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Sample records for adaptive behavior assessment

  1. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry Hank; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT modeling and a nationally representative standardization sample, the item set was reduced to 75 items that provide the most precise adaptive behavior information at the cutoff area determining the presence or not of significant adaptive behavior deficits across conceptual, social, and practical skills. The standardization of the DABS is described and discussed. PMID:26914464

  2. A System of Assessment for Adaptive Behavior, Social Skills, Behavioral Function, Medication Side-Effects, and Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Laud, Rinita B.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a method of assessing individuals with mental retardation that operates within financial and human constraints using informant-based measures that assess adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, psychiatric disorders, behavior function, and medication side-effects. Integrating the assessment results for treatment planning is…

  3. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  4. A system of assessment for adaptive behavior, social skills, behavioral function, medication side-effects, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Mayville, Stephen B; Laud, Rinita B

    2003-01-01

    A reliable and valid assessment is necessary for the effective delivery of services to those with mental retardation (MR). With constraints placed on financial and human resources, assessment must be comprehensive, yet cost-effective. We describe a method of assessment that operates within these constraints using informant-based measures that assess adaptive and maladaptive behavior, psychiatric disorders, behavior function, and medication side-effects. PMID:12553969

  5. State Norms for IQ, Adaptive Behavior, and Sociocultural Status: Implications for Nonbiased Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.; And Others

    Findings from the Iowa Assessment Project are examined regarding the assessment and use of information on adaptive behavior and sociocultural background in decisions about students with mild mental retardation. Background aspects reviewed include terminology regarding mild retardation; research, litigation, and legislation on the topic during the…

  6. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent Form, Ages 5-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Youhua; Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2008-01-01

    The AAIDD has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model stressing 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. In previous studies on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II), researchers found support for a model including both 10 adaptive skills and three conceptual…

  7. The Concept of Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas

    Two papers from a Houston seminar on the concept of adaptive behavior provide a review of adaptive behavior measures and a discussion of Jane Mercer's assessment model. Tables present information on administration and content of eight measures: the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Clinical, and AAMD School, Caine-Levine, California…

  8. Assessing heat-adaptive behaviors among older, urban-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Parker, Edith A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Zhang, Zhenzhen; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Health studies have shown that the elderly are at a greater risk to extreme heat. The frequency and intensity of summer heat waves will continue to increase as a result of climate change. It is important that we understand the environmental and structural factors that increase heat vulnerability, as well as examine the behaviors used by the elderly to adapt to hot indoor temperatures. Study design From June 1 to August 31, 2009, residents in 29 homes in Detroit, MI, kept an hourly log of eight heat-adaptive behaviors: opening windows/doors, turning fans or the air conditioner on, changing clothes, taking a shower, going to the basement, the porch/yard, or leaving the house. Percentages of hourly behavior were calculated, overall and stratified by housing type and percent surface imperviousness. The frequency of behavior use, as a result of indoor and outdoor predetermined temperature intervals was compared to a reference temperature range of 21.1–23.8 °C. Results The use of all adaptive behaviors, except going to the porch or yard, was significantly associated with indoor temperature. Non-mechanical adaptations such as changing clothes, taking showers, and going outside or to the basement were rarely used. Residents living in high-rises and highly impervious areas reported a higher use of adaptive behaviors. The odds of leaving the house significantly increased as outdoor temperature increased. Conclusions These findings suggest that the full range of heat adaptation measures may be underused by the elderly and public health interventions need to focus on outreach to these populations. PMID:21782363

  9. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the…

  10. Adaptive Behavior Profiles of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditterline, Jeffrey; Banner, Diane; Oakland, Thomas; Becton, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of adaptive behavior traditionally has been associated with the identification of individuals with mental retardation. Information on adaptive behavior increasingly is being used for comprehensive assessment, treatment planning, intervention, and program evaluation for individuals with various disorders. Data from the normative samples…

  11. Adaptive Behavior Profiles of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditterline, Jeffrey; Banner, Diane; Oakland, Thomas; Becton, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of adaptive behavior traditionally has been associated with the identification of individuals with mental retardation. Information on adaptive behavior increasingly is being used for comprehensive assessment, treatment planning, intervention, and program evaluation for individuals with various disorders. Data from the normative samples…

  12. Behavioral Adaptation and Late-Life Disability: A New Spectrum for Assessing Public Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Judith D.; Spillman, Brenda C.; Agree, Emily M.; Mor, Vincent; Wallace, Robert B.; Wolf, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To inform public health efforts to promote independent functioning among older adults, we have provided new national estimates of late-life disability that explicitly recognize behavioral adaptations. Methods. We analyzed the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study, a study of Medicare enrollees aged 65 years and older (n?=?8077). For 7 mobility and self-care activities we identified 5 hierarchical stages—fully able, successful accommodation with devices, activity reduction, difficulty despite accommodations, and receipt of help—and explored disparities and associations with quality of life measures. Results. Among older adults, 31% were fully able to complete self-care and mobility activities. The remaining groups successfully accommodated with devices (25%), reduced their activities (6%), reported difficulty despite accommodations (18%), or received help (21%). With successive stages, physical and cognitive capacity decreased and symptoms and multimorbidity increased. Successful accommodation was associated with maintaining participation in valued activities and high well-being, but substantial disparities by race, ethnicity, and income existed. Conclusions. Increased public health attention to behavioral adaptations to functional change can promote independence for older adults and may enhance quality of life. PMID:24328656

  13. ADAPTATION OF THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH SYSTEM (BARS) FOR EVALUATING NEUROBEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE IN FILIPINO CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M.; Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M.

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, combines computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with non-computerized tests. The goal of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using standardized neurobehavioral tests in preschool and school-aged Filipino children. Test instructions were translated into the vernacular, Tagalog or Tagalog-English (“Taglish”) and some instructions and materials were modified to be appropriate for the target populations. The battery was administered to 4 to 6 year old Filipino children (N=50). The performance of the Filipino children was compared to data previously collected from Spanish- and English-speaking children tested in the US. The majority of children had no difficulty completing the tests in the battery with the exception of the Symbol-Digit test and Digit Span-reverse. The three groups showed similar patterns of performance on the tests and the older children performed better than the younger children on all of the tests. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of using this test battery to assess cognitive and motor performance in Filipino children. Tests in the battery assess a range of functions and the measures are sensitive to age differences. The current battery has been utilized in several cultures and socio-economic status classes, with only minor modifications needed. This study demonstrates the importance of pilot testing the methods before use in a new population, to ensure that the test is valid for that culture. PMID:18067971

  14. Support Needs and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries, Julia; Guscia, Roma; Kirby, Neil; Nettelbeck, Ted; Taplin, John

    2005-01-01

    We used a prepublication version of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS), the Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community, and the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning to examine the relationship between support needs and adaptive behavior for 80 people with intellectual disabilities. Dimensionality of the SIS Support Needs Scale (Section…

  15. Support Needs and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries, Julia; Guscia, Roma; Kirby, Neil; Nettelbeck, Ted; Taplin, John

    2005-01-01

    We used a prepublication version of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS), the Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community, and the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning to examine the relationship between support needs and adaptive behavior for 80 people with intellectual disabilities. Dimensionality of the SIS Support Needs Scale (Section…

  16. Support needs and adaptive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Harries, Julia; Guscia, Roma; Kirby, Neil; Nettelbeck, Ted; Taplin, John

    2005-09-01

    We used a prepublication version of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS), the Adaptive Behavior Scale-Residential and Community, and the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning to examine the relationship between support needs and adaptive behavior for 80 people with intellectual disabilities. Dimensionality of the SIS Support Needs Scale (Section 1) was examined in reference to the three areas of conceptual, social, and practical skills reported by the American Association on Mental Retardation as comprising the adaptive behavior construct. Factor analysis of the adaptive behavior subscales and SIS Support Need Scale offered support for measurement of a common underlying construct. When considered in terms of the three adaptive behavior skill areas, this construct related predominantly to conceptual skills. PMID:16080777

  17. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  18. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  19. Second Year Validation Studies of the Brockton Battery: A Special Needs Assessment for Linguistic Minority Students. (The Tests of Reading Readiness and the Scales of Adaptive Behavior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennett, Kenneth H.

    Procedures are described to determine reliability and validity of the Brockton (Massachusetts) Battery's Tests of Reading Readiness and the Adaptive Behavior Scales, which were developed to assess performance levels of Hispanic, Portuguese, and Cape Verdean normal and high risk children. Among reasons given for development of the instruments are…

  20. Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Henry

    Intellectual functioning is the product of an interaction among a variety of biological, social, and personal experiential factors. The distribution of ability at all levels is dependent on the manner in which the individual has learned to cope with this relationship of forces. This adaptive ability to cope is part of intelligent behavior. The…

  1. Youth health risk behavior assessment in Fiji: The reliability of Global School-based Health Survey content adapted for ethnic Fijian girls

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne E.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Perloe, Alexandra; Bainivualiku, Asenaca; Richards, Lauren K.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) is an assessment for adolescent health risk behaviors and exposures, supported by the World Health Organization. Although already widely implemented—and intended for youth assessment across diverse ethnic and national contexts—no reliability data have yet been reported for GSHS-based assessment in any ethnicity or country-specific population. This study reports test-retest reliability for GSHS content adapted for a female adolescent ethnic Fijian study sample in Fiji. Design We adapted and translated GSHS content to assess health risk behaviors as part of a larger study investigating the impact of social transition on ethnic Fijian secondary schoolgirls in Fiji. In order to evaluate the performance of this measure for our ethnic Fijian study sample (n=523), we examined its test-retest reliability with kappa coefficients, % agreement, and prevalence estimates in a sub-sample (n=81). Reliability among strata defined by topic, age, and language was also examined. Results Average agreement between test and retest was 77%, and average Cohen's kappa was 0.47. Mean kappas for questions from core modules about alcohol use, tobacco use, and sexual behavior were substantial, and higher than those for modules relating to other risk behaviors. Conclusions Although test-retest reliability of responses within this country-specific version of GSHS content was substantial in several topical domains for this ethnic Fijian sample, only fair reliability for the module assessing dietary behaviors and other individual items suggests that population-specific psychometric evaluation is essential to interpreting language and country-specific GSHS data. PMID:20234961

  2. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  3. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  4. Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

    2011-01-01

    A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

  5. Projective-Cognitive Assessment of Thoughts and Feelings and Their Relationship to Adaptive Behavior in a Dental Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. Michael, III; Cholera, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the interrelationships among coping statements, a self-report measure of anxiety, and maladaptive overt behavior in a dental situation. Subjects were 23 adolescents. Found that as disruptive "in-chair" overt behavior increased, so did the percentage of coping statements; as self-report levels of anxiety increased, the percentage of coping…

  6. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  7. Complex adaptive behavior and dexterous action

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Steven J.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein’s and Gibson’s ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior. PMID:26375932

  8. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  9. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  10. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. Methods The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Results Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38–81% individuals, 50–100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. PMID:26004993

  11. Neurophysiology of performance monitoring and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ullsperger, Markus; Danielmeier, Claudia; Jocham, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal-directed behavior requires not only correct action selection, planning, and execution but also the ability to flexibly adapt behavior when performance problems occur or the environment changes. A prerequisite for determining the necessity, type, and magnitude of adjustments is to continuously monitor the course and outcome of one's actions. Feedback-control loops correcting deviations from intended states constitute a basic functional principle of adaptation at all levels of the nervous system. Here, we review the neurophysiology of evaluating action course and outcome with respect to their valence, i.e., reward and punishment, and initiating short- and long-term adaptations, learning, and decisions. Based on studies in humans and other mammals, we outline the physiological principles of performance monitoring and subsequent cognitive, motivational, autonomic, and behavioral adaptation and link them to the underlying neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, psychological theories, and computational models. We provide an overview of invasive and noninvasive systemic measures, such as electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and lesion data. We describe how a wide network of brain areas encompassing frontal cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and monoaminergic brain stem nuclei detects and evaluates deviations of actual from predicted states indicating changed action costs or outcomes. This information is used to learn and update stimulus and action values, guide action selection, and recruit adaptive mechanisms that compensate errors and optimize goal achievement. PMID:24382883

  12. Construction of a Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasse, Marc J.; And Others

    Multilog (Thissen, 1991) was used to estimate parameters of 225 items from the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale (QABS). A database containing actual data from 2,439 subjects was used for the parameterization procedures. The two-parameter-logistic model was used in estimating item parameters and in the testing strategy. MicroCAT (Assessment Systems…

  13. Longitudinal Profiles of Adaptive Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Quintin, Eve-Marie; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A.; Hazlett, Heather Cody; Piven, Joseph; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinally the adaptive behavior patterns in fragile X syndrome. METHOD: Caregivers of 275 children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome and 225 typically developing children and adolescents (2–18 years) were interviewed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales every 2 to 4 years as part of a prospective longitudinal study. RESULTS: Standard scores of adaptive behavior in people with fragile X syndrome are marked by a significant decline over time in all domains for males and in communication for females. Socialization skills are a relative strength as compared with the other domains for males with fragile X syndrome. Females with fragile X syndrome did not show a discernible pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale longitudinal study to show that the acquisition of adaptive behavior slows as individuals with fragile X syndrome age. It is imperative to ensure that assessments of adaptive behavior skills are part of intervention programs focusing on childhood and adolescence in this condition. PMID:25070318

  14. Driver's adaptive glance behavior to in-vehicle information systems.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yiyun; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adaptive behavior of drivers as they engage with in-vehicle devices over time and in varying driving situations. Behavioral adaptation has been shown to occur among drivers after prolonged use of in-vehicle devices, but few studies have examined drivers' risk levels across different driving demands. A multi-day simulator study was conducted with 28 young drivers (under 30 years old) as they engaged in different text entry and reading tasks while driving in two different traffic conditions. Cluster analysis was used to categorize drivers based on their risk levels and random coefficient models were used to assess changes in drivers' eye glance behavior. Glance duration significantly increased over time while drivers were performing text entry tasks but not for text reading tasks. High-risk drivers had longer maximum eyes-off-road when performing long text entry tasks compared to low-risk drivers, and this difference increased over time. The traffic condition also had a significant impact on drivers' glance behavior. This study suggests that drivers may exhibit negative behavioral adaptation as they become more comfortable with using in-vehicle technologies over time. Results of this paper may provide guidance for the design of in-vehicle devices that adapt based on the context of the situation. It also demonstrates that random coefficient models can be used to obtain better estimations of driver behavior when there are large individual differences. PMID:26406538

  15. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Cara E; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L; Naiman, Daniel Q; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates for their developmental stage, adaptive behavior in most participants was impaired and did not improve over time. Prior EF predicted later adaptive behavior in daily living skills and socialization domains after controlling for age and IQ. Self-monitoring behaviors robustly predicted later adaptive behavior in all domains (d = 0.60-0.94). Results support targeting treatment of adaptive skills in ASD, as well as the importance of assessing for EF problems that may contribute to adaptive behavior difficulties. PMID:26349921

  16. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  17. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  18. The Adaptive Neuroplasticity Hypothesis of Behavioral Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is a seemingly simple and clinically potent method to decrease morbidity and mortality in people with coronary heart disease (CHD). Nonetheless, long-term maintenance of physical activity remains a frustratingly elusive goal for patients and practitioners alike. In this paper, we posit that among older adults with CHD, recidivism after the initiation of physical activity reflects maladaptive neuroplasticity of malleable neural networks, and people will revert back to learned and habitual physical inactivity patterns, particularly in the setting of stress or depression. We hypothesize that behavioral interventions that successfully promote physical activity may also enhance adaptive neuroplasticity and play a key role in the maintenance of physical activity through the development of new neuronal pathways that enhance functional ability in older adults. Conversely, without such adaptive neuroplastic changes, ingrained maladaptive neuroplasticity will prevail and long-term maintenance of physical activity will fail. In this paper we will: (1) describe the enormous potential for neuroplasticity in older adults; (2) review stress and depression as examples of maladaptive neuroplasticity; (3) describe an example of adaptive neuroplasticity achieved with a behavioral intervention that induced positive affect in people with CHD; and (4) discuss implications for future work in bench to bedside translational research. PMID:23125937

  19. Behavior and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: Specifying Targets for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with Down syndrome can demonstrate increased behavior problems as compared with typical peers. Few studies have explored whether behavior impacts adaptive functioning. Caregiver report from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL;…

  20. Behavior and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: Specifying Targets for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with Down syndrome can demonstrate increased behavior problems as compared with typical peers. Few studies have explored whether behavior impacts adaptive functioning. Caregiver report from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL;…

  1. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  2. The Construct of Adaptive Behavior: Its Conceptualization, Measurement, and Use in the Field of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasse, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Hank, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Thissen, David; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun

    2012-01-01

    This article updates the current conceptualization, measurement, and use of the adaptive behavior construct. Major sections of the article address an understanding of the construct, the current approaches to its measurement, four assessment issues and challenges related to the use of adaptive behavior information for the diagnosis of intellectual…

  3. Patterns of adaptive behavior in very young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Stone, W L; Ousley, O Y; Hepburn, S L; Hogan, K L; Brown, C S

    1999-03-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were used to investigate patterns of adaptive behavior in children with autism who were under 36 months of age. Subjects were 30 children with autism and 30 children with developmental delay matched on CA and MA. Relative to controls, the autistic group demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptive behavior and MA. Different patterns of relations between adaptive behavior domains and cognitive and language skills were obtained for the two groups. Preliminary support for the utility of adaptive behavior profiles in identifying subgroups of children with autism is provided. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for early diagnosis of autism. PMID:10207581

  4. Risperidone and Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…

  5. Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175?ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30?s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish. PMID:21909325

  6. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  7. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  8. Herd behavior in a complex adaptive system

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Guang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu; Huang, J. P.; Ohashi, Hirotada; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    In order to survive, self-serving agents in various kinds of complex adaptive systems (CASs) must compete against others for sharing limited resources with biased or unbiased distribution by conducting strategic behaviors. This competition can globally result in the balance of resource allocation. As a result, most of the agents and species can survive well. However, it is a common belief that the formation of a herd in a CAS will cause excess volatility, which can ruin the balance of resource allocation in the CAS. Here this belief is challenged with the results obtained from a modeled resource-allocation system. Based on this system, we designed and conducted a series of computer-aided human experiments including herd behavior. We also performed agent-based simulations and theoretical analyses, in order to confirm the experimental observations and reveal the underlying mechanism. We report that, as long as the ratio of the two resources for allocation is biased enough, the formation of a typically sized herd can help the system to reach the balanced state. This resource ratio also serves as the critical point for a class of phase transition identified herein, which can be used to discover the role change of herd behavior, from a ruinous one to a helpful one. This work is also of value to some fields, ranging from management and social science, to ecology and evolution, and to physics. PMID:21876133

  9. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  10. Behavioral adaptation of the Aplysia siphon-withdrawal response is accompanied by sensory adaptation.

    PubMed

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J; Fischer, Thomas M

    2007-02-01

    Behavioral adaptation is a decrease in behavioral responsiveness due to a sustained stimulus and is a key component to an organism's overall adjustment to its ambient environment. The authors examined the relationship between behavioral adaptation and sensory adaptation in the siphon-withdrawal reflex (SWR) of Aplysia californica. Sensory input to the SWR circuit was measured via en passant extracellular recordings from the siphon nerve in semi-intact preparations. The authors characterized sensory activity in response to water turbulence, an ethologically relevant stimulus that produces behavioral adaptation of the SWR. The authors found that water turbulence elicits a continuous sensory response that adapts to a low-level steady state. Consistent with behavioral measures, this sensory adaptation attenuates the evoked response to siphon taps delivered during water turbulence. Comparing trends in both behavioral and sensory adaptation revealed similar dynamics during turbulence but divergent trends during recovery. Specifically, behavioral recovery was inversely related to the duration of environmental change; recovery of sensory adaptation was not. This supports the authors' hypothesis that environment-driven behavioral adaptation reflects an interaction between sensory adaptation and additional dynamic processes. PMID:17324064

  11. Cognitive and adaptive behavior profiles in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Madduri, Niru; Peters, Sarika U; Voigt, Robert G; Llorente, Antolin M; Lupski, James R; Potocki, Lorraine

    2006-06-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. The incidence of this microdeletion syndrome is estimated to be 1 in 25,000 individuals. Persons with SMS have a distinctive neurobehavioral phenotype that is characterized by aggressive and self-injurious behaviors and significant sleep disturbances. From December 1990 through September 1999, 58 persons with SMS were enrolled in a 5-day multidisciplinary clinical protocol. Developmental assessments consisting of cognitive level and adaptive behavior were completed in 57 persons. Most patients functioned in the mild-to-moderate range of mental retardation. In addition, we report that patients with SMS have low adaptive functioning with relative strengths in socialization and relative weakness in daily living skills. These data were analyzed in light of the molecular extent of the microdeletion within 17p11.2. We found that the level of cognitive and adaptive functioning does depend on deletion size, and that a small percentage of SMS patients have cognitive function in the borderline range. PMID:16775514

  12. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  13. Quality assessment of adaptive 3D video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Gutiérrez, Jesús; García, Narciso

    2013-03-01

    The streaming of 3D video contents is currently a reality to expand the user experience. However, because of the variable bandwidth of the networks used to deliver multimedia content, a smooth and high-quality playback experience could not always be guaranteed. Using segments in multiple video qualities, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) of video content is a relevant advancement with respect to classic progressive download streaming. Mainly, it allows resolving these issues by offering significant advantages in terms of both user-perceived Quality of Experience (QoE) and resource utilization for content and network service providers. In this paper we discuss the impact of possible HAS client's behavior while adapting to the network capacity on enduser. This has been done through an experiment of testing the end-user response to the quality variation during the adaptation procedure. The evaluation has been carried out through a subjective test of the end-user response to various possible clients' behaviors for increasing, decreasing, and oscillation of quality in 3D video. In addition, some of the HAS typical impairments during the adaptation has been simulated and their effects on the end-user perception are assessed. The experimental conclusions have made good insight into the user's response to different adaptation scenarios and visual impairments causing the visual discomfort that can be used to develop the adaptive streaming algorithm to improve the end-user experience.

  14. What You Should Know about Behavioral Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galassi, John P.; Perot, Annette R.

    1992-01-01

    Introduces behavioral assessment. Describes assumptions and methods of behavioral assessment and then compares and contrasts them with those of traditional assessment. Reviews recent developments in behavioral assessments. Includes two case examples that illustrate many of the principles and methods of behavioral assessment that are discussed.…

  15. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  16. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  17. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals-a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  18. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  19. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  20. Mouse Behavior: Conjectures about Adaptations for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Presents an experiment on mouse behavior in which students learn to observe, pay attention to details, record field notes, and ask questions about their observations. Uses a white mouse to eliminate the risk of disease that a wild rodent might carry. Lists materials, set up, and procedure. (YDS)

  1. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  2. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the paper are to (a) describe consensus on the stages involved in developing cultural adaptations, (b) identify common elements in cultural adaptations, (c) examine evidence on the effectiveness of culturally enhanced interventions for various health conditions, and (d) pose questions for future research. Method Influential literature from the past decade was examined to identify points of consensus. Results There is agreement that cultural adaptation can be organized into five stages: information gathering, preliminary design, preliminary testing, refinement, and final trial. With few exceptions, reviews of several health conditions (e.g., AIDS, asthma, diabetes) concluded that culturally enhanced interventions are more effective in improving health outcomes than usual care or other control conditions. Conclusion Progress has been made in establishing methods for conducting cultural adaptations and providing evidence of their effectiveness. Future research should include evaluations of cultural adaptations developed in stages, tests to determine the effectiveness of cultural adaptations relative to the original versions, and studies that advance our understanding of cultural constructs’ contributions to intervention engagement and efficacy. PMID:22289132

  3. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  4. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  5. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  6. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

  8. Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Outcomes of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldevik, Sigmund; Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptive behavior…

  9. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. PMID:19941941

  10. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  11. Alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Halpern, A S; Irvin, L K; Landman, J T

    1979-11-01

    Most measures of adaptive behavior are derived from rating scales. There are only a few instruments that approach the measurement of adaptive behavior through direct testing. In the present study we examined the relative efficacy of rating and testing approaches for predicting criterion behavior. Three tests from the Social and Prevocational Information Battery were selected as a foundation for the development of analogous behavior-rating and applied-performance instruments. All three types of instruments were administered to the same subjects, mildly retarded adolescents, in order to estimate the validity of testing and rating approaches. Although both approaches were found to be valid, the testing approach appeared to be substantially superior. Implications of this finding were discussed briefly. PMID:525660

  12. Multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO): analysis and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Katharine J.

    2015-09-01

    Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) is an essential approach to wavefront sensing and control. The concept of MCAO corrects each "layer" of the atmosphere independently. Correction devices (deformable mirrors) are placed in "series" and assigned to correct the isoplanatic patch. MCAO can be approached two ways: with multi-guide stars or multilayer correction. The objective of this paper is to analyze both approaches and assess their effectiveness to achieve their goals. Wavefront correction is being carried out in the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) by means of multiple Laser Guide Stars. Multi-layer correction is being achieved by the Solar Telescope GREGOR. This paper will analyze both approached for effectiveness in compensating turbulence for distortion correction.

  13. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

  14. The Adaptive Behavior Checklist: Development and Current Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Martin N.

    Provided is a computer summary of the ratings and prescriptive suggestions on the Adaptive Behavior Checklist (ABCL) for a 5-year-old severely retarded, physically handicapped institutionalized boy. The ABCL is explained to measure basic (general motor and sensory development), primary (conceptual and language development), and secondary (social…

  15. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  16. Goal-driven behavioral adaptations in gap-climbing Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pick, Simon; Strauss, Roland

    2005-08-23

    Tasks such as reaching out toward a distant target require adaptive and goal-oriented muscle-activity patterns. The CNS likely composes such patterns from behavioral subunits. How this coordination is done is a central issue in neural motor control. Here, we present a novel paradigm, which allows us to address this question in Drosophila with neurogenetic tools. Freely walking flies are faced with a chasm in their way. Whether they initiate gap-crossing behavior at all and how vigorously they try to reach the other side of the gap depend on a visual estimate of the gap width. By interfering with various putative distance-measuring mechanisms, we found that flies chiefly use the vertical edges on the targeted side to distill the gap width from the parallax motion generated during the approach. At gaps of surmountable width, flies combine and successively improve three behavioral adaptations to maximize the front-leg reach. Each leg pair contributes in a different manner. A screen for climbing mutants yielded lines with defects in the control of climbing initiation and others with specific impairments of particular behavioral adaptations while climbing. The fact that the adaptations can be impaired separately unveils them as distinct subunits. PMID:16111941

  17. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

  18. Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

  19. Adaptations for Rural Behavior Disordered Pupils in the Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Judy W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses instructional modifications to increase the academic success of rural behavior-disordered students in regular classes. Describes adaptations of teaching mode, media use, presentation of academic content, textbook content and organization, and test construction and administration. Contains 10 references. (SV)

  20. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

  2. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Schizotypy Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Menéndez, Luis Fernando; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. Objective The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) to evaluate schizotypy through “The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment” (ESQUIZO-Q), in non-clinical adolescents. Methods The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Results The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ≤0.30 was of 34 items. Conclusion The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings. PMID:24019907

  3. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  4. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Death Penalty Cases after Hall and DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Leigh D; Drogin, Eric Y; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants. We conclude with brief caveats regarding the standard error of measurement (SEM) in light of Hall, with reference to examples of ordinary life activities that directly illuminate adaptive functioning relevant to capital cases. PMID:26944749

  5. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70–200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys’ behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators. PMID:26266537

  6. Behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation: a physiological strategy when mice behaviorally thermoregulate.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Aydin, Cenk; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Johnstone, Andrew F M

    2014-08-01

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of ~22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller internal organs and longer tails compared to mice raised at 22°C. Since mice prefer Tas equal to their TNZ when housed in a thermocline, we hypothesized that mice reared for long periods (e.g., months) in a thermocline would undergo significant changes in organ development and tail length as a result of their thermoregulatory behavior. Groups of three female BALB/c mice at an age of 37 days were housed together in a thermocline consisting of a 90cm long aluminum runway with a floor temperature ranging from 23 to 39°C. Two side-by-side thermoclines allowed for a total of 6 mice to be tested simultaneously. Control mice were tested in isothermal runways maintained at a Ta of 22°C. All groups were given cotton pads for bedding/nest building. Mass of heart, lung, liver, kidney, brain, and tail length were assessed after 73 days of treatment. Mice in the thermocline and control (isothermal) runways were compared to cage control mice housed 3/cage with bedding under standard vivarium conditions. Mice in the thermocline generally remained in the warm end throughout the daytime with little evidence of nest building, suggesting a state of thermal comfort. Mice in the isothermal runway built elaborate nests and huddled together in the daytime. Mice housed in the thermocline had significantly smaller livers and kidneys and an increase in tail length compared to mice in the isothermal runway as well as when compared to the cage controls. These patterns of organ growth and tail length of mice in the thermocline are akin to warm adaptation. Thus, thermoregulatory behavior altered organ development, a process we term behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation. Moreover, the data suggest that the standard vivarium conditions are likely a cold stress that alters normal organ development relative to mice allowed to select their thermal preferendum. PMID:25086972

  7. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  8. Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood

    PubMed Central

    Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Calhoun, Adam J.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make accurate predictions of future stimuli and consequences of one’s actions are crucial for the survival and appropriate decision-making. These predictions are constantly being made at different levels of the nervous system. This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. This review will discuss recent findings that actions of neurons and animals are selected based on detailed stimulus history in such a way as to maximize information for achieving the task at hand. Information maximization dictates not only how sensory coding should adapt to various statistical aspects of stimuli, but also that reward function should adapt to match the predictive information from past to future. PMID:24709600

  9. Adaptive Assessment of Young Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…

  10. Risk of Behavioral and Adaptive Functioning Difficulties in Youth with Previous and Current Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Archbold, Kristen; Goodwin, James L.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Quan, Stuart F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the rates of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties among youth who never had sleep disordered breathing (SDB), had remitted SDB, had incident SDB, or had persistent SDB; and to determine if there were increased odds of behavioral difficulties among youth with varying SDB histories relative to those who never had SDB. Methods: 263 youth had valid polysomnography and neurobehavioral data at two time points approximately 5 years apart from the prospective Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study. Primary outcomes were the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children-2nd Edition Parent Report Form (BASC-PRF) and Self-Report of Personality (SRP), and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-2nd Edition (ABAS-2). Results: Compared to those who never had SDB, individuals with persistent SDB had significant odds and met more cutoff scores on the BASC-2-PRF Externalizing Problems Composite (odds ratio [OR] 3.29; 8.92% vs. 35.3%), Behavioral Symptoms Index (OR 6.82; 7.4% vs. 35.3%) and Hyperactivity subscale (OR 6.82; 11.1% vs. 41.2%). Similarly, greater difficulties was seen for the group with persistent SDB (relative to never) on the ABAS-2 Social Domain (OR 3.39; 22% vs. 50%), and Communication (OR 4.26; 15% vs. 42.9%) and Self-Care subscales (OR = 2.97; 25.2% vs. 50%). Relative to youth who never had SDB, youth who developed SDB at Time 2 had compromised adaptive skills as evidenced by the BASC-2 PRF Adaptive Behavior Composite (OR 3.34; 15.6% vs. 38.1%) and the ABAS-2 General Adaptive Composite (OR 2.83; 20.5% vs. 42.1%). Conclusions: Youth with current SDB exhibited hyperactivity, attention problems, aggressivity, lower social competency, poorer communication, and/or diminished adaptive skills. Citation: Perfect MM; Archbold K; Goodwin JL; Levine-Donnerstein D; Quan SF. Risk of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties in youth with previous and current sleep disordered breathing. SLEEP 2013;36(4):517-525. PMID:23543901

  11. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  12. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  13. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  14. Auditory skills, language development, and adaptive behavior of children with cochlear implants and additional disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Jessica; Harris, Michael S.; Kronenberger, William G.; Holt, Rachael Frush; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of functional auditory skills, language, and adaptive behavior in deaf children with cochlear implants (CI) who also have additional disabilities (AD). Design A two-group, pre-test versus post-test design was used. Study sample Comparisons were made between 23 children with CIs and ADs, and an age-matched comparison group of 23 children with CIs without ADs (No-AD). Assessments were obtained pre-CI and within 12 months post-CI. Results All but two deaf children with ADs improved in auditory skills using the IT-MAIS. Most deaf children in the AD group made progress in receptive but not expressive language using the Preschool Language Scale, but their language quotients were lower than the No-AD group. Five of eight children with ADs made progress in daily living skills and socialization skills; two made progress in motor skills. Children with ADs who did not make progress in language, did show progress in adaptive behavior. Conclusions Children with deafness and ADs made progress in functional auditory skills, receptive language, and adaptive behavior. Expanded assessment that includes adaptive functioning and multi-center collaboration is recommended to best determine benefits of implantation in areas of expected growth in this clinical population. PMID:22509948

  15. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, maintain their commitment and teach them the skills needed to effect changes in health behavior.

  16. Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

  17. Effects of arm-splint rigidity on self-injury and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, Nicole M; Roane, Henry S; Wilson, Jessie L; Novak, Matthew D; Silkowski, Erica L

    2015-12-01

    The current study replicated and extended previous research on the use of a rapid assessment to identify effective arm-splint rigidity with 2 participants who had been diagnosed with autism and who engaged in self-injurious behavior (SIB). We varied rigidity levels within a multielement design across several adaptive tasks and identified the most effective rigidity level in terms of reductions in SIB and levels of compliance. PMID:26373351

  18. A Framework for Spatial Assessment of Local Level Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity to Extreme Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Hayden, M.; Harlan, S.; Ruddell, D.; Komatsu, K.; England, B.; Uejio, C.

    2008-12-01

    Changing climate is predicted to increase the intensity and impacts of heat waves prompting the need to develop preparedness and adaptation strategies that reduce societal vulnerability. Central to understanding societal vulnerability, is adaptive capacity, the potential of a system or population to modify its features/behaviors so as to better cope with existing and anticipated stresses and fluctuations. Adaptive capacity influences adaptation, the actual adjustments made to cope with the impacts from current and future hazardous heat events. Understanding societal risks, vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events and climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach that includes information about weather and climate, the natural and built environment, social processes and characteristics, interactions with the stakeholders, and an assessment of community vulnerability. This project presents a framework for an interdisciplinary approach and a case study that explore linkages between quantitative and qualitative data for a more comprehensive understanding of local level vulnerability and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events in Phoenix, Arizona. In this talk, we will present a methodological framework for conducting collaborative research on societal vulnerability and adaptive capacity on a local level that includes integration of household surveys into a quantitative spatial assessment of societal vulnerability. We highlight a collaborative partnership among researchers, community leaders and public health officials. Linkages between assessment of local adaptive capacity and development of regional climate change adaptation strategies will be discussed.

  19. The contribution of children's self-regulation and classroom quality to children's adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom.

    PubMed

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Tim W; Grimm, Kevin J; Nathanson, Lori; Brock, Laura L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of multiple classroom observations during the kindergarten year. Children's adaptive classroom behavior in kindergarten was assessed through teacher report and classroom observations: Teachers rated children's cognitive and behavioral self-control and work habits during the spring of the kindergarten year; observers rated children's engagement and measured off-task behavior at 2-month intervals from November to May. Hierarchical linear models revealed that children's self-regulation upon school entry in a direct assessment related to teachers' report of behavioral self-control, cognitive self-control, and work habits in the spring of the kindergarten year. Classroom quality, particularly teachers' effective classroom management, was linked to children's greater behavioral and cognitive self-control, children's higher behavioral engagement, and less time spent off-task in the classroom. Classroom quality did not moderate the relation between children's self-regulation upon school entry and children's adaptive classroom behaviors in kindergarten. The discussion considers the implications of classroom management for supporting children's early development of behavioral skills that are important in school settings. PMID:19586173

  20. The Contribution of Children's Self-Regulation and Classroom Quality to Children's Adaptive Behaviors in the Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Curby, Tim W.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Brock, Laura L.; Nathanson, Lori

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of…

  1. The roles of antisocial history and emerging adulthood developmental adaption in predicting adult antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence have been identified by several researchers. However, more needs to be known about the development of antisocial behavior in adulthood and about factors that account for continuity and change. In this study, we investigated the developmental course into adulthood of different trajectories of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. Second, we examined the role of developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood in accounting for the continuity and change of antisocial behavior. The participants (N = 162) were drawn from an ongoing 28-year longitudinal study. Trajectory groups (EOP: Early Onset/Persistent, n = 30; AO: Adolescent Onset, n = 32; Other, n = 100) were based on measures of externalizing behavior assessed at six time points in childhood and adolescence. Through interviews and questionnaires in adulthood, the quality of romantic relationships and the participants' work ethic (age 23), duration of unemployment (between ages 23 and 26 years), the level of externalizing problems (ages 23 and 26), and the number of antisocial personality disorder symptoms (age 28) were assessed. Results indicated that individuals in the EOP group showed the highest levels of antisocial behavior throughout emerging and early adulthood. Negative experiences in the work and romantic relationship domains was related to the continuity of antisocial behavior in the EOP group. For the AO group, a shorter duration of unemployment was related to lower levels of antisocial behavior. This study shows that early history plays an important role in the development of antisocial behavior and in the way developmental adaptation in emerging adulthood accounts for continuity and change of antisocial behavior. PMID:23386537

  2. Human Adaptive Behavior in Common Pool Resource Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Gunnar; Merico, Agostino; Vollan, Björn; Schlüter, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users’ expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users’ current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users’ perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns. PMID:23285180

  3. A New Approach to the Measurement of Adaptive Behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer…

  4. A New Approach to the Measurement of Adaptive Behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer…

  5. Industry Cluster's Adaptive Co-competition Behavior Modeling Inspired by Swarm Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wei; Ye, Feifan

    Adaptation helps the individual enterprise to adjust its behavior to uncertainties in environment and hence determines a healthy growth of both the individuals and the whole industry cluster as well. This paper is focused on the study on co-competition adaptation behavior of industry cluster, which is inspired by swarm intelligence mechanisms. By referencing to ant cooperative transportation and ant foraging behavior and their related swarm intelligence approaches, the cooperative adaptation and competitive adaptation behavior are studied and relevant models are proposed. Those adaptive co-competition behaviors model can be integrated to the multi-agent system of industry cluster to make the industry cluster model more realistic.

  6. Adaptations and Access to Assessment of Common Core Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces theory that undergirds the role of testing adaptations in assessment, provides examples of item modifications and testing accommodations, reviews research relevant to each, and introduces a new paradigm that incorporates opportunity to learn (OTL), academic enablers, testing adaptations, and inferences that can be made from…

  7. Adaptive Assessment of Student's Knowledge in Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzopoulou, D. I.; Economides, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents Programming Adaptive Testing (PAT), a Web-based adaptive testing system for assessing students' programming knowledge. PAT was used in two high school programming classes by 73 students. The question bank of PAT is composed of 443 questions. A question is classified in one out of three difficulty levels. In PAT, the levels of…

  8. Adaptations and Access to Assessment of Common Core Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces theory that undergirds the role of testing adaptations in assessment, provides examples of item modifications and testing accommodations, reviews research relevant to each, and introduces a new paradigm that incorporates opportunity to learn (OTL), academic enablers, testing adaptations, and inferences that can be made from…

  9. Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

  10. Identifying Reading Problems with Computer-Adaptive Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, C.; Tymms, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an adaptive assessment called Interactive Computerised Assessment System (InCAS) that is aimed at children of a wide age and ability range to identify specific reading problems. Rasch measurement has been used to create the equal interval scales that form each part of the assessment. The rationale for the…

  11. An Adaptive Testing System for Supporting Versatile Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cheng, Shu-Chen

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test (CBT) with mobile learning (m-learning) especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test (CAT) is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves. In CAT, students are…

  12. An Adaptive Testing System for Supporting Versatile Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cheng, Shu-Chen

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test (CBT) with mobile learning (m-learning) especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test (CAT) is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves. In CAT, students are…

  13. Behavioral assessment for pediatric intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, M F; Bessman, C A; Parker, L H; Pearson, J E; Rogers, M C

    1979-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to analyze behaviors of staff and patients on a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). In the first study, behavioral observation procedures were employed to assess patient state, physical position, affect, verbal behaviors, visual attention and activity engagement, and staff verbal behavior. On the average, one-third of the patients were judged to be conscious and alert but markedly nonengaged with their environment. In the second study, a member of the hospital staff provided alert patients with individual activities to determine whether a simple environmental manipulation could positively affect behavior of children in intensive care. Employing a reversal design, the activity intervention was found to increase attention and engagement and positive affect, and to decrease inappropriate behavior. Both studies demonstrate that behavioral assessment procedures can provide an empirical basis for designing PICU routines affecting children's psychosocial status, and, thus, complement current procedures designed to provide quality medical care. PMID:468750

  14. Using Behavioral Questionnaires to Identify Adaptive Deficits in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David

    1994-01-01

    Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…

  15. Introducing Assessment: Strategic Adaptations and Early Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jo

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how educators can set the context of assessment conversations by looking at "well-lighted sites" for valuable, though certainly introductory, explorations that can set the stage for the more probing and more complex assessment work to come. The author suggests that in initial assessment conversations, it may…

  16. Calibrated Methodology for Assessing Adaptation Costs for Urban Drainage Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in precipitation patterns associated with climate change may pose significant challenges for storm water management systems across much of the U.S. In particular, adapting these systems to more intense rainfall events will require significant investment. The assessment ...

  17. Behavior of an adaptive bio-inspired spider web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Huie, Andrew; Hartman, Alex; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of an artificial adaptive spider web with comparable behavior to a real spider web. First, the natural frequency and energy absorption ability of a passive web is studied. Next, a control system that consists of stepper motors, load cells and an Arduino, is constructed to mimic a spider's ability to control the tension of radial strings in the web. The energy related characteristics in the artificial spider web is examined while the pre-tension of the radial strings are varied. Various mechanical properties of a damaged spider web are adjusted to study their effect on the behavior of the web. It is demonstrated that the pre-tension and stiffness of the web's radial strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and the total energy of the full and damaged webs.

  18. Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K

    2006-01-01

    We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in their local schools or social service agencies via videoconference. Case descriptions for 2 participants whose evaluations were conducted via telemedicine, and a brief summary of all outpatient assessments conducted over a 4-year period by the Biobehavioral Service, are provided. This report extends previous applications of functional analysis procedures by examining brief behavioral assessments conducted via telemedicine. PMID:17020213

  19. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; van Moort, Marianne L.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time (RT) is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES) has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES. PMID:27010472

  20. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic syndromes with intellectual disability: comparison of adaptive profiles.

    PubMed

    Di Nuovo, Santo; Buono, Serafino

    2011-10-30

    The study of distinctive and consistent behaviors in the most common genetic syndromes with intellectual disability is useful to explain abnormalities or associated psychiatric disorders. The behavioral phenotypes revealed outcomes totally or partially specific for each syndrome. The aim of our study was to compare similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles of the five most frequent genetic syndromes, i.e. Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Fragile-X syndrome (fully mutated), taking into account the relation with chronological age and the overall IQ level. The research was carried out using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (beside the Wechsler Intelligence scales to obtain IQ) with a sample of 181 persons (107 males and 74 females) showing genetic syndromes and mental retardation. Syndrome-based groups were matched for chronological age and mental age (excluding the Angelman group, presenting with severe mental retardation). Similarities and differences in the adaptive profiles are described, relating them to IQs and maladaptive behaviors. The results might be useful in obtaining a global index of adjustment for the assessment of intellectual disability level as well as for educational guidance and rehabilitative plans. PMID:21507490

  1. Forest climate change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitale, V. S.; Shrestha, H. L.; Agarwal, N. K.; Choudhurya, D.; Gilani, H.; Dhonju, H. K.; Murthy, M. S. R.

    2014-11-01

    Forests offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities over Hindu Kush Himalayan region. The forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and developing knowledge base to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is realized as an urgent need. The multi scale adaptation strategies portray increasing complexity with the increasing levels in terms of data requirements, vulnerability understanding and decision making to choose a particular adaptation strategy. We present here how such complexities could be addressed and adaptation decisions could be either directly supported by open source remote sensing based forestry products or geospatial analysis and modelled products. The forest vulnerability assessment under climate change scenario coupled with increasing forest social dependence was studied using IPCC Landscape scale Vulnerability framework in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in Nepal. Around twenty layers of geospatial information on climate, forest biophysical and forest social dependence data was used to assess forest vulnerability and associated adaptation needs using self-learning decision tree based approaches. The increase in forest fires, evapotranspiration and reduction in productivity over changing climate scenario was observed. The adaptation measures on enhancing productivity, improving resilience, reducing or avoiding pressure with spatial specificity are identified to support suitable decision making. The study provides spatial analytical framework to evaluate multitude of parameters to understand vulnerabilities and assess scope for alternative adaptation strategies with spatial explicitness.

  2. Assessing Treatment Integrity in Behavioral Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    The trend in school psychology services is a shift from an emphasis on an assessment-based paradigm to one of consultation problem-solving and behavioral intervention. A critical component of consultation-derived interventions and behavior change is "treatment integrity." Treatment integrity (or fidelity) refers to the extent to which an…

  3. Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

  4. Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in…

  5. Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

  6. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  7. Trichotillomania: Behavioral Assessment and Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kell, Brandy L.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the behavioral treatment of Trichotillomania. A brief overview of the diagnosis and assessment of Trichotillomania is provided. Guidelines for a structured clinical evaluation when working with people diagnosed with Trichotillomania are supplied. The most effective behavioral interventions and treatments for working with…

  8. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  9. Personality traits, future time perspective and adaptive behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gomes Carvalho, Renato Gil; Novo, Rosa Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the importance of future time perspective (FTP) for individual success. However, little research addresses the relationship between FTP and personality traits, particularly if FTP can mediate their influence on behavior. In this study we analyze the mediating of FTP in the influence of personality traits on the way adolescents live their life at school. Sample consisted in 351 students, aged from 14 to 18 years-old, at different schooling levels. Instruments were the Portuguese version of the MMPI-A, particularly the PSY-5 dimensions (Aggressiveness, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Neuroticism, Introversion), a FTP questionnaire, and a survey on school life, involving several indicators of achievement, social integration, and overall satisfaction. With the exception of Neuroticism, the results show significant mediation effects (p < .001) of FTP on most relationships between PSY-5 dimensions and school life variables. Concerning Disconstraint, FTP mediated its influence on overall satisfaction (β = -.125) and school achievement (β = -.106). In the case of Introversion, significant mediation effects occurred for interpersonal difficulties (β = .099) and participation in extracurricular activities (β = -.085). FTP was also a mediator of Psychoticism influence in overall satisfaction (β = -.094), interpersonal difficulties (β = .057), and behavior problems (β = .037). Finally, FTP mediated the influence of Aggressiveness on overall satisfaction (β = -.061), interpersonal difficulties (β = .040), achievement (β = -.052), and behavior problems (β = .023). Results are discussed considering the importance of FTP in the impact of some personality structural characteristics in students' school adaptation. PMID:25907852

  10. Emotion Management: Assessing Student Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLin, Arthur, Jr.

    This study was designed to identify the percent of 12-14-year-old male students' emotion management scores that demonstrated an at-risk level of emotion management functioning. The Juvenile Emotion Management Scale was administered to male middle school students to assess their emotion management ability in responding to emotional arousal.…

  11. Assessment Tools for Regular and Adapted Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Assessment in Adapted Physical Education is no longer the exception, but the rule under the guidelines of Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Regular physical educators are currently becoming involved in assessment processes and joining school multidisciplinary teams for total profile development of school aged…

  12. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  13. Effects of Wrist-Weights on Self-Injurious and Adaptive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Gregory P.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Keeney, Kris M.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey B.; Worsdell, April S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of wrist weights on the self-injurious and adaptive behaviors of a six-year-old boy with profound mental retardation were evaluated. Application of wrist weights reduced self-injurious behavior by 92 percent and was associated with higher increases or stable levels of multiple novel and preexisting adaptive behaviors. (Author/CR)

  14. Sex differences in autism spectrum disorders: does sex moderate the pathway from clinical symptoms to adaptive behavior?

    PubMed

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73 ± 4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p = 0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders. PMID:25988942

  15. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Sex Moderate the Pathway from Clinical Symptoms to Adaptive Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73?±?4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p?=?0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders. PMID:25988942

  16. Subjective quality assessment of an adaptive video streaming model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Shahid, Muhammad; Garcia, Narciso

    2014-01-01

    With the recent increased popularity and high usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) techniques, various studies have been carried out in this area which generally focused on the technical enhancement of HAS technology and applications. However, a lack of common HAS standard led to multiple proprietary approaches which have been developed by major Internet companies. In the emerging MPEG-DASH standard the packagings of the video content and HTTP syntax have been standardized; but all the details of the adaptation behavior are left to the client implementation. Nevertheless, to design an adaptation algorithm which optimizes the viewing experience of the enduser, the multimedia service providers need to know about the Quality of Experience (QoE) of different adaptation schemes. Taking this into account, the objective of this experiment was to study the QoE of a HAS-based video broadcast model. The experiment has been carried out through a subjective study of the end user response to various possible clients' behavior for changing the video quality taking different QoE-influence factors into account. The experimental conclusions have made a good insight into the QoE of different adaptation schemes which can be exploited by HAS clients for designing the adaptation algorithms.

  17. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. PMID:25461715

  18. Spontaneous neuronal network dynamics reveal circuit's functional adaptations for behavior.

    PubMed

    Romano, Sebastián A; Pietri, Thomas; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Jouary, Adrien; Haudrechy, Mathieu; Sumbre, Germán

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous neuronal activity is spatiotemporally structured, influencing brain computations. Nevertheless, the neuronal interactions underlying these spontaneous activity patterns, and their biological relevance, remain elusive. Here, we addressed these questions using two-photon calcium imaging of intact zebrafish larvae to monitor the neuron-to-neuron spontaneous activity fine structure in the tectum, a region involved in visual spatial detection. Spontaneous activity was organized in topographically compact assemblies, grouping functionally similar neurons rather than merely neighboring ones, reflecting the tectal retinotopic map despite being independent of retinal drive. Assemblies represent all-or-none-like sub-networks shaped by competitive dynamics, mechanisms advantageous for visual detection in noisy natural environments. Notably, assemblies were tuned to the same angular sizes and spatial positions as prey-detection performance in behavioral assays, and their spontaneous activation predicted directional tail movements. Therefore, structured spontaneous activity represents "preferred" network states, tuned to behaviorally relevant features, emerging from the circuit's intrinsic non-linear dynamics, adapted for its functional role. PMID:25704948

  19. Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

    2011-01-01

    The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

  20. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone,dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or changes in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. PMID:9182042

  1. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  2. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  3. Addressing Student Problem Behavior: An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mary Magee; Gable, Robert A.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Nelson, C. Michael; Howell, Kenneth W.

    This paper provides guidelines for conducting a functional behavioral assessment and developing positive behavior intervention plans with students who have behavior disorders or other disabilities in the context of requirements of the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). After an introduction, rights and…

  4. A Risk-based Model Predictive Control Approach to Adaptive Interventions in Behavioral Health.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Cabeza, Ascensión; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Ridao, Miguel A; Camacho, Eduardo F

    2011-07-01

    This paper examines how control engineering and risk management techniques can be applied in the field of behavioral health through their use in the design and implementation of adaptive behavioral interventions. Adaptive interventions are gaining increasing acceptance as a means to improve prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders, such as abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, mental illness, and obesity. A risk-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is developed for a hypothetical intervention inspired by Fast Track, a real-life program whose long-term goal is the prevention of conduct disorders in at-risk children. The MPC-based algorithm decides on the appropriate frequency of counselor home visits, mentoring sessions, and the availability of after-school recreation activities by relying on a model that includes identifiable risks, their costs, and the cost/benefit assessment of mitigating actions. MPC is particularly suited for the problem because of its constraint-handling capabilities, and its ability to scale to interventions involving multiple tailoring variables. By systematically accounting for risks and adapting treatment components over time, an MPC approach as described in this paper can increase intervention effectiveness and adherence while reducing waste, resulting in advantages over conventional fixed treatment. A series of simulations are conducted under varying conditions to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:21643450

  5. A Risk-based Model Predictive Control Approach to Adaptive Interventions in Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Zafra-Cabeza, Ascensión; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Ridao, Miguel A.; Camacho, Eduardo F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how control engineering and risk management techniques can be applied in the field of behavioral health through their use in the design and implementation of adaptive behavioral interventions. Adaptive interventions are gaining increasing acceptance as a means to improve prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders, such as abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, mental illness, and obesity. A risk-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is developed for a hypothetical intervention inspired by Fast Track, a real-life program whose long-term goal is the prevention of conduct disorders in at-risk children. The MPC-based algorithm decides on the appropriate frequency of counselor home visits, mentoring sessions, and the availability of after-school recreation activities by relying on a model that includes identifiable risks, their costs, and the cost/benefit assessment of mitigating actions. MPC is particularly suited for the problem because of its constraint-handling capabilities, and its ability to scale to interventions involving multiple tailoring variables. By systematically accounting for risks and adapting treatment components over time, an MPC approach as described in this paper can increase intervention effectiveness and adherence while reducing waste, resulting in advantages over conventional fixed treatment. A series of simulations are conducted under varying conditions to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:21643450

  6. Factorial Validity of Stephen's Social Behavior Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.; Schneider, Barry H.

    1985-01-01

    Conducted exploratory factor analysis and item analysis of Stephen's Social Behavior Assessment using ratings of elementary school pupils from regular classes. Based on these results, a tentative shorter, revised instrument was proposed which discriminated between students in regular classes and those enrolled in special education programs.…

  7. Iron supplementation in infancy contributes to more adaptive behavior at 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M; Smith, Julia B; Sturza, Julie

    2014-06-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14-0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  8. Iron Supplementation in Infancy Contributes to More Adaptive Behavior at 10 Years of Age1234

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.; Sturza, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14–0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  9. Modeling of bone adaptative behavior based on cells activities.

    PubMed

    Bonfoh, Napo; Novinyo, Edem; Lipinski, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Bone remodeling occurs in an adult's skeleton to adapt its architecture to external loadings. This involves bone resorption by osteoclasts cells followed by formation of new bone by osteoblasts cells. During bone remodeling, osteoclasts and osteoblasts interact with each other by expressing autocrine and paracrine factors that regulate cells' population. Therefore, changes in bone density depend on the amount of each acting cell population. The aim of this paper is to propose a model for the bone remodeling process, which takes into account the opposite activity of both types of cells. For this purpose, a system of differential equations, proposed by Komarova et al. (Bone 33:206-215, 2003), is introduced to describe bone cell interactions using parameters which characterize the autocrine and paracrine factors. Such equations allow us to determine how the autocrine and paracrine factors vary in response to an external stimulus. It is assumed that an equilibrium state can be obtained for values of stimulus near to some reference quantity. Far from this value, unbalanced activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is observed, which leads to bone apposition or resorption. The proposed model has been implemented into the finite element software ABAQUS to analyze the qualitative response of a bone structure when subjected to certain mechanical loadings. Obtained results are satisfactory and in accordance with the expected bone remodeling behavior. PMID:21136134

  10. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  11. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  12. Psychopathological Manifestations of Children with Intellectual Disabilities According to Their Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine N.; Richer, Louis; Lachance, Lise; Cote, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior which increase the risk of psychopathological disorders. This exploratory study aims at delineating profiles of children based on their cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviors, and to compare them on psychopathological manifestations. A…

  13. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  14. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  15. Longitudinal Examination of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes longitudinal change in adaptive behavior in 64 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without intellectual disability evaluated on multiple occasions, and examines whether prior estimate of executive function (EF) problems predicts future adaptive behavior scores. Compared to standardized estimates…

  16. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  17. Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-Text Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonseca, Enrique; Carro, Rosa M.; Freire, Manuel; Ortigosa, Alvaro; Perez, Diana; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    Adaptation techniques can be applied not only to the multimedia contents or navigational possibilities of a course, but also to the assessment. In order to facilitate the authoring of adaptive free-text assessment and its integration within adaptive web-based courses, Adaptive Hypermedia techniques and Free-text Computer Assisted Assessment are…

  18. [Assessment of adaptation risk in the individual prenosological control].

    PubMed

    Baevski?, R M; Chernikova, A G

    2014-10-01

    Trends in the development of modern ideas about health as the ability to adapt require personalization and preventive orientation in evaluating and predicting individual health. It can be realized only on the basis ofprenosological approach, which is necessary in medicine and physiology of labor, in particular--in the aviation and space medicine. The article analyzes the concept of adaptation risks and its application for health, assessing on the basis of the results of space and Earth modeling studies of autonomic regulation according to the HRV (heart rate variability) analysis. It is demonstrated that the developed methods for individual prenosological control have high diagnostic efficiency. PMID:25697025

  19. Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation Planning for the Southeast US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Yao, H.; Zhang, F.

    2012-12-01

    A climate change assessment is carried out for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the southeast US following an integrated water resources assessment and planning framework. The assessment process begins with the development/selection of consistent climate, demographic, socio-economic, and land use/cover scenarios. Historical scenarios and responses are analyzed first to establish baseline conditions. Future climate scenarios are based on GCMs available through the IPCC. Statistical and/or dynamic downscaling of GCM outputs is applied to generate high resolution (12x12 km) atmospheric forcing, such as rainfall, temperature, and ET demand, over the ACF River Basin watersheds. Physically based watershed, aquifer, and estuary models (lumped and distributed) are used to quantify the hydrologic and water quality river basin response to alternative climate and land use/cover scenarios. Demand assessments are carried out for each water sector, for example, water supply for urban, agricultural, and industrial users; hydro-thermal facilities; navigation reaches; and environmental/ecological flow and lake level requirements, aiming to establish aspirational water use targets, performance metrics, and management/adaptation options. Response models for the interconnected river-reservoir-aquifer-estuary system are employed next to assess actual water use levels and other sector outputs under a specific set of hydrologic inputs, demand targets, and management/adaptation options. Adaptive optimization methods are used to generate system-wide management policies conditional on inflow forecasts. The generated information is used to inform stakeholder planning and decision processes aiming to develop consensus on adaptation measures, management strategies, and performance monitoring indicators. The assessment and planning process is driven by stakeholder input and is inherently iterative and sequential.

  20. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers. Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American fathers. Some received a brief overview of the program before giving feedback (series A) and others received the entire intervention (series B). Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze transcripts and codebooks were developed through an iterative process. Series B fathers had fewer negative perceptions and a more detailed perspective. Limited exposure to an intervention may cause participants to provide inaccurate data on intervention acceptability. The fathers’ initial perceptions of interventions, regardless of accuracy, will affect recruitment and engagement and must be addressed. One strategy is to tailor program examples and language to reflect the experiences of African American fathers. PMID:26190952

  1. Simple Behavioral Assessment of Mouse Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mu; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2009-01-01

    This unit presents two basic protocols that offer rapid assessments of anosmia (the absence of a sense of smell) in mice. The buried food test is used to check for the ability to smell volatile odors. The olfactory habituation/dishabituation test is used to test whether the animal can detect and differentiate different odors, including both non-social odors and social odors. A non-contact method of odor presentations, along with a general method of collecting urine samples, is given as the alternate protocol. The tests described in this unit can be readily adapted and require only the most basic equipment. PMID:19575474

  2. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  3. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins. PMID:25573801

  4. Quantifying the CV: Adapting an Impact Assessment Model to Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohémier, K. A.

    2015-04-01

    We present the process and results of applying the Becker Model to the curriculum vitae of a Yale University astronomy professor. As background, in July 2013, the Becker Medical Library at Washington Univ. in St. Louis held a workshop for librarians on the Becker Model, a framework developed by research assessment librarians for quantifying medical researchers' individual and group outputs. Following the workshop, the model was analyzed for content to adapt it to the physical sciences.

  5. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  6. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M.; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism…

  7. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M.; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism…

  8. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24219847

  9. The impact of stress on feedback and error processing during behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Wolf, Oliver T; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Stress is known to influence learning in a complex fashion. The present study aimed to examine, in how far feedback-based behavioral adaptation and electrophysiological correlates of error and feedback processing during this process are altered after acute stress. To this end, a learning task involving conditions with contingent and non-contingent monetary feedback was applied to 40 healthy young men (two groups of 20 each). The participants of one group were stressed using the socially evaluated cold pressor test. A second group of participants underwent a control procedure before the task was administered and brain activity was assessed by means of electroencephalography. The analysis focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the error-related negativity (ERN). Stressed participants did not differ from controls in learning performance. They showed, however, an elevated FRN amplitude difference between punishment and reward compared to controls. Moreover, stressed but not control participants' FRN amplitudes reflected feedback contingency after learning and thus an outcome prediction error. For response-locked potentials, no significant group differences were found. These results indicate that stress leads to a stronger recruitment of the so-called reward system in the processing of performance feedback during feedback-based behavioral adaptation. PMID:25858601

  10. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  11. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  12. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  13. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  14. Sex-Role Orientation, Behavioral Adaptability, and Personal Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlofsky, Jacob L.; Windle, Michael T.

    1978-01-01

    In this study, 111 college men and women were classified into masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated sex role categories. Subjects were tested for emotional expressivity, assertiveness, and personal integration. Androgynous subjects exhibited the greatest adaptability. (Author/WI)

  15. FOOD NEEDS OF ADULT PARASITOIDS: BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS AND CONSEQUENCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most parasitoids need both carbohydrates and hosts to maximize their reproductive potential. We reviewed the literature for potential interactions between food resource acquisition of adult parasitoids and determined that they are influenced mainly by morphological adaptations for feeding, the dete...

  16. Using an Adaptive Gene Network Model for Self-Organizing Multicellular Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Ali H.; Shen, Xiling

    2015-01-01

    Using the transient interleukin (IL)-2 secretion of effector T helper (Teff) cells as an example, we show that self-organizing multicellular behavior can be modeled and predicted by an adaptive gene network model. Incorporating an adaptation algorithm we established previously, we construct a network model that has the parameter values iteratively updated to cope with environmental change governed by diffusion and cell-cell interactions. In contrast to non-adaptive models, we find that the proposed adaptive model for individual Teff cells can generate transient IL-2 secretory behavior that is observed experimentally at the population level. The proposed adaptive modeling approach can be a useful tool in the study of self-organizing behavior observed in other contexts in biology, including microbial pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, embryonic development, tumor formation, etc. PMID:23367162

  17. Adaptive Behavior Scale: Development as a Diagnostic Tool Via Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gully, Kevin J.; Hosch, Harmon M.

    1979-01-01

    Three classifications of 6- through 12-year-old children (388 nonretarded, 115 educable mentally retarded, and 85 trainable mentally retarded) were evaluated on the public school version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale by their teachers. (Author/SBH)

  18. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed. PMID:17106464

  19. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed. PMID:17106464

  20. Conducting a Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Applied Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, David B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    Three methods used in applied behavioral analysis research and appropriate for conducting a functional assessment of problem behavior in persons with mental retardation are described. They are informant assessment (e.g., behavioral interviews, rating scales, and questionnaires), direct observation assessment, and experimental analysis. (Author/DB)

  1. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  2. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Water Resources Adaptation Policies in Mediterranean Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, L. M.; Mediero, L.; Martin-Carrasco, F.

    2011-12-01

    Many factors challenge water management in Southern Europe: scarce water resources, climate change, population growth, environmental concerns and economic development, among others. Water policy in the region is designed to ensure future sustainability of water resources under strong socioeconomic forcing while maintaining the strategic ecological and social services of water. Climate change is projected to intensify these conflicts, since most models agree that Southern Europe will show a significant drying trend, especially during the second half of the century. For this reason, there is a strong need to integrate climate change adaptation into implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive. From the policy perspective, there are many studies on how climate change might lead to changes in hydrologic regime, water demands, water quality or ecosystems, but there little knowledge on how much water demand might be met with future hydrologic regime. In water scarce regions, water demands are supplied by means of hydraulic infrastructure, which performs functions of storage, transportation and distribution, to overcome the spatio-temporal irregularities of hydrologic regime. Knowledge on the relationship between natural water resources, reservoir storage and water demands is essential to assess the effectiveness of alternative policy options to ensure adequate public water supply. In this paper we provide a simple way to account for the influence of socioeconomic factors (hydraulic infrastructure and water policy) on climate change impacts on water resources in the Mediterranean region. We present a methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation policies in this context. The methodology is based on the application of the WAAPA (Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Assessment) model, which computes net water availability for consumptive use for a river basin taking into account the regulation capacity of its water supply system and a set of management standards defined through water policy. The model was applied to 47 River Basin Districts in Southern Europe to estimate water availability under different climate change projections and several adaptation policy scenarios. Climate change projections were taken from the results of the Regional Climate Models applied in the ENSEMBLES European project. The WAAPA model allows to obtain the maximum demand that could be supplied under certain conditions (demand seasonal distribution, water supply system management, reliability criteria) for different policy alternatives. Adaptation policy targets may be defined in terms of maintaining social services of water by comparison between water availability in current and future time horizons. Several possible options, like increasing the efficiency of water use or improving the management of water supply systems, were analyzed and compared in quantitative terms. It was found that, although significant reductions in water availability can be expected, the effectiveness of certain adaptation policies might mitigate the expected impacts to a large extent.

  4. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  5. Brief Report: Adaptive Behavior and Cognitive Skills for Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Huai, Nan; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adaptive behavior and cognitive skills for 125 toddlers on the autism spectrum using the recently updated Vineland-II and Bayley-III. Delays in adaptive skills were apparent at 2 years of age. As a group, toddlers on the autism spectrum had a profile of Vineland-II standard scores in which Motor Skills greater than Daily Living…

  6. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  7. Cognitive, Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Fragile X and Non-Fragile X Retarded Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of 12 retarded men with fragile X syndrome indicated that fragile X men were largely indistinguishable from comparison groups. They were, however, significantly more likely to have achieved levels of adaptive functioning commensurate with their intellectual abilities. (Author/DB)

  8. Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

  9. A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

  10. A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interian, Alejandro; Allen, Lesley A.; Gara, Michael A.; Escobar, Javier I.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All…

  11. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others’ intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others’ behaviors will be consistent with one’s expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others’ demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining. PMID:24493841

  12. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining.

    PubMed

    Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others' intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others' behaviors will be consistent with one's expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others' demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining. PMID:24493841

  13. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  14. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  15. Comparison of Measures of Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda I.; Servos, Andria B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonproblem and problem children were compared on Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Classroom Adjustment Rating Scale, Ottawa School Behavior Survey, AML Behavior Rating Scale, Teacher Rating Scale, and Denver Developmental Screening Test. Problem children scored significantly lower than nonproblem children on all measures. Minnesota Child…

  16. Effects of the emotion system on adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Giske, Jarl; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Fiksen, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Per J; Aksnes, Dag L; Jørgensen, Christian; Mangel, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A central simplifying assumption in evolutionary behavioral ecology has been that optimal behavior is unaffected by genetic or proximate constraints. Observations and experiments show otherwise, so that attention to decision architecture and mechanisms is needed. In psychology, the proximate constraints on decision making and the processes from perception to behavior are collectively described as the emotion system. We specify a model of the emotion system in fish that includes sensory input, neuronal computation, developmental modulation, and a global organismic state and restricts attention during decision making for behavioral outcomes. The model further includes food competition, safety in numbers, and a fluctuating environment. We find that emergent strategies in evolved populations include common emotional appraisal of sensory input related to fear and hunger and also include frequency-dependent rules for behavioral responses. Focused attention is at times more important than spatial behavior for growth and survival. Spatial segregation of the population is driven by personality differences. By coupling proximate and immediate influences on behavior with ultimate fitness consequences through the emotion system, this approach contributes to a unified perspective on the phenotype, by integrating effects of the environment, genetics, development, physiology, behavior, life history, and evolution. PMID:24231532

  17. [Neuroendocrine mechanisms in the shaping of adaptive behavior].

    PubMed

    Shaliapina, V G; Ordian, N E; Pivina, S G; Rakitskaia, V V

    1995-08-01

    Behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressfull factors action is genetically determinated programm of individual development and is formed in pre- and postnatal ontogenesis. This responses may be changed by stressors action or corticosteroid hormone injection during ontogenety "critical" period. Inhibition of some neuroendocrine or neuromediator system is fulfilled through mineralo- and glucocorticoid receptors and promote of behavioral modifications beginning. PMID:8775441

  18. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  19. Predicting Adaptive Behavior from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotard, Stephen; McWhirter, Richard

    To examine the proportion of variance in adaptive functioning predictable from mental ability, chronological age, I.Q., evidence of brain malfunction, seizure medication, and receptive and expressive language scores, 25 severely and profoundly retarded institutionalized persons (2-19 years old) were administered the Bayley Infant Scale Mental…

  20. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  1. Posterior Cingulate Cortex: Adapting Behavior to a Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, John M.; Heilbronner, Sarah R.; Barack, David L.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    When has the world changed enough to warrant a new approach? The answer depends upon current needs, behavioral flexibility, and prior knowledge about the environment. Formal approaches solve the problem by integrating the recent history of rewards, errors, uncertainty, and context via Bayesian inference to detect changes in the world and alter behavioral policy. Neuronal activity in posterior cingulate cortex (CGp)—a key node in the default network—is known to vary with learning, memory, reward, and task engagement. We propose that these modulations reflect the underlying process of change detection and motivate subsequent shifts in behavior. PMID:21420893

  2. Effects of Germline Mutations in the Ras/MAPK Signaling Pathway on Adaptive Behavior: Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome and Noonan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I.; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Mendelsohn, Nancy J.; Roberts, Amy E.; Tworog-Dube, Erica; Rauen, Katherine A.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) and Noonan syndrome (NS) are two phenotypically overlapping genetic disorders whose underlying molecular etiologies affect a common signaling pathway. Mutations in the BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 genes cause most cases of CFC and mutations in PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS and RAF1 typically cause NS. Although both syndromes are associated with developmental delays of varying severity, the extent to which the behavioral profiles differ may shed light on the different roles these respective genes play in development of skills necessary for everyday functioning. In this study, profiles of adaptive behavior of individuals with CFC and NS who had confirmed pathogenic mutations in Ras/MAPK pathway genes were investigated. Patterns of strengths and weaknesses, age-related differences, and risk factors for difficulties in adaptive skills were assessed. Although genes acting more downstream in the Ras/MAPK pathway were associated with more difficulties in adaptive functioning than genes more upstream in the pathway, several inconsistencies highlight the wide spectrum of possible developmental courses in CFC and NS. Along with clinical and genetic factors, variables such as chronological age, gestational age at birth and parental education levels accounted for significant variance in adaptive skills. Results indicate that there is wide heterogeneity in adaptive ability in CFC and NS, but that these abilities are correlated to some extent with the specific disease-causing genes. PMID:20186801

  3. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

  4. Avoid, attack or do both? Behavioral and physiological adaptations in natural enemies faced with novel hosts

    PubMed Central

    Vacher, Corinne; Brown, Sam P; Hochberg, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Background Confronted with well-defended, novel hosts, should an enemy invest in avoidance of these hosts (behavioral adaptation), neutralization of the defensive innovation (physiological adaptation) or both? Although simultaneous investment in both adaptations may first appear to be redundant, several empirical studies have suggested a reinforcement of physiological resistance to host defenses with additional avoidance behaviors. To explain this paradox, we develop a mathematical model describing the joint evolution of behavioral and physiological adaptations on the part of natural enemies to their host defenses. Our specific goals are (i) to derive the conditions that may favor the simultaneous investment in avoidance and physiological resistance and (ii) to study the factors that govern the relative investment in each adaptation mode. Results Our results show that (i) a simultaneous investment may be optimal if the fitness costs of the adaptive traits are accelerating and the probability of encountering defended hosts is low. When (i) holds, we find that (ii) the more that defended hosts are rare and/or spatially aggregated, the more behavioral adaptation is favored. Conclusion Despite their interference, physiological resistance to host defensive innovations and avoidance of these same defenses are two strategies in which it may be optimal for an enemy to invest in simultaneously. The relative allocation to each strategy greatly depends on host spatial structure. We discuss the implications of our findings for the management of invasive plant species and the management of pest resistance to new crop protectants or varieties. PMID:16271142

  5. The Use of Structural Behavioral Assessment to Develop Interventions for Secondary Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Structural behavioral assessment (SBA) involves a series of heuristic approaches similar to those used with functional behavioral assessment (FBA). It involves assessing contextual variables that precede the occurrence of a behavior. These variables have also been termed antecedents, setting events, or establishing operations. Once these variables…

  6. The Use of Structural Behavioral Assessment to Develop Interventions for Secondary Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Structural behavioral assessment (SBA) involves a series of heuristic approaches similar to those used with functional behavioral assessment (FBA). It involves assessing contextual variables that precede the occurrence of a behavior. These variables have also been termed antecedents, setting events, or establishing operations. Once these variables…

  7. Assessing walking behaviors of selected subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Le Masurier, Guy C; Bauman, Adrian E; Corbin, Charles B; Konopack, James F; Umstattd, Renee M; VAN Emmerik, Richard E A

    2008-07-01

    Recent innovations in physical activity (PA) assessment have made it possible to assess the walking behaviors of a wide variety of populations. Objective measurement methods (e.g., pedometers, accelerometers) have been widely used to assess walking and other prevalent types of PA. Questionnaires suitable for international populations (e.g., the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire) and measurement techniques for the assessment of gait patterns in disabled populations allow for the study of walking and its health benefits among many populations. Results of studies using the aforementioned techniques indicate that children are more active than adolescents and adolescents are more active than adults. Males, particularly young males, are typically more active than females. The benefits associated with regular participation in PA for youth and walking for older adults have been well documented, although improvements in the assessments of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial parameters must be made if we are to fully understand the benefits of walking for people of all ages. Most youth meet appropriate age-related PA activity recommendations, but adults, particularly older adults and adults with disabilities, are less likely to meet PA levels necessary for the accrual of health benefits. International studies indicate variation in walking by culture. It is clear, however, that walking is a prevalent form of PA across countries and a movement form that has great potential in global PA promotion. Continued development of measurement techniques that allow for the study of individualized gait patterns will help us add to the already rich body of knowledge on chronically disabled populations and allow for individual prescriptions for these populations. PMID:18562977

  8. Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

  9. Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

  10. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  11. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  12. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  13. Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

  14. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  15. Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Transportation Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, A.; Keller, J.; Meyer, M. D.; Flood, M.

    2011-12-01

    The transportation infrastructure, with long design life of 50 years and more, is susceptible to climate change. This paper describes an approach for assessing climate change adaptation strategies for transportation infrastructure, principally roadways and bridges. It is acknowledged that the affects and timing of climate changes are difficult to anticipate and that planning and design has its own inherent risks that must be considered on top of the uncertainty of climate change. Those conditions notwithstanding, climatologists, planners, and engineers are working on ways to reduce uncertainty and deal with risks in ways that can result in facilities that can provide reasonable levels of service, appropriate to their requirements in ways that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. This paper first identifies the potential changes in climate and local environmental conditions and impacts that will be of interest to the transportation designer; then discusses the status of climate forecasting, one of the great uncertainties in climate adaptation planning; and finally addresses climate and design risk and suggests approaches to dealing with expected changes. The adaptation strategy must be responsive to future conditions that can be very different than those of the past. Therefore, the paper describes approaches that include allowing for flexibility in designs, developing alternative scenarios and responses, performing sensitivity analysis, incorporating risk assessment / management techniques integrated with climate forecasting and infrastructure design. By utilizing these approaches, transportation facilities can be designed so that they can be expected to meet their requirements without being over designed. Such an approach will also minimize the total life-cycle cost.

  16. Effects of adaptive protective behavior on the dynamics of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michael A L; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to present a complex and costly challenge to public health programs. The preferences and social dynamics of a population can have a large impact on the course of an outbreak as well as the effectiveness of interventions intended to influence individual behavior. In addition, individuals may alter their sexual behavior in response to the presence of STIs, creating a feedback loop between transmission and behavior. We investigate the consequences of modeling the interaction between STI transmission and prophylactic use with a model that links a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) system to evolutionary game dynamics that determine the effective contact rate. The combined model framework allows us to address protective behavior by both infected and susceptible individuals. Feedback between behavioral adaptation and prevalence creates a wide range of dynamic behaviors in the combined model, including damped and sustained oscillations as well as bistability, depending on the behavioral parameters and disease growth rate. We found that disease extinction is possible for multiple regions where R0>1, due to behavior adaptation driving the epidemic downward, although conversely endemic prevalence for arbitrarily low R0 is also possible if contact rates are sufficiently high. We also tested how model misspecification might affect disease forecasting and estimation of the model parameters and R0. We found that alternative models that neglect the behavioral feedback or only consider behavior adaptation by susceptible individuals can potentially yield misleading parameter estimates or omit significant features of the disease trajectory. PMID:26362102

  17. Neural Adaptation and Behavioral Measures of Temporal Processing and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Murphy, Dora; Boian, Melissa; Scott, Michael; Keith, Robert; Xiang, Jing; Abbas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine if one of the neural temporal features, neural adaptation, can account for the across-subject variability in behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception performance in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Neural adaptation is the phenomenon in which neural responses are the strongest at the beginning of the stimulus and decline following stimulus repetition (e.g., stimulus trains). It is unclear how this temporal property of neural responses relates to psychophysical measures of temporal processing (e.g., gap detection) or speech perception. The adaptation of the electrical compound action potential (ECAP) was obtained using 1000 pulses per second (pps) biphasic pulse trains presented directly to the electrode. The adaptation of the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) was obtained using a sequence of 1-kHz tone bursts presented acoustically, through the cochlear implant. Behavioral temporal processing was measured using the Random Gap Detection Test at the most comfortable listening level. Consonant nucleus consonant (CNC) word and AzBio sentences were also tested. The results showed that both ECAP and LAEP display adaptive patterns, with a substantial across-subject variability in the amount of adaptation. No correlations between the amount of neural adaptation and gap detection thresholds (GDTs) or speech perception scores were found. The correlations between the degree of neural adaptation and demographic factors showed that CI users having more LAEP adaptation were likely to be those implanted at a younger age than CI users with less LAEP adaptation. The results suggested that neural adaptation, at least this feature alone, cannot account for the across-subject variability in temporal processing ability in the CI users. However, the finding that the LAEP adaptive pattern was less prominent in the CI group compared to the normal hearing group may suggest the important role of normal adaptation pattern at the cortical level in speech perception. PMID:24386403

  18. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Chinese Americans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Myers, Hector; Chiu, Eddie; Mak, Elsie; Butner, Jonathan; Fujimoto, Ken; Wood, Jeff; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for adults have tested the effectiveness of a well-specified psychotherapy compared with a culturally adapted version of the same treatment. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) in treating depressed Chinese American adults. Methods This was a RCT that treated 50 Chinese Americans who met criteria for major depression and sought treatment at community mental health clinics. Participants were screened beginning September 2008, with the last assessment conducted in March 2011. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 sessions of CBT or CA-CBT. Stratified randomization was used for patients who were on and not on antidepressants when they first came to the clinic, and the study did not influence regular prescription practices. The primary outcomes were dropout rates and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale measured at baseline, session 4, session 8, and session 12. Results Participants in CA-CBT evidenced a greater overall decrease in depressive symptoms than those in CBT, but depression rates remained similarly high at week 12. Differences in dropout rates approached, but did not meet statistical significance (7% CA-CBT and 26% CBT). Conclusions Chinese Americans entered this study with very severe depression. Participants in both CBT and CA-CBT evidenced significant decreases in depressive symptoms, but the majority did not reach remission. Results suggest that these short-term treatments were not sufficient to address such severe depression and that more intensive and longer treatments may be needed. Results also indicate that cultural adaptations may confer additional treatment benefits. PMID:26129996

  19. Behavioral assessment of the toxicity of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Holder, M D; Yirmiya, R

    1989-01-01

    Six experiments with rats assessed the toxicity of aspartame with behavioral measures. The first three experiments used a conditioned taste aversion procedure since taste aversions are typically observed after a taste is followed by a toxin. Thirty min after thirsty rats drank a sweet solution they were intraperitoneally injected (Experiment 1) or intragastrically intubated (Experiment 2) with saline or 176, 352, or 704 mg/kg of aspartame. Relative to rats given saline, rats injected with 704 and 352 mg/kg aspartame showed strong and mild aversions, respectively. Rats injected with 176 mg/kg of aspartame or intubated with any dose of aspartame did not show taste aversions. In Experiment 3, rats voluntarily consumed an aspartame solution sweetened with saccharin for 7 hr each day. Consumption of the taste paired with aspartame was not reduced. When 352 mg/kg aspartame was injected (Experiment 4), but not when intubated (Experiment 5), 5 min prior to access to a running wheel, running was reduced. Wheel running was not affected by the voluntary consumption of aspartame (Experiment 6). The route of administration effect (intraperitoneal vs. intragastric) on behavior corresponded with the amino acid levels in blood plasma (Experiment 7). Aspartate, phenylalanine, tyrosine and glutamate levels increased more after the injection, than the intubation, of aspartame (176 mg/kg). Overall, the results suggest that aspartame may have adverse effects when intraperitoneally injected but not when the route of administration is oral. PMID:2734328

  20. Increasing Adaptive Behavior Skill Deficits from Childhood to Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive…

  1. Options for Managing Student Behavior: Adaptations for Individual Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

    This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…

  2. Using Functional Assessments To Develop Effective Behavioral Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Soung

    2002-01-01

    All too often, one behavioral intervention is used universally to handle a variety of problem behaviors, regardless of the function of the misbehavior. This article describes how a functional assessment of behavior can be used to identify the purpose of misbehaviors and plan effective behavioral interventions. (Author)

  3. Assaying Student Behavior. A Minicourse in Student Assessment Techniques: Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padzensky, Herb; And Others

    The workbook is intended as an instructional guide for a course in behavioral assessment of developmentally disabled persons. Exercises in the five units test skill in such areas as sensory modalities assessment and disruptive behavior recording, and a unit assessment evaluates the participant's knowledge of unit objectives. Criterion for passing…

  4. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the sub-population that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, i.e. increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors, and to develop strategies to minimize their impact. PMID:23470300

  5. Maternal adjustment of egg size organizes alternative escape behaviors, promoting adaptive phenotypic integration.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Lesley T; McAdam, Andrew G; Sinervo, Barry

    2010-06-01

    Numerous integrated traits contribute to any aspect of organismal performance, but favorable trait combinations are difficult to maintain in the face of genetic recombination. We investigated the role of maternal effects in promoting integration of alternative reproductive strategies (throat colors) with antipredator traits (escape behaviors and dorsal patterns) in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana). Previously, we reported that maternally derived estradiol adaptively pairs dorsal patterns with progeny throat colors. Here we show adaptive maternal effects on escape behaviors within each throat color morph. Specifically, yellow-throated females and all females mated to yellow-throated sires lay larger eggs. Larger eggs produce stockier offspring, who remain stockier throughout life. Stockiness promotes evasive escape behaviors (e.g., reversals), which are adaptive in barred, yellow-throated offspring. Orange-throated females lay smaller eggs, producing leaner hatchlings who perform vertical escape behaviors (e.g., jumping). Vertical behaviors enhance survival in striped, orange-throated progeny. Escape behavior was not heritable, but was organized by natural or experimental egg size variation. Maternal effects on adaptive phenotypic integration are likely common in polymorphic species, because recombination otherwise breaks apart beneficial trait combinations. Furthermore, our results provide insight into the role of body shape in organizing (and constraining) evolution of integrated reproductive and antipredator strategies. PMID:20624182

  6. A Comparison of the Adaptive Behavior of Retarded Individuals Successfully and Unsuccessfully Placed in Group Living Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, James R.

    Compared were the adaptive behavior and IQ scores of educable retarded persons 16- to 45-years-old who were successful (N=47) in group living. Scores of parts 1 and 2 of the Adaptive Behavior Scale, including domains of independent functioning, language development, antisocial behavior, and unacceptable or eccentric habits were correlated to house…

  7. The dimension of adaptive behavior in mental retardation research: an analysis of recent practices.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Polloway, E A

    1979-09-01

    The dimension of adaptive behavior has been accepted by many professionals as an important component of identification in mental retardation since the definitions of Heber (1961) and Grossman (1973). In order to investigate the impact of this more comprehensive concept of mental retardation on research practices, we analyzed the use of adaptive behavior in the selection and description of subjects. This investigation was based in research articles published in the Americal Journal of Mental Deficiency from 1974 through 1978. In a significant percentage of the articles reviewed, the researchers had not attended to adaptive behavior and used only measures of intellectual functioning for descriptive purposes. These results were discussed in light of the validity of research on mental retardation. Recommendations were included for future research practices. PMID:495669

  8. The adaptive trade-off between detection and discrimination in cortical representations and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ollerenshaw, Douglas R.; Zheng, He J. V.; Millard, Daniel C.; Wang, Qi; Stanley, Garrett B.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY It has long been posited that detectability of sensory inputs can be sacrificed in favor of improved discriminability, and that sensory adaptation may mediate this trade-off. The extent to which this trade-off exists behaviorally, and the complete picture of the underlying neural representations that likely subserve the phenomenon, remain unclear. In the rodent vibrissa system, an ideal observer analysis of cortical activity measured using voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in anesthetized animals was combined with behavioral detection and discrimination tasks, thalamic recordings from awake animals, and computational modeling to show that spatial discrimination performance was improved following adaptation, but at the expense of the ability to detect weak stimuli. Together, these results provide direct behavioral evidence for the trade-off between detectability and discriminability, that this trade-off can be modulated through bottom-up sensory adaptation, and that these effects correspond to important changes in thalamocortical coding properties. PMID:24607233

  9. Walking Adaptability after a Stroke and Its Assessment in Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K.; Clark, David J.; Fox, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    Control of walking has been described by a tripartite model consisting of stepping, equilibrium, and adaptability. This review focuses on walking adaptability, which is defined as the ability to modify walking to meet task goals and environmental demands. Walking adaptability is crucial to safe ambulation in the home and community environments and is often severely compromised after a stroke. Yet quantification of walking adaptability after stroke has received relatively little attention in the clinical setting. The objectives of this review were to examine the conceptual challenges for clinical measurement of walking adaptability and summarize the current state of clinical assessment for walking adaptability. We created nine domains of walking adaptability from dimensions of community mobility to address the conceptual challenges in measurement and reviewed performance-based clinical assessments of walking to determine if the assessments measure walking adaptability in these domains. Our literature review suggests the lack of a comprehensive well-tested clinical assessment tool for measuring walking adaptability. Accordingly, recommendations for the development of a comprehensive clinical assessment of walking adaptability after stroke have been presented. Such a clinical assessment will be essential for gauging recovery of walking adaptability with rehabilitation and for motivating novel strategies to enhance recovery of walking adaptability after stroke. PMID:25254140

  10. Behavioral assay for assessing effects of pollutants on fish chemoreception

    SciTech Connect

    Lemly, A.D.; Smith, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Behavioral assays are sensitive to sublethal levels of pollution but they usually require highly trained personnel and long observation periods. We describe a system that combines the sensitivity of a behavioral assay with commercially available automated monitoring equipment. The observation system consists of a special aquarium coupled to a recirculating water system, and an Opto-Varimex-Aqua activity tracking meter (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, Ohio) interfaced to a microcomputer. The tracking meter forms an intersecting, planar grid of light beams which, when interrupted by fish movements, is translated into a digitized signal and fed to the computer. The assay is based on the response of fish to natural chemical stimuli such as food odors or pheromones. When these stimulus solutions are injected into the water circulation the response of the fish is monitored by the computer system, which is capable of discriminating and quantifying changes in eight parameters. Normal responses to stimuli are compared with the response of fish that have been exposed to pollutants. We have successfully used this technique to examine effects of reduced pH on the response of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, to chemical feeding stimuli. The system should be easily adapted to any laboratory concerned with testing for effects of toxic substances, and will identify effects of pollution that have thus far been difficult or impossible to assess.

  11. Cybernetic control model from ethology for adaptive coordination of robot behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Bernd

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we propose a cybernetic approach to behavior based robotics. We present a distributed adaptive control architecture for coordination of different motivations and behaviors of an autonomous vehicle. The system is based on the Zurich Model of Social Motivation, a cybernetic approach to mammalian behavior by the Swiss ethologist BISCHOF. Our system controls a simulated autonomous robot by teaching a reflective associative memory to propose an action based on the input of eight range sensors. The emerging behavior at every stage reflects the system's experience, and the robust in unexpected situations.

  12. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  13. Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

    Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

  14. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  15. The Effects of Rapid Assessments and Adaptive Restudy Prompts in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renkl, Alexander; Skuballa, Irene T.; Schwonke, Rolf; Harr, Nora; Leber, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rapid assessment tasks and different adaptive restudy prompts in multimedia learning. The adaptivity was based on rapid assessment tasks that were interspersed throughout a multimedia learning environment. In Experiment 1 (N = 52 university students), we analyzed to which extent rapid assessment tasks were reactive…

  16. The Effects of Rapid Assessments and Adaptive Restudy Prompts in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renkl, Alexander; Skuballa, Irene T.; Schwonke, Rolf; Harr, Nora; Leber, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rapid assessment tasks and different adaptive restudy prompts in multimedia learning. The adaptivity was based on rapid assessment tasks that were interspersed throughout a multimedia learning environment. In Experiment 1 (N = 52 university students), we analyzed to which extent rapid assessment tasks were reactive…

  17. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  18. Group selection as behavioral adaptation to systematic risk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J; Lo, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form "groups", even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution-selection with correlated reproductive risk-that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  19. Studying the neural basis of adaptive locomotor behavior in insects.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, Matthias; Rosenbaum, Philipp; Bollhagen, Hans-Peter; Bueschges, Ansgar

    2011-01-01

    Studying the neural basis of walking behavior, one often faces the problem that it is hard to separate the neuronally produced stepping output from those leg movements that result from passive forces and interactions with other legs through the common contact with the substrate. If we want to understand, which part of a given movement is produced by nervous system motor output, kinematic analysis of stepping movements, therefore, needs to be complemented with electrophysiological recordings of motor activity. The recording of neuronal or muscular activity in a behaving animal is often limited by the electrophysiological equipment which can constrain the animal in its ability to move with as many degrees of freedom as possible. This can either be avoided by using implantable electrodes and then having the animal move on a long tether (i.e. Clarac et al., 1987; Duch & Pflüger, 1995; Böhm et al., 1997; Gruhn & Rathmayer, 2002) or by transmitting the data using telemetric devices (Kutsch et al, 1993; Fischer et al., 1996; Tsuchida et al. 2004; Hama et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2008). Both of these elegant methods, which are successfully used in larger arthropods, often prove difficult to apply in smaller walking insects which either easily get entangled in the long tether or are hindered by the weight of the telemetric device and its batteries. In addition, in all these cases, it is still impossible to distinguish between the purely neuronal basis of locomotion and the effects exerted by mechanical coupling between the walking legs through the substrate. One solution for this problem is to conduct the experiments in a tethered animal that is free to walk in place and that is locally suspended, for example over a slippery surface, which effectively removes most ground contact mechanics. This has been used to study escape responses (Camhi and Nolen, 1981; Camhi and Levy, 1988), turning (Tryba and Ritzman, 2000a,b; Gruhn et al., 2009a), backward walking (Graham and Epstein, 1985) or changes in velocity (Gruhn et al., 2009b) and it allows the experimenter easily to combine intra- and extracellular physiology with kinematic analyses (Gruhn et al., 2006). We use a slippery surface setup to investigate the timing of leg muscles in the behaving stick insect with respect to touch-down and lift-off under different behavioral paradigms such as straight forward and curved walking in intact and reduced preparations. PMID:21525839

  20. Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In many parts of the world, including in China, extreme heat events or heat waves are likely to increase in intensity, frequency, and duration in light of climate change in the next decades. Risk perception and adaptation behaviors are two important components in reducing the health impacts of heat waves, but little is known about their relationships in China. This study aimed to examine the associations between risk perception to heat waves, adaptation behaviors, and heatstroke among the public in Guangdong province, China. Methods A total of 2,183 adult participants were selected using a four-stage sampling method in Guangdong province. From September to November of 2010 each subject was interviewed at home by a well-trained investigator using a structured questionnaire. The information collected included socio-demographic characteristics, risk perception and spontaneous adaptation behaviors during heat wave periods, and heatstroke experience in the last year. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression models were employed to analyze the data. Results This study found that 14.8%, 65.3% and 19.9% of participants perceived heat waves as a low, moderate or high health risk, respectively. About 99.1% participants employed at least one spontaneous adaptation behavior, and 26.2%, 51.2% and 22.6% respondents employed <4, 4–7, and >7 adaptation behaviors during heat waves, respectively. Individuals with moderate (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.38-6.22) or high (OR=10.58, 95% CI: 4.74-23.63) risk perception experienced more heatstroke in the past year than others. Drinking more water and wearing light clothes in urban areas, while decreasing activity as well as wearing light clothes in rural areas were negatively associated with heatstroke. Individuals with high risk perception and employing <4 adaptation behaviors during heat waves had the highest risks of heatstroke (OR=47.46, 95% CI: 12.82-175.73). Conclusions There is a large room for improving health risk perception and adaptation capacity to heat waves among the public of Guangdong province. People with higher risk perception and fewer adaptation behaviors during heat waves may be more vulnerable to heat waves. PMID:24088302

  1. Simple and conditioned adaptive behavior from Kalman filter trained recurrent networks.

    PubMed

    Feldkamp, Lee A; Prokhorov, Danil V; Feldkamp, Timothy M

    2003-01-01

    We illustrate the ability of a fixed-weight neural network, trained with Kalman filter methods, to perform tasks that are usually entrusted to an explicitly adaptive system. Following a simple example, we demonstrate that such a network can be trained to exhibit input-output behavior that depends on which of two conditioning tasks was performed a substantial number of time steps in the past. This behavior can also be made to survive an intervening interference task. PMID:12850023

  2. Biocomplexity: adaptive behavior in complex stochastic dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Freeman, W J; Kozma, R; Werbos, P J

    2001-02-01

    Existing methods of complexity research are capable of describing certain specifics of bio systems over a given narrow range of parameters but often they cannot account for the initial emergence of complex biological systems, their evolution, state changes and sometimes-abrupt state transitions. Chaos tools have the potential of reaching to the essential driving mechanisms that organize matter into living substances. Our basic thesis is that while established chaos tools are useful in describing complexity in physical systems, they lack the power of grasping the essence of the complexity of life. This thesis illustrates sensory perception of vertebrates and the operation of the vertebrate brain. The study of complexity, at the level of biological systems, cannot be completed by the analytical tools, which have been developed for non-living systems. We propose a new approach to chaos research that has the potential of characterizing biological complexity. Our study is biologically motivated and solidly based in the biodynamics of higher brain function. Our biocomplexity model has the following features, (1) it is high-dimensional, but the dimensionality is not rigid, rather it changes dynamically; (2) it is not autonomous and continuously interacts and communicates with individual environments that are selected by the model from the infinitely complex world; (3) as a result, it is adaptive and modifies its internal organization in response to environmental factors by changing them to meet its own goals; (4) it is a distributed object that evolves both in space and time towards goals that is continually re-shaping in the light of cumulative experience stored in memory; (5) it is driven and stabilized by noise of internal origin through self-organizing dynamics. The resulting theory of stochastic dynamical systems is a mathematical field at the interface of dynamical system theory and stochastic differential equations. This paper outlines several possible avenues to analyze these systems. Of special interest are input-induced and noise-generated, or spontaneous state-transitions and related stability issues. PMID:11267739

  3. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the student), pedagogy ontology, and learner ontology (defines time constraint, comment, profile).

  4. Relationship between Family Adaptability, Cohesion and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Curvilinearity of Circumplex Model

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Ju Youn; Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li

    2013-01-01

    Background The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES) III using the circumplex model has been widely used in investigating family function. However, the criticism of the curvilinear hypothesis of the circumplex model has always been from an empirical point of view. This study examined the relationship between adolescent adaptability, cohesion, and adolescent problem behaviors, and especially testing the consistency of the curvilinear hypotheses with FACES III. Methods We used the data from 398 adolescent participants who were in middle school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate the FACES III and Youth Self Report. Results According to the level of family adaptability, significant differences were evident in internalizing problems (P = 0.014). But, in externalizing problems, the results were not significant (P = 0.305). Also, according to the level of family cohesion, significant differences were in internalizing problems (P = 0.002) and externalizing problems (P = 0.004). Conclusion The relationship between the dimensions of adaptability, cohesion and adolescent problem behaviors was not curvilinear. In other words, adolescents with high adaptability and high cohesion showed low problem behaviors. PMID:23730484

  5. Training Behavioral Contractors to Conduct Initial Assessment Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Stephen E.; And Others

    The effectiveness of a training package for teaching behavioral contractors to conduct initial assessment interviews was evaluated. Verbal responses including professional conduct statements, behavioral assessment questions, and positive process statements were targeted for instruction. Training consisted of written prompts and quizzes, rehearsal,…

  6. Training Behavioral Contractors to Conduct Initial Assessment Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Stephen E.; And Others

    The effectiveness of a training package for teaching behavioral contractors to conduct initial assessment interviews was evaluated. Verbal responses including professional conduct statements, behavioral assessment questions, and positive process statements were targeted for instruction. Training consisted of written prompts and quizzes, rehearsal,…

  7. The Effects of Sociodrama on the Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors of Elementary School Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven Harvey

    The effects of sociodrama on the adaptive and maladaptive behaviors of elementary school boys were examined in three groups of six boys each. One group was used as a control for the Hawthorne effect; the second, as a control for teacher expectation effects and for changes as a function of involvement with a male counselor. In the experimental…

  8. Intelligence, Parental Depression, and Behavior Adaptability in Deaf Children Being Considered for Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Krull, Kevin; Hannay, Julia; Mehta, Paras; Caudle, Susan; Oghalai, John

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive ability and behavioral adaptability are distinct, yet related, constructs that can impact childhood development. Both are often reduced in deaf children of hearing parents who do not provide sufficient language and communication access. Additionally, parental depression is commonly observed due to parent-child communication difficulties…

  9. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

  10. An ICF-CY-Based Content Analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Kara; Coster, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and its version for children and youth (ICF-CY), has been increasingly adopted as a system to describe function and disability. A content analysis of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was conducted to examine congruence with the functioning…

  11. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Supplementary Norms for Individuals with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alice S.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Sparrow, Sara S.; Wang, Jing-Jen; Lord, Catherine; And Others

    1998-01-01

    A study of 684 individuals yielded special population norms on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales for individuals with autism for mute children under 10, children with some verbal skills under 10, mute individuals who are 10 or older, and individuals with some verbal skills who are 10 or older. (Author/CR)

  12. Construct Validity of the AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-School: 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Fuqua, Dale R.; Coombs, William T.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the construct validity of the Adaptive Behavior Scale-School: 2 (ABS-S: 2) through exploratory factor analysis. Results indicate that the ABS-S: 2 is best understood as a two-factor instrument for both children with mental retardation and for those without mental retardation. The test does seem to reflect personal independence and social…

  13. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

  14. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…

  15. A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

  16. Construct Validity of the AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-School: 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Fuqua, Dale R.; Coombs, William T.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the construct validity of the Adaptive Behavior Scale-School: 2 (ABS-S: 2) through exploratory factor analysis. Results indicate that the ABS-S: 2 is best understood as a two-factor instrument for both children with mental retardation and for those without mental retardation. The test does seem to reflect personal independence and social…

  17. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…

  18. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Cortical Adaptation in Habituation of Odor-Guided Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on…

  19. A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  1. Patterns of Intellectual, Adaptive and Behavioral Functioning in Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenen, Sarah; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the population of individuals with mild mental retardation (MIMR) as if it is a clear entity. Few researchers have investigated potential subtypes within the MIMR population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate which subtypes can be identified on the basis of intellectual, adaptive and behavioral…

  2. Biomarkers for assessing population and individual health and disease related to stress and adaptation.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2015-03-01

    Biomarkers are important in stress biology in relation to assessing individual and population health. They facilitate tapping meaningfully into the complex, non-linear interactions that affect the brain and multiple systems of the body and promote adaptation or, when dysregulated, they can accelerate disease processes. This has demanded a multifactorial approach to the choice of biomarkers. This is necessary in order to adequately describe and predict how an individual embedded in a particular social and physical environment, and with a unique genotype and set of lifetime experiences, will fare in terms of health and disease risk, as well as how that individual will respond to an intervention. Yet, at the same time, single biomarkers can have a predictive or diagnostic value when combined with carefully designed longitudinal assessment of behavior and disease related to stress. Moreover, the methods of brain imaging, themselves the reflection of the complexity of brain functional architecture, have provided new ways of diagnosing, and possibly differentiating, subtypes of depressive illness and anxiety disorders that are precipitated or exacerbated by stress. Furthermore, postmortem assessment of brain biomarkers provides important clues about individual vulnerability for suicide related to depression and this may lead to predictive biomarkers to better treat individuals with suicidal depression. Once biomarkers are available, approaches to prevention and treatment should take advantage of the emerging evidence that activating brain plasticity together with targeted behavioral interventions is a promising strategy. PMID:25496803

  3. Adaptive Behavioral Outcomes: Assurance of Learning and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David S.; Stewart, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Business schools are currently being criticized for lacking relevance to the applied working environment in which students are supposed to be prepared to make immediate contributions and reasoned independent decisions in a fluidly changing market (Haskell and Beliveau, 2010, and Michlitsch and Sidle, 2002). While technical skills (accounting,…

  4. Adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy for religious individuals with mental disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Caroline; Sim, Kang; Renjan, Vidhya; Sam, Hui Fang; Quah, Soo Li

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence-based psychological intervention for various mental disorders. However, mental health clinicians should be cognizant of the population that was used to validate the intervention and assess its acceptability to a target group that is culturally different. We systematically reviewed published empirical studies of CBT adapted for religious individuals with mental disorder to determine the extent to which religiously modified CBT can be considered an empirically supported treatment following the criteria delineated by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Overall, nine randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study were included that compared the effectiveness of religiously modified CBT to standard CBT or other treatment modalities for the treatment of depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. The majority of these studies either found no difference in effectiveness between religiously modified CBT compared to standard CBT or other treatment modalities, or early effects that were not sustained. Considering the methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, religiously modified CBT cannot be considered a well-established psychological intervention for the treatment of the foregoing mental disorders following the a priori set criteria at this juncture. Nevertheless, melding religious content with CBT may be an acceptable treatment modality for individuals with strong religious convictions. PMID:24813028

  5. Display device-adapted video quality-of-experience assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Abdul; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Today's viewers consume video content from a variety of connected devices, including smart phones, tablets, notebooks, TVs, and PCs. This imposes significant challenges for managing video traffic efficiently to ensure an acceptable quality-of-experience (QoE) for the end users as the perceptual quality of video content strongly depends on the properties of the display device and the viewing conditions. State-of-the-art full-reference objective video quality assessment algorithms do not take into account the combined impact of display device properties, viewing conditions, and video resolution while performing video quality assessment. We performed a subjective study in order to understand the impact of aforementioned factors on perceptual video QoE. We also propose a full reference video QoE measure, named SSIMplus, that provides real-time prediction of the perceptual quality of a video based on human visual system behaviors, video content characteristics (such as spatial and temporal complexity, and video resolution), display device properties (such as screen size, resolution, and brightness), and viewing conditions (such as viewing distance and angle). Experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art video quality measures in terms of accuracy and speed.

  6. The behavioral function of feeding problems as assessed by the questions about behavioral function (QABF).

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Mayville, Stephen B; Kuhn, David E; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding behaviors and mental retardation primarily in the severe to profound range. Results of the nonparametric analyses yielded significant differences across the escape, nonsocial, physical, and tangible subscales of the QABF. Behavior functions most commonly associated with problematic feeding behaviors were identified. The results extend upon previous literature describing behavioral function of feeding problems for those with mental retardation. PMID:15766632

  7. Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Obradovi?, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers’ child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank–behavior associations. PMID:23045637

  8. Quantitative Adaptation Analytics for Assessing Dynamic Systems of Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl; Vander Meer, Robert Charles,

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  9. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations. PMID:25264467

  10. REDUCING AMBIGUITY IN THE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Rooker, Griffin W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury and aggression) remains among the most serious challenges for the habilitation of persons with intellectual disabilities and is a significant obstacle to community integration. The current standard of behavior analytic treatment for problem behavior in this population consists of a functional assessment and treatment model. Within that model, the first step is to assess the behavior–environment relations that give rise to and maintain problem behavior, a functional behavioral assessment. Conventional methods of assessing behavioral function include indirect, descriptive, and experimental assessments of problem behavior. Clinical investigators have produced a rich literature demonstrating the relative effectiveness for each method, but in clinical practice, each can produce ambiguous or difficult-to-interpret outcomes that may impede treatment development. This paper outlines potential sources of variability in assessment outcomes and then reviews the evidence on strategies for avoiding ambiguous outcomes and/or clarifying initially ambiguous results. The end result for each assessment method is a set of best practice guidelines, given the available evidence, for conducting the initial assessment. PMID:26236145

  11. Treating Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors with Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…

  12. Assessing Adaptive Instructional Design Tools and Methods in ADAPT[IT].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Spector, J. Michael

    ADAPT[IT] (Advanced Design Approach for Personalized Training - Interactive Tools) is a European project within the Information Society Technologies program that is providing design methods and tools to guide a training designer according to the latest cognitive science and standardization principles. ADAPT[IT] addresses users in two significantly…

  13. Effectiveness of Adaptive Assessment versus Learner Control in a Multimedia Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Chang, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of adaptive assessment versus learner control in a multimedia learning system designed to help secondary students learn science. Unlike other systems, this paper presents a workflow of adaptive assessment following instructional materials that better align with learners' cognitive…

  14. Effectiveness of Adaptive Assessment versus Learner Control in a Multimedia Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Chang, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of adaptive assessment versus learner control in a multimedia learning system designed to help secondary students learn science. Unlike other systems, this paper presents a workflow of adaptive assessment following instructional materials that better align with learners' cognitive…

  15. Anticipatory flood risk assessment under climate change scenarios: from assessment to adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, C.; Hogl, K.; Seher, W.; Nachtnebel, H. P.; Scherhaufer, P.; Nordbeck, R.; Löschner, L.

    2012-04-01

    According to the Centre for Research on Epidemiology Disasters, floods are the type of natural disasters that affected the highest number of people from 1900 to 2008 worldwide. Specifically, Austria suffered from heavy floods in recent years, affecting thousands of people and causing billions of Euro in economic losses. Although there is yet no proof that these accumulated extreme events are a direct consequence of climate change, they may indicate what can be expected. Currently, comprehensive climate modelling research is being conducted for Austria that may lay the foundation for enhanced climate impact assessments (regional climate modelling under consideration of different global models and varying scenarios). However, the models so far have neither special focus on Austria nor a distinct definition of boundary conditions for Austria. Therefore, results of climate models are considered as too unreliable and inconsistent for predicting changes in flood characteristics, especially at a regional to local scale. As a consequence, adaptation strategies have to be derived from integrated impact analyses that are based on dissecting mechanisms and drivers for changes and not only on the dimension of climate change. This paper discusses a dynamic flood risk assessment methodology considering potential spatial and temporal developments of hazard and vulnerability under climate change scenarios. The approach integrates quantifiable results from assessments of hazard, exposure and sensitivity and the qualitative, interview based, assessment of adaptive capacities. Flood risk assessment will be conducted for the current state in Austria and enhanced by potential (1) flood scenarios increased by a climate change allowance (2) demographic development scenarios (3) land-use change scenarios and (4) adaptation policy assessment to identify regions especially prone to flooding. Comparing the current state with various anticipatory hazard and vulnerability scenarios provides the basis for a sensitivity analysis of whether climate change impacts or demographic and land use development mainly triggers the increase of damage potentials. Based on this sensitivity analysis, a ranking of priority regions with a current and future need for action will be conducted and illustrated by means of qualitative risk categories ranging from low priority to high priority. Out of these priority areas, three relevant case studies will be chosen and analysed on a micro scale level to enable risk analyses including climate change adaptation assessment on the regional and local level. In the frame of the case studies, a micro-scale risk assessment approach will be applied based on expected annual losses and the influence of adaptation capacity on the overall flood risk. All scientifically derived results will be discussed in community based scenario workshops. This participatory tool enables stakeholders to address the relevant determinants of vulnerability, to point at so far unconsidered locally important context conditions and to come to conclusions about envisaged useable adaptive measures.

  16. Adaptive Behavior in Childhood as an Antecedent of Psychological Functioning in Early Middle Age: Linkage via Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkkinen, Lea; Feldt, Taru; Kokko, Katja

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the link between child and adolescent adaptive behavior and adult psychological functioning, and the role of career orientation in this linkage. This was based on a Finnish longitudinal study, where data at ages 8, 14, and 42 were available for 118 females and 115 males. Adaptive behavior, indicated by…

  17. Technical and Applied Features of Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    When conducted correctly, functional behavior assessments (FBAs) can help professionals intervene with problem behavior using function-based interventions. Despite the fact that researchers have shown that effective interventions are based on function, recent investigators have found that most behavioral intervention plans (BIPs) are written…

  18. Technical and Applied Features of Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    When conducted correctly, functional behavior assessments (FBAs) can help professionals intervene with problem behavior using function-based interventions. Despite the fact that researchers have shown that effective interventions are based on function, recent investigators have found that most behavioral intervention plans (BIPs) are written…

  19. The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

  20. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Alternate Definitions to Assess Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra; Jaffery, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) incorporates aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to provide an efficient means to collect time series data. This study extended the development and evaluation of DBR Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) as a behavior assessment tool. Eighty-eight undergraduate students used…

  1. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Alternate Definitions to Assess Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra; Jaffery, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) incorporates aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to provide an efficient means to collect time series data. This study extended the development and evaluation of DBR Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) as a behavior assessment tool. Eighty-eight undergraduate students used…

  2. Addressing Student Problem Behavior: An IEP Team's Introduction to Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Mary Magee; Gable, Robert A.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Nelson, C. Michael; Howell, Kenneth W.

    This paper provides guidelines for conducting a functional behavioral assessment and developing positive behavior intervention plans with students who have behavior disorders or other disabilities in the context of requirements of the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). After an introduction, rights and…

  3. Frontal Theta Links Prediction Errors to Behavioral Adaptation in Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.; Klein, Theresa J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a fronto-central voltage deflection in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the Feedback Related Negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Medio-frontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations: with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice. PMID:19969093

  4. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  5. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  6. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We have further analyzed the FMT data to characterize strategic and adaptive components during the postflight readaptation period. Crewmembers walked at a preferred pace through an obstacle course set up on a base of 10 cm thick medium density foam (Sunmate Foam, Dynamic Systems, Inc., Leicester, NC). The 6.0m X 4.0m course consisted of several pylons made of foam; a Styrofoam barrier 46.0cm high that crewmembers stepped over; and a portal constructed of two Styrofoam blocks, each 31cm high, with a horizontal bar covered by foam and suspended from the ceiling which was adjusted to the height of the crewmember s shoulder. The portal required crewmembers to bend at the waist and step over a barrier simultaneously. All obstacles were lightweight, soft and easily knocked over. Crewmembers were instructed to walk through the course as quickly and as safely as possible without touching any of the objects on the course. This task was performed three times in the clockwise direction and three times in the counterclockwise direction that was randomly chosen. The dependent measures for each trial were: time to complete the course (seconds) and the number of obstacles touched or knocked down. For each crewmember, the time to complete each FMT trial from postflight days 1, 2, 4, 7 and 25 were further analyzed. A single logarithmic curve using a least squares calculation was fit through these data to produce a single comprehensive curve (macro). This macro curve composed of data spanning 25 days, illustrates the re-adaptive learning function over the longer time scale term. Additionally, logarithmic curves were fit to the 6 data trials within each individual post flight test day to produce 5 separate daily curves. These micro curves, produced from data obtained over the course of minutes, illustrates the strategic learning function exhibited over a relative shorter time scale. The macro curve for all subjects exhibited adaptive motor learning patterns over the 25 day period. Howev, 9/16 crewmembers exhibited significant strategic motor learning patterns in their micro curves,

  7. Toward the Nonpathological Assessment of Behavioral and Conduct Disordered Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Marilyn E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated behavioral problems of 113 adjudicated male juvenile offenders from the normalized, circumplex personality assessment perspective used in the Personal Styles Inventory. Findings suggest assessment model provides correctional practitioners a valid assessment, which is easily understood, sensitive to the needs of both the youth and…

  8. A new approach to the measurement of adaptive behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for children and youth with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

    2012-01-01

    Use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The PEDI-CAT is a computer-based assessment of a child’s ability to perform activities required for personal self sufficiency and engagement in the community. This study evaluated the applicability, representativeness, and comprehensiveness of the Daily Activity, Social/Cognitive, and Responsibility domains for children and youth with an ASD. Twenty professionals and 18 parents provided feedback via in-person or virtual focus groups and cognitive interviews. Items were perceived to represent relevant functional activities within each domain. Child factors and assessment characteristics influenced parents’ ratings. In response to feedback, 15 items and additional directions were added to ensure the PEDI-CAT is a meaningful measure when used with this population. PMID:21846290

  9. Implementing Functional Behavior Assessment in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is aiming to improve special education practices, and inclusive education has been introduced and mandated by national laws in the past few years. However, inclusive practices are challenging for many Thai teachers and schools. Many teachers are unprepared to support students with diverse needs and to deal with behavior problems. To…

  10. Implementing Functional Behavior Assessment in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is aiming to improve special education practices, and inclusive education has been introduced and mandated by national laws in the past few years. However, inclusive practices are challenging for many Thai teachers and schools. Many teachers are unprepared to support students with diverse needs and to deal with behavior problems. To…

  11. Stability of Adaptive Behaviors in Middle-School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Ivers, Bonnie Jean; Hill, Dina E.; Agnew, John A.; McNeill, John

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year follow-up study examined the stability of adaptive functioning in two cognitive ability groups of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nonverbal intelligence (NVIQ) was assessed at the time of this study and no participant changed cognitive group membership from the previous study (High NVIQ greater than or equal to 97; Low…

  12. A survey of functional behavior assessment methods used by behavior analysts in practice.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Anthony C; Pratt, Leigh A; Normand, Matthew P

    2015-12-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially descriptive assessments. Moreover, the data suggest that the majority of students are being formally taught about the various FBA methods and that educators are emphasizing the range of FBA methods in their teaching. However, less than half of the respondents reported using functional analyses in practice, although many considered descriptive assessments and functional analyses to be the most useful FBA methods. Most respondents reported using informant and descriptive assessments more frequently than functional analyses, and a majority of respondents indicated that they "never" or "almost never" used functional analyses to identify the function of behavior. PMID:26411336

  13. Issues in Grouping Items from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the structure, reliability, stability, validity and usefulness of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) and the results of factor and regression analyses of data collected using the NBAS. (Author/BH)

  14. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  15. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Susan A; Wund, Matthew A; Baker, John A

    2015-09-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals. PMID:26163679

  16. Adapting Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Secure Juvenile Justice Settings: Improving Facility-Wide Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolivette, Kristine; Nelson, C. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The popularity and success of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in public schools across the United States has led professionals to advocate for its implementation in secure juvenile settings. Statewide implementation efforts have been mounted in several jurisdictions, and a number of secure facilities are applying it with…

  17. Sleep disruption as a correlate to cognitive and adaptive behavior problems in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew A; Schreck, Kimberly A; Mulick, James A

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age (M = 5.5 years) were evaluated for the relationships of Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep (BEDS; Schreck, 1998) scores to measures of intelligence and adaptive behavior. Results suggested that children who slept fewer hours per night had lower overall intelligence, verbal skills, overall adaptive functioning, daily living skills, socialization skills, and motor development. Children who slept fewer hours at night with waking during the night had more communication problems. Breathing related sleep problems and fewer hours of sleep related most often to problems with perceptual tasks. The results indicate that quality of sleep--especially sleep duration--may be related to problems with day-time cognitive and adaptive functioning in children with autism and PDD-NOS. However, future research must be conducted to further understand these relationships. PMID:22522199

  18. Writing Assessment's "Debilitating Inheritance": Behaviorism's Dismissal of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja Joiwind

    2013-01-01

    In this project, I examine the legacy of behaviorism's dismissal of experience on contemporary writing assessment theory and practice within the field of composition studies. I use an archival study of John B. Watson's letters to Robert Mearns Yerkes to establish behaviorism's systematic denial of experience and its related constructs: mind,…

  19. A Contextual Assessment Inventory for Problem Behavior: Initial Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAtee, Michelle; Carr, Edward G.; Schulte, Christine; Dunlap, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Problem behavior is a primary barrier to successful community inclusion for people with developmental disabilities and therefore a major priority for intervention efforts. Recently, researchers and clinicians have begun to focus on the systematic assessment of a broad range of contextual variables that purportedly affect problem behavior. In the…

  20. Writing Assessment's "Debilitating Inheritance": Behaviorism's Dismissal of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja Joiwind

    2013-01-01

    In this project, I examine the legacy of behaviorism's dismissal of experience on contemporary writing assessment theory and practice within the field of composition studies. I use an archival study of John B. Watson's letters to Robert Mearns Yerkes to establish behaviorism's systematic denial of experience and its related constructs: mind,…

  1. Stereotypy I: A Review of Behavioral Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, John T.; Vollmer; Timothy R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we review definitional issues related to stereotypy, behavioral interpretations of stereotypy, procedures for determining operant function(s) of stereotypy, and behavioral interventions for stereotypy. In general, a preponderance of the assessment literature suggests that most forms of stereotypy are maintained by automatic…

  2. Using Functional Assessment To Promote Desirable Student Behavior in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Amanda L.; Halsey, Heather N.; Matthews, William J.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for the functional behavioral assessment (FBA) approach to solving behavior problems in the classroom as well as FBA components and applications. The paper notes advantages of FBA as well as legal and ethical reasons for using FBA. A case study illustrates use of FBA within a four-stage decision-making framework.…

  3. Stereotypy I: A Review of Behavioral Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, John T.; Vollmer; Timothy R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we review definitional issues related to stereotypy, behavioral interpretations of stereotypy, procedures for determining operant function(s) of stereotypy, and behavioral interventions for stereotypy. In general, a preponderance of the assessment literature suggests that most forms of stereotypy are maintained by automatic…

  4. Feasibility and Acceptability of Adapting the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Assessment for Preschoolers in the Classroom Setting.

    PubMed

    Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-12-01

    Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) represents a failure to self-regulate intake leading to overconsumption. Existing research on EAH has come from the clinical setting, limiting our understanding of this behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe the adaptation of the clinical EAH paradigm for preschoolers to the classroom setting and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of measuring EAH in the classroom. The adapted protocol was implemented in childcare centers in Houston, Texas (N=4) and Phoenix, Arizona (N=2). The protocol was feasible, economical, and time efficient, eliminating previously identified barriers to administering the EAH assessment such as limited resources and the time constraint of delivering the assessment to participants individually. Implementation challenges included difficulty in choosing palatable test snacks that were in compliance with childcare center food regulations and the limited control over the meal that was administered prior to the assessment. The adapted protocol will allow for broader use of the EAH assessment and encourage researchers to incorporate the assessment into longitudinal studies in order to further our understanding of the causes and emergence of EAH. PMID:26172567

  5. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS. PMID:26161466

  6. Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

  7. Hypothetical Use of Multidimensional Adaptive Testing for the Assessment of Student Achievement in the Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) for the assessment of student literacy in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) was examined within a real data simulation study. The responses of N = 14,624 students who participated in the PISA assessments of the years 2000, 2003, and 2006 in Germany were used to…

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Adaptability on Behavior Problems and Maternal Depression in Families of Adolescents with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on families of individuals with autism has tended to focus on child-driven effects utilizing models of stress and coping. The current study used a family-systems perspective to examine whether family-level adaptability promoted beneficial outcomes for mothers and their adolescents with autism over time. Participants were 149 families of children diagnosed with autism who were between the ages of 10 and 22 years during the three-year period examined. Mothers reported on family adaptability, the mother-child relationship, their own depressive symptoms, and the behavior problems of their children at Wave 1, and these factors were used to predict maternal depression and child behavior problems three years later. Family-level adaptability predicted change in both maternal depression and child behavior problems over the study period, above and beyond the contribution of the dyadic mother-child relationship. These associations did not appear to depend upon the intellectual disability status of the individual with autism. Implications for autism, parent mental health, family systems theory, and for intervention with this population are discussed. PMID:21668120

  9. The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors and cortical adaptation in habituation of odor-guided behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on cortical afferent pre-synaptic terminals have been shown to underlie both cortical sensory adaptation and habituation of odor-evoked reflexes. The present experiment examined whether blockade of sensory cortical adaptation through bilateral infusion of the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG) into the anterior piriform cortex could reduce habituation of a more complex odor-driven behavior such as investigation of a scented object or a conspecific. The results demonstrate that time spent investigating a scented jar, or a conspecific, decreases over the course of a continuous 10 minute trial. Acute infusion of CPPG bilaterally into the anterior piriform cortex significantly enhanced the time spent investigating the scented jar compared to investigation time in control rats, without affecting overall behavioral activity levels. Infusions into the brain outside of the piriform cortex were without effect. CPPG infusion into the piriform cortex also produced an enhancement of time spent investigating a conspecific, although this effect was not significant. PMID:16322361

  10. A Module for Adaptive Course Configuration and Assessment in Moodle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limongelli, Carla; Sciarrone, Filippo; Temperini, Marco; Vaste, Giulia

    Personalization and Adaptation are among the main challenges in the field of e-learning, where currently just few Learning Management Systems, mostly experimental ones, support such features. In this work we present an architecture that allows Moodle to interact with the Lecomps system, an adaptive learning system developed earlier by our research group, that has been working in a stand-alone modality so far. In particular, the Lecomps responsibilities are circumscribed to the sole production of personalized learning objects sequences and to the management of the student model, leaving to Moodle all the rest of the activities for course delivery. The Lecomps system supports the "dynamic" adaptation of learning objects sequences, basing on the student model, i.e., learner's Cognitive State and Learning Style. Basically, this work integrates two main Lecomps tasks into Moodle, to be directly managed by it: Authentication and Quizzes.

  11. Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegnar, T.

    2010-09-01

    In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

  12. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot.

    PubMed

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles. Consequently, it can successfully explore and navigate in complex environments. We firstly tested our approach on a physical simulation environment and then applied it to our real biomechanical walking robot AMOSII with 19 DOFs to adaptively avoid obstacles and navigate in the real world. PMID:26528176

  13. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    PubMed Central

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles. Consequently, it can successfully explore and navigate in complex environments. We firstly tested our approach on a physical simulation environment and then applied it to our real biomechanical walking robot AMOSII with 19 DOFs to adaptively avoid obstacles and navigate in the real world. PMID:26528176

  14. Stereotypy I: a review of behavioral assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rapp, John T; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we review definitional issues related to stereotypy, behavioral interpretations of stereotypy, procedures for determining operant function(s) of stereotypy, and behavioral interventions for stereotypy. In general, a preponderance of the assessment literature suggests that most forms of stereotypy are maintained by automatic reinforcement. Review of the treatment literature suggests that antecedent (e.g., environmental enrichment) and consequent (e.g., differential reinforcement of alternative behavior) interventions produce at least short-term reductions in stereotypy. Suggestions for further assessment and treatment of stereotypy are provided. PMID:15885981

  15. National Hydroclimatic Change and Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment: Region-Specific Adaptation Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change, land use and socioeconomic developments are principal variables that define the need and scope of adaptive engineering and management to sustain water resource and infrastructure development. As described in IPCC (2007), hydroclimatic changes in the next 30-50 ye...

  16. [Long-term changes in adaptive behavior of rats after neonatal inflammatory pain].

    PubMed

    Mikhailenko, V A; Butkevich, I P; Vershinina, E A; Ulanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    In this study we addressed the tonic nociceptive system functional activity in the formalin test, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and spatial learning in adolescent male rats exposed in the neonatal development to repeated inflammatory pain peripheral stimulation. The following groups of 25-day-old rats were used after being exposed on days 7 and 8 to: 1) formalin-induced inflammatory pain with maternal separation for 60 min (FS), 2) the same inflammatory pain stimulation without maternal separation (FWS), 3) physiological saline injection with maternal separation for 1 h (SS), 4) physiological saline injection without maternal separation (SWS) and 5) no stimulation (intact rats). The data obtained indicate that pain caused in 7-8-day-old rat pups by formalin injection into the plantar pad of the hind paw manifests by adolescence (day 25 as a strengthened inflammatory response under the analogous painful stimulation in the formalin test, adaptive behavior disorder in the forced swimming test and spatial learning disability. Our findings that a short-term repeated maternal deprivation of the 7-8-day-old rat pups without inflammatory pain increases the depression-like behavior are also of particular interest. Thus, a repeated inflammatory pain during the neonatal development brings about significant changes in the adaptive behaviors studied as well as in spatial learning in adolescent rats. PMID:26027384

  17. Assessment of Emotionally Disturbed/Behaviorally Disordered Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frank H.; Smith, Carl R.

    1985-01-01

    Critical issues such as unbiased assessment and expected incidence of students with emotional and behavior disorders are addressed in terms of such issues as unbiased assessment. Recommended practices are described in terms of a five-step process to aid in determining eligibility and making placement decisions. (CL)

  18. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  19. Assessment of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment…

  20. Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

  1. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Leisure Assessment Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Marta; Orgaz-Baz, M. Begona; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Martinez-Aguirre, M. Magdalena; Longo-Araujo-de-Melo, Egmar; Ullan-de-la-Fuente, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    "Participation"--defined as engagement in life situations, including leisure and recreational activities--is associated with the improvement of people with disabilities' quality of life. Several specific instruments assess leisure, but none of them has been adapted to the Spanish context. The goal of this study is to adapt and validate the Spanish…

  2. Using Item Response Theory and Adaptive Testing in Online Career Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Turner, Brandon M.

    2011-01-01

    The present article describes the potential utility of item response theory (IRT) and adaptive testing for scale evaluation and for web-based career assessment. The article describes the principles of both IRT and adaptive testing and then illustrates these with reference to data analyses and simulation studies of the Career Confidence Inventory…

  3. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Preschoolers Referred for Diagnosis of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Susan; McDonald, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive function is an essential dimension in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental conditions in young children, assisting in determining the pattern of intellectual function and the amount and type of support required. Yet, little information is available on the accuracy of currently used adaptive function assessments for preschool children. This…

  4. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Preschoolers Referred for Diagnosis of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Susan; McDonald, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive function is an essential dimension in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental conditions in young children, assisting in determining the pattern of intellectual function and the amount and type of support required. Yet, little information is available on the accuracy of currently used adaptive function assessments for preschool children. This…

  5. Increasing the on-Task Homework Behavior of Youth with Behavior Disorders Using Functional Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Axelrod, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework…

  6. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    PubMed Central

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control. PMID:26528154

  7. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Adaptation of Four Assessments for Offenders with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Appropriate assessment is an essential part of treating sexual offenders. Few assessments exist that can be used with offenders who have lower levels of intellectual functioning and/or literacy deficits. Method: This study describes the adaptation of four self-report assessments for sexual offenders with special needs: (i) the "Social…

  8. Brazilian Version of the Functional Assessment Measure: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…

  9. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: II Profile of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sabrina; Paynter, Jessica M; Gilmore, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour is a crucial area of assessment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study examined the adaptive behaviour profile of 77 young children with ASD using the Vineland-II, and analysed factors associated with adaptive functioning. Consistent with previous research with the original Vineland a distinct autism profile of Vineland-II age equivalent scores, but not standard scores, was found. Highe st scores were in motor skills and lowest scores were in socialisation. The addition of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule calibrated severity score did not contribute significant variance to Vineland-II scores beyond that accounted for by age and nonverbal ability. Limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed. PMID:26231205

  10. Relevance of Functional Behavioral Assessment Research for School-Based Interventions and Positive Behavioral Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Olson-Tinker, Heidi; Dolstra, Lisa; McLaughlin, Veronica; Van, Mai

    2004-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of functional analysis over the past 15 years, the extent to which these…

  11. Examination of Eco-Behavioral Assessments Designed for Understanding Complex Behaviors and Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie L.; McGough, Sarah M.; Vilardo, Laura; Tankersley, Melody

    2006-01-01

    Second-generation intervention research requires methods for overcoming challenges to understanding complex learning ecologies and interactions of students. Eco-behavioral assessments (EBAs) are one solution to past intervention research challenges. EBAs record the effects of ecological variables in students' behavior and daily interactions. The…

  12. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

  13. A New IDEA Mandate: The Use of Functional Assessment of Behavior and Positive Behavior Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses requirements under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments of 1997 for functional assessments of behavior (FABs) and provision of positive behavioral supports (PBSs). It describes steps in implementing FABs and examples of appropriate PBSs with students with disabilities. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  14. Fractal behavior of traffic volume on urban expressway through adaptive fractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-di; Wang, Jun-li; Wei, Hai-rui; Ye, Cheng; Ding, Yi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fractal behavior of traffic volume in urban expressway based on a newly developed adaptive fractal analysis (AFA), which has a number of advantages over traditional method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Before fractal analysis, autocorrelation function was first adopted on traffic volume data and the long-range correlation behavior was found to be existed in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations. Then AFA as well as DFA was applied to further examine the fractal behavior. The results showed that the multifractality and the long-range anti-persistent behavior existed on both on-ramp and off-ramp. Additionally, multifractal analysis on weekdays and weekends are performed respectively and the results show that the degree of multifractality on weekdays is higher than that on weekends, implying that long-range correlation behaviors were more obvious on weekdays. Finally, the source of multifractality is examined with randomly shuffled and the surrogated series. Long-range correlation behaviors are identified in both on-ramp and off-ramp situations and fat-tail distributions were found to make little in the contributions of multifractality.

  15. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

  16. A health impact assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

  17. A Health Impact Assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such,aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25587609

  18. Fish behavior, migration and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1988-02-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwst Laboratory have evaluated fish behavior and migration in response to thermal discharge, gas supersaturated water, water-soluble fractions of coal liquids, and other environmental stresses. Major findings including thermal discharges did not block upstream migration of sonic-tagged adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the Columbia River. Juvenile chinook slamon avoided thermal discharges in the laboratory when ..delta..ts exceeded 9 to 11)degree)C above ambient. However juvenile salmon were more susceptible to predation at 10 to 20% of the thermal dose causing loss of equilibrium. Radio-tagged adult chinook salmon swam deeper in supersaturated water than in normally saturated water in the Snake River and, thereby, avoided the upper, critical zone. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and black bullhead (Ictalurus melas) did not always avoid lethal gas levels in the laboratory and some fish died in the test apparatus. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) avoided the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a coal liquid at concentrations causing acute effects but not at those causing chronic effects. Rainbow trout did not avoid coal liquid WSFs although they reportedly avid the major constituent, phenol, tested a as pure compound. Susceptibility to predation of juvenile rainbow trout did not increase until phenol concentrations reached the acute LC/sub 50/. 67 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24/28% HVAC energy savings in the winter/summer while also reducing thermal unacceptability; however, it is shown that the source of energy being saved must be considered in each case, as local heating options end up replacing cheaper, more carbon-friendly gas heating with expensive, emissions-heavy plug load electricity. The dissertation concludes with a summary of key outcomes and suggests how HABIT may be further developed in the future.

  20. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q; Halsnæs, K; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities. PMID:22907470

  1. Probabilistic Assessment of Adaptive Space Truss Configurations for Thermal Buckling Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Shantaram S.

    1993-01-01

    A three-bay, cantilever truss of a type typically used in space structures, is probabilistically evaluated to configure adaptive/smart/intelligent behavior for resisting thermal buckling. This buckling is due to nonuniform thermal loads and a combination of these loads with applied loads and moments (mechanical loads). For each behavior the scatter (ranges) in buckling loads and member axial forces are probabilistically determined. Sensitivities associated with uncertainties in the structural and material variables that describe the truss, as well as scatter in mechanical and thermal loads, are determined for different probabilities. The relative magnitude of these sensitivities are used to identify significant truss variables that control/classify the truss behavior and cause it to respond as an adaptive/smart/ intelligent structure. Results show that the probabilistic buckling loads increase for adaptive and intelligent truss classifications, with a substantial increase for intelligent trusses. Similarly, the probabilistic member axial forces decrease for each truss classification.

  2. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  3. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  4. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  5. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D.; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  6. Introduction to a Special Issue Dialectical Behavior Therapy: Evolution and Adaptations in the 21(st) Century.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alec L

    2015-01-01

    Born from the randomized controlled trial by Linehan and colleagues in 1991, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has become the gold standard for treatment of individuals who are suicidal and have borderline personality disorder. In this special issue, we begin with a historical review of DBT provided by the treatment developer herself. We then introduce readers to new, 21(st) century adaptations developed of this treatment modality. In this issue we explore the use of DBT for suicidal adolescents with one paper focusing on Latina teens and their parents, and one focused on the more recently developed walking the middle path skills module. Other papers in this issue include unique adaptations of DBT for eating disorders, and disorders of over-control, as well as trauma in incarcerated male adolescents. We also look at transdiagnostic applications of DBT and finally a comparison of DBT with mentalization-based treatment. PMID:26160616

  7. Adapting cognitive behavioral therapy to meet the needs of Chinese clients: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Hanley, Terry

    2015-06-01

    With the growing influence of China (Chinese people/culture) on the world's politics, economy, and culture, the psychological wellbeing of Chinese people is becoming increasingly important for both researchers and practitioners. Despite this, the cultural responsiveness of many conventional psychotherapeutic models has often been brought into question. In contrast, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is rapidly becoming one of the most popular approaches in the mental health service industry and has been successfully adapted into many different cultural contexts. The current article is a theoretical discussion of the opportunities and challenges that CBT faces with respect to how it might meet the cultural needs and preferences of Chinese clients. Suggestions for successful cultural adaptation are offered based on existing research and practices. It is concluded that many features of CBT appear to match well with the Chinese cultural perspective. However, despite this promising start further work is needed to focus specifically on its practical effectiveness for Chinese clients. PMID:26261905

  8. Role for GDNF in Biochemical and Behavioral Adaptations to Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Chad J.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Carlezon, William A.; Whisler, Kim; Shen, Liya; Wolf, Daniel H.; Westphal, Heiner; Collins, Frank; Russell, David S.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The present study examined a role for GDNF in adaptations to drugs of abuse. Infusion of GDNF into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopaminergic brain region important for addiction, blocks certain biochemical adaptations to chronic cocaine or morphine as well as the rewarding effects of cocaine. Conversely, responses to cocaine are enhanced in rats by intra-VTA infusion of an anti-GDNF antibody and in mice heterozygous for a null mutation in the GDNF gene. Chronic morphine or cocaine exposure decreases levels of phosphoRet, the protein kinase that mediates GDNF signaling, in the VTA. Together, these results suggest a feedback loop, whereby drugs of abuse decrease signaling through endogenous GDNF pathways in the VTA, which then increases the behavioral sensitivity to subsequent drug exposure. PMID:10798408

  9. Introduction. Organization and Stability of Newborn Behavior: A Commentary on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry

    1978-01-01

    Provides an overview of the development of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), the nature of the instrument and conditions for its proper administration, and issues underlying the use of the NBAS in research (e.g., reliability). The first in a series of articles in a single monograph assessing the NBAS. (BH)

  10. Successfully Translating Language and Culture when Adapting Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornman, Juan; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Pae, Hye Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    A need exists for culturally valid and reliable developmental assessment tools for children with disabilities that are able to accommodate multiple languages. One way in which this goal can be achieved is through test translations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the use of translations of select developmental assessment…

  11. The U.S. EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plans and the Nation Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, S.; Kemmerer, J.

    2014-12-01

    When the Council on Environmental Quality directed the U.S. EPA and other Federal departments and agencies to identify how they will maintain their missions in the face of a changing climate, the need for sound science as an essential foundation for climate preparedness was apparent. Fortunately, since 2000, the U.S. Global Change Research Program has produced the National Climate Assessment three times, with the most recent version being issued in May, 2014. The EPA turned to the National Climate Assessment for a key source of sound science as it drafted its national and regional climate adaptation plans. The assessment continues to be used as EPA staff are trained on climate change adaptation issues. Examples of recent EPA climate change adaptation national and regional products will be presented that highlight the utility of the National Climate Assessment. The importance to EPA of the National Climate Assessment as a common ground for all Federal agencies will also be discussed.

  12. Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception. PMID:24348358

  13. Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action.

    PubMed

    Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception. PMID:24348358

  14. Adaptive grid methods for RLV environment assessment and nozzle analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburg, Hugh J.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid access to highly accurate data about complex configurations is needed for multi-disciplinary optimization and design. In order to efficiently meet these requirements a closer coupling between the analysis algorithms and the discretization process is needed. In some cases, such as free surface, temporally varying geometries, and fluid structure interaction, the need is unavoidable. In other cases the need is to rapidly generate and modify high quality grids. Techniques such as unstructured and/or solution-adaptive methods can be used to speed the grid generation process and to automatically cluster mesh points in regions of interest. Global features of the flow can be significantly affected by isolated regions of inadequately resolved flow. These regions may not exhibit high gradients and can be difficult to detect. Thus excessive resolution in certain regions does not necessarily increase the accuracy of the overall solution. Several approaches have been employed for both structured and unstructured grid adaption. The most widely used involve grid point redistribution, local grid point enrichment/derefinement or local modification of the actual flow solver. However, the success of any one of these methods ultimately depends on the feature detection algorithm used to determine solution domain regions which require a fine mesh for their accurate representation. Typically, weight functions are constructed to mimic the local truncation error and may require substantial user input. Most problems of engineering interest involve multi-block grids and widely disparate length scales. Hence, it is desirable that the adaptive grid feature detection algorithm be developed to recognize flow structures of different type as well as differing intensity, and adequately address scaling and normalization across blocks. These weight functions can then be used to construct blending functions for algebraic redistribution, interpolation functions for unstructured grid generation, forcing functions to attract/repel points in an elliptic system, or to trigger local refinement, based upon application of an equidistribution principle. The popularity of solution-adaptive techniques is growing in tandem with unstructured methods. The difficultly of precisely controlling mesh densities and orientations with current unstructured grid generation systems has driven the use of solution-adaptive meshing. Use of derivatives of density or pressure are widely used for construction of such weight functions, and have been proven very successful for inviscid flows with shocks. However, less success has been realized for flowfields with viscous layers, vortices or shocks of disparate strength. It is difficult to maintain the appropriate mesh point spacing in the various regions which require a fine spacing for adequate resolution. Mesh points often migrate from important regions due to refinement of dominant features. An example of this is the well know tendency of adaptive methods to increase the resolution of shocks in the flowfield around airfoils, but in the incorrect location due to inadequate resolution of the stagnation region. This problem has been the motivation for this research.

  15. Adaptive Sampling Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Nuclear Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear simulations are often computationally expensive, time-consuming, and high-dimensional with respect to the number of input parameters. Thus exploring the space of all possible simulation outcomes is infeasible using finite computing resources. During simulation-based probabilistic risk analysis, it is important to discover the relationship between a potentially large number of input parameters and the output of a simulation using as few simulation trials as possible. This is a typical context for performing adaptive sampling where a few observations are obtained from the simulation, a surrogate model is built to represent the simulation space, and new samples are selected based on the model constructed. The surrogate model is then updated based on the simulation results of the sampled points. In this way, we attempt to gain the most information possible with a small number of carefully selected sampled points, limiting the number of expensive trials needed to understand features of the simulation space. We analyze the specific use case of identifying the limit surface, i.e., the boundaries in the simulation space between system failure and system success. In this study, we explore several techniques for adaptively sampling the parameter space in order to reconstruct the limit surface. We focus on several adaptive sampling schemes. First, we seek to learn a global model of the entire simulation space using prediction models or neighborhood graphs and extract the limit surface as an iso-surface of the global model. Second, we estimate the limit surface by sampling in the neighborhood of the current estimate based on topological segmentations obtained locally. Our techniques draw inspirations from topological structure known as the Morse-Smale complex. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a global prediction model versus local topological view of the simulation space, comparing several different strategies for adaptive sampling in both contexts. One of the most interesting models we propose attempt to marry the two by obtaining a coarse global representation using prediction models, and a detailed local representation based on topology. Our methods are validated on several analytical test functions as well as a small nuclear simulation dataset modeled after a simplified Pressurized Water Reactor.

  16. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  17. Complex macroscopic behavior in systems of phase oscillators with adaptive coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Taylor, Dane; Restrepo, Juan G.

    2014-01-01

    Using recent dimensionality reduction techniques in large systems of coupled phase oscillators exhibiting bistability, we analyze the complex macroscopic behavior arising when the coupling between oscillators is allowed to evolve slowly as a function of either macroscopic or local system properties. For example, we observe macroscopic excitability and intermittent synchrony in a system of time-delayed Kuramoto oscillators with Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by considering systems with increasing complexity, including time-delayed oscillators with adaptive network structure and community interaction, as well as a system with bimodally distributed frequencies.

  18. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment.

    PubMed

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K; Sander, M; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2013-09-01

    The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience was awarded for the third time in September 2012, by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in Oslo. The accompanying Kavli Prize Symposium on Neuroscience, held in Bergen and Trondheim, was a showcase of excellence in neuroscience research. The common theme of the Symposium presentations was the mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. The symposium speakers--Michael Greenberg, Erin Schuman, Chiara Cirelli, Michael Meaney, Catherine Dulac, Hopi Hoekstra, and Stanislas Dehaene--covered topics ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons and dendrites, permitting local regulation (Schuman). The nature of the 'reset' function that makes animals dependent of sleep is being revealed (Cirelli). Maternal behavior can cause changes in gene expression that stably modify behavior in the offspring (Meaney). Removal of a single sensory channel protein in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated by the elaborate burrowing behavior in a rodent species, in which independent genetic regions regulate distinct modules of the burrowing pattern (Hoekstra). Finally, at the other extreme of the nature-nurture scale, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis in children and adults identified a brain area specifically involved in reading (Dehaene). As the area must originally have developed for a purpose other than reading, such as shape recognition, this illustrates the use of a previously formed neural structure to tackle a new challenge. PMID:23602885

  19. INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes,...

  20. Adaptations in humans for assessing physical strength from the voice

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Aaron; Bryant, Gregory A.; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Krauss, Andre; Gurven, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has shown that humans, like many other animals, have a specialization for assessing fighting ability from visual cues. Because it is probable that the voice contains cues of strength and formidability that are not available visually, we predicted that selection has also equipped humans with the ability to estimate physical strength from the voice. We found that subjects accurately assessed upper-body strength in voices taken from eight samples across four distinct populations and language groups: the Tsimane of Bolivia, Andean herder-horticulturalists and United States and Romanian college students. Regardless of whether raters were told to assess height, weight, strength or fighting ability, they produced similar ratings that tracked upper-body strength independent of height and weight. Male voices were more accurately assessed than female voices, which is consistent with ethnographic data showing a greater tendency among males to engage in violent aggression. Raters extracted information about strength from the voice that was not supplied from visual cues, and were accurate with both familiar and unfamiliar languages. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that both men and women can accurately assess men's physical strength from the voice, and suggest that estimates of strength are used to assess fighting ability. PMID:20554544

  1. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

  2. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

  3. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  4. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-12-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  5. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  6. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  7. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  8. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We have further analyzed the FMT data to characterize strategic and adaptive components during the postflight readaptation period. Crewmembers walked at a preferred pace through an obstacle course set up on a base of 10 cm thick medium density foam (Sunmate Foam, Dynamic Systems, Inc., Leicester, NC). The 6.0m X 4.0m course consisted of several pylons made of foam; a Styrofoam barrier 46.0cm high that crewmembers stepped over; and a portal constructed of two Styrofoam blocks, each 31cm high, with a horizontal bar covered by foam and suspended from the ceiling which was adjusted to the height of the crewmember s shoulder. The portal required crewmembers to bend at the waist and step over a barrier simultaneously. All obstacles were lightweight, soft and easily knocked over. Crewmembers were instructed to walk through the course as quickly and as safely as possible without touching any of the objects on the course. This task was performed three times in the clockwise direction and three times in the counterclockwise direction that was randomly chosen. The dependent measures for each trial were: time to complete the course (seconds) and the number of obstacles touched or knocked down. For each crewmember, the time to complete each FMT trial from postflight days 1, 2, 4, 7 and 25 were further analyzed. A single logarithmic curve using a least squares calculation was fit through these data to produce a single comprehensive curve (macro). This macro curve composed of data spanning 25 days, illustrates the re-adaptive learning function over the longer time scale term. Additionally, logarithmic curves were fit to the 6 data trials within each individual post flight test day to produce 5 separate daily curves. These micro curves, produced from data obtained over the course of minutes, illustrates the strategic learning function exhibited over a relative shorter time scale. The macro curve for all subjects exhibited adaptive motor learning patterns over the 25 day period. Howev, 9/16 crewmembers exhibited significant strategic motor learning patterns in their micro curves, as defined by m > 1 in the equation of the line y=m*LN(x) +b. These data indicate that postflight recovery in locomotor function involves both strategic and adaptive mechanisms. Future countermeasures will be designed to enhance both recovery processes.

  9. Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Mélanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children. PMID:23667360

  10. Antipredatory behavior of zebrafish: adaptive function and a tool for translational research.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish is gaining popularity in behavioral brain research. It may be a cost-effective tool with which we can improve our understanding of the biological and genetic mechanisms of human brain function and dysfunction. Some, myself and collaborators included, have argued that such translational relevance may be best achieved if one considers the ecology and species-specific characteristics of the study organism. In this review, I focus on our own studies investigating zebrafish fear responses, which may be utilized in analyzing the mechanisms of fear and anxiety, and which may be used for screening anxiolytic drugs. I review how zebrafish respond to their natural and synthetic alarm substance as well as to other fear-inducing stimuli, including sympatric and allopatric predatory fish, sympatric or allopatric harmless fish, moving (animated) images of predatory fish and moving images of abstract shapes. I discuss the behavioral responses these stimuli elicit, summarize the methods of the quantification of the behaviors, and speculate about their possible adaptive nature. Although we utilize complex visual stimuli and do not yet know what key features zebrafish may be sensitive to, our results, together with those published by others, imply that this simple vertebrate may have a bright future in behavioral brain research. PMID:23864295

  11. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  12. A Novel Model Predictive Control Formulation for Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom formulation that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on move suppression weights as traditionally used in MPC schemes. The formulation is motivated by the need to achieve robust performance in using the algorithm in emerging applications, for instance, as a decision policy for adaptive, time-varying interventions used in behavioral health. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive intervention problem inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results in the presence of simultaneous disturbances and significant plant-model mismatch are presented. These demonstrate that a hybrid MPC-based approach for this class of interventions can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions that resemble participant variability that is experienced in practice when applying an adaptive intervention to a population. PMID:20830213

  13. Model-on-Demand Predictive Control for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive behavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character. PMID:21874087

  14. Nanocrystalline coating design for extreme applications based on the concept of complex adaptive behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G. S.; Veldhuis, S. C.; Dosbaeva, G. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kovalev, A. I.; Wainstein, D. L.; Gershman, I. S.; Shuster, L. S.; Beake, B. D.

    2008-04-01

    The development of effective hard coatings for high performance dry machining, which is associated with high stress/temperatures during friction, is a major challenge. Newly developed synergistically alloyed nanocrystalline adaptive Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N plasma vapor deposited hard coatings exhibit excellent tool life under conditions of high performance dry machining of hardened steel, especially under severe and extreme cutting conditions. The coating is capable of sustaining cutting speeds as high as 600 m/min. Comprehensive investigation of the microstructure and properties of the coating was performed. The structure of the coating before and after service has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micromechanical characteristics of the coating have been investigated at elevated temperatures. Oxidation resistance of the coating has been studied by using thermogravimetry within a temperature range of 25-1100 °C in air. The coefficient of friction of the coatings was studied within a temperature range of 25-1200 °C. To determine the causes of excellent tool life and improved wear behavior of the TiAlCrSiYN coatings, its surface structure characteristics after service have been investigated by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and extended energy-loss fine spectroscopy. One of the major features of this coating is the dynamic formation of the protective tribo-oxide films (dissipative structures) on the surface during friction with a sapphire and mullite crystal structure. Aluminum- and silicon-rich tribofilms with dangling bonds form on the surface as well. These tribofilms act in synergy and protect the surface so efficiently that it is able to sustain extreme operating conditions. Moreover, the Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N coating possesses some features of a complex adaptive behavior because it has a number of improved characteristics (tribological adaptability, ultrafine nanocrystalline structure, hot hardness and plasticity, and oxidation stability) that work synergistically as a whole. Due to the complex adaptive behavior, this coating represents a higher ordered system that has an ability to achieve unattainable wear resistance under strongly intensifying and extreme tribological conditions.

  15. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  16. Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

  17. Risk assessment of nanomaterials and nanoproducts - adaptation of traditional approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnel, J.; Fleischer, T.; Seitz, S. B.

    2013-04-01

    Different approaches have been adopted for assessing the potential risks of conventional chemicals and products for human health. In general, the traditional paradigm is a toxicological-driven chemical-by-chemical approach, focusing on single toxic endpoints. Scope and responsibilities for the development and implementation of a risk assessment concept vary across sectors and areas and depends on the specific regulatory environment and the specific protection goals. Thus, risk assessment implication is a complex task based not only on science based knowledge but also on the regulatory context involving different parties and stakeholders. Questions have been raised whether standard paradigms for conventional chemicals would be applicable and adequate for new materials, products and applications of nanotechnology. Most scientists and stakeholders assume that current standard methods are in principle applicable to nanomaterials, but specific aspects require further development. The paper presents additional technical improvements like the complementary use of the life cycle methodology and the support of risk-based classification systems. But also aspects improving the utility of risk assessment with regard to societal impacts on risk governance are discussed.

  18. National Curriculum Assessment in Wales: Adaptations and Divergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The National curriculum assessment (NCA) in Wales has evolved from common foundations into a system that is now distinct from that in England. The influence of the political and social milieu of Wales can be seen both in the distinctive features that have been in place from the outset and in the more radical changes introduced since 2002. In this…

  19. Assessing confidence in management adaptation approaches for climate-sensitive ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. M.; Julius, S. H.; Weaver, C. P.

    2012-03-01

    A number of options are available for adapting ecosystem management to improve resilience in the face of climatic changes. However, uncertainty exists as to the effectiveness of these options. A report prepared for the US Climate Change Science Program reviewed adaptation options for a range of federally managed systems in the United States. The report included a qualitative uncertainty analysis of conceptual approaches to adaptation derived from the review. The approaches included reducing anthropogenic stressors, protecting key ecosystem features, maintaining representation, replicating, restoring, identifying refugia and relocating organisms. The results showed that the expert teams had the greatest scientific confidence in adaptation options that reduce anthropogenic stresses. Confidence in other approaches was lower because of gaps in understanding of ecosystem function, climate change impacts on ecosystems, and management effectiveness. This letter discusses insights gained from the confidence exercise and proposes strategies for improving future assessments of confidence for management adaptations to climate change.

  20. Trainable Mentally Retarded Individual Behavioral Assessment Guide (BAG).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    Presented is the individual Behavior Assessment Guide (BAG) for trainable mentally handicapped children. It is explained that the BAG, developed by teachers and staff members, is designed to serve as the basis for individualized programs. Following is a list of curriculum areas with examples of sub skills in parentheses: communication…

  1. A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Seong A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

  2. Assessing Problem Behaviors by Videotape: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; And Others

    A methodology that will allow teachers to assess a child's behavior problems within both Disruptive (D) and Nondisruptive (ND) contexts was developed, and a questionnaire that would attend to the issues of Manageability and Contagion, as well as Tolerance and Severity, was prepared. Initial questionnaire research using the Devereux Elementary…

  3. Reinforcer Assessment I: Using Problem Behavior to Select Reinforcers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, V. Mark; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen students, aged 7-24, with severe developmental disabilities who exhibited frequent aggression, self-injury, and/or tantrums were assessed to engage in problem behavior maintained by social attention or by escape from unpleasant situations. The differential effectiveness of praise and time-out was measured, indicating the importance of…

  4. Accuracy in communication. A contextual approach to child behavior assessment.

    PubMed

    Olson, James N; Mohr, Wanda K

    2002-10-01

    This article analyzes the problem of accuracy of communication in clinical settings and argues that clinical language is replete with theoretical constructs that may not have shared meaning among speakers and listeners in mental health settings. It is suggested that mental health providers be trained in a contextually based data language. The value of such a data language employed in behavioral assessment is emphasized. The authors contend that events and behavior are products of the contextual environment; contextual variables are more accurately identified and agreed on; and the use of contextual variables in treatment intervention increases consequential validity. A developmental ecological approach, coupled with applied behavior analysis, are discussed and offered as a foundation on which clinical interventions should be planned and assessed. Using objective methods that yield demonstrable and meaningful outcomes can help improve children's mental health service delivery and the lives of children. PMID:12385198

  5. Using adaptive competency acquisition assessment for licensed practical nurse career mobility.

    PubMed

    Coyle-Rogers, Patricia G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of adaptive competency acquisition in Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) graduate candidates as an assessment mechanism for career mobility. Participants completed the The results indicated that LPN graduate candidates developed adaptive competencies necessary for career transition. The results place value on career mobility, while providing educators insight into the basic competencies of one level of educational preparation, which can aid in service-based program development. PMID:12576790

  6. An analysis of the impact of auditory-nerve adaptation on behavioral measures of temporal integration in cochlear implant recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Brown, Carolyn J.; Abbas, Paul J.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact that auditory-nerve adaptation has on behavioral measures of temporal integration in Nucleus 24 cochlear implant recipients. It was expected that, because the auditory nerve serves as the input to central temporal integrator, a large degree of auditory-nerve adaptation would reduce the amount of temporal integration. Neural adaptation was measured by tracking amplitude changes of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) in response to 1000-pps biphasic pulse trains of varying durations. Temporal integration was measured at both suprathreshold and threshold levels by an adaptive procedure. Although varying degrees of neural adaptation and temporal integration were observed across individuals, results of this investigation revealed no correlation between the degree of neural adaptation and psychophysical measures of temporal integration.

  7. [Assessment of behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability: the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiological data show a high prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability. However there is a lack of standardized instruments designed to assess emotions and behaviors typically seen in mentally handicapped children. The results of a survey using the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form" are presented. Reliability coefficients, concordance of parent and teacher ratings, convergent and differential validity data are satisfactory to suggest its clinical use to identify problem areas which deserve special attention in the mental health care of children with intellectual disability. PMID:15216963

  8. Modification of hosts' behavior by a parasite: field evidence for adaptive manipulation.

    PubMed

    Lagrue, Clément; Kaldonski, Nicolas; Perrot-Minnot, Marie J; Motreuil, Sébastien; Bollache, Loïc

    2007-11-01

    Parasites relying on trophic transmission to complete their life cycles often induce modifications of their host's behavior in ways that may increase their susceptibility to predation by final hosts. These modifications have often been interpreted as parasite adaptations, but very few studies have demonstrated that host manipulation has fitness benefits for the parasite. The aim of the present study was to address the adaptive significance of parasite manipulation by coupling observations of behavioral manipulation to estimates of trophic transmission to the definitive host in the natural environment. We show that the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis manipulates the drifting behavior of one of its intermediate hosts, the amphipod Gammarus pulex, but not of a sympatric host, the introduced amphipod Gammarus roeseli. We found a 26.3-28.3 times higher proportion of infected G. pulex in the stomach content of one of the definitive hosts of P. laevis, the bullhead Cottus gobio, than in the benthos. No such trend was observed for G. roeseli. The bell-shaped curve of mean parasite abundance (MPA) relative to host size observed in G. pulex also supported an increased predation mortality of P. laevis-infected individuals compared to uninfected amphipods. Again, no such pattern was observed in G. roeseli. Furthermore, our results indicate that the modifications induced by P. laevis are specific to the definitive host and do not increase the risk of predation by inappropriate hosts, here the adult edible frog Rana esculenta. Overall, our study is original in that it establishes, under field conditions, a direct link between parasitic manipulation and increased transmission to the definitive host, and more importantly, identifies the specificity of the manipulation both in the intermediate host species and toward the definitive host. PMID:18051653

  9. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C Dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures. PMID:25348356

  10. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  11. Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

  12. Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

  13. Distributed recurrent neural forward models with synaptic adaptation and CPG-based control for complex behaviors of walking robots.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures) with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of (1) central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, (2) distributed (at each leg) recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and (3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps, leg damage adaptations, as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to online forward models outperforms the adaptive neuron forward models, which have hitherto been the state of the art, to model a subset of similar walking behaviors in walking robots. PMID:26441629

  14. Distributed recurrent neural forward models with synaptic adaptation and CPG-based control for complex behaviors of walking robots

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures) with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of (1) central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, (2) distributed (at each leg) recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and (3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps, leg damage adaptations, as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to online forward models outperforms the adaptive neuron forward models, which have hitherto been the state of the art, to model a subset of similar walking behaviors in walking robots. PMID:26441629

  15. Assessing the information management requirements for behavioral health providers.

    PubMed

    Major, Leslie F; Turner, Michael G

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral health agencies will soon implement automated information-management systems to support their administrative, financial, and clinical care functions. Assessing current information-management capabilities and delineating future needs are prerequisite to recommending a specific information technology solution. Quantifying the discrepancy between current information-management capabilities and future requirements highlights the areas of greatest unmet need for information management. Selecting an information system that addresses the most critical areas of unmet need is a prudent purchase decision. This article describes the results of a process to assess the information-management requirements for agencies that were considering implementation of an integrated behavioral health information-management system. The assessment revealed that these agencies already employed automated systems to manage most financial functions and many administrative functions. Few agencies, however, utilized automated systems to manage clinical care functions. Selection of a behavioral health electronic medical record (EMR) effectively addressed clinical care information-management needs without duplicating existing financial and administrative management functions. Also, the EMR included features that addressed some administrative functions for which a discrepancy between current capabilities and future needs was found. Selecting an EMR instead of an integrated behavioral health information system was associated with a significant reduction in information system acquisition costs. PMID:14552101

  16. Leader personality and 360-degree assessments of leader behavior.

    PubMed

    Bergman, David; Lornudd, Caroline; Sjöberg, Lennart; Von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between personality and multi-source feedback, we assessed 190 health care managers by applying the Understanding Personal Potential personality test, which provides comprehensive measurement of the Big Five dimensions and eight narrower personality traits. Managers' leadership behaviors were assessed by colleagues, supervisors, a random sample of each manager's subordinates as well as the managers themselves using a 360-degree change, production, employee (CPE) instrument. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis showed that the Big Five variables were significantly related to the Managers' leadership behavior in all CPE dimensions. Also, addition of narrow personality variables to the Big Five increased explained variance in leadership behavior. This study is the first of its kind to include the full range of viewpoints in a 360-degree instrument, along with a large number of subordinate assessments. We found that both the strength of the relationship between personality and behavior and the configuration of different predictors varied depending on who did the rating and what leadership orientation was investigated, and this observation merits further investigation. PMID:24833326

  17. Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat

    2011-01-01

    This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S−), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat’s three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat’s sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat’s directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S−. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S− stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S− were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S−. PMID:21246202

  18. Cultural Adaptation of an Intervention to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors among Patients Attending a STI Clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Lauretta E.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Abdala, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants’ engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as “triggers” and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants’ risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed. PMID:23322231

  19. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  20. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. PMID:25926277

  1. Adoption, Reach, Implementation, and Maintenance of a Behavioral and Mental Health Assessment in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Alex H.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Sabo, Roy T.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Ory, Marcia G.; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Sheinfeld-Gorin, Sherri N.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Guidelines recommend screening patients for unhealthy behaviors and mental health concerns. Health risk assessments can systematically identify patient needs and trigger care. This study seeks to evaluate whether primary care practices can routinely implement such assessments into routine care. METHODS As part of a cluster-randomized pragmatic trial, 9 diverse primary care practices implemented My Own Health Report (MOHR)—an electronic or paper-based health behavior and mental health assessment and feedback system paired with counseling and goal setting. We observed how practices integrated MOHR into their workflows, what additional practice staff time it required, and what percentage of patients completed a MOHR assessment (Reach). RESULTS Most practices approached (60%) agreed to adopt MOHR. How they implemented MOHR depended on practice resources, informatics capacity, and patient characteristics. Three practices mailed patients invitations to complete MOHR on the Web, 1 called patients and completed MOHR over the telephone, 1 had patients complete MOHR on paper in the office, and 4 had staff help patients complete MOHR on the Web in the office. Overall, 3,591 patients were approached and 1,782 completed MOHR (Reach = 49.6%). Reach varied by implementation strategy with higher reach when MOHR was completed by staff than by patients (71.2% vs 30.2%, P <.001). No practices were able to sustain the complete MOHR assessment without adaptations after study completion. Fielding MOHR increased staff and clinician time an average of 28 minutes per visit. CONCLUSIONS Primary care practices can implement health behavior and mental health assessments, but counseling patients effectively requires effort. Practices will need more support to implement and sustain assessments. PMID:25384814

  2. Fidelity of Implementing an Assessment Translation and Adaptation Framework in a Study of an Emerging International Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Magda Yanira

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the complex process of translation and adaptation of two Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) performance tasks (PTs), originally developed in English for American students, into the languages and cultures of five participating countries. Focusing on confirming evidence bits (CEBs), disconfirming evidence bits (DEBs), and no…

  3. Fidelity of Implementing an Assessment Translation and Adaptation Framework in a Study of an Emerging International Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Magda Yanira

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the complex process of translation and adaptation of two Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) performance tasks (PTs), originally developed in English for American students, into the languages and cultures of five participating countries. Focusing on confirming evidence bits (CEBs), disconfirming evidence bits (DEBs), and no…

  4. A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  5. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wende, Wolfgang; Bond, Alan; Bobylev, Nikolai; Stratmann, Lars

    2012-01-15

    Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  6. GIM-TEC adaptive ionospheric weather assessment and forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Stanislawska, I.

    2013-09-01

    The Ionospheric Weather Assessment and Forecast (IWAF) system is a computer software package designed to assess and predict the world-wide representation of 3-D electron density profiles from the Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC). The unique system products include daily-hourly numerical global maps of the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the peak height (hmF2) generated with the International Reference Ionosphere extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, upgraded by importing the daily-hourly GIM-TEC as a new model driving parameter. Since GIM-TEC maps are provided with 1- or 2-days latency, the global maps forecast for 1 day and 2 days ahead are derived using an harmonic analysis applied to the temporal changes of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 at 5112 grid points of a map encapsulated in IONEX format (-87.5°:2.5°:87.5°N in latitude, -180°:5°:180°E in longitude). The system provides online the ionospheric disturbance warnings in the global W-index map establishing categories of the ionospheric weather from the quiet state (W=±1) to intense storm (W=±4) according to the thresholds set for instant TEC perturbations regarding quiet reference median for the preceding 7 days. The accuracy of IWAF system predictions of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 maps is superior to the standard persistence model with prediction equal to the most recent ‘true’ map. The paper presents outcomes of the new service expressed by the global ionospheric foF2, hmF2 and W-index maps demonstrating the process of origin and propagation of positive and negative ionosphere disturbances in space and time and their forecast under different scenarios.

  7. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  8. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  9. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  10. DAPHNE: A New Tool for the Assessment of the Behavioral Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Evrard, Christelle; Hardouin, Jean Benoît; Rocher, Laëtitia; Charriau, Tiphaine; Etcharry-Bouyx, Frédérique; Auriacombe, Sophie; Richard-Mornas, Aurélie; Lebert, Florence; Pasquier, Florence; Sauvaget, Anne; Bulteau, Samuel; Vercelletto, Martine; Derkinderen, Pascal; Bretonnière, Cédric; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) relies primarily on clinical features and remains challenging. The specificity of the recently revised criteria can be disappointing, justifying development of new clinical tools. Objective We produced a behavioral inventory named DAPHNE. This scale (adapted from Rascovsky's criteria) explores six domains: disinhibition, apathy, perseverations, hyperorality, personal neglect and loss of empathy. It is composed of ten items (five answer categories). The aim was (1) to assess the validity and reliability of DAPHNE and (2) to evaluate its contribution in differentiating patients. Methods Two scores were computed: DAPHNE-6 (screening) from the six domains and DAPHNE-40 (diagnosis) from the ten items. Reliability and reproducibility were assessed. External validity was studied with the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the Frontotemporal Behavioral Scale (FBS). Finally, the diagnostic performance of DAPHNE was compared to revised criteria, FBI and FBS. Results DAPHNE was administered to the caregivers of 89 patients, 36 with bvFTD, 22 with Alzheimer's disease, 15 with progressive supranuclear palsy and 16 with bipolar disorder. Reliability and reproducibility were excellent, as was external validity. DAPHNE-6 allowed bvFTD diagnosis (score ≥4) with a sensitivity of 92%, while DAPHNE-40 (score ≥15) had a specificity of 92%. Conclusion We demonstrate excellent psychometric features for DAPHNE. This quick tool could help for both diagnosing and screening bvFTD. PMID:26955383

  11. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    PubMed

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation. PMID:26306792

  12. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  13. Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

    2005-10-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status. PMID:16287384

  14. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated children's shyness, social withdrawal, prosociality, opposition, and aggression. Children who received nonparental child-care services were less shy, less socially withdrawn, more oppositional, and more aggressive at school entry (age 6 years). However, these differences disappeared during elementary school as children who received exclusive parental care caught up with those who received nonparental care services. This "catch-up" effect from the perspective of children's adaptation to the social group is discussed. PMID:26358177

  15. Cognitive Adaptations for n-person Exchange: The Evolutionary Roots of Organizational Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda; Price, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are composed of stable, predominantly cooperative interactions or n-person exchanges. Humans have been engaging in n-person exchanges for a great enough period of evolutionary time that we appear to have evolved a distinct constellation of species-typical mechanisms specialized to solve the adaptive problems posed by this form of social interaction. These mechanisms appear to have been evolutionarily elaborated out of the cognitive infrastructure that initially evolved for dyadic exchange. Key adaptive problems that these mechanisms are designed to solve include coordination among individuals, and defense against exploitation by free riders. Multi-individual cooperation could not have been maintained over evolutionary time if free riders reliably benefited more than contributors to collective enterprises, and so outcompeted them. As a result, humans evolved mechanisms that implement an aversion to exploitation by free riding, and a strategy of conditional cooperation, supplemented by punitive sentiment towards free riders. Because of the design of these mechanisms, how free riding is treated is a central determinant of the survival and health of cooperative organizations. The mapping of the evolved psychology of n-party exchange cooperation may contribute to the construction of a principled theoretical foundation for the understanding of human behavior in organizations. PMID:23814325

  16. Dynamic Interactions between Large-Scale Brain Networks Predict Behavioral Adaptation after Perceptual Errors

    PubMed Central

    van Gaal, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Failures to perceive visual stimuli lead to errors in decision making. Different theoretical accounts implicate either medial frontal (MF) cognitive control processes or prestimulus occipital (OC) cortical oscillatory dynamics in errors during perceptual tasks. Here, we show that these 2 previously unconnected theoretical accounts can be reconciled, and the brain regions described by the 2 theories have complimentary and interactive roles in supporting error adaptation. Using a perceptual discrimination task and time–frequency network-based analyses of electroencephalography data, we show that perceptual anticipation and posterror top–down control mechanisms recruit distinct but interacting brain networks. MF sites were a hub for theta-band networks and theta–alpha coupling elicited after errors, whereas occipital sites were a network hub during stimulus anticipation and alpha–gamma coupling. Granger causality analyses revealed that these networks communicate in their preferred direction and frequency band: response-related MF ? OC interactions occurred in the theta band, whereas stimulus anticipation-related OC ? MF interactions occurred in the alpha band. Subjects with stronger network interactions were more likely to improve performance after errors. These findings demonstrate that multiple large-scale brain networks interact dynamically and in a directionally specific manner in different frequency bands to support flexible behavior adaptation during perceptual decision making. PMID:22514250

  17. Antenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment Induces Adaptations in Adult Midbrain Dopamine Neurons, which Underpin Sexually Dimorphic Behavioral Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Virdee, Kanwar; McArthur, Simon; Brischoux, Frédéric; Caprioli, Daniele; Ungless, Mark A; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Gillies, Glenda E

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT, gestational days 16–19) altered the size and organization of the adult rat midbrain dopaminergic (DA) populations. Here we investigated the consequences of these AGT-induced cytoarchitectural disturbances on indices of DA function in adult rats. We show that in adulthood, enrichment of striatal DA fiber density paralleled AGT-induced increases in the numbers of midbrain DA neurons, which retained normal basal electrophysiological properties. This was co-incident with changes in (i) striatal D2-type receptor levels (increased, both sexes); (ii) D1-type receptor levels (males decreased; females increased); (iii) DA transporter levels (males increased; females decreased) in striatal regions; and (iv) amphetamine-induced mesolimbic DA release (males increased; females decreased). However, despite these profound, sexually dimorphic changes in markers of DA neurotransmission, in-utero glucocorticoid overexposure had a modest or no effect on a range of conditioned and unconditioned appetitive behaviors known to depend on mesolimbic DA activity. These findings provide empirical evidence for enduring AGT-induced adaptive mechanisms within the midbrain DA circuitry, which preserve some, but not all, functions, thereby casting further light on the vulnerability of these systems to environmental perturbations. Furthermore, they demonstrate these effects are achieved by different, often opponent, adaptive mechanisms in males and females, with translational implications for sex biases commonly found in midbrain DA-associated disorders. PMID:23929547

  18. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

  19. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

  20. Assessing an Assessment: Conceptual considerations, Methodological Issues, and a Perspective on the Future of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise

    1978-01-01

    Describes the conceptual model of newborn organization underlying the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Argues that while the NBAS allows for the identification of an individual's behavioral repertoire, attempts to synthesize the resulting data have been plagued with difficulties. Briefly outlines an alternative model for…

  1. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was relatively ancient (fifteen years on Aude case study), we collected precise data on flood damage and the recovery process. We will also present some results concerning a specific type of individual adaptation i.e relocation. In particular, we found out that relocation was a long term process which required then long term post-flood assessments to be analyzed. Interviews also revealed that even if it is an action often promoted, in practice, a lot of constraints have to be overcome by households and enterprises. Finally, we will give some insights for operational applications of this research. Mainly, it can be useful to improve flood damage functions or to help decision makers to define adaptation policies.

  2. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of executive function. PMID:22587709

  3. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  4. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  5. An assessment of the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral grid, Euler Flow Solver Code FELISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Erickson, Larry L.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison of computational and wind tunnel data and enhancement of numerical solutions by means of grid adaptivity are discussed. The mesh generation is based on the advancing front technique. The FELISA code consists of two solvers, the Taylor-Galerkin and the Runge-Kutta-Galerkin schemes, both of which are spacially discretized by the usual Galerkin weighted residual finite-element methods but with different explicit time-marching schemes to steady state. The solution-adaptive grid procedure is based on either remeshing or mesh refinement techniques. An alternative geometry adaptive procedure is also incorporated.

  6. [Adaptations in reproduction and behavior of captive chimpanzees-- zoobiological and veterinary managements].

    PubMed

    Böer, M

    2000-10-01

    Monitoring of renal LH-excretion, changes in genital tumescence and menses assesses reproductive status in zookept female chimpanzees. Temporary detumescence of female sex skin in estrus is a reliable indicator for stress. Assessment of female chimpanzee reproductive status relates to local and individual variation of cycle length and temporal correlation of investigated parameters. Monitoring of neonate chimpanzee behavioural ontogeny is an essential tool of evaluating applied rearing methods since individuals were to be integrated into the adult group during adolescence. Slow and continuous transition periods between consecutive rearing phases avoid irreversible disturbed behaviour. Care by one person up to the age of 12 months, followed by a 3 year stay in a peer group guarantee normal development in zookept infant chimpanzees. 4-5 years old chimpanzees with infantile attributes and abilities to submit and appease can be integrated to adults with low risk. In female gorillas sexual cyclicity was monitored by renal excretion of LH, length of menses, sexual behaviour and--in tame females--by basal body temperature and variation of length of the urogenital cleft. Intraspecific variation of cyclicity allowed individual fertility assessment after comparison of several cycles. Analyses of behaviour gave hints to overcharged adaptability and reduced infertility under inadequate maintenance. Data on semen and testicular biopsy improve fertility evaluation in gorilla males and point to degree and time of tissue alteration and etiology. Body hygiene analogous to the human, tool use and interspecific play with chimpanzees and humans behind window screens were observed in inadequately kept gorillas. Homosexual behaviour among females was reversible with environmental and social changes. Coalitions among nonrelated females were an effective social strategy against an aggressive male. Cyclicity was disturbed drastically by social events such as physical lesions made by a male but normalized with improved social situation. Disturbed cyclicity featured prolongation of interestrus intervals and complete detumescence, oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. Nulliparous females in their third decennium needed more than 1.5 years of social contact to a fertile male to become fullterm pregnant. During the first two months of pregnancy stillbirths and embryonic resorptions were detected. Handreared and inexperienced primiparous gorilla females accepted their infants and reared them normally after witnessing motherrearing in neighbored chimpanzee females for several years. Opportunities of free choice and decision making determine zookept pongid behaviour, that cannot be compared with prisoners' ethology. Adaptations of ontogenetic behaviour and reproduction, teleonomic patterns and zoomorphism are of zoobiological relevance. Adaptations develope during prolonged periods of time and thus results of corresponding management issues are to be assessed a posteriori. PMID:11143961

  7. Employee recruitment: using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K

    2007-01-01

    The labor shortage of skilled health care professionals continues to make employee recruitment and retention a challenge for health care managers. Greater accountability is being placed on health care managers to retain their employees. The urgency to retain health care professionals is largely an issue that should be considered during the initial recruitment of potential employees. Health care managers should analyze candidates rigorously to ensure that appropriate hiring decisions are made. Behavioral assessments can be used as a useful employee selection tool to assist managers in the appropriate placement and training of potential new employees. When administered appropriately, these tools can provide managers with a variety of useful information. This information can assist health care managers in demystifying the hiring process. Although there are varying organizational concerns to address when using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool, the potential return on investment is worth the effort. PMID:17938588

  8. Operant procedures for assessing behavioral flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Brady, Anne Marie; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions consist of multiple high-level cognitive processes that drive rule generation and behavioral selection. An emergent property of these processes is the ability to adjust behavior in response to changes in one's environment (i.e., behavioral flexibility). These processes are essential to normal human behavior, and may be disrupted in diverse neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, alcoholism, depression, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding of the neurobiology of executive functions has been greatly advanced by the availability of animal tasks for assessing discrete components of behavioral flexibility, particularly strategy shifting and reversal learning. While several types of tasks have been developed, most are non-automated, labor intensive, and allow testing of only one animal at a time. The recent development of automated, operant-based tasks for assessing behavioral flexibility streamlines testing, standardizes stimulus presentation and data recording, and dramatically improves throughput. Here, we describe automated strategy shifting and reversal tasks, using operant chambers controlled by custom written software programs. Using these tasks, we have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex governs strategy shifting but not reversal learning in the rat, similar to the dissociation observed in humans. Moreover, animals with a neonatal hippocampal lesion, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, are selectively impaired on the strategy shifting task but not the reversal task. The strategy shifting task also allows the identification of separate types of performance errors, each of which is attributable to distinct neural substrates. The availability of these automated tasks, and the evidence supporting the dissociable contributions of separate prefrontal areas, makes them particularly well-suited assays for the investigation of basic neurobiological processes as well as drug discovery and screening in disease models. PMID:25742506

  9. Adapting the helpful responses questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: preliminary psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-08-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues' (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write 'what they would say next.' In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870

  10. Cognitive-behavioral assessment of body image disturbances.

    PubMed

    Reas, Deborah L; Grilo, Carlos M

    2004-09-01

    The construct of body image is multidimensional in nature and multidisciplinary in scope. The purpose of this review is to help clinicians navigate the basic theoretical and practical considerations associated with body image assessment. Common pitfalls reflect methodological problems and conceptual confusion surrounding the subjectivity, heterogeneity, lability, and complexity of the body image construct. By highlighting these core concepts, we provide a framework for conducting a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral assessment to inform case formulation and treatment planning. The strength and utility of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) model lies in its broad applicability and ability to identify the proximal factors that precipitate and maintain body image concerns, such as distorted patterns of thinking and maladaptive behavior (e.g., body checking, mirror gazing, avoidance, social comparison, reassurance seeking). Although the evidence base is still evolving, the basic tenets of a CBT approach appear to transcend disciplines and specialties. The article concludes by providing an example of self-monitoring, which is a cornerstone of CBT assessment and treatment, and referencing the steps of an established CBT manualized treatment program. PMID:15361746

  11. A structured assessment of motor function and behavior in patients with Kleefstra syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Nag, Heidi E; Hunn, Bente S; Houge, Gunnar; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to further our understanding of Kleefstra syndrome, especially regarding motor function and behavioral characteristics. In total, four males and four females between two and 27 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of Kleefstra syndrome and their parents participated in this study. Four patients had 9q34.3 deletions that caused Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1 (EHMT1) haplo-insufficiency, and four patients harbored EHMT1 mutations. The motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist (CBCL, ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. All patients showed a delayed developmental status. Muscular hypotonia and its manifestations were present in all patients, regardless of their age. The mean values for all VABS II domains (communication, socialization, daily living skills, and motor skills) were significantly lower than the mean of the reference population (p < 0.001), but similar to other rare intellectual disabilities such as Smith-Magenis syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The results from the SCQ indicated that all patient values exceeded the cut-off value, suggesting the possibility of autism spectrum disorder. The behavioral and emotional problems assessed by CBCL and ABCL were less frequent. In conclusion, patients with Kleefstra syndrome present with a broad range of clinical problems in all age groups and are therefore in need of a multidisciplinary follow-up also after their transition into adulthood. PMID:26808425

  12. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-06-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and type of constraints and in task objectives, and can adapt to changes in kinematics configurations (change of module, change of tool, joint failure adaptation, etc.).

  13. Assessment of Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour among Individuals with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erez, Daniella Levy; Levy, Jacov; Friger, Michael; Aharoni-Mayer, Yael; Cohen-Iluz, Moran; Goldstein, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Individuals with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) are reported to have mental retardation but to our knowledge no detailed study on the subject has ever been published. The present study assessed and documented cognitive and adaptive behaviour among Arab Bedouin children with CIPA. Methods: Twenty-three Arab Bedouin…

  14. Adapting the Sheehan Disability Scale to Assess Child and Parent Impairment Related to Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a child adaptation of the Sheehan Disability Scale, a measure of impairment among anxious adults. Parallel child and parent report forms were created to assess the degree to which anxiety interferes with child and parent social, educational/occupational, and family functioning. Data from 267 anxious children (140 boys ages…

  15. Adapting the CEFR for the Classroom Assessment of Young Learners' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselgreen, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This article concerns the contribution that feedback makes to valid classroom assessment of the writing of young learners (YLs), defined here as approximately 9-13 years old. It shows that a scale of descriptors adapted from the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001) can play a central role…

  16. Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riis, Jason; Loewenstein, George; Baron, Jonathan; Jepson, Christopher; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    Healthy people generally underestimate the self-reported well-being of people with disabilities and serious illnesses. The cause of this discrepancy is in dispute, and the present study provides evidence for 2 causes. First, healthy people fail to anticipate hedonic adaptation to poor health. Using an ecological momentary assessment measure of…

  17. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    R. Julian Preston
    Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA

    There ...

  18. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Developmental Assessment for Arabic-Speaking Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrine, Sheila L.; Heji, Hayat; Sabri, Amel; Dalton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Developmental screening has become an established component of child health programs in many developed countries. The research objective of this project was to translate and adapt a developmental assessment (Oregon Project Skills Inventory) for use with young children with visual impairments who speak Arabic. The study was prompted by the lack of…

  19. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  20. Assessment Tools for Adapted and Regular Physical Education. ERIC Digest 1-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Janet M.

    A list is presented of diagnostic tools for regular physical educators who are also involved in adapting physical education programs for children with disabilities. The tests are identified according to the student population served (normal, mentally retarded, severely handicapped, etc.), and the body function being assessed (gross motor, balance,…

  1. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  2. Spontaneous Neuronal Network Dynamics Reveal Circuit’s Functional Adaptations for Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Sebastián A.; Pietri, Thomas; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Jouary, Adrien; Haudrechy, Mathieu; Sumbre, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous neuronal activity is spatiotemporally structured, influencing brain computations. Nevertheless, the neuronal interactions underlying these spontaneous activity patterns, and their biological relevance, remain elusive. Here, we addressed these questions using two-photon calcium imaging of intact zebrafish larvae to monitor the neuron-to-neuron spontaneous activity fine structure in the tectum, a region involved in visual spatial detection. Spontaneous activity was organized in topographically compact assemblies, grouping functionally similar neurons rather than merely neighboring ones, reflecting the tectal retinotopic map despite being independent of retinal drive. Assemblies represent all-or-none-like sub-networks shaped by competitive dynamics, mechanisms advantageous for visual detection in noisy natural environments. Notably, assemblies were tuned to the same angular sizes and spatial positions as prey-detection performance in behavioral assays, and their spontaneous activation predicted directional tail movements. Therefore, structured spontaneous activity represents “preferred” network states, tuned to behaviorally relevant features, emerging from the circuit’s intrinsic non-linear dynamics, adapted for its functional role. PMID:25704948

  3. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04μg/L and 50.4μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in killifish, and that locomotor alterations could be observed in early larval stages. Additionally, our study highlights the resistance to behavioral alterations caused by low-level PAH mixture exposure in the adapted killifish population. Furthermore, this is the first longitudinal behavioral study to use killifish, an environmentally important estuarine teleost fish, and this testing framework can be used for future contaminant assessment. PMID:26548404

  4. Uncertainty assessment of urban pluvial flood risk in a context of climate change adaptation decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Zhou, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    There has been a significant increase in climatic extremes in many regions. In Central and Northern Europe, this has led to more frequent and more severe floods. Along with improved flood modelling technologies this has enabled development of economic assessment of climate change adaptation to increasing urban flood risk. Assessment of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis of current risk, drivers of change of risk over time, and measures to reduce the risk. However, such studies are often associated with large uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from basic assumptions in the economic analysis and the hydrological model, but also from the projection of future societies to local climate change impacts and suitable adaptation options. This presents a challenge to decision makers when trying to identify robust measures. We present an integrated uncertainty analysis, which can assess and quantify the overall uncertainty in relation to climate change adaptation to urban flash floods. The analysis is based on an uncertainty cascade that by means of Monte Carlo simulations of flood risk assessments incorporates climate change impacts as a key driver of risk changes over time. The overall uncertainty is then attributed to six bulk processes: climate change impact, urban rainfall-runoff processes, stage-depth functions, unit cost of repair, cost of adaptation measures, and discount rate. We apply the approach on an urban hydrological catchment in Odense, Denmark, and find that the uncertainty on the climate change impact appears to have the least influence on the net present value of the studied adaptation measures-. This does not imply that the climate change impact is not important, but that the uncertainties are not dominating when deciding on action or in-action. We then consider the uncertainty related to choosing between adaptation options given that a decision of action has been taken. In this case the major part of the uncertainty on the estimated net present values is identical for all adaptation options and will therefore not affect a comparison between adaptation measures. This makes the chose among the options easier. Furthermore, the explicit attribution of uncertainty also enables a reduction of the overall uncertainty by identifying the processes which contributes the most. This knowledge can then be used to further reduce the uncertainty related to decision making, as a substantial part of the remaining uncertainty is epistemic.

  5. [Abnormal behavior and adaptation problems in dogs and cats and their pharmacologic control].

    PubMed

    Jöchle, W

    1998-11-01

    Small animal practitioners are increasingly confronted with patients showing adaptation related problems (ARP) which are expressed as disturbed or abnormal behavior (DAB). As a result, practitioners are asked increasingly to euthanize animals which seemingly cannot be socialized. In healthy dogs and cats, three main causes for DAB can be detected: refusal of obedience because of the drive for dominance; anxiety and frustration; and geriatric DAB. Increasingly, disease conditions not readily diagnosed can cause DAB, especially hypothyroidism. Influencing and contributing factors to DAB are breed, sex, experiences as a puppy, behavior of owners, changes in the pet's environment. ARPs may also cause disturbances in the condition of skin and fur, e.g. atopic dermatitis, pruritus sine materia, lick granuloma, and of the intestinal organs (vomiting, irritated bowel syndrome) and may result in an immune deficiency. Therapeutic approaches include behavioral therapy, surgical or hormonal castration with progestins or antiandrogens, substitution with thyroxin in cases with hypothyroidism, and/or the use of psychopharmaca, most prominently of modern antidepressiva like amitriptyline; buspirone; clomipramine and fluoxetine, but also of selegiline, a mono-aminoxydase inhibitor. These compounds, among other effects, are elevating prolactin levels. This seems to allow to formulate a working hypothesis: in the canine species, prolactin is obviously a hormone enabling socialization; hence all drugs which safely cause an increase in prolactin production might be suitable to manage or control ARPs and DAB in the dog, but also in the cat. Higher levels of prolactin than those required for socialization, as seen in nursing bitches or some clinically overt cases of pseudopregnancy, may cause maternal aggression and can be controlled with prolactin inhibitors, if needed. PMID:9857423

  6. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harms, Madeline B; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a "hunch" about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680

  7. Performance Monitoring and Assessment of Neuro-Adaptive Controllers for Aerospace Applications Using a Bayesian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Pramod; Guenther, Kurt; Hodgkinson, John; Jacklin, Stephen; Richard, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Soares, Fola

    2005-01-01

    Modern exploration missions require modern control systems-control systems that can handle catastrophic changes in the system's behavior, compensate for slow deterioration in sustained operations, and support fast system ID. Adaptive controllers, based upon Neural Networks have these capabilities, but they can only be used safely if proper verification & validation (V&V) can be done. In this paper we present our V & V approach and simulation result within NASA's Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS).

  8. International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

  9. Assessing, Analyzing, and Adapting: Improving a Graduate Student Instruction Program through Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roszkowski, Beth; Reynolds, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights an assessment of library instruction needs among graduate students in the social sciences. The article addresses the development and implementation of the assessment and the application of assessment results to an established set of library instruction workshops. The article provides a detailed summary of assessment…

  10. Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Occasioned by Interruption of Free-Operant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Louis P; Bruzek, Jennifer L; Bowman, Lynn G; Jennett, Heather K

    2007-01-01

    The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using “do” requests (Study 1) as well as “do” and “don't” requests (Study 2) occasioned problem behavior. Initially, treatment involved differential and noncontingent reinforcement without interruption. To make the intervention more sustainable in the natural environment (where interruptions are unavoidable), a two-component multiple-schedule arrangement was used to progressively increase the period of time in which ongoing activities would be interrupted. During generalization sessions, the intervention was applied across a variety of contexts and therapists. PMID:17471795

  11. Two Children with Multiple Disabilities Increase Adaptive Object Manipulation and Reduce Inappropriate Behavior via a Technology-Assisted Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Persons with severe to profound multiple disabilities, such as intellectual, visual, and motor disabilities, may be characterized by low levels of adaptive engagement with the environment. They may also display forms of inappropriate, stereotypical behavior (like hand mouthing, that is, putting their fingers into or over their mouths) or…

  12. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  13. An Overview of Intervention Options for Promoting Adaptive Behavior of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury and Minimally Conscious State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bosco, Andrea; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the studies directed at helping post-coma persons with minimally conscious state improve their adaptive behavior. Twenty-one studies were identified for the 2000-2010 period (i.e., a period in which an intense debate has occurred about diagnostic, rehabilitative, prognostic, and ethical issues concerning people…

  14. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…

  15. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  16. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  17. An Adaptive Approach to Family Intervention: Linking Engagement in Family-Centered Intervention to Reductions in Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Arin M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Yasui, Miwa; Kavanagh, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This study used Complier Average Causal Effect analysis (CACE; see G. Imbens & D. Rubin, 1997) to examine the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in the public schools on rates of substance use and antisocial behavior among students ages 11-17. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in 6th…

  18. An Overview of Intervention Options for Promoting Adaptive Behavior of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury and Minimally Conscious State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bosco, Andrea; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the studies directed at helping post-coma persons with minimally conscious state improve their adaptive behavior. Twenty-one studies were identified for the 2000-2010 period (i.e., a period in which an intense debate has occurred about diagnostic, rehabilitative, prognostic, and ethical issues concerning people…

  19. Two Children with Multiple Disabilities Increase Adaptive Object Manipulation and Reduce Inappropriate Behavior via a Technology-Assisted Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Persons with severe to profound multiple disabilities, such as intellectual, visual, and motor disabilities, may be characterized by low levels of adaptive engagement with the environment. They may also display forms of inappropriate, stereotypical behavior (like hand mouthing, that is, putting their fingers into or over their mouths) or…

  20. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…

  1. Brief Report: The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders at Different Cognitive Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Adrienne; Flanagan, Helen E.; Dunn Geier, Jennifer; Freeman, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) data were examined in a large sample of young children with ASD (n = 290) of varying cognitive levels. IQ was higher than VABS composite score among high functioning children only; the opposite pattern was found in lower IQ subgroups. Profile analysis of VABS domains across cognitive levels demonstrated…

  2. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  3. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  4. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

    2004-01-01

    The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

  5. Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

  6. Validity and reliability of the infant behavioral summarized evaluation (IBSE): a rating scale for the assessment of young children with autism and developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Adrien, J L; Barthélémy, C; Perrot, A; Roux, S; Lenoir, P; Hameury, L; Sauvage, D

    1992-09-01

    The Infant Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (IBSE) is a rating scale adapted from the Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (BSE) and specifically related to the assessment of behaviors of young children having autistic disorders. Content validity and reliability studies described in the paper were made from behavior ratings of videotapes for 89 children aged from 6 to 48 months. Results show a significant group of 19 items including some characteristic early autistic behaviors (communicative and social abnormalities) and some that are less commonly described in the syndrome (attentional, perceptive, and adaptive disorders). The value of the use of this scale for clinicians and professionals involved in behavioral evaluations and treatment of young children with developmental disorders and the necessity for further psychometric investigations are discussed. PMID:1383188

  7. Effects of Aligning Self-Management Interventions with Functional Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    The differential effects of interventions aligned with indicated and non-indicated behavioral function were studied. Disruptive behavior of a fourth grade child at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) was assessed through functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures. Following the FBA, three interventions were designed, only one…

  8. Self-regulation assessment among preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Slavec, Janine; Ros, Rosmary; Garb, Leanna; Hart, Katie; Garcia, Alexis

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the construct validity and clinical utility of a brief self-regulation assessment (Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders, HTKS) among a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 101 preschool children (72% male; Mage = 5.10 years; 79% Hispanic) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. Self-regulation measures included the HTKS task, 4 standardized subtests from the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA), parent and teacher reports of children's executive functioning (EF), and children's self-regulation performance across a series of executive functioning classroom games conducted as part of a summer treatment camp. Additional outcomes included school readiness as measured by standardized achievement tests, and parent and teacher reports of kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Performance on the HTKS task was moderately correlated with children's performance on the standardized working memory tasks and observed self-regulation performance in the classroom. Low to moderate correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and parent report of children's EF difficulties, as well as parent and teacher reports of children's kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Moderate to high correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and standardized academic outcomes. These findings highlight the promise of the HTKS task as a brief, ecologically valid, and integrative EF task tapping into both behavioral and cognitive aspects of self-regulation that are important for children with EBP's success in school. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822828

  9. Behaviorally Assessed Sleep and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    PubMed Central

    Prather, Aric A.; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Hall, Martica H.; Cohen, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Short sleep duration and poor sleep continuity have been implicated in the susceptibility to infectious illness. However, prior research has relied on subjective measures of sleep, which are subject to recall bias. The aim of this study was to determine whether sleep, measured behaviorally using wrist actigraphy, predicted cold incidence following experimental viral exposure. Design, Measurements, and Results: A total of 164 healthy men and women (age range, 18 to 55 y) volunteered for this study. Wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries assessed sleep duration and sleep continuity over 7 consecutive days. Participants were then quarantined and administered nasal drops containing the rhinovirus, and monitored over 5 days for the development of a clinical cold (defined by infection in the presence of objective signs of illness). Logistic regression analysis revealed that actigraphy- assessed shorter sleep duration was associated with an increased likelihood of development of a clinical cold. Specifically, those sleeping < 5 h (odds ratio [OR] = 4.50, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–18.69) or sleeping between 5 to 6 h (OR = 4.24, 95% CI, 1.08–16.71) were at greater risk of developing the cold compared to those sleeping > 7 h per night; those sleeping 6.01 to 7 h were at no greater risk (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 0.40–6.95). This association was independent of prechallenge antibody levels, demographics, season of the year, body mass index, psychological variables, and health practices. Sleep fragmentation was unrelated to cold susceptibility. Other sleep variables obtained using diary and actigraphy were not strong predictors of cold susceptibility. Conclusions: Shorter sleep duration, measured behaviorally using actigraphy prior to viral exposure, was associated with increased susceptibility to the common cold. Citation: Prather AA, Janicki-Deverts D, Hall MH, Cohen S. Behaviorally assessed sleep and susceptibility to the common cold. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1353–1359. PMID:26118561

  10. Effects of risperidone and parent training on adaptive functioning in children with pervasive developmental disorders and serious behavioral problems

    PubMed Central

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Ritz, Louise; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patrcia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have deficits in social interaction, delayed communication and repetitive behavior as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show decline in adaptive skills compared to age mates over time. Method This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial randomized 124 children (4 through 13 years of age) with PDDs and serious behavior problems to medication alone (MED; N=49; risperidone 0.5 to 3.5 mg/day (if ineffective, switch to aripiprazole was permitted) or medication plus parent training (PT) (COMB; N=75). Parents of children in COMB received an average of 11.4 PT sessions. Standard scores and Age Equivalent scores on Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were the outcome measures of primary interest. Results Seventeen subjects did not have a post-randomization Vineland. Thus, we used a mixed model with outcome conditioned on the baseline Vineland scores. Both groups showed improvement over the 24-week trial on all Vineland domains. Compared to MED, Vineland Socialization and Adaptive Composite Standard scores showed greater improvement in the COMB group (p = 0.01 and 0.05; effect sizes = 0.35.and 0.22, respectively). On Age Equivalent scores, Socialization and Communication domains showed greater improvement in COMB versus MED (p=0.03, 0.05; effect sizes = 0.33 and 0.14 respectively). Using logistic regression, children in the COMB group were twice as likely to make at least 6 months gain (equal to the passage of time) in the Vineland Communication Age Equivalent score compared to MED (p = 0.02). After controlling for IQ, this difference was no longer significant. Conclusion Reduction of serious maladaptive behavior promotes improvement in adaptive behavior. Medication plus PT shows modest additional benefit over medication alone. PMID:22265360

  11. An International Assessment of the Emotional and Behavioral Strengths of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Kuorelahti, Matti; Epstein, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths has been identified as an important part of the assessment process for children referred for specialized services. The Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2; Epstein, Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: a strength-based approach to assessment. PRO-Ed, Austin, TX, 2004) was developed…

  12. Some psychophysiological and behavioral aspects of adaptation to simulated autonomous Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushin, V.; Shved, D.; Vinokhodova, A.; Vasylieva, G.; Nitchiporuk, I.; Ehmann, B.; Balazs, L.

    2012-01-01

    “Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.

  13. Decision-based climate analysis for vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The possible effects of climate change pose serious challenges for natural resources management. In response, natural resource managers and decision makers seek ways for assessing climate-related vulnerabilities and when necessary planning for adaptation to a changing climate. Managers and decision-makers face an overwhelming array of climate information sources and approaches to generating climate projections. However, there is no clear method for using those projections to inform vulnerability assessments or adaptation planning. In this presentation, we describe and demonstrate an original framework for incorporating climate information into climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning. Insights from scenario planning and decision analysis are leveraged to develop a process designed specifically for assessing and managing risk under climate change uncertainty. The process uses a decision analytic decision framework to characterize climate vulnerabilities, provide perspective relative to other uncertainties, and to inform the risks with what is credible in climate projections. Robustness and vulnerability to surprise are explicitly considered within the framework. The approach, which is continuing development as part of the Department of the Interior Northeast Climate Science Center, is demonstrated in applications to the Great Lakes and other recent studies.

  14. Assessing, Analyzing, and Adapting: Improving a Graduate Student Instruction Program through Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roszkowski, Beth; Reynolds, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights an assessment of library instruction needs among graduate students in the social sciences. The article addresses the development and implementation of the assessment and the application of assessment results to an established set of library instruction workshops. The article provides a detailed summary of assessment…

  15. Adaptive Behavior in Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: Microanalysis of Scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Miles, Stephanie; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred; Coflin, Megan; Booker, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings…

  16. Assessing Causality in the Relationship between Adolescents' Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of This Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate…

  17. Behavioral adaptation of young and older drivers to an intersection crossing advisory system.

    PubMed

    Dotzauer, Mandy; de Waard, Dick; Caljouw, Simone R; Pöhler, Gloria; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2015-01-01

    An advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) provided information about the right of way regulation and safety to cross an upcoming intersection. Effects were studied in a longer-term study involving 18 healthy older drivers between the ages of 65 and 82 years and 18 healthy young drivers between the ages of 20 and 25 years. Participants repeatedly drove 25 km city routes in eight sessions on separate days over a period of two months in a driving simulator. In each age group, participants were randomly assigned to the control (no ADAS) and treatment (ADAS) group. The control group completed the whole experiment without the ADAS. The treatment group drove two sessions without (sessions 1 and 7) and six times with ADAS. Results indicate effects of ADAS on driving safety for young and older drivers, as intersection time and percentage of stops decreased, speed and critical intersection crossings increased, the number of crashes was lower for treatment groups than for control groups. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety. PMID:25463941

  18. Morphological and behavioral evidence for adaptive diversification of sympatric Hawaiian limpets (Cellana spp.).

    PubMed

    Bird, Christopher E

    2011-09-01

    The endemic Hawaiian limpets (Cellana exarata, Cellana sandwicensis, and Cellana talcosa), reside at different elevations on wave-exposed rocky shores and comprise a monophyletic lineage that diversified within Hawai'i. Here, I report phenotypic differences in shell, soft tissue, and behavioral characters among these limpets and discuss their potential utility in exploiting their respective niches. The high-shore limpet, C. exarata, is characterized by a tall round shell, short mantle tentacles, and long evasion distance when confronted by a predatory gastropod. The mid-shore limpet, C. sandwicensis, is characterized by a shorter oblong shell, long mantle tentacles, and a short evasion distance when confronted by a predatory snail. The low-shore, shallow-subtidal limpet, C. talcosa, is characterized by a flat shell that is thin in juveniles and disproportionately massive in large adults (relative to the other two species), and mantle tentacles of varying lengths (some individuals exhibit short tentacles, some long). These species-specific suites of characters are likely to confer specific fitness advantages on the high shore (C. exarata) where thermal and desiccation stress is severe, on the mid shore (C. sandwicensis) where hydrodynamic forces are severe, and on the low-shallow subtidal shore (C. talcosa) where pelagic predators have free access to the limpets. These data add to the growing body of evidence for adaptive diversification and speciation in the Hawaiian Cellana, and in marine species in general. PMID:21700576

  19. Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

    Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

  20. Learning from experience: event-related potential correlates of reward processing, neural adaptation, and behavioral choice.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Matthew M; Anderson, John R

    2012-09-01

    To behave adaptively, we must learn from the consequences of our actions. Studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have been informative with respect to the question of how such learning occurs. These studies have revealed a frontocentral negativity termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN) that appears after negative feedback. According to one prominent theory, the FRN tracks the difference between the values of actual and expected outcomes, or reward prediction errors. As such, the FRN provides a tool for studying reward valuation and decision making. We begin this review by examining the neural significance of the FRN. We then examine its functional significance. To understand the cognitive processes that occur when the FRN is generated, we explore variables that influence its appearance and amplitude. Specifically, we evaluate four hypotheses: (1) the FRN encodes a quantitative reward prediction error; (2) the FRN is evoked by outcomes and by stimuli that predict outcomes; (3) the FRN and behavior change with experience; and (4) the system that produces the FRN is maximally engaged by volitional actions. PMID:22683741

  1. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    PubMed

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized. PMID:26189184

  2. The effect of western adaptation of Hispanic-Americans on their assessment of Korean facial profiles

    PubMed Central

    Toureno, Leo; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Bayome, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine Korean facial profile preferences based on lip position as assessed by Hispanic-Americans of varying western adaptation levels and to determine whether the age and sex of the rater had any influence. Methods For this study, 132 Hispanic-Americans and 68 Caucasians of varying age, sex and western adaptation levels volunteered to rate their preference of Korean male and female facial silhouettes having lips ranging from retruding to protruding. The Hispanic-Americans were also asked to complete a Bidimensional Acculturation Scale questionnaire to determine their western adaptation status: low-acculturated Hispanics (LAH; lesser western-adapted Hispanic participants) or high-acculturated Hispanics (HAH; higher western-adapted Hispanic participants). Results The LAHs preferred significantly more retruded lip positions (p < 0.05) while HAHs showed some similarities with Caucasian participants in the results for the Korean male profile, even though HAHs preferred more retruded lip positions for the Korean female profile than Caucasians did (p < 0.05). The age and sex of raters did not influence the preference of facial profiles (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that Hispanic-Americans prefer a flatter Korean lip profile. It would be prudent for orthodontists to offer patients the option of altering lip profile through orthodontic and/or orthognathic surgery treatments. PMID:24511513

  3. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options☆

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.; Schwilch, G.; Stringer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change. PMID:25844020

  4. A Comparative Study of the Preliminary Effects in the Levels of Adaptive Behaviors: Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook; Yeo, Moon-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preliminary intervention effects of the adaptive behavior on the autism intervention program known as the Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA). The adaptive behavior scores of two groups of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared, with one group…

  5. A Comparative Study of the Preliminary Effects in the Levels of Adaptive Behaviors: Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook; Yeo, Moon-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preliminary intervention effects of the adaptive behavior on the autism intervention program known as the Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA). The adaptive behavior scores of two groups of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared, with one group…

  6. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2005-09-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

  7. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light?dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence of long-term behavioral deficits in TETS-intoxicated mice on these six assays suggests that the neurobehavioral consequences of TETS exposure described in human survivors of acute TETS intoxication are likely due to sustained seizure activity, rather than a direct effect of the chemical itself. Future research efforts are directed toward developing an animal model that better recapitulates the SE and seizure duration reported in humans acutely intoxicated with TETS. PMID:25446016

  8. Behavioral Assessment of NIH Swiss Mice Acutely Intoxicated with Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Brenna M.; Silverman, Jill L.; Bruun, Donald A.; Puhger, Kyle R.; McCoy, Mark R.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) approximately 20 min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72 seconds. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1 week, 1 month and 2 months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light?dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2 months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence of long-term behavioral deficits in TETS-intoxicated mice on these six assays suggests that the neurobehavioral consequences of TETS exposure described in human survivors of acute TETS intoxication are likely due to sustained seizure activity, rather than a direct effect of the chemical itself. Future research efforts are directed towards developing an animal model that better recapitulates the SE and seizure duration reported in humans acutely intoxicated with TETS. PMID:25446016

  9. Investigations on GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling in stress and stress adaptive behavior in electric foot shock subjected mice.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of GSK-3β and NF-kB signaling in electric foot shock-induced stress and stress adaptation. Mice were subjected to foot shocks of 0.5mA intensity and 1s duration of 1h to produce acute stress. Animals were exposed to the same stressor for 5 days to induce stress adaptation. The behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. The serum corticosterone levels were assessed as a marker of the HPA axis. The levels of total GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB were determined in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala. Acute electric foot shock stress produced behavioral and biochemical changes; decreased the levels of p-GSK-3β-S9, produced no change in total GSK-3β levels and increased p-NF-kB levels in the brain. However, repeated exposure of foot shock stress restored the behavioral and biochemical changes along with normalization of p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels. Administration of AR-A01, a selective GSK-3β inhibitor, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDTC), a selective NF-kB inhibitor, diminished acute stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes. Furthermore, AR-A014418 normalized acute stress-induced alterations in p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels, however, DDTC selectively restored NF-kB levels without any change in p-GSK-3β-S9 levels. It probably suggests that NF-kB is a downstream mediator of the GSK-3 signaling cascade. It may conclude that acute stress associated decrease in p-GSK-3β-S9 and increase in p-NF-kB levels in the brain contribute in the development of behavioral and biochemical alterations and normalization of GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling may contribute in stress adaptive behavior in response to repeated electric foot shock-subjected mice. PMID:26778780

  10. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma A?42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of A? peptides (A?40 and A?42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma A?42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS-II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma A?42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  11. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  12. The Assessment, Development, Assurance Pharmacist's Tool (ADAPT) for Ensuring Quality Implementation of Health Promotion Programs

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Catherine R.; DiPietro, Natalie A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To develop and validate the Assessment, Development, Assurance Pharmacist's Tool (ADAPT), an instrument for pharmacists and student pharmacists to use in developing and implementing health promotion programs. Methods. The 36-item ADAPT instrument was developed using the framework of public health's 3 core functions (assessment, policy development, and assurance) and 10 essential services. The tool's content and usage was assessed and conducted through peer-review and initial validity testing processes. Results. Over 20 faculty members, preceptors, and student pharmacists at 5 institutions involved in planning and implementing health promotion initiatives reviewed the instrument and conducted validity testing. The instrument took approximately 15 minutes to complete and the findings resulted in changes and improvements to elements of the programs evaluated. Conclusion. The ADAPT instrument fills a need to more effectively plan, develop, implement, and evaluate pharmacist-directed public health programs that are evidence-based, high-quality, and compliant with laws and regulations and facilitates documentation of pharmacists’ contributions to public health. PMID:22412211

  13. Adaptive designs for clinical trials assessing biomarker-guided treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wason, J; Marshall, A; Dunn, J; Stein, R C; Stallard, N

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Biomarker Strategy Design has been proposed for trials assessing the value of a biomarker in guiding treatment in oncology. In such trials, patients are randomised to either receive the standard chemotherapy treatment or a biomarker-directed treatment arm, in which biomarker status is used to guide treatment. Methods: Motivated by a current trial, we consider an adaptive design in which two biomarkers are assessed. The trial is conducted in two stages. In the first stage, patients in the biomarker-guided arm are assessed using a standard and an alternative cheaper biomarker, with the standard biomarker guiding treatment. An analysis comparing biomarker results is then used to choose the biomarker to use for the remainder of the trial. The new biomarker is used if the results for the two biomarkers are sufficiently similar. Results: We show that in practical situations the first-stage results can be used to adapt the trial without type I error rate inflation. We also show that there can be considerable cost gains with only a small loss in power in the case where the alternative biomarker is highly concordant with the standard one. Conclusions: Adaptive designs have an important role in reducing the cost and increasing the clinical utility of trials evaluating biomarker-guided treatment strategies. PMID:24667651

  14. Adaptive Optics with a Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator and Its Behavior in Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Takeno, Kohei; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Furukawa, Hiromitsu

    2009-07-01

    An adaptive optics system with a brand-new device of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) and its behavior in in vivo imaging of the human retina are described. We confirmed by experiments that closed-loop correction of ocular aberrations of the subject's eye was successfully achieved at the rate of 16.7 Hz in our system to obtain a clear retinal image in real time. The result suggests that an LCOS SLM is one of the promising candidates for a wavefront corrector in a prospective commercial ophthalmic instrument with adaptive optics.

  15. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  16. An approach for assessing human health vulnerability and public health interventions to adapt to climate change.

    PubMed

    Ebi, Kristie L; Kovats, R Sari; Menne, Bettina

    2006-12-01

    Assessments of the potential human health impacts of climate change are needed to inform the development of adaptation strategies, policies, and measures to lessen projected adverse impacts. We developed methods for country-level assessments to help policy makers make evidence-based decisions to increase resilience to current and future climates, and to provide information for national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The steps in an assessment should include the following: a) determine the scope of the assessment; b) describe the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; c) identify and describe current strategies, policies, and measures designed to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive health determinants and outcomes; d) review the health implications of the potential impacts of climate variability and change in other sectors; e) estimate the future potential health impacts using scenarios of future changes in climate, socioeconomic, and other factors; f) synthesize the results; and g) identify additional adaptation policies and measures to reduce potential negative health impacts. Key issues for ensuring that an assessment is informative, timely, and useful include stakeholder involvement, an adequate management structure, and a communication strategy. PMID:17185287

  17. Adapting Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Methods to Assess Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressor Combinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation based on the following abstract: Chemical mixtures risk assessment methods are routinely used. To address combined chemical and nonchemical stressors, component-based approaches may be applicable, depending on the toxic action among diverse stressors. Such methods a...

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; ?oboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; ?oboz-Grudzie?, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

  19. Promoting Classroom Learning for Head Start Children: The Importance of Identifying Early Behavior Problems and Fostering Adaptive Learning Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalon, Ximena Dominguez; Shearer, Rebecca Bulotsky; Greenfield, Daryl; Manrique, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    In partnership with a local Head Start program in the southeastern United States, this study sought to: (a) examine the influence of problem behaviors on preschool language and literacy and mathematics achievement and (b) identify mechanisms that explain why children with behavior problems have difficulty learning in the preschool classroom.…

  20. Promoting Classroom Learning for Head Start Children: The Importance of Identifying Early Behavior Problems and Fostering Adaptive Learning Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalon, Ximena Dominguez; Shearer, Rebecca Bulotsky; Greenfield, Daryl; Manrique, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    In partnership with a local Head Start program in the southeastern United States, this study sought to: (a) examine the influence of problem behaviors on preschool language and literacy and mathematics achievement and (b) identify mechanisms that explain why children with behavior problems have difficulty learning in the preschool classroom.…