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1

Methodology for assessing adaptive cruise control behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on nonintrusive methods for char- acterizing the longitudinal performance of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. It reports the experimental set-up and procedures for measuring ACC system performance, followed by the modeling and simulation of the measured ACC per- formance. To further assess the interaction of ACC vehicles with human-controlled traffic, microscopic simulation involving both

Zevi Bareket; Paul S. Fancher; Huei Peng; Kangwon Lee; Charbel A. Assaf

2003-01-01

2

Assessing Minority Students: The Role of Adaptive Behavior Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive behavior scales can be very helpful in the overall assessment of minority children. In some states they are mandatory. Their weaknesses, particularly with the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale, are sampling bias and appropriateness in the areas of culture, language, and socioeconomic status. (Author)

Cervantes, Hermes; Baca, Leonard M.

1979-01-01

3

Assessment of Social Competence, Adaptive Behaviors, and Approaches to Learning with Young Children. Working Paper Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on research regarding the measurement of social competence, adaptive behaviors, and approaches to learning. Reviewed are the key variables and assessment instruments available for studying these three areas. The appendixes contain exten...

J. Nicholson S. Atkins-Burnett S. J. Meisels

1996-01-01

4

Linking Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Problems to Problem-Solving Efforts: An Adaptive Model of Behavioral Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses several objectives of the special issue on universal screening by addressing gaps in the current research base concerning universal screening for mental, emotional, and behavioral health and by providing a framework for addressing the limitations of extant approaches. Specifically, an adaptive model of behavioral assessment

Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

2010-01-01

5

The Assessment of Minority Students: Are Adaptive Behavior Scales the Answer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of adaptive behavior scales in the assessment of minority children was discussed. Positive and negative characteristics of the scales developed by Mercer and Lambert were identified and discussed. Recommendations included cautions for the use of such scales in the evaluation of culturally different minority children. (Author)

Baca, Leonard; Cervantes, Hermes

1978-01-01

6

Rapid Assessment of the Effects of Restraint on Self-Injury and Adaptive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of restraint on occurrences of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and adaptive responses exhibited by two individuals with profound mental retardation across eight response-effort conditions with varying degrees of physical restraint. Analysis identified a restraint level for each individual that reduced SIB but did not…

Wallace, Michele D.; Iwata, Brian A.; Zhou, Liming; Goff, Gerald A.

1999-01-01

7

Adaptive Behavior Profiles of Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of adaptive behavior traditionally has been associated with the identification of individuals with mental retardation. Information on adaptive behavior increasingly is being used for comprehensive assessment, treatment planning, intervention, and program evaluation for individuals with various disorders. Data from the normative samples…

Ditterline, Jeffrey; Banner, Diane; Oakland, Thomas; Becton, Daniel

2008-01-01

8

Adaptive Behavior: A Conceptual Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents a model that examines the domain of adaptive behavior in terms of components (including physical needs, care of the environment, vocation, and understanding social conventions), and levels of performance (such as timing and degree of adaptation). (Author/CL)

Schmidt, Mary W.; Salvia, John

1984-01-01

9

Assessing Coping Behavior in Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the Coping Inventory, an observation instrument that provides an index of handicapped children's adaptive behavior by assessing the behaviors and skills they use to meet their own needs and adapt to the demands of their environment. Coping is defined as an active, adaptive process of using strategies to manage one's world.…

Zeitlin, Shirley

10

Memory models of adaptive behavior.  

PubMed

Adaptive response to varying environment is a common feature of biological organisms. Reproducing such features in electronic systems and circuits is of great importance for a variety of applications. We consider memory models inspired by an intriguing ability of slime molds to both memorize the period of temperature and humidity variations and anticipate the next variations to come, when appropriately trained. Effective circuit models of such behavior are designed using: 1) a set of LC contours with memristive damping and 2) a single memcapacitive system-based adaptive contour with memristive damping. We consider these two approaches in detail by comparing their results and predictions. Finally, possible biological experiments that would discriminate between the models are discussed. In this paper, we also introduce an effective description of certain memory circuit elements. PMID:24808580

Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Pershin, Yuriy V; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

2013-09-01

11

Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

2011-01-01

12

Adaptive capture of expert behavior  

SciTech Connect

The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

1994-08-01

13

Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

2006-01-01

14

Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with an age-appropriate test. Children scored below

Staci C. Martin; Pamela L. Wolters; Ann C. M. Smith

2006-01-01

15

Projective-Cognitive Assessment of Thoughts and Feelings and Their Relationship to Adaptive Behavior in a Dental Situation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the interrelationships among coping statements, a self-report measure of anxiety, and maladaptive overt behavior in a dental situation. Subjects were 23 adolescents. Found that as disruptive "in-chair" overt behavior increased, so did the percentage of coping statements; as self-report levels of anxiety increased, the percentage of coping…

Nelson, W. Michael, III; Cholera, S. N.

1986-01-01

16

Adaptation behavior of a feedforward amplifier linearizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedforward linearization has advantages in bandwidth and generality over other linearization methods. However, it is based on the subtraction of nearly equal quantities, so its major parameters must adapt to changes in environmental or operating conditions. This paper is the first published analysis of adaptation behavior in feedforward amplifier linearizers. As such, it presents an analytical framework and several new

James K. Cavers

1995-01-01

17

Comparison of Adaptive Behavior Measures for Children with HFASDs  

PubMed Central

Adaptive behavior rating scales are frequently used to gather information on the adaptive functioning of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs), yet little is known about the extent to which these measures yield comparable results. This study was conducted to (a) document the parent-rated VABS-II, BASC-2, and ABAS-II adaptive behavior profiles of 6- to 11-year-olds with HFASDs (including relative strengths and weaknesses); (b) examine the extent to which these measures yielded similar scores on comparable scales; and (c) assess potential discrepancies between cognitive ability and adaptive behavior across the measures. All three adaptive measures revealed significant deficits overall for the sample, with the VABS-II and ABAS-II indicating relative weaknesses in social skills and strengths in academic-related skills. Cross-measure comparisons indicated significant differences in the absolute magnitude of scores. In general, the VABS-II yielded significantly higher scores than the BASC-2 and ABAS-II. However, the VABS-II and ABAS-II yielded scores that did not significantly differ for adaptive social skills which is a critical area to assess for children with HFASDs. Results also indicated significant discrepancies between the children's average IQ score and their scores on the adaptive domains and composites of the three adaptive measures.

Smith, Rachael A.; Volker, Martin A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Lee, Gloria K.; McDonald, Christin A.

2013-01-01

18

Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

Huntsberger, Terrance

2009-01-01

19

Neuropsychological Predictors of Adaptive Kitchen Behavior in Geriatric Psychiatry Inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the degree to which demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, depression rating, and neuropsychological test performance predict adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry patients and normal elderly volunteers. A mixed group of 27 participants including 8 normal volunteers and 19 geriatric psychiatry inpatients underwent psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and a kitchen skills assessment conducted in a natural setting. Both

Ralph H. B. Benedict; Marion Zucker Goldstein; Melissa Dobraski; Judith Tannenhaus

1997-01-01

20

Neurophysiology of performance monitoring and adaptive behavior.  

PubMed

Successful goal-directed behavior requires not only correct action selection, planning, and execution but also the ability to flexibly adapt behavior when performance problems occur or the environment changes. A prerequisite for determining the necessity, type, and magnitude of adjustments is to continuously monitor the course and outcome of one's actions. Feedback-control loops correcting deviations from intended states constitute a basic functional principle of adaptation at all levels of the nervous system. Here, we review the neurophysiology of evaluating action course and outcome with respect to their valence, i.e., reward and punishment, and initiating short- and long-term adaptations, learning, and decisions. Based on studies in humans and other mammals, we outline the physiological principles of performance monitoring and subsequent cognitive, motivational, autonomic, and behavioral adaptation and link them to the underlying neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, psychological theories, and computational models. We provide an overview of invasive and noninvasive systemic measures, such as electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and lesion data. We describe how a wide network of brain areas encompassing frontal cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and monoaminergic brain stem nuclei detects and evaluates deviations of actual from predicted states indicating changed action costs or outcomes. This information is used to learn and update stimulus and action values, guide action selection, and recruit adaptive mechanisms that compensate errors and optimize goal achievement. PMID:24382883

Ullsperger, Markus; Danielmeier, Claudia; Jocham, Gerhard

2014-01-01

21

Trajectory of adaptive behavior in males with fragile X syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive behavior in males with fragile X syndrome was longitudinally examined in 17 subjects, ages 1 to 17. Subjects received adaptive behavior evaluations on two occasions within one of three age periods. All domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales increased from youngest to oldest age groups, yet older subjects (ages 10 to 17) shoed significant declines in their adaptive

Elisabeth M. Dykens; Robert M. Hodapp; Sharon I. Ort; James F. Leckman

1993-01-01

22

Design time support for adaptive behavior in Web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive web sites are sites that automatically improve their internal organization and\\/or presentation by observing user-browsing behavior. In this paper we argue that adaptive behavior of websites should be controlled in order to keep the website manageable. We believe that adaptive behavior may be a useful complement to a good website design method on the condition that the adaptations are

Sven Casteleyn; Olga De Troyer; Saar Brockmans

2003-01-01

23

A Direct Measure of Adaptive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Adaptive Behavior Scale is described, and statistics based on children aged 6 through 10 with IQ's 50 to 89 are presented to show the relationship of scores to chronological age, the low relationship with intelligence, and the negligible relationship with race or sex. (CTM)

Kicklighter, Richard H.; Bailey, Brenda S.

1980-01-01

24

Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models.  

PubMed

The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost-benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological-economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters. PMID:21444809

Fenichel, Eli P; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M G; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

2011-04-12

25

Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models  

PubMed Central

The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits. The cost–benefit trade-offs that shape contact behavior, and hence the course of epidemics, are often only implicitly incorporated in epidemiological models. This approach creates difficulty in parsing out the effects of adaptive behavior. We use an epidemiological–economic model of disease dynamics to explicitly model the trade-offs that drive person-to-person contact decisions. Results indicate that including adaptive human behavior significantly changes the predicted course of epidemics and that this inclusion has implications for parameter estimation and interpretation and for the development of social distancing policies. Acknowledging adaptive behavior requires a shift in thinking about epidemiological processes and parameters.

Fenichel, Eli P.; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Ceddia, M. G.; Chowell, Gerardo; Parra, Paula A. Gonzalez; Hickling, Graham J.; Holloway, Garth; Horan, Richard; Morin, Benjamin; Perrings, Charles; Springborn, Michael; Velazquez, Leticia; Villalobos, Cristina

2011-01-01

26

The Construct and Predictive Validity of Adaptive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct and predictive validity of adaptive behavior was investigated using a multitrait multimethod analysis with 66 mentally retarded institutionalized persons. Adaptive behavior had high convergent validity and low discriminant validity and predicted MA program placement better than did MA, suggesting that adaptive behavior scores could…

Futterman, Ann Dee; Arndt, Stephan

1983-01-01

27

Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

2011-01-01

28

Patterns of Adaptive Behavior in Very Young Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to investigate patterns of adaptive behavior in 30 children with autism who were under 3 years. Relative to controls, participants demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptive behavior and mental age. The utility of the scales is discussed.…

Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Brown, Christia S.

1999-01-01

29

The Construct of Adaptive Behavior: Its Conceptualization, Measurement, and Use in the Field of Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article updates the current conceptualization, measurement, and use of the adaptive behavior construct. Major sections of the article address an understanding of the construct, the current approaches to its measurement, four assessment issues and challenges related to the use of adaptive behavior information for the diagnosis of intellectual…

Tasse, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Hank, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Thissen, David; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun

2012-01-01

30

Cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning in fragile X and non-fragile X retarded men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of 12 men with fragile X syndrome (aged 23 to 62 years) was systematically assessed and compared to two matched groups of retarded men without fragile X syndrome residing at the same institution. The fragile X group was largely indistinguishable from the camparison groups on the cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive measures. Fragile X patients

Elisabeth Dykens; James Leckman; Rhea Paul; Michael Watson

1988-01-01

31

The Adaptive Neuroplasticity Hypothesis of Behavioral Maintenance  

PubMed Central

Physical activity is a seemingly simple and clinically potent method to decrease morbidity and mortality in people with coronary heart disease (CHD). Nonetheless, long-term maintenance of physical activity remains a frustratingly elusive goal for patients and practitioners alike. In this paper, we posit that among older adults with CHD, recidivism after the initiation of physical activity reflects maladaptive neuroplasticity of malleable neural networks, and people will revert back to learned and habitual physical inactivity patterns, particularly in the setting of stress or depression. We hypothesize that behavioral interventions that successfully promote physical activity may also enhance adaptive neuroplasticity and play a key role in the maintenance of physical activity through the development of new neuronal pathways that enhance functional ability in older adults. Conversely, without such adaptive neuroplastic changes, ingrained maladaptive neuroplasticity will prevail and long-term maintenance of physical activity will fail. In this paper we will: (1) describe the enormous potential for neuroplasticity in older adults; (2) review stress and depression as examples of maladaptive neuroplasticity; (3) describe an example of adaptive neuroplasticity achieved with a behavioral intervention that induced positive affect in people with CHD; and (4) discuss implications for future work in bench to bedside translational research.

Peterson, Janey C.

2012-01-01

32

Risperidone and Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…

Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara

2006-01-01

33

Assessment of Social Interaction Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Social interactions are a fundamental and adaptive component of the biology of numerous species. Social recognition is critical for the structure and stability of the networks and relationships that define societies. For animals, such as mice, recognition of conspecifics may be important for maintaining social hierarchy and for mate choice 1. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social recognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and schizophrenia. Studies of humans as well as animal models (e.g., Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus) have identified genes involved in the regulation of social behavior 2. To assess sociability in animal models, several behavioral tests have been developed (reviewed in 3). Integrative research using animal models and appropriate tests for social behavior may lead to the development of improved treatments for social psychopathologies. The three-chamber paradigm test known as Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty protocol has been successfully employed to study social affiliation and social memory in several inbred and mutant mouse lines (e.g. 4-7). The main principle of this test is based on the free choice by a subject mouse to spend time in any of three box's compartments during two experimental sessions, including indirect contact with one or two mice with which it is unfamiliar. To quantitate social tendencies of the experimental mouse, the main tasks are to measure a) the time spent with a novel conspecific and b) preference for a novel vs. a familiar conspecific. Thus, the experimental design of this test allows evaluation of two critical but distinguishable aspects of social behavior, such as social affiliation/motivation, as well as social memory and novelty. "Sociability" in this case is defined as propensity to spend time with another mouse, as compared to time spent alone in an identical but empty chamber 7. "Preference for social novelty" is defined as propensity to spend time with a previously unencountered mouse rather than with a familiar mouse 7. This test provides robust results, which then must be carefully analyzed, interpreted and supported/confirmed by alternative sociability tests. In addition to specific applications, Crawley's sociability test can be included as an important component of general behavioral screen of mutant mice.

Kaidanovich-Beilin, Oksana; Lipina, Tatiana; Vukobradovic, Igor; Roder, John; Woodgett, James R.

2011-01-01

34

Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175?ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30?s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

2011-01-01

35

Adaptive behavior and problem behavior in young children with Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-Interview edition and the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Primary Caregiver version (WS only). Children with WS had higher adaptive communication scores than children with other developmental disabilities. Children with WS demonstrated relative strengths in adaptive communication and socialization, coupled with relative weaknesses in daily living. Adaptive communication and socialization were negatively associated with problem behaviors in social relating in WS. PMID:24450321

Hahn, Laura J; Fidler, Deborah J; Hepburn, Susan L

2014-01-01

36

Spatial perception and adaptive sonar behavior  

PubMed Central

Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time adaptations in the timing and spectro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular task and environment. To enable detailed, quantitative analyses of adaptive sonar behavior, echolocation call design was investigated in big brown bats, trained to rest on a stationary platform and track a tethered mealworm that approached from a starting distance of about 170 cm in the presence of a stationary sonar distracter. The distracter was presented at different angular offsets and distances from the bat. The results of this study show that the distance and the angular offset of the distracter influence sonar vocalization parameters of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Specifically, the bat adjusted its call duration to the closer of two objects, distracter or insect target, and the magnitude of the adjustment depended on the angular offset of the distracter. In contrast, the bat consistently adjusted its call rate to the distance of the insect, even when this target was positioned behind the distracter. The results hold implications for understanding spatial information processing and perception by echolocation.

Aytekin, Murat; Mao, Beatrice; Moss, Cynthia F.

2010-01-01

37

Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

2013-05-01

38

Cognitive and adaptive behavior profiles in Smith-Magenis syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. The incidence of this microdeletion syndrome is estimated to be 1 in 25,000 individuals. Persons with SMS have a distinctive neurobehavioral phenotype that is characterized by aggressive and self-injurious behaviors and significant sleep disturbances. From December 1990 through September 1999, 58 persons with SMS were enrolled in a 5-day multidisciplinary clinical protocol. Developmental assessments consisting of cognitive level and adaptive behavior were completed in 57 persons. Most patients functioned in the mild-to-moderate range of mental retardation. In addition, we report that patients with SMS have low adaptive functioning with relative strengths in socialization and relative weakness in daily living skills. These data were analyzed in light of the molecular extent of the microdeletion within 17p11.2. We found that the level of cognitive and adaptive functioning does depend on deletion size, and that a small percentage of SMS patients have cognitive function in the borderline range. PMID:16775514

Madduri, Niru; Peters, Sarika U; Voigt, Robert G; Llorente, Antolin M; Lupski, James R; Potocki, Lorraine

2006-06-01

39

Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

1998-01-01

40

Adaptive Assessment of Spatial Abilities. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the results of research designed to study the psychometric and technological feasibility of adaptive testing to assess spatial ability. Data was collected from high school students on two types of spatial items: three-dimensional cubes and hidden figure items. The analysis of the three-dimensional cubes focused on the fit of…

Bejar, Isaac I.

41

Behavioral and neural Darwinism: Selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to

J. J McDowell

2010-01-01

42

Nature of Adaptive Behavior Deficits among Individuals Who Are Moderately-Severely Mentally Retarded in the West Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of assessing the adaptive behavior of 200 individuals classified as mentally retarded and living in the West Bank region of the Middle East suggest that the nature and development of adaptive behavior of the mentally retarded in Third World areas may not conform to expected trends. (Author/DB)

Baker, Ahmad M.

1989-01-01

43

Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

2010-01-01

44

Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities  

PubMed Central

Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for.

Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

2006-01-01

45

Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for Suicidal Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the preliminary study of a time-limited, out-patient treatment for suicidal adolescents designed to reduce suicidal behavior and psychiatric inpatient admissions along with drop-out rates. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for adolescents seems to be effective in keeping them out of hospital and in treatment. DBT appears to be a…

Rathus, Jill H.; Miller, Alec L.

2002-01-01

46

Person-Clusters in Two Dimensions of Adaptive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) is a behavior rating instrument designed to provide information about the way mentally retarded individuals maintain their personal independence in daily living and how they meet the social expectations of their environment. This study attempted to explore the existence of typology of retardates based upon their…

Nihira, Kazuo

47

Family behavior, adaptation, and treatment adherence of pediatric nephrology patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this exploratory study we investigated the relationships among family behavior variables (e.g., family expressiveness), adaptive functioning skills, maladaptive behavior, and adherence to treatment in pediatric renal failure patients. The study included 22 pediatric outpatients with renal failure who had not yet received dialysis or transplantation (RF) and their parents, and 12 pediatric outpatients with kidney transplants (TX) and their

Martha C. Davis; Carolyn M. Tucker; Robert S. Fennell

1996-01-01

48

Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

2013-01-01

49

Behavior model for performance assessment.  

SciTech Connect

Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

1999-07-23

50

Test Review: Bracken, B. A., & Keith, L. K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Behavior." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) is designed to assess both adaptive and problematic behaviors of children and adolescents from age 2 to 18 years. It can be individually or group administered, measures behaviors in different contexts, and includes both parent and teacher forms. The test was developed to be consistent with current…

Beran, Tanya N.

2006-01-01

51

Behavioral Assessment and Interventions in Youth Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral assessment and interventions have found an increasing range of applications in both research and applied work with youth sport populations. Behavioral assessment has been used for both descIiptive and program evaluation purposes, and one of its major uses has been in the study of coaching behaviors and their effects on young athletes. Operant and cognitive-behavioral interventions have been targeted

Ronald E. Smith; Frank L. Smoll; Donald S. Christensen

1996-01-01

52

The Reading Behavior Inventory: An Outcome Assessment Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many questionnaires attempt to assess the quality of life of individuals who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), but few apply to those who are undergoing visual rehabilitation and hence are difficult to adapt as an outcome measure Massof & Rubin, 2001). The Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI) was developed as a…

Goodrich, Gregory L.; Kirby, Jennine; Wood, Jennifer; Peters, Laura

2006-01-01

53

Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

2012-01-01

54

The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

2005-01-01

55

The Human Potential Seminar: A Strategy for Teaching Socially Adaptive Behavior in a Correctional Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pretest/posttest control group design was employed to assess the efficacy of a social learning procedure in developing socially adaptive attitudes and behaviors in a group of incarcerated male juvenile delinquents. The experimental manipulation consisted of a series of structured group exercises. (Author/CH)

Hamm, Mark S.

1987-01-01

56

Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

2005-01-01

57

Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Outcomes of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptive behavior

Eldevik, Sigmund; Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, Carl J.

2010-01-01

58

Adaptive human behavior in epidemiological models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The science and management of infectious disease are entering a new stage. Increasingly public policy to manage epidemics focuses on motivating people, through social distancing policies, to alter their behavior to reduce contacts and reduce public disease risk. Person-to-person contacts drive human disease dynamics. People value such contacts and are willing to accept some disease risk to gain contact-related benefits.

Eli P Fenichel; C. Castillo-Chavez; M. G. Ceddia; Gerardo Chowell; Paula A. Gonzalez Parra; Graham J Hickling; Garth Holloway; Richard Horan; Benjamin Morin; Charles Perrings; Michael Springborn; Leticia Velazquez; Cristina Villalobos

2011-01-01

59

Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.  

PubMed

An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. PMID:19941941

McDowell, J J

2010-05-01

60

Questions about Behavioral Function in Mental Illness (QABF-MI): A Behavior Checklist for Functional Assessment of Maladaptive Behavior Exhibited by Individuals with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF), a 25-item rating scale, was developed to identify the function(s) of maladaptive behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. The authors adapted it for use with individuals with serious mental illness who engage in maladaptive behavior and assessed the psychometric characteristics of the…

Singh, Nirbhay N.; Matson, Johnny L.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Adkins, Angela D.; McKeegan, Gerald F.; Brown, Stephen W.

2006-01-01

61

Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

2009-01-01

62

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

1993-01-01

63

Complex Adaptive Systems in the Behavioral and Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines applications of complexity theory within the behavioral and social sciences. Specific attention is given to the fundamental characteristics of complex adaptive systems (CAS)—such as individuals, groups, and societies—including the underlying structure of CAS, the internal dynamics of evolving CAS, and how CAS respond to their environment. Examples drawn from psychology, sociology, economics, and political science include attitude

Roy J. Eidelson

1997-01-01

64

Complex Adaptive Systems in the Behavioral and Social Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines applications of complexity theory within the behavioral and social sciences. Specific attention is given to the fundamental characteristics of complex adaptive systems (CAS)--such as individuals, groups, and societies-- including the underlying structure of CAS, the internal dynamics of evolving CAS, and how CAS respond to their environment. Examples drawn from psychology, sociology, economics, and political science include

Roy J. Eidelson

1996-01-01

65

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Performance of EMR and TMR Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected to develop special norms for the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABSs) for educable mentally retarded (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children. These scales currently report special norms for retarded adults. The study also sought to determine if the low to moderate relationship typically found between…

Harrison, Patti L.; And Others

66

Coping with Information Overload as Adaptive Behavior in Competitive Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the amount of available information exceeds the ability of the user to process it, "information overload" is created. In an attempt to maintain some control over the quantity of arguments they may face, debaters have developed adaptive behavior, primarily through the generic argument--any argument within a "deliverative" framework that recurs…

Dudczak, Craig A.

67

Behavioral flexibility and species invasions: the adaptive flexibility hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral flexibility is an important adaptive response to changing environments for many animal species. Such plasticity may also promote the invasion of novel habitats by introduced species by providing them with the ability to expand or change their ecological niche, a longstanding idea with recent empirical support. At the individual level, flexibility may arise through innovation, in which an individual

T. F. Wright; J. R. Eberhard; E. A. Hobson; M. L. Avery; M. A. Russello

2010-01-01

68

Standard Errors of Prediction for the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers standard errors of prediction and confidence intervals for Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) that help in deciding whether variation in obtained scores of scale administered to the same person more than once is a result of measurement error or whether it reflects actual change in examinee's functional level. Presented values were…

Atkinson, Leslie

1990-01-01

69

Composite Ratings on the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) ratings by one rater completing the scale were compared with composite ratings by a group of raters, each of whom completed only a portion were compared for 40 retarded persons (ages 10-56). Composite ratings tended to be significantly higher than individual ratings. (Author/DB)

Vandergriff, David V.; And Others

1987-01-01

70

Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6years.  

PubMed

The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

2013-11-01

71

Shaping Embodied Neural Networks for Adaptive Goal-directed Behavior  

PubMed Central

The acts of learning and memory are thought to emerge from the modifications of synaptic connections between neurons, as guided by sensory feedback during behavior. However, much is unknown about how such synaptic processes can sculpt and are sculpted by neuronal population dynamics and an interaction with the environment. Here, we embodied a simulated network, inspired by dissociated cortical neuronal cultures, with an artificial animal (an animat) through a sensory-motor loop consisting of structured stimuli, detailed activity metrics incorporating spatial information, and an adaptive training algorithm that takes advantage of spike timing dependent plasticity. By using our design, we demonstrated that the network was capable of learning associations between multiple sensory inputs and motor outputs, and the animat was able to adapt to a new sensory mapping to restore its goal behavior: move toward and stay within a user-defined area. We further showed that successful learning required proper selections of stimuli to encode sensory inputs and a variety of training stimuli with adaptive selection contingent on the animat's behavior. We also found that an individual network had the flexibility to achieve different multi-task goals, and the same goal behavior could be exhibited with different sets of network synaptic strengths. While lacking the characteristic layered structure of in vivo cortical tissue, the biologically inspired simulated networks could tune their activity in behaviorally relevant manners, demonstrating that leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks have an innate ability to process information. This closed-loop hybrid system is a useful tool to study the network properties intermediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral adaptation. The training algorithm provides a stepping stone towards designing future control systems, whether with artificial neural networks or biological animats themselves.

Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

2008-01-01

72

Shaping embodied neural networks for adaptive goal-directed behavior.  

PubMed

The acts of learning and memory are thought to emerge from the modifications of synaptic connections between neurons, as guided by sensory feedback during behavior. However, much is unknown about how such synaptic processes can sculpt and are sculpted by neuronal population dynamics and an interaction with the environment. Here, we embodied a simulated network, inspired by dissociated cortical neuronal cultures, with an artificial animal (an animat) through a sensory-motor loop consisting of structured stimuli, detailed activity metrics incorporating spatial information, and an adaptive training algorithm that takes advantage of spike timing dependent plasticity. By using our design, we demonstrated that the network was capable of learning associations between multiple sensory inputs and motor outputs, and the animat was able to adapt to a new sensory mapping to restore its goal behavior: move toward and stay within a user-defined area. We further showed that successful learning required proper selections of stimuli to encode sensory inputs and a variety of training stimuli with adaptive selection contingent on the animat's behavior. We also found that an individual network had the flexibility to achieve different multi-task goals, and the same goal behavior could be exhibited with different sets of network synaptic strengths. While lacking the characteristic layered structure of in vivo cortical tissue, the biologically inspired simulated networks could tune their activity in behaviorally relevant manners, demonstrating that leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks have an innate ability to process information. This closed-loop hybrid system is a useful tool to study the network properties intermediating synaptic plasticity and behavioral adaptation. The training algorithm provides a stepping stone towards designing future control systems, whether with artificial neural networks or biological animats themselves. PMID:18369432

Chao, Zenas C; Bakkum, Douglas J; Potter, Steve M

2008-03-01

73

Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n?=?26), normally-developing children matched for mental age (MA, n?=?30), and normally-developing children matched for chronological age (CA, n?=?40). We compared the mean scores for each domain between the three groups. Results Children with WS had more siblings than children in the two control groups. The educational level of the caregivers of WS children was lower than that of the control children. We found no differences in locomotion, work skill, socialization, or self-management between the WS and MA groups. WS children obtained higher scores of self-dependence (df?=?54, Z?=??2.379, p?=?0.017) and had better communication skills (df?=?54, Z?=??2.222, p?=?0.026) compared with MA children. The CA children achieved higher scores than the WS children for all dimensions of adaptive behavior. Conclusions WS children have better adaptive behavior skills regarding communication and self-dependence than normal children matched for mental age. Targeted intervention techniques should be designed to promote social development in this population.

2014-01-01

74

Adaptive Behavioral Outcomes in Adolescents with Developmental Language Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighteen people (with ages ranging from 7 to 22 years) who had been diagnosed as aphasic 10 years previously were assessed in terms of current functioning to test the hypothesis that, since the subjects had a specific language disorder, other areas of adaptive development should be relatively spared, and communication scores should be…

Soriano, Deborah; Paul, Rhea

75

Application of a Model of Adaptive Performance to Army Leader Behaviors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present research sought to better define the junior Army leader behaviors reflecting adaptive performance and offer recommendations for enhancing these adaptive capabilities. Pulakos and colleagues' (2000) eight- dimension model of adaptive performanc...

A. W. Vaughan G. A. Goodwin J. S. Tucker K. M. Gunther R. J. Pleban

2007-01-01

76

Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

2013-12-01

77

Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood.  

PubMed

The ability to make accurate predictions of future stimuli and consequences of one's actions are crucial for the survival and appropriate decision-making. These predictions are constantly being made at different levels of the nervous system. This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. This review will discuss recent findings that actions of neurons and animals are selected based on detailed stimulus history in such a way as to maximize information for achieving the task at hand. Information maximization dictates not only how sensory coding should adapt to various statistical aspects of stimuli, but also that reward function should adapt to match the predictive information from past to future. PMID:24709600

Sharpee, Tatyana O; Calhoun, Adam J; Chalasani, Sreekanth H

2014-04-01

78

Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots  

PubMed Central

Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

Goldschmidt, Dennis; Worgotter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

2014-01-01

79

Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.  

PubMed

Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

2014-01-01

80

Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

2013-03-01

81

The Contribution of Children's Self-Regulation and Classroom Quality to Children's Adaptive Behaviors in the Kindergarten Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of…

Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Curby, Tim W.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Brock, Laura L.; Nathanson, Lori

2009-01-01

82

Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

2011-01-01

83

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Profiles in Children with Autism and Moderate to Severe Developmental Delay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined adaptive behavior profiles in children (ages 21-108 months) with moderate to severe developmental delay and autism (n=23) and without autism (n=27). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was administered, and contrary to initial predictions, the sample presented fairly homogeneous adaptive behavior profiles. (Contains references.)…

Fenton, Gemma; D'Ardia, Caterina; Valente, Donatella; Vecchio, Ilaria del; Fabrizi, Anna; Bernabei, Paola

2003-01-01

84

A New Approach to the Measurement of Adaptive Behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer…

Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

2012-01-01

85

The advisability of kinship foster placements: A comparison of adaptive behaviors and psychopathology of children in traditional and kinship foster care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptive behavior and psychopathology of children between the ages of 5 and 12 years, in kinship and non-kinship foster care from a large city child welfare system, were assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Interview Edition (Sparrow, Balla, & Cicchetti, 1984) and the Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (Naglieri, LeBuffe, & Pfeiffer, 1994) respectively. The temperament “match,” defined as

Susan Ann Belanger

2002-01-01

86

The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.  

PubMed

Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior. PMID:23386537

Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

2013-01-01

87

The emerging roles of melanopsin in behavioral adaptation to light  

PubMed Central

Adaptation of behavior and physiology to changes in the ambient light level is of critical importance to life. These adaptations include light modulation of neuroendocrine function and temporal alignment of physiology and behavior to the day:night cycle by the circadian clock. These non-image forming (NIF) responses can function independent of rod and cone photoreceptors but depend on ocular light reception, suggesting the participation of novel photoreceptors in the eye. The discovery of melanopsin in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and genetic proof for its important role in major NIF responses have offered an exciting entry point to comprehend how mammals adapt to the light environment. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of the emerging roles of melanopsin and of ipRGCs. These findings now offer new avenues to understand the role of ambient light in sleep, alertness, dependent physiologies and potential pharmacological intervention as well as lifestyle modifications to improve the quality of life.

Hatori, Megumi; Panda, Satchidananda

2010-01-01

88

Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in their local schools or social service agencies via videoconference. Case descriptions for 2 participants whose evaluations were conducted via telemedicine, and a brief summary of all outpatient assessments conducted over a 4-year period by the Biobehavioral Service, are provided. This report extends previous applications of functional analysis procedures by examining brief behavioral assessments conducted via telemedicine.

Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K

2006-01-01

89

Using Behavioral Questionnaires to Identify Adaptive Deficits in Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…

Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David

1994-01-01

90

Adaptive capacity deficits and adaptive capacity of economic systems in climate change vulnerability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers two ways that economic concepts inform adaptive capacity assessments within the context of climate change vulnerability analysis. First, using an economics framework, there are rational and logical reasons why different individuals and different organized human systems have different levels of adaptive capacity and these differences do not necessarily correlate to differences in vulnerability. An alternative approach is

Tim Williamson; Hayley Hesseln; Mark Johnston

2010-01-01

91

Adaptive capacity deficits and adaptive capacity of economic systems in climate change vulnerability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers two ways that economic concepts inform adaptive capacity assessments within the context of climate change vulnerability analysis. First, using an economics framework, there are rational and logical reasons why different individuals and different organized human systems have different levels of adaptive capacity and these differences do not necessarily correlate to differences in vulnerability. An alternative approach is

Tim Williamson; Hayley Hesseln; Mark Johnston

2012-01-01

92

Human Adaptive Behavior in Common Pool Resource Systems  

PubMed Central

Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users’ expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users’ current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users’ perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

Brandt, Gunnar; Merico, Agostino; Vollan, Bjorn; Schluter, Achim

2012-01-01

93

An Adaptive Testing System for Supporting Versatile Educational Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test (CBT) with mobile learning (m-learning) especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test (CAT) is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves. In CAT, students are…

Huang, Yueh-Min; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cheng, Shu-Chen

2009-01-01

94

Conducting Functional Behavioral Assessments: A Practical Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help school personnel conduct functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and to develop effective behavior intervention plans (BIPs). The manual begins by providing background information on FBAs including: (1) the four-stage model of collaborative problem solving that is used to conduct FBAs and develop subsequent BIPs,…

Nelson, J. Ron; Roberts, Maura L.; Smith, Deborah J.

95

Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

2006-01-01

96

Assessing Treatment Integrity in Behavioral Consultation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trend in school psychology services is a shift from an emphasis on an assessment-based paradigm to one of consultation problem-solving and behavioral intervention. A critical component of consultation-derived interventions and behavior change is "treatment integrity." Treatment integrity (or fidelity) refers to the extent to which an…

Wilkinson, Lee A.

2007-01-01

97

Trichotillomania: Behavioral Assessment and Treatment Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the behavioral treatment of Trichotillomania. A brief overview of the diagnosis and assessment of Trichotillomania is provided. Guidelines for a structured clinical evaluation when working with people diagnosed with Trichotillomania are supplied. The most effective behavioral interventions and treatments for working with…

Kell, Brandy L.; Kress, Victoria E.

2006-01-01

98

Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine

A. M. Evangelista de Duffard; R. Duffard

1996-01-01

99

Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

Wysocki, Tim

2006-01-01

100

Predictors of change in functional competence and functional behavior after functional adaptation skills training for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Functional recovery is an important treatment target in schizophrenia. Although medication is effective at reducing positive symptoms of the disorder, these improvements do not translate to improved functioning. In this study, schizophrenia outpatients (N = 54) received the psychosocial treatment Functional Adaptation Skills Training. Hierarchical regression analyses determined whether baseline neurocognitive, symptom, course of illness, and demographic variables predicted improvement in performance-based measures of functional competence and case manager-rated real-world behavior after the intervention. Consistent with previous research, neurocognition emerged as a predictor of improved competence and behavior. Symptoms played a minor role in predicting change; however, institutionalization history seemed to be an important rate limiter for functional recovery. Correlations among change scores were modest, with evidence for concomitant changes in competence and performance. The predictors of change after psychosocial treatment vary by the domain (e.g., adaptive and interpersonal) of functioning and the level of assessment (e.g., competence and performance). PMID:22850306

Gupta, Maya; Holshausen, Katherine; Mausbach, Brent; Patterson, Thomas L; Bowie, Christopher R

2012-08-01

101

Assessment of lower extremity motor adaptation via an extension of the force field adaptation paradigm.  

PubMed

Lower extremity rehabilitation has seen recent increased interest. New tools are available to improve gait retraining in both adults and children. However, it remains difficult to determine optimal ways to plan interventions due to difficulties in continuously monitoring outcomes in patients undergoing rehabilitation. In this paper, we introduce an extension of the Force Field Adaptation Paradigm, used to quantitatively assess upper extremity motor adaptation, to the lower extremity. The algorithm is implemented on the Lokomat lower extremity gait orthosis and utilized to assess short-term motor adaptation. Establishing an understanding of how healthy adults' motor systems adapt to external perturbations will be important to understanding how the adaptive mechanisms involved in gait are altered by disease. PMID:21095786

Cajigas, Iahn; Goldsmith, Mary T; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert; Smith, Maurice A; Brown, Emery N; Bonato, Paolo

2010-01-01

102

Assessment of Lower Extremity Motor Adaptation via an Extension of the Force Field Adaptation Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Lower extremity rehabilitation has seen recent increased interest. New tools are available to improve gait retraining in both adults and children. However, it remains difficult to determine optimal ways to plan interventions due to difficulties in continuously monitoring outcomes in patients undergoing rehabilitation. In this paper, we introduce an extension of the Force Field Adaptation Paradigm, used to quantitatively assess upper extremity motor adaptation, to the lower extremity. The algorithm is implemented on the Lokomat lower extremity gait orthosis and utilized to assess short-term motor adaptation. Establishing an understanding of how healthy adults’ motor systems adapt to external perturbations will be important to understanding how the adaptive mechanisms involved in gait are altered by disease.

Cajigas, Iahn; Goldsmith, Mary T.; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert; Smith, Maurice A.; Brown, Emery N.; Bonato, Paolo

2012-01-01

103

Introducing Assessment: Strategic Adaptations and Early Successes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how educators can set the context of assessment conversations by looking at "well-lighted sites" for valuable, though certainly introductory, explorations that can set the stage for the more probing and more complex assessment work to come. The author suggests that in initial assessment conversations, it may…

Allen, Jo

2007-01-01

104

The Application of a Model of Adaptive Performance to Army Leader Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the adaptive capabilities of junior Army leaders, we applied an existing nine-dimension adaptability model to critical incidents of leader behaviors. We examined interview data from two samples of U.S. Army leaders (40 combat veterans and 24 training facilitators). The adaptive behaviors performed most in combat reflected the Deals with Unpredictability and Handles Emergencies dimensions, whereas in training

Jennifer S. Tucker; Katie M. Gunther

2009-01-01

105

Analysis and modeling of human driving behaviors using adaptive cruise control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a driver model based on the feedback-error learning scheme using neural network (NN) for adaptive cruise control (ACC) use in driving and show the applicability of the feedback-error learning scheme as a behavior model of adaptability of human. The focus of the study is on the adaptation process of driving behaviors using ACC. The driver model for computer

Hiroshi Ohno

2001-01-01

106

Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment  

PubMed Central

International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries.

Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

2012-01-01

107

The Association of Benefit Finding to Psychosocial and Health Behavior Adaptation Among HIV+ Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation, such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of benefit finding to positive health behavior and psychosocial adaptation. HIV+ participants (N = 221) recruited during outpatient care completed self-report assessments of benefit finding, social support, depression, HAART adherence, substance use, and physical activity. In a series of multivariate analyses that controlled for demographic and health status variables, benefit finding was associated with lower depression scores, greater social support, and more physical activity, but showed no association to HAART adherence or substance use. The association of benefit finding to depression was partially mediated by differences in social support. Thus, benefit finding may improve psychological adjustment by motivating patients who experience stress-related growth to seek improved social support.

Littlewood, Rae A.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Blair, Donald C.

2008-01-01

108

Neurocognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning of individuals with Costello syndrome: a review.  

PubMed

Costello syndrome is a rare rasopathy resulting from germline mutations of the proto-oncogene HRAS. Its phenotype includes severe failure-to-thrive, cardiac abnormalities, a predisposition to benign and malignant tumors, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Costello syndrome is associated with cognitive impairment, including intellectual functioning generally in the mild to moderate range of disability, commensurate adaptive functioning, and increased anxiety. Relative strengths have been found for nonverbal fluid reasoning (FR). Gender effects have been reported, with females showing better adaptive functioning across domains. Developmentally, nonverbal skills plateau in late childhood/early adolescence, whereas the rate of vocabulary acquisition may increase in adolescence into early adulthood. Here we review the literature assessing cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning in Costello syndrome, and we provide data from an ongoing longitudinal study. Severity of cognitive impairment may depend upon the specific HRAS mutation, as three individuals with the p.G13C change showed average nonverbal FR skills and borderline-to-low average overall nonverbal IQ. Further, separation anxiety is more common in Costello syndrome than in the general population, affecting 39% of this cohort, and males are more often overly anxious than females. Interrelations between anxiety and cognitive and adaptive functioning were found, pointing to functional difficulties as a likely source of stress and anxiety. Taking into account data from animal models, cognitive and behavioral changes likely originate from abnormal differentiation of neuronal precursor cells, which result in structural and functional brain differences. PMID:21495179

Axelrad, Marni E; Schwartz, David D; Katzenstein, Jennifer M; Hopkins, Elizabeth; Gripp, Karen W

2011-05-15

109

Adapting to Climate Change: An Adaptation Policy Assessment for the Canadian Forest Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests in Canada are likely to experience as severe impacts of climate change as forests in any other country worldwide. To begin planning for these impacts and to identify adaptation options, an assessment of vulnerability must be carried out. A vulnerability assessment is made up of three components: exposure, defined by the degree to which the climate will change; sensitivity,

Mark Johnston; Kelvin Hirsch; Peter Duinker; Tim Williamson; Shelley Webber

2009-01-01

110

Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors

Sarimski, Klaus

2010-01-01

111

Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.  

PubMed Central

Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone,dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or changes in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity.

Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R

1996-01-01

112

Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone,dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or changes in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. PMID:9182042

Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R

1996-04-01

113

The relational basis of adolescent adjustment: trajectories of mother–child interactive behaviors from infancy to adolescence shape adolescents' adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of social-emotional growth propose that repeatedly-experienced parent–infant interactions shape the individual's adaptation across development, yet few studies examined interactive behaviors repeatedly from infancy to adolescence. This study assessed the trajectories of four mother–child relational behaviors at six time-points from 3 months to 13 years: maternal sensitivity, child social engagement, mother intrusiveness, and dyadic reciprocity. Trajectories were examined separately for

Ruth Feldman

2010-01-01

114

Adaptive behaviors in high-functioning Taiwanese children with autism spectrum disorders: an investigation of the mediating roles of symptom severity and cognitive ability.  

PubMed

We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Correlational and regression analyses were used to explore the relationships among the constructs of cognitive, symptomatic and adaptive domains. Results revealed that average General Adaptive Composites of these children (home: 74.0; school: 74.6) was below average FSIQ. Profile analysis revealed that Social domain was the weakness among the adaptive abilities assessed at school and home. Cognitive abilities had positive relationship with adaptive function, while autistic severity had a weak negative relationship with adaptive function. Also, the younger the age the child got diagnosed, the less severe the current symptoms of autism were. The implication for emphasizing adaptive skills intervention was discussed. PMID:23073728

Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

2013-06-01

115

Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

2013-01-01

116

A Risk-based Model Predictive Control Approach to Adaptive Interventions in Behavioral Health  

PubMed Central

This paper examines how control engineering and risk management techniques can be applied in the field of behavioral health through their use in the design and implementation of adaptive behavioral interventions. Adaptive interventions are gaining increasing acceptance as a means to improve prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders, such as abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, mental illness, and obesity. A risk-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is developed for a hypothetical intervention inspired by Fast Track, a real-life program whose long-term goal is the prevention of conduct disorders in at-risk children. The MPC-based algorithm decides on the appropriate frequency of counselor home visits, mentoring sessions, and the availability of after-school recreation activities by relying on a model that includes identifiable risks, their costs, and the cost/benefit assessment of mitigating actions. MPC is particularly suited for the problem because of its constraint-handling capabilities, and its ability to scale to interventions involving multiple tailoring variables. By systematically accounting for risks and adapting treatment components over time, an MPC approach as described in this paper can increase intervention effectiveness and adherence while reducing waste, resulting in advantages over conventional fixed treatment. A series of simulations are conducted under varying conditions to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Zafra-Cabeza, Ascension; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Ridao, Miguel A.; Camacho, Eduardo F.

2010-01-01

117

Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.  

SciTech Connect

This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

Senglaub, Michael E.

2007-01-01

118

Iron supplementation in infancy contributes to more adaptive behavior at 10 years of age.  

PubMed

Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14-0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M; Smith, Julia B; Sturza, Julie

2014-06-01

119

Assessment of lower extremity motor adaptation via an extension of the Force Field Adaptation Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower extremity rehabilitation has seen recent increased interest. New tools are available to improve gait retraining in both adults and children. However, it remains difficult to determine optimal ways to plan interventions due to difficulties in continuously monitoring outcomes in patients undergoing rehabilitation. In this paper, we introduce an extension of the Force Field Adaptation Paradigm, used to quantitatively assess

Iahn Cajigas; Mary T. Goldsmith; Alexander Duschau-Wicke; Robert Riener; Maurice A. Smith; Emery N. Brown; Paolo Bonato

2010-01-01

120

A Risk-Based Model Predictive Control Approach to Adaptive Interventions in Behavioral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief examines how control engineering and risk management techniques can be applied in the field of behavioral health through their use in the design and implementation of adaptive behavioral interventions. Adaptive interventions are gaining increasing acceptance as a means to improve prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders, such as abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, mental illness,

Ascensión Zafra-Cabeza; Daniel E. Rivera; Linda M. Collins; Miguel A. Ridao; Eduardo F. Camacho

2011-01-01

121

Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

122

Analysis and modeling of human driving behaviors using adaptive cruise control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a driver model based on the feedback-error learning scheme for adaptive cruise control (ACC) use on driver behaviors. The driver model for simulations is implemented by using a neural network The focus of the study is on the adaptation process of driving behaviors using ACC. The developed simulation model is used for predicting control performance of a

H. Ohno

2000-01-01

123

Frame-loss adaptive temporal pooling for video quality assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a frame-loss adaptive temporal pooling method for video quality assessment is proposed. Extensive subjective tests have been carried out to determine the duration of successive frames based on which steady quality judgment can be made by human observers. The resulting duration is applied to the determination of the length of Group of Frames (GOF), where a flexible

Shuai Wan; Fuzheng Yang; Xun Zhang; Chenglong Jiang

2010-01-01

124

Computerized Adaptive Testing for Reading Placement and Diagnostic Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study to pilot-test a new reading assessment instrument designed to function in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Indicates that the measure showed fair internal consistency and correlated well with other tests. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of CAT systems and describes the HyperCAT testing program. (23…

Shermis, Mark D.; And Others

1996-01-01

125

REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION ASSESSMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the regional climate change scenarios that are recommended for use in the U.S. Country Studies Program (CSP) and evaluates how well four general circulation models (GCMs) simulate current climate over Europe. Under the umbrella of the CSP, 50 countries with varying skills and experience in developing climate change scenarios are assessing vulnerability and adaptation. We considered the

Joel B. Smith; Gregory J. Pitts

1997-01-01

126

Simple Behavioral Assessment of Mouse Olfaction  

PubMed Central

This unit presents two basic protocols that offer rapid assessments of anosmia (the absence of a sense of smell) in mice. The buried food test is used to check for the ability to smell volatile odors. The olfactory habituation/dishabituation test is used to test whether the animal can detect and differentiate different odors, including both non-social odors and social odors. A non-contact method of odor presentations, along with a general method of collecting urine samples, is given as the alternate protocol. The tests described in this unit can be readily adapted and require only the most basic equipment.

Yang, Mu; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

2009-01-01

127

Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation Planning for the Southeast US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climate change assessment is carried out for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the southeast US following an integrated water resources assessment and planning framework. The assessment process begins with the development/selection of consistent climate, demographic, socio-economic, and land use/cover scenarios. Historical scenarios and responses are analyzed first to establish baseline conditions. Future climate scenarios are based on GCMs available through the IPCC. Statistical and/or dynamic downscaling of GCM outputs is applied to generate high resolution (12x12 km) atmospheric forcing, such as rainfall, temperature, and ET demand, over the ACF River Basin watersheds. Physically based watershed, aquifer, and estuary models (lumped and distributed) are used to quantify the hydrologic and water quality river basin response to alternative climate and land use/cover scenarios. Demand assessments are carried out for each water sector, for example, water supply for urban, agricultural, and industrial users; hydro-thermal facilities; navigation reaches; and environmental/ecological flow and lake level requirements, aiming to establish aspirational water use targets, performance metrics, and management/adaptation options. Response models for the interconnected river-reservoir-aquifer-estuary system are employed next to assess actual water use levels and other sector outputs under a specific set of hydrologic inputs, demand targets, and management/adaptation options. Adaptive optimization methods are used to generate system-wide management policies conditional on inflow forecasts. The generated information is used to inform stakeholder planning and decision processes aiming to develop consensus on adaptation measures, management strategies, and performance monitoring indicators. The assessment and planning process is driven by stakeholder input and is inherently iterative and sequential.

Georgakakos, A. P.; Yao, H.; Zhang, F.

2012-12-01

128

Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The ? range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

2010-01-01

129

Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy  

PubMed Central

Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

2013-01-01

130

Developing tailored instruments: item banking and computerized adaptive assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Item banks and Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) have the potential to greatly improve the assessment of health outcomes.\\u000a This review describes the unique features of item banks and CAT and discusses how to develop item banks. In CAT, a computer\\u000a selects the items from an item bank that are most relevant for and informative about the particular respondent; thus optimizing

Jakob Bue Bjorner; Chih-Hung Chang; David Thissen; Bryce B. Reeve

2007-01-01

131

Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

2011-01-01

132

A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.  

PubMed

The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24219847

McDowell, J J

2013-10-01

133

Adaptations in medial prefrontal cortex function associated with amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization  

PubMed Central

Neuroadaptations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are hypothesized to play an important role in the behavioral changes associated with repeated psychostimulant exposure, but there are few published studies that measure neuronal activity during the development and expression of sensitization. To address this, we recorded single neuron activity in the medial PFC (mPFC) of male rats that were exposed for five days to saline or amphetamine (AMPH; 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and then given saline or AMPH challenges following a three-day withdrawal. We found that rats exposed to AMPH developed locomotor sensitization to the drug that emerged on the fifth treatment session and became statistically significant at AMPH challenge. This was associated with no change in baseline (i.e., pre-injection) activity of mPFC neurons across the treatment or challenge sessions. Following the first AMPH injection, mPFC neurons responded primarily with reductions in firing, with the overall pattern and magnitude of responses remaining largely similar following repeated treatment. The exception was in the minority of cells that respond to AMPH with increases in firing rate. In this population, the magnitude of excitations peaked during the fifth AMPH exposure and was still relatively elevated at the AMPH challenge. Furthermore, these units increased firing during a saline challenge that was given to assess associative conditioning. These results suggest that AMPH-induced adaptations in mPFC function are not as apparent as AMPH-induced adaptations in behavior. When mPFC adaptations do occur, they appear limited to the population of neurons that increase their firing in response to AMPH.

Gulley, Joshua M.; Stanis, Jessica J.

2010-01-01

134

Relationship between Community Environments and Resident Changes in Adaptive Behavior: A Path Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between environmental ratings of community homes using factor scores derived from the Program Analysis of Service Systems and changes in adaptive behavior of 245 developmentally disabled residents living in those facilites was investigated. (Author/PHR)

And Others; Eyman, Richard K.

1979-01-01

135

A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

2008-01-01

136

Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

2009-01-01

137

Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

2009-01-01

138

Development of Adaptive Behavior in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism and Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixteen individuals with autism and sixteen with Down's Syndrome, aged 10-29, were matched for verbal mental age. The groups' scores did not differ on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. However, the adaptive skills of Down's Syndrome individuals kept pace with mental age, while the skills of autistic subjects did not change. (Author/JDD)

Loveland, Katherine A.; Kelley, Michelle L.

1988-01-01

139

A qualitative assessment of cross-cultural adaptation of intermediate measures for schizophrenia in multisite international studies.  

PubMed

In this substudy of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia we examined qualitative feedback on the cross-cultural adaptability of four intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment, Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia, and Cognitive Assessment Interview). Feedback was provided by experienced English-fluent clinical researchers at 31 sites in eight countries familiar with medication trials. Researchers provided feedback on test subscales and items which were rated as having adaptation challenges. They noted the specific concern and made suggestions for adaptation to their culture. We analyzed the qualitative data using a modified Grounded Theory approach guided by the International Testing Commission Guidelines model for test adaptation. For each measure except the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), the majority of subscales were reported to require major adaptations in terms of content and concepts contained in the subscale. In particular, social, financial, transportation and health care systems varied widely across countries-systems which are often used to assess performance capacity in the U.S. We provide suggestions for how to address future international test development and adaptation. PMID:23167987

Gonzalez, Jodi M; Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M; Velligan, Dawn I

2013-04-30

140

Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed.

Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

2006-12-01

141

Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics  

PubMed Central

The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed.

Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

2008-01-01

142

[Translation and adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire: a Brazilian version].  

PubMed

Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in young adults. In Brazil, traffic accidents are proportionally more prevalent among motorcyclists as compared to automobile drivers. Although numerous data indicate that individual characteristics are involved in traffic accident risk, there is no instrument in Brazil to assess motorcyclists' traffic behavior. The authors thus proposed to perform translation and cultural adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ) into Brazilian Portuguese. The translation process consisted of: two independent translations into Brazilian Portuguese; unification of the translations; back-translation into English; formal assessment of semantic equivalence; application of a summary version in a convenience sample of motorcyclists; generation of a final version; and back-translation and submission to the original author, who approved this version. The Brazilian version maintained its semantic equivalence and was accepted by the convenience sample, an important characteristic for a self-completed instrument. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the questionnaire's psychometric properties in the Brazilian cultural context. PMID:22666824

Coelho, Roberta Paula Schell; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Machado, Mônica; Williams, Anna Virginia; Matte, Breno Córdova; Pechansky, Flavio; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Szobot, Claudia Maciel

2012-06-01

143

An Empirical Analysis of Item Weighting on the Adaptive Behavior Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the study based on scores from 221 mentally retarded residents, the individual items in the first 13 Part Two domains of the American Association on Mental Deficiency Adaptive Behavior Scale were weighted for the perceived severity of the behavior they represent. (Author/SW)

Spreat, Scott

1982-01-01

144

Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation  

PubMed Central

Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat.

Cardoso, Goncalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

2012-01-01

145

Patent Orientation, Freedom to Operate, and Adaptive Behavior in the Photolithographic Aligner Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can firms keep up with the pace of technological change? This paper explores the idea that firms differ in their adaptive behavior, namely fast response to technological change, based on their relative investment in different patent orientations. From a detailed analysis of patents in the photolithographic aligner industry, I examine the extent to which firm patenting behavior is oriented towards

Tony Briggs

146

Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

1993-01-01

147

Behavioral Adaptation of Alpine Skiers to Climate Change: Examining Activity Involvement and Place Loyalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed a visitor survey to analyze the influence that changing climatic conditions have on the substitution behaviors of alpine skiers (activity, spatial, temporal). It further focuses on the role that activity involvement plays in influencing behavioral adaptations (i.e., substitution) and also the extent to which place loyalty is affected. The Modified Involvement Scale (MIS) was used to segment

Jackie Dawson; Mark Havitz; Daniel Scott

2011-01-01

148

Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

2010-01-01

149

Predicting Adaptive Behavior from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the proportion of variance in adaptive functioning predictable from mental ability, chronological age, I.Q., evidence of brain malfunction, seizure medication, and receptive and expressive language scores, 25 severely and profoundly retarded institutionalized persons (2-19 years old) were administered the Bayley Infant Scale Mental…

Hotard, Stephen; McWhirter, Richard

150

A qualitative assessment of cross-cultural adaptation of intermediate measures for schizophrenia in multisite international studies  

PubMed Central

In this substudy of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia we examined qualitative feedback on the cross-cultural adaptability of 4 intermediate measures of functional outcome (Independent Living Scales, UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment, Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia, and Cognitive Assessment Interview). Feedback was provided by experienced English-fluent clinical researchers at 31 sites in 8 countries familiar with medication. Researchers provided feedback on test subscales and items which were rated as having adaptation challenges. They noted the specific concern and made suggestions for adaptation to their culture. We analyzed the qualitative data using a modified Grounded Theory approach guided by the International Testing Commission Guidelines model for test adaptation. For each measure except the CAI, the majority of subscales were reported to require major adaptations in terms of content and concepts contained in the subscale. In particular, social, financial, transportation and health care systems varied widely across countries – systems which are often used to assess performance capacity in the U.S. We provide suggestions for how to address future international test development and adaptation.

Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Rubin, Maureen; Fredrick, Megan M.; Velligan, Dawn I.

2012-01-01

151

Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2014-06-01

152

From impacts assessment to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adaptation has recently gained importance, yet adaptation is much less developed than mitigation as a policy response. Adaptation research has been used to help answer to related but distinct questions. (1) To what extent can adaptation reduce impacts of climate change? (2) What adaptation policies are needed, and how can

Ian Burton; Saleemul Huq; Bo Lim; Olga Pilifosova; Emma Lisa Schipper

2002-01-01

153

Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Transportation Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transportation infrastructure, with long design life of 50 years and more, is susceptible to climate change. This paper describes an approach for assessing climate change adaptation strategies for transportation infrastructure, principally roadways and bridges. It is acknowledged that the affects and timing of climate changes are difficult to anticipate and that planning and design has its own inherent risks that must be considered on top of the uncertainty of climate change. Those conditions notwithstanding, climatologists, planners, and engineers are working on ways to reduce uncertainty and deal with risks in ways that can result in facilities that can provide reasonable levels of service, appropriate to their requirements in ways that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. This paper first identifies the potential changes in climate and local environmental conditions and impacts that will be of interest to the transportation designer; then discusses the status of climate forecasting, one of the great uncertainties in climate adaptation planning; and finally addresses climate and design risk and suggests approaches to dealing with expected changes. The adaptation strategy must be responsive to future conditions that can be very different than those of the past. Therefore, the paper describes approaches that include allowing for flexibility in designs, developing alternative scenarios and responses, performing sensitivity analysis, incorporating risk assessment / management techniques integrated with climate forecasting and infrastructure design. By utilizing these approaches, transportation facilities can be designed so that they can be expected to meet their requirements without being over designed. Such an approach will also minimize the total life-cycle cost.

Armstrong, A.; Keller, J.; Meyer, M. D.; Flood, M.

2011-12-01

154

Collaboration with Families in the Functional Behavior Assessment of and Intervention for Severe Behavior Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the role of families in the functional analysis process. It provides an overview of the functional behavioral assessment (FBA) process, evaluates the conceptual and pragmatic issues surrounding the role of families in functional behavioral assessment, and discusses what roles may be most feasible for families and behavior

Peck-Peterson, Stephanie M.; Derby, K. Mark; Berg, Wendy K.; Horner, Robert H.

2002-01-01

155

Adaptive Behavior Changes of Mentally Retarded Citizens in Community Residences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of inservice training and consultation with 33 staff members involved with 97 mildly to severely mentally retarded children and adults living in group homes and apartments throughout Pennsylvania were examined. Training focused on behavior management and group dynamic strategies for skill development and alteration of socially aversive…

Baldwin, Norman F.

156

Modeling bee swarming behavior through diffusion adaptation with asymmetric information sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeybees swarm when they move to a new site for their hive. During the process of swarming, their behavior can be analyzed by classifying them as informed bees or uninformed bees, where the informed bees have some information about the destination while the uninformed bees follow the informed bees. The swarm's movement can be viewed as a network of mobile nodes with asymmetric information exchange about their destination. In these networks, adaptive and mobile agents share information on the fly and adapt their estimates in response to local measurements and data shared with neighbors. Diffusion adaptation is used to model the adaptation process in the presence of asymmetric nodes and noisy data. The simulations indicate that the models are able to emulate the swarming behavior of bees under varied conditions such as a small number of informed bees, sharing of target location, sharing of target direction, and noisy measurements.

Li, Jinchao; Sayed, Ali H.

2012-12-01

157

Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents: theory, treatment adaptations, and empirical outcomes.  

PubMed

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition, and hospitalization. Positive outcomes with adults have prompted researchers to adapt DBT for adolescents. Given this interest in DBT for adolescents, it is important to review the theoretical rationale and the evidence base for this treatment and its adaptations. A solid theoretical foundation allows for adequate evaluation of content, structural, and developmental adaptations and provides a framework for understanding which symptoms or behaviors are expected to improve with treatment and why. We first summarize the adult DBT literature, including theory, treatment structure and content, and outcome research. Then, we review theoretical underpinnings, adaptations, and outcomes of DBT for adolescents. DBT has been adapted for adolescents with various psychiatric disorders (i.e., BPD, mood disorders, externalizing disorders, eating disorders, trichotillomania) and problem behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation and behavior, NSSI) across several settings (i.e., outpatient, day program, inpatient, residential, correctional facility). The rationale for using DBT with these adolescents rests in the common underlying dysfunction in emotion regulation among the aforementioned disorders and problem behaviors. Thus, the theoretical underpinnings of DBT suggest that this treatment is likely to be beneficial for adolescents with a broad array of emotion regulation difficulties, particularly underregulation of emotion resulting in behavioral excess. Results from open and quasi-experimental adolescent studies are promising; however, RCTs are sorely needed. PMID:23224757

MacPherson, Heather A; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Fristad, Mary A

2013-03-01

158

Lateral cascade of indirect effects in food webs with different types of adaptive behavior.  

PubMed

It is widely recognized that indirect effects due to adaptive behaviors can have important effects on food webs. One consequence may be to change how readily perturbations propagate through the web, because species' behaviors as well as densities may respond to perturbations. It is not well understood which types of behavior are more likely to facilitate versus inhibit propagation of disturbances through a food web, or how this might be affected by the shape of a food web or the patterns of interaction strengths within it. We model two simple, laterally expanded food webs (one with three trophic levels and one with four), and compare how various adaptive behaviors affect the potential for a newly introduced predator to change the equilibrium densities of distant species. Patterns of changes in response to the introduction were qualitatively similar across most models, as were the ways in which patterns of direct interaction strengths affected those responses. Depending on both the web structure and the specific adaptive behavior, the potential for density changes to propagate through the web could be either increased or diminished relative to the no-behavior model. Two behaviors allowed density changes to propagate through a four-level web that precluded such propagation in the no-behavior model, and each of these two behaviors led to qualitatively different patterns of density changes. In the one model (diet choice) in which density changes were able to propagate in both web structures, patterns of density changes differed qualitatively between webs. Some of our results flowed from the fact that behaviors did not interact directly in the systems we considered, so that indirect effects on distant species had to be at least partly density-mediated. Our models highlight this as an inherent limitation of considering in isolation behaviors that are strictly foraging-related or strictly defense-related, making a case for the value of simultaneously considering multiple interacting types of behavior in the same model. PMID:23810934

Kamran-Disfani, Ahmad R; Golubski, Antonio J

2013-12-21

159

Stochastic adaptation and fold-change detection: from single-cell to population behavior  

PubMed Central

Background In cell signaling terminology, adaptation refers to a system's capability of returning to its equilibrium upon a transient response. To achieve this, a network has to be both sensitive and precise. Namely, the system must display a significant output response upon stimulation, and later on return to pre-stimulation levels. If the system settles at the exact same equilibrium, adaptation is said to be 'perfect'. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include temperature regulation, calcium regulation and bacterial chemotaxis. Results We present models of the simplest adaptation architecture, a two-state protein system, in a stochastic setting. Furthermore, we consider differences between individual and collective adaptive behavior, and show how our system displays fold-change detection properties. Our analysis and simulations highlight why adaptation needs to be understood in terms of probability, and not in strict numbers of molecules. Most importantly, selection of appropriate parameters in this simple linear setting may yield populations of cells displaying adaptation, while single cells do not. Conclusions Single cell behavior cannot be inferred from population measurements and, sometimes, collective behavior cannot be determined from the individuals. By consequence, adaptation can many times be considered a purely emergent property of the collective system. This is a clear example where biological ergodicity cannot be assumed, just as is also the case when cell replication rates are not homogeneous, or depend on the cell state. Our analysis shows, for the first time, how ergodicity cannot be taken for granted in simple linear examples either. The latter holds even when cells are considered isolated and devoid of replication capabilities (cell-cycle arrested). We also show how a simple linear adaptation scheme displays fold-change detection properties, and how rupture of ergodicity prevails in scenarios where transitions between protein states are mediated by other molecular species in the system, such as phosphatases and kinases.

2011-01-01

160

Frame-loss adaptive temporal pooling for video quality assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a frame-loss adaptive temporal pooling method for video quality assessment is proposed. Extensive subjective tests have been carried out to determine the duration of successive frames based on which steady quality judgment can be made by human observers. The resulting duration is applied to the determination of the length of Group of Frames (GOF), where a flexible algorithm is used to separate the input video into variable sized GOFs. Short-term temporal pooling is first performed for each of the GOF to get the GOF quality, where quality contribution of each frame is incorporated with the context and frame loss well taken into account. The video quality is then obtained by long-term temporal pooling of the GOF quality considering the fact that perceptual video quality is predominately determined by the worst parts of the video. Extensive experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method both for regular and irregular frame loss.

Wan, Shuai; Yang, Fuzheng; Zhang, Xun; Jiang, Chenglong

2010-07-01

161

Technology for Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Bariatric Surgery  

PubMed Central

Patients’ behaviors have a substantial impact on postoperative outcomes following bariatric surgery. Thus, studying patients’ behaviors is essential to learning how to optimize postoperative outcomes. In order to be most effective, this research should employ the best tools available for assessing patient behaviors. Unfortunately, traditional methods of behavioral assessment (e.g., questionnaires and clinical interviews) rely primarily on patients’ retrospective self-report, which is often inaccurate. Despite their significant shortcomings, these types of assessments continue to predominate. However, technological advances now allow for much greater accuracy in the assessment of patient behaviors via devices such as accelerometers and palmtop computers. Accelerometers allow for patients’ physical activity to be measured objectively in great detail, in real-time, in patients’ natural environment. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) via palmtop computer or mobile phone allows for assessment of important behaviors, such as eating and activity behaviors, to be measured with many of the same advantages. Furthermore, new computer-assisted technologies are in development that will further facilitate behavioral assessment. Technology also has the potential to play an important role in the delivery of behavioral interventions aimed at bariatric surgery patients, given that Internet-based treatments have already proven effective for non- surgical weight loss, are often highly cost-effective and easily disseminable. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of these programs for bariatric patients.

Thomas, J. Graham; Bond, Dale S.; Sarwer, David B.; Wing, Rena R.

2012-01-01

162

Consequences of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Early Adversity on Behavioral Profile - Pathology or Adaptation?  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on how behavioral profile is shaped by early adversity in individuals with varying serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. In a recent study on 5-HTT knockout mice Heiming et al. (2009) simulated a ‘dangerous environment‘ by confronting pregnant and lactating females with odor cues of unfamiliar males, indicating the risk of infant killing. Growing up in a dangerous environment induced increased anxiety-related behavior and decreased exploratory locomotion in the offspring, the effects being most pronounced in mice lacking 5-HTT expression. We argue that these alterations in behavioral profile represent adaptive maternal effects that help the individuals to cope with adversity. In principle, such effects of adversity on behavioral profile should not automatically be regarded as pathological. Rather and in accordance with modern evolutionary theory they may represent adaptations, although individuals with 5-HTT genotype induced susceptibility to adversity may be at risk of developing pathologies.

Heiming, Rebecca S.; Sachser, Norbert

2010-01-01

163

The spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity: regulatory, attention, social, and adaptive dimensions.  

PubMed

Advances in obstetrics and neonatology have increased the survival rates of premature infants with very preterm (<32 weeks) and extremely preterm (<28 weeks) gestations. However, survivors have a high frequency of challenges in academic and social skills. There has been an increased emphasis on examination of outcomes beyond survival rates and rates of neurosensory disabilities at ages 18 to 24 months (eg, cerebral palsy, blindness, deafness, global development delay). One of the key strategies for understanding pathways of risk and resilience is to examine behavioral, social-emotional, and adaptive competencies. The purpose of this paper is to apply the International Classification of Functioning framework to a spectrum of behavioral outcomes after extreme prematurity, describe useful tools for measuring behavioral, social, and adaptive competencies, as well as review model outcome studies before middle childhood. Thus, we can use current information to begin to understand pathways underlying behavioral health, well-being, and social competence. PMID:18249239

Msall, Michael E; Park, Jennifer J

2008-02-01

164

Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the student), pedagogy ontology, and learner ontology (defines time constraint, comment, profile).

Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

2014-05-01

165

Conditional logic abilities on the four-card problem: Assessment of behavioral and reasoning performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the behavioral and the reasoning performances of 507 school and university students on the four logical principles of logical detachment, particular conversion, particular inversion, and particular contraposition. An adapted version of Wason's four-card problem was administered to all students in paper-and-pencil format and in group settings. Students were asked to respond to the logical questions and

Helen Adi; Robert Karplus; Anton E. Lawson

1980-01-01

166

A tool for creating eye-aware applications that adapt to changes in user behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development tool is described that can be used to create eye-aware software applications that adapt in real-time to changes in a user’s natural eye-movement behaviors and intentions. The research involved in developing this tool focuses on identifying patterns of eye-movement that describe three behaviors: Knowledgeable Movement, Searching, and Prolonged Searching. In the process of doing the research, two important

Gregory W. Edwards; Archimedes Project

1998-01-01

167

On the Contextual Independence of Personality: Teachers' Assessments Predict Directly Observed Behavior after Four Decades  

PubMed Central

The continuity of personality’s association with directly observed behavior is demonstrated across two contexts spanning four decades. During the 1960s, elementary school teachers rated personalities of members of the ethnically diverse Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort (Hampson & Goldberg, 2006). The same individuals were interviewed in a medical clinic over 40 years later. Trained coders viewed video recordings of a subset of these interviews (N = 144, 68 F, 76 M) and assessed the behavior they observed using the Riverside Behavioral Q-sort Version 3.0 (Funder, Furr & Colvin, 2000; Furr, Wagerman & Funder, 2010). Children rated by their teachers as “verbally fluent” (defined as unrestrained talkativeness) showed dominant and socially adept behavior as middle-aged adults. Early “adaptability” was associated with cheerful and intellectually curious behavior, early “impulsivity” was associated with later talkativeness and loud speech, and early rated tendencies to “self-minimize” were related to adult expressions of insecurity and humility.

Nave, Christopher S.; Sherman, Ryne A.; Funder, David C.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

2010-01-01

168

Coping in Young Children: Early Intervention Practices To Enhance Adaptive Behavior and Resilience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes an intervention framework to help young children (birth to 36 months) who have or are at risk of having a disability, to cope more effectively. The book is written for an interdisciplinary audience including service providers, administrators, researchers, and policymakers. Emphasis is on enhancing the adaptive behavior and…

Zeitlin, Shirley; Williamson, G. Gordon

169

A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

2013-01-01

170

Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

2008-01-01

171

Incidence and Temporal Patterns of Adaptive Behavior Change in Adults with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study found cumulative decline in adaptive behavior and functional skills in 248 adults with Down syndrome increased from less than .04 at age 50, to .67 by 72, whereas decline for 398 adults with mental retardation increased from less than .02 at age 50 to .52 at 88. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Urv, Tiina; Zigman, April; Silverman, Wayne

2002-01-01

172

Comparison of the Adaptive Authentication Systems for Behavior Biometrics using the Variations of Self Organizing Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biometrics authentication systems take attentions to cover the weakness of password authentication system. In this paper, we focus attention on the multi modal-biometrics of behavior characteristics. For the integration of multi modal biometrics, some variations of Self Organizing maps and its incremental learning method for implementing adaptive authentication system are imple- mented and their performances are examined for the

Hiroshi Dozono; Shinsuke Itou; Masanori Nakakuni

173

Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, we used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care patients (n = 12) with persistent symptoms of depression, despite antidepressant medication treatment. Ten of 12 participants completed 10 sessions of therapy over the course of 4 months, and all endorsed high levels of treatment satisfaction. Participants' depression scores declined significantly over time, and 75% of participants experienced at least 50% change on a self-report measure of depression symptoms. There were trends for social functioning, pain, and general health perceptions to improve over time. These results highlight the acceptability and feasibility of adapting behavior therapy for primary care, and support the continuation of this research.

Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

2010-01-01

174

Conceptualizing Functional Behavior Assessment as Prevention Practice within Positive Behavior Support Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is an integral component of a positive behavior support approach to preventing problem behavior across all students in the school. As primary prevention, FBA is a collaborative school-wide practice to predict common problems and to develop school-wide interventions. As secondary prevention, FBA involves simple…

Scott, Terrance M.; Caron, Deborah B.

2005-01-01

175

The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

2005-01-01

176

Generalizability and Dependability of Direct Behavior Ratings to Assess Social Behavior of Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One potentially feasible tool for use in the formative assessment of social behavior is the direct behavior rating, yet empirical support for the reliability of its use is limited. In this study, generalizability theory was used to provide preliminary psychometric data regarding the generalizability and dependability of the direct behavior rating…

Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Briesch, Amy M.; Chanese, Julie A. M.

2007-01-01

177

Studying the Neural Basis of Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Insects  

PubMed Central

Studying the neural basis of walking behavior, one often faces the problem that it is hard to separate the neuronally produced stepping output from those leg movements that result from passive forces and interactions with other legs through the common contact with the substrate. If we want to understand, which part of a given movement is produced by nervous system motor output, kinematic analysis of stepping movements, therefore, needs to be complemented with electrophysiological recordings of motor activity. The recording of neuronal or muscular activity in a behaving animal is often limited by the electrophysiological equipment which can constrain the animal in its ability to move with as many degrees of freedom as possible. This can either be avoided by using implantable electrodes and then having the animal move on a long tether (i.e. Clarac et al., 1987; Duch & Pflüger, 1995; Böhm et al., 1997; Gruhn & Rathmayer, 2002) or by transmitting the data using telemetric devices (Kutsch et al, 1993; Fischer et al., 1996; Tsuchida et al. 2004; Hama et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2008). Both of these elegant methods, which are successfully used in larger arthropods, often prove difficult to apply in smaller walking insects which either easily get entangled in the long tether or are hindered by the weight of the telemetric device and its batteries. In addition, in all these cases, it is still impossible to distinguish between the purely neuronal basis of locomotion and the effects exerted by mechanical coupling between the walking legs through the substrate. One solution for this problem is to conduct the experiments in a tethered animal that is free to walk in place and that is locally suspended, for example over a slippery surface, which effectively removes most ground contact mechanics. This has been used to study escape responses (Camhi and Nolen, 1981; Camhi and Levy, 1988), turning (Tryba and Ritzman, 2000a,b; Gruhn et al., 2009a), backward walking (Graham and Epstein, 1985) or changes in velocity (Gruhn et al., 2009b) and it allows the experimenter easily to combine intra- and extracellular physiology with kinematic analyses (Gruhn et al., 2006). We use a slippery surface setup to investigate the timing of leg muscles in the behaving stick insect with respect to touch-down and lift-off under different behavioral paradigms such as straight forward and curved walking in intact and reduced preparations.

Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bollhagen, Hans-Peter; Bueschges, Ansgar

2011-01-01

178

Assessing adaptive capacity within regional climate change vulnerability studies—an Alpine example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive capacity represents a crucial component in the assessment of a region’s vulnerability to climate change. The term\\u000a adaptive capacity is only fuzzily defined, and determining it is difficult and often neglected in previous studies. In this\\u000a paper, a newly developed adaptive capacity concept is introduced, with a respective indicator\\/criteria system and simple aggregation\\u000a methods. The approach allows for adaptive

Stefan Schneiderbauer; Lydia Pedoth; Danyang Zhang; Marc Zebisch

179

Adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy for religious individuals with mental disorder: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence-based psychological intervention for various mental disorders. However, mental health clinicians should be cognizant of the population that was used to validate the intervention and assess its acceptability to a target group that is culturally different. We systematically reviewed published empirical studies of CBT adapted for religious individuals with mental disorder to determine the extent to which religiously modified CBT can be considered an empirically supported treatment following the criteria delineated by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Overall, nine randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study were included that compared the effectiveness of religiously modified CBT to standard CBT or other treatment modalities for the treatment of depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. The majority of these studies either found no difference in effectiveness between religiously modified CBT compared to standard CBT or other treatment modalities, or early effects that were not sustained. Considering the methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, religiously modified CBT cannot be considered a well-established psychological intervention for the treatment of the foregoing mental disorders following the a priori set criteria at this juncture. Nevertheless, melding religious content with CBT may be an acceptable treatment modality for individuals with strong religious convictions. PMID:24813028

Lim, Caroline; Sim, Kang; Renjan, Vidhya; Sam, Hui Fang; Quah, Soo Li

2014-06-01

180

Assessing Behavioral Problems: Burks' Scale vs. Devereux Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists, diagnosticians, and educators are often required to assess a child's functioning to assist in placing the child in the most appropriate educational setting. To assess the child's current level of functioning, various behavior rating scales have been designed to integrate both teacher and parent observations in this assessment

Naylor, Kim

181

Conceptualizing Functional Behavior Assessment as Prevention Practice Within Positive Behavior Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is an integral component of a positive behavior support approach to preventing problem behavior across all students in the school. As primary prevention, FBA is a collaborative school-wide practice to predict common problems and to develop school-wide interventions. As secondary prevention, FBA involves simple and realistic team-driven assessment and intervention strategies aimed at students with mildly

Terrance M. Scott; Deborah B. Caron

2005-01-01

182

An analysis of the impact of auditory-nerve adaptation on behavioral measures of temporal integration in cochlear implant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the impact that auditory-nerve adaptation has on behavioral measures of temporal integration in Nucleus 24 cochlear implant recipients. It was expected that, because the auditory nerve serves as the input to central temporal integrator, a large degree of auditory-nerve adaptation would reduce the amount of temporal integration. Neural adaptation was measured by

Marcia J. Hay-McCutcheon; Carolyn J. Brown; Paul J. Abbas

2005-01-01

183

Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers’ child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank–behavior associations.

Boyce, W. Thomas; Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

2012-01-01

184

Longitudinal Changes in Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Scores in Children and Adolescents with the Fragile X Mutation or Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of children and adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome (n=18) or autism (n=18) for changes in cognitive ability and adaptive behavior over 9 years found steeper decreases in IQ scores among Fragile X subjects with older autistic subjects autism exhibiting stable test-retest scores. Comparative declines in adaptive behavior scores were…

Fisch, Gene S.; Simensen, Richard J.; Schroer, R. J.

2002-01-01

185

Use of automated monitoring to assess behavioral toxicology in fish: Linking behavior and physiology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured locomotory behaviors (distance traveled, speed, tortuosity of path, and rate of change in direction) with computer-assisted analysis in 30 day posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to pesticides. We also examined cholinesterase inhibition as a potential endpoint linking physiology and behavior. Sublethal exposure to chemicals often causes changes in swimming behavior, reflecting alterations in sensory and motor systems. Swimming behavior also integrates functions of the nervous system. Rarely are the connections between physiology and behavior made. Although behavior is often suggested as a sensitive, early indicator of toxicity, behavioral toxicology has not been used to its full potential because conventional methods of behavioral assessment have relied on manual techniques, which are often time-consuming and difficult to quantify. This has severely limited the application and utility of behavioral procedures. Swimming behavior is particularly amenable to computerized assessment and automated monitoring. Locomotory responses are sensitive to toxicants and can be easily measured. We briefly discuss the use of behavior in toxicology and automated techniques used in behavioral toxicology. We also describe the system we used to determine locomotory behaviors of fish, and present data demonstrating the system's effectiveness in measuring alterations in response to chemical challenges. Lastly, we correlate behavioral and physiological endpoints.

Brewer, S. K.; DeLonay, A. J.; Beauvais, S. L.; Little, E. E.; Jones, S. B.

1999-01-01

186

A new approach to the measurement of adaptive behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for children and youth with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The PEDI-CAT is a computer-based assessment of a child’s ability to perform activities required for personal self sufficiency and engagement in the community. This study evaluated the applicability, representativeness, and comprehensiveness of the Daily Activity, Social/Cognitive, and Responsibility domains for children and youth with an ASD. Twenty professionals and 18 parents provided feedback via in-person or virtual focus groups and cognitive interviews. Items were perceived to represent relevant functional activities within each domain. Child factors and assessment characteristics influenced parents’ ratings. In response to feedback, 15 items and additional directions were added to ensure the PEDI-CAT is a meaningful measure when used with this population.

Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

2012-01-01

187

School Social Behavior Scales: an adaptation study of the Portuguese version of the social competence scale from SSBS-2.  

PubMed

This study analyses the psychometric proprieties of a Portuguese version of the social competence scale from the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS-2, Merrell, 2002). It is a rating instrument of children and adolescents behavior, to be used by teachers and other school personnel. This scale includes 3 subscales: self-management/compliance, peer relations and academic behavior. In our first sample, 175 teachers rated 344 students from grade 1 through 12. On the second sample 13 teachers rated 251 3rd and 4th grades students. The results from the Portuguese adaptation support the multidimensional structure of the social competence scale from the SSBS-2, although an alternative model demonstrated a better fit to the data than the model originally proposed by the author. The scale showed good internal consistency and good intercorrelations between subscales, as well as between subscales and the total scale. The final model was well replicated in the second sample. These results encourage us to pursue the SSBS-2 Portuguese adaptation, in order to provide a useful and validated instrument for the assessment of social competence and for educational interventions. PMID:23156949

Raimundo, Raquel; Carapito, Elsa; Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques Pinto, Alexandra; Lima, Maria Luísa; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa

2012-11-01

188

Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We have further analyzed the FMT data to characterize strategic and adaptive components during the postflight readaptation period. Crewmembers walked at a preferred pace through an obstacle course set up on a base of 10 cm thick medium density foam (Sunmate Foam, Dynamic Systems, Inc., Leicester, NC). The 6.0m X 4.0m course consisted of several pylons made of foam; a Styrofoam barrier 46.0cm high that crewmembers stepped over; and a portal constructed of two Styrofoam blocks, each 31cm high, with a horizontal bar covered by foam and suspended from the ceiling which was adjusted to the height of the crewmember s shoulder. The portal required crewmembers to bend at the waist and step over a barrier simultaneously. All obstacles were lightweight, soft and easily knocked over. Crewmembers were instructed to walk through the course as quickly and as safely as possible without touching any of the objects on the course. This task was performed three times in the clockwise direction and three times in the counterclockwise direction that was randomly chosen. The dependent measures for each trial were: time to complete the course (seconds) and the number of obstacles touched or knocked down. For each crewmember, the time to complete each FMT trial from postflight days 1, 2, 4, 7 and 25 were further analyzed. A single logarithmic curve using a least squares calculation was fit through these data to produce a single comprehensive curve (macro). This macro curve composed of data spanning 25 days, illustrates the re-adaptive learning function over the longer time scale term. Additionally, logarithmic curves were fit to the 6 data trials within each individual post flight test day to produce 5 separate daily curves. These micro curves, produced from data obtained over the course of minutes, illustrates the strategic learning function exhibited over a relative shorter time scale. The macro curve for all subjects exhibited adaptive motor learning patterns over the 25 day period. Howev, 9/16 crewmembers exhibited significant strategic motor learning patterns in their micro curves,

Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

2006-01-01

189

Assessment of Social Behavior in Children with Autism: The Development of the Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a limited number of assessments available to examine social skills deficits in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children (BASYC) was developed as a direct assessment of social deficits in young children with ASD relative to children without ASD. The BASYC is a…

Gillis, Jennifer M.; Callahan, Emily H.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

2011-01-01

190

Frontal Theta Links Prediction Errors to Behavioral Adaptation in Reinforcement Learning  

PubMed Central

Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a fronto-central voltage deflection in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the Feedback Related Negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Medio-frontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations: with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice.

Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.; Klein, Theresa J.; Allen, John J.B.

2009-01-01

191

Assessing Adaptive Instructional Design Tools and Methods in ADAPT[IT].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ADAPT[IT] (Advanced Design Approach for Personalized Training - Interactive Tools) is a European project within the Information Society Technologies program that is providing design methods and tools to guide a training designer according to the latest cognitive science and standardization principles. ADAPT[IT] addresses users in two significantly…

Eseryel, Deniz; Spector, J. Michael

192

Conceptualizing Urban Adaptation to Climate Change Findings from an Applied Adaptation Assessment Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban areas have particular sensitivities to climate change, and therefore adaptation to a warming planet represents a challenging new issue for urban policy makers in both the developed and developing world. Further to climate mitigation strategies implemented in various cities over the past 20 years, more recent efforts of urban management have also included actions taken to adapt to increasing

Katie Johnson; Margaretha Breil

2012-01-01

193

USING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TO ASSESS STUDENT BEHAVIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

School, which is generally recognized as a place for adolescents to learn socially appropriate behavior, has become an institution whereby interpersonal disputes between teachers and students have increasingly resulted in aggravated assault and the use of lethal weapons. Surveys of high school students reported that a startlingly high proportion of them are unaware of effective methods for solving social conflict.

Arthur McLin

2006-01-01

194

Assessment and Behavioral Treatment of Selective Mutism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with selective mutism present with a complicated set of symptoms, as they not only refuse to speak in particular social situations but are often shy, socially isolative, anxious, and may present as oppositional and negativistic in their behavior. Limited research on treatments for selective mutism suggests a need for additional research examining intervention possibilities. The following case description presents

Brian J. Fisak; Arazais Oliveros; Jill T. Ehrenreich

2006-01-01

195

Assessing Children's Mealtime Problems With the Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A caregiver questionnaire that assesses mealtime problems in children aged 2 to 6 years old was developed. Community caregivers (n = 712) completed the Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire (MBQ) and measures of child behavior and family mealtime behaviors and environment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and validated the MBQ's 4 subscales (food refusal\\/avoidance; food manipulation; mealtime aggression\\/distress; and choking\\/, gagging\\/vomiting).

Kristoffer S. Berlin; W. Hobart Davies; Alan H. Silverman; Douglas W. Woods; Elizabeth A. Fischer; Colin D. Rudolph

2010-01-01

196

Application of persuasion and health behavior theories for behavior change counseling: Design of the ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting) program  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetes incidence is increasing worldwide and providers often do not feel they can effectively counsel about preventive lifestyle changes. The goal of this paper is to describe the development and initial feasibility testing of the Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting (ADAPT) program to enhance counseling about behavior change for patients with pre-diabetes. Methods Primary care providers and patients were interviewed about their perspectives on lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes. A multidisciplinary design team incorporated this data to translate elements from behavior change theories to create the ADAPT program. The ADAPT program was pilot tested to evaluate feasibility. Results Leveraging elements from health behavior theories and persuasion literature, the ADAPT program comprises a shared goal-setting module, implementation intentions exercise, and tailored reminders to encourage behavior change. Feasibility data demonstrate that patients were able to use the program to achieve their behavior change goals. Conclusion Initial findings show that the ADAPT program is feasible for helping improve primary care providers’ counseling for behavior change in patients with pre-diabetes. Practice Implications If successful, the ADAPT program may represent an adaptable and scalable behavior change tool for providers to encourage lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes.

Lin, Jenny J.; Mann, Devin M.

2012-01-01

197

An Adaptive Model for Assessing Supply Chain Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research builds upon our previous research by extending a risk-indexing model to an adaptive indexing model, taking into account several additional factors. The new adaptive risk model includes the analysis of varying levels of contributions among firms, different consequences of the sub-product groups, the effects of learning over time, the effects of economic change over time, and the effects

George Kenyon; Brian D. Neureuther

2012-01-01

198

Stability of Adaptive Behaviors in Middle-School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 5-year follow-up study examined the stability of adaptive functioning in two cognitive ability groups of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nonverbal intelligence (NVIQ) was assessed at the time of this study and no participant changed cognitive group membership from the previous study (High NVIQ greater than or equal to 97; Low…

Gabriels, Robin L.; Ivers, Bonnie Jean; Hill, Dina E.; Agnew, John A.; McNeill, John

2007-01-01

199

[Risk assessment of developing aggressive behavior].  

PubMed

The article concerns the problem of patients with aggressive behaviour and the most common methods for estimating the potential risk of appearance of such behaviour. The problem mentioned above is related in particular to psychiatric facilities, but it is also present in medical facilities of general type. The importance of this problem is underlined by epidemiological data. The article includes a description of two widely used instruments, namely the HCR 20 (The Historical Clinical and Risk Management Scale 20) and the PCL-R (The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) but also the actuarial instruments the VRAG (The Violence Risk Assessment Guide) and the SORAG (The Sex Offender Risk Assessment Guide). The article also presents an instrument for the dynamic assessment, the START (The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability). The usefulness and limitations of these instruments are developed. Some personality disorders may predispose an individual to commit acts of aggression or violence. This topic is also developed in the text. The article focuses on the rationale for the usefulness of regular training of risk assessment for staff, which increases security and helps to plan the care correctly. PMID:22512147

Kaszuba, M

2012-01-01

200

Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

2013-08-01

201

Hypothetical Use of Multidimensional Adaptive Testing for the Assessment of Student Achievement in the Programme for International Student Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usefulness of multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) for the assessment of student literacy in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) was examined within a real data simulation study. The responses of N = 14,624 students who participated in the PISA assessments of the years 2000, 2003, and 2006 in Germany were used to…

Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils

2011-01-01

202

Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges.  

PubMed Central

Two analyses investigated the effects of choice making on the responding of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral challenges. In the first analysis, 2 participants were given choices from menus of academic tasks, all of which were pertinent to their educational objectives in English and spelling, respectively. Reversal designs showed that the choice-making conditions increased task engagement and reduced disruptive behavior for both students. An additional analysis was performed with a 3rd student in an effort to further distinguish the effects of choice making from preference. In this study, one of the no-choice phases was yoked to a previous choice-making condition. This analysis demonstrated that the choice-making condition was superior to baseline and yoked control phases as determined by levels of task engagement and disruptive behavior. The findings of the two analyses contribute information relevant to students with emotional and behavioral disorders, and to a growing literature on the desirable effects of choice making for students with disabilities and challenging behaviors.

Dunlap, G; dePerczel, M; Clarke, S; Wilson, D; Wright, S; White, R; Gomez, A

1994-01-01

203

Adaptive mechanism between dynamical synchronization and epidemic behavior on complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many realistic epidemic networks display statistically synchronous behavior which we will refer to as epidemic synchronization. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no theoretical study of epidemic synchronization. In fact, in many cases, synchronization and epidemic behavior can arise simultaneously and interplay adaptively. In this paper, we first construct mathematical models of epidemic synchronization, based on traditional dynamical models on complex networks, by applying the adaptive mechanisms observed in real networks. Then, we study the relationship between the epidemic rate and synchronization stability of these models and, in particular, obtain the conditions of local and global stability for epidemic synchronization. Finally, we perform numerical analysis to verify our theoretical results. This work is the first to draw a theoretical bridge between epidemic transmission and synchronization dynamics and will be beneficial to the study of control and the analysis of the epidemics on complex networks.

Li, Kezan; Fu, Xinchu; Small, Michael; Ma, Zhongjun

2011-09-01

204

Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

Lee, Chuen-Chien

1991-01-01

205

Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

Simon, Robert I.

2008-01-01

206

Assessment of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment

Plotts, Cynthia A.

2012-01-01

207

Assessment of Emotionally Disturbed/Behaviorally Disordered Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical issues such as unbiased assessment and expected incidence of students with emotional and behavior disorders are addressed in terms of such issues as unbiased assessment. Recommended practices are described in terms of a five-step process to aid in determining eligibility and making placement decisions. (CL)

Wood, Frank H.; Smith, Carl R.

1985-01-01

208

MPS II: Adaptive Behavior of Patients and Impact on the Family System.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a chronic and progressive X-linked lysosomal disease that mainly affects males. It occurs in 1 in every 65,000 to 1 in 132,000 births. There are two distinct forms of the disease based on age of onset and clinical course: mild and severe. MPS II affects many organ systems including the nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Complications can include vision problems, progressive hearing loss, thickened and elastic skin, mental impairment, and enlarged liver and spleen. We herein focus on the adaptive behavior of individuals with MPS II, and the impact of MPS II on the family system. Outcomes from the Vineland-II Adaptive Behavior Scales showed that the MPS II patient sample experienced significantly lower functioning in communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills compared to normative data. Patients with severe MPS II were found to have significantly lower adaptive functioning in all domains, as compared to those with mild MPS II. Length of time on ERT had no significant relationship to adaptive functioning. Results from the Peds QL Family Impact Module indicated that families of patients with MPS II experienced a lower overall health-related quality of life and overall lower family functioning (including lower emotional and cognitive functioning) than those with chronic illnesses residing in an inpatient setting. PMID:24190099

Needham, Mary; Packman, Wendy; Rappoport, Maxwell; Quinn, Natasha; Cordova, Matthew; Macias, Sandra; Morgan, Cynthia; Packman, Seymour

2014-06-01

209

Assessing leader behaviors in project managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research was to explore the leadership style of graduate project management students vs other MBA students. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Graduate project management and MBA students attending a regional comprehensive university in USA returned surveys that assess their leadership style emphasis of concern for task or concern for people. Findings – Project management students rate themselves

Paul H. Jacques; John Garger; Michael Thomas

2008-01-01

210

The Assessment of Study Skill Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the acquisition of study skills in high-risk college freshmen enrolled in a developmental course, "Introduction to University Studies." The construction of the 30-item multiple choice instrument was described. The test reflected the objectives of the course, covering traditional study skill topics such as self-assessment, time…

Dodd, Alan; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

211

Automobile Driving Behavior Recognition Using Boosting Sequential Labeling Method for Adaptive Driver Assistance Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in practical adaptive driving assistance systems and sensing technology for automobiles have led to a detailed\\u000a study of individual human driving behavior. In such a study, we need to deal with a large amount of stored data, which can\\u000a be managed by splitting the analysis according to the driving states described by driver maneuvers and driving environment.\\u000a As

Wathanyoo Khaisongkram; Pongsathorn Raksincharoensak; Masamichi Shimosaka; Taketoshi Mori; Tomomasa Sato; Masao Nagai

2008-01-01

212

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining

J. Mark Eddy

2005-01-01

213

User—robot personality matching and assistive robot behavior adaptation for post-stroke rehabilitation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a hands-off socially assistive therapist robot designed to monitor, assist, encourage, and socially interact\\u000a with post-stroke users engaged in rehabilitation exercises. We investigate the role of the robot’s personality in the hands-off\\u000a therapy process, focusing on the relationship between the level of extroversion–introversion of the robot and the user. We\\u000a also demonstrate a behavior adaptation system capable

Adriana Tapus; Cristian ??pu?; Maja J. Matari?

2008-01-01

214

On the Consequences of Behavioral Adaptations in the Cost–Benefit Analysis of Road Safety Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIt is sometimes argued that road safety measures or automobile safety standards fail to save lives because safer highways or safer cars induce more dangerous driving. A similar but less extreme view is that ignoring the behavioral adaptation of drivers would bias the cost–benefit analysis of a traffic safety measure. This article derives cost–benefit rules for automobile safety regulation when

Olivier Gossner; Pierre Picard

2005-01-01

215

Centrally-generated and reflexive control strategies in the adaptive behavior of real and simulated animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our studies of the odor-guided navigation of real and simulated insects we have explicitly addressed the strengths and weaknesses of reflexive and centrally-patterned control strategies in successfully adapting to a complex environment. While often presented as contesting organizational principles, reflexive and centrally-patterned behaviors actually exist on a continuum ranging from purely reflexive control with no central contribution to purely

Jim H. Belanger; Mark A. Willis

216

Monitoring Fish Ventilatory Behavior to Assess Behaviorally and Neurally Mediated Effects of Chemical Substances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study examined the feasibility of monitoring fish ventilatory behavior to provide a sensitive and reliable real time water quality monitor. Objectives included: (1) the development of an acceptable monitoring chamber; (2) assessing some of the compone...

D. Gruber

1984-01-01

217

Relevance of functional behavioral assessment research for school-based interventions and positive behavioral support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of functional analysis over the past 15 years, the extent to which these findings can be generalized across clients, methods, settings, and response

Frank M Gresham; Laura Lee McIntyre; Heidi Olson-Tinker; Lisa Dolstra; Veronica McLaughlin; Mai Van

2004-01-01

218

Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

Myers, Carl L.

2013-01-01

219

Assessment of Behavior Management and Behavioral Interventions in State Child Welfare Facilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Official state program reviews of 204 substitute care facilities were assessed for the types of behavior management and behavioral interventions used and the extent to which agency practices were consistent with learning theory principles. Data were also collected on the type and number of professional staff available to implement and oversee…

Wong, Stephen E.

2006-01-01

220

Adapting Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Secure Juvenile Justice Settings: Improving Facility-Wide Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity and success of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in public schools across the United States has led professionals to advocate for its implementation in secure juvenile settings. Statewide implementation efforts have been mounted in several jurisdictions, and a number of secure facilities are applying it with…

Jolivette, Kristine; Nelson, C. Michael

2010-01-01

221

Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics  

PubMed Central

One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm. The behavior of virtual organisms animated by this theory may be studied in any experimental environment. The evolutionary theory was tested by comparing the steady-state behavior it generated on concurrent schedules to the description of steady state behavior provided by modern matching theory. Ensemble fits of modern matching theory that enforced its constant-k requirement and the parametric identities required by its equations, accounted for large proportions of data variance, left random residuals, and yielded parameter estimates with values and properties similar to those obtained in experiments with live organisms. These results indicate that the dynamics of the evolutionary theory and the statics of modern matching theory together constitute a good candidate for a mechanics of adaptive behavior.

McDowell, J.J; Popa, Andrei

2010-01-01

222

Acoustically focused adaptive sampling and on-board routing for marine rapid environmental assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

article i nfo Variabilities in the coastal ocean environment span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. From an acoustic viewpoint, the limited oceanographic measurements and today's ocean computational capabilities are not always able to provide oceanic-acoustic predictions in high-resolution and with enough accuracy. Adaptive Rapid Environmental Assessment (AREA) is an adaptive sampling concept being developed in connection with

Ding Wang; Pierre F. J. Lermusiaux; Patrick J. Haley; Donald Eickstedt; Wayne G. Leslie; Henrik Schmidt

2009-01-01

223

Brazilian Version of the Functional Assessment Measure: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…

Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.

2011-01-01

224

A Preliminary Evaluation of the Adaptation of Four Assessments for Offenders with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Appropriate assessment is an essential part of treating sexual offenders. Few assessments exist that can be used with offenders who have lower levels of intellectual functioning and/or literacy deficits. Method: This study describes the adaptation of four self-report assessments for sexual offenders with special needs: (i) the "Social…

Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

2007-01-01

225

A Module for Adaptive Course Configuration and Assessment in Moodle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personalization and Adaptation are among the main challenges in the field of e-learning, where currently just few Learning Management Systems, mostly experimental ones, support such features. In this work we present an architecture that allows Moodle to interact with the Lecomps system, an adaptive learning system developed earlier by our research group, that has been working in a stand-alone modality so far. In particular, the Lecomps responsibilities are circumscribed to the sole production of personalized learning objects sequences and to the management of the student model, leaving to Moodle all the rest of the activities for course delivery. The Lecomps system supports the "dynamic" adaptation of learning objects sequences, basing on the student model, i.e., learner's Cognitive State and Learning Style. Basically, this work integrates two main Lecomps tasks into Moodle, to be directly managed by it: Authentication and Quizzes.

Limongelli, Carla; Sciarrone, Filippo; Temperini, Marco; Vaste, Giulia

226

Fish behavior, migration and environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Studies at the Pacific Northwst Laboratory have evaluated fish behavior and migration in response to thermal discharge, gas supersaturated water, water-soluble fractions of coal liquids, and other environmental stresses. Major findings including thermal discharges did not block upstream migration of sonic-tagged adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the Columbia River. Juvenile chinook slamon avoided thermal discharges in the laboratory when ..delta..ts exceeded 9 to 11)degree)C above ambient. However juvenile salmon were more susceptible to predation at 10 to 20% of the thermal dose causing loss of equilibrium. Radio-tagged adult chinook salmon swam deeper in supersaturated water than in normally saturated water in the Snake River and, thereby, avoided the upper, critical zone. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and black bullhead (Ictalurus melas) did not always avoid lethal gas levels in the laboratory and some fish died in the test apparatus. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) avoided the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a coal liquid at concentrations causing acute effects but not at those causing chronic effects. Rainbow trout did not avoid coal liquid WSFs although they reportedly avid the major constituent, phenol, tested a as pure compound. Susceptibility to predation of juvenile rainbow trout did not increase until phenol concentrations reached the acute LC/sub 50/. 67 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Gray, R.H.

1988-02-01

227

The utility of verbal and behavioral assessments of value.  

PubMed Central

Subjects lived in a laboratory apartment for up to 30 days, engaging in ordinary activities such as reading, sewing, and artwork. The amount of time devoted to each activity was recorded and compared with periodic verbal ratings of the amount of time devoted to the activities. The verbal and observational assessments of the time distribution were very similar, but there were some discrepancies. Based on self-reports and on observation of time actually devoted to the activities, contingencies were arranged in which time devoted to one activity produced time available for a second activity. When the contingency relation was based on behavioral assessment, predictions of time redistribution were more accurate than when the relations were based on verbal assessment. The close correspondence between observed distributions of time and verbally assessed distributions was probably due to the well-specified situation and rigorous assessment methods. Contrary to some cognitive-behavioral accounts, the contingency results suggest that verbal assessment is not necessarily preferable to observation when the two make discrepant predictions. It is suggested that verbal reports might be used more often in behavior analysis in place of lengthy or difficult observations, and attention is drawn to a personality model that parallels important components of behavior analysis.

Bernstein, D J; Michael, R L

1990-01-01

228

Functional assessment, curricular revision, and severe behavior problems.  

PubMed Central

An adolescent female with multiple handicaps and a long history of severely disruptive behavior participated in a functional assessment linked directly to specific revisions in her school curriculum. During Phase 1, reversal designs were used to test hypotheses pertaining to antecedent and curricular influences on problem behavior. During Phase 2, a multiple baseline across afternoon and morning time periods demonstrated that the curricular revisions were effective in eliminating severely disruptive behavior and increasing on-task responding. Data also showed that inappropriate "psychotic" speech was reduced and appropriate social interactions were increased. Follow-up results showed that the changes were maintained throughout the school year. Questionnaire data provided social validation of the procedures and outcomes. The findings are discussed in relation to their implications for functional assessment, individualized curricula, and positive programming for students with disabilities and serious behavior problems.

Dunlap, G; Kern-Dunlap, L; Clarke, S; Robbins, F R

1991-01-01

229

National Hydroclimatic Change and Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment: Region-Specific Adaptation Factors  

EPA Science Inventory

Climate change, land use and socioeconomic developments are principal variables that define the need and scope of adaptive engineering and management to sustain water resource and infrastructure development. As described in IPCC (2007), hydroclimatic changes in the next 30-50 ye...

230

Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery

Robert K. Tyson

1999-01-01

231

Robust adaptation assessment – climate change and water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to develop a framework to assist the identification of robust adaptation options that account for uncertainty in future climate change impacts for the water sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The water evaluation and planning (WEAP) tool, is to identify future water resource vulnerability in the Glore sub-catchment within the Moy catchment in the West of Ireland. Where

Julia Hall; Conor Murphy

2011-01-01

232

Adaptation Following Serious Brain Injury: An Assessment after One Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 25 individuals with serious traumatic brain injury showed that major adjustment problems at 13 months post-injury were psychosocial and family-oriented. Return to work/school was dependent upon individuals' ability to engage in socially appropriate interactions. The Portland Adaptability Inventory served as a reliable measure of problem…

Kaplan, Steven P.

1988-01-01

233

Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

Weissman, Alexander

234

Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark.  

PubMed

Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities. PMID:22907470

Zhou, Q; Halsnæs, K; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K

2012-01-01

235

Adapting the VOICES HIV behavioral intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, but few behavioral interventions address their prevention needs. Adaptation of evidence-based interventions is a pragmatic strategy that builds upon lessons learned and has the potential to fill gaps in prevention programming. Yet there are few reports of how transfers are executed and whether effectiveness is achieved. This research reports on the adaptation of VOICES/VOICES, a single-session intervention designed for heterosexual adults, into No Excuses/Sin buscar excuses for Latino MSM. To test the adapted intervention, 370 at-risk Latino MSM were enrolled in a randomized trial. At a three-month follow-up, there was a sharper decrease in unprotected intercourse in the intervention group compared to controls (59 % vs. 39 %, ANOVA p < 0.05, F = 4.10). Intervention participants also reported more condom use at last intercourse (AOR = 1.69; 95 % CI 1.02-2.81, p < 02). Findings support use of adapted models for meeting prevention needs of high-priority populations. PMID:24419993

O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Joseph, Heather A; Flores, Stephen

2014-04-01

236

75 FR 22596 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function SUMMARY: In compliance...NIH-Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Type of Information...measures of four domains of neurological and behavioral...

2010-04-29

237

Assessing driver's mental representation of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and its possible effects on behavioural adaptations.  

PubMed

The introduction of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) could be very helpful for making the longitudinal driving task more comfortable for the drivers and, as a consequence, it could have a global beneficial effect on road safety. However, before or during the usage of the device, due to several reasons, drivers might generate in their mind incomplete or flawed mental representations about the fundamental operation principles of ACC; hence, the resulting usage of the device might be improper, negatively affecting the human-machine interaction and cooperation and, in some cases, leading to negative behavioural adaptations to the system that might neutralise the desirable positive effects on road safety. Within this context, this paper will introduce the methodology which has been developed in order to analyse in detail the topic and foresee, in the future, adequate actions for the recovery of inaccurate mental representations of the system. PMID:22317395

Piccinini, Giulio Francesco; Simões, Anabela; Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel; Leitão, Miguel

2012-01-01

238

Unsupervised Learning of Reflexive and Action-Based Affordances to Model Adaptive Navigational Behavior  

PubMed Central

Here we introduce a cognitive model capable to model a variety of behavioral domains and apply it to a navigational task. We used place cells as sensory representation, such that the cells’ place fields divided the environment into discrete states. The robot learns knowledge of the environment by memorizing the sensory outcome of its motor actions. This is composed of a central process, learning the probability of state-to-state transitions by motor actions and a distal processing routine, learning the extent to which these state-to-state transitions are caused by sensory-driven reflex behavior (obstacle avoidance). Navigational decision making integrates central and distal learned environmental knowledge to select an action that leads to a goal state. Differentiating distal and central processing increases the behavioral accuracy of the selected actions and the ability of behavioral adaptation to a changed environment. We propose that the system can canonically be expanded to model other behaviors, using alternative definitions of states and actions. The emphasis of this paper is to test this general cognitive model on a robot in a real-world environment.

Weiller, Daniel; Laer, Leonhard; Engel, Andreas K.; Konig, Peter

2009-01-01

239

Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action  

PubMed Central

Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception.

Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

2013-01-01

240

Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

2010-01-01

241

Prenatal PCB exposure and neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS) performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between prenatal (cord blood) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) performance in babies born to women who consumed contaminated Lake Ontario fish. Cord blood PCBs, DDE, HCB, Mirex, lead, and hair mercury levels were determined for 152 women who reported never consuming Lake Ontario fish and 141 women who reported consuming at least

Paul Stewart; Jacqueline Reihman; Edward Lonky; Thomas Darvill; James Pagano

2000-01-01

242

Functional Behavioral Assessment and IDEA '97: Legal and Practice Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews and analyzes the functional behavioral assessment (FBA) requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1997 and its regulations. It explores school district obligations under the law, including the need for training faculty to conduct FBAs, adhere to the procedures of IDEA, and provide quality…

Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

2000-01-01

243

Recent Case Law Regarding Functional Behavioral Assessments: Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) are currently federally mandated requirements, public schools have not been provided clear federal guidance concerning what constitutes an acceptable FBA through Individuals With Disabilities Education Act or related regulations. The purpose of this article is to examine recent rulings regarding FBAs…

Losinski, Mickey L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

2014-01-01

244

A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

Koh, Seong A.

2010-01-01

245

Musically adapted social stories to modify behaviors in students with autism: four case studies.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a musical presentation of social story information on the behaviors of students with autism. Social stories are a means of incorporating an individual with autism's propensity toward visual learning with educationally necessary behavior modifications. Participants in the study were four first- and second-grade students with a primary diagnosis of autism attending an elementary school in eastern Iowa. A unique social story was created for each student that addressed a current behavioral goal. Subsequently, original music was composed using the text of the social story as lyrics. The independent variable for this study was one of three treatment conditions: baseline (A); reading the story (B); and singing the story (C). The reading and singing versions of the social stories were alternately presented to the students using the counterbalanced treatment order ABAC/ACAB. The dependent variable was the frequency with which the target behavior occurred under each condition of the independent variable. Data were collected for a period of 1 hour following presentation of the social story. Results from all four cases indicated that both the reading condition (B) and the singing condition (C) were significantly (p <.05) more effective in reducing the target behavior than the no-contact control condition (A). The singing condition was significantly more effective than the reading condition only in Case Study III. For the remaining case studies, the mean frequency of the target behavior was smaller during the singing condition, but not significantly so. These results suggested that the use of a musically adapted version of social stories is an effective and viable treatment option for modifying behaviors with this population. PMID:12213082

Brownell, Mike D

2002-01-01

246

Adaptive grid methods for RLV environment assessment and nozzle analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid access to highly accurate data about complex configurations is needed for multi-disciplinary optimization and design. In order to efficiently meet these requirements a closer coupling between the analysis algorithms and the discretization process is needed. In some cases, such as free surface, temporally varying geometries, and fluid structure interaction, the need is unavoidable. In other cases the need is to rapidly generate and modify high quality grids. Techniques such as unstructured and/or solution-adaptive methods can be used to speed the grid generation process and to automatically cluster mesh points in regions of interest. Global features of the flow can be significantly affected by isolated regions of inadequately resolved flow. These regions may not exhibit high gradients and can be difficult to detect. Thus excessive resolution in certain regions does not necessarily increase the accuracy of the overall solution. Several approaches have been employed for both structured and unstructured grid adaption. The most widely used involve grid point redistribution, local grid point enrichment/derefinement or local modification of the actual flow solver. However, the success of any one of these methods ultimately depends on the feature detection algorithm used to determine solution domain regions which require a fine mesh for their accurate representation. Typically, weight functions are constructed to mimic the local truncation error and may require substantial user input. Most problems of engineering interest involve multi-block grids and widely disparate length scales. Hence, it is desirable that the adaptive grid feature detection algorithm be developed to recognize flow structures of different type as well as differing intensity, and adequately address scaling and normalization across blocks. These weight functions can then be used to construct blending functions for algebraic redistribution, interpolation functions for unstructured grid generation, forcing functions to attract/repel points in an elliptic system, or to trigger local refinement, based upon application of an equidistribution principle. The popularity of solution-adaptive techniques is growing in tandem with unstructured methods. The difficultly of precisely controlling mesh densities and orientations with current unstructured grid generation systems has driven the use of solution-adaptive meshing. Use of derivatives of density or pressure are widely used for construction of such weight functions, and have been proven very successful for inviscid flows with shocks. However, less success has been realized for flowfields with viscous layers, vortices or shocks of disparate strength. It is difficult to maintain the appropriate mesh point spacing in the various regions which require a fine spacing for adequate resolution. Mesh points often migrate from important regions due to refinement of dominant features. An example of this is the well know tendency of adaptive methods to increase the resolution of shocks in the flowfield around airfoils, but in the incorrect location due to inadequate resolution of the stagnation region. This problem has been the motivation for this research.

Thornburg, Hugh J.

1996-01-01

247

Assessing Functional Impairment and Social Adaptation for Child Mental Health Services Research: A Review of Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for assessing impairment in functioning as an integral part of child mental health services research is discussed. Methodologic difficulties related to problems in case definition, the conceptual definition of impairment and social adaptation, and the assessment of the construct across cultures are also addressed. In addition, a critical review of existing child impairment measures with published psychometric properties

Glorisa Canino; E. Jane Costello; Adrian Angold

1999-01-01

248

Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

2008-01-01

249

Adapting Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Social Work Students' Performance and Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…

Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn

2011-01-01

250

Making climate change governable: the case of the UK climate change risk assessment and adaptation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment techniques are regarded as key devices for managing adaptation to climate change; this paper examines their use in the first UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. The conceptual framework is derived from the sociology of knowledge, which treats policy makers as co-producers of knowledge, in interaction with scientists and consultants. The paper considers the framing of the problem, the

Janette Webb

2011-01-01

251

Adaptive Sampling Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Nuclear Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear simulations are often computationally expensive, time-consuming, and high-dimensional with respect to the number of input parameters. Thus exploring the space of all possible simulation outcomes is infeasible using finite computing resources. During simulation-based probabilistic risk analysis, it is important to discover the relationship between a potentially large number of input parameters and the output of a simulation using as few simulation trials as possible. This is a typical context for performing adaptive sampling where a few observations are obtained from the simulation, a surrogate model is built to represent the simulation space, and new samples are selected based on the model constructed. The surrogate model is then updated based on the simulation results of the sampled points. In this way, we attempt to gain the most information possible with a small number of carefully selected sampled points, limiting the number of expensive trials needed to understand features of the simulation space. We analyze the specific use case of identifying the limit surface, i.e., the boundaries in the simulation space between system failure and system success. In this study, we explore several techniques for adaptively sampling the parameter space in order to reconstruct the limit surface. We focus on several adaptive sampling schemes. First, we seek to learn a global model of the entire simulation space using prediction models or neighborhood graphs and extract the limit surface as an iso-surface of the global model. Second, we estimate the limit surface by sampling in the neighborhood of the current estimate based on topological segmentations obtained locally. Our techniques draw inspirations from topological structure known as the Morse-Smale complex. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a global prediction model versus local topological view of the simulation space, comparing several different strategies for adaptive sampling in both contexts. One of the most interesting models we propose attempt to marry the two by obtaining a coarse global representation using prediction models, and a detailed local representation based on topology. Our methods are validated on several analytical test functions as well as a small nuclear simulation dataset modeled after a simplified Pressurized Water Reactor.

Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

2013-09-01

252

Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery resolution 20 percent, extending countermeasures keep-out range by a factor of 5, doubling the range for ladar detection and identification, and compensating for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft boundary layers. Innovative concepts are required for atmospheric pat hand boundary layer compensation. We have developed design that perform these tasks using high speed scene-based wavefront sensing, IR aerosol laser guide stars, and extended-object wavefront beacons. We have developed a number of adaptive optics system configurations that met the spatial resolution requirements and we have determined that sensing and signal processing requirements can be met. With the help of micromachined deformable mirrors and sensor, we will be able to integrate the systems into existing airborne pods and missiles as well as next generation electro-optical systems.

Tyson, Robert K.

1999-09-01

253

INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes,...

254

Model-on-Demand Predictive Control for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive behavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character.

Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

2011-01-01

255

Adaptations in humans for assessing physical strength from the voice  

PubMed Central

Recent research has shown that humans, like many other animals, have a specialization for assessing fighting ability from visual cues. Because it is probable that the voice contains cues of strength and formidability that are not available visually, we predicted that selection has also equipped humans with the ability to estimate physical strength from the voice. We found that subjects accurately assessed upper-body strength in voices taken from eight samples across four distinct populations and language groups: the Tsimane of Bolivia, Andean herder-horticulturalists and United States and Romanian college students. Regardless of whether raters were told to assess height, weight, strength or fighting ability, they produced similar ratings that tracked upper-body strength independent of height and weight. Male voices were more accurately assessed than female voices, which is consistent with ethnographic data showing a greater tendency among males to engage in violent aggression. Raters extracted information about strength from the voice that was not supplied from visual cues, and were accurate with both familiar and unfamiliar languages. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that both men and women can accurately assess men's physical strength from the voice, and suggest that estimates of strength are used to assess fighting ability.

Sell, Aaron; Bryant, Gregory A.; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Krauss, Andre; Gurven, Michael

2010-01-01

256

Assessing confidence in management adaptation approaches for climate-sensitive ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of options are available for adapting ecosystem management to improve resilience in the face of climatic changes. However, uncertainty exists as to the effectiveness of these options. A report prepared for the US Climate Change Science Program reviewed adaptation options for a range of federally managed systems in the United States. The report included a qualitative uncertainty analysis of conceptual approaches to adaptation derived from the review. The approaches included reducing anthropogenic stressors, protecting key ecosystem features, maintaining representation, replicating, restoring, identifying refugia and relocating organisms. The results showed that the expert teams had the greatest scientific confidence in adaptation options that reduce anthropogenic stresses. Confidence in other approaches was lower because of gaps in understanding of ecosystem function, climate change impacts on ecosystems, and management effectiveness. This letter discusses insights gained from the confidence exercise and proposes strategies for improving future assessments of confidence for management adaptations to climate change.

West, J. M.; Julius, S. H.; Weaver, C. P.

2012-03-01

257

Nanocrystalline coating design for extreme applications based on the concept of complex adaptive behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of effective hard coatings for high performance dry machining, which is associated with high stress/temperatures during friction, is a major challenge. Newly developed synergistically alloyed nanocrystalline adaptive Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N plasma vapor deposited hard coatings exhibit excellent tool life under conditions of high performance dry machining of hardened steel, especially under severe and extreme cutting conditions. The coating is capable of sustaining cutting speeds as high as 600 m/min. Comprehensive investigation of the microstructure and properties of the coating was performed. The structure of the coating before and after service has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micromechanical characteristics of the coating have been investigated at elevated temperatures. Oxidation resistance of the coating has been studied by using thermogravimetry within a temperature range of 25-1100 °C in air. The coefficient of friction of the coatings was studied within a temperature range of 25-1200 °C. To determine the causes of excellent tool life and improved wear behavior of the TiAlCrSiYN coatings, its surface structure characteristics after service have been investigated by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and extended energy-loss fine spectroscopy. One of the major features of this coating is the dynamic formation of the protective tribo-oxide films (dissipative structures) on the surface during friction with a sapphire and mullite crystal structure. Aluminum- and silicon-rich tribofilms with dangling bonds form on the surface as well. These tribofilms act in synergy and protect the surface so efficiently that it is able to sustain extreme operating conditions. Moreover, the Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N coating possesses some features of a complex adaptive behavior because it has a number of improved characteristics (tribological adaptability, ultrafine nanocrystalline structure, hot hardness and plasticity, and oxidation stability) that work synergistically as a whole. Due to the complex adaptive behavior, this coating represents a higher ordered system that has an ability to achieve unattainable wear resistance under strongly intensifying and extreme tribological conditions.

Fox-Rabinovich, G. S.; Veldhuis, S. C.; Dosbaeva, G. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kovalev, A. I.; Wainstein, D. L.; Gershman, I. S.; Shuster, L. S.; Beake, B. D.

2008-04-01

258

Neocortical Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine promotes rapid behavioral adaptation.  

PubMed

5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a novel DNA modification that is highly enriched in the adult brain and dynamically regulated by neural activity. 5-hmC accumulates across the lifespan; however, the functional relevance of this change in 5-hmC and whether it is necessary for behavioral adaptation have not been fully elucidated. Moreover, although the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes is known to be essential for converting methylated DNA to 5-hmC, the role of individual Tet proteins in the adult cortex remains unclear. Using 5-hmC capture together with high-throughput DNA sequencing on individual mice, we show that fear extinction, an important form of reversal learning, leads to a dramatic genome-wide redistribution of 5-hmC within the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Moreover, extinction learning-induced Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hmC is associated with the establishment of epigenetic states that promote gene expression and rapid behavioral adaptation. PMID:24757058

Li, Xiang; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Flavell, Charlotte R; D'Alessio, Ana; Zhang, Yi; Bredy, Timothy W

2014-05-13

259

Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

260

Leader personality and 360-degree assessments of leader behavior.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between personality and multi-source feedback, we assessed 190 health care managers by applying the Understanding Personal Potential personality test, which provides comprehensive measurement of the Big Five dimensions and eight narrower personality traits. Managers' leadership behaviors were assessed by colleagues, supervisors, a random sample of each manager's subordinates as well as the managers themselves using a 360-degree change, production, employee (CPE) instrument. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis showed that the Big Five variables were significantly related to the Managers' leadership behavior in all CPE dimensions. Also, addition of narrow personality variables to the Big Five increased explained variance in leadership behavior. This study is the first of its kind to include the full range of viewpoints in a 360-degree instrument, along with a large number of subordinate assessments. We found that both the strength of the relationship between personality and behavior and the configuration of different predictors varied depending on who did the rating and what leadership orientation was investigated, and this observation merits further investigation. PMID:24833326

Bergman, David; Lornudd, Caroline; Sjöberg, Lennart; Von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

2014-08-01

261

Chronic assessment of diaphragm muscle EMG activity across motor behaviors.  

PubMed

The diaphragm muscle is the main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ? 29-42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ? 22-29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ? 13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation. PMID:21414423

Mantilla, Carlos B; Seven, Yasin B; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C

2011-07-31

262

Chronic Assessment of Diaphragm Muscle EMG Activity across Motor Behaviors  

PubMed Central

The diaphragm muscle is main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ~29–42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ~22–29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ~13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation.

Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

2011-01-01

263

Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: motor, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 3 years.  

PubMed

The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study in the United States and United Kingdom that enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, valproate). In this article, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on motor, adaptive, and emotional/behavioral functioning in 229 children who completed at least one of these tests at 3 years of age. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for motor functioning, parental ratings of adaptive functioning, and parental ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning. A significant dose-related performance decline in motor functioning was seen for both valproate and carbamazepine. A significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was also seen for valproate, with a marginal performance decline evident for carbamazepine. Further, parents endorsed a significant decline in social skills for valproate that was dose related. Finally, on the basis of parent ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy appear to be at a significantly greater risk for a future diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, examine risks of other AEDs, define the risks in the neonate associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and determine the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:21783425

Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

2011-10-01

264

The Treatment of Severe Self-Injurious Behavior by the Systematic Fading of Restraints: Effects of Self-Injury, Self-Restraint, Adaptive Behavior, and Behavioral Correlates of Affect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of introducing flexion into a straight-arm splint, on self-injurious behavior (SIB), self-restraint, adaptive behavior, and behavioral correlates of affect for three individuals with severe mental retardation. For two individuals, SIB was reduced to zero, while overall level of restriction was also significantly…

Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott; Hales, Jackie; Watts, Derek; Murphy, Glynis

1998-01-01

265

The Behavioral Assessment of Parents and Coaches at Youth Sports: Validity and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A behavioral assessment system for scoring the behaviors of parents and coaches at youth sports games is described within this paper. The Youth Sports Behavior Assessment System (YSBAS) contains nine behavioral categories describing behaviors commonly seen during youth sports. The developmental process of YSBAS and the observer-training program…

Apache, R. R.

2006-01-01

266

Behavioral Implications of Adaption-Innovation: I. Managerial Effectiveness as a Function of Sex Differences in Adaption-Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies investigated relationship between effective management and position of male and female managers on Kirton's cognitive style dimension of adaption (doing things better) vs. innovation (doing things differently). Both sexes equated innovation with effective male management and adaption with effective female management. (Author/NB)

Skinner, Nicholas F.

1989-01-01

267

National Curriculum Assessment in Wales: Adaptations and Divergence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National curriculum assessment (NCA) in Wales has evolved from common foundations into a system that is now distinct from that in England. The influence of the political and social milieu of Wales can be seen both in the distinctive features that have been in place from the outset and in the more radical changes introduced since 2002. In this…

Daugherty, Richard

2009-01-01

268

Risk assessment of nanomaterials and nanoproducts - adaptation of traditional approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different approaches have been adopted for assessing the potential risks of conventional chemicals and products for human health. In general, the traditional paradigm is a toxicological-driven chemical-by-chemical approach, focusing on single toxic endpoints. Scope and responsibilities for the development and implementation of a risk assessment concept vary across sectors and areas and depends on the specific regulatory environment and the specific protection goals. Thus, risk assessment implication is a complex task based not only on science based knowledge but also on the regulatory context involving different parties and stakeholders. Questions have been raised whether standard paradigms for conventional chemicals would be applicable and adequate for new materials, products and applications of nanotechnology. Most scientists and stakeholders assume that current standard methods are in principle applicable to nanomaterials, but specific aspects require further development. The paper presents additional technical improvements like the complementary use of the life cycle methodology and the support of risk-based classification systems. But also aspects improving the utility of risk assessment with regard to societal impacts on risk governance are discussed.

Jahnel, J.; Fleischer, T.; Seitz, S. B.

2013-04-01

269

Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

Liu, Chao-Lin

2005-01-01

270

An Assessment of Self-Echoic Behavior in Young Children  

PubMed Central

In the behavioral literature, self-echoic behavior has been hypothesized to play an important role in, for example, emergent conditional discriminations (e.g., Lowenkron, 1991), emergent verbal operants (Horne & Lowe, 1996), and problem solving (Skinner, 1957). Although early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism emphasize the establishment of accurate echoic repertoires, the type of stimulus control that defines a self-echoic response is typically not addressed. We report the development of a self-echoic assessment procedure that was administered to children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Preliminary results indicated that a discrepancy between echoic and self-echoic repertoires was more likely to be present among participants with autism than among typically developing participants. Future research should evaluate the extent to which interventions to establish self-echoic responding might produce other collateral benefits.

Esch, John W; Esch, Barbara E; McCart, Jordon D; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

2010-01-01

271

Employee recruitment: using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool.  

PubMed

The labor shortage of skilled health care professionals continues to make employee recruitment and retention a challenge for health care managers. Greater accountability is being placed on health care managers to retain their employees. The urgency to retain health care professionals is largely an issue that should be considered during the initial recruitment of potential employees. Health care managers should analyze candidates rigorously to ensure that appropriate hiring decisions are made. Behavioral assessments can be used as a useful employee selection tool to assist managers in the appropriate placement and training of potential new employees. When administered appropriately, these tools can provide managers with a variety of useful information. This information can assist health care managers in demystifying the hiring process. Although there are varying organizational concerns to address when using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool, the potential return on investment is worth the effort. PMID:17938588

Collins, Sandra K

2007-01-01

272

The Colorado Climate Preparedness Project: A Systematic Approach to Assessing Efforts Supporting State-Level Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scholars and policy analysts often contend that an effective climate adaptation strategy must entail "mainstreaming," or incorporating responses to possible climate impacts into existing planning and management decision frameworks. Such an approach, however, makes it difficult to assess the degree to which decisionmaking entities are engaging in adaptive activities that may or may not be explicitly framed around a changing climate. For example, a drought management plan may not explicitly address climate change, but the activities and strategies outlined in it may reduce vulnerabilities posed by a variable and changing climate. Consequently, to generate a strategic climate adaptation plan requires identifying the entire suite of activities that are implicitly linked to climate and may affect adaptive capacity within the system. Here we outline a novel, two-pronged approach, leveraging social science methods, to understanding adaptation throughout state government in Colorado. First, we conducted a series of interviews with key actors in state and federal government agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and other entities engaged in state issues. The purpose of these interviews was to elicit information about current activities that may affect the state’s adaptive capacity and to identify future climate-related needs across the state. Second, we have developed an interactive database cataloging organizations, products, projects, and people actively engaged in adaptive planning and policymaking that are relevant to the state of Colorado. The database includes a wiki interface, helping create a dynamic component that will enable frequent updating as climate-relevant information emerges. The results of this project are intended to paint a clear picture of sectors and agencies with higher and lower levels of adaptation awareness and to provide a roadmap for the next gubernatorial administration to pursue a more sophisticated climate adaptation agenda. Project results can also inform numerous other ongoing database efforts connected to the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change.

Klein, R.; Gordon, E.

2010-12-01

273

A multidimensional assessment of parent-identified behavior problem toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-eight 2-and 3-year-olds (46 parent-referred, 22 controls) participating in an identification, assessment, and follow-up study of hyperactivity and related behavior problems were evaluated on parent-report, observational, and cognitive measures. Referred youngsters were described by both parents as more active, inattentive, difficult to discipline, and aggressive with peers than were controls. Mothers of referred children also reported a more difficult infancy

Susan B. Campbell; Emily K. Szumowski; Linda J. Ewing; Diane S. Gluck; Anna Marie Breaux

1982-01-01

274

Comparison of Adaptive Behavior in Children With Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Adaptive behavior, the ability to respond successfully to everyday demands, may be especially sensitive to the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Similar adaptive dysfunction is common in other developmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is frequently present in alcohol-exposed children and this overlap in clinical presentation makes identification of alcohol-exposed children difficult. Direct comparison of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD may yield distinct patterns of cognitive and behavioral performance and add to growing knowledge of the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD), and typically developing controls (CON). Methods Sixty-five children (ALC = 22, ADHD = 23, CON = 20) were selected from a larger ongoing study of the behavioral teratogenicity of alcohol. Alcohol-exposed and control participants were selected to match the ADHD subjects on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. Caregivers were administered the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a semi-structured interview, and were asked to rate their child’s behavior on 3 domains of adaptive function. Data were analyzed using regression techniques. Results Relative to controls, children in both the ALC and ADHD groups showed adaptive behavior deficits on all 3 domains and children in the ALC group were significantly more impaired than the ADHD group on the daily living skills domain. Within the ALC group, socialization standard scores were lower at older ages. This negative relationship between age and standard scores in the ALC group was also observed on the communication domain, a finding not previously reported. Conclusions This study suggests that both children with prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD show impairments in adaptive function relative to controls, but that the pattern of impairment differs between these clinical groups. Adaptive ability in children with prenatal alcohol exposure is characterized by an arrest in development, as evidenced by a lack of improvement with age in socialization and communication scores. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibit a developmental delay in adaptive ability as their scores continued to improve with age, albeit not to the level of control children. Continued research focused on elucidating the patterns of deficits that exist in alcohol-exposed children ultimately will lead to improved differential diagnosis and effective interventions.

Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

2012-01-01

275

Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus  

PubMed Central

This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S?), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat’s three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat’s sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat’s directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S?. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S? stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S? were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S?.

Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat

2011-01-01

276

Consensual and behavioral validity of a measure of adaptive individual differences dimensions in human motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from three sources—an initial self sample (N = 108) and a friend sample (N = 103) and relative sample (N = 103) recruited by self sample participants—were used to test the consensual and behavioral validity of new individual differences\\u000a measures of 15 dimensions of motivation represented in the assessment of individual motives-questionnaire (AIM-Q). AIM-Q scores\\u000a for all three samples converged and hypotheses of their predicted

Larry C. Bernard

2009-01-01

277

Adaptive water governance: Assessing the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-)management from a governance perspective and defining a research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-)management based on a literature review of the (water) governance literature. The adaptive (co-)management literature contains four institutional prescriptions: collaboration in a polycentric governance system, public participation, an experimental approach to resource management, and management at the bioregional scale. These prescriptions largely resonate with the theoretical and empirical insights embedded in the

Dave Huitema; Erik Mostert; Wouter Egas; Sabine Moellenkamp; Claudia Pahl-wostl; Resul Yalcin

2009-01-01

278

Perceptual quality assessment of color images using adaptive signal representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perceptual image distortion measures can play a fundamental role in evaluating and optimizing imaging systems and image processing algorithms. Many existing measures are formulated to represent "just noticeable differences" (JNDs), as measured in psychophysical experiments on human subjects. But some image distortions, such as those arising from small changes in the intensity of the ambient illumination, are far more tolerable to human observers than those that disrupt the spatial structure of intensities and colors. Here, we introduce a framework in which we quantify these perceptual distortions in terms of "just intolerable differences" (JIDs). As in (Wang & Simoncelli, Proc. ICIP 2005), we first construct a set of spatio-chromatic basis functions to approximate (as a first-order Taylor series) a set of "non-structural" distortions that result from changes in lighting/imaging/viewing conditions. These basis functions are defined on local image patches, and are adaptive, in that they are computed as functions of the undistorted reference image. This set is then augmented with a complete basis arising from a linear approximation of the CIELAB color space. Each basis function is weighted by a scale factor to convert it into units corresponding to JIDs. Each patch of the error image is represented using this weighted overcomplete basis, and the overall distortion metric is computed by summing the squared coefficients over all such (overlapping) patches. We implement an example of this metric, incorporating invariance to small changes in the viewing and lighting conditions, and demonstrate that the resulting distortion values are more consistent with human perception than those produced by CIELAB or S-CIELAB.

Rajashekar, Umesh; Wang, Zhou; Simoncelli, Eero P.

2010-02-01

279

Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth  

PubMed Central

American Indian (AI) adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample of 24 AI adolescents. Participants experienced significant decreases in anxiety and PTSD symptoms, and avoidant coping strategies, as well as a marginally significant decrease in depression symptoms. Improvements in anxiety and depression were maintained 6 months post-intervention; improvements in PTSD and avoidant coping strategies were not. Feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability of CBITS are discussed in the context of efforts to develop culturally sensitive interventions for AI youth.

Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

2011-01-01

280

An assessment of the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral grid, Euler Flow Solver Code FELISA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison of computational and wind tunnel data and enhancement of numerical solutions by means of grid adaptivity are discussed. The mesh generation is based on the advancing front technique. The FELISA code consists of two solvers, the Taylor-Galerkin and the Runge-Kutta-Galerkin schemes, both of which are spacially discretized by the usual Galerkin weighted residual finite-element methods but with different explicit time-marching schemes to steady state. The solution-adaptive grid procedure is based on either remeshing or mesh refinement techniques. An alternative geometry adaptive procedure is also incorporated.

Djomehri, M. Jahed; Erickson, Larry L.

1994-01-01

281

A structured multi-block solution-adaptive mesh algorithm with mesh quality assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic solution adaptive grid algorithm, DSAGA3D, is extended to automatically adapt 2-D structured multi-block grids, including adaption of the block boundaries. The extension is general, requiring only input data concerning block structure, connectivity, and boundary conditions. Imbedded grid singular points are permitted, but must be prevented from moving in space. Solutions for workshop cases 1 and 2 are obtained on multi-block grids and illustrate both increased resolution of and alignment with the solution. A mesh quality assessment criteria is proposed to determine how well a given mesh resolves and aligns with the solution obtained upon it. The criteria is used to evaluate the grid quality for solutions of workshop case 6 obtained on both static and dynamically adapted grids. The results indicate that this criteria shows promise as a means of evaluating resolution.

Ingram, Clint L.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Mcrae, D. Scott

1995-01-01

282

Cognitive Adaptations for n-person Exchange: The Evolutionary Roots of Organizational Behavior  

PubMed Central

Organizations are composed of stable, predominantly cooperative interactions or n-person exchanges. Humans have been engaging in n-person exchanges for a great enough period of evolutionary time that we appear to have evolved a distinct constellation of species-typical mechanisms specialized to solve the adaptive problems posed by this form of social interaction. These mechanisms appear to have been evolutionarily elaborated out of the cognitive infrastructure that initially evolved for dyadic exchange. Key adaptive problems that these mechanisms are designed to solve include coordination among individuals, and defense against exploitation by free riders. Multi-individual cooperation could not have been maintained over evolutionary time if free riders reliably benefited more than contributors to collective enterprises, and so outcompeted them. As a result, humans evolved mechanisms that implement an aversion to exploitation by free riding, and a strategy of conditional cooperation, supplemented by punitive sentiment towards free riders. Because of the design of these mechanisms, how free riding is treated is a central determinant of the survival and health of cooperative organizations. The mapping of the evolved psychology of n-party exchange cooperation may contribute to the construction of a principled theoretical foundation for the understanding of human behavior in organizations.

Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda; Price, Michael E.

2013-01-01

283

Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment induces adaptations in adult midbrain dopamine neurons, which underpin sexually dimorphic behavioral resilience.  

PubMed

We demonstrated previously that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT, gestational days 16-19) altered the size and organization of the adult rat midbrain dopaminergic (DA) populations. Here we investigated the consequences of these AGT-induced cytoarchitectural disturbances on indices of DA function in adult rats. We show that in adulthood, enrichment of striatal DA fiber density paralleled AGT-induced increases in the numbers of midbrain DA neurons, which retained normal basal electrophysiological properties. This was co-incident with changes in (i) striatal D2-type receptor levels (increased, both sexes); (ii) D1-type receptor levels (males decreased; females increased); (iii) DA transporter levels (males increased; females decreased) in striatal regions; and (iv) amphetamine-induced mesolimbic DA release (males increased; females decreased). However, despite these profound, sexually dimorphic changes in markers of DA neurotransmission, in-utero glucocorticoid overexposure had a modest or no effect on a range of conditioned and unconditioned appetitive behaviors known to depend on mesolimbic DA activity. These findings provide empirical evidence for enduring AGT-induced adaptive mechanisms within the midbrain DA circuitry, which preserve some, but not all, functions, thereby casting further light on the vulnerability of these systems to environmental perturbations. Furthermore, they demonstrate these effects are achieved by different, often opponent, adaptive mechanisms in males and females, with translational implications for sex biases commonly found in midbrain DA-associated disorders. PMID:23929547

Virdee, Kanwar; McArthur, Simon; Brischoux, Frédéric; Caprioli, Daniele; Ungless, Mark A; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Gillies, Glenda E

2014-01-01

284

Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.  

PubMed

This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction. PMID:17295975

Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

2006-01-01

285

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.  

PubMed

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

286

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

287

GIM-TEC adaptive ionospheric weather assessment and forecast system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ionospheric Weather Assessment and Forecast (IWAF) system is a computer software package designed to assess and predict the world-wide representation of 3-D electron density profiles from the Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC). The unique system products include daily-hourly numerical global maps of the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the peak height (hmF2) generated with the International Reference Ionosphere extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, upgraded by importing the daily-hourly GIM-TEC as a new model driving parameter. Since GIM-TEC maps are provided with 1- or 2-days latency, the global maps forecast for 1 day and 2 days ahead are derived using an harmonic analysis applied to the temporal changes of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 at 5112 grid points of a map encapsulated in IONEX format (-87.5°:2.5°:87.5°N in latitude, -180°:5°:180°E in longitude). The system provides online the ionospheric disturbance warnings in the global W-index map establishing categories of the ionospheric weather from the quiet state (W=±1) to intense storm (W=±4) according to the thresholds set for instant TEC perturbations regarding quiet reference median for the preceding 7 days. The accuracy of IWAF system predictions of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 maps is superior to the standard persistence model with prediction equal to the most recent 'true' map. The paper presents outcomes of the new service expressed by the global ionospheric foF2, hmF2 and W-index maps demonstrating the process of origin and propagation of positive and negative ionosphere disturbances in space and time and their forecast under different scenarios.

Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Stanislawska, I.

2013-09-01

288

Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

2010-01-01

289

Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Healthy people generally underestimate the self-reported well-being of people with disabilities and serious illnesses. The cause of this discrepancy is in dispute, and the present study provides evidence for 2 causes. First, healthy people fail to anticipate hedonic adaptation to poor health. Using an ecological momentary assessment measure of…

Riis, Jason; Loewenstein, George; Baron, Jonathan; Jepson, Christopher; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.

2005-01-01

290

Theory and Practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change andFacilitating Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss approaches to the assessment of vulnerability to climatevariability and change andattempt to clarify the relationship between the concepts of vulnerability andadaptation. In searchof a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms ofthe capacity ofindividuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recoverfrom or adapt to, anyexternal stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being.

P. M. Kelly; W. N. Adger

2000-01-01

291

Guidelines for Assessing the Need for Adaptive Devices for Visually Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents guidelines for orientation and mobility instructors and traffic engineers to assess the need for adaptive devices to make crosswalks at signalized intersections accessible to pedestrians with visual impairments. The discussions of audible and tactile pedestrian devices, along with case examples, distinguish when each device should be…

Gallagher, Brian R.; de Oca, Patricia Montes

1998-01-01

292

Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy people generally underestimate the self-reported well-being of people with disabilities and serious illnesses. The cause of this discrepancy is in dispute, and the present study provides evidence for 2 causes. First, healthy people fail to anticipate hedonic adaptation to poor health. Using an ecological momentary assessment measure of mood, the authors failed to find evidence that hemodialysis patients are

Jason Riis; George Loewenstein; Jonathan Baron; Christopher Jepson; Angela Fagerlin; Peter A. Ubel

2005-01-01

293

Using a signal cancellation technique to assess adaptive directivity of hearing aids.  

PubMed

The directivity of an adaptive directional microphone hearing aid (DMHA) cannot be assessed by the method that calls for presenting a "probe" signal from a single loudspeaker to the DMHA that moves to different angles. This method is invalid because the probe signal itself changes the polar pattern. This paper proposes a method for assessing the adaptive DMHA using a "jammer" signal, presented from a second loudspeaker rotating with the DMHA, that simulates a noise source and freezes the polar pattern. Measurement at each angle is obtained by two sequential recordings from the DMHA, one using an input of a probe and a jammer, and the other with an input of the same probe and a phase-inverted jammer. After canceling out the jammer, the remaining response to the probe signal can be used to assess the directivity. In this paper, the new method is evaluated by comparing responses from five adaptive DMHAs to different jammer intensities and locations. This method was shown to be an accurate and reliable way to assess the directivity of the adaptive DMHA in a high-intensity-jammer condition. PMID:17614507

Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Bentler, Ruth A

2007-07-01

294

The Vandaclim Simulation Model: A Training Tool for Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a training course on climate change vulnerability and adaptation assessment. The course, developed in partnership with the CC:TRAIN Programme of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), aims to enhance the capacity of developing countries to make their national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The paper focuses on a simulation

R. A. Warrick; G. J. Kenny; G. C. Sims; W. Ye; G. Sem

1999-01-01

295

Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in

D. Manful; K. Tscherning; K. Kersebaum; J. Dietz; O. Dietrich; C. Gomani; H. Böhm; M. Büchner; G. Lischeid; M. Ojoyi

2009-01-01

296

Integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, it has become increasingly clear that the global climate is becoming warmer and that regional climates are changing. This report summarizes the results of an integrated assessment of vulnerability to climate change and adaptation options in the Netherlands carried out between July 2000 and July 2001 within the framework of the Dutch National Research Program on Global

Ierland van E. C; Groot de R. S; P. J. Kuikman; P. Martens; B. Amelung; N. Daan; M. Huynen; K. Kramer; J. Szönyi; J. A. Veraart; A. Verhagen; Vliet van A; Walsum van P. E. V; Westein

2001-01-01

297

Test Adaptation and Cross-Cultural Assessment From a Business Perspective: Issues and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test adaptation and cross-cultural assessment activities are skyrocketing as the demand for educational opportunities and personnel selection grow both within the United States and across the industrializing world. We chose a qualitative, case study approach to identify central themes encountered by ACT, a not-for-profit organization that has…

Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steven B.

2005-01-01

298

A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior  

PubMed Central

Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite primary unresolved questions regarding adaptive response behavior and bystander behavior. The five features of major significance provided by the Microdose Model so far are 1.) Single Specific Energy Hits initiate Adaptive Response, 2.) Mammogram and diagnostic X-rays induce a protective Bystander Effect as well as Adaptive Response radio-protection. 3.) For mammogram X-rays the Adaptive Response protection is retained at high primer dose levels. 4.) The dose range of the AR protection depends on the value of the Specific Energy per Hit, . 5.) Alpha particle induced deleterious Bystander damage is modulated by low LET radiation.

Leonard, Bobby E.

2008-01-01

299

Uncertainty assessment of urban pluvial flood risk in a context of climate change adaptation decision making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a significant increase in climatic extremes in many regions. In Central and Northern Europe, this has led to more frequent and more severe floods. Along with improved flood modelling technologies this has enabled development of economic assessment of climate change adaptation to increasing urban flood risk. Assessment of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis of current risk, drivers of change of risk over time, and measures to reduce the risk. However, such studies are often associated with large uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from basic assumptions in the economic analysis and the hydrological model, but also from the projection of future societies to local climate change impacts and suitable adaptation options. This presents a challenge to decision makers when trying to identify robust measures. We present an integrated uncertainty analysis, which can assess and quantify the overall uncertainty in relation to climate change adaptation to urban flash floods. The analysis is based on an uncertainty cascade that by means of Monte Carlo simulations of flood risk assessments incorporates climate change impacts as a key driver of risk changes over time. The overall uncertainty is then attributed to six bulk processes: climate change impact, urban rainfall-runoff processes, stage-depth functions, unit cost of repair, cost of adaptation measures, and discount rate. We apply the approach on an urban hydrological catchment in Odense, Denmark, and find that the uncertainty on the climate change impact appears to have the least influence on the net present value of the studied adaptation measures-. This does not imply that the climate change impact is not important, but that the uncertainties are not dominating when deciding on action or in-action. We then consider the uncertainty related to choosing between adaptation options given that a decision of action has been taken. In this case the major part of the uncertainty on the estimated net present values is identical for all adaptation options and will therefore not affect a comparison between adaptation measures. This makes the chose among the options easier. Furthermore, the explicit attribution of uncertainty also enables a reduction of the overall uncertainty by identifying the processes which contributes the most. This knowledge can then be used to further reduce the uncertainty related to decision making, as a substantial part of the remaining uncertainty is epistemic.

Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Zhou, Qianqian

2014-05-01

300

Issues in the Application of the Public School Version of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale in School Setting. Field Study of the Efficacy of the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale-Public School Version. Substudy 5 of 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A representative sample of California school psychologists was surveyed to determine the extent of the use of the Adaptive Behavior Scale and the relationship between training in the use of the scale and perceptions of the efficacy of its measures. A large majority of psychologists had used the scale two or fewer times, though 30-45% had been…

Lambert, Nadine M.

301

Development of the Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System (TAPAS) to Support Army Personnel Selection and Classification Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army requires efficient and effective methods for entry-level Army selection and classification decisions. Accordingly, the Tailored Adaptive Personality Assessment System (TAPAS) was developed to assess personality factors related to performance...

C. D. Nye C. L. Hulin F. Drasgow O. S. Chernyshenko S. Stark

2012-01-01

302

Performance Monitoring and Assessment of Neuro-Adaptive Controllers for Aerospace Applications Using a Bayesian Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern exploration missions require modern control systems-control systems that can handle catastrophic changes in the system's behavior, compensate for slow deterioration in sustained operations, and support fast system ID. Adaptive controllers, based upon Neural Networks have these capabilities, but they can only be used safely if proper verification & validation (V&V) can be done. In this paper we present our V & V approach and simulation result within NASA's Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS).

Gupta, Pramod; Guenther, Kurt; Hodgkinson, John; Jacklin, Stephen; Richard, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Soares, Fola

2005-01-01

303

International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement  

SciTech Connect

The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

NONE

1995-08-01

304

Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence  

PubMed Central

The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence.

Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

2014-01-01

305

Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence.  

PubMed

The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a "hunch" about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680

Harms, Madeline B; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Carlson, Stephanie M

2014-01-01

306

Assessing Causality in the Relationship between Adolescents' Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of This Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate…

Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

2010-01-01

307

Speech and Language Disorders in Kenyan Children: Adapting Tools For Regions With Few Assessment Resources  

PubMed Central

This study sought to adapt a battery of Western speech and language assessment tools to a rural Kenyan setting. The tool was developed for children whose first language was KiGiryama, a Bantu language. A total of 539 Kenyan children (males=271, females=268, ethnicity=100% Kigiryama. Data were collected from 303 children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and 206 age-matched children recruited from the village communities. The language assessments were based upon the Content, Form and Use (C/F/U) model. The assessment was based upon the adapted versions of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Test for the Reception of Grammar, Renfrew Action Picture Test, Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills in Children, Test of Word Finding and language specific tests of lexical semantics, higher level language. Preliminary measures of construct validity suggested that the theoretical assumptions behind the construction of the assessments were appropriate and re-test and inter-rater reliability scores were acceptable. These findings illustrate the potential to adapt Western speech and language assessments in other languages and settings, particularly those in which there is a paucity of standardised tools.

Carter, Julie Anne; Murira, Grace; Gona, Joseph; Tumaini, Judy; Lees, Janet; Neville, Brian George; Newton, Charles Richard

2013-01-01

308

Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

2007-01-01

309

Determinants of Adaptive Behavior among Older Persons: Self-Efficacy, Importance, and Personal Dispositions as Directive Mechanisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied adaptive choice behavior of older, independently living persons faced with complications in their houses. The goal was to gain insight into the coping process and its outcome--in terms of assimilative vs. accommodative strategies--and in the role of three determinants on this process. Determinants were perceived self efficacy, importance…

Slangen-De Kort, Yvonne A. W.; Midden, Cees J. H.; Aarts, Henk; van Wagenberg, F.

2001-01-01

310

Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

2012-01-01

311

Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

2009-01-01

312

Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

Dereli-Iman, Esra

2013-01-01

313

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale Scores as a Function of Age and Initial IQ in 210 Autistic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores changed in individuals with autism as a function of age and initial IQ. Results revealed that subjects (N=440) improved with age in all domains. The rate of growth on Communication and Daily Living Skills sub-tests was related to initial IQ while rate of growth in Social Skills was…

Freeman, B. J.; Del'Homme, M.; Guthrie, D.; Zhang, F.

1999-01-01

314

A method to assess the organizing behaviors used in physicians' counseling of standardized parents after newborn genetic screening.  

PubMed

Well-organized conversation can improve people's ability to comprehend and retain information. As part of a long-term effort to adapt Quality Improvement techniques for communication, we developed an explicit-criteria method to assess usage of three organizing behaviors (OBs): 'opening behaviors' to establish goals; 'structuring behaviors' to guide patients through conversation; and 'emphasizing behaviors' that signal a need for attention. Pairs of abstractors independently reviewed transcripts in a demonstration sample of conversations between physicians and standardized parents after newborn screening identifies carrier status for sickle cell disease. Criteria for at least one OB were identified in 50/84 transcripts (60%), including 27 with at least one opening behavior (32%), 5 with at least one structuring behavior (6%), and 38 with at least one emphasizing behavior (45%). The limited number of OBs raises concern about communication after newborn screening. Assessment and improvement of OB usage may improve understanding and allow parents to more actively participate in health care. PMID:24498695

Christopher, Stephanie A; Ahmad, Nadia Y; Bradford, Lisa; Collins, Jenelle L; Eskra, Kerry; Kirschner, Alison la Pean; O'Tool, Faith O; Roedl, Sara J; Farrell, Michael H

2012-01-01

315

A method to assess the organizing behaviors used in physicians' counseling of standardized parents after newborn genetic screening  

PubMed Central

Well-organized conversation can improve people’s ability to comprehend and retain information. As part of a long-term effort to adapt Quality Improvement techniques for communication, we developed an explicit-criteria method to assess usage of three organizing behaviors (OBs): ‘opening behaviors’ to establish goals; ‘structuring behaviors’ to guide patients through conversation; and ‘emphasizing behaviors’ that signal a need for attention. Pairs of abstractors independently reviewed transcripts in a demonstration sample of conversations between physicians and standardized parents after newborn screening identifies carrier status for sickle cell disease. Criteria for at least one OB were identified in 50/84 transcripts (60%), including 27 with at least one opening behavior (32%), 5 with at least one structuring behavior (6%), and 38 with at least one emphasizing behavior (45%). The limited number of OBs raises concern about communication after newborn screening. Assessment and improvement of OB usage may improve understanding and allow parents to more actively participate in health care.

Christopher, Stephanie A.; Ahmad, Nadia Y.; Bradford, Lisa; Collins, Jenelle L.; Eskra, Kerry; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; O'Tool, Faith O.; Roedl, Sara J.; Farrell, Michael H.

2013-01-01

316

Effects of risperidone and parent training on adaptive functioning in children with pervasive developmental disorders and serious behavioral problems  

PubMed Central

Objective Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have deficits in social interaction, delayed communication and repetitive behavior as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show decline in adaptive skills compared to age mates over time. Method This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial randomized 124 children (4 through 13 years of age) with PDDs and serious behavior problems to medication alone (MED; N=49; risperidone 0.5 to 3.5 mg/day (if ineffective, switch to aripiprazole was permitted) or medication plus parent training (PT) (COMB; N=75). Parents of children in COMB received an average of 11.4 PT sessions. Standard scores and Age Equivalent scores on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were the outcome measures of primary interest. Results Seventeen subjects did not have a post-randomization Vineland. Thus, we used a mixed model with outcome conditioned on the baseline Vineland scores. Both groups showed improvement over the 24-week trial on all Vineland domains. Compared to MED, Vineland Socialization and Adaptive Composite Standard scores showed greater improvement in the COMB group (p = 0.01 and 0.05; effect sizes = 0.35.and 0.22, respectively). On Age Equivalent scores, Socialization and Communication domains showed greater improvement in COMB versus MED (p=0.03, 0.05; effect sizes = 0.33 and 0.14 respectively). Using logistic regression, children in the COMB group were twice as likely to make at least 6 months gain (equal to the passage of time) in the Vineland Communication Age Equivalent score compared to MED (p = 0.02). After controlling for IQ, this difference was no longer significant. Conclusion Reduction of serious maladaptive behavior promotes improvement in adaptive behavior. Medication plus PT shows modest additional benefit over medication alone.

Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Ritz, Louise; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patrcia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

2012-01-01

317

Rapid assessment of sleep-wake behavior in mice.  

PubMed

Sleep is a fundamental biological rhythm involving the interaction of numerous brain structures and diverse neurotransmitter systems. The primary measures used to define sleep are the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG). However, EEG-based methods are often unsuitable for use in high-throughput screens as they are time-intensive and involve invasive surgery. As such, the dissection of sleep mechanisms and the discovery of novel drugs that modulate sleep would benefit greatly from further development of rapid behavioral assays to assess sleep in animal models. Here is described an automated noninvasive approach to evaluate sleep duration, latency, and fragmentation using video tracking of mice in their home cage. This approach provides a high correlation with EEG/EMG measures under both baseline conditions and following administration of pharmacological agents. Moreover, the dose-dependent effects of sedatives, stimulants, and light can be readily detected. This approach is robust yet relatively inexpensive to implement and can be easily incorporated into ongoing screening programs to provide a powerful first-pass screen for assessing sleep and allied behaviors. PMID:22306973

Fisher, Simon P; Godinho, Sofia I H; Pothecary, Carina A; Hankins, Mark W; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

2012-02-01

318

A Comparative Study of the Preliminary Effects in the Levels of Adaptive Behaviors: Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate preliminary intervention effects of the adaptive behavior on the autism intervention program known as the Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA). The adaptive behavior scores of two groups of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared, with one group…

Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook; Yeo, Moon-Hwan

2012-01-01

319

Research, part of a Special Feature on New Methods for Adaptive Water Management Adaptive Water Governance: Assessing the Institutional Prescriptions of Adaptive (Co)Management from a Governance Perspective and Defining a Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-)management based on a literature review of the (water) governance literature. The adaptive (co-)management literature contains four institutional prescriptions: collaboration in a polycentric governance system, public participation, an experimental approach to resource management, and management at the bioregional scale. These prescriptions largely resonate with the theoretical and empirical insights embedded in the

Dave Huitema; Erik Mostert; Wouter Egas; Sabine Moellenkamp; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Resul Yalcin

320

Decision-based climate analysis for vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible effects of climate change pose serious challenges for natural resources management. In response, natural resource managers and decision makers seek ways for assessing climate-related vulnerabilities and when necessary planning for adaptation to a changing climate. Managers and decision-makers face an overwhelming array of climate information sources and approaches to generating climate projections. However, there is no clear method for using those projections to inform vulnerability assessments or adaptation planning. In this presentation, we describe and demonstrate an original framework for incorporating climate information into climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning. Insights from scenario planning and decision analysis are leveraged to develop a process designed specifically for assessing and managing risk under climate change uncertainty. The process uses a decision analytic decision framework to characterize climate vulnerabilities, provide perspective relative to other uncertainties, and to inform the risks with what is credible in climate projections. Robustness and vulnerability to surprise are explicitly considered within the framework. The approach, which is continuing development as part of the Department of the Interior Northeast Climate Science Center, is demonstrated in applications to the Great Lakes and other recent studies.

Brown, C. M.

2012-12-01

321

Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

322

Parallel changes in operant behavioral adaptation and hippocampal corticosterone binding in rats treated with trimethyltin.  

PubMed

Rats were given water vehicle or trimethyltin (TMT; 3.0, 6.0 or 7.5 mg/kg, p.o.). Lever responding for food was measured 3 months later, in a test in which the fixed ratio requirement was doubled daily (FR1-128). Response rates for all groups were inverted U-shaped functions of FR values. However, the effect of increasing ratio values was attenuated in the 6.0 mg/kg group, which responded less than controls when control rates were maximal (at FR16 and FR32). In contrast, rats given the high dose responded at higher rates (at FR4 and FR64). [3H]Corticosterone binding to hippocampal cytosolic protein was maximally reduced for the group given 6.0 mg TMT/kg. The greatest reduction in hippocampal weight resulted from injection of 7.5 mg TMT/kg, but a smaller reduction in [3H]corticosterone binding (i.e. 22%) was observed for this group. In the absence of an effect of 3.0 mg TMT/kg upon weight of hippocampus, there also was a reduction in steroid binding, indicating the sensitivity of this parameter for TMT toxicity. The results support the notion that hippocampal corticosteroid receptors are important for behavioral adaptation, and rats given moderate doses of TMT may be useful for studying functions of corticosterone receptors. PMID:3224266

Gerbec, E N; Messing, R B; Sparber, S B

1988-09-20

323

Learning from experience: Event-related potential correlates of reward processing, neural adaptation, and behavioral choice  

PubMed Central

To behave adaptively, we must learn from the consequences of our actions. Studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have been informative with respect to the question of how such learning occurs. These studies have revealed a frontocentral negativity termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN) that appears after negative feedback. According to one prominent theory, the FRN tracks the difference between the values of actual and expected outcomes, or reward prediction errors. As such, the FRN provides a tool for studying reward valuation and decision making. We begin this review by examining the neural significance of the FRN. We then examine its functional significance. To understand the cognitive processes that occur when the FRN is generated, we explore variables that influence its appearance and amplitude. Specifically, we evaluate four hypotheses: (1) the FRN encodes a quantitative reward prediction error; (2) the FRN is evoked by outcomes and by stimuli that predict outcomes; (3) the FRN and behavior change with experience; and (4) the system that produces the FRN is maximally engaged by volitional actions.

Walsh, Matthew M.; Anderson, John R.

2012-01-01

324

Promoting Classroom Learning for Head Start Children: The Importance of Identifying Early Behavior Problems and Fostering Adaptive Learning Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In partnership with a local Head Start program in the southeastern United States, this study sought to: (a) examine the influence of problem behaviors on preschool language and literacy and mathematics achievement and (b) identify mechanisms that explain why children with behavior problems have difficulty learning in the preschool classroom. Children's behavior problems were found to negatively predict their learning

Ximena Domínguez Escalón; Rebecca Bulotsky Shearer; Daryl Greenfield; Sandra Manrique

2009-01-01

325

Adaptive Optics with a Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator and Its Behavior in Retinal Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive optics system with a brand-new device of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) and its behavior in in vivo imaging of the human retina are described. We confirmed by experiments that closed-loop correction of ocular aberrations of the subject’s eye was successfully achieved at the rate of 16.7 Hz in our system to obtain a clear retinal image in real time. The result suggests that an LCOS SLM is one of the promising candidates for a wavefront corrector in a prospective commercial ophthalmic instrument with adaptive optics.

Shirai, Tomohiro; Takeno, Kohei; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Furukawa, Hiromitsu

2009-07-01

326

EVALUATION OF THE RATE OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR MAINTAINED BY DIFFERENT REINFORCERS ACROSS PREFERENCE ASSESSMENTS  

PubMed Central

The rates of problem behavior maintained by different reinforcers were evaluated across 3 preference assessment formats (i.e., paired stimulus, multiple-stimulus without replacement, and free operant). The experimenter administered each assessment format 5 times in a random order for 7 children with developmental disabilities whose problem behavior was maintained by attention, tangible items, or escape. Results demonstrated different effects related to the occurrence of problem behavior, suggesting an interaction between function of problem behavior and assessment format. Implications for practitioners are discussed with respect to assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities who exhibit problem behavior.

Kang, Soyeon; O'Reilly, Mark F; Fragale, Christina L; Aguilar, Jeannie M; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

2011-01-01

327

A Collaborative Needs Assessment and Work Plan in Behavioral Medicine Curriculum Development in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of family medicine education in the United States and abroad is behavioral medicine. Interpersonal and communication skills, mental health assessment, and sensitivity to diverse patient populations are areas of curricular importance. This article describes the behavioral medicine portion of a family medicine consultation with Vietnam, in progress since 1999. The needs assessment for behavioral medicine reveals few

Julie M. Schirmer; Cynthia Cartwright; Alain J. Montegut; George K. Dreher; Jeffrey Stovall

2004-01-01

328

Functional Behavior Assessment in Classroom Settings: Scaling Down to Scale Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional behavior assessment (FBA), although mandated by federal law in situations involving students with emotional and behavioral disorders, is not well defined in the literature in terms of how it should best be undertaken in widespread practice in schools. Functional behavior assessment can be defined as a process for determining the reason…

Scott, Terrance M.; Alter, Peter J.; McQuillan, Kathleen

2010-01-01

329

The Behavior Problems Checklist-Spanish: a preliminary study of a new scale for the assessment of depressive symptoms and disruptive behaviors in Hispanic patients with dementia.  

PubMed

Few instruments are available with which to measure behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms in Hispanic patients with dementia. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a 17-item scale adapted from the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist. This measure, the Behavior Problems Checklist-Spanish (BPC-S), assesses caregiver-reported symptoms of depression and disruption in patients with dementia. The sample for this study comprised 27 Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients and their family caregivers evaluated at a university-affiliated memory disorders center. All patients met diagnostic criteria for possible or probable Alzheimer's disease as set forth by the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. Satisfactory convergent validity, discriminant validity, and internal consistency reliability were demonstrated for the Depression and Disruption subscales of the BPC-S. Both of these neuropsychiatric disturbances were related to heightened levels of caregiver burden. The results of this preliminary study suggest the BPC-S is a brief, psychometrically sound caregiver-report instrument to assess symptoms of mood disturbance and behavioral disruption in Hispanic patients with dementia. This instrument may have utility for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:11352330

Harwood, D G; Barker, W W; Ownby, R L; Bravo, M; Aguero, H; Duara, R

2001-03-01

330

Health impacts of climate change in vanuatu: an assessment and adaptation action plan.  

PubMed

Climate change is one of the greatest global challenges and Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable due to, among other factors, their geography, demography and level of economic development. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used as a basis for the consideration of the potential health impacts of changes in the climate on the population of Vanuatu, to assess the risks and propose a range of potential adaptive responses appropriate for Vanuatu. The HIA process involved the participation of a broad range of stakeholders including expert sector representatives in the areas of bio-physical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food, who provided informed comment and input into the understanding of the potential health impacts and development of adaptation strategies. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed with the application of a qualitative process that considered both the consequences and the likelihood of each of the potential health impacts occurring. Potential adaptation strategies and actions were developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by the various sectors in Vanuatu to contribute to future decision making processes associated with the health impacts of climate change. PMID:23618474

Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne; McIver, Lachlan

2013-05-01

331

Linguistic adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the Memorial Pain Assessment Card (MPAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The Memorial Pain Assessment Card (MPAC), validated in 1987, is a card utilised for the self-assessment of cancer pain. The\\u000a MPAC provides a quick, reliable measure of quality of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This study is a linguistic adaptation of the original version of the MPAC into the Spanish language and its validation. This\\u000a was a multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study. Linguistic

Yolanda Escobar; Manuel Domine; Jorge Contreras; Francisco Valcárcel

2009-01-01

332

An approach for assessing human health vulnerability and public health interventions to adapt to climate change.  

PubMed

Assessments of the potential human health impacts of climate change are needed to inform the development of adaptation strategies, policies, and measures to lessen projected adverse impacts. We developed methods for country-level assessments to help policy makers make evidence-based decisions to increase resilience to current and future climates, and to provide information for national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The steps in an assessment should include the following: a) determine the scope of the assessment; b) describe the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; c) identify and describe current strategies, policies, and measures designed to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; d) review the health implications of the potential impacts of climate variability and change in other sectors; e) estimate the future potential health impacts using scenarios of future changes in climate, socioeconomic, and other factors; f) synthesize the results; and g) identify additional adaptation policies and measures to reduce potential negative health impacts. Key issues for ensuring that an assessment is informative, timely, and useful include stakeholder involvement, an adequate management structure, and a communication strategy. PMID:17185287

Ebi, Kristie L; Kovats, R Sari; Menne, Bettina

2006-12-01

333

Assessing parental self-efficacy for obesity prevention related behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable, valid and theoretically consistent measures that assess a parent’s self-efficacy for helping a child with obesity prevention behaviors are lacking. Objectives To develop measures of parental self-efficacy for four behaviors: 1) helping their child get at least 60 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity every day, 2) helping one’s child consume five servings of fruits and vegetables each day, 3) limiting sugary drinks to once a week, and 4) limiting consumption of fruit juice to 6 ounces every day. Methods Sequential methods of scale development were used. An item pool was generated based on theory and qualitative interviews, and reviewed by content experts. Scales were administered to parents or legal guardians of children 4–10 years old. The item pool was reduced using principal component analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis tested the resulting models in a separate sample. Subjects 304 parents, majority were women (88%), low-income (61%) and single parents (61%). Ethnic distribution was 40% Black and 37% white. Results All scales had excellent fit indices: Comparative fit index?>?.98 and chi-squares (Pediatrics 120 Suppl 4:S229-253, 2007)?=?.85 – 7.82. Alphas and one-week test-retest ICC’s were???.80. Significant correlations between self-efficacy scale scores and their corresponding behaviors ranged from .13-.29 (all p?

2014-01-01

334

Adapting tests of sign language assessment for other sign languages--a review of linguistic, cultural, and psychometric problems.  

PubMed

Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from one natural sign language to another. Two tests which have been adapted for several other sign languages are focused upon: the Test for American Sign Language and the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test. A brief description is given of each test as well as insights from ongoing adaptations of these tests for other sign languages. The problems reported in these adaptations were found to be grounded in linguistic and cultural differences, which need to be considered for future test adaptations. Other reported shortcomings of test adaptation are related to the question of how well psychometric measures transfer from one instrument to another. PMID:17569751

Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

335

Assessment and Treatment of Excessive Straightening and Destructive Behavior in an Adolescent Diagnosed with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repetitive behaviors such as excessive straightening are commonly observed among individuals with autism. Attempts to prevent these behaviors may increase the likelihood of other problem behaviors. The present study was designed to assess and treat the excessive straightening and associated destructive behaviors of a 16-year-old boy who had been…

Kuhn, David E.; Hardesty, Samantha L.; Sweeney, Nicole M.

2009-01-01

336

Adaptivity Assessment of Regional Semi-Parametric VTEC Modeling to Different Data Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-parametric modelling of Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) combines parametric and non-parametric models into a single regression model for estimating the parameters and functions from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations. The parametric part is related to the Differential Code Biases (DCBs), which are fixed unknown parameters of the geometry-free linear combination (or the so called ionospheric observable). On the other hand, the non-parametric component is referred to the spatio-temporal distribution of VTEC which is estimated by applying the method of Multivariate Adaptive Regression B-Splines (BMARS). BMARS algorithm builds an adaptive model by using tensor product of univariate B-splines that are derived from the data. The algorithm searches for best fitting B-spline basis functions in a scale by scale strategy, where it starts adding large scale B-splines to the model and adaptively decreases the scale for including smaller scale features through a modified Gram-Schmidt ortho-normalization process. Then, the algorithm is extended to include the receiver DCBs where the estimates of the receiver DCBs and the spatio-temporal VTEC distribution can be obtained together in an adaptive semi-parametric model. In this work, the adaptivity of regional semi-parametric modelling of VTEC based on BMARS is assessed in different ground-station and data distribution scenarios. To evaluate the level of adaptivity the resulting DCBs and VTEC maps from different scenarios are compared not only with each other but also with CODE distributed GIMs and DCB estimates .

Durmaz, Murat; Onur Karsl?o?lu, Mahmut

2014-05-01

337

Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

2009-04-01

338

Morphological adaptation of the skull for various behaviors in the tree shrews.  

PubMed

Skull size and shape were examined among 14 species of the tree shrews (Tupaia montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, T. mulleri, T. longipes, T. glis, T. javanica, T. minor, T. gracilis, T. dorsalis, T. tana, Dendrogale melanura, D. murina, and Ptilocercus lowii). The bones of face were rostro-caudally longer in T. tana and T. dorsalis, contrasting with T. minor and T. gracilis, D. melanura, D. murina and P. lowii which have smaller facial length ratios. The arbo-terrestrial species (T. longipes and T. glis) were similar to terrestrial species in length ratios of bones of face unlike the other arbo-terrestrial species (T. montana, T. picta, T. splendidula, and T. mulleri). We propose that T. longipes and T. glis have adapted to foraging for termites and ants as have T. tana and T. dorsalis. Additionally small body size in T. javanica may be the result of being isolated in Java. We separated the species into 5 groups from the measurment values of skulls: 1) Terrestrial species; T. tana and T. dorsalis, 2) Arboreal species; T. minor and T. gracilis, 3) Arbo-terrestrial species group 1: T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, and T. javanica, 4) Arbo-terrestrial species group 2: T. glis and T. longipes, 5) Arboreal species of Dendrogale and Ptilocercus. Principal component analysis separated species into 8 clusters as follows: 1) T. tana, 2) T. dorsalis, 3) T. montana, T. splendidula, T. picta and T. mulleri, 4) T. glis and T. longipes, 5) T. javanica, 6) T. minor and T. gracilis, 7) D. melanura and D. murina, and 8) P. lowii. We suggest that these clusters correspond to behavioral strategies and peculiarities observed in foraging, feeding and locomotion in each species. PMID:12951419

Endo, Hideki; Hikida, Tsutomu; Motokawa, Masaharu; Chou, Loke Ming; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Stafford, Brian J

2003-08-01

339

Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women With Binge Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women’s (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation process and highlighted the importance of balancing the fidelity and cultural relevance of evidence-based treatment when disseminating it across diverse racial/ethnic groups.

Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

2013-01-01

340

A study of adaptive behavior: eÄects of age and irrelevant information on the ability to inhibit one's actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of adaptive behavior, the stop-signal paradigm provides a measure of the ef- ficiency of response suppression that lends itself to examining the ability to inhibit one's ac- tions, and two complementary types of factors that may influence that ability. Based on neurobiological considerations, age-related individual diÄerences were hypothesized to be such a factor. In agreement with the

K. Richard Ridderinkhof; Guido P. H. Band; Gordon D. Logan

1999-01-01

341

[Translation, adaptation and validation of the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment questionnaire with students in higher education].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to make the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment questionnaire in a group of students in higher education in Portugal. The process of translation and validation consisted of translation, back translation, expert committee review, pre-testing and testing of the psychometric properties. The final version adapted with 30 questions was applied to a sample of 707 university students. The results showed that the instrument demonstrated good overall internal consistency for an instrument used to measure a latent variable. When the items were grouped into domains, it was found that they all contributed equally to the stability of the instrument. The reproducibility assessed by intraclass correlation was high. Construct validity tested by the classification capacity of the instrument in four, three and two categories was 67.6%, 67.6% and 100%, with a Kappa index of 0.55, 0.55 and 1.00, respectively. The concurrent validity was also evaluated by correlating it with "My Lifestyle," namely another instrument measuring the same construct. The conclusion was that the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment, is a reliable and valid instrument for lifestyle assessment in young adults. PMID:24897489

Silva, Armando Manuel Marques; Brito, Irma da Silva; Amado, João Manuel da Costa

2014-06-01

342

Reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist for the Assessment of Behavioral Problems of Children and Youth with Mild Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist with 42 children and youth with mild mental retardation. Use of kappa coefficients and intra-class correlations at item and syndrome levels indicated that the Child Behavior Checklist may not always represent a reliable checklist for the assessment of psychopathology in this…

Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

2000-01-01

343

Assessment of the Relationship Between Flexibility and Adaptive Capacity in Flood Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discussions around adapting water management systems to future changes often state the need to increase system flexibility. Intuitively, a flexible, easily modifiable system seems desirable when faced with a wide range of uncertain, but plausible future conditions. Yet, despite the frequent use of the terms flexibility, very little work has examined what exactly it means to have a flexible water management system, what makes one system more flexible than another, or the extent to which flexibility increases adaptive capacity. This study applies a methodology for assessing the inherent flexibility of the structural and non-structural components of flood management systems using original flexibility metrics in the categories of: slack, intensity, connectivity, adjustability, and coordination. We use these metrics to assess the flexibility of three sub-systems within the Sacramento Valley flood management system in California, USA under current system conditions as well as with proposed management actions in place. We then assess the range of hydrologic conditions under which each sub-system can meet flood risk targets in order to determine whether more flexible systems are also more robust and able to perform over a wider range of hydrologic conditions. In doing so, we identify flexible characteristics of flood management systems that enhance the ability of the system to preform over a wide range of conditions making them better suited to adapt to an uncertain hydrologic future. We find that the flexibility characteristics that increase the range of conditions under which the system can meet performance goals varies depending on whether the region is considered urban, rural, or a small community. In some cases, a decrease in certain flexibility characteristics is associated with an increase in robustness, indicating that more flexibility is not always desirable. Future work will assess the transferability of these results to other regions and systems.

DiFrancesco, K.; Tullos, D. D.

2013-12-01

344

Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment in Italy: A Methodological Proposal Adapted to Regulatory Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Work-related stress is one of the major causes of occupational ill health. In line with the regulatory framework on occupational health and safety (OSH), adequate models for assessing and managing risk need to be identified so as to minimize the impact of this stress not only on workers' health, but also on productivity. Methods After close analysis of the Italian and European reference regulatory framework and work-related stress assessment and management models used in some European countries, we adopted the UK Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) Management Standards (MS) approach, adapting it to the Italian context in order to provide a suitable methodological proposal for Italy. Results We have developed a work-related stress risk assessment strategy, meeting regulatory requirements, now available on a specific web platform that includes software, tutorials, and other tools to assist companies in their assessments. Conclusion This methodological proposal is new on the Italian work-related stress risk assessment scene. Besides providing an evaluation approach using scientifically validated instruments, it ensures the active participation of occupational health professionals in each company. The assessment tools provided enable companies not only to comply with the law, but also to contribute to a database for monitoring and assessment and give access to a reserved area for data analysis and comparisons.

Persechino, Benedetta; Valenti, Antonio; Ronchetti, Matteo; Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Di Tecco, Cristina; Vitali, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio

2013-01-01

345

Behavioral and neural correlates of visuomotor adaptation observed through a brain-computer interface in primary motor cortex.  

PubMed

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a defined link between neural activity and devices, allowing a detailed study of the neural adaptive responses generating behavioral output. We trained monkeys to perform two-dimensional center-out movements of a computer cursor using a BCI. We then applied a perturbation by randomly selecting a subset of the recorded units and rotating their directional contributions to cursor movement by a consistent angle. Globally, this perturbation mimics a visuomotor transformation, and in the first part of this article we characterize the psychophysical indications of motor adaptation and compare them with known results from adaptation of natural reaching movements. Locally, however, only a subset of the neurons in the population actually contributes to error, allowing us to probe for signatures of neural adaptation that might be specific to the subset of neurons we perturbed. One compensation strategy would be to selectively adapt the subset of cells responsible for the error. An alternate strategy would be to globally adapt the entire population to correct the error. Using a recently developed mathematical technique that allows us to differentiate these two mechanisms, we found evidence of both strategies in the neural responses. The dominant strategy we observed was global, accounting for ?86% of the total error reduction. The remaining 14% came from local changes in the tuning functions of the perturbed units. Interestingly, these local changes were specific to the details of the applied rotation: in particular, changes in the depth of tuning were only observed when the percentage of perturbed cells was small. These results imply that there may be constraints on the network's adaptive capabilities, at least for perturbations lasting only a few hundreds of trials. PMID:22496532

Chase, Steven M; Kass, Robert E; Schwartz, Andrew B

2012-07-01

346

Behavioral and neural correlates of visuomotor adaptation observed through a brain-computer interface in primary motor cortex  

PubMed Central

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a defined link between neural activity and devices, allowing a detailed study of the neural adaptive responses generating behavioral output. We trained monkeys to perform two-dimensional center-out movements of a computer cursor using a BCI. We then applied a perturbation by randomly selecting a subset of the recorded units and rotating their directional contributions to cursor movement by a consistent angle. Globally, this perturbation mimics a visuomotor transformation, and in the first part of this article we characterize the psychophysical indications of motor adaptation and compare them with known results from adaptation of natural reaching movements. Locally, however, only a subset of the neurons in the population actually contributes to error, allowing us to probe for signatures of neural adaptation that might be specific to the subset of neurons we perturbed. One compensation strategy would be to selectively adapt the subset of cells responsible for the error. An alternate strategy would be to globally adapt the entire population to correct the error. Using a recently developed mathematical technique that allows us to differentiate these two mechanisms, we found evidence of both strategies in the neural responses. The dominant strategy we observed was global, accounting for ?86% of the total error reduction. The remaining 14% came from local changes in the tuning functions of the perturbed units. Interestingly, these local changes were specific to the details of the applied rotation: in particular, changes in the depth of tuning were only observed when the percentage of perturbed cells was small. These results imply that there may be constraints on the network's adaptive capabilities, at least for perturbations lasting only a few hundreds of trials.

Kass, Robert E.; Schwartz, Andrew B.

2012-01-01

347

The Role of Cognition and Adaptive Behavior in Employment of People with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have specifically investigated the cognitive correlates of employment for persons with mental retardation. To evaluate the relationship of cognitive and adaptive functioning to work status, 56 competitively employed and 55 unemployed individuals with mental retardation underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological and adaptive

Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Chen, Ching-Chiang

2008-01-01

348

Designing Automated Adaptive Support to Improve Student Helping Behaviors in a Peer Tutoring Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive collaborative learning support systems analyze student collaboration as it occurs and provide targeted assistance to the collaborators. Too little is known about how to design adaptive support to have a positive effect on interaction and learning. We investigated this problem in a reciprocal peer tutoring scenario, where two students take…

Walker, Erin; Rummel, Nikol; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

2011-01-01

349

A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.  

PubMed

In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

2014-06-01

350

A test of an adapted multiple domain model in predicting sexual behaviors among unmarried young adults in India.  

PubMed

Theory-based, scientific research examining sexual behaviors of young adults is sparse in India, even though pre-marital sex among unmarried young people has been rising in recent years. At the same time, young people aged 15 to 24 are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This has been attributed in part to rising pre-marital sexual behaviors, coupled with a lack of sex education. The objective of this study was to advance an understanding of the determinants of sexual behavior among unmarried young adults in northern India. An adaptation of a comprehensive model of health behavior, the Multiple Domain Model, was employed to study the effects of environmental/cultural influences (parental and media), structural determinants (sex, socioeconomic status, age, caste, and place of residence), personality factors (sensation-seeking and impulsive decision making), gender role identity, psychosocial variables (attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy), contextual influences (relationship status and alcohol/drug use) and preparatory behaviors (frequency of being in sexual situations) on adolescents' sexual behaviors. Results of path analysis indicated that key predictors of ever having had vaginal sex included preparatory behaviors, masculine gender role identity, attitudes toward having sex and peer norms regarding sex. Implications of these findings for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:22206501

Mehrotra, Purnima; Zimmerman, Rick S; Noar, Seth M; Dumenci, Levant

2013-01-01

351

Basic principles of sensorimotor adaptation to different distortions with different effectors and movement types: a review and synthesis of behavioral findings  

PubMed Central

This article reviews seemingly conflicting behavioral data about sensorimotor adaptation. Some earlier studies assert that one common mechanism exists for multiple distortions, and others that multiple mechanisms exist for one given distortion. Some but not others report that adaptation is direction-selective. Some submit that adaptation transfers across effectors, and others that a single effector can adapt to multiple distortions. A model is proposed to account for all these findings. It stipulates that adaptive mechanisms respond to multiple distortions, consist of directionally tuned special-purpose modules, can be switched in dependence on contextual cues, and are connected to practiced movement types with a higher weight than to unpracticed ones.

Bock, Otmar

2013-01-01

352

Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies  

PubMed Central

Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are most appropriate. For climate related health effects for which rough risk estimates are available, ‘robust decision-making’ is recommended. For health effects with limited societal and policy relevance, we recommend focusing on no-regret measures. For highly relevant health effects, precautionary measures can be considered. This study indicated that analysing and characterising uncertainty by means of a typology can be a very useful approach for selection and prioritization of preferred adaptation policies to reduce future climate related health risks.

2012-01-01

353

Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

2009-01-01

354

The Efficiency of Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Inattentive-Overactive and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors: Applying Generalizability Theory to Streamline Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the…

Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

2011-01-01

355

Choosing and Using Climate Scenarios for Climate Impacts Assessment and Adaptation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased concern over climate change and its implications for human and natural systems is evidenced by the many efforts to assess climate impacts and develop adaptation strategies underway at a wide range of levels of governance in the United States. Scientists, resource managers and decision makers are increasingly expected to use climate information in assessment and planning, but struggle with the uncertainty associated with this information. This has lead to increasing requests for the climate modeling community to define the best climate model(s) and downscaling approach(es) for use in impacts analyses. However, choosing the "best" model may be very difficult and counter productive. Many of the barriers associated with the (real and perceived) uncertainty of projected climate change could be overcome by reassessing assumptions about what can and cannot be projected about future climate and by reorienting methods by which likely climate impacts are assessed. We propose that climate impacts assessment begin not with an examination of climate models, but with an introspective look at the system of interest, i.e., a vulnerability assessment framework that includes (1) understanding the system's climate sensitivity, (2) carefully specifying analytical time and space scales, (3) assessing "model" skill at projecting the parameter(s) of interest, and (4) using ensembles/bracketing scenarios instead of choosing the "best" model. We provide examples for application in marine and aquatic environments.

Snover, A. K.; Alexander, M. A.; Mantua, N. J.; Littell, J. S.; Nye, J.

2011-12-01

356

The Validity and Reliability of the Self-Assessment and Program Review: Assessing School Progress in Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Self-Assessment and Program Review" (SAPR) was developed to provide an assessment tool that schools could use to track their progress in implementing key practices related to all three levels of schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS). The SAPR is a team-based assessment tool, using both individual and team ratings of 10 evidence-based…

Walker, Bridget; Cheney, Doug; Stage, Scott

2009-01-01

357

An Assessment of Self-Echoic Behavior in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the behavioral literature, self-echoic behavior has been hypothesized to play an important role in, for example, emergent conditional discriminations (e.g., Lowenkron, 1991), emergent verbal operants (Horne & Lowe, 1996), and problem solving (Skinner, 1957). Although early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism emphasize the…

Esch, John W.; Esch, Barbara E.; McCart, Jordon D.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

2010-01-01

358

Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…

McDowell, J. J.; Popa, Andrei

2010-01-01

359

From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of the International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (1st) Held in Paris, France on 24-28 September, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sixty contributions from researchers in ethology, ecology cybernetics, artificial intelligence, robotics and related fields delve into the behaviors and underlying mechanisms that allow animals and, potentially, robots to adapt and survive in uncertain en...

J. A. Meyer S. W. Wilson

1991-01-01

360

Web-based computer adaptive assessment of individual perceptions of job satisfaction for hospital workplace employees  

PubMed Central

Background To develop a web-based computer adaptive testing (CAT) application for efficiently collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job satisfaction, we examined whether a 37-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ-37) could evaluate the job satisfaction of individual employees as a single construct. Methods The JCQ-37 makes data collection via CAT on the internet easy, viable and fast. A Rasch rating scale model was applied to analyze data from 300 randomly selected hospital employees who participated in job-satisfaction surveys in 2008 and 2009 via non-adaptive and computer-adaptive testing, respectively. Results Of the 37 items on the questionnaire, 24 items fit the model fairly well. Person-separation reliability for the 2008 surveys was 0.88. Measures from both years and item-8 job satisfaction for groups were successfully evaluated through item-by-item analyses by using t-test. Workers aged 26 - 35 felt that job satisfaction was significantly worse in 2009 than in 2008. Conclusions A Web-CAT developed in the present paper was shown to be more efficient than traditional computer-based or pen-and-paper assessments at collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job content.

2011-01-01

361

Adaption of the Suspension Behavior of Suspended Matter in Natural Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The particle size distribution of an artificial tracer is adapted to that of suspended matter in natural water. Therefore the material of a tracer was divided into fractions and afterwards mixed according to computed proportions. The determination of part...

K. Hattenbach H. H. Schreier H. U. Zimmermann

1980-01-01

362

Research on Desirable Adaptive Cruise Control Behavior in Traffic Streams. First Phase Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document report on methods for characterizing the longitudinal performance of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. The current partners in the program are Nissan Motor Company, Limited, Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, DaimlerChr...

P. Fancher Z. Bareket H. Peng L. Kangwon C. Assaf R. Ervin

2002-01-01

363

The Influence of Individual Characteristics and Assessment Center Evaluation on Career Exploration Behavior and Job Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the impact of the assessment center evaluation, attitudes toward the assessment process, gender, locus of control, and career strategy on career exploration behavior and job involvement in 107 educators. Indicated that assessment center evaluation, locus of control, career strategy, and attitudes toward the assessment process…

Noe, Raymond A.; Steffy, Brian D.

1987-01-01

364

A Scale for Assessing Health Care Providers' Teaching and Communication Behavior Regarding Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partnership between health care providers and patients is important for controlling illness. A limited number of studies show how to assess health professionals' communication and partnering behavior. The relationship between these aspects of professional behavior and enhanced management of disease by patients has received little empirical study. The research reported here developed a Health Care Providers' Teaching and Communication Behavior

Noreen M. Clark; Molly Gong; M. Anthony Schork; Lois A. Maiman; David Evans; Martin E. Hurwitz; Dietrich Roloff; Robert B. Mellins

1997-01-01

365

A Behavior Analytic Look at Contemporary Issues in the Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of child sexual abuse has largely been ignored by behavior analysts, although behavior analytic theory and methodology, if applied, likely would advance the field. Three classic cases demonstrate historic errors that might have been avoided, had a behaviorally based approach been employed. Functional analytic interpretations are…

Wyatt, W. Joseph

2007-01-01

366

Assessing the Behavior of Girls: What We See and What We Miss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three standardized measures of child and adolescent behavior for ages 12-18 are studied: (1) Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form; (2) Behavior Assessment System for Children; (3) Social Skills Rating System. Challenges to psychologists to include the experiences of girls in the knowledge-base grounding their practice and…

Henning-Stout, Mary

1998-01-01

367

Adaptation of computerized posturography to assess seated balance in persons with spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to retain or improve seated balance function after spinal cord injury (SCI) may mean the difference between independence and requiring assistance for basic activities of daily living. Compared with assessments of standing and walking balance, seated balance assessments remain relatively underemphasized and under-utilized. Objective To optimize tools for assessing seated balance deficits and recovery in SCI. Design Cross-sectional observational study of different methods for assessing seated balance function. Setting Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury. Participants Seven able-bodied volunteers, seven participants with chronic motor-complete thoracic SCI. Interventions A computerized pressure-plate apparatus designed for testing standing balance was adapted into a seated balance assessment system. Outcome measures Seated section of Berg Balance Scale; modified functional reach test; and two posturography tests: limits of stability and clinical test of sensory integration on balance. Results Seated posturography demonstrated improved correlation with neurological level of lesion compared to that of routinely applied subjective clinical tests. Conclusion Seated posturography represents an appealing outcome measure that may be applied toward the measurement of functional changes in response to various rehabilitation interventions in individuals with paralysis.

Harel, Noam Y.; Asselin, Pierre K.; Fineberg, Drew B.; Pisano, Thomas J.; Bauman, William A.; Spungen, Ann M.

2013-01-01

368

Neuropsychological and Behavioral Measures of Attention Assess Different Constructs in Children With Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures are used to assess attention, but little convergence has been found between these two assessment methods. However, many prior studies have not considered attention as a multicomponent system, which may contribute to this lack of agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral measures. To address this the current study examined the relationship between the neuropsychological measures that comprise

Sally J. Barney; Daniel N. Allen; Nicholas S. Thaler; Brandon S. Park; Gregory P. Strauss; Joan Mayfield

2011-01-01

369

Behavioral Assessment of Child-Abusive and Neglectful FamiliesRecent Developments and Current Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments and current issues in the behavioral assessment of child-abusive and neglectful families are described. Procedures for the assessment of target behaviors in a variety of areas that may be related to the occurrence of further maltreatment and improved family functioning are reviewed. The primary emphasis is on measures recently developed for maltreating populations, although some measures discussed were

David J. Hansen; Virginia M. MacMillan

1990-01-01

370

Stability Metrics for Simulation and Flight-Software Assessment and Monitoring of Adaptive Control Assist Compensators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to a need for improved reliability and performance in aerospace systems, there is increased interest in the use of adaptive control or other nonlinear, time-varying control designs in aerospace vehicles. While such techniques are built on Lyapunov stability theory, they lack an accompanying set of metrics for the assessment of stability margins such as the classical gain and phase margins used in linear time-invariant systems. Such metrics must both be physically meaningful and permit the user to draw conclusions in a straightforward fashion. We present in this paper a roadmap to the development of metrics appropriate to nonlinear, time-varying systems. We also present two case studies in which frozen-time gain and phase margins incorrectly predict stability or instability. We then present a multi-resolution analysis approach that permits on-line real-time stability assessment of nonlinear systems.

Hodel, A. S.; Whorton, Mark; Zhu, J. Jim

2008-01-01

371

Assessing dynamic spectral causality by lagged adaptive directed transfer function and instantaneous effect factor.  

PubMed

It is of significance to assess the dynamic spectral causality among physiological signals. Several practical estimators adapted from spectral Granger causality have been exploited to track dynamic causality based on the framework of time-varying multivariate autoregressive (tvMVAR) models. The nonzero covariance of the model's residuals has been used to describe the instantaneous effect phenomenon in some causality estimators. However, for the situations with Gaussian residuals in some autoregressive models, it is challenging to distinguish the directed instantaneous causality if the sufficient prior information about the "causal ordering" is missing. Here, we propose a new algorithm to assess the time-varying causal ordering of tvMVAR model under the assumption that the signals follow the same acyclic causal ordering for all time lags and to estimate the instantaneous effect factor (IEF) value in order to track the dynamic directed instantaneous connectivity. The time-lagged adaptive directed transfer function (ADTF) is also estimated to assess the lagged causality after removing the instantaneous effect. In this study, we first investigated the performance of the causal-ordering estimation algorithm and the accuracy of IEF value. Then, we presented the results of IEF and time-lagged ADTF method by comparing with the conventional ADTF method through simulations of various propagation models. Statistical analysis results suggest that the new algorithm could accurately estimate the causal ordering and give a good estimation of the IEF values in the Gaussian residual conditions. Meanwhile, the time-lagged ADTF approach is also more accurate in estimating the time-lagged dynamic interactions in a complex nervous system after extracting the instantaneous effect. In addition to the simulation studies, we applied the proposed method to estimate the dynamic spectral causality on real visual evoked potential (VEP) data in a human subject. Its usefulness in time-variant spectral causality assessment was demonstrated through the mutual causality investigation of brain activity during the VEP experiments. PMID:24956616

Xu, Haojie; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

2014-07-01

372

Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Personality Disorder: Introducing the CAT-PD Project  

PubMed Central

Assessment of personality disorders (PD) has been hindered by reliance on the problematic categorical model embodied in the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Model of Mental Disorders (DSM), lack of consensus among alternative dimensional models, and inefficient measurement methods. This article describes the rationale for and early results from an NIMH-funded, multi-year study designed to develop an integrative and comprehensive model and efficient measure of PD trait dimensions. To accomplish these goals, we are in the midst of a five-phase project to develop and validate the model and measure. The results of Phase 1 of the project—which was focused on developing the PD traits to be assessed and the initial item pool—resulted in a candidate list of 59 PD traits and an initial item pool of 2,589 items. Data collection and structural analyses in community and patient samples will inform the ultimate structure of the measure, and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) will permit efficient measurement of the resultant traits. The resultant Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD) will be well positioned as a measure of the proposed DSM-5 PD traits. Implications for both applied and basic personality research are discussed.

Simms, Leonard J.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Roberts, John E.; Watson, David; Welte, John; Rotterman, Jane H.

2011-01-01

373

The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...

374

Cognitive-behavioral treatment of depression, part I: Assessment of depression and suicide risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been found effective in the treatment of depression. However, most guides to conducting cognitive-behavioral therapy focus on a session-by-session description of treatment issues. The present manuscript describes the first in a series of interrelated therapy modules to help guide the treatment of depression. The use of modules helps the therapist adapt the therapy to the unique needs

James C. Overholser

1995-01-01

375

COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL STRESS MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON PSYCHOSOCIAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION IN WOMEN UNDERGOING TREATMENT FOR BREAST CANCER  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. METHODS Women with Stage 1 – 3 breast cancer recruited 4 – 8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention or a 1-day psychoeducational control group and completed questionnaires and late afternoon blood samples at study entry and 6 and 12 months after assignment to experimental condition. RESULTS Of 128 women initially providing psychosocial questionnaire and blood samples at study entry, 97 provided complete data for anxiety measures and cortisol analysis at all time points, and immune assays were run on a subset of 85 of these women. Those assigned to a 10-week group-based CBSM intervention evidenced better psychosocial adaptation (lower reported cancer-specific anxiety and interviewer-rated general anxiety symptoms) and physiological adaptation (lower cortisol, greater Th1 cytokine [interleukin-2 and interferon-? production and IL-2:IL-4 ratio) after their adjuvant treatment compared to those in the control group. Effects on psychosocial adaptation indicators and cortisol appeared to hold across the entire 12-month observation period. Th1 cytokine regulation changes held only over the initial 6-month period. CONCLUSIONS This intervention may have facilitated a “recovery or maintenance” of Th1 cytokine regulation during or after the adjuvant therapy period. Behavioral interventions that address dysregulated neuroendocrine function could play a clinically significant role in optimizing host immunologic resistance during a vulnerable period.

Antoni, Michael H.; Lechner, Suzanne; Diaz, Alain; Vargas, Sara; Holley, Heather; Phillips, Kristin; McGregor, Bonnie; Carver, Charles S.; Blomberg, Bonnie

2009-01-01

376

Sedentary behavior: target for change, challenge to assess  

PubMed Central

Sedentary behavior is not a new topic, but trying to examine the direct links between sedentary behavior and health outcomes, independent of time spent in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, is a relatively new addition to the relationships between physical activity and health. Defining sedentary behavior as a risk factor and target for intervention opens up novel avenues for disease prevention and health promotion. The relationship between sedentary behavior and obesity is complex and not well understood, but the increased risk of disease due to sedentary behavior may be even greater in obese patients. Objective measurement of sedentary behavior is an important link in being able to understand the real effects of being sedentary, and a few measurement devices are described. Interventions targeting sedentary behavior should reduce total sedentary time, break long bouts of sitting with intermittent activity and encourage light-intensity activity throughout the day. New technologies can both measure and deliver an intervention aimed at reducing sitting time, the most common category of sedentary behavior. An optimal activity profile will include minimal amounts of sedentary behavior, in addition to regular physical activity and healthy sleep patterns.

Rosenberger, M

2012-01-01

377

The Structure of Workplace Adaptive Skill in a Career Inexperienced Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive skill is a central concept to understanding vocational behavior. In this study, a theory of behavioral functionality is proposed that describes the underlying structure of workplace adaptive skill. The propositions of the theory are formalized in a facet theory mapping sentence, then 12 adaptive skills are assessed on a group of career…

Cronshaw, Steven F.; Jethmalani, Shefali

2005-01-01

378

ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF EXCESSIVE STRAIGHTENING AND DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR IN AN ADOLESCENT DIAGNOSED WITH AUTISM  

PubMed Central

Repetitive behaviors such as excessive straightening are commonly observed among individuals with autism. Attempts to prevent these behaviors may increase the likelihood of other problem behaviors. The present study was designed to assess and treat the excessive straightening and associated destructive behaviors of a 16-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with autism and moderate mental retardation. Following a series of functional analyses, an intervention that incorporated functional communication, extinction of destructive behavior, and blocking of repetitive straightening was demonstrated to be effective in reducing straightening and destructive behavior.

Kuhn, David E; Hardesty, Samantha L; Sweeney, Nicole M

2009-01-01

379

Behavioral Treatment and Assessment of Childhood Cross-Gender Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child. The clinical history of S paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine…

Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar

380

An Assessment of Outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH) is an emerging treatment that utilizes wilderness therapy to help adolescents struggling with behavioral and emotional problems. The approach involves immersion in wilderness or comparable lands, group living with wilderness leaders and peers, and individual and group therapy sessions facilitated by licensed therapists in the field. OBH also offers educational and psychoeducational curriculum all designed to

Keith Russell

2003-01-01

381

Assessment of the Quality of an Organizational Citizenship Behavior Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been associated with organizational effectiveness in many studies. Therefore, it is important to learn more about how these behaviors can be improved in schools. Creating a reliable and valid measure of OCB that has conceptual equivalence across cultures is a first step in understanding and…

Gokturk, Soheyda

2011-01-01

382

The Iowa Assessment Model in Behavioral Disorders: A Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual is intended to present professionally defensible and generally agreed on criteria for the identification of students with behavior disorders in Iowa. Six major topic areas are examined in separate chapters: (1) overview of behavioral disorders in Iowa (historical background, assumptions underlying definition, desired use of definition…

Wood, Frank H., Ed.; And Others

383

Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers associate an insistence on sameness or lack of behavioral flexibility with autism and Asperger syndrome, but few studies have sought to identify specific situations in which individuals insist on sameness. Along these lines, we developed the "Behavioral Flexibility Rating Scale" (BFRS) and conducted an Internet survey of parents of…

Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Pituch, Keenan A.; Itchon, Jonathan; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio E.

2006-01-01

384

Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and resource managers to document traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and integrate this knowledge with Western science for crafting adaptation response to climate impacts in rural Native Alaska.

White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

2008-12-01

385

Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

2008-01-01

386

Behavioral simulation of a high-density traffic network involving an adaptive ramp metering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic simulation is a flexible tool used for a wide variety of applications including traffic studies. In addition to mathematical based simulation models, the INRETS (French National Institute for Research in Transportation and Safety) has conducted research based on the driver behavior and has developed a behavioral simulation model, ARCHISIM, by which the traffic is produced by the interaction

Alexis Champion; Ming-Yu Zhang; J.-M. Auberlet; Stephane Espie I

2002-01-01

387

Behavioral Inhibition: Stability and Associations With Adaptation From Childhood to Early Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of individual differences in behavioral inhibition and their association with peer relations, emotional distress, and life-course timing were examined in a longitudinal study of 205 individuals from childhood (ages 8 to 12) to early adulthood (ages 17 to 24). Behavioral inhibition was conceptualized as stranger wariness and measured through ratings made by interviewers following individual interview or testing

Scott D. Gest

1997-01-01

388

The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to 23%…

Newland, Jessica Marie

2010-01-01

389

Maternal beliefs about adaptive and maladaptive social behaviors in normal, aggressive, and withdrawn preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare mothers of normal, aggressive, and anxious-withdrawn preschoolers with regard to their beliefs about how socially competent behaviors are learned and their beliefs concerning the origins of two types of maladaptive behaviors-aggression and withdrawal. 121 mothers of 4- year olds were questioned about how they think social skills are acquired. They were also

Kenneth H. Rubin; Rosemary S. L. Mills

1990-01-01

390

Assessing Levels of Adaptation during Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions: Introducing the Rogers-Rutten Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most HIV-prevention funding agencies require the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions, tested and proven to be effective through outcome evaluation. Adaptation of programs during implementation is common and may be influenced by many factors, including agency mission, time constraints, and funding streams. There are few theoretical…

Bowen, Shelly-Ann K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Richter, Donna L.; Hussey, Jim; Elder, Keith; Lindley, Lisa

2010-01-01

391

Assessing adaptability of planted trees using leaf traits: A case study with Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the Loess Plateau, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf trait patterns and their variations with climate are interpreted as an adaptive adjustment to environment. This study\\u000a assessed the adaptability of planted black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) based on the analysis of leaf traits and the comparison of its leaf traits with inter-specific ones existing in the same\\u000a area. We measured some water and N use related leaf traits:

Tiantian Jin; Guohua Liu; Bojie Fu; Xiaohui Ding; Lei Yang

2011-01-01

392

Governance in vulnerability assessment: the role of globalising decision-making networks in determining local vulnerability and adaptive capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based vulnerability assessment has often assumed that the local is the relevant level of adaptation to climate change.\\u000a This paper suggests that not only do a number of levels from the international to the regional influence which adaptations\\u000a can take place locally, but the governance network that is made up by actors on different levels may to a large extent

E. Carina H. Keskitalo; H. Keskitalo

2009-01-01

393

Age, Adaptive Behavior, and Alzheimer Disease in Down Syndrome: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses compared age-related changes in adaptive functioning in institutionalized adults with and without Down's syndrome. Cross-sectional analysis showed significant differences related to level of functioning but not to age or etiology. Longitudinal analysis showed a decline in self-help and communication skills…

Rasmussen, Dianne E.; Sobsey, Dick

1994-01-01

394

The Role of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Functional Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology was examined in 1,089 verbal youths with ASD examining results on Vineland-II, IQ, and measures of ASD severity. Strong positive relationships were found between Vineland subscales and IQ. Vineland Composite was negatively associated with age. IQ accounted a significant amount…

Kanne, Stephen M.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Quirmbach, Linda M.; Sparrow, Sara S.; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Saulnier, Celine A.

2011-01-01

395

Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

2012-01-01

396

Aggressive Behavior in Response to Violence Exposure: Is It Adaptive for Middle-School Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of aggression in adaptation to family and community violence was examined in a sample of 667 inner-city schoolchildren studied annually over three years in middle school. Regression analyses indicated that the association between Year 1 exposure to family and community violence and Year 2 aggression was mediated by aggression occurring…

Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

2008-01-01

397

Factors Related to Adaptive Behavior Changes among Profoundly Mentally Retarded, Physically Disabled Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in adaptive competence over a one-year period of profoundly mentally retarded, physically disabled persons living in a moderately sized residential facility or in small community programs were examined. No evidence was found to indicate that habilitative growth was greater for residents in the small community programs. (Author/CL)

Silverman, Wayne P.; And Others

1986-01-01

398

Development of Adaptive Behavior in Preschoolers with Autism or Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found that 16 preschoolers with Down's syndrome attained higher age equivalents and standard scores in "socialization" than did 16 preschoolers with autism. Adaptive age equivalent was positively related to chronological age for children with Down's syndrome in all domains, but only in "communication" for children with autism.…

Loveland, Katherine A.; Kelley, Michelle L.

1991-01-01

399

Assessing current and future exposure to flood hazards - proceedings of the project RiskAdapt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project RiskAdapt, funded by the Climate and Energy Fund Austria, applies a novel dynamic flood risk assessment approach. It analyses both aspects of risk - hazard and vulnerability - and considers their potential spatial and temporal developments under climate change scenarios on a macro scale (federal territory of Austria) and a micro scale (regional/local case studies). The conceptual framework of RiskAdapt integrates analytical perspectives of hazard and vulnerability, the latter comprising the analysis of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacities. In the framework of the macro scale risk assessment, a nationwide GIS based analysis of current hazard exposure is conducted based on the indicators "affected persons" and "traffic infrastructure" (roads and railroads) in calculated flooding areas. Provided by the Environment Agency Austria (UBA) for 500m river stretches, these indicators are evaluated for each municipality in Austria. To assess their future exposure to flood hazards, demographic and land-use change scenarios (timeframe: 2030) are established based on existing projections and available data suitable for extrapolation. Regarding population change, extrapolations of local demographic developments are correlated with regional forecasts provided by the Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning (ÖROK). Land-use change scenarios are established by extrapolating trends in the development of highly vulnerable land uses (including building land for housing, commercial and industrial purposes as well as land used for traffic infrastructure). Data on highly vulnerable land uses is available for the years 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2012 for each municipality of Austria (provided by UBA). Based on this analysis, municipalities will be clustered according to the present and expected degree of exposure. This simplified approach in exposure assessment contains uncertainties, in particular with regard to demographic and land-use change scenarios: -) While population growth usually leads to an increase in built up land, basing settlement scenarios on population developments/forecasts does not take into account housing densities and usage of existing buildings. Furthermore, demographic scenarios reflect the growth in industrial and commercial land uses only to a certain extent; -) Growth of highly vulnerable land uses does not automatically imply an increase in vulnerability to flood hazards. This is essentially determined by the location and the direction of future land use developments. These uncertainties cannot be taken into account in the nationwide exposure assessment. However, in order to reflect these uncertainties and their effects on the vulnerability assessments and to evaluate the influence of spatial planning on vulnerability reduction, additional research will be conducted in three local and/or regional case studies. Exposure information from the nationwide exposure assessment will be completed and refined by integrating detailed land-use information and demographic data (derived from document analyses of spatial planning instruments, (retrospective) analyses of orthophotos and expert interviews with regional and local stakeholders.

Löschner, Lukas; Seher, Walter

2013-04-01

400

Congruence between Assessed Needs and IEP Goals of Identified Behaviorally Disabled Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A checklist was developed to assess congruence between needs identified by psychoeducational assessment and instructional goals of the Individualized Education Program. Use with records of 106 behaviorally disordered students (K-12) suggested lack of diagnostic-intervention congruence and dissimilarity between IEP goals and diagnostic/assessment

Fiedler, Jacque F.; Knight, Richard R.

1986-01-01

401

CAIcal: A combined set of tools to assess codon usage adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) was first developed to measure the synonymous codon usage bias for a DNA or RNA sequence. The CAI quantifies the similarity between the synonymous codon usage of a gene and the synonymous codon frequency of a reference set. Results We describe here CAIcal, a web-server available at that includes a complete set of utilities related with the CAI. The server provides useful important features, such as the calculation and graphical representation of the CAI along either an individual sequence or a protein multiple sequence alignment translated to DNA. The automated calculation of CAI and its expected value is also included as one of the CAIcal tools. The software is also free to be downloaded as a standalone application for local use. Conclusion The CAIcal server provides a complete set of tools to assess codon usage adaptation and to help in genome annotation. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Purificación López-García, Dan Graur, Rob Knight and Shamil Sunyaev.

Puigbo, Pere; Bravo, Ignacio G; Garcia-Vallve, Santiago

2008-01-01

402

in vivo laser speckle imaging by adaptive contrast computation for microvasculature assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interference of light backscattered from a diffused surface leads to speckle formation in laser speckle imaging. These time integrated speckle patterns can be statistically analyzed to study the flow profile of moving scatterers. Simple speckle contrast analysis techniques have limited ability to distinguish thin structures due to presence of corrupting speckles. This paper presents a high resolution imaging technique by adaptive computation of contrast for laser speckle contrast analysis (adLASCA). Speckle images of retinal microvasculature in mice model are acquired during normal and reduced blood flow conditions. Initially, the speckle images are registered to compensate for movements, associated with heart beating and respiration. Adaptive computation is performed using local image statistics, estimated within a spatially moving window over successive time frames. Experimental evidence suggests that adLASCA outperforms other contrast analysis methods, substantiating significant improvement in contrast resolution. Fine vessels can be distinguished more efficiently with reduced fluctuations in contrast level. Quantitative performance of adLASCA is evaluated by computing standard deviation, corresponding to speckle fluctuations due to unwanted speckles. There is a significant reduction in standard deviation compared to other methods. Therefore, adLASCA can be used for enhancing microvasculature in high resolution perfusion imaging with reduced effect of corrupting speckles for effective assessment.

Basak, Kausik; Dey, Goutam; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mandal, Mahitosh; Dutta, Pranab Kumar

2014-11-01

403

A scale for Assessing Health Care Providers' Teaching and Communication Behavior regarding asthma.  

PubMed

Partnership between health care providers and patients is important for controlling illness. A limited number of studies show how to assess health professionals' communication and partnering behavior. The relationship between these aspects of professional behavior and enhanced management of disease by patients has received little empirical study. The research reported here developed a Health Care Providers' Teaching and Communication Behavior (TCB) scale for assessing the teaching and communication behavior of clinicians treating patients with asthma. Such a tool is needed for research related to provider-patient relationships and for evaluation of professionals' performance. PMID:9079582

Clark, N M; Gong, M; Schork, M A; Maiman, L A; Evans, D; Hurwitz, M E; Roloff, D; Mellins, R B

1997-04-01

404

Stimulant-induced adaptations in neostriatal matrix and striosome systems: transiting from instrumental responding to habitual behavior in drug addiction.  

PubMed

Converging evidence indicates that repeated exposure to motor stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine produces marked alterations in network responsiveness of striatal neurons to subsequent challenge with the same stimulant drug. Such alterations, which correlate with persistent patterns of repetitive behavior, associate with distinct compartmental changes in the neostriatum. Striatal matrix system neurons undergo "silencing" following repeated drug challenges, allowing striosome system neurons to exhibit preferential activation. Matrix neurons are innervated by sensory and motor areas of neocortex and are activated in the course of on-going, adaptive behavior. Inactivation of matrix neurons by chronic stimulant exposure may therefore constrain sensorimotor and cognitive processing. In turn, the striosomes are anatomically connected through re-entrant loops with limbic prefrontal and allocortical structures, such as anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and basolateral amygdala, all of which play a part in stimulant-induced reinforcement and relapse to drug-taking. Moreover, functional evidence links striosome system neurons, which are responsible for providing inhibitory regulatory feedback to midbrain dopamine neurons, with reinforcement-based processes. In considering such evidence, we postulate that recurrent matrix inactivation and recruitment of striosome-based pathways by chronic stimulant exposure represent neural end-points of the transit from action-outcome associative behavior to conditioned habitual responding. Within this theoretical framework, habitual behavior can be elicited by both interoceptive cues and exteroceptive conditioned stimuli to promote the automatic execution of learned responses. PMID:15721792

Canales, Juan J

2005-03-01

405

Assessing the behavioral impact of a diagnostic decision support system.  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a prototype for research to evaluate the impact of diagnostic decision support systems on the behavior of physicians. Several indices that can be used to quantify the magnitude of impact are proposed. A large medical diagnostic knowledge base in internal medicine (the Iliad knowledge base) was used in this evaluation. The impact on behavior when different inference models are run against this knowledge base is evaluated for two different case domains and physician's specialties.

Li, Y. C.; Haug, P. J.; Lincoln, M. J.; Turner, C. W.; Pryor, T. A.; Warner, H. H.

1995-01-01

406

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior.

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

407

Adaptation planning for climate change: concepts, assessment approaches, and key lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planned adaptation to climate change denotes actions undertaken to reduce the risks and capitalize on the opportunities associated\\u000a with global climate change. This paper summarizes current thinking about planned adaptation. It starts with an explanation\\u000a of key adaptation concepts, a description of the diversity of adaptation contexts, and a discussion of key prerequisites for\\u000a effective adaptation. On the basis of

H.-M. Füssel

2007-01-01

408

BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS TO SPATIALLY INTERMITTENT STREAMS BY THE LONGFIN DACE, 'AGOSIA CHRYSOGASTER', (CYPRINIDAE)  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatially intermittent stream, with areas containing surface water separated by lengths of dry streambed, represents a common aquatic habitat in the Sonoran Desert. The longfin dace (Agosia chrysogaster) is the only fish to utilize this habitat consistently. Behavioral adapta...

409

Rapid, local adaptation of zooplankton behavior to changes in predation pressure in the absence of neutral genetic changes  

PubMed Central

Organisms producing resting stages provide unique opportunities for reconstructing the genetic history of natural populations. Diapausing seeds and eggs often are preserved in large numbers, representing entire populations captured in an evolutionary inert state for decades and even centuries. Starting from a natural resting egg bank of the waterflea Daphnia, we compare the evolutionary rates of change in an adaptive quantitative trait with those in selectively neutral DNA markers, thus effectively testing whether the observed genetic changes in the quantitative trait are driven by natural selection. The population studied experienced variable and well documented levels of fish predation over the past 30 years and shows correlated genetic changes in phototactic behavior, a predator-avoidance trait that is related to diel vertical migration. The changes mainly involve an increased plasticity response upon exposure to predator kairomone, the direction of the changes being in agreement with the hypothesis of adaptive evolution. Genetic differentiation through time was an order of magnitude higher for the studied behavioral trait than for neutral markers (DNA microsatellites), providing strong evidence that natural selection was the driving force behind the observed, rapid, evolutionary changes.

Cousyn, C.; De Meester, L.; Colbourne, J. K.; Brendonck, L.; Verschuren, D.; Volckaert, F.

2001-01-01

410

Self-adaptive grain recognition of diamond grinding wheel and its grains assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved Canny operator based on the method of Maximum Classes Square Error is adopted to get a self-adaptive threshold for grain recognition. First, a grinding wheel surface was measured by using a vertical scanning white light interferometric (WLI) system and reconstructed with an improved centroid algorithm; then the grains were extracted using the proposed method based on the fact that the peak intensity difference (?I) between maximum and minimum intensities on interferometric curve from diamond is larger than that from bond due to different reflective characteristics of different materials; third the grain protrusion parameters are investigated for grinding performance analysis. The experiments proved that the proposed grain recognition method is effective and assessment parameters are useful for understanding grinding performance.

Cui, Changcai; Zhou, Lijun; Yu, Qing; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

2013-10-01

411

Adaptation and validation of a questionnaire assessing patient satisfaction with pharmacy services in general hospitals  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Armando Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire into Arabic and validate its use in the general population. Methods The translation was conducted based on the principles of the most widely used model in questionnaire translation, namely Brisling’s back-translation model. A written authorization allowing translation into Arabic was obtained from the original author. The Arabic version of the questionnaire was distributed to 480 participants to evaluate construct validity. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0 for Windows was used for the statistical analysis. Results The response rate of this study was 96%; most of the respondents (52.5%) were female. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s ?, which showed that this questionnaire provides a high reliability coefficient (reaching 0.9299) and a high degree of consistency and thus can be relied upon in future patient satisfaction research.

Al-Jumah, Khalaf Ali; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-Zaagi, Ibrahem

2014-01-01

412

Variation in songbird migratory behavior offers clues about adaptability to environmental change.  

PubMed

For seasonally migrating birds, aspects of migratory behavior, such as the use of temperate versus tropical wintering areas, may influence their ability to respond to environmental change. Here, we infer potential flexibility in songbird migration from variation in two alternative stopover behaviors. Hierarchical Bayesian mark-recapture modeling was used to quantify stopover decisions over 19 years for four temperate and four tropical migratory species at a stopover site in southern Canada. Short-distance temperate migrants exhibited higher variability in behavior and greater responses to local weather than longer-distance tropical migrants, as measured by transience (the proportion of birds stopping <24 h, i.e. seeking brief sanctuary or subsequently relocating) and departure (re-initiation of migration by birds that stopped over for >24 h). In contrast to many previous works on climate-migration associations, annual variation in stopover behavior did not show strong links to broad-scale climatic fluctuations for either temperate or tropical migrants, nor was there any indication of directional changes in stopover behavior over the past two decades. In addition to suggesting that migratory songbirds-particularly tropical-wintering species-may face increasing threats with future climatic variability, our study highlights the potential importance of flexibility in en-route behavior for resilience to environmental change. PMID:21927912

Calvert, Anna M; Mackenzie, Stuart A; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Taylor, Philip D; Walde, Sandra J

2012-03-01

413

Adaptation and validation of the patient assessment of chronic illness care in the French context  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases are major causes of disability worldwide with rising prevalence. Most patients suffering from chronic conditions do not always receive optimal care. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been developed to help general practitioners making quality improvements. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire was increasingly used in several countries to appraise the implementation of the CCM from the patients’ perspective. The objective of this study was to adapt the PACIC questionnaire in the French context and to test the validity of this adaptation in a sample of patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods The PACIC was translated into French language using a forward/backward procedure. The French version was validated using a sample of 150 patients treated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and having multiple chronic co-morbidities. Several forms of validity were analysed: content; face; construct; and internal consistency. The construct validity was investigated with an exploratory factorial analysis. Results The French-version of the PACIC consisted in 18 items, after merging two pairs of items due to redundancy. The high number of items exhibiting floor/ceiling effects and the non-normality of the ratings suggested that a 5-points rating scale was somewhat inappropriate to assess the patients’ experience of care. The construct validity of the French-PACIC was verified and resulted in a bi-dimensional structure. Overall this structure showed a high level of internal consistency. The PACIC score appeared to be significantly related to the age and self-reported health of the patients. Conclusions A French-version of the PACIC questionnaire is now available to evaluate the patients’ experience of care and to monitor the quality improvements realised by the medical structures. This study also pointed out some methodological issues about the PACIC questionnaire, related to the format of the rating scale and to the structure of the questionnaire.

2014-01-01

414

Lesions to the prefrontal performance-monitoring network disrupt neural processing and adaptive behaviors after both errors and novelty.  

PubMed

Unexpected events can have internal causes (action errors) as well as external causes (perceptual novelty). Both events call for adaptations of ongoing behavior, resulting, amongst other things, in post-error and post-novelty slowing (PES/PNS) of reaction times (RT). Both types of events are processed in prefrontal brain areas, indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs): Errors are followed by a complex of ERPs comprised of the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), whereas novels are followed by a N2/P3 complex. However, despite those overlapping properties, past neuroscientific studies of both types of events resulted in largely separate branches of research. Only recently have theoretical efforts proposed overlapping neuronal networks for the computation of 'unexpectedness' in general. Crucially, in a recent study, we have shown that both errors and novelty are indeed processed in the same neuronal network in the human brain: the prefrontal-cingulate performance-monitoring network (PCMN) underlying the ERN also explained significant parts of the N2/P3 complex. Here, we attempt to take this research further by investigating the causal role of the PCMN in both error and novelty processing. Eight patients with ischemic lesions to the PCMN and eight control participants performed a version of the flanker task in which they made errors, while also being presented with unexpected action effects on a subset of otherwise correct trials. In line with our predictions, lesions to the PCMN lead to significant reductions in ERP amplitude following both errors and perceptual novelty. Also, while the age-matched control participants showed the expected pattern of adaptive RT slowing to both errors and novelty, patients did not exhibit adaptive slowing behaviors following either event. These results support recent theoretical accounts according to which a general PCMN reacts to surprising events, regardless of valence and/or source of the unexpectedness. PMID:24139890

Wessel, Jan R; Klein, Tilmann A; Ott, Derek V M; Ullsperger, Markus

2014-01-01

415

Adaptive Behaviors of Experts in Following Standard Protocol in Trauma Management: Implications for Developing Flexible Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Critical care environments are complex and dynamic. To adapt to such environments, clinicians may be required to make alterations to their workflows resulting in deviations from standard procedures. In this work, deviations from standards in trauma critical care are studied. Thirty trauma cases were observed in a Level 1 trauma center. Activities tracked were compared to the Advance Trauma Life Support standard to determine (i) if deviations had occurred, (ii) type of deviations and (iii) whether deviations were initiated by individuals or collaboratively by the team. Results show that expert clinicians deviated to innovate, while deviations of novices result mostly in error. Experts’ well developed knowledge allows for flexibility and adaptiveness in dealing with standards, resulting in innovative deviations while minimizing errors made. Providing informatics solution, in such a setting, would mean that standard protocols would have be flexible enough to “learn” from new knowledge, yet provide strong support for the trainees.

Vankipuram, Mithra; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Patel, Vimla L.

2012-01-01

416

Adaptive behaviors of experts in following standard protocol in trauma management: implications for developing flexible guidelines.  

PubMed

Critical care environments are complex and dynamic. To adapt to such environments, clinicians may be required to make alterations to their workflows resulting in deviations from standard procedures. In this work, deviations from standards in trauma critical care are studied. Thirty trauma cases were observed in a Level 1 trauma center. Activities tracked were compared to the Advance Trauma Life Support standard to determine (i) if deviations had occurred, (ii) type of deviations and (iii) whether deviations were initiated by individuals or collaboratively by the team. Results show that expert clinicians deviated to innovate, while deviations of novices result mostly in error. Experts' well developed knowledge allows for flexibility and adaptiveness in dealing with standards, resulting in innovative deviations while minimizing errors made. Providing informatics solution, in such a setting, would mean that standard protocols would have be flexible enough to "learn" from new knowledge, yet provide strong support for the trainees. PMID:23304421

Vankipuram, Mithra; Ghaemmaghami, Vafa; Patel, Vimla L

2012-01-01

417

Adapting robot behavior to a nonstationary environment: a deeper biologically inspired model of neural processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological inspiration admits to degrees. This paper describes a new neural processing algorithm inspired by a deeper understanding of the workings of real biological synapses. It is shown that multi-time domain adaptation approach to encoding casual correlation solves the destructive interference problem encountered by more commonly used learning algorithms. It is also shown how this allows an agent to adapt to nonstationary environment in which longer-term changes in the statistical properties occur and are inherently unpredictable, yet not completely lose useful prior knowledge. Finally, it sis suggested that the use of causal correlation coupled with value-based learning may provide pragmatic solutions to some other classical problems in machine learning.

Mobus, George E.

2000-10-01

418

Reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist for the assessment of behavioral problems of children and youth with mild mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of psychopathology in persons with mental retardation requires reliable and valid instruments. In the present study, the reliability of the Child Behavior Checklist was determined, using data of 42 children and youth with mild mental retardation, with ages from 10 to 18 years. Kappa coefficients and intra-class correlations were computed to determine the reliability at item level and

Petri J. C. M. Embregts

2000-01-01

419

Implications of Current Research on the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Support Planning in School Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional behavior assessment and function-based support have increasingly been used in school settings in the past decade. This increased use has come under scrutiny from some experts who have argued in the past that function-based support has not yet been proven to be effective in typical school settings with students without severe…

McIntosh, Kent; Av-Gay, Hadas

2007-01-01

420

Nanocrystalline coating design for extreme applications based on the concept of complex adaptive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of effective hard coatings for high performance dry machining, which is associated with high stress\\/temperatures during friction, is a major challenge. Newly developed synergistically alloyed nanocrystalline adaptive Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N plasma vapor deposited hard coatings exhibit excellent tool life under conditions of high performance dry machining of hardened steel, especially under severe and extreme cutting conditions. The coating is capable

G. S. Fox-Rabinovich; S. C. Veldhuis; G. K. Dosbaeva; K. Yamamoto; A. I. Kovalev; D. L. Wainstein; I. S. Gershman; L. S. Shuster; B. D. Beake

2008-01-01

421

Assessment of lift- and blockage-induced wall interference in a three-dimensional adaptive-wall tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional adaptive-wall wind tunnel experiment was conducted at Ames Research Center. This experiment demonstrated the effects of wall interference on the upwash distribution on an imaginary surface surrounding a lifting wing. This presentation demonstrates how the interference assessment procedure used in the adaptive-wall experiments to determine the wall adjustments can be used to separately assess lift- and blockage-induced wall interference in a passive-wall wind tunnel. The effects of lift interference on the upwash distribution and on the model lift coefficient are interpreted by a simple horseshoe vortex analysis.

Schairer, E. T.

1984-01-01

422

Assessing bio-economic impacts and climate adaptation potential in Flanders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Global Circulation Model predictions, Belgium is situated on a wedge between a wetter and drier climatic regime. Observed changes show an increase of 1.3°C during the past decade, a higher frequency of warm summer days and a 6% increase in rainfall with a pronounced rise in winter precipitation of about 25% as compared to the normal (1961-1990). Since agriculture is particularly sensitive to climate variability and occupies more than 61% of the land surface in Flanders, the rural landscape will be confronted with profound changes. A combination of climate scenarios, production models and economic evaluation was used to assess climate impacts on agricultural goods & services, adaptation costs due to production losses and adaptation options. Agro-ecosystems offer a wide range of productive, supporting, regulating and cultural services to society. Productive services relate to crop, animal and energy production, but will alter with climate change. Supporting services such as biodiversity, soil and water quality will be negatively affected by a higher climate variability, increasing erosion and sediment transport, enhancing the breakdown of soil organic matter, lowering soil quality and increasing runoff or leaching of agri-chemicals. The effect of a warmer climate on regulating services is an intensification of most nutrient cycles with increased emissions, which may be compensated for by carbon storage in faster and longer growing crops. The need for flooding areas may result in a net-reduction of the agricultural area. A higher probability of dry weather during summer time and a longer growing season may enlarge the attraction of recreating in rural areas. Knowledge on the interaction of agro-ecosystem services and climate change is required to formulate sustainable adaptation measures. Heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields. The interaction between these effects depends on the crop type. The impact on crop production was simulated with a dynamic vegetation model for eight crops (winter wheat, potatoes, sugar beet, fodder maize, grass, grain maize, cauliflower spring, cauliflower autumn), three soil types (loamy sand, loam, clay) and four climatic data series (historic and three cc-scenarios). The three climate change scenarios were selected on the basis of multi-criteria analysis of the PRUDENCE RCM runs. In total 3480 year simulations were executed with a daily modelling step. Pronounced yield losses mainly due to water shortages and heat stress occur for all climate change scenario's, to a lesser extent in the case of winter and spring crops. Yield losses of up to 30% are simulated for sugar beet, whereas winter wheat losses are only 6 % on loamy sand. High critical temperatures lead to heat stress, decreased fodder uptake, outbreaks of diseases and ultimately to animal production losses. Changes in animal production were calculated with a threshold model, whereby a daily maximum temperature of 30°C was taken as the production limit. Calculated animal production losses are up to 9 % for sheep, 8 % for cattle, 6 % for pigs and 3% for poultry. An economic prognosis of the technical productivity, the price effect, the required agricultural area and number of animals was used to estimate the potential productivity for 16 agricultural activities. The impact of climate change was included through aggregating the modelled production losses for Flanders and assuming the agricultural area, the number of animals and the prices constant to the economic prognosis. The total financial impacts are 0.1 % or 6.6 million euro for the first scenario, 1.5% or 71 million euro for the second scenario and 4.1% or 201 million euro for the third scenario. The results represent the acceptable cost of adaptation measures to maintain current efficiencies and production levels. Three gradations of adaptation were defined as different adoption rates. In total 22 adaptation measures were identified. Meas

Gobin, A.

2009-04-01

423

Employing Relative Entropy Techniques for Assessing Modifications in Animal Behavior  

PubMed Central

In order to make quantitative statements regarding behavior patterns in animals, it is important to establish whether new observations are statistically consistent with the animal's equilibrium behavior. For example, traumatic stress from the presence of a telemetry transmitter may modify the baseline behavior of an animal, which in turn can lead to a bias in results. From the perspective of information theory such a bias can be interpreted as the amount of information gained from a new measurement, relative to an existing equilibrium distribution. One important concept in information theory is the relative entropy, from which we develop a framework for quantifying time-dependent differences between new observations and equilibrium. We demonstrate the utility of the relative entropy by analyzing observed speed distributions of Pacific bluefin tuna, recorded within a 48-hour time span after capture and release. When the observed and equilibrium distributions are Gaussian, we show that the tuna's behavior is modified by traumatic stress, and that the resulting modification is dominated by the difference in central tendencies of the two distributions. Within a 95% confidence level, we find that the tuna's behavior is significantly altered for approximately 5 hours after release. Our analysis reveals a periodic fluctuation in speed corresponding to the moment just before sunrise on each day, a phenomenon related to the tuna's daily diving pattern that occurs in response to changes in ambient light.

Kadota, Minoru; White, Eric J.; Torisawa, Shinsuke; Komeyama, Kazuyoshi; Takagi, Tsutomu

2011-01-01

424

Relationships of video assessments of touching and mouthing behaviors during outdoor play in urban residential yards to parental perceptions of child behaviors and blood lead levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childrens' touching and mouthing behaviors during outdoor play in urban residential yards were measured using video observations. Descriptions were made of childrens' outdoor residential play environments. Behaviors assessed were used to examine (1) validity of parental responses to questions on childrens' oral behaviors and outdoor play and (2) relationships of mouthing behaviors to blood lead levels (BLLs). Thirty-seven children aged

Stephen Ko; Peter D Schaefer; Cristina M Vicario; Helen J Binns

2007-01-01

425

Adaptive, behaviorally-gated, persistent encoding of task-relevant auditory information in ferret frontal cortex  

PubMed Central

Top-down signals from frontal cortex (FC) are conjectured to play a critical role in cognitive control of sensory processing. To explore this interaction, we compared activity in ferret FC and primary auditory cortex (A1) during auditory and visual tasks requiring discrimination between classes of reference and target stimuli. FC responses were behaviorally-gated, selectively encoded the timing and invariant behavioral meaning of target stimuli, could be rapid in onset, and sometimes persisted for hours following behavior. This mirrors earlier findings in A1that attention triggered rapid, selective, persistent, task-related changes in spectrotemporal receptive fields. Simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) revealed behaviorally-gated changes in inter-areal coherence, selectively modulated between FC and focal regions of A1 responsive to target sounds. These results suggest that A1 and FC dynamically establish a functional connection during auditory behavior that shapes the flow of sensory information and maintains a persistent trace of recent task-relevant stimulus features.

Fritz, Jonathan B.; David, Stephen V.; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Yin, Pingbo; Shamma, Shihab A.

2010-01-01

426

Behavioral management for children and adolescents: assessing the evidence.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Behavioral management services for children and adolescents are important components of the mental health service system. Behavioral management is a direct service designed to help develop or maintain prosocial behaviors in the home, school, or community. This review examined evidence for the effectiveness of family-centered, school-based, and integrated interventions. METHODS Literature reviews and individual studies published from 1995 through 2012 were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Authors chose from three levels of evidence (high, moderate, and low) based on benchmarks for the number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of service effectiveness. RESULTS The level of evidence for behavioral management was rated as high because of the number of well-designed randomized controlled trials across settings, particularly for family-centered and integrated family- and school-based interventions. Results for the effectiveness of behavioral management interventions were strong, depending on the type of intervention and mode of implementation. Evidence for school-based interventions as an isolated service was mixed, partly because complexities of evaluating group interventions in schools resulted in somewhat less rigor. CONCLUSIONS Behavioral management services should be considered for inclusion in covered plans. Further research addressing the mechanisms of effect and specific populations, particularly at the school level, will assist in bolstering the evidence base for this important category of clinical intervention. PMID:24343339

Johnson, Melissa H; George, Preethy; Armstrong, Mary I; Lyman, D Russell; Dougherty, Richard H; Daniels, Allen S; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E

2014-05-01

427

Using Multimodal Functional Behavioral Assessment to Inform Treatment Selection for Children with Either Emotional Disturbance or Social Maladjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is an assessment procedure used to identify the reasons for children's misbehavior. In this article we provide an overview of one approach to FBA known as "multimodal functional behavioral assessment" (MFBA) that provides a comprehensive examination of the causes of children's disruptive behavior. The…

Miller, Jeffrey A.; Williams, Shelagh J.; McCoy, Erika L. B.

2004-01-01

428

The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Early Maternal Feeding Behavior on Later Infant Feeding Behavior  

PubMed Central

Adaptive maternal feeding behaviors are sensitive and responsive to the infant and support the infant’s participation in feeding. Adaptive infant behaviors help the infant to participate in the feeding within developmental capacities and to interact in a positive manner with the mother. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of the adaptiveness of early maternal feeding behavior to the adaptiveness of later infant feeding behavior, accounting for maternal depressive symptoms and neonatal health. Thirty-seven premature infants and their mothers were assessed in the special care nursery just before discharge and in their homes at 4 months postterm age. The adaptive quality of maternal and infant behavior was assessed using the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Study–Depression Scale. Infant health was assessed using the Neonatal Health Index. Linear regression analyses revealed that the adaptiveness of maternal feeding behavior before special care nursery discharge contributed significantly to the adaptiveness of infant feeding behavior at 4 months postterm age, accounting for neonatal health and maternal depressive symptoms. Although further study of the relationship is needed, findings support development of interventions to enhance the adaptiveness of mothers’ early feeding behaviors.

Brown, Lisa F.; Pridham, Karen

2014-01-01

429

The Development of a Test to Assess Drug Using Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to develop a test which could measure both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug-using behavior, including such factors as attitudes toward drugs, experience with drugs, and knowledge about drugs. The Drug Use Scale was developed containing 134 items and dealing with five classes of drugs: marijuana,…

Althoff, Michael E.

430

Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

2012-01-01

431

Relative Contributions of Three Descriptive Methods: Implications for Behavioral Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the outcomes of three descriptive analysis methods--the ABC method, the conditional probability method, and the conditional and background probability method--to each other and to the results obtained from functional analyses. Six individuals who had been diagnosed with developmental delays and exhibited problem behavior

Pence, Sacha T.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Bourret, Jason C.; Ahearn, William H.

2009-01-01

432

Assessing ethical behavior: the impact of outcomes on judgment bias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this empirical study is to apply the methodology commonly used to performance appraisal and examine if outcomes achieved by ratees bias rater's judgment of ratee ethical behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two studies were conducted: in study 1 the participants were undergraduate business students and in study 2, the participants were MBA students but who were also

Robert L. Cardy; T. T. Selvarajan

2006-01-01

433

Comparing Indirect, Descriptive, and Experimental Functional Assessments of Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current standards of practice in psychological and educational services dictate the need for ascertaining the function of\\u000a challenging behaviors before treating them and for behavioral interventions to be based on the function of behavior. At least\\u000a three broad categories of functional assessments have been developed, including indirect, descriptive, and experimental procedures.\\u000a Although experimental functional analyses are common in empirical research

Jonathan Tarbox; Arthur E. Wilke; Adel C. Najdowski; Rachel S. Findel-Pyles; Susie Balasanyan; Amy C. Caveney; Vardui Chilingaryan; Deidra M. King; Sarah M. Niehoff; Kelly Slease; Betty Tia

2009-01-01

434

Adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system for assessment of lower limb peripheral vascular occlusive disease.  

PubMed

Detecting lower limb peripheral vascular occlusive disease (PVOD) early is important for patients to prevent disabling claudication, ischaemic rest pain and gangrene. According to previous research, the pulse timing and shape distortion characteristics of photoplethysmography (PPG) signals tend to increase with disease severity and calibrated amplitude decreases with vascular diseases. However, this is not a reliable method of evaluating the condition of PVOD because of noise effect. In this paper, an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is proposed to assess lower limb PVOD based on PPG signals. PPG signals are non-invasively recorded from the right and left sides at the big toe sites from twenty subjects, including normal condition (Nor), lower-grade disease (LG), and higher-grade disease (HG) groups. The number of each group is 10, 8 and 2 respectively, and the ages ranged from 24 to 65 years. With the time-domain technique, the parameters for the absolute bilateral differences (right-to-left side of foot) in pulse delay and amplitude were extracted for analyzing ANFIS. The results indicated that ANFIS based on three timing parameters base bilateral differences, including ?PTTf and ?PTTp, and ?RT has a high rate and noise tolerance of PVOD assessment. PMID:20703718

Du, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chia-Hung

2012-02-01

435

An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment With High Schools for Obesity Intervention*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles to conduct formative research in identifying acceptable and potentially sustainable obesity intervention strategies in 8 New Mexico school communities. METHODS We collected formative data from 8 high schools on areas of community interest for school health improvement through collaboration with local School Health Advisory Councils (SHACs) and interviews with students and parents. A survey based on formative results was created to assess acceptability of specific intervention strategies and was provided to SHACs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were evaluated using an iterative analytic process for thematic identification. RESULTS Key themes identified through the formative process included lack of healthy food options, infrequent curricular/extracurricular physical activity opportunities, and inadequate exposure to health/nutritional information. Key strategies identified as most acceptable by SHAC members included healthier food options and preparation, a healthy foods marketing campaign, yearly taste tests, an after-school noncompetitive physical activity program, and community linkages to physical activity opportunities. CONCLUSION An adaptive CBPR approach for formative assessment can be used to identify obesity intervention strategies that address community school health concerns. Eight high school SHACs identified 6 school-based strategies to address parental and student concerns related to obesity.

Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

2013-01-01

436

Assessment of Behavioral Chaos with a Focus on Transitions in Depression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second article of the special section on chaos theory addresses implications of the definition of chaotic behavior for its measurement. The requirements to test the presence of chaotic relations among variables are in agreement with the conceptual and methodological hallmarks of behavioral assessment. (SLD)

Heiby, Elaine M.

1995-01-01

437

Assessing Treatment Acceptability with Consumers of Outpatient Child Behavior Management Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' and grandparents' ratings of alternative treatments for children with behavior disorders were assessed. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), time-out, response cost, spanking, and medication were applied to noncompliance, aggression, tantrums, and hyperactivity. DRO, response cost, and time-out were found significantly more…

Miltenberger, Raymond G.; And Others

1989-01-01

438

Assessment of Behavior Disorders and Developmental Delay: Parent-Teacher Agreement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses a method of integrating parent report with teacher report on the Minnesota Child Development Inventory (MCDI) and the Burks Behavior Rating Scale (BBRS) to aid in the assessment and placement of young children with behavior disorders and developmental delay. Two samples of children were used to collect the data: 3 to 6 year old…

Ruttle, Kristi; Dick, Diane F.

439

Construct Validation of a Measure to Assess Sustainability of School-Wide Behavior Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…

Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent

2013-01-01