMID:2234607
Honeybees swarm when they move to a new site for their hive. During the process of swarming, their behavior can be analyzed by classifying them as informed bees or uninformed bees, where the informed bees have some information about the destination while the uninformed bees follow the informed bees. The swarm's movement can be viewed as a network of mobile nodes with asymmetric information exchange about their destination. In these networks, adaptive and mobile agents share information on the fly and adapt their estimates in response to local measurements and data shared with neighbors. Diffusion adaptation is used to model the adaptation process in the presence of asymmetric nodes and noisy data. The simulations indicate that the models are able to emulate the swarming behavior of bees under varied conditions such as a small number of informed bees, sharing of target location, sharing of target direction, and noisy measurements.
Despite recent successes in control theoretical programs f or limb control, behavior-based cognitive approaches for con- trol are somewhat lacking behind. Insights in psychology and neuroscience suggest that the most important ingredients for a successful developmental approach to control are anticipatory mechanisms and hierarchical structures. Anticipatory mech- anisms are beneficial in handling noisy sensors, bridging se n- sory delays, and
The acts of learning and memory are thought to emerge from the modifications of synaptic connections between neurons, as guided by sensory feedback during behavior. However, much is unknown about how such synaptic processes can sculpt and are sculpted by neuronal population dynamics and an interaction with the environment. Here, we embodied a simulated network, inspired by dissociated cortical neuronal
This paper presents an autonomous agent-based image segmentation approach. In this approach, a digital image is viewed as a two-dimensional cellular environment in which the agents inhabit and attempt to label ho- mogeneous segments. In so doing, the agents rely on some reactive behaviors such as breeding and diffusion. The agents that are successful in finding the pixels of a
This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition, and hospitalization. Positive outcomes with adults have prompted researchers to adapt DBT for adolescents. Given this interest in DBT for adolescents, it is important to review the theoretical rationale and the evidence base for this treatment and its adaptations. A solid theoretical foundation allows for adequate evaluation of content, structural, and developmental adaptations and provides a framework for understanding which symptoms or behaviors are expected to improve with treatment and why. We first summarize the adult DBT literature, including theory, treatment structure and content, and outcome research. Then, we review theoretical underpinnings, adaptations, and outcomes of DBT for adolescents. DBT has been adapted for adolescents with various psychiatric disorders (i.e., BPD, mood disorders, externalizing disorders, eating disorders, trichotillomania) and problem behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation and behavior, NSSI) across several settings (i.e., outpatient, day program, inpatient, residential, correctional facility). The rationale for using DBT with these adolescents rests in the common underlying dysfunction in emotion regulation among the aforementioned disorders and problem behaviors. Thus, the theoretical underpinnings of DBT suggest that this treatment is likely to be beneficial for adolescents with a broad array of emotion regulation difficulties, particularly underregulation of emotion resulting in behavioral excess. Results from open and quasi-experimental adolescent studies are promising; however, RCTs are sorely needed. PMID:23224757
MacPherson, Heather A; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Fristad, Mary A
Objective: To assess changes in adaptive, emotional, and behavioral functioning over four years in children and adolescents with hemophilia and with or without HIV infection and to evaluate the relationship of these changes to immune status. Methods: Participants were 277 HIV-seropositive and 126 HIV-seronegative boys with hemophilia. Partici- pants with HIV infection were divided into three groups based on trajectory
Sharon Nichols; Elizabeth M. Mahoney; Patricia A. Sirois; Janice D. Bordeaux; James A. Stehbens; Katherine A. Loveland; Nancy Amodei
Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed
|This article discusses the role of families in the functional analysis process. It provides an overview of the functional behavioralassessment (FBA) process, evaluates the conceptual and pragmatic issues surrounding the role of families in functional behavioralassessment, and discusses what roles may be most feasible for families and behavior…
Peck-Peterson, Stephanie M.; Derby, K. Mark; Berg, Wendy K.; Horner, Robert H.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) has been shown to effectively target binge eating disorder (BED). This study pilots the effectiveness of group DBT for obese "emotional eaters" to reduce eating psychopathology and achieve weight maintenance. Thirty-five obese male and female emotional eaters receiving 20 group psychotherapy sessions of DBT adapted for emotional eating were assessed at end-of-treatment and 6 month follow-up for reductions in eating psychopathology and weight maintenance. DBT resulted in significant reductions in emotional eating and other markers of eating psychopathology at the end-of-treatment that were maintained at follow-up. The drop-out rate was very low, with only 1 participant dropping from treatment. Thirty-three (94%) of the sample provided data at every assessment point. Of these, 80% achieved either weight reduction or weight maintenance after treatment and throughout the follow-up period. The effect size for weight reduction was small. This pilot study demonstrates group DBT targeting emotional eating in the obese to be a highly acceptable and effective intervention for reducing eating related psychopathology at both at end-of-treatment and during follow-up. The ability of DBT to limit the upward trajectory of weight gain in obese patients with high degrees of emotional eating suggests that DBT may also help limit the increase or even prevent onset of obesity related morbidity in these patients. PMID:23165554
Roosen, M A; Safer, D; Adler, S; Cebolla, A; van Strien, T
|This publication is designed to help educators understand the purpose and meaning of the functional behavioralassessment process and how to identify and assess the behavior of students with disabilities. It shows how to develop and write effective behavior intervention plans using data collected during the functional assessment and presents many…
McConnell, Mary E.; Cox, Carol J.; Thomas, Dawn D.; Hilvitz, Perry B.
On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptivebehaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptivebehavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptivebehaviors.
Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna
In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect. PMID:23470300
Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A
|Using multimethod-multisource functional behavioralassessment (FBA), 3 students (in kindergarten, first grade, and ninth grade) with behavioral disabilities at risk for change of placement received interventions. Indirect assessments included the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff--Part A & B, the Student-Directed Functional…
Stage, Scott A.; Jackson, Hal G.; Moscovitz, Kara; Erickson, Marcia Jensen; Thurman, Stacy Ogier; Jessee, Wyeth; Olson, Erin M.
|People with intellectual disabilities (ID) often engage in problem behaviors, such as verbal or physical aggression, property destruction, or self-injury. These behaviors become a challenge for the families and for professionals. Functional behavioralassessment (FBA) is a method used to identify variables that influence or maintain challenging…
Advances in obstetrics and neonatology have increased the survival rates of premature infants with very preterm (<32 weeks) and extremely preterm (<28 weeks) gestations. However, survivors have a high frequency of challenges in academic and social skills. There has been an increased emphasis on examination of outcomes beyond survival rates and rates of neurosensory disabilities at ages 18 to 24 months (eg, cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, global development delay). One of the key strategies for understanding pathways of risk and resilience is to examine behavioral, social-emotional, and adaptive competencies. The purpose of this paper is to apply the International Classification of Functioning framework to a spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity, describe useful tools for measuring behavioral, social, and adaptive competencies, as well as review model outcome studies before middle childhood. Thus, we can use current information to begin to understand pathways underlying behavioral health, well-being, and social competence. PMID:18249239
It has been well established that young children with communication disorders (CD) have considerable difficulties interacting socially with peers in free-play settings. The central purpose of this study was to determine whether behavioraladaptations of children with CD could contribute to their peer interaction problems. To accomplish this, the behavioral patterns of reticent, solitary-passive, and solitary-active sub- types of nonsocial
Michael J. Guralnick; Mary A. Hammond; Robert Connor
Control crews are highly trained teams responsible for monitoring complex systems, performing routine procedures, and quickly responding to nonroutine situations. Previous literature suggests that higher-performing control crews engage in adaptivebehavior during high-workload or crisis situations. Other work suggests that higher-performing crews use periods of lower workloads to prepare for future problems. To understand which behaviors performed during which situations
Mary J. Waller; Naina Gupta; Robert C. Giambatista
This study explores young children’s ability to construct and explain adaptivebehaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous\\u000a mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports\\u000a children’s construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six kindergarten children participated\\u000a in the study, three girls and three boys. Activities and
Human social networks evolve on the fast timescale of face-to-face interactions and of interactions mediated by technology such as a telephone calls or video conferences. The resulting networks have a strong dynamical component that changes significantly the properties of dynamical processes. In this paper we study a general model of pairwise human social interaction intended to model both face-to-face interactions and mobile-phone communication. We study the distribution of durations of social interactions in within the model. This distribution in one limit is a power-law, for other values of the parameters of the model this distribution is given by a Weibull function. Therefore the model can be used to model both face-to-face interactions data, where the distribution of duration has been shown to be fat-tailed, and mobile-phone communication data where the distribution of duration is given by a Weibull distribution. The highly adaptable social interaction model propose in this paper has a very simple algorithmic implementation and can be used to simulate dynamical processes occurring in dynamical social interaction networks. PMID:22194724
Animals respond to changing contingencies to maximize reward. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is important for flexible responding when established contingencies change, but the underlying cognitive mechanisms are debated. We tested rats with sham or OFC lesions in radial maze tasks that varied the frequency of contingency changes and measured both perseverative and non-perseverative errors. When contingencies were changed rarely, rats with sham lesions learned quickly and performed better than rats with OFC lesions. Rats with sham lesions made fewer non-perseverative errors, rarely entering non-rewarded arms, and more win-stay responses by returning to recently rewarded arms, compared to rats with OFC lesions. When contingencies were changed rapidly, however, rats with sham lesions learned slower, made more non-perseverative errors, fewer lose-shift responses, and returned more often to non-rewarded arms than rats with OFC lesions. The results support the view that the OFC integrates reward history, and suggests that the availability of outcome expectancy signals can either improve or impair adaptive responding depending on reward stability.
Human social networks evolve on the fast timescale of face-to-face interactions and of interactions mediated by technology such as a telephone calls or video conferences. The resulting networks have a strong dynamical component that changes significantly the properties of dynamical processes. In this paper we study a general model of pairwise human social interaction intended to model both face-to-face interactions and mobile-phone communication. We study the distribution of durations of social interactions in within the model. This distribution in one limit is a power-law, for other values of the parameters of the model this distribution is given by a Weibull function. Therefore the model can be used to model both face-to-face interactions data, where the distribution of duration has been shown to be fat-tailed, and mobile-phone communication data where the distribution of duration is given by a Weibull distribution. The highly adaptable social interaction model propose in this paper has a very simple algorithmic implementation and can be used to simulate dynamical processes occurring in dynamical social interaction networks.
Patients’ behaviors have a substantial impact on postoperative outcomes following bariatric surgery. Thus, studying patients’ behaviors is essential to learning how to optimize postoperative outcomes. In order to be most effective, this research should employ the best tools available for assessing patient behaviors. Unfortunately, traditional methods of behavioralassessment (e.g., questionnaires and clinical interviews) rely primarily on patients’ retrospective self-report, which is often inaccurate. Despite their significant shortcomings, these types of assessments continue to predominate. However, technological advances now allow for much greater accuracy in the assessment of patient behaviors via devices such as accelerometers and palmtop computers. Accelerometers allow for patients’ physical activity to be measured objectively in great detail, in real-time, in patients’ natural environment. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) via palmtop computer or mobile phone allows for assessment of important behaviors, such as eating and activity behaviors, to be measured with many of the same advantages. Furthermore, new computer-assisted technologies are in development that will further facilitate behavioralassessment. Technology also has the potential to play an important role in the delivery of behavioral interventions aimed at bariatric surgery patients, given that Internet-based treatments have already proven effective for non- surgical weight loss, are often highly cost-effective and easily disseminable. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of these programs for bariatric patients.
Thomas, J. Graham; Bond, Dale S.; Sarwer, David B.; Wing, Rena R.
|This introductory article to a special series discusses requirements under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to base behavioral intervention planning and positive behavioral support on information obtained through a functional behavioralassessment (FBA) process. The lack of guidance on FBAs and strategies for…
|This introductory article discusses the requirement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that practitioners being using functional behavioralassessment (FBA) to develop positive behavioral interventions for children with problem behavior and identified disabilities. The definition of FBA is summarized, along with following…
|Argues that using functional behavioralassessment (FBA) to identify individual factors that may be contributing to a student's behavior problem and building a positive behavioral-intervention plan will produce effective disciplinary practices. Components of successful implementation of FBA and overarching challenges to the use of FBA are…
Conroy, Maureen A.; Clark, Denise; Gable, Robert A.; Fox, James J.
We develop an Assess-Predict-Optimize (APO) strategy for the adaptive design of optimal missions for critical components and systems. We first assess the system through non-destructive inverse procedures for evaluating the system characteristics of intere...
Animals with active and passive strategies of adaptivebehavior were selected from a population of Wistar rats by testing\\u000a in a T maze to measure the indexes of behavioral passivity and behavioral activity. After single (stress) or two (stress-restress)\\u000a water immersions, individual changes in adaptivebehavior were used to study the development of post-stress psychopathology\\u000a and its interaction with the
V. G. Shalyapina; E. A. Vershinina; V. V. Rakitskaya; L. Yu. Ryzhova; M. G. Semenova; O. G. Semenova
In behavioral motor coordination and interaction it is a fundamental challenge how an agent can learn to perceive and act\\u000a in unknown and dynamic environments. At present, it is not clear how an agent can – without any explicitly predefined knowledge\\u000a – acquire internal representations of the world while interacting with the environment. To meet this challenge, we propose\\u000a a
Armin Duff; César Rennó-Costa; Encarni Marcos; Andre L. Luvizotto; Andrea Giovannucci; Marti Sanchez-Fibla; Ulysses Bernardet; Paul F. M. J. Verschure
Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. Results According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). Conclusion The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors.
|A critical measure of intervention effectiveness is durability over time. Still, few studies have examined the long-term outcomes of support derived from a functional behavioralassessment as well as enablers and barriers that contribute to or impede successful outcomes. In the current study, a functional behavioralassessment was conducted with…
Kern, Lee; Gallagher, Patricia; Starosta, Kristin; Hickman, Wesley; George, Michael
Adaptivebehavior is defined as the degree to which individuals are able to function and maintain themselves independently, and meet the culturally imposed demands of personal an social responsibility. In 1969, the American Association on Mental Deficiency sponsored the development of the AdaptiveBehavior Scale to provide a comprehensive…
|Preliminary findings are presented from a study of the performance of 99 institutionalized retarded children on the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scale (VABS), a revised form of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS). No significant sex or race differences were revealed on test performances. Mental age was found to correlate with VABS scores with…
Older adults, like patients with dorsolateral frontal lobe lesions, have been shown to be progressively susceptible to errors of perseveration in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). This deficit may result from several types of endogenous adaptive control abilities. First, to enable behavioral modifications in response to sudden changes in task demands, one has to consider and evaluate the possible
K. Richard Ridderinkhof; Mark M. Span; Maurits W. van der Molen
Adaptation of internationally adopted children to another culture and language has not been studied extensively. This study followed four infant girls from China during the 1st year postadoption, measuring vocabulary, gestural, social, communication, and symbolic behavior development each month. The children were also tested at 2 and 3 years postadoption. Results indicated that each child demonstrated variability in prelinguistic communication
Influenced by the results obtained in neuroscience and biology, we have introduced a model (AIRM) that, inspired by biological rhythms, adaptively controls a behavior based robotic system (BBRS). The proposed model is implemented by means of an NSP (neuro symbolic processor). Since the NSP can be implemented on FPGA, we can take advantage of a parallel execution of the AIRM
Ernesto Burattini; Silvia Rossi; Massimo De Gregorio
This paper proposes a comprehensive and systematic characterization methodology that is suitable for the forward and reverse behavior modeling of wireless transmitters (Txs) driven by wideband-modulated signals. This characterization approach can be implemented in adaptive radio systems since it does not require particular signal or training sequences. The importance of the nature of the driving signal and its average power
|Cognitive ability and behavioraladaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…
Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…
|Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…
We have created a brain-machine hybrid system (BMHS) which is able to solve the chemical plume tracking (CPT) problem using the brain of the male silkworm moth. The purpose of the system is to investigate adaptability which results from interactions between brain, body, and environment. In this paper, we describe a BMHS architecture and experiments to verify that the behavior
|This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…
Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.
In response to the anthropogenic assault of toxic baits, populations of the German cockroach have rapidly evolved an adaptivebehavioral aversion to glucose (a phagostimulant component of baits). We hypothesized that changes in the peripheral gustatory system are responsible for glucose aversion. In both wild-type and glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches, D-fructose and D-glucose stimulated sugar-gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), whereas the deterrent caffeine stimulated bitter-GRNs. In contrast, in GA cockroaches, D-glucose also stimulated bitter-GRNs and suppressed the responses of sugar-GRNs. Thus, D-glucose is processed as both a phagostimulant and deterrent in GA cockroaches, and this newly acquired peripheral taste sensitivity underlies glucose aversion in multiple GA populations. The rapid emergence of this highly adaptivebehavior underscores the plasticity of the sensory system to adapt to rapid environmental change. PMID:23704571
Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Silverman, Jules; Schal, Coby
A particular affordance was used as a potential candidate for behavioralassessment of physical presence in virtual environments.\\u000a The subjects’ task was to walk through a virtual aperture of variable widths. In the case of presence, the subjects’ body\\u000a orientation, while walking, was hypothesized to be adapted to the width of the aperture and to their own shoulder width. Results
Jean-claude Lepecq; Lionel Bringoux; Jean-marie Pergandi; Thelma Coyle; Daniel Mestre
According to the Centre for Research on Epidemiology Disasters, floods are the type of natural disasters that affected the highest number of people from 1900 to 2008 worldwide. Specifically, Austria suffered from heavy floods in recent years, affecting thousands of people and causing billions of Euro in economic losses. Although there is yet no proof that these accumulated extreme events are a direct consequence of climate change, they may indicate what can be expected. Currently, comprehensive climate modelling research is being conducted for Austria that may lay the foundation for enhanced climate impact assessments (regional climate modelling under consideration of different global models and varying scenarios). However, the models so far have neither special focus on Austria nor a distinct definition of boundary conditions for Austria. Therefore, results of climate models are considered as too unreliable and inconsistent for predicting changes in flood characteristics, especially at a regional to local scale. As a consequence, adaptation strategies have to be derived from integrated impact analyses that are based on dissecting mechanisms and drivers for changes and not only on the dimension of climate change. This paper discusses a dynamic flood risk assessment methodology considering potential spatial and temporal developments of hazard and vulnerability under climate change scenarios. The approach integrates quantifiable results from assessments of hazard, exposure and sensitivity and the qualitative, interview based, assessment of adaptive capacities. Flood risk assessment will be conducted for the current state in Austria and enhanced by potential (1) flood scenarios increased by a climate change allowance (2) demographic development scenarios (3) land-use change scenarios and (4) adaptation policy assessment to identify regions especially prone to flooding. Comparing the current state with various anticipatory hazard and vulnerability scenarios provides the basis for a sensitivity analysis of whether climate change impacts or demographic and land use development mainly triggers the increase of damage potentials. Based on this sensitivity analysis, a ranking of priority regions with a current and future need for action will be conducted and illustrated by means of qualitative risk categories ranging from low priority to high priority. Out of these priority areas, three relevant case studies will be chosen and analysed on a micro scale level to enable risk analyses including climate change adaptationassessment on the regional and local level. In the frame of the case studies, a micro-scale risk assessment approach will be applied based on expected annual losses and the influence of adaptation capacity on the overall flood risk. All scientifically derived results will be discussed in community based scenario workshops. This participatory tool enables stakeholders to address the relevant determinants of vulnerability, to point at so far unconsidered locally important context conditions and to come to conclusions about envisaged useable adaptive measures.
Neuhold, C.; Hogl, K.; Seher, W.; Nachtnebel, H. P.; Scherhaufer, P.; Nordbeck, R.; Löschner, L.
The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals\\u000a need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the\\u000a context of the scientific framework for welfare assessment. Natural behavior may be defined as behavior that animals have\\u000a a tendency to exhibit
The aim of this paper is to consider the adaptationbehavior of an electromechanical arm manipulator to the physical interaction of humans. Preliminary experiments to explore the possibility of adaptive interactions between an arm robot and a human without knowledge of the forces are investigated. A simple and efficient control adaptation of the system is implemented at the level of
A. A. Melnyk; P. Henaff; S. Razakarivony; V. Ph. Borisenko; P. Gaussier
Formulates basic research questions, links them to statistical models for various types of classroom observation data, and identifies the statistical hypotheses and parameters that represent the consistency of teaching behavior over time or across contents. The questions are as follows: (1) Is the behavior of an individual teacher consistent over time? (2) Are individual differences among teachers consistent over time?
The use of adaptivebehavior information for classification and placement of African-American and white students (n=707) with mental retardation was compared. Comparisons on general intellectual functioning and several indices of adaptivebehavior yielded few differences, suggesting equal treatment was achieved despite substantial…
Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptivebehavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures\\u000a and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al., Vineland adaptivebehavior scales. AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005)\\u000a was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered\\u000a to the parents\\/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean
Mei Tan; Jodi Reich; Lesley Hart; Philip E. Thuma; Elena L. Grigorenko
|The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) incorporates aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to provide an efficient means to collect time series data. This study extended the development and evaluation of DBR Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) as a behaviorassessment tool. Eighty-eight undergraduate students used…
Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra; Jaffery, Rosemary
|A descriptive study of 22 students (K-10th grade) with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) who were referred for functional behavioralassessment (FBA) revealed less on-task and more avoidant and inappropriate behaviors in comparison to classroom peers without EBD. Students who had been diagnosed as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity…
Erickson, Marcia J.; Stage, Scott A.; Nelson, J. Ron
|Functional behaviorassessment (FBA) is an integral component of a positive behavior support approach to preventing problem behavior across all students in the school. As primary prevention, FBA is a collaborative school-wide practice to predict common problems and to develop school-wide interventions. As secondary prevention, FBA involves simple…
|Schools are now required by law to create behavior support plans based on functional behavioralassessment (FBA) for students with behavior problems. Although FBA has been shown to be effective, there are questions as to its feasibility in the schools. In this pilot study we examined the effectiveness of a truncated FBA procedure. The FBA used a…
Use of current adaptivebehavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is need for alternative measures that more efficiently assessadaptivebehavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The PEDI-CAT is a computer-based assessment of a child’s ability to perform activities required for personal self sufficiency and engagement in the community. This study evaluated the applicability, representativeness, and comprehensiveness of the Daily Activity, Social/Cognitive, and Responsibility domains for children and youth with an ASD. Twenty professionals and 18 parents provided feedback via in-person or virtual focus groups and cognitive interviews. Items were perceived to represent relevant functional activities within each domain. Child factors and assessment characteristics influenced parents’ ratings. In response to feedback, 15 items and additional directions were added to ensure the PEDI-CAT is a meaningful measure when used with this population.
Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.
Background: Previous literature suggests an association between organochlorines and behavioral measures in childhood, including inattention. Objective: This study was designed to assess whether prenatal organochlorine exposure is associated with measures of attention in early infancy. Methods: We investigated an association between cord serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) levels and measures of attention from the Neonatal BehavioralAssessment
Sharon K. Sagiv; J. Kevin Nugent; T. Berry Brazelton; Anna L. Choi; Paige E. Tolbert; Larisa M. Altshul; Susan A. Korrick
Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a fronto-central voltage deflection in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the Feedback Related Negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Medio-frontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioraladaptation and are well suited to single trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioraladaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioraladaptations: with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice.
Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.; Klein, Theresa J.; Allen, John J.B.
The behavioralassessment of anxiety in older adults is reviewed in this article. Despite the high rate of anxiety symptoms uncovered during the course of large-scale epidemiological studies, the comprehensive evaluation of anxiety in this age group (55 and over) is not highly sophisticated at this juncture. In this review, diagnostic issues, psychometric evaluation, motoric assessment, and psychophysiological assessment are
Michel Hersen; Cvincent B. van Hasselt; Anthony J. Goreczny
Functional behaviorassessment (FBA) is an integral component of a positive behavior support approach to preventing problem behavior across all students in the school. As primary prevention, FBA is a collaborative school-wide practice to predict common problems and to develop school-wide interventions. As secondary prevention, FBA involves simple and realistic team-driven assessment and intervention strategies aimed at students with mildly
This project sets out to identify and address the need for adaptive ascent guidance techniques necessary for responsive launch. This report provides comprehensive details to two recent advanced ascent guidance algorithms, tailored to endo-atmospheric and ...
Rationale During the course of an infection, the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) acts in the brain to trigger development of behavioral responses, collectively termed sickness behavior. Biological activities of TNF? can be mediated by TNF receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) and type 2 (TNF-R2). TNF? activates neutral sphingomyelinase through the TNF-R1 adapter protein FAN (factor associated with neutral sphingomyelinase activation), but a behavioral role of FAN in the brain has never been reported. Objectives We hypothesized that TNF?-induced sickness behavior requires TNF-R1 and that FAN is a necessary component for this response. Methods We determined the role of brain TNF-R1 in sickness behavior by administering an optimal amount of TNF? intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v., 50 ng/mouse) to wild-type (WT), TNF-R1-, TNF-R2-and FAN-deficient mice. Sickness was assessed by decreased social exploration of a novel juvenile, induction of immobility and loss of body weight. Results TNF-R1-deficient mice were resistant to the sickness-inducing properties of i.c.v. TNF? whereas both TNF-R2-deficient and WT mice were fully responsive. Furthermore, the complete absence of TNF?-induced sickness behavior in FAN-deficient mice provided in vivo evidence that FAN-dependent TNF-R1 signaling is critical for this central action of TNF?. Conclusions This is the first report to demonstrate that TNF?-induced sickness behavior is fully mediated by TNF-R1 and that the adaptor protein FAN is a necessary intracellular intermediate for sickness behavior.
Palin, Karine; Bluthe, Rose-Marie; McCusker, Robert H.; Levade, Thierry; Moos, Francoise; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.
Summary The global obesity epidemic has heightened the need for an improved understanding of how body weight is controlled, and research using mouse models is critical to this effort. In this perspective, we provide a conceptual framework for investigation of feeding behavior in this species, with an emphasis on factors that influence study design, data interpretation, and relevance to feeding behavior in humans. Although we focus on the mouse, the principles presented can be applied to most other animal models. This document represents the current consensus view of investigators from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers (MMPCs).
Ellacott, Kate L.J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Woods, Stephen C.; Tso, Patrick; Schwartz, Michael W.
The hallmarks of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) are recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, and behaviors that cause individuals distress in daily functioning. Clinical signs of CSB can include anxiety, depression, somatic complaints, alcohol or drug use or dependency, relationship problems, or signs of abuse. This article describes the symptoms of paraphilic and nonparaphilic CSB and discusses their epidemiology, etiology, as well as comorbid psychiatric conditions. It also presents screening questions that clinicians can use with patients suspected of having CSB and outlines medical and psychiatric treatment for the condition. When CSB is suspected, referral to a clinician experienced in treating sexual disorders is recommended. PMID:12921375
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a behavior disorder that can range in severity from self-inflicted mild bruising and abrasions,\\u000a to life-threatening tissue damage (Carr, 1977). The focus of this chapter is on SIB displayed by individuals with developmental\\u000a disabilities (DD), including autism. Although SIB occurs in psychiatric patients (e.g., self-mutilation) and in some otherwise\\u000a typically developing adolescents and adults (e.g., self-cutting),
Timothy R. Vollmer; Kimberly N. Sloman; Carrie S. W. Borrero
|There are a limited number of assessments available to examine social skills deficits in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The BehavioralAssessment of Social Interactions in Young Children (BASYC) was developed as a direct assessment of social deficits in young children with ASD relative to children without ASD. The BASYC is…
Gillis, Jennifer M.; Callahan, Emily H.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.
Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptivebehavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptivebehavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptivebehavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptivebehavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes.
Children with selective mutism present with a complicated set of symptoms, as they not only refuse to speak in particular social situations but are often shy, socially isolative, anxious, and may present as oppositional and negativistic in their behavior. Limited research on treatments for selective mutism suggests a need for additional research examining intervention possibilities. The following case description presents
Brian J. Fisak; Arazais Oliveros; Jill T. Ehrenreich
|Describes implementation of functional behavioralassessment (FBA) through collaboration between a university (East Tennessee State University) and the local school system. Discusses related issues such as factors in team training, team size, FBA adaptations, and replicability of the FBA team model. (Author/DB)|
Vaughn, Kelley; Hales, Cindy; Bush, Marta; Fox, James
The primary goal of all regulatory processes is to preserve the internal steady state. We summarize the elapsing mechanisms with the definition "adaptation". Statements about that without considering the vigilance are impossible. Adaptation and vigilance are closely related to each other. If the verified "Pirazetam" (Normabrain) influences the vigilance, it should be possible to proof changes in the adaptation, which according to hormonal results in insulin hypoglycemia might be registered. The behavior of cortisol ahd STH are the same before and after medication, however a significant higher noradrenalin secretion can be traced after treatment. This effect is rated as a positive influence of the medication on the suprarenal medulla, which on the contrary is regarded as a prolonged part of the brain. PMID:6110352
The Family Behavioral Snapshot is a problem-oriented evaluation out-line which examines key variables of family structure, development, and problem solving. It is proposed as a useful guide in family assessment and for training beginning family therapists in a particular orientation of thinking and behavior.
|A Functional BehavioralAssessment (FBA) is mandated when schools deal with students presenting problems that lead to suspension or exclusion. The authors present a strength-based model for FBAs developed in a New York school for students with emotional and behavior problems. The Circle of Courage needs for Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and…
|Although functional behavioralassessments (FBA) have long been considered "best practice" in the field of applied behavior analysis, their use by school psychologists has a much briefer history. To assist school psychologists in becoming better acquainted with FBA, this article overviews the conceptual foundations and underlying principles of…
Gresham, Frank M.; Watson, T. Steuart; Skinner, Christopher H.
|This article presents a rationale for the functional behavioralassessment (FBA) approach to solving behavior problems in the classroom as well as FBA components and applications. The paper notes advantages of FBA as well as legal and ethical reasons for using FBA. A case study illustrates use of FBA within a four-stage decision-making framework.…
Ryan, Amanda L.; Halsey, Heather N.; Matthews, William J.
|This article presents a detailed example of how faculty and staff at one middle school implemented team-based functional behavioralassessment (FBA) planning procedures with a student exhibiting recurring minor problems. Insets list tasks and considerations for an FBA, a sample formatted antecedent-behavior-consequence summary of team member…
Scott, Terrance M.; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Nelson, C. Michael; Jolivette, Kristine
Nonmedical drug taking and antisocial be havior are both complex, dynamic processes; consequently, the impact of these behaviors on each other is difficult to assess. Among the multiple factors to be considered are the pharmacological properties of the drug, the psychological characteristics of the individual, the social environment, and the various categories of antisocial behavior. Many methodological problems are inherent
In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.
|"Participation"--defined as engagement in life situations, including leisure and recreational activities--is associated with the improvement of people with disabilities' quality of life. Several specific instruments assess leisure, but none of them has been adapted to the Spanish context. The goal of this study is to adapt and validate the…
Badia, Marta; Orgaz-Baz, M. Begona; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Martinez-Aguirre, M. Magdalena; Longo-Araujo-de-Melo, Egmar; Ullan-de-la-Fuente, Ana M.
The response to adverse environmental factors, manifesting itself in the reduction of bodily reserves, deterioration of adaptive state and immune status is an integrated indicator used for measuring these adverse effects. A study of the dependence of autonomic balance on gender, age and environmental risks factors has revealed a pronounced sympathicotonia among 64.4-91.5% children and stress of regulatory system among 60.5% cases. The activity of sympathetic nervous system increases with age, especially among men. The severity of disorders depends on the level of emotional stress. The study has found a connection between the general non-specific adaptive response of tumors and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23243733
\\u000a The Behavioral Insomnias of Childhood (BIC) include a series of problems of sleep initiation, continuity, maintenance, and\\u000a bedtime resistance. These sleep problems can place a significant burden on the parents who may be required to attend to a\\u000a child at the beginning or in the middle of the night. The resulting sleep loss can impact parents’ and children’s daytime\\u000a functioning
|The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…
Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.
|This exploratory study identified 17 work-related competencies that might relate to superior job performance and examined their relationship to the successful workplace adaptation of recent co-op engineering graduates. Traditional mail and web-based surveys were employed. The research questions were examined through correlations, t tests, ANOVAs,…
Educational computer games are presently a hot topic in research and development. The idea of utilizing the motivational potential and the rich virtual worlds of today's computer games is teasing educators as well as technicians. Fully exploiting the educational potential of computer games requires a strong personalization and adaptation to the individual needs and preferences. In the context of games,
Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust; Christina M. Steiner; Dietrich Albert
Although functional behavioralassessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) have been utilized since the 1960s, their use has steadily increased since the passing of IDEA 1997 which mandated their use in specified circumstances. References to FBAs and BIPs in No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the 2004 re-authorization of IDEA, and in positive behavioral supports programming has also
Michael A. Couvillon; Lyndal M. Bullock; Robert A. Gable
One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm. The behavior of virtual organisms animated by this theory may be studied in any experimental environment. The evolutionary theory was tested by comparing the steady-state behavior it generated on concurrent schedules to the description of steady state behavior provided by modern matching theory. Ensemble fits of modern matching theory that enforced its constant-k requirement and the parametric identities required by its equations, accounted for large proportions of data variance, left random residuals, and yielded parameter estimates with values and properties similar to those obtained in experiments with live organisms. These results indicate that the dynamics of the evolutionary theory and the statics of modern matching theory together constitute a good candidate for a mechanics of adaptivebehavior. PMID:21451751
Maternal behavior is species-specific and expressed under different physiological conditions, and contexts. It is the result of neural processes that support different forms (e.g. postpartum, cycling sensitized and spontaneous maternal behavior) and modalities of mother-offspring interaction (e.g. maternal interaction with altricial/precocious young; selective/non-selective bond). To understand how the brain adapts to and regulates maternal behavior in different species, and physiological and social conditions we propose new neural models to explain different forms of maternal expression (e.g. sensitized and spontaneous maternal behavior) and the behavioral changes that occur across the postpartum period. We emphasize the changing role of the medial preoptic area in the neural circuitry that supports maternal behavior and the cortical regulation and adjustment of ongoing behavioral performance. Finally, we discuss how our accumulated knowledge about the psychobiology of mothering in animal models supports the validity of animal studies to guide our understanding of human mothering and to improve human welfare and health. PMID:23608126
|The popularity and success of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in public schools across the United States has led professionals to advocate for its implementation in secure juvenile settings. Statewide implementation efforts have been mounted in several jurisdictions, and a number of secure facilities are applying it with…
The popularity and success of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in public schools across the United States has led professionals to advocate for its implementation in secure juvenile settings. Statewide implementation efforts have been mounted in several jurisdictions, and a number of secure facilities are applying it with…
This paper explores the value of using community risk assessments (CRAs) for climate change adaptation. CRA refers to participatory methods to assess hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities in support of community-based disaster risk reduction, used by many NGOs, community-based organizations, and the Red Cross\\/Red Crescent. We review the evolution of climate change adaptation and community-based disaster risk reduction, and highlight the
The development of procedures for assessing factors that contribute to pain and disability is crucial for clinical and epidemiologic studies. The present paper describes a system for in vivo, real-time assessment of pain behaviors integrated with a standardized physical examination for low back pain patients. The principles for measuring five categories of pain behavior – guarding, touching\\/rubbing, words, sounds and
Kenneth M. Prkachin; Elizabeth Hughes; Izabela Schultz; Peter Joy; David Hunt
The technology of functional assessment is among the most important developments in several decades for the education and treatment of people with mental retardation, autism, and other developmental disabilities. These powerful methods for understanding maladaptive behavior and linking intervention closely to assessment have made a difference in the lives of countless people with developmental disabilities and should be part of
|Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment…
|Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…
Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities. PMID:22907470
|Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during…
|Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000)…
The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioralassessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of functional analysis over the past 15 years, the extent to which these findings can be generalized across clients, methods, settings, and response
Frank M Gresham; Laura Lee McIntyre; Heidi Olson-Tinker; Lisa Dolstra; Veronica McLaughlin; Mai Van
|A comprehensive search identified 31 state statutes and regulations specific to functional behavioralassessments (FBA) and behavior intervention plans (BIP) in the special education context. A systematic tabulation of the state law provisions that exceed the rather narrow foundation requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act…
|The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioralassessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of functional analysis over the past 15 years, the extent to which these…
Gresham, Frank M.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Olson-Tinker, Heidi; Dolstra, Lisa; McLaughlin, Veronica; Van, Mai
This study investigates 311 first-year students' psychological and behavioradaptation to college and the mediate role of coping strategies and social support. The investigates reveal that: (1) first-year students who are from countryside, live in poor families, speak in dialects or major in science and engineering have poorer adaptation to…
Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…
|Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…
In a companion paper (9) we argued that human economic inter actions, particularly bargaining and trading in market environ ments, can be considered as adaptivebehaviors, and that the tools and techniques of adaptivebehavior research can be profitably em ployed in modeling naturally-occUlTing markets or constructing ar tificial market-based systems. H groups of simple artificial agents interact to exhibit
|A need exists for culturally valid and reliable developmental assessment tools for children with disabilities that are able to accommodate multiple languages. One way in which this goal can be achieved is through test translations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the use of translations of select developmental assessment…
Bornman, Juan; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Pae, Hye Kyeong
Subjects lived in a laboratory apartment for up to 30 days, engaging in ordinary activities such as reading, sewing, and artwork. The amount of time devoted to each activity was recorded and compared with periodic verbal ratings of the amount of time devoted to the activities. The verbal and observational assessments of the time distribution were very similar, but there were some discrepancies. Based on self-reports and on observation of time actually devoted to the activities, contingencies were arranged in which time devoted to one activity produced time available for a second activity. When the contingency relation was based on behavioralassessment, predictions of time redistribution were more accurate than when the relations were based on verbal assessment. The close correspondence between observed distributions of time and verbally assessed distributions was probably due to the well-specified situation and rigorous assessment methods. Contrary to some cognitive-behavioral accounts, the contingency results suggest that verbal assessment is not necessarily preferable to observation when the two make discrepant predictions. It is suggested that verbal reports might be used more often in behavior analysis in place of lengthy or difficult observations, and attention is drawn to a personality model that parallels important components of behavior analysis.
Food reward, not hunger, is the main driving force behind eating in the modern obesogenic environment. Palatable foods, generally calorie-dense and rich in sugar/fat, are thus readily overconsumed despite the resulting health consequences. Important advances have been made to explain mechanisms underlying excessive consumption as an immediate response to presentation of rewarding tastants. However, our understanding of long-term neural adaptations to food reward that oftentimes persist during even a prolonged absence of palatable food and contribute to the reinstatement of compulsive overeating of high-fat high-sugar diets, is much more limited. Here we discuss the evidence from animal and human studies for neural and molecular adaptations in both homeostatic and non-homeostatic appetite regulation that may underlie the formation of a "feed-forward" system, sensitive to palatable food and propelling the individual from a basic preference for palatable diets to food craving and compulsive, addiction-like eating behavior. PMID:22305720
Alsiö, Johan; Olszewski, Pawel K; Levine, Allen S; Schiöth, Helgi B
This study examined adaptivebehavior and cognitive skills for 125 toddlers on the autism spectrum using the recently updated Vineland-II and Bayley-III. Delays in adaptive skills were apparent at 2 years of age. As a group, toddlers on the autism spectrum had a profile of Vineland-II standard scores in which Motor Skills > Daily Living Skills > Socialization > Communication. Vineland-II scores were significantly correlated with Bayley-III Cognitive scores. Performance on the ADOS was significantly negatively correlated with Bayley-III Cognitive standard scores and standard scores in the Daily Living Skills and Communication domains of the Vineland-II. However, calibrated ADOS scores did not contribute significant variance to Vineland-II scores beyond that predicted by age and Bayley-III scores. PMID:20697794
Ray-Subramanian, Corey E; Huai, Nan; Ellis Weismer, Susan
It is hypothesized that marginal behavioral deviations, through their aggregation, may generate impressions of discomfort and disturbance, leading in their turn to progressive social seclusion, lower self-esteem, and maladjustment. The article describes an attempt to assess the development of a stable aggressive behavior, by means of a neuro-fuzzy model of the relationships between sociometric predictors (popularity\\/refusal rates among peers, hyperactivity,
|Provides an overview of the development of the Brazelton Neonatal BehavioralAssessment Scale (NBAS), the nature of the instrument and conditions for its proper administration, and issues underlying the use of the NBAS in research (e.g., reliability). The first in a series of articles in a single monograph assessing the NBAS. (BH)|
Here we introduce a cognitive model capable to model a variety of behavioral domains and apply it to a navigational task. We used place cells as sensory representation, such that the cells’ place fields divided the environment into discrete states. The robot learns knowledge of the environment by memorizing the sensory outcome of its motor actions. This is composed of a central process, learning the probability of state-to-state transitions by motor actions and a distal processing routine, learning the extent to which these state-to-state transitions are caused by sensory-driven reflex behavior (obstacle avoidance). Navigational decision making integrates central and distal learned environmental knowledge to select an action that leads to a goal state. Differentiating distal and central processing increases the behavioral accuracy of the selected actions and the ability of behavioraladaptation to a changed environment. We propose that the system can canonically be expanded to model other behaviors, using alternative definitions of states and actions. The emphasis of this paper is to test this general cognitive model on a robot in a real-world environment.
Weiller, Daniel; Laer, Leonhard; Engel, Andreas K.; Konig, Peter
Adaptiveassessment provides efficient and personalised routes to establishing the proficiencies of learners. We can envisage a future in which learners are able to maintain and expose their competency profile to multiple services, throughout their life, which will use the competency information in the model to personalise assessment. Current competency standards tend to over simplify the representation of competency and
|The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…
Behavioral effects have been found to result from the prenatal administration of substances known to be teratogenic to the CNS. These effects occur at dose levels lower than those producing gross malformations and when the agent is administered at times other than that optimal for CNS relevant technique for detecting adverse consequences of prenatal exposure to drugs and chemicals. Behavioral testing, however, also appears to have attributes that dictate a thoughtful approach to its role as a method for assessing risk, and additional research is needed to obtain usable techniques. The need for such research is intensified by the present inability to identify potential behavioral teratogens by means other than laboratory investigation.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), representing the analysts who perform the assessments and the political system which commissions them, together with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (ITASA), organized the firs...
N. Nakicenovic W. D. Nordhaus R. Richels F. L. Toth
Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes,...
Recent research has shown that humans, like many other animals, have a specialization for assessing fighting ability from visual cues. Because it is probable that the voice contains cues of strength and formidability that are not available visually, we predicted that selection has also equipped humans with the ability to estimate physical strength from the voice. We found that subjects accurately assessed upper-body strength in voices taken from eight samples across four distinct populations and language groups: the Tsimane of Bolivia, Andean herder-horticulturalists and United States and Romanian college students. Regardless of whether raters were told to assess height, weight, strength or fighting ability, they produced similar ratings that tracked upper-body strength independent of height and weight. Male voices were more accurately assessed than female voices, which is consistent with ethnographic data showing a greater tendency among males to engage in violent aggression. Raters extracted information about strength from the voice that was not supplied from visual cues, and were accurate with both familiar and unfamiliar languages. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that both men and women can accurately assess men's physical strength from the voice, and suggest that estimates of strength are used to assess fighting ability.
Sell, Aaron; Bryant, Gregory A.; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Krauss, Andre; Gurven, Michael
An integrated distributed actuator design methodology based upon the converse piezoelectric effect and aimed at actively controlling the vertical and lateral eigenvibration characteristics of cantilevered thin-walled beams is presented. The system of piezoelectric actuators bonded or embedded into the structure produces a localized strain field when an electric field is injected and, as a result, it yields an adaptive change of dynamic response characteristics. The numerical results which concern the eigenvibration properties suggest that this technology could play a major role in the control of dynamic instability and flutter of aircraft wings and helicopter blades, in particular, and in the improvement of the dynamic response behavior of cantilevered structures, in general.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a musical presentation of social story information on the behaviors of students with autism. Social stories are a means of incorporating an individual with autism's propensity toward visual learning with educationally necessary behavior modifications. Participants in the study were four first- and second-grade students with a primary diagnosis of autism attending an elementary school in eastern Iowa. A unique social story was created for each student that addressed a current behavioral goal. Subsequently, original music was composed using the text of the social story as lyrics. The independent variable for this study was one of three treatment conditions: baseline (A); reading the story (B); and singing the story (C). The reading and singing versions of the social stories were alternately presented to the students using the counterbalanced treatment order ABAC/ACAB. The dependent variable was the frequency with which the target behavior occurred under each condition of the independent variable. Data were collected for a period of 1 hour following presentation of the social story. Results from all four cases indicated that both the reading condition (B) and the singing condition (C) were significantly (p <.05) more effective in reducing the target behavior than the no-contact control condition (A). The singing condition was significantly more effective than the reading condition only in Case Study III. For the remaining case studies, the mean frequency of the target behavior was smaller during the singing condition, but not significantly so. These results suggested that the use of a musically adapted version of social stories is an effective and viable treatment option for modifying behaviors with this population. PMID:12213082
Previous studies suggested a role for the rostral lateral periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the inhibition of maternal behavior induced by low doses of morphine in dams with previous morphine experience. In the present study, we first showed that unilateral NMDA lesions placed in this particular PAG region prevented the morphine-induced inhibition of maternal behavior in previously morphine-sensitized dams. As suggested by previous Fos data on the PAG, predatory hunting appears as a likely candidate to replace maternal behavior in the morphine-treated dams. By testing saline- and morphine-treated dams with live cockroaches only, we have presently shown that morphine challenge increased insect hunting. Moreover, morphine- and saline-treated dams were also observed in an environment containing pups and roaches. Although most of the saline-treated animals displayed active nursing and only occasionally presented insect hunting, all of the morphine-treated animals ignored the pups and avidly pursued and caught the roaches. We next questioned whether the rostral lateral PAG would be involved in this behavioral switch. Our results showed that unilateral lesions of the rostral lateral PAG, but not other parts of the PAG, partially impaired predatory hunting and restored part of the maternal response. Moreover, bilateral lesions of the rostral lateral PAG produced even more dramatic effects in inhibiting insect hunting and restoring maternal behavior. The present findings indisputably show that the rostral lateral PAG influences switching from maternal to hunting behavior in morphine-treated dams, thus supporting a previously unsuspected role for the PAG in selecting adaptivebehavioral responses. PMID:16510737
Sukikara, M H; Mota-Ortiz, S R; Baldo, M V; Felício, L F; Canteras, N S
Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptivebehaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptivebehaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptivebehaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptivebehaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptivebehaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children.
Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Melanie M.
Effects of 10 peptides, tuftsin and Selank derivatives upon behavior during emotional stress induced by conflict situation, were studied in Balb/c and C57BL/6 male mice with genetically determined opposite types of emotional stress reaction, in white male mice and in Wistar male rats divided into different groups according to the type of emotional reactivity. Positive effects of some peptides upon the adaptivebehavior of animals in stress situation were demonstrated. Individual physiologically important effects depending on molecular structure of the peptides under study and/or their fragments, possible products of degradation, were revealed. The results obtained confirm the perspectives of aimed synthesis of peptides with definite pharmacological activity, which are not ksenobiotics and will have no side effects. PMID:12154572
Kozlovskaia, M M; Kozlovski?, I I; Val'dman, E A; Seredenin, S B
Studies of the relationship between the fragile X (FRAXA) mutation and autism have been controversial. Although there are differences between the two populations, individuals with FRAXA and autism exhibit remarkably similar aberrant behavior patterns. We examined comparably aged children and adolescents with FRAXA or autism to determine whether longitudinal changes in cognitive ability and adaptivebehavior were similar in the
The problem of objective image quality assessment has been known for couple of decades but with emerging multimedia technologies it becomes very important. This paper presents an approach to predict perceived quality of compressed images while incorporating real visual attention coordinates. Information about the visual attention is not usually taken into account in models for image quality assessment. Impact of the region of interest on estimation accuracy of a simple image quality metric has been investigated in our previous papers. The gaze coordinates were calculated using calibrated electro-oculogram records of human observers while watching a number of test images. This paper further investigates this idea using data from more observers. Obtained mean opinion scores of perceived image quality and eye tracking data were used to verify potential improvement of assessment accuracy for a simple image quality metric.
A direct observation instrument for assessment of nurses' patient transfer technique (DINO) has recently been developed in Sweden. The instrument has satisfactory content and criterion-related validity as well as acceptable inter-observer reliability. This instrument was translated from Swedish into Greek according to international guidelines for instrument translation. This means that two independent forward translations were done by two bilingual physiotherapists
|Although functional behavioralassessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) have been utilized since the 1960s, their use has steadily increased since the passing of IDEA 1997 which mandated their use in specified circumstances. References to FBAs and BIPs in No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the 2004 re-authorization of IDEA, and in…
Couvillon, Michael A.; Bullock, Lyndal M.; Gable, Robert A.
This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptivebehavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character.
This paper presents a novel model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom formulation that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on move suppression weights as traditionally used in MPC schemes. The formulation is motivated by the need to achieve robust performance in using the algorithm in emerging applications, for instance, as a decision policy for adaptive, time-varying interventions used in behavioral health. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive intervention problem inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results in the presence of simultaneous disturbances and significant plant-model mismatch are presented. These demonstrate that a hybrid MPC-based approach for this class of interventions can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions that resemble participant variability that is experienced in practice when applying an adaptive intervention to a population.
The current intervention trend for many of the mental health and behavioral problems faced by today's youth is an integrative approach that involves the community, families, and schools. Clinical assessment for serious mental health and behavioral problems can be an important component in the development of school-based screening programs. The…
Communication problems are believed to play a central role in many sexual dysfunctions. The present study behaviorallyassessed communication patterns within heterosexual couples in which the woman was experiencing female orgasmic disorder and within two groups of control couples. The sexually dysfunctional couples evidenced significantly poorer communication than controls, primarily but not exclusively when discussing sexual topics. Specifically, women with
Mary P. Kelly; Donald S. Strassberg; Charles M. Turner
|The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…
|Procedures for direct observation as part of functional behaviorassessment (FBA) in natural settings continue to be an important area of inquiry and evaluation in the field of education. Spread across a continuum of control and rigor, various direct FBA methods involve a variety of strengths and limitations. The purpose of this study was to…
|This article reviews and analyzes the functional behavioralassessment (FBA) requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1997 and its regulations. It explores school district obligations under the law, including the need for training faculty to conduct FBAs, adhere to the procedures of IDEA, and provide quality…
The development of effective hard coatings for high performance dry machining, which is associated with high stress/temperatures during friction, is a major challenge. Newly developed synergistically alloyed nanocrystalline adaptive Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N plasma vapor deposited hard coatings exhibit excellent tool life under conditions of high performance dry machining of hardened steel, especially under severe and extreme cutting conditions. The coating is capable of sustaining cutting speeds as high as 600 m/min. Comprehensive investigation of the microstructure and properties of the coating was performed. The structure of the coating before and after service has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micromechanical characteristics of the coating have been investigated at elevated temperatures. Oxidation resistance of the coating has been studied by using thermogravimetry within a temperature range of 25-1100 °C in air. The coefficient of friction of the coatings was studied within a temperature range of 25-1200 °C. To determine the causes of excellent tool life and improved wear behavior of the TiAlCrSiYN coatings, its surface structure characteristics after service have been investigated by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and extended energy-loss fine spectroscopy. One of the major features of this coating is the dynamic formation of the protective tribo-oxide films (dissipative structures) on the surface during friction with a sapphire and mullite crystal structure. Aluminum- and silicon-rich tribofilms with dangling bonds form on the surface as well. These tribofilms act in synergy and protect the surface so efficiently that it is able to sustain extreme operating conditions. Moreover, the Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N coating possesses some features of a complex adaptivebehavior because it has a number of improved characteristics (tribological adaptability, ultrafine nanocrystalline structure, hot hardness and plasticity, and oxidation stability) that work synergistically as a whole. Due to the complex adaptivebehavior, this coating represents a higher ordered system that has an ability to achieve unattainable wear resistance under strongly intensifying and extreme tribological conditions.
Fox-Rabinovich, G. S.; Veldhuis, S. C.; Dosbaeva, G. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kovalev, A. I.; Wainstein, D. L.; Gershman, I. S.; Shuster, L. S.; Beake, B. D.
Motor neurons are often assumed to generate spikes in proportion to the excitatory synaptic input received. There are, however, many intrinsic properties of motor neurons that might affect this relationship, such as persistent inward currents (PICs), spike-threshold accommodation, or spike-frequency adaptation. These nonlinear properties have been investigated in reduced animal preparation but have not been well studied during natural motor behaviors because of the difficulty in characterizing synaptic input in intact animals. Therefore, we studied the influence of each of these intrinsic properties on spiking responses and muscle force using a population model of motor units that simulates voluntary contractions in human subjects. In particular, we focused on the difference in firing rate of low-threshold motor units when higher threshold motor units were recruited and subsequently derecruited, referred to as ?F. Others have used ?F to evaluate the extent of PIC activation during voluntary behavior. Our results showed that positive ?F values could arise when any one of these nonlinear properties was included in the simulations. Therefore, a positive ?F should not be considered as exclusive evidence for PIC activation. Furthermore, by systematically varying contraction duration and speed in our simulations, we identified a means that might be used experimentally to distinguish among PICs, accommodation, and adaptation as contributors to ?F.
Motor neurons are often assumed to generate spikes in proportion to the excitatory synaptic input received. There are, however, many intrinsic properties of motor neurons that might affect this relationship, such as persistent inward currents (PICs), spike-threshold accommodation, or spike-frequency adaptation. These nonlinear properties have been investigated in reduced animal preparation but have not been well studied during natural motor behaviors because of the difficulty in characterizing synaptic input in intact animals. Therefore, we studied the influence of each of these intrinsic properties on spiking responses and muscle force using a population model of motor units that simulates voluntary contractions in human subjects. In particular, we focused on the difference in firing rate of low-threshold motor units when higher threshold motor units were recruited and subsequently derecruited, referred to as ?F. Others have used ?F to evaluate the extent of PIC activation during voluntary behavior. Our results showed that positive ?F values could arise when any one of these nonlinear properties was included in the simulations. Therefore, a positive ?F should not be considered as exclusive evidence for PIC activation. Furthermore, by systematically varying contraction duration and speed in our simulations, we identified a means that might be used experimentally to distinguish among PICs, accommodation, and adaptation as contributors to ?F. PMID:21697447
Absence of culturally relevant measures of Black children's strengths inhibits psychometrically sound strength-based assessment, research, and appropriate use of strengths as scaffolds or targets for clinical intervention. Moreover, the sparse research literature on Black children is primarily deficit focused. Beginning to address these problems, considerable input was sought from the Black community in constructing behavioral and emotional strength forms for
Michael Canute Lambert; George T. Rowan; Soyoun Kim; Scott A. Rowan; Jeong Shin An; Elizabeth A. Kirsch; Olivia Williams
This paper deals with the problem of assessing the performance of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) procedures based on censoring under general environmental conditions. In the case of homogeneous environment, a unified analytical approach yields closed form expressions for ROCs of censoring techniques, as well as for ROCs of several other CFAR algorithms. The performance analysis is also extended, by simulation, to some typical inhomogeneous conditions such as presence of multiple targets and clutter edges. Calculation results show the censoring techniques trade a small detectability loss (namely a loss with respect to Cell Averaging CFAR) when operating in homogeneous environment for a significantly improved robustness against nonhomogeneous disturbance. Indeed, the censoring procedures are able both to combat the masking effect due to the presence of multiple targets and to keep the FAR variation due to clutter edges under control.
The Ionospheric Weather Assessment and Forecast (IWAF) system is a computer software package designed to assess and predict the world-wide representation of 3-D electron density profiles from the Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC). The unique system products include daily-hourly numerical global maps of the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the peak height (hmF2) generated with the International Reference Ionosphere extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, upgraded by importing the daily-hourly GIM-TEC as a new model driving parameter. Since GIM-TEC maps are provided with 1- or 2-days latency, the global maps forecast for 1 day and 2 days ahead are derived using an harmonic analysis applied to the temporal changes of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 at 5112 grid points of a map encapsulated in IONEX format (?87.5°:2.5°:87.5°N in latitude, ?180°:5°:180°E in longitude). The system provides online the ionospheric disturbance warnings in the global W-index map establishing categories of the ionospheric weather from the quiet state (W=±1) to intense storm (W=±4) according to the thresholds set for instant TEC perturbations regarding quiet reference median for the preceding 7 days. The accuracy of IWAF system predictions of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 maps is superior to the standard persistence model with prediction equal to the most recent 'true' map. The paper presents outcomes of the new service expressed by the global ionospheric foF2, hmF2 and W-index maps demonstrating the process of origin and propagation of positive and negative ionosphere disturbances in space and time and their forecast under different scenarios.
Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Stanislawska, I.
A Behavioral Activity Index for rapid assessment of spontaneous cage behavior of the squirrel monkey is described. Observing the behavior of six male squirrel monkeys, it was found that four readily identifiable behaviors accounted for 62% of the total activity during a 30 minutes observation period. The need for a technique to reliably assess changes in baseline behavior is discussed
Gary R. Francois; Ernest S. Barratt; Cornelia S. Harris
Background Adaptivebehavior, the ability to respond successfully to everyday demands, may be especially sensitive to the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Similar adaptive dysfunction is common in other developmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is frequently present in alcohol-exposed children and this overlap in clinical presentation makes identification of alcohol-exposed children difficult. Direct comparison of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD may yield distinct patterns of cognitive and behavioral performance and add to growing knowledge of the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare adaptivebehavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD), and typically developing controls (CON). Methods Sixty-five children (ALC = 22, ADHD = 23, CON = 20) were selected from a larger ongoing study of the behavioral teratogenicity of alcohol. Alcohol-exposed and control participants were selected to match the ADHD subjects on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. Caregivers were administered the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales, a semi-structured interview, and were asked to rate their child’s behavior on 3 domains of adaptive function. Data were analyzed using regression techniques. Results Relative to controls, children in both the ALC and ADHD groups showed adaptivebehavior deficits on all 3 domains and children in the ALC group were significantly more impaired than the ADHD group on the daily living skills domain. Within the ALC group, socialization standard scores were lower at older ages. This negative relationship between age and standard scores in the ALC group was also observed on the communication domain, a finding not previously reported. Conclusions This study suggests that both children with prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD show impairments in adaptive function relative to controls, but that the pattern of impairment differs between these clinical groups. Adaptive ability in children with prenatal alcohol exposure is characterized by an arrest in development, as evidenced by a lack of improvement with age in socialization and communication scores. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibit a developmental delay in adaptive ability as their scores continued to improve with age, albeit not to the level of control children. Continued research focused on elucidating the patterns of deficits that exist in alcohol-exposed children ultimately will lead to improved differential diagnosis and effective interventions.
Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.
Species in ecologically similar habitats often display patterns of divergence that are strikingly comparable, suggesting that natural selection can lead to predictable evolutionary change in communities. However, the relative importance of selection as an agent mediating in situ diversification, versus dispersal between habitats, cannot be addressed without knowledge of phylogenetic history. We used an adaptive radiation of spiders within the Hawaiian Islands to test the prediction that species of spiders on different islands would independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb-weaving spiders endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago, and multiple species of orb-weaving Tetragnatha co-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web architectures spun by spiders on different islands allowed study of replicated evolutionary events of past behavioral diversification. We found that species within each island construct webs with architectures that differ from one another. However, pairs of species on different islands, “ethotypes,” share remarkable similarities in web architectures. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the species comprising these ethotypes evolved independent of one another. Our study illustrates the high degree of predictability that can be exhibited by the evolutionary diversification of complex behaviors. However, not all web architectures were shared between islands, demonstrating that unique effects also have played an important role in the historical diversification of behavior.
This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S?), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat’s three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat’s sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat’s directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S?. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S? stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S? were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S?.
Inborn errors of urea synthesis lead to an accumulation of ammonia in blood and brain, and result in high rates of mortality and neurodevelopmental disability. The current study seeks to characterize the cognitive, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning of children with Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs). These domains were measured through testing and parent questionnaires in 92 children with UCDs (33 neonatal onset, 59 late onset). Results indicate that children who present with neonatal onset have poorer outcome than those who present later in childhood. Approximately half of the children with neonatal onset performed in the range of intellectual disability (ID), including a substantial number (~30%) who were severely impaired. In comparison, only a quarter of the late onset group were in the range of ID. There is also evidence that the UCD group has difficulties in aspects of emotional/behavioral and executive skills domains. In conclusion, children with UCDs present with a wide spectrum of cognitive outcomes. Children with neonatal onset disease have a much higher likelihood of having an intellectual disability, which becomes even more evident with increasing age. However, even children with late onset UCDs demonstrate evidence of neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, particularly in aspects of attention and executive functioning.
Krivitzky, Lauren; Babikian, Talin; Lee, HyeSeung; Thomas, Nina Hattiangadi; Burk-Paull, Karen L.; Batshaw, Mark L.
|Test adaptation and cross-cultural assessment activities are skyrocketing as the demand for educational opportunities and personnel selection grow both within the United States and across the industrializing world. We chose a qualitative, case study approach to identify central themes encountered by ACT, a not-for-profit organization that has…
Comprehensive assessment of macroeconomic implications of climate change in Russia by 2030 including the authors original evaluations and forecasts is provided in the article. The weather and climate fluctuations impact on dynamics and qualitative indicators of selective industries of the Russian economy is contemplated in depth. Key directions and a set of measures of their adaptation to this impact along
Building environmental assessment (BEA) tools have become widespread in recent years and attracted the construction sector and public awareness in sustainability. Being partially effective in mitigating the environmental impacts of buildings, these tools reveal difficulties in their application, especially for developing countries and regional adaptations. Most of the BEA tools have been developed nationally and reflect the priorities of the
Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in
D. Manful; K. Tscherning; K. Kersebaum; J. Dietz; O. Dietrich; C. Gomani; H. Böhm; M. Büchner; G. Lischeid; M. Ojoyi
|This study describes a child adaptation of the Sheehan Disability Scale, a measure of impairment among anxious adults. Parallel child and parent report forms were created to assess the degree to which anxiety interferes with child and parent social, educational/occupational, and family functioning. Data from 267 anxious children (140 boys ages…
Background: Accurate severity assessment is crucial to the initial management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The CURB-65 (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, BP, age ? 65 years) score contains data that are entered routinely in electronic medical records and are, thus, electronically calculable. The aim of this study was to determine whether an electronically generated severity estimate using CURB-65 elements as continuous and weighted variables better predicts 30-day mortality than the traditional CURB-65. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study at a US university-affiliated community teaching hospital, we identified 2,069 patients aged 18 years or older with CAP confirmed by radiographic findings in the ED. CURB-65 elements were extracted from the electronic medical record, and 30-day mortality was identified with the Utah Population Database. Performance of a severity prediction model using continuous and weighted CURB-65 variables was compared with the traditional CURB-65 in the US derivation population and validated in the original 1,048 patients from the CURB-65 international derivation study. Results: The traditional, binary CURB-65 score predicted mortality in the US cohort with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.82. Our severity prediction model generated from continuous, weighted CURB-65 elements was superior to the traditional CURB-65, with an out-of-bag AUC of 0.86 (P < .001). This finding was validated in the international database, with an AUC of 0.85 for the electronic model compared with 0.80 for the traditional CURB-65 (P = .01). Conclusions: Using CURB-65 elements as continuous and weighted data improved prediction of 30-day mortality and could be used as a real-time, electronic decision support tool or to adjust outcomes by severity when comparing processes of care.
Jones, Jason; Bewick, Thomas; Lim, Wei Shen; Aronsky, Dominik; Brown, Samuel M.; Boersma, Wim G.; van der Eerden, Menno M.; Dean, Nathan C.
Failures to perceive visual stimuli lead to errors in decision making. Different theoretical accounts implicate either medial frontal (MF) cognitive control processes or prestimulus occipital (OC) cortical oscillatory dynamics in errors during perceptual tasks. Here, we show that these 2 previously unconnected theoretical accounts can be reconciled, and the brain regions described by the 2 theories have complimentary and interactive roles in supporting error adaptation. Using a perceptual discrimination task and time–frequency network-based analyses of electroencephalography data, we show that perceptual anticipation and posterror top–down control mechanisms recruit distinct but interacting brain networks. MF sites were a hub for theta-band networks and theta–alpha coupling elicited after errors, whereas occipital sites were a network hub during stimulus anticipation and alpha–gamma coupling. Granger causality analyses revealed that these networks communicate in their preferred direction and frequency band: response-related MF ? OC interactions occurred in the theta band, whereas stimulus anticipation-related OC ? MF interactions occurred in the alpha band. Subjects with stronger network interactions were more likely to improve performance after errors. These findings demonstrate that multiple large-scale brain networks interact dynamically and in a directionally specific manner in different frequency bands to support flexible behavioradaptation during perceptual decision making.
Organizations are composed of stable, predominantly cooperative interactions or n-person exchanges. Humans have been engaging in n-person exchanges for a great enough period of evolutionary time that we appear to have evolved a distinct constellation of species-typical mechanisms specialized to solve the adaptive problems posed by this form of social interaction. These mechanisms appear to have been evolutionarily elaborated out of the cognitive infrastructure that initially evolved for dyadic exchange. Key adaptive problems that these mechanisms are designed to solve include coordination among individuals, and defense against exploitation by free riders. Multi-individual cooperation could not have been maintained over evolutionary time if free riders reliably benefited more than contributors to collective enterprises, and so outcompeted them. As a result, humans evolved mechanisms that implement an aversion to exploitation by free riding, and a strategy of conditional cooperation, supplemented by punitive sentiment towards free riders. Because of the design of these mechanisms, how free riding is treated is a central determinant of the survival and health of cooperative organizations. The mapping of the evolved psychology of n-party exchange cooperation may contribute to the construction of a principled theoretical foundation for the understanding of human behavior in organizations.
The International Conference on Climate Change AdaptationAssessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.
Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite primary unresolved questions regarding adaptive response behavior and bystander behavior. The five features of major significance provided by the Microdose Model so far are 1.) Single Specific Energy Hits initiate Adaptive Response, 2.) Mammogram and diagnostic X-rays induce a protective Bystander Effect as well as Adaptive Response radio-protection. 3.) For mammogram X-rays the Adaptive Response protection is retained at high primer dose levels. 4.) The dose range of the AR protection depends on the value of the Specific Energy per Hit, . 5.) Alpha particle induced deleterious Bystander damage is modulated by low LET radiation.
Background How and why animals lose eyesight during adaptation to the dark and food-limited cave environment has puzzled biologists since the time of Darwin. More recently, several different adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain eye degeneration based on studies in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, which consists of blind cave-dwelling (cavefish) and sighted surface-dwelling (surface fish) forms. One of these hypotheses is that eye regression is the result of indirect selection for constructive characters that are negatively linked to eye development through the pleiotropic effects of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. However, subsequent genetic analyses suggested that other mechanisms also contribute to eye regression in Astyanax cavefish. Here, we introduce a new approach to this problem by investigating the phenotypic and genetic relationships between a suite of non-visual constructive traits and eye regression. Results Using quantitative genetic analysis of crosses between surface fish, the Pachón cavefish population and their hybrid progeny, we show that the adaptive vibration attraction behavior (VAB) and its sensory receptors, superficial neuromasts (SN) specifically found within the cavefish eye orbit (EO), are genetically correlated with reduced eye size. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these three traits form two clusters of congruent or overlapping QTL on Astyanax linkage groups (LG) 2 and 17, but not at the shh locus on LG 13. Ablation of EO SN in cavefish demonstrated a major role for these sensory receptors in VAB expression. Furthermore, experimental induction of eye regression in surface fish via shh overexpression showed that the absence of eyes was insufficient to promote the appearance of VAB or EO SN. Conclusions We conclude that natural selection for the enhancement of VAB and EO SN indirectly promotes eye regression in the Pachón cavefish population through an antagonistic relationship involving genetic linkage or pleiotropy among the genetic factors underlying these traits. This study demonstrates a trade-off between the evolution of a non-visual sensory system and eye regression during the adaptive evolution of Astyanax to the cave environment.
“Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.
The wetting behavior of fluorocarbon materials has been studied with the aim of assessing the influence of the surface chemical composition and surface roughness on the water advancing and receding contact angles. Diamond like carbon and two fluorocarbon materials with different fluorine content have been prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and characterized by X-ray photoemission, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies. Very rough surfaces have been obtained by deposition of thin films of these materials on polymer substrates previously subjected to plasma etching to increase their roughness. A direct correlation has been found between roughness and water contact angles while a superhydrophobic behavior (i.e., water contact angles higher than 150° and relatively low adhesion energy) was found for the films with the highest fluorine content deposited on very rough substrates. A critical evaluation of the methods currently used to assess the roughness of these surfaces by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has evidenced that calculated RMS roughness values and actual surface areas are quite dependent on both the scale of observation and image resolution. A critical discussion is carried out about the application of the Wenzel model to account for the wetting behavior of this type of surfaces. PMID:22483335
Human growth modeling statistics were utilized to examine how Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scale (VABS) scores changed in individuals with autistic disorder as a function of both age and initial IQ. Results revealed that subjects improved with age in all domains. The rate of growth in Communication and Daily Living Skills was related to initial IQ while rate of growth in
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of social stories and their musically adapted versions on modifying behaviors of children with autism in home-based environments within a Chinese culture. “Social stories” are used to teach social skills to children with autism by providing them with accurate social information for specific situations. Participants in this study were
|These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptivebehavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…
Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco
|This study used Complier Average Causal Effect analysis (CACE; see G. Imbens & D. Rubin, 1997) to examine the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in the public schools on rates of substance use and antisocial behavior among students ages 11-17. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in 6th…
Connell, Arin M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Yasui, Miwa; Kavanagh, Kathryn
|Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…
|Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales (VABS) data were examined in a large sample of young children with ASD (n = 290) of varying cognitive levels. IQ was higher than VABS composite score among high functioning children only; the opposite pattern was found in lower IQ subgroups. Profile analysis of VABS domains across cognitive levels demonstrated…
Perry, Adrienne; Flanagan, Helen E.; Dunn Geier, Jennifer; Freeman, Nancy L.
These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptivebehavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…
Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco
Although there is continuing debate about whether sexual selection promotes or impedes adaptation to novel environments, the role of mating behavior in such adaptation remains largely unexplored. We investigated the evolution of mating behavior (latency to mating, mating probability and duration) in replicate populations of seed beetles Callosobruchus maculatus subjected to selection on life-history ("Young" vs. "Old" reproduction) under contrasting regimes of sexual selection ("Monogamy" vs. "Polygamy"). Life-history selection is predicted to favor delayed mating in "Old" females, but sexual conflict under polygamy can potentially retard adaptive life-history evolution. We found that life-history selection yielded the predicted changes in mating behavior, but sexual selection regime had no net effect. In within-line crosses, populations selected for late reproduction showed equally reduced early-life mating probability regardless of mating system. In between-line crosses, however, the effect of life-history selection on early-life mating probability was stronger in polygamous lines than in monogamous ones. Thus, although mating system influenced male-female coevolution, removal of sexual selection did not affect the adaptive evolution of mating behavior. Importantly, our study shows that the interaction between sexual selection and life-history selection can result in either increased or decreased reproductive divergence depending on the ecological context. PMID:19930453
Maklakov, Alexei A; Cayetano, Luis; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell
The relationship between four characteristics of children entering first grade (cognitive, dental and motor development, and adaptivebehavior) and achievement at the end of the first grade year were determined. Interrelationships among the independent variables were also determined. (Author/GK)
|A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…
An investigation of memorable messages as guides to behavior from a Control Theory perspective was conducted. Respondents were asked to recall behaviors that either exceeded or violated their personal expectations for themselves, then to recall the memorable messages that came to mind when self-assessing these behaviors. This method uses the self-assessment of prior behavior as the entry point to a
The assessment and management of inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive behavior in a 6-year-old girl who experienced frontal lobe damage are described. A multimodel approach combining medical, educational, and behavioral techniques to assess hyperactive behavior, optimal medication level, and medication and psychotherapeutic effectiveness is described. The results of the study suggest that in similar cases, children and adolescents manifesting these behaviors
Lily M. Kelly; William Sonis; Jerome Fialkov; Alan Kazdin; Johnny Matson
The effects of different psychotropic medications were examined for the control of behavior problems associated with dementia in three elderly nursing home residents. A reversal design was used in which the medications were introduced and withdrawn, and their effects were assessed on various resident behaviors using behavioral and motor performance assessments. All medications were effective in decreasing aberrant behaviors, but
Since 1990, the primary criteria used for assessing response to therapy in high-grade gliomas were those developed by Macdonald and colleagues, which incorporated 2-dimensional area measurements of contrast-enhancing tumor regions, corticosteroid dosing, and clinical assessment to arrive at a designation of response, stable disease, or progression. Recent advances in imaging technology and targeted therapeutics, however, have exposed limitations of the Macdonald criteria and have highlighted the need for reevaluation of response assessment criteria. In 2010, the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Working Group published updated criteria to address this need and to standardize response assessment for high-grade gliomas. In 2009, prior to the publication of the RANO criteria, the randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase 3 AVAglio trial was designed and initiated to investigate the effectiveness of radiotherapy and temozolomide with or without bevacizumab in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. The AVAglio protocol enacted specific measures to adapt the Macdonald criteria to the frontline treatment setting and to antiangiogenic agent evaluation, including the incorporation of a T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery component, qualitative assessment of irregularly shaped contrast-enhancing lesions, and a decision tree for confirming or ruling out pseudoprogression. Moreover, the protocol outlines practical means by which these adapted response criteria can be implemented in the clinic. This article describes the evolution of radiographic response criteria for high-grade gliomas and highlights the similarities and differences between those implemented in the AVAglio study and those subsequently published by RANO. PMID:23529375
Chinot, Olivier L; Macdonald, David R; Abrey, Lauren E; Zahlmann, Gudrun; Kerloëguen, Yannick; Cloughesy, Timothy F
In this paper, we propose a full reference Video Quality Assessment (VQA) algorithm based on the Adaptive Block-size Transform Just-Noticeable Difference (ABT-JND) model. Firstly, ABT-JND is introduced for its efficiency of modeling the Human Vision System (HVS) characteristics. Based on the ABT-JND model, the full reference VQA is developed, by capturing HVS responses of spatio-temporal distortions over different block-size transforms.
Gray (1977) postulated the constructs of a behavioral activation system (BAS) and behavioral inhibition system (BIS) to explain personality differences related to anxiety and impulsivity. Considerable theorizing has been done about the relationship of these systems to personality functioning and emotional\\/behavioral disorders (Gray, 1982, 1987b; Quay, 1988), yet to date no instrument has been devised to assess these two constructs
|The literature reflects an increasing reliance on functional behavioralassessment (FBA) to, develop support plans for decreasing problem behavior. However, applications with students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), particularly in classroom settings, continue to be limited. The purpose of the present review was to explore the FBA…
Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges and Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable due to, among other factors, their geography, demography and level of economic development. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used as a basis for the consideration of the potential health impacts of changes in the climate on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose a range of potential adaptive responses appropriate for Vanuatu. The HIA process involved the participation of a broad range of stakeholders including expert sector representatives in the areas of bio-physical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food, who provided informed comment and input into the understanding of the potential health impacts and development of adaptation strategies. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed with the application of a qualitative process that considered both the consequences and the likelihood of each of the potential health impacts occurring. Potential adaptation strategies and actions were developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by the various sectors in Vanuatu to contribute to future decision making processes associated with the health impacts of climate change. PMID:23618474
A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…
Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.
Assessments of the potential human health impacts of climate change are needed to inform the development of adaptation strategies, policies, and measures to lessen projected adverse impacts. We developed methods for country-level assessments to help policy makers make evidence-based decisions to increase resilience to current and future climates, and to provide information for national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The steps in an assessment should include the following: a) determine the scope of the assessment; b) describe the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; c) identify and describe current strategies, policies, and measures designed to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; d) review the health implications of the potential impacts of climate variability and change in other sectors; e) estimate the future potential health impacts using scenarios of future changes in climate, socioeconomic, and other factors; f) synthesize the results; and g) identify additional adaptation policies and measures to reduce potential negative health impacts. Key issues for ensuring that an assessment is informative, timely, and useful include stakeholder involvement, an adequate management structure, and a communication strategy.
To behave adaptively, we must learn from the consequences of our actions. Studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have been informative with respect to the question of how such learning occurs. These studies have revealed a frontocentral negativity termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN) that appears after negative feedback. According to one prominent theory, the FRN tracks the difference between the values of actual and expected outcomes, or reward prediction errors. As such, the FRN provides a tool for studying reward valuation and decision making. We begin this review by examining the neural significance of the FRN. We then examine its functional significance. To understand the cognitive processes that occur when the FRN is generated, we explore variables that influence its appearance and amplitude. Specifically, we evaluate four hypotheses: (1) the FRN encodes a quantitative reward prediction error; (2) the FRN is evoked by outcomes and by stimuli that predict outcomes; (3) the FRN and behavior change with experience; and (4) the system that produces the FRN is maximally engaged by volitional actions.
Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.
Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.
This article proposes a new modeling framework to investigate the consequences of natural disasters and the following reconstruction phase. Based on input-output tables, its originalities are (1) the taking into account of sector production capacities and of both forward and backward propagations within the economic system; and (2) the introduction of adaptivebehaviors. The model is used to simulate the response of the economy of Louisiana to the landfall of Katrina. The model is found consistent with available data, and provides two important insights. First, economic processes exacerbate direct losses, and total costs are estimated at $149 billion, for direct losses equal to $107 billion. When exploring the impacts of other possible disasters, it is found that total losses due to a disaster affecting Louisiana increase nonlinearly with respect to direct losses when the latter exceed $50 billion. When direct losses exceed $200 billion, for instance, total losses are twice as large as direct losses. For risk management, therefore, direct losses are insufficient measures of disaster consequences. Second, positive and negative backward propagation mechanisms are essential for the assessment of disaster consequences, and the taking into account of production capacities is necessary to avoid overestimating the positive effects of reconstruction. A systematic sensitivity analysis shows that, among all parameters, the overproduction capacity in the construction sector and the adaptation characteristic time are the most important. PMID:18643833
If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.
Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.
Many individual-level behaviors are associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reliable and valid assessment instruments\\u000a are needed to (1) identify behaviors and populations to target with emissions-reduction programs and policies, (2) evaluate\\u000a the effectiveness of such programs, (3) link self-reported and objective measures of GHG emissions to establish the impact\\u000a of specific behaviors, and (4) estimate frequencies of behaviors and
K. Carrie Armel; Katy Yan; Annika Todd; Thomas N. Robinson
Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.
Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,
In partnership with a local Head Start program in the southeastern United States, this study sought to: (a) examine the influence of problem behaviors on preschool language and literacy and mathematics achievement and (b) identify mechanisms that explain why children with behavior problems have difficulty learning in the preschool classroom. Children's behavior problems were found to negatively predict their learning
The assessment of cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms often requires flexibly controlled and precisely timed changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and/or inspired CO?. In this study, a new system for inducing variations in mean ABP was designed, implemented and tested using programmable sequences and programmable controls to induce pressure changes through bilateral thigh cuffs. The system is also integrated with a computer-controlled switch to select air or a CO?/air mixture to be provided via a face mask. Adaptive feedback control of a pressure generator was required to meet stringent specifications for fast changes, and accuracy in timing and pressure levels applied by the thigh cuffs. The implemented system consists of a PC-based signal analysis/control unit, a pressure control unit and a CO?/air control unit. Initial evaluations were carried out to compare the cuff pressure control performances between adaptive and non-adaptive control configurations. Results show that the adaptive control method can reduce the mean error in sustaining target pressure by 99.57 % and reduce the transient time in pressure increases by 45.21 %. The system has proven a highly effective tool in ongoing research on brain blood flow control. PMID:23389239
Fan, Lingke; Bush, Glen; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Simpson, David M; Allen, Robert; Potter, John; Birch, Anthony A; Panerai, Ronney B
The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings indicate that the major area of difference between children with autism and
Rhea Paul; Stephanie Miles; Domenic Cicchetti; Sara Sparrow; Ami Klin; Fred Volkmar; Megan Coflin; Shelley Booker
Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear resistance under extreme tribological conditions.
Fox-Rabinovich, German S.; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D.; Gershman, Iosif S.; Kovalev, Anatoly I.; Veldhuis, Stephen C.; Aguirre, Myriam H.; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L.
The impact of community-based instruction on the development of adaptivebehavior in 34 high school students with moderate to profound mental retardation was examined. Results were: (a) Students made statistically significant gains in three of four domains of the Scales of Independent Behavior; (b) student IQ, level of student ambulation, and presence of behavior problems were not significant predictors of the amount of community-based instruction students received; and (c) the amount of community-based instruction was a more powerful predictor of gains in these domains than were IQ, level of student ambulation, and the presence of behavior problems. Results were discussed in terms of implications for the design and implementation of secondary programs for students with mental retardation. PMID:8461128
McDonnell, J; Hardman, M L; Hightower, J; Keifer-O'Donnell, R; Drew, C
The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior.
Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell
Assessment centers rely on multiple, carefully constructed behavioral simulation exercises to measure individuals on multiple performance dimensions. Although methods for establishing parallelism among al- ternate forms of paper-and-pencil tests have been well researched (i.e., to equate tests on difficulty such that the scores can be compared), little re- search has considered the why and how of parallel simulation exercises. This
BRADLEY J. BRUMMEL; DEBORAH E. RUPP; SETH M. SPAIN
Functional behaviorassessment (FBA), although mandated by federal law in situations involving students with emotional and behavioral disorders, is not well defined in the literature in terms of how it should best be undertaken in widespread practice in schools. Functional behaviorassessment can be defined as a process for determining the reason…
Scott, Terrance M.; Alter, Peter J.; McQuillan, Kathleen
The relationship between causal models in behavior therapy and strategies for designing intervention programs on the basis of assessment data is considered. The evolution away from simple univariate causal models is noted and complex causal models for behavior disorders are stressed. However, complex causal models currently preclude empirically based functional analytic and keystone target behaviorassessment strategies for intervention design.
|This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…
|Functional behaviorassessment (FBA), although mandated by federal law in situations involving students with emotional and behavioral disorders, is not well defined in the literature in terms of how it should best be undertaken in widespread practice in schools. Functional behaviorassessment can be defined as a process for determining the reason…
Scott, Terrance M.; Alter, Peter J.; McQuillan, Kathleen
|This manual takes school practitioners step by step through conducting functional behavioralassessments and using them to plan effective interventions. The authors present a cogent rationale for the use of functional behavioralassessment (FBA), clearly explaining its advantages over traditional approaches to dealing with problem behavior. Basic…
Children with histories of chronic early maltreatment within a caregiving relationship may develop complex trauma or developmental trauma and suffer from a variety of deficits in many domains. This study explored the effects of complex trauma on the development of 57 children, as measured by the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales-II. This is the first descriptive study to report on the significant discrepancies between chronological and developmental ages in adopted and foster children. This study found that adopted and foster children with a psychiatric diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder show developmental delay in the domains of communication, daily living skills, and socialization. The average adaptivebehavior composite score for the children in this study yielded a developmental age (age equivalency) of 4.4 years, while the average chronological age was 9.9 years. PMID:19777796
In the study of adaptivebehavior, the stop-signal paradigm provides a measure of the ef- ficiency of response suppression that lends itself to examining the ability to inhibit one's ac- tions, and two complementary types of factors that may influence that ability. Based on neurobiological considerations, age-related individual diÄerences were hypothesized to be such a factor. In agreement with the
K. Richard Ridderinkhof; Guido P. H. Band; Gordon D. Logan
We compared two functional behavioralassessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…
|Repetitive behaviors such as excessive straightening are commonly observed among individuals with autism. Attempts to prevent these behaviors may increase the likelihood of other problem behaviors. The present study was designed to assess and treat the excessive straightening and associated destructive behaviors of a 16-year-old boy who had been…
Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Sweeney, Nicole M.
The purpose of this study was to study one important firm level antecedent of salesperson's behaviors, namely the firm's market orientation. There have been many studies of personal antecedents of salesperson behaviors and performance, with little predictive success. But there are few studies of firm level influences on salesperson behaviors such as adaptive selling, customer orientation, listening and consulting. The
This research examined how a contextualist approach to personality can reveal social interactional patterns that are obscured by gender comparisons of overall behavior rates. For some behaviors (verbal aggression), girls and boys differed both in their responses to social events and in how often they encountered them, yet they did not differ in overall behavior rates. For other behaviors (prosocial),
Audrey L. Zakriski; Jack C. Wright; Marion K. Underwood
The aim of this article is to report the development and preliminary testing of a prototype computerized adaptive test of chronic pain (CHRONIC PAIN-CAT) conducted in two stages: 1) evaluation of various item selection and stopping rules through real data simulated administrations of CHRONIC PAIN-CAT; 2) a feasibility study of the actual prototype CHRONIC PAIN-CAT assessment system conducted in a pilot sample. Item calibrations developed from a US general population sample (N=782) were used to program a pain severity and impact item bank (k=45) and real data simulations were conducted to determine a CAT stopping rule. The CHRONIC-PAIN CAT was programmed on a tablet PC using QualityMetric's Dynamic Health Assessment (DYHNA®) software and administered to a clinical sample of pain sufferers (n=100). The CAT was completed in significantly less time than the static (full item bank) assessment (p<.001). On average, 5.6 items were dynamically administered by CAT to achieve a precise score. Scores estimated from the two assessments were highly correlated (r=.89) and both assessments discriminated across pain severity levels (p<.001, RV=.95). Patients’ evaluations of the CHRONIC PAIN-CAT were favourable. Perspective This report demonstrates that the CHRONIC PAIN-CAT is feasible for administration in a clinic. The application has the potential to improve pain assessment and help clinicians manage chronic pain.
Anatchkova, Milena D.; Saris-Baglama, Renee N.; Kosinski, Mark; Bjorner, Jakob
Increased concern over climate change and its implications for human and natural systems is evidenced by the many efforts to assess climate impacts and develop adaptation strategies underway at a wide range of levels of governance in the United States. Scientists, resource managers and decision makers are increasingly expected to use climate information in assessment and planning, but struggle with the uncertainty associated with this information. This has lead to increasing requests for the climate modeling community to define the best climate model(s) and downscaling approach(es) for use in impacts analyses. However, choosing the "best" model may be very difficult and counter productive. Many of the barriers associated with the (real and perceived) uncertainty of projected climate change could be overcome by reassessing assumptions about what can and cannot be projected about future climate and by reorienting methods by which likely climate impacts are assessed. We propose that climate impacts assessment begin not with an examination of climate models, but with an introspective look at the system of interest, i.e., a vulnerability assessment framework that includes (1) understanding the system's climate sensitivity, (2) carefully specifying analytical time and space scales, (3) assessing "model" skill at projecting the parameter(s) of interest, and (4) using ensembles/bracketing scenarios instead of choosing the "best" model. We provide examples for application in marine and aquatic environments.
Snover, A. K.; Alexander, M. A.; Mantua, N. J.; Littell, J. S.; Nye, J.
In industrial processes represented by petroleum and refinery processes, it is necessary to establish the performance-driven control strategy in order to improve the productivity, which the control performance is firstly evaluated, and the controller is reconstructed. This paper describes a design scheme of performance-adaptive PID controllers which are based on the above control mechanism. According to the proposed control scheme, the system identification works corresponding to the result of modeling performance assessment, and PID parameters are computed using the newly estimated system parameters. In calculating the PID parameters, the desired control performance is considered. The behaviour of the proposed control scheme is numerically examined in some simulation examples.
Adaptive collaborative learning support systems analyze student collaboration as it occurs and provide targeted assistance to the collaborators. Too little is known about how to design adaptive support to have a positive effect on interaction and learning. We investigated this problem in a reciprocal peer tutoring scenario, where two students take turns tutoring each other, so that both may benefit
The authors examined the effect of adaptation to expansion on overtaking maneuvers in a driving simulator. Following driving on a straight empty road for 5 min, drivers initiated overtaking substantially later (220–510 ms) than comparable maneuvers made following viewing a static scene or following 5 min of curve driving. Following adaptation to contraction (produced by driving backward), observers initiated overtaking
|Few studies have specifically investigated the cognitive correlates of employment for persons with mental retardation. To evaluate the relationship of cognitive and adaptive functioning to work status, 56 competitively employed and 55 unemployed individuals with mental retardation underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological and adaptive…
Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Chen, Ching-Chiang
Research in assessment and intervention with developmentally disabled children has led to important advances in recent years. This article identifies conceptual and practical issues important to the process of behavioralassessment, and presents a framework for the behavioralassessment of the developmentally disabled, with special emphasis on…
This article reviews seemingly conflicting behavioral data about sensorimotor adaptation. Some earlier studies assert that one common mechanism exists for multiple distortions, and others that multiple mechanisms exist for one given distortion. Some but not others report that adaptation is direction-selective. Some submit that adaptation transfers across effectors, and others that a single effector can adapt to multiple distortions. A model is proposed to account for all these findings. It stipulates that adaptive mechanisms respond to multiple distortions, consist of directionally tuned special-purpose modules, can be switched in dependence on contextual cues, and are connected to practiced movement types with a higher weight than to unpracticed ones.
Plasticity in hatching timing allows embryos to balance egg- and larval-stage risks, and depends on the ability of hatching-competent embryos to continue developing in the egg. Hypoxia can slow development, kill embryos and induce premature hatching. For terrestrial eggs of red-eyed treefrogs, the embryonic period can extend approximately 50% longer than development to hatching competence, and development is synchronous across perivitelline oxygen levels (PO2) ranging from 0.5-16.5 kPa. Embryos maintain large external gills until hatching, then gills regress rapidly. We assessed the respiratory value of external gills using gill manipulations and closed-system respirometry. Embryos without external gills were oxygen limited in air and hatched at an external PO2 of 17 kPa, whereas embryos with gills regulated their metabolism and remained in the egg at substantially lower PO2. By contrast, tadpoles gained no respiratory benefit from external gills. We videotaped behavior and manipulated embryos to test if they position gills near the air-exposed portion of the egg surface, where PO2 is highest. Active embryos remained stationary for minutes in gills-at-surface positions. After manipulations and spontaneous movements that positioned gills in the O2-poor region of the egg, however, they returned their gills to the air-exposed surface within seconds. Even neural tube stage embryos, capable only of ciliary rotation, positioned their developing head in the region of highest PO2. Such behavior may be critical both to delay hatching after hatching competence and to obtain sufficient oxygen for normal, synchronous development at earlier stages. PMID:18978228
The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings indicate that the major area of difference between children with autism and those with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, was expressive communication; specifically, the use of elaborations in syntax and morphology and in pragmatic use of language to convey and to seek information in discourse. Linear discriminant function analysis revealed that scores on just three of these expressive communication item sets correctly identified subjects in the two diagnostic categories with 80% overall accuracy. Implications of these findings for both diagnosis and intervention with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders will be discussed. PMID:15162940
The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents’ risky sexual behavior\\u000a on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching\\u000a online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate photos or videos to someone\\u000a online,
Susanne E. BaumgartnerPatti; Patti M. Valkenburg; Jochen Peter
|This article presents two case examples to demonstrate how teachers can use functional behavioralassessment (FBA) to design behavior support plans. FBA helps a second grade "class clown" to learn new ways to get attention and a first grade "class lawyer" to learn to stop arguing and stay on task (with the help of an electronic record keeping…
|Fourteen studies were reviewed to examine the utility, acceptability, and practicality of functional behavioralassessment (FBA) conducted with students with high-incidence behavior problems in school settings. Results indicate FBA was effective, that FBA could be performed in typical school environments, and that FBA produced socially valid…
Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around), and their association with physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors.
Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Graham, Daniel J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Assessment of personality disorders (PD) has been hindered by reliance on the problematic categorical model embodied in the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Model of Mental Disorders (DSM), lack of consensus among alternative dimensional models, and inefficient measurement methods. This article describes the rationale for and early results from an NIMH-funded, multi-year study designed to develop an integrative and comprehensive model and efficient measure of PD trait dimensions. To accomplish these goals, we are in the midst of a five-phase project to develop and validate the model and measure. The results of Phase 1 of the project—which was focused on developing the PD traits to be assessed and the initial item pool—resulted in a candidate list of 59 PD traits and an initial item pool of 2,589 items. Data collection and structural analyses in community and patient samples will inform the ultimate structure of the measure, and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) will permit efficient measurement of the resultant traits. The resultant Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD) will be well positioned as a measure of the proposed DSM-5 PD traits. Implications for both applied and basic personality research are discussed.
Simms, Leonard J.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Roberts, John E.; Watson, David; Welte, John; Rotterman, Jane H.
Introduction Emerging studies suggest that excessive sun exposure in childhood contributes to the development of skin cancer later in life. Children rarely wear a wide-brimmed hat when outside although these hats offer the best protection to the areas on the face where children are most likely to be sunburned. The current study explores 4th grade student assessment of their sun protection behaviors outside at school and at times other than when they are at school. Method This study utilized baseline data collected in the Fall of 2006 for the Sun Protection for Florida’s Children (SPF) project. In brief, the SPF project is a group randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a school based intervention promoting sun protection in general, and hat use in particular. The project targets all 4th grade students in Hillsborough County Schools, FL. The data reported in this study were collected at baseline before any intervention activities was initiated. Approximately 2,086 4th grade students completed self-report surveys evaluating sun protection behaviors. Trained research assistants carried out 99 direct observations of physical education classes over a five week period during Fall 2006 in Tampa, Florida. Results In general, the self-reported use of various methods of sun protection was low. Approximately one third of students reported that they wore sunscreen (32.8%) or sunglasses (32.3%) before leaving home for school. Only a small percentage of students wore long sleeves (15.0%) or a hat with a brim (16.4%) before leaving for school. In addition, few students wore a hat with a wide brim when outside but not at school (16.4%). Students spent an average of 59.1 minutes per week outdoors while attending school and 35.5 minutes during peak sun exposure. In general, female students and Hispanic, African American, and students of other racial and ethnic groups were more likely to practice sun protection behaviors at school than white or male students. Students who attended schools with a mandatory uniform policy were less likely to wear hats with brims. Discussion A single sunburn heightens a child’s risk of developing skin cancer later on in life. Sun exposure at school poses a significant risk to student health and more needs to be done to promote the use of a wide-brimmed hat and limiting student sun exposure. A wide brimmed hat shows the most promise in helping students to protect the face at neck areas where sunburns are most likely to develop. More needs to be done to promote hat use and limiting sun exposure while children are at school.
Hunter, Seft; Wells, Kristen J.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Boulware, David; Love-Jackson, Kymia; Abdulla, Rania; Roetzheim, Richard G.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…
MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.
One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…
|One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…
|Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI),…
MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.
Objective To pilot test a culturally adaptedbehavioral weight loss intervention in obese and overweight Latino adults. Design Pilot study. Setting Latino community organization in Durham, North Carolina. Participants Overweight and obese, self-identified Latinos ?18 years old. Intervention Intervention consisted of 20 weekly group sessions (90–120 minutes each) incorporating motivational interviewing techniques. The intervention goal was weight loss by adopting the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, increasing physical activity, and reducing caloric intake. The cultural adaptation included foods and physical activities commonly used in the Latino culture, using a Spanish-speaking interventionist, and conducting the intervention at a local Latino community organization. Main outcome measures Weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, dietary pattern, and physical activity were measured at baseline and at 20 weeks. Results A total of 56 participants are included in the final analysis. The average weight loss was 5.1 lbs (95% CI ?8.7 to ?1.5; P=.006); and there was a reduction in BMI of 1.3 kg/m2 (95% CI ?2.2 to ?0.5; P=.002) at 20 weeks. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 2.6 mm Hg (95% CI ?4.7 to ?0.6; P=.013). Conclusion A culturally adaptedbehavioral intervention for the treatment of overweight and obesity is potentially effective in a diverse group of Latino adults.
Corsino, Leonor; Rocha-Goldberg, Maria Pilar; Batch, Bryan C.; Ortiz-Melo, David I.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Svetkey, Laura P.
Children with high levels of aggressive-hyperactive-impulsive-inattentive behavior (AHII; n = 154) were subdivided into those with (n = 38) and without (n = 116) adaptive disability (+AD\\/-AD) defined as a discrepancy between expected versus actual adaptive functioning. They were compared to each other and a control group of 47 normal children. Both AHII groups were more likely to have attention
Terri L. Shelton; Russell A. Barkley; Cheryl Crosswait; Maureen Moorehouse; Kenneth Fletcher; Susan Barrett; Lucy Jenkins; Lori Metevia
We examined the relationship between prenatal (cord blood) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Neonatal BehavioralAssessment Scale (NBAS) performance in babies born to women who consumed contaminated Lake Ontario fish. Cord blood PCBs, DDE, HCB, Mirex, lead, and hair mercury levels were determined for 152 women who reported never consuming Lake Ontario fish and 141 women who reported consuming at least 40 PCB-equivalent lbs. of Lake Ontario fish over their lifetime. Earlier work demonstrated that the newborns of fish eaters are exposed to a more heavily chlorinated distribution of PCB congeners, and that highly chlorinated PCBs (hepta-, octa-, and nonachlorinated biphenyls) are most strongly correlated with breast milk levels, perhaps providing the best index of PCB exposure in the Oswego cohort. Given the above, one would predict that these PCBs would be related to impaired performance on those NBAS clusters associated with fish consumption: namely Habituation, Autonomic, and Reflex clusters of the NBAS. Excepting the Relex cluster, these predictions were confirmed. Results revealed significant linear relationships between the most heavily chlorinated PCBs and performance impairments on the Habituation and Autonomic clusters of the NBAS at 25-48 h after birth. Additionally, higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with a nonspecific performance impairment on the NBAS as evidenced by a significantly greater proportion of NBAS scales in which poor performance was exhibited (more than 1 standard deviation below the mean) in the most highly exposed neonates. Moreover, PCBs of lighter chlorination were unrelated to NBAS performance, as were DDE, Mirex, HCB, lead, and mercury. These results corroborate our earlier findings linking Lake Ontario fish consumption to the most heavily chlorinated PCB congeners, and suggest that the chlorination and persistence of PCBs may be an important factor both for exposure assessment and for determining relationships with neurobehavioral functions. PMID:10642111
|The document, part two of a six part project report, discusses the construction and validation of a three stage model for assessing deviant behavior in children. The model was developed to meet the project's measurement, identification and diagnostic goals. Stage one consists of a 50 item behavior checklist which was used as an initial screening…
|Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the…
Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.
Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from…
|Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from…
The term vulnerability has been used in a variety of contexts, including climate change impact assessment. In this paper those issues relevant to climate change impacts on agriculture and species are discussed. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and species to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external
P. M. Berry; M. D. A. Rounsevell; P. A. Harrison; E. Audsley
This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...
China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence—favorably evaluated in the West—for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adaptingbehavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources.
|The "Self-Assessment and Program Review" (SAPR) was developed to provide an assessment tool that schools could use to track their progress in implementing key practices related to all three levels of schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS). The SAPR is a team-based assessment tool, using both individual and team ratings of 10 evidence-based…
The "Self-Assessment and Program Review" (SAPR) was developed to provide an assessment tool that schools could use to track their progress in implementing key practices related to all three levels of schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS). The SAPR is a team-based assessment tool, using both individual and team ratings of 10 evidence-based…
The PEP-R (psychoeducational profile revised) is an instrument that has been used in many countries to assess abilities and formulate treatment programs for children with autism and related developmental disorders. To the end to provide further information on the PEP-R's psychometric properties, a large sample (N = 137) of children presenting Autistic Disorder symptoms under the age of 12 years, including low-functioning individuals, was examined. Results yielded data of interest especially in terms of: Cronbach's alpha, interrater reliability, and validation with the Vineland AdaptiveBehavior Scales. These findings help complete the instrument's statistical description and augment its usefulness, not only in designing treatment programs for these individuals, but also as an instrument for verifying the efficacy of intervention. PMID:19777332
A revised Swedish forest health assessment system is presented. The assessment system is composed of several interacting components which target information needs for strategic and operational decision making and accommodate a continuously expanding knowledge base. The main motivation for separating information for strategic and operational decision making is that major damage outbreaks are often scattered throughout the landscape. Generally, large-scale inventories (such as national forest inventories) cannot provide adequate information for mitigation measures. In addition to broad monitoring programs that provide time-series information on known damaging agents and their effects, there is also a need for local and regional inventories adapted to specific damage events. While information for decision making is the major focus of the health assessment system, the system also contributes to expanding the knowledge base of forest conditions. For example, the integrated monitoring programs provide a better understanding of ecological processes linked to forest health. The new health assessment system should be able to respond to the need for quick and reliable information and thus will be an important part of the future monitoring of Swedish forests. PMID:21633796
This pilot study, conducted in a manufacturing plant, investigated employee perceptions of the behaviors of supervisors and co-workers that constitute quid pro quo and hostile work environment sexual harassment. Responses indicated that the majority of employees can accurately identify behaviors that are frequently associated with quid pro quo harassment, but cannot identify behaviors that are used to establish evidence of
Marjorie L. Icenogle; Bruce W. Eagle; Sohel Ahmad; Lisa A. Hanks
In the behavioral literature, self-echoic behavior has been hypothesized to play an important role in, for example, emergent conditional discriminations (e.g., Lowenkron, 1991), emergent verbal operants (Horne & Lowe, 1996), and problem solving (Skinner, 1957). Although early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism emphasize the…
Esch, John W.; Esch, Barbara E.; McCart, Jordon D.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg
|In the behavioral literature, self-echoic behavior has been hypothesized to play an important role in, for example, emergent conditional discriminations (e.g., Lowenkron, 1991), emergent verbal operants (Horne & Lowe, 1996), and problem solving (Skinner, 1957). Although early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism emphasize the…
Esch, John W.; Esch, Barbara E.; McCart, Jordon D.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg
The purpose of the study was to describe teachers' levels of cognitive behaviors and to investigate characteristics that influence teaching at higher cognitive levels. Agriculture teachers in a Midwestern State were observed using the Florida Taxonomy of Cognitive Behaviors. Teachers' attitude toward teaching at higher levels of cognition was collected using a summated rating questionnaire. Teachers' cognitive behavior was found
Long-range corrected (LC) hybrid functionals and asymptotically corrected (AC) model potentials are two distinct density functional methods with correct asymptotic behavior. They are known to be accurate for properties that are sensitive to the asymptote of the exchange-correlation potential, such as the highest occupied molecular orbital energies and Rydberg excitation energies of molecules. To provide a comprehensive comparison, we investigate the performance of the two schemes and others on a very wide range of applications, including asymptote problems, self-interaction-error problems, energy-gap problems, charge-transfer problems and many others. The LC hybrid scheme is shown to consistently outperform the AC model potential scheme. In addition, to be consistent with the molecules collected in the IP131 database [Y.-S. Lin, C.-W. Tsai, G.-D. Li and J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 136, 154109], we expand the EA115 and FG115 databases to include, respectively, the vertical electron affinities and fundamental gaps of the additional 16 molecules and develop a new database, AE113 (113 atomization energies), consisting of accurate reference values for the atomization energies of the 113 molecules in IP131. These databases will be useful for assessing the accuracy of density functional methods. PMID:23619978
Tsai, Chen-Wei; Su, Yu-Chuan; Li, Guan-De; Chai, Jeng-Da
|Most HIV-prevention funding agencies require the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions, tested and proven to be effective through outcome evaluation. Adaptation of programs during implementation is common and may be influenced by many factors, including agency mission, time constraints, and funding streams. There are few theoretical…
Bowen, Shelly-Ann K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Richter, Donna L.; Hussey, Jim; Elder, Keith; Lindley, Lisa
Adaptive skill is a central concept to understanding vocational behavior. In this study, a theory of behavioral functionality is proposed that describes the underlying structure of workplace adaptive skill. The propositions of the theory are formalized in a facet theory mapping sentence, then 12 adaptive skills are assessed on a group of career inexperienced individuals using a structured interview methodology.
Adaptive skill is a central concept to understanding vocational behavior. In this study, a theory of behavioral functionality is proposed that describes the underlying structure of workplace adaptive skill. The propositions of the theory are formalized in a facet theory mapping sentence, then 12 adaptive skills are assessed on a group of career…
Three individuals with severe intellectual disabilities participated in separate analyses of problem behavior. In each case, a functional analysis was conducted under two parallel conditions. In one condition, self-injury or aggression resulted in escape from difficult tasks; in the second condition, the same problem behavior resulted in access to preferred items. Results indicated that the problem behaviors for each participant were maintained by both types of contingencies. Functional communication training was then delivered first in one condition and then in the second. After each participant was trained in a functionally equivalent mode of communication for one condition, levels of problem behavior decreased in that condition but not in the untrained condition. Only after separate communication forms were trained in both conditions was problem behavior reduced to clinically acceptable levels. These results document three examples of problem behaviors under multiple control, and emphasize the need to organize interventions that address different contingencies of reinforcement that maintain the same problem behavior.
BACKGROUND A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. METHODS Women with Stage 1 – 3 breast cancer recruited 4 – 8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention or a 1-day psychoeducational control group and completed questionnaires and late afternoon blood samples at study entry and 6 and 12 months after assignment to experimental condition. RESULTS Of 128 women initially providing psychosocial questionnaire and blood samples at study entry, 97 provided complete data for anxiety measures and cortisol analysis at all time points, and immune assays were run on a subset of 85 of these women. Those assigned to a 10-week group-based CBSM intervention evidenced better psychosocial adaptation (lower reported cancer-specific anxiety and interviewer-rated general anxiety symptoms) and physiological adaptation (lower cortisol, greater Th1 cytokine [interleukin-2 and interferon-? production and IL-2:IL-4 ratio) after their adjuvant treatment compared to those in the control group. Effects on psychosocial adaptation indicators and cortisol appeared to hold across the entire 12-month observation period. Th1 cytokine regulation changes held only over the initial 6-month period. CONCLUSIONS This intervention may have facilitated a “recovery or maintenance” of Th1 cytokine regulation during or after the adjuvant therapy period. Behavioral interventions that address dysregulated neuroendocrine function could play a clinically significant role in optimizing host immunologic resistance during a vulnerable period.
Antoni, Michael H.; Lechner, Suzanne; Diaz, Alain; Vargas, Sara; Holley, Heather; Phillips, Kristin; McGregor, Bonnie; Carver, Charles S.; Blomberg, Bonnie
Increased hair cortisol concentrations have been associated with stress exposure in both human and nonhuman primates, and hair cortisol is now gaining attention as a biomarker for stress-related health problems. The present study examined the behavioral and physiological reactions of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants reared in three different rearing environments to the major stressor of relocation. Infant monkeys (n=61) were studied from birth through 2 years of age. For the first 8 months of life, infants were either with their mothers and peers (MPR, n=21) or reared in a nursery using either peer-rearing (PR, n=20) or surrogate-peer-rearing (SPR, n=20). At approximately 8 months of age, infants were removed from their rearing group, simultaneously placed into a large social environment consisting of infants from all three rearing conditions, and observed for the next 16 months. Behavior was recorded twice per week from 1 to 24 months, and composite anxiety scores were calculated for each monkey. Monkeys were initially shaved at the nape of the neck on day 14 to remove any prenatal effects on hair cortisol deposition. Hair samples were then collected by re-shaving at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months and analyzed for cortisol content. MPR monkeys were the least affected by the stressor, showing smaller increases in anxious behavior than the other groups and more rapid physiological adaptation as assessed using hair cortisol. PR monkeys showed heightened and prolonged anxious behavior, had the highest cortisol levels prior to relocation, and their cortisol levels did not decline until more than a year later. SPR monkeys exhibited more rapid behavioraladaptation than PR monkeys, showing heightened but not prolonged anxious behavior. However, the SPR group showed a marked increase in cortisol in response to the relocation, and like the PR group, their physiological adaptation was slower than that of the MPR group as indicated by elevated cortisol levels at 18 months. By 24 months of age (16 months after relocation), all rearing groups were indistinguishable from one another physiologically and behaviorally. Spearman rank correlation revealed that hair cortisol taken at month 6 was not correlated with composite anxiety scores from months 6 to 8 (just before the relocation), but was positively correlated with composite anxiety scores between months 8 and 12 (immediately after relocation) for PR infants only (r(s)=0.75, p<0.001). Month 6-hair cortisol tended to positively correlate with composite anxiety scores for the following 6 months (months 12-18) for PR monkeys only (r(s)=0.47, p=0.037), which exhibited more anxious behavior than MPR and SPR infants during this period (ANOVA: F((2,60))=14.761, p<0.001) This is the first study to show that elevated hair cortisol early in life is a biomarker for the later development of anxious behavior in response to a major life stressor, particularly for infant monkeys exposed to early life adversity in the form of peer-rearing. PMID:21715101
Dettmer, Amanda M; Novak, Melinda A; Suomi, Stephen J; Meyer, Jerrold S
Much of the current policy debate on adaptation to climate change has focussed on estimation of adaptation costs, ways to raise and to scale-up funding for adaptation, and the design of the international institutional architecture for adaptation financing. There is however little or no emphasis so far on actual delivery mechanisms to channel these resources at the sub-national level, particularly
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food
Morteza Rafiei; Mark Nord; Atefeh Sadeghizadeh; Mohammad H Entezari
Behavioral science theory is recommended as a basis for prevention programs, yet many STD\\/HIV prevention providers have little academic background in this area and see no relevance of theory to their work. This study assessed STD\\/HIV prevention providers’ intuitive insight about behaviors. Comparisons of behavioral determinants from providers “common sense” theories with determinants identified in formal theories are made through
Alice A. Gandelman; Stacy A. Vogan; M. Margaret Dolcini
We assessed the relative acceptability of alternative behavioral treatments among parents or grandparents who presented at a hospital-based outpatient clinic for children with behavior disorders. Using a modified version of the TEI, 100 participants rated four treatments (DRO, response cost, time-out, and spanking) applied to one of four randomly selected behavior problems (noncompliance, aggression, tantrums, and hyperactivity). When hyperactivity was
Raymond G. Miltenberger; John M. Parrish; Vaughn Rickert; Melinda Kohr
Hundreds of studies have shown the efficacy of treatments for problem behavior based on an understanding of its function. Assertions regarding the legitimacy of different types of functional assessment vary substantially across published articles, and best practices regarding the functional assessment process are sometimes difficult to cull from the empirical literature or from published discussions of the behavioralassessment process. A number of myths regarding the functional assessment process, which appear to be pervasive within different behavior-analytic research and practice communities, will be reviewed in the context of an attempt to develop new lore regarding the functional assessment process. Frequently described obstacles to implementing a critical aspect of the functional assessment process, the functional analysis, will be reviewed in the context of solutions for overcoming them. Finally, the aspects of the functional assessment process that should be exported to others versus those features that should remain the sole technological property of behavior analysts will be discussed.
Planned adaptation to climate change denotes actions undertaken to reduce the risks and capitalize on the opportunities associated\\u000a with global climate change. This paper summarizes current thinking about planned adaptation. It starts with an explanation\\u000a of key adaptation concepts, a description of the diversity of adaptation contexts, and a discussion of key prerequisites for\\u000a effective adaptation. On the basis of
Neuropsychological and behavioral measures are used to assess attention, but little convergence has been found between these two assessment methods. However, many prior studies have not considered attention as a multicomponent system, which may contribute to this lack of agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral measures. To address this the current study examined the relationship between the neuropsychological measures that comprise
Sally J. Barney; Daniel N. Allen; Nicholas S. Thaler; Brandon S. Park; Gregory P. Strauss; Joan Mayfield
We assessed whether treatment of children and adolescents with school refusal behavior is effective when based upon an individualized, functional analysis. Seven children and adoles-cents, who were currently experiencing difficulties attending school, were evaluated with the School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS), an instrument designed to identify maintaining variables surrounding school refusal behavior. These included specific fearfulness\\/general overanxiousness, escape from aversive
|A field study with 178 candidates for a police promotional examination was conducted to investigate the effects of "untranslated" behavioral checklists on certain psychometric properties of an assessment center. The untranslated checklist used all behavioral responses elicited by the assessment center exercises, not just those that met a…
|The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…
Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane
The need for mechanisms to assess the competence and performance of the behavioral health workforce has received increasing attention. This article reviews strategies used in general medicine and other disciplines for assessing trainees and practitioners. The possibilities and limitations of various approaches are reviewed, and the implications for behavioral health are addressed. A conceptual model of competence is presented, and
Abstract Objective: One type of test commonly used to assess auditory processing disorder (APD) is the 'filtered words test' (FWT), in which a monaural, low-redundancy speech sample is distorted by using filtering to modify its frequency content. One limitation of the various existing FWTs is that they are performed using a constant level of low-pass filtering, making them prone to ceiling and floor effects that compromise their efficiency and accuracy. A recently developed computer-based test, the University of Canterbury Adaptive Speech Test- Filtered Words (UCAST-FW), uses an adaptive procedure intended to improve the efficiency and sensitivity of the test over its constant-level counterparts. Design: The UCAST-FW was administered to school-aged children to investigate the ability of the test to distinguish between children with and without APD. Study sample: Fifteen children aged 7-13 diagnosed with APD, and an aged-matched control group of 10 children with no history of listening difficulties. Results: Data obtained demonstrates a significant difference between the UCAST-FW results obtained by children with APD and those with normal auditory processing. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that the UCAST-FW may discriminate between children with and without APD with greater sensitivity than its constant-level counterparts. PMID:23879742
Rickard, Natalie A; Heidtke, Uta J; O'Beirne, Greg A
Statistical behavior of the adaptive-optics- (AO-) corrected short-exposure point-spread function (PSF) is derived assuming a perfect correction of the phase's low spatial frequencies. Analytical expressions of the Strehl ratio (SR) fluctuations of on- and off-axis short-exposure PSFs are obtained. A theoretical expression of the short SR angular correlation is proposed and used to derive a definition of an anisoplanatic angle for AO-corrected images. Several applications of the analytical expressions are proposed: AO performance characterization, postprocessing imaging, light coupling into fiber, and exoplanet detection from a ground-based telescope. PMID:15260259
Many children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate challenging behaviors. Since challenging behaviors are obstacles for social development and learning, it is important to determine if and what challenging behaviors are exhibited. Although there are some measures that asses for challenging behaviors, the majority were not specifically designed to assess for challenging behaviors among children with ASD, or do not