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Sample records for adaptive behavior assessment

  1. A system of assessment for adaptive behavior, social skills, behavioral function, medication side-effects, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Mayville, Stephen B; Laud, Rinita B

    2003-01-01

    A reliable and valid assessment is necessary for the effective delivery of services to those with mental retardation (MR). With constraints placed on financial and human resources, assessment must be comprehensive, yet cost-effective. We describe a method of assessment that operates within these constraints using informant-based measures that assess adaptive and maladaptive behavior, psychiatric disorders, behavior function, and medication side-effects. PMID:12553969

  2. The Concept of Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas

    Two papers from a Houston seminar on the concept of adaptive behavior provide a review of adaptive behavior measures and a discussion of Jane Mercer's assessment model. Tables present information on administration and content of eight measures: the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Clinical, and AAMD School, Caine-Levine, California…

  3. Assessing heat-adaptive behaviors among older, urban-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Parker, Edith A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Zhang, Zhenzhen; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Health studies have shown that the elderly are at a greater risk to extreme heat. The frequency and intensity of summer heat waves will continue to increase as a result of climate change. It is important that we understand the environmental and structural factors that increase heat vulnerability, as well as examine the behaviors used by the elderly to adapt to hot indoor temperatures. Study design From June 1 to August 31, 2009, residents in 29 homes in Detroit, MI, kept an hourly log of eight heat-adaptive behaviors: opening windows/doors, turning fans or the air conditioner on, changing clothes, taking a shower, going to the basement, the porch/yard, or leaving the house. Percentages of hourly behavior were calculated, overall and stratified by housing type and percent surface imperviousness. The frequency of behavior use, as a result of indoor and outdoor predetermined temperature intervals was compared to a reference temperature range of 21.1–23.8 °C. Results The use of all adaptive behaviors, except going to the porch or yard, was significantly associated with indoor temperature. Non-mechanical adaptations such as changing clothes, taking showers, and going outside or to the basement were rarely used. Residents living in high-rises and highly impervious areas reported a higher use of adaptive behaviors. The odds of leaving the house significantly increased as outdoor temperature increased. Conclusions These findings suggest that the full range of heat adaptation measures may be underused by the elderly and public health interventions need to focus on outreach to these populations. PMID:21782363

  4. Texas Environmental Adaptation Measure: Adaptive Behavior in Sociocultural, Emotional Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leigh S.

    The Texas Environmental Adaptation Measure (TEAM), a four-part instrument, is designed to assess children's adaptive behavior as it relates to their sociocultural and emotional environments. TEAM is intended to determine the eligibility of these children for special education classes and to provide information for individualizing their…

  5. ADAPTATION OF THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH SYSTEM (BARS) FOR EVALUATING NEUROBEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE IN FILIPINO CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M.; Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M.

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, combines computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with non-computerized tests. The goal of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using standardized neurobehavioral tests in preschool and school-aged Filipino children. Test instructions were translated into the vernacular, Tagalog or Tagalog-English (“Taglish”) and some instructions and materials were modified to be appropriate for the target populations. The battery was administered to 4 to 6 year old Filipino children (N=50). The performance of the Filipino children was compared to data previously collected from Spanish- and English-speaking children tested in the US. The majority of children had no difficulty completing the tests in the battery with the exception of the Symbol-Digit test and Digit Span-reverse. The three groups showed similar patterns of performance on the tests and the older children performed better than the younger children on all of the tests. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of using this test battery to assess cognitive and motor performance in Filipino children. Tests in the battery assess a range of functions and the measures are sensitive to age differences. The current battery has been utilized in several cultures and socio-economic status classes, with only minor modifications needed. This study demonstrates the importance of pilot testing the methods before use in a new population, to ensure that the test is valid for that culture. PMID:18067971

  6. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  7. Adaptive Behavior of Young Urban Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vig, Susan; Jedrysek, Eleonora

    1995-01-01

    Assessment of 497 urban preschool children with developmental disabilities using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales indicated a strong positive relationship between adaptive behavior and intelligence if measured globally. When Vineland domains were assessed separately, this relationship varied across domains and disability groups. With…

  8. Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Henry

    Intellectual functioning is the product of an interaction among a variety of biological, social, and personal experiential factors. The distribution of ability at all levels is dependent on the manner in which the individual has learned to cope with this relationship of forces. This adaptive ability to cope is part of intelligent behavior. The…

  9. Memory models of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Fabio Lorenzo; Pershin, Yuriy V; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2013-09-01

    Adaptive response to varying environment is a common feature of biological organisms. Reproducing such features in electronic systems and circuits is of great importance for a variety of applications. We consider memory models inspired by an intriguing ability of slime molds to both memorize the period of temperature and humidity variations and anticipate the next variations to come, when appropriately trained. Effective circuit models of such behavior are designed using: 1) a set of LC contours with memristive damping and 2) a single memcapacitive system-based adaptive contour with memristive damping. We consider these two approaches in detail by comparing their results and predictions. Finally, possible biological experiments that would discriminate between the models are discussed. In this paper, we also introduce an effective description of certain memory circuit elements. PMID:24808580

  10. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  11. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  12. Projective-Cognitive Assessment of Thoughts and Feelings and Their Relationship to Adaptive Behavior in a Dental Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. Michael, III; Cholera, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the interrelationships among coping statements, a self-report measure of anxiety, and maladaptive overt behavior in a dental situation. Subjects were 23 adolescents. Found that as disruptive "in-chair" overt behavior increased, so did the percentage of coping statements; as self-report levels of anxiety increased, the percentage of coping…

  13. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  14. Complex Adaptive Behavior and Dexterous Action.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Steven J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Dexterous action, as conceptualized by Bernstein in his influential ecological analysis of human behavior, is revealed in the ability to flexibly generate behaviors that are adaptively tailored to the demands of the context in which they are embedded. Conceived as complex adaptive behavior, dexterity depends upon the qualities of robustness and degeneracy, and is supported by the functional complexity of the agent-environment system. Using Bernstein's and Gibson's ecological analyses of behavior situated in natural environments as conceptual touchstones, we consider the hypothesis that complex adaptive behavior capitalizes upon general principles of self-organization. Here, we outline a perspective in which the complex interactivity of nervous-system, body, and environment is revealed as an essential resource for adaptive behavior. From this perspective, we consider the implications for interpreting the functionality and dysfunctionality of human behavior. This paper demonstrates that, optimal variability, the topic of this special issue, is a logical consequence of interpreting the functionality of human behavior as complex adaptive behavior. PMID:26375932

  15. Adapting the McMaster-Ottawa scale and developing behavioral anchors for assessing performance in an interprofessional Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; May, Win; Richter-Lagha, Regina; Forest, Christopher; Banzali, Yvonne; Lohenry, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Current scales for interprofessional team performance do not provide adequate behavioral anchors for performance evaluation. The Team Observed Structured Clinical Encounter (TOSCE) provides an opportunity to adapt and develop an existing scale for this purpose. We aimed to test the feasibility of using a retooled scale to rate performance in a standardized patient encounter and to assess faculty ability to accurately rate both individual students and teams. Methods The 9-point McMaster-Ottawa Scale developed for a TOSCE was converted to a 3-point scale with behavioral anchors. Students from four professions were trained a priori to perform in teams of four at three different levels as individuals and teams. Blinded faculty raters were trained to use the scale to evaluate individual and team performances. G-theory was used to analyze ability of faculty to accurately rate individual students and teams using the retooled scale. Results Sixteen faculty, in groups of four, rated four student teams, each participating in the same TOSCE station. Faculty expressed comfort rating up to four students in a team within a 35-min timeframe. Accuracy of faculty raters varied (38–81% individuals, 50–100% teams), with errors in the direction of over-rating individual, but not team performance. There was no consistent pattern of error for raters. Conclusion The TOSCE can be administered as an evaluation method for interprofessional teams. However, faculty demonstrate a ‘leniency error’ in rating students, even with prior training using behavioral anchors. To improve consistency, we recommend two trained faculty raters per station. PMID:26004993

  16. Robot Behavior Adaptation for Formation Maintenance

    E-print Network

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    1 Robot Behavior Adaptation for Formation Maintenance Maite López-Sánchez maite@maia.ub.es WAI): ­1 or 2 reference robots to follow ­keeping fixed angle (formation property) ­and fixed distance d (separation distance) · related to robot visibility range, speed or reaction capabilities Basic behaviors I

  17. Adaptive Behavior and Low Incidence Handicaps: Hearing and Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Frieda R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The article discusses recommended adaptive behavior scales for use with hearing impaired, visually impaired, and multihandicapped sensory impaired individuals. Assessment instruments developed and used in the National Independent Living Skills Project, which have applicability across sensory impaired populations, are also described. (Author/JW)

  18. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  19. Adaptive rapid environmental assessment system simulation framework

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ding, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive Rapid Environmental Assessment (AREA) is a new concept for minimizing the non model-based sonar performance prediction uncertainty and improving the model-based sonar performance by adaptive and rapid in situ ...

  20. Driver's adaptive glance behavior to in-vehicle information systems.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yiyun; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adaptive behavior of drivers as they engage with in-vehicle devices over time and in varying driving situations. Behavioral adaptation has been shown to occur among drivers after prolonged use of in-vehicle devices, but few studies have examined drivers' risk levels across different driving demands. A multi-day simulator study was conducted with 28 young drivers (under 30 years old) as they engaged in different text entry and reading tasks while driving in two different traffic conditions. Cluster analysis was used to categorize drivers based on their risk levels and random coefficient models were used to assess changes in drivers' eye glance behavior. Glance duration significantly increased over time while drivers were performing text entry tasks but not for text reading tasks. High-risk drivers had longer maximum eyes-off-road when performing long text entry tasks compared to low-risk drivers, and this difference increased over time. The traffic condition also had a significant impact on drivers' glance behavior. This study suggests that drivers may exhibit negative behavioral adaptation as they become more comfortable with using in-vehicle technologies over time. Results of this paper may provide guidance for the design of in-vehicle devices that adapt based on the context of the situation. It also demonstrates that random coefficient models can be used to obtain better estimations of driver behavior when there are large individual differences. PMID:26406538

  1. http://adb.sagepub.com/ Adaptive Behavior

    E-print Network

    Witkowski, Mark

    http://adb.sagepub.com/ Adaptive Behavior http://adb.sagepub.com/content/15/1/73 The online version://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.navReprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.navPermissions: http://adb.sagepub.com/content/15/1/73.refs · conditioning · expectancy model · anticipation 1 Introduction This article reviews and then proposes a unifying

  2. Behavior and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: Specifying Targets for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with Down syndrome can demonstrate increased behavior problems as compared with typical peers. Few studies have explored whether behavior impacts adaptive functioning. Caregiver report from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL;…

  3. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  4. Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

  5. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  6. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  7. Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175?ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30?s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish. PMID:21909325

  8. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  9. An occupational therapy approach to assessing psychiatric patients' adaptive functioning.

    PubMed

    Oakley, F; Kielhofner, G; Barris, R

    1985-03-01

    This study focused on the relative utility of the model of human occupation for occupational therapy assessment of persons having mental disorders. The organizational status of the human system and its relationship to adaptive level of functioning and degree of symptomatology were examined in a sample of 30 adult psychiatric patients. We used a six-test assessment battery developed for this study, which was based on the model of human occupation, to measure the organizational status of the following components of the human system: locus of control, goals, temporal orientation, interests, roles, and skills. Subtests of the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Adoptive Behavior Scale and the Modified Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to measure adaptive level functioning and symptomatology, respectively. When we compared organizational status with psychiatric diagnosis and symptomatology, we found organizational status to be the more significant index of adaptive level of functioning. PMID:3993720

  10. Quality assessment of adaptive 3D video streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Gutiérrez, Jesús; García, Narciso

    2013-03-01

    The streaming of 3D video contents is currently a reality to expand the user experience. However, because of the variable bandwidth of the networks used to deliver multimedia content, a smooth and high-quality playback experience could not always be guaranteed. Using segments in multiple video qualities, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) of video content is a relevant advancement with respect to classic progressive download streaming. Mainly, it allows resolving these issues by offering significant advantages in terms of both user-perceived Quality of Experience (QoE) and resource utilization for content and network service providers. In this paper we discuss the impact of possible HAS client's behavior while adapting to the network capacity on enduser. This has been done through an experiment of testing the end-user response to the quality variation during the adaptation procedure. The evaluation has been carried out through a subjective test of the end-user response to various possible clients' behaviors for increasing, decreasing, and oscillation of quality in 3D video. In addition, some of the HAS typical impairments during the adaptation has been simulated and their effects on the end-user perception are assessed. The experimental conclusions have made good insight into the user's response to different adaptation scenarios and visual impairments causing the visual discomfort that can be used to develop the adaptive streaming algorithm to improve the end-user experience.

  11. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  12. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  13. Coordination Pattern Adaptability: Energy Cost of Degenerate Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: ‘freely-chosen’, ‘maximal glide’ and ‘minimal glide’. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under ‘maximal glide’ compared to ‘freely-chosen’ instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). In the ‘minimal glide’ condition, the swimmers did not show significantly shorter glide and lower energy cost, but they exhibited significantly lower deceleration of the center of mass, as well as modified limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). These results highlight that a variety of structural adaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal. PMID:25255016

  14. Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Castro, Felipe G.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Toobert, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the article are to (a) describe…

  15. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  16. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

    2005-01-01

    Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

  18. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  19. Confronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Confronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation: A Conceptual Framework to climate change adaptation. This paper proposes a framework for modeling climate impacts and adaptation into a conceptual model that distinguishes three different classes of adaptation-related activities. Based

  20. Correlational Study of the Scales of Independent Behavior and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Joseph J.

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) and the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) were administered to the mothers of 40 preschoolers (23 females and 17 males) in a day care situation. The children ranged in age from 47 to 74 months. Mothers were interviewed to determine if any changes had taken place in the behavior of the children…

  1. Mouse Behavior: Conjectures about Adaptations for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Presents an experiment on mouse behavior in which students learn to observe, pay attention to details, record field notes, and ask questions about their observations. Uses a white mouse to eliminate the risk of disease that a wild rodent might carry. Lists materials, set up, and procedure. (YDS)

  2. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  3. Alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Halpern, A S; Irvin, L K; Landman, J T

    1979-11-01

    Most measures of adaptive behavior are derived from rating scales. There are only a few instruments that approach the measurement of adaptive behavior through direct testing. In the present study we examined the relative efficacy of rating and testing approaches for predicting criterion behavior. Three tests from the Social and Prevocational Information Battery were selected as a foundation for the development of analogous behavior-rating and applied-performance instruments. All three types of instruments were administered to the same subjects, mildly retarded adolescents, in order to estimate the validity of testing and rating approaches. Although both approaches were found to be valid, the testing approach appeared to be substantially superior. Implications of this finding were discussed briefly. PMID:525660

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

  5. Towards a Modest Empiricism in Human Transaction Derived from "A General Theory of Adapting Behavior."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steg, Doreen R.; Schulman, Rosalind

    Adaptive behavior is defined as behavior where a system adapts itself to the requirements of the environment, and adapting behavior, where the system changes the environment to suit itself using a variety of tools. A wide variety of possible mixtures of both also becomes evident. The result of economic affluence is viewed as such "adapting

  6. Self-Injurious Behaviors: Assessment and Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E. White

    2003-01-01

    Article examines the diagnosis and assessment of self-injurious behaviors. A classification model for conceptualizing self-injury is discussed, and the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" diagnoses associated with self-injury are addressed. Assessment questions and issues to consider when assessing clients who self-injure are…

  7. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  8. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-11-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  9. A GENERIC FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSMENT IN ADAPTIVE EDUCATIONAL HYPERMEDIA

    E-print Network

    Henze, Nicola

    developed and tested in many disciplines, have shown to improve learning. They offer personalized supportA GENERIC FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSMENT IN ADAPTIVE EDUCATIONAL HYPERMEDIA Lilia Cheniti-Belcadhi, Rafik of the adaptive content presentation. In this paper we propose a logic- based formalism to characterize adaptive

  10. Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

  11. Adaptations for Rural Behavior Disordered Pupils in the Mainstream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Judy W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses instructional modifications to increase the academic success of rural behavior-disordered students in regular classes. Describes adaptations of teaching mode, media use, presentation of academic content, textbook content and organization, and test construction and administration. Contains 10 references. (SV)

  12. Adaptive Organizational Behavior of School Organizations: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koberg, Christine S.

    1986-01-01

    This study collected exploratory data on a group of organizational adjustment variables (procedural, personnel, process, structural, and strategic) among a group of schools and school districts. Results provide a preliminary basis for suggesting that the adaptive organizational behavior of schools and school districts may be influenced by…

  13. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

  14. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  15. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70–200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys’ behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators. PMID:26266537

  16. Behavioral/Cognitive The Role of the Posterior Cerebellum in Saccadic Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    Behavioral/Cognitive The Role of the Posterior Cerebellum in Saccadic Adaptation: A Transcranial is considered to be critically involved in saccadic adaptation. However, recent evidence suggests that the adaptive decrease (backward adaptation) and the adaptive increase (forward adaptation) of saccade amplitude

  17. Adaptive Assessment of Young Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…

  18. A Framework for Spatial Assessment of Local Level Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity to Extreme Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Hayden, M.; Harlan, S.; Ruddell, D.; Komatsu, K.; England, B.; Uejio, C.

    2008-12-01

    Changing climate is predicted to increase the intensity and impacts of heat waves prompting the need to develop preparedness and adaptation strategies that reduce societal vulnerability. Central to understanding societal vulnerability, is adaptive capacity, the potential of a system or population to modify its features/behaviors so as to better cope with existing and anticipated stresses and fluctuations. Adaptive capacity influences adaptation, the actual adjustments made to cope with the impacts from current and future hazardous heat events. Understanding societal risks, vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events and climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach that includes information about weather and climate, the natural and built environment, social processes and characteristics, interactions with the stakeholders, and an assessment of community vulnerability. This project presents a framework for an interdisciplinary approach and a case study that explore linkages between quantitative and qualitative data for a more comprehensive understanding of local level vulnerability and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events in Phoenix, Arizona. In this talk, we will present a methodological framework for conducting collaborative research on societal vulnerability and adaptive capacity on a local level that includes integration of household surveys into a quantitative spatial assessment of societal vulnerability. We highlight a collaborative partnership among researchers, community leaders and public health officials. Linkages between assessment of local adaptive capacity and development of regional climate change adaptation strategies will be discussed.

  19. Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

  20. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  1. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  2. [Psychophysiological adaptation and communication behavior of human operator during 105-day isolation].

    PubMed

    Shved, D M; Gushchin, V I; Vinokhodova, A G; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasil'eva, G Iu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to assess effects of 105-d isolation on language behavior and psychophysiological status of volunteered subjects. Software NOOJ was used to determine frequency of mentioning in written reports notions falling into the categories of "Needs", "Activity", "Negation" and "Social regulation". Well-being, activity and mood were assessed with the SAN questionnaire and urine cortisol measurement. Correlation of the content-analysis results with phases of adaptation to extended isolation and confinement made it possible to elicit specific features of language behavior of the small group members, at the time of simulated autonomy, specifically. Besides, the computerized content-analysis enabled a quantitative description of communication strategy as a function of psychophysiological adaptation to stressful factors of the simulation experiment. PMID:21675191

  3. [Aggressive behavior, its adaptive function and mechanisms of development of psychosomatic disorders and diseases of adaptation].

    PubMed

    Chichinadze, K N; Gachechiladze, L F

    2006-01-01

    A correlation between physiologic and behavioral responses to emotional stress and agonistic conflict (triad model), as well as ideas of autonomic-humoral support of subsequent activity suggest that motor activity and situational aggressive behavior are essential final stages of stress reaction and, therefore, mechanisms of adaptation. Failure in final the stage of adaptive response causes mobilization changes to be directed against the host organism itself. This phenomenon forms the basis for psychosomatic disorders. Aggression seems to be an adaptive response not only from ethologic, but from physiologic point of view as well. It has some elements of homeostatic control (together with non-homeostatic functions). Homeostatic role of aggression may be in "elimination" of mobilization metabolic changes caused by stress reaction and physical activity by means of expressive emotional response. Aggression as a non-homeostatic factor has an ethologic function. PMID:16583684

  4. Effects of arm-splint rigidity on self-injury and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, Nicole M; Roane, Henry S; Wilson, Jessie L; Novak, Matthew D; Silkowski, Erica L

    2015-12-01

    The current study replicated and extended previous research on the use of a rapid assessment to identify effective arm-splint rigidity with 2 participants who had been diagnosed with autism and who engaged in self-injurious behavior (SIB). We varied rigidity levels within a multielement design across several adaptive tasks and identified the most effective rigidity level in terms of reductions in SIB and levels of compliance. PMID:26373351

  5. ASSOCIATING NONLINEAR EFFECTS IN NLMS ADAPTATION WITH DYNAMIC WEIGHT BEHAVIOR A. A. (Louis) Beex & James R. Zeidler

    E-print Network

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    ASSOCIATING NONLINEAR EFFECTS IN NLMS ADAPTATION WITH DYNAMIC WEIGHT BEHAVIOR A. A. (Louis) Beex-Wiener behavior, have been observed in several adaptive filtering applications, such as adaptive equalization of wideband communication signals contaminated by narrowband interference, adaptive narrowband noise

  6. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  7. Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood

    PubMed Central

    Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Calhoun, Adam J.; Chalasani, Sreekanth H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to make accurate predictions of future stimuli and consequences of one’s actions are crucial for the survival and appropriate decision-making. These predictions are constantly being made at different levels of the nervous system. This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. This review will discuss recent findings that actions of neurons and animals are selected based on detailed stimulus history in such a way as to maximize information for achieving the task at hand. Information maximization dictates not only how sensory coding should adapt to various statistical aspects of stimuli, but also that reward function should adapt to match the predictive information from past to future. PMID:24709600

  8. Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

  9. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  10. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  11. A Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Test Approach to Dyspnea Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Norweg, Anna; Ni, Pengsheng; Garshick, Eric; O'Connor, George; Wilke, Kira; Jette, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a prototype dyspnea computer adaptive test. Design Prospective study. Setting Two outpatient medical facilities. Participants A convenience sample of 292 adults with COPD. Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measure We developed a modified and expanded item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) for the Dyspnea Management Questionnaire (DMQ), an outcome measure consisting of four dyspnea dimensions: dyspnea intensity, dyspnea anxiety, activity avoidance, and activity self-efficacy. Results Factor analyses supported a four-dimensional model underlying the 71 DMQ items. The DMQ item bank achieved acceptable Rasch model fit statistics, good measurement breadth with minimal floor and ceiling effects, and evidence of high internal consistency reliability (? = 0.92 to 0.98). Using CAT simulation analyses, the DMQ-CAT showed high measurement accuracy compared to the total item pool (r = .83 to .97, p < .0001) and evidence of good to excellent concurrent (r = ?.61 to ?0.80, p < .0001) validity. All DMQ-CAT domains showed evidence for known-groups validity (p ? 0.001). Conclusions The DMQ-CAT reliably and validly captured four distinct dyspnea domains. Multidimensional dyspnea assessment in COPD is needed to better measure the effectiveness of pharmacologic, pulmonary rehabilitation, and psychosocial interventions in not only alleviating the somatic sensation of dyspnea but also reducing dysfunctional emotions, cognitions, and behaviors associated with dyspnea, especially for anxious patients. PMID:21963123

  12. LSCI in Functional Behavior Assessment and Positive Behavioral Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandated a shift from reactive strategies toward proactive interventions with students who experience both disability and behavioral challenges. The author describes how the methodology of Life Space Crisis Intervention can provide a source of data for functional assessment

  13. An Adaptive Testing System for Supporting Versatile Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cheng, Shu-Chen

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test (CBT) with mobile learning (m-learning) especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test (CAT) is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves. In CAT, students are…

  14. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    E-print Network

    Dainty, Chris

    Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics Harrison H. Barrett J. Myers NIBIB/CDRH Laboratory for the Assessment of Medical Imaging Systems, Rockville, Maryland 14, 2006 (Doc. ID 65980) The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality

  15. Adaptive Assessment of Student's Knowledge in Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzopoulou, D. I.; Economides, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents Programming Adaptive Testing (PAT), a Web-based adaptive testing system for assessing students' programming knowledge. PAT was used in two high school programming classes by 73 students. The question bank of PAT is composed of 443 questions. A question is classified in one out of three difficulty levels. In PAT, the levels of…

  16. Adaptations and Access to Assessment of Common Core Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces theory that undergirds the role of testing adaptations in assessment, provides examples of item modifications and testing accommodations, reviews research relevant to each, and introduces a new paradigm that incorporates opportunity to learn (OTL), academic enablers, testing adaptations, and inferences that can be made from…

  17. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R.

    1996-04-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Calibrated Methodology for Assessing Adaptation Costs for Urban Drainage Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in precipitation patterns associated with climate change may pose significant challenges for storm water management systems across much of the U.S. In particular, adapting these systems to more intense rainfall events will require significant investment. The assessment ...

  19. Using Behavioral Questionnaires to Identify Adaptive Deficits in Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David

    1994-01-01

    Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…

  20. The emerging roles of melanopsin in behavioral adaptation to light

    PubMed Central

    Hatori, Megumi; Panda, Satchidananda

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation of behavior and physiology to changes in the ambient light level is of critical importance to life. These adaptations include light modulation of neuroendocrine function and temporal alignment of physiology and behavior to the day:night cycle by the circadian clock. These non-image forming (NIF) responses can function independent of rod and cone photoreceptors but depend on ocular light reception, suggesting the participation of novel photoreceptors in the eye. The discovery of melanopsin in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and genetic proof for its important role in major NIF responses have offered an exciting entry point to comprehend how mammals adapt to the light environment. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of the emerging roles of melanopsin and of ipRGCs. These findings now offer new avenues to understand the role of ambient light in sleep, alertness, dependent physiologies and potential pharmacological intervention as well as lifestyle modifications to improve the quality of life. PMID:20810319

  1. Introducing Assessment: Strategic Adaptations and Early Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jo

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how educators can set the context of assessment conversations by looking at "well-lighted sites" for valuable, though certainly introductory, explorations that can set the stage for the more probing and more complex assessment work to come. The author suggests that in initial assessment conversations, it may…

  2. Personality Assessment Through Gaming Behavior Shoshannah Tekofsky

    E-print Network

    Spronck, Pieter

    ), and reliability (self-report). Assessment through video game play offers a way of quantifying behavior, automating observations, and side-stepping self-report. To determine whether video games are a valuable addition) Con- scientiousness is negatively correlated with speed of action. (2) The game variable Unlock Score

  3. Assessing the Determinants of School Refusal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Christopher; Silverman, Wendy

    This report defines school refusal behavior as the refusal to attend school or difficulties going to school or remaining in school for the entire day, and sees school refusal as a significant problem that may occur in 8% of all school-aged children. It discusses difficulties of previous classification and assessment strategies for students who…

  4. Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Does Sex Moderate the Pathway from Clinical Symptoms to Adaptive Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73?±?4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p?=?0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders. PMID:25988942

  5. Sex differences in autism spectrum disorders: does sex moderate the pathway from clinical symptoms to adaptive behavior?

    PubMed

    Mandic-Maravic, Vanja; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Mitkovic-Voncina, Marija; Kostic, Milutin; Aleksic-Hil, Olivera; Radosavljev-Kircanski, Jelena; Mincic, Teodora; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

    2015-01-01

    We explored sex differences in diagnostic categories, clinical symptoms and adaptive behavior of persons with autism spectrum disorders, as well as sex-specific correlations of clinical and adaptive caracteristics. The study involved 108 patients (83 males, 6.73?±?4.33 years old) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Assessment included ADI-R and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II. Males were more often diagnosed with typical autism. There were no sex differences in the autistic symptoms, while females showed better functioning in Daily living skills, without reaching statistically significant difference (p?=?0.062). We have found different associations of autistic symptoms with different aspects of adaptive behavior in males and females. Social reciprocity in females correlated with social domain of adaptive behavior, in a positive direction. Our findings have shown that although there are no sex differences in autistic symptoms, females tend to be somewhat more functional, and are also less frequently diagnosed with typical autism. Our results have also shown that sex might moderate the way clinical symptoms are expressed in adaptive behavior. Social reciprocity might be the core feature regarding sex differences in ASD. Our findings might have diagnostic and therapeutical implications, pointing out to the need for individualized, sex-specific treatment in this group of disorders. PMID:25988942

  6. Behavior of an adaptive bio-inspired spider web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Huie, Andrew; Hartman, Alex; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of an artificial adaptive spider web with comparable behavior to a real spider web. First, the natural frequency and energy absorption ability of a passive web is studied. Next, a control system that consists of stepper motors, load cells and an Arduino, is constructed to mimic a spider's ability to control the tension of radial strings in the web. The energy related characteristics in the artificial spider web is examined while the pre-tension of the radial strings are varied. Various mechanical properties of a damaged spider web are adjusted to study their effect on the behavior of the web. It is demonstrated that the pre-tension and stiffness of the web's radial strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and the total energy of the full and damaged webs.

  7. Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

    2011-01-01

    The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

  8. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Adaptation across the Cortical Hierarchy: Low-Level Curve

    E-print Network

    Dayan, Peter

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Adaptation across the Cortical Hierarchy: Low-Level Curve Adaptation Computational Neuroscience Unit, University College London, London WC1N 3AR, United Kingdom Adaptation or theoretical studies address how adaptation at one hierarchical level affects processing at others

  9. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. PMID:25461715

  10. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors

  11. Personality traits, future time perspective and adaptive behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gomes Carvalho, Renato Gil; Novo, Rosa Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the importance of future time perspective (FTP) for individual success. However, little research addresses the relationship between FTP and personality traits, particularly if FTP can mediate their influence on behavior. In this study we analyze the mediating of FTP in the influence of personality traits on the way adolescents live their life at school. Sample consisted in 351 students, aged from 14 to 18 years-old, at different schooling levels. Instruments were the Portuguese version of the MMPI-A, particularly the PSY-5 dimensions (Aggressiveness, Psychoticism, Disconstraint, Neuroticism, Introversion), a FTP questionnaire, and a survey on school life, involving several indicators of achievement, social integration, and overall satisfaction. With the exception of Neuroticism, the results show significant mediation effects (p < .001) of FTP on most relationships between PSY-5 dimensions and school life variables. Concerning Disconstraint, FTP mediated its influence on overall satisfaction (? = -.125) and school achievement (? = -.106). In the case of Introversion, significant mediation effects occurred for interpersonal difficulties (? = .099) and participation in extracurricular activities (? = -.085). FTP was also a mediator of Psychoticism influence in overall satisfaction (? = -.094), interpersonal difficulties (? = .057), and behavior problems (? = .037). Finally, FTP mediated the influence of Aggressiveness on overall satisfaction (? = -.061), interpersonal difficulties (? = .040), achievement (? = -.052), and behavior problems (? = .023). Results are discussed considering the importance of FTP in the impact of some personality structural characteristics in students' school adaptation. PMID:25907852

  12. Adolescents Misperceive and Are Influenced By High Status Peers' Health Risk, Deviant, and Adaptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Sarah W.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of Jocks', Populars', Burnouts', and Brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and Populars were rated as higher status than Brains and Burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between Populars'/Jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. PMID:25365121

  13. Habitat Utilization Assessment - Building in Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Blume, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Habitability, and the associated architectural and design attributes of an environment, is a powerful performance shaping factor. By identifying how inhabitants use an area, we can draw conclusions about what design or architectural attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance. We are analyzing how a crew uses a long duration habitat and work environment during a four-day underwater mission and identifying certain architectural and design attributes that are related to, and potential enablers of, certain crew behaviors. By identifying how inhabitants use the habitat, we can draw conclusions about what habitability attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance (applicable to NASA's Bioastronautics Human Behavior and Performance Critical Path Roadmap question 6.12). This assessment replicates a methodology reported in a chapter titled "Sociokinetic Analysis as a Tool for Optimization of Environmental Design" by C. Adams.' That study collected video imagery of certain areas of a closed habitat during a 91 day test and from that data calculated time spent in different volumes during the mission, and characterized the behaviors occurring in certain habitat volumes thus concluding various rules for design of such habitats. This study assesses the utilization of the Aquarius Habitat, an underwater station, which will support six Aquanauts for a fourteen-day mission during which the crew will perform specific scientific and engineering studies. Video is recorded for long uninterrupted periods of time during the mission and from that data the time spent in each area is calculated. In addition, qualitative and descriptive analysis of the types of behaviors in each area is performed with the purpose of identifying any behaviors that are not typical of a certain area. If a participant uses an area in a way different from expected, a subsequent analysis of the features of that area may result in conclusions of performance shaping factors. With the addition of this study, we can make comparisons between the two different habitats and begin drawing correlation judgments about design features and behavior. Ideally, this methodology should be repeated in additional Aquarius missions and other analog environments because the real information will come from comparisons between habitats.

  14. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  15. Iron Supplementation in Infancy Contributes to More Adaptive Behavior at 10 Years of Age1234

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M.; Smith, Julia B.; Sturza, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14–0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  16. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  17. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  18. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Origin of Adaptation in the Auditory Pathway of Locusts

    E-print Network

    Benda, Jan

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Origin of Adaptation in the Auditory Pathway of Locusts, Germany We investigated the origin of spike frequency adaptation within a layered sensory network: the auditory pathway of locusts. Spike frequency adaptation as observed in an individual neuron may arise

  19. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Input-Driven Components of Spike-Frequency Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Input-Driven Components of Spike-Frequency Adaptation Can Be Unmasked-frequencyadaptationaffectstheresponsecharacteristicsofmanysensoryneurons,anddifferentbiophysicalprocessescontribute to this phenomenon. Many cellular mechanisms underlying adaptation are triggered by the spike output of the neuron adaptation in hair cells, and short-term synaptic depression. For a functional characterization of spike

  20. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  1. Robot Behavior Adaptation for Human-Robot Interaction based on Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning

    E-print Network

    Mitsunaga, Noriaki

    learning (PGRL), human-robot interaction, behavior adaptation, proxemics. I. INTRODUCTION When humansRobot Behavior Adaptation for Human-Robot Interaction based on Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning Noriaki Mitsunaga1, Christian Smith1,2 Takayuki Kanda1, Hiroshi Ishiguro1,3, Norihiro Hagita1 1

  2. Studying the Genetics of Behavior & Evolution by Adaptation & Natural Selection Author(s): Jules Silverman

    E-print Network

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    Studying the Genetics of Behavior & Evolution by Adaptation & Natural Selection Author(s): Jules://www.jstor.org #12;How-To-Do-It Studying the Genetics of Behavior & Evoluton By Adaptation& Natural Selection Jules (5 ml) *Boricacid *Dog chow (Purina?) *Cottonstopperedwatervial *Small(ca.1 cm diam.)vial cap *Tygon

  3. Psychopathological Manifestations of Children with Intellectual Disabilities According to Their Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine N.; Richer, Louis; Lachance, Lise; Cote, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior which increase the risk of psychopathological disorders. This exploratory study aims at delineating profiles of children based on their cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviors, and to compare them on psychopathological manifestations. A…

  4. The Use of Structural Behavioral Assessment to Develop Interventions for Secondary Students Exhibiting Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Maag, John W.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Structural behavioral assessment (SBA) involves a series of heuristic approaches similar to those used with functional behavioral assessment (FBA). It involves assessing contextual variables that precede the occurrence of a behavior. These variables have also been termed antecedents, setting events, or establishing operations. Once these variables…

  5. Modeling of bone adaptative behavior based on cells activities.

    PubMed

    Bonfoh, Napo; Novinyo, Edem; Lipinski, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Bone remodeling occurs in an adult's skeleton to adapt its architecture to external loadings. This involves bone resorption by osteoclasts cells followed by formation of new bone by osteoblasts cells. During bone remodeling, osteoclasts and osteoblasts interact with each other by expressing autocrine and paracrine factors that regulate cells' population. Therefore, changes in bone density depend on the amount of each acting cell population. The aim of this paper is to propose a model for the bone remodeling process, which takes into account the opposite activity of both types of cells. For this purpose, a system of differential equations, proposed by Komarova et al. (Bone 33:206-215, 2003), is introduced to describe bone cell interactions using parameters which characterize the autocrine and paracrine factors. Such equations allow us to determine how the autocrine and paracrine factors vary in response to an external stimulus. It is assumed that an equilibrium state can be obtained for values of stimulus near to some reference quantity. Far from this value, unbalanced activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is observed, which leads to bone apposition or resorption. The proposed model has been implemented into the finite element software ABAQUS to analyze the qualitative response of a bone structure when subjected to certain mechanical loadings. Obtained results are satisfactory and in accordance with the expected bone remodeling behavior. PMID:21136134

  6. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  7. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins. PMID:25573801

  8. Quantifying the CV: Adapting an Impact Assessment Model to Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohémier, K. A.

    2015-04-01

    We present the process and results of applying the Becker Model to the curriculum vitae of a Yale University astronomy professor. As background, in July 2013, the Becker Medical Library at Washington Univ. in St. Louis held a workshop for librarians on the Becker Model, a framework developed by research assessment librarians for quantifying medical researchers' individual and group outputs. Following the workshop, the model was analyzed for content to adapt it to the physical sciences.

  9. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure- inducing dose of TETS (0 tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond

  10. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  11. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  12. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers. Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American fathers. Some received a brief overview of the program before giving feedback (series A) and others received the entire intervention (series B). Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze transcripts and codebooks were developed through an iterative process. Series B fathers had fewer negative perceptions and a more detailed perspective. Limited exposure to an intervention may cause participants to provide inaccurate data on intervention acceptability. The fathers’ initial perceptions of interventions, regardless of accuracy, will affect recruitment and engagement and must be addressed. One strategy is to tailor program examples and language to reflect the experiences of African American fathers. PMID:26190952

  13. Using an Adaptive Gene Network Model for Self-Organizing Multicellular Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Ali H.; Shen, Xiling

    2015-01-01

    Using the transient interleukin (IL)-2 secretion of effector T helper (Teff) cells as an example, we show that self-organizing multicellular behavior can be modeled and predicted by an adaptive gene network model. Incorporating an adaptation algorithm we established previously, we construct a network model that has the parameter values iteratively updated to cope with environmental change governed by diffusion and cell-cell interactions. In contrast to non-adaptive models, we find that the proposed adaptive model for individual Teff cells can generate transient IL-2 secretory behavior that is observed experimentally at the population level. The proposed adaptive modeling approach can be a useful tool in the study of self-organizing behavior observed in other contexts in biology, including microbial pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, embryonic development, tumor formation, etc. PMID:23367162

  14. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed. PMID:17106464

  15. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed. PMID:17106464

  16. [Translation and adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire: a Brazilian version].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta Paula Schell; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Machado, Mônica; Williams, Anna Virginia; Matte, Breno Córdova; Pechansky, Flavio; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Szobot, Claudia Maciel

    2012-06-01

    Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in young adults. In Brazil, traffic accidents are proportionally more prevalent among motorcyclists as compared to automobile drivers. Although numerous data indicate that individual characteristics are involved in traffic accident risk, there is no instrument in Brazil to assess motorcyclists' traffic behavior. The authors thus proposed to perform translation and cultural adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ) into Brazilian Portuguese. The translation process consisted of: two independent translations into Brazilian Portuguese; unification of the translations; back-translation into English; formal assessment of semantic equivalence; application of a summary version in a convenience sample of motorcyclists; generation of a final version; and back-translation and submission to the original author, who approved this version. The Brazilian version maintained its semantic equivalence and was accepted by the convenience sample, an important characteristic for a self-completed instrument. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the questionnaire's psychometric properties in the Brazilian cultural context. PMID:22666824

  17. Adaptive Behavior Scale: Development as a Diagnostic Tool Via Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gully, Kevin J.; Hosch, Harmon M.

    1979-01-01

    Three classifications of 6- through 12-year-old children (388 nonretarded, 115 educable mentally retarded, and 85 trainable mentally retarded) were evaluated on the public school version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale by their teachers. (Author/SBH)

  18. Human Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: Interactive studies of pursuit, evasion, courtship, fighting, and play

    E-print Network

    Todd, Peter M.

    Human Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: Interactive studies of pursuit, evasion, courtship, fighting by inter­ acting across a computer network in on­screen pursuit and evasion, fighting, courtship, and play

  19. The Classroom Adaptation Scale: A Behavior Rating Scale Designed to Screen Primary Grade Children for School Adaptation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virbickis, Joseph A.

    After a brief historical review of the background and research, the paper focuses on development of a teacher-administered behavior rating scale to screen for school adaptation problems on a large scale basis using as Ss 15 primary grade teachers and their ratings of 315 primary grade children (ages 6-to-10 years) in their classes. A 16-item…

  20. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24219847

  1. Cognitive, Behavioral, and Adaptive Functioning in Fragile X and Non-Fragile X Retarded Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of the cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of 12 retarded men with fragile X syndrome indicated that fragile X men were largely indistinguishable from comparison groups. They were, however, significantly more likely to have achieved levels of adaptive functioning commensurate with their intellectual abilities. (Author/DB)

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF NET-CENTRIC OPERATIONS USING MULTI-AGENT ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR

    E-print Network

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF NET-CENTRIC OPERATIONS USING MULTI-AGENT ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR University Fairfax, VA #12;An Analysis of the Effects of Net-Centric Operations Using Multi-Agent Adaptive. His deep knowledge of System Engineering and the scientific method were instrumental in shaping

  3. Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

  4. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Specificity of Reflex Adaptation for Task-Relevant

    E-print Network

    Franklin, David

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Specificity of Reflex Adaptation for Task-Relevant Variability David W with reflexes, such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex or stretch reflex, whose gains adapt in response to novel we demonstrate a reflex response to shifts in the hand's visual location during reaching, which

  5. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  6. Brief Report: Adaptive Behavior and Cognitive Skills for Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Huai, Nan; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adaptive behavior and cognitive skills for 125 toddlers on the autism spectrum using the recently updated Vineland-II and Bayley-III. Delays in adaptive skills were apparent at 2 years of age. As a group, toddlers on the autism spectrum had a profile of Vineland-II standard scores in which Motor Skills greater than Daily Living…

  7. REDUCING AMBIGUITY IN THE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Rooker, Griffin W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury and aggression) remains among the most serious challenges for the habilitation of persons with intellectual disabilities and is a significant obstacle to community integration. The current standard of behavior analytic treatment for problem behavior in this population consists of a functional assessment and treatment model. Within that model, the first step is to assess the behavior–environment relations that give rise to and maintain problem behavior, a functional behavioral assessment. Conventional methods of assessing behavioral function include indirect, descriptive, and experimental assessments of problem behavior. Clinical investigators have produced a rich literature demonstrating the relative effectiveness for each method, but in clinical practice, each can produce ambiguous or difficult-to-interpret outcomes that may impede treatment development. This paper outlines potential sources of variability in assessment outcomes and then reviews the evidence on strategies for avoiding ambiguous outcomes and/or clarifying initially ambiguous results. The end result for each assessment method is a set of best practice guidelines, given the available evidence, for conducting the initial assessment. PMID:26236145

  8. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  9. Complex Environments to Complex Behaviors Filippo Menczer and Richard K. Belew Adaptive Behavior Volume 4, Number 3/4, 317363 Preprint Page 1

    E-print Network

    Belew, Richard K.

    Complex Environments to Complex Behaviors Filippo Menczer and Richard K. Belew Adaptive Behavior Diego La Jolla, CA 92093­0114 USA {fil,rik}@cs.ucsd.edu Abstract Adaptation of ecological systems not capture the role of environmental complexity in shaping the selective pressures that control the adaptive

  10. Applications of Risk Assessment in the Development of Climate Change Adaptation Policy

    E-print Network

    Michalak, Anna M.

    1 Applications of Risk Assessment in the Development of Climate Change Adaptation Policy A of climate change will affect both natural systems and human populations. Adaptation policies that provide to perform risk assessments allowing decision-makers to select optimal adaptation choices given available

  11. Sex-Role Orientation, Behavioral Adaptability, and Personal Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlofsky, Jacob L.; Windle, Michael T.

    1978-01-01

    In this study, 111 college men and women were classified into masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated sex role categories. Subjects were tested for emotional expressivity, assertiveness, and personal integration. Androgynous subjects exhibited the greatest adaptability. (Author/WI)

  12. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

  13. Relation between complexity and stability in food webs with adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoshi; Drossel, Barbara

    2007-08-21

    We investigate the influence of functional responses (Lotka-Volterra or Holling type), initial topological web structure (randomly connected or niche model), adaptive behavior (adaptive foraging and predator avoidance) and the type of constraints on the adaptive behavior (linear or nonlinear) on the stability and structure of food webs. Two kinds of stability are considered: one is the network robustness (i.e., the proportion of species surviving after population dynamics) and the other is the species deletion stability. When evaluating the network structure, we consider link density as well as the trophic level structure. We show that the types of functional responses and initial web structure do not have a large effect on the stability of food webs, but foraging behavior has a large stabilizing effect. It leads to a positive complexity-stability relationship whenever higher "complexity" implies more potential prey per species. The other type of adaptive behavior, predator avoidance behavior, makes food webs only slightly more stable. The observed link density after population dynamics depends strongly on the presence or absence of adaptive foraging, and on the type of constraints used. We also show that the trophic level structure is preserved under population dynamics with adaptive foraging. PMID:17543344

  14. Adaptation of orienting behavior: from the barn owl to a robotic system

    E-print Network

    Rucci, Michele

    Adaptation of orienting behavior: from the barn owl to a robotic system M. Rucci, J. Wray and G barn owl, an area well-known to be involved in the pro- duction of orienting behavior, neural maps process of spatial localization in the barn owl. Here we consider the applica- tion of this model to t h e

  15. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  16. ON THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR OF THE DURBIN-WATSON STATISTIC FOR ARX PROCESSES IN ADAPTIVE TRACKING

    E-print Network

    Bercu, Bernard

    ON THE ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR OF THE DURBIN-WATSON STATISTIC FOR ARX PROCESSES IN ADAPTIVE TRACKING on the asymptotic behavior of the Durbin-Watson statistic for autoregressive models. However, it is impossible to find results on the Durbin-Watson statistic for autoregressive models with adap- tive control. Our

  17. Interactive Simulation of Dynamic Crowd Behaviors using General Adaptation Syndrome Theory

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Interactive Simulation of Dynamic Crowd Behaviors using General Adaptation Syndrome Theory Sujeong the light turns red, indicating no time left to cross safely, agents experience a high level of stress dynamic patterns of crowd behaviors using stress modeling. Our model accounts for perma- nent, stable

  18. Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

  19. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  20. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for the Vocational Rehabilitation of Significantly Disabled Mentally Ill Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koons, Cedar R.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Betts, Bette B.; O'Rourke, Beth; Morse, Nesha; Robins, Clive J.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve vocational rehabilitation clients with severe mental illness received a comprehensive adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) delivered in a group format. Treatment consisted of 2 hours of standard DBT skills training per week and 90 minutes of diary card review, chain analysis, and behavioral rehearsal. Participants were selected…

  1. Effects of adaptive protective behavior on the dynamics of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michael A L; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to present a complex and costly challenge to public health programs. The preferences and social dynamics of a population can have a large impact on the course of an outbreak as well as the effectiveness of interventions intended to influence individual behavior. In addition, individuals may alter their sexual behavior in response to the presence of STIs, creating a feedback loop between transmission and behavior. We investigate the consequences of modeling the interaction between STI transmission and prophylactic use with a model that links a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) system to evolutionary game dynamics that determine the effective contact rate. The combined model framework allows us to address protective behavior by both infected and susceptible individuals. Feedback between behavioral adaptation and prevalence creates a wide range of dynamic behaviors in the combined model, including damped and sustained oscillations as well as bistability, depending on the behavioral parameters and disease growth rate. We found that disease extinction is possible for multiple regions where R0>1, due to behavior adaptation driving the epidemic downward, although conversely endemic prevalence for arbitrarily low R0 is also possible if contact rates are sufficiently high. We also tested how model misspecification might affect disease forecasting and estimation of the model parameters and R0. We found that alternative models that neglect the behavioral feedback or only consider behavior adaptation by susceptible individuals can potentially yield misleading parameter estimates or omit significant features of the disease trajectory. PMID:26362102

  2. Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. MIT-ICLEI Climate Adaptation Survey Instrument

    E-print Network

    Carmin, JoAnn

    2014-09-14

    The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

  3. Increasing Adaptive Behavior Skill Deficits from Childhood to Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive

  4. Neural Adaptation and Behavioral Measures of Temporal Processing and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Murphy, Dora; Boian, Melissa; Scott, Michael; Keith, Robert; Xiang, Jing; Abbas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine if one of the neural temporal features, neural adaptation, can account for the across-subject variability in behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception performance in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Neural adaptation is the phenomenon in which neural responses are the strongest at the beginning of the stimulus and decline following stimulus repetition (e.g., stimulus trains). It is unclear how this temporal property of neural responses relates to psychophysical measures of temporal processing (e.g., gap detection) or speech perception. The adaptation of the electrical compound action potential (ECAP) was obtained using 1000 pulses per second (pps) biphasic pulse trains presented directly to the electrode. The adaptation of the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) was obtained using a sequence of 1-kHz tone bursts presented acoustically, through the cochlear implant. Behavioral temporal processing was measured using the Random Gap Detection Test at the most comfortable listening level. Consonant nucleus consonant (CNC) word and AzBio sentences were also tested. The results showed that both ECAP and LAEP display adaptive patterns, with a substantial across-subject variability in the amount of adaptation. No correlations between the amount of neural adaptation and gap detection thresholds (GDTs) or speech perception scores were found. The correlations between the degree of neural adaptation and demographic factors showed that CI users having more LAEP adaptation were likely to be those implanted at a younger age than CI users with less LAEP adaptation. The results suggested that neural adaptation, at least this feature alone, cannot account for the across-subject variability in temporal processing ability in the CI users. However, the finding that the LAEP adaptive pattern was less prominent in the CI group compared to the normal hearing group may suggest the important role of normal adaptation pattern at the cortical level in speech perception. PMID:24386403

  5. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Chinese Americans: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Myers, Hector; Chiu, Eddie; Mak, Elsie; Butner, Jonathan; Fujimoto, Ken; Wood, Jeff; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for adults have tested the effectiveness of a well-specified psychotherapy compared with a culturally adapted version of the same treatment. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) in treating depressed Chinese American adults. Methods This was a RCT that treated 50 Chinese Americans who met criteria for major depression and sought treatment at community mental health clinics. Participants were screened beginning September 2008, with the last assessment conducted in March 2011. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 sessions of CBT or CA-CBT. Stratified randomization was used for patients who were on and not on antidepressants when they first came to the clinic, and the study did not influence regular prescription practices. The primary outcomes were dropout rates and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale measured at baseline, session 4, session 8, and session 12. Results Participants in CA-CBT evidenced a greater overall decrease in depressive symptoms than those in CBT, but depression rates remained similarly high at week 12. Differences in dropout rates approached, but did not meet statistical significance (7% CA-CBT and 26% CBT). Conclusions Chinese Americans entered this study with very severe depression. Participants in both CBT and CA-CBT evidenced significant decreases in depressive symptoms, but the majority did not reach remission. Results suggest that these short-term treatments were not sufficient to address such severe depression and that more intensive and longer treatments may be needed. Results also indicate that cultural adaptations may confer additional treatment benefits. PMID:26129996

  6. Effects of the emotion system on adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Giske, Jarl; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Fiksen, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Per J; Aksnes, Dag L; Jørgensen, Christian; Mangel, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A central simplifying assumption in evolutionary behavioral ecology has been that optimal behavior is unaffected by genetic or proximate constraints. Observations and experiments show otherwise, so that attention to decision architecture and mechanisms is needed. In psychology, the proximate constraints on decision making and the processes from perception to behavior are collectively described as the emotion system. We specify a model of the emotion system in fish that includes sensory input, neuronal computation, developmental modulation, and a global organismic state and restricts attention during decision making for behavioral outcomes. The model further includes food competition, safety in numbers, and a fluctuating environment. We find that emergent strategies in evolved populations include common emotional appraisal of sensory input related to fear and hunger and also include frequency-dependent rules for behavioral responses. Focused attention is at times more important than spatial behavior for growth and survival. Spatial segregation of the population is driven by personality differences. By coupling proximate and immediate influences on behavior with ultimate fitness consequences through the emotion system, this approach contributes to a unified perspective on the phenotype, by integrating effects of the environment, genetics, development, physiology, behavior, life history, and evolution. PMID:24231532

  7. Comparison of Measures of Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda I.; Servos, Andria B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonproblem and problem children were compared on Minnesota Child Development Inventory, Classroom Adjustment Rating Scale, Ottawa School Behavior Survey, AML Behavior Rating Scale, Teacher Rating Scale, and Denver Developmental Screening Test. Problem children scored significantly lower than nonproblem children on all measures. Minnesota Child…

  8. Walking Adaptability after a Stroke and Its Assessment in Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K.; Clark, David J.; Fox, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    Control of walking has been described by a tripartite model consisting of stepping, equilibrium, and adaptability. This review focuses on walking adaptability, which is defined as the ability to modify walking to meet task goals and environmental demands. Walking adaptability is crucial to safe ambulation in the home and community environments and is often severely compromised after a stroke. Yet quantification of walking adaptability after stroke has received relatively little attention in the clinical setting. The objectives of this review were to examine the conceptual challenges for clinical measurement of walking adaptability and summarize the current state of clinical assessment for walking adaptability. We created nine domains of walking adaptability from dimensions of community mobility to address the conceptual challenges in measurement and reviewed performance-based clinical assessments of walking to determine if the assessments measure walking adaptability in these domains. Our literature review suggests the lack of a comprehensive well-tested clinical assessment tool for measuring walking adaptability. Accordingly, recommendations for the development of a comprehensive clinical assessment of walking adaptability after stroke have been presented. Such a clinical assessment will be essential for gauging recovery of walking adaptability with rehabilitation and for motivating novel strategies to enhance recovery of walking adaptability after stroke. PMID:25254140

  9. Truncated Functional Behavioral Assessment Procedure For Children With Disruptive Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packenham, Melissa; Shute, Rosalyn; Reid, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Schools are now required by law to create behavior support plans based on functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for students with behavior problems. Although FBA has been shown to be effective, there are questions as to its feasibility in the schools. In this pilot study we examined the effectiveness of a truncated FBA procedure. The FBA used a…

  10. The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

  11. The Effects of Rapid Assessments and Adaptive Restudy Prompts in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renkl, Alexander; Skuballa, Irene T.; Schwonke, Rolf; Harr, Nora; Leber, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rapid assessment tasks and different adaptive restudy prompts in multimedia learning. The adaptivity was based on rapid assessment tasks that were interspersed throughout a multimedia learning environment. In Experiment 1 (N = 52 university students), we analyzed to which extent rapid assessment tasks were reactive…

  12. Adapting Robot Behavior to User's Capabilities: ance Instruction Study

    E-print Network

    Demiris, Yiannis

    will be tested at San Raffaele Hospital, providing support for hospitalized children with diabetes and obesity children according to their capa- bilities. We propose a methodology for adapting both, the movements used-verbal interaction. One of these interactions consist in having dance sessions with the hospitalized children

  13. Kindergarten Children's Perceptions of "Anthropomorphic Artifacts" with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Asi; Mioduser, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, children from a kindergarten in central Israel have been exposed to learning experiences in technology as part of the implementation of a curriculum based on technological thinking, including topics related to behaving-adaptive-artifacts (e.g., robots). This study aims to unveil children's stance towards behaving artifacts:…

  14. The Adaptive Brain Human health and the rational behavior of individuals, groups, and populations depends upon healthy

    E-print Network

    Resler, Lynn M.

    The Adaptive Brain Human health and the rational behavior of individuals, groups, and populations area will embrace multidisciplinary approaches to understanding the adaptive brain in human disorders brain development as a component of human development, aging and healing the foundations

  15. Issues in Grouping Items from the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the structure, reliability, stability, validity and usefulness of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) and the results of factor and regression analyses of data collected using the NBAS. (Author/BH)

  16. Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Font-Roura, Josep; Gine, Climent; Matson, Johnny L.; Cifre, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities (ID) often engage in problem behaviors, such as verbal or physical aggression, property destruction, or self-injury. These behaviors become a challenge for the families and for professionals. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a method used to identify variables that influence or maintain challenging…

  17. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the student), pedagogy ontology, and learner ontology (defines time constraint, comment, profile).

  18. Writing Assessment's "Debilitating Inheritance": Behaviorism's Dismissal of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maja Joiwind

    2013-01-01

    In this project, I examine the legacy of behaviorism's dismissal of experience on contemporary writing assessment theory and practice within the field of composition studies. I use an archival study of John B. Watson's letters to Robert Mearns Yerkes to establish behaviorism's systematic denial of experience and its related constructs: mind,…

  19. Knowledge-Based Adaptive Assessment in a Web-Based Intelligent Educational System

    E-print Network

    -Learning, Adaptive testing, Expert systems, Personalized assessment. 1. Introduction Intelligent Tutoring Systems specifically, we focus on a mechanism for on-line creation of a user- adapted test, which can be used alongside of the standard ways of achieving that is through testing. Adaptive testing is an interesting and relatively new

  20. Biomarkers for assessing population and individual health and disease related to stress and adaptation.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2015-03-01

    Biomarkers are important in stress biology in relation to assessing individual and population health. They facilitate tapping meaningfully into the complex, non-linear interactions that affect the brain and multiple systems of the body and promote adaptation or, when dysregulated, they can accelerate disease processes. This has demanded a multifactorial approach to the choice of biomarkers. This is necessary in order to adequately describe and predict how an individual embedded in a particular social and physical environment, and with a unique genotype and set of lifetime experiences, will fare in terms of health and disease risk, as well as how that individual will respond to an intervention. Yet, at the same time, single biomarkers can have a predictive or diagnostic value when combined with carefully designed longitudinal assessment of behavior and disease related to stress. Moreover, the methods of brain imaging, themselves the reflection of the complexity of brain functional architecture, have provided new ways of diagnosing, and possibly differentiating, subtypes of depressive illness and anxiety disorders that are precipitated or exacerbated by stress. Furthermore, postmortem assessment of brain biomarkers provides important clues about individual vulnerability for suicide related to depression and this may lead to predictive biomarkers to better treat individuals with suicidal depression. Once biomarkers are available, approaches to prevention and treatment should take advantage of the emerging evidence that activating brain plasticity together with targeted behavioral interventions is a promising strategy. PMID:25496803

  1. Cybernetic control model from ethology for adaptive coordination of robot behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Bernd

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we propose a cybernetic approach to behavior based robotics. We present a distributed adaptive control architecture for coordination of different motivations and behaviors of an autonomous vehicle. The system is based on the Zurich Model of Social Motivation, a cybernetic approach to mammalian behavior by the Swiss ethologist BISCHOF. Our system controls a simulated autonomous robot by teaching a reflective associative memory to propose an action based on the input of eight range sensors. The emerging behavior at every stage reflects the system's experience, and the robust in unexpected situations.

  2. Running head: CHILD ASSESSMENT IN DEVELOPING Test selection, adaptation, and evaluation

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Mark

    Running head: CHILD ASSESSMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Test selection, adaptation, and evaluation: a systematic approach to assess nutritional influences on child development in developing countries Elizabeth L Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries Abstract Background. Evaluating the impact

  3. PESTICIDE SPRAY APPLICATIONT BEHAVIOR. AND ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    Coordinator Richard B. Roberts Coordinating Staff Patrick J. Shea, Robert L. Dimmick, Alvin M. Tanabe The Micrometeorology and Physics of Spray Particle Behavior.... 27 Harrison E. Crooner and Douglas G. Boyle Inpaction...........................................40 John W. Barry, Michael Tysowsky, Jr., Geoffrey F. Orr, Robert B. Ekblad, Richard L. Marsalis

  4. Implementing Functional Behavior Assessment in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is aiming to improve special education practices, and inclusive education has been introduced and mandated by national laws in the past few years. However, inclusive practices are challenging for many Thai teachers and schools. Many teachers are unprepared to support students with diverse needs and to deal with behavior problems. To…

  5. Measurement Properties of Indirect Assessment Methods for Functional Behavioral Assessment: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Phaneuf, Robin L.; Wilczynski, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Indirect assessment instruments used during functional behavioral assessment, such as rating scales, interviews, and self-report instruments, represent the least intrusive techniques for acquiring information about the function of problem behavior. This article provides criteria for examining the measurement properties of these instruments…

  6. Urban climate resilience : a global assessment of city adaptation plans

    E-print Network

    Katich, Kristina Noel

    2009-01-01

    As policy makers accept climate change as an irrefutable threat, adaptation planning has emerged as a necessary action for countries, states, and municipalities. This thesis explores adaptive responses to climate change ...

  7. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

  8. Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Occasioned by Interruption of Free-Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Bowman, Lynn G.; Jennett, Heather K.

    2007-01-01

    The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using "do" requests (Study 1) as well as "do" and "don't" requests (Study 2) occasioned problem…

  9. State Special Education Laws for Functional Behavioral Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive search identified 31 state statutes and regulations specific to functional behavioral assessments (FBA) and behavior intervention plans (BIP) in the special education context. A systematic tabulation of the state law provisions that exceed the rather narrow foundation requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act…

  10. Examination of Eco-Behavioral Assessments Designed for Understanding Complex Behaviors and Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie L.; McGough, Sarah M.; Vilardo, Laura; Tankersley, Melody

    2006-01-01

    Second-generation intervention research requires methods for overcoming challenges to understanding complex learning ecologies and interactions of students. Eco-behavioral assessments (EBAs) are one solution to past intervention research challenges. EBAs record the effects of ecological variables in students' behavior and daily interactions. The…

  11. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…

  12. Real-Time Adaptive Behaviors in Multimodal Human-Avatar Interactions

    E-print Network

    Yu, Chen

    Real-Time Adaptive Behaviors in Multimodal Human- Avatar Interactions Hui Zhang, Damian Fricker an intelligent agent (a physical robot or a virtual avatar) that can interact with human users to emulate real from the other interacting agent. Toward this goal, we develop a multimodal human-avatar interaction

  13. Studying the Genetics of Behavior and Evolution by Adaptation and Natural Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Jules

    1998-01-01

    Provides an exercise designed to give students an appreciation for the genetic basis of behavior. Employs the phenomenon of glucose aversion as an example of evolution by mutation and accelerated natural selection, thereby revealing one of the ways in which organisms adapt to human interference. (DDR)

  14. A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

  15. Adaptive Intrusion Detection of Malicious Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Behavior Rule

    E-print Network

    Cao, Yong

    1 Adaptive Intrusion Detection of Malicious Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Behavior Rule) for detecting malicious unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in an airborne system in which continuity of operation ultra safe and secure UAV applications. Index Terms--Intrusion detection, Unmanned air vehicles

  16. Adaptive Hierarchy of Distributed Fuzzy Control: Application to Behavior Control of Rovers

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Adaptive Hierarchy of Distributed Fuzzy Control: Application to Behavior Control of Rovers #12; c Section at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). I am also grateful to my classmates and colleagues at UNM, the NASA Center for Autonomous Control Engineering, and NASA JPL who, perhaps unknowingly

  17. Adaptive Hierarchy of Distributed Fuzzy Control: Application to Behavior Control of Rovers

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Adaptive Hierarchy of Distributed Fuzzy Control: Application to Behavior Control of Rovers #12;c Section at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). I am also grateful to my classmates and colleagues at UNM, the NASA Center for Autonomous Control Engineering, and NASA JPL who, perhaps unknowingly

  18. Simulating dynamic covariance structures for testing the adaptive behavior of variable selection algorithms

    E-print Network

    Anagnostopoulos, Christoforos

    - uisite to such an analysis was to provide a versatile, sta- ble engine to simulate highSimulating dynamic covariance structures for testing the adaptive behavior of variable selection7 2AZ, UK Niall Adams Maths Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London W7 2AZ, UK

  19. Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders

    E-print Network

    Blackledge, Todd

    Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders Todd A independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb- weaving-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web

  20. Heuristics as Beliefs and as Behaviors: The Adaptiveness of the ''Hot Hand''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Bruce D.

    2004-01-01

    Gigerenzer (2000) and Anderson (1990) analyzed reasoning by asking: what are the reasoner's goals? This emphasizes the adaptiveness of behavior rather than whether a belief is normative. Belief in the ''hot hand'' in basketball suggests that players experiencing streaks should be given more shots, but this has been seen as a fallacy due to…

  1. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

  2. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Cortical Adaptation in Habituation of Odor-Guided Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on…

  3. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  4. Behavior Generation for a Mobile Robot Based on the Adaptive Fitness Function

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Behavior Generation for a Mobile Robot Based on the Adaptive Fitness Function Eiji Uchibe, Masakazu the evaluation (fitness) function to evaluate the performance of the robot when we apply the ma- chine learning techniques to the robot application. In many cases, the fitness function is composed of several aspects

  5. Heuristics as beliefs and as behaviors: the adaptiveness of the "hot hand".

    PubMed

    Burns, Bruce D

    2004-05-01

    and analyzed reasoning by asking: what are the reasoner's goals? This emphasizes the adaptiveness of behavior rather than whether a belief is normative. Belief in the "hot hand" in basketball suggests that players experiencing streaks should be given more shots, but this has been seen as a fallacy due to failure to find dependencies between players' shots. Based on their findings, I demonstrate by Markov modeling and simulation that streaks are valid allocation cues for deciding who to give shots to, because this behavior achieves the team goal of scoring more. Empirically I show that this adaptive heuristic is supported by the fallacious belief in dependency, more so as skill level increases. I extend the theoretical analysis to identify general conditions under which following streaks should be beneficial. Overall, this approach illustrates the advantages of analyzing reasoning in terms of adaptiveness. PMID:15020214

  6. Adaptive Behavioral Outcomes: Assurance of Learning and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David S.; Stewart, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Business schools are currently being criticized for lacking relevance to the applied working environment in which students are supposed to be prepared to make immediate contributions and reasoned independent decisions in a fluidly changing market (Haskell and Beliveau, 2010, and Michlitsch and Sidle, 2002). While technical skills (accounting,…

  7. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We have further analyzed the FMT data to characterize strategic and adaptive components during the postflight readaptation period. Crewmembers walked at a preferred pace through an obstacle course set up on a base of 10 cm thick medium density foam (Sunmate Foam, Dynamic Systems, Inc., Leicester, NC). The 6.0m X 4.0m course consisted of several pylons made of foam; a Styrofoam barrier 46.0cm high that crewmembers stepped over; and a portal constructed of two Styrofoam blocks, each 31cm high, with a horizontal bar covered by foam and suspended from the ceiling which was adjusted to the height of the crewmember s shoulder. The portal required crewmembers to bend at the waist and step over a barrier simultaneously. All obstacles were lightweight, soft and easily knocked over. Crewmembers were instructed to walk through the course as quickly and as safely as possible without touching any of the objects on the course. This task was performed three times in the clockwise direction and three times in the counterclockwise direction that was randomly chosen. The dependent measures for each trial were: time to complete the course (seconds) and the number of obstacles touched or knocked down. For each crewmember, the time to complete each FMT trial from postflight days 1, 2, 4, 7 and 25 were further analyzed. A single logarithmic curve using a least squares calculation was fit through these data to produce a single comprehensive curve (macro). This macro curve composed of data spanning 25 days, illustrates the re-adaptive learning function over the longer time scale term. Additionally, logarithmic curves were fit to the 6 data trials within each individual post flight test day to produce 5 separate daily curves. These micro curves, produced from data obtained over the course of minutes, illustrates the strategic learning function exhibited over a relative shorter time scale. The macro curve for all subjects exhibited adaptive motor learning patterns over the 25 day period. Howev, 9/16 crewmembers exhibited significant strategic motor learning patterns in their micro curves,

  8. Feasibility and Acceptability of Adapting the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Assessment for Preschoolers in the Classroom Setting.

    PubMed

    Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-12-01

    Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) represents a failure to self-regulate intake leading to overconsumption. Existing research on EAH has come from the clinical setting, limiting our understanding of this behavior. The purpose of this study was to describe the adaptation of the clinical EAH paradigm for preschoolers to the classroom setting and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of measuring EAH in the classroom. The adapted protocol was implemented in childcare centers in Houston, Texas (N=4) and Phoenix, Arizona (N=2). The protocol was feasible, economical, and time efficient, eliminating previously identified barriers to administering the EAH assessment such as limited resources and the time constraint of delivering the assessment to participants individually. Implementation challenges included difficulty in choosing palatable test snacks that were in compliance with childcare center food regulations and the limited control over the meal that was administered prior to the assessment. The adapted protocol will allow for broader use of the EAH assessment and encourage researchers to incorporate the assessment into longitudinal studies in order to further our understanding of the causes and emergence of EAH. PMID:26172567

  9. Display device-adapted video quality-of-experience assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Abdul; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Today's viewers consume video content from a variety of connected devices, including smart phones, tablets, notebooks, TVs, and PCs. This imposes significant challenges for managing video traffic efficiently to ensure an acceptable quality-of-experience (QoE) for the end users as the perceptual quality of video content strongly depends on the properties of the display device and the viewing conditions. State-of-the-art full-reference objective video quality assessment algorithms do not take into account the combined impact of display device properties, viewing conditions, and video resolution while performing video quality assessment. We performed a subjective study in order to understand the impact of aforementioned factors on perceptual video QoE. We also propose a full reference video QoE measure, named SSIMplus, that provides real-time prediction of the perceptual quality of a video based on human visual system behaviors, video content characteristics (such as spatial and temporal complexity, and video resolution), display device properties (such as screen size, resolution, and brightness), and viewing conditions (such as viewing distance and angle). Experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art video quality measures in terms of accuracy and speed.

  10. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  11. Causes of Age-Related Decline in Adaptive Behavior of Adults with Down Syndrome: Differential Diagnoses of Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted of 201 adults with Down's syndrome to investigate the differential causes of decline in adaptive behavior. Results indicated that aging, dementia, and severity of mental retardation were significant factors, while absence of a medical illness predicted a higher level of adaptive behavior. (CR)

  12. The utility of verbal and behavioral assessments of value.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, D J; Michael, R L

    1990-01-01

    Subjects lived in a laboratory apartment for up to 30 days, engaging in ordinary activities such as reading, sewing, and artwork. The amount of time devoted to each activity was recorded and compared with periodic verbal ratings of the amount of time devoted to the activities. The verbal and observational assessments of the time distribution were very similar, but there were some discrepancies. Based on self-reports and on observation of time actually devoted to the activities, contingencies were arranged in which time devoted to one activity produced time available for a second activity. When the contingency relation was based on behavioral assessment, predictions of time redistribution were more accurate than when the relations were based on verbal assessment. The close correspondence between observed distributions of time and verbally assessed distributions was probably due to the well-specified situation and rigorous assessment methods. Contrary to some cognitive-behavioral accounts, the contingency results suggest that verbal assessment is not necessarily preferable to observation when the two make discrepant predictions. It is suggested that verbal reports might be used more often in behavior analysis in place of lengthy or difficult observations, and attention is drawn to a personality model that parallels important components of behavior analysis. PMID:2103580

  13. Increasing the on-Task Homework Behavior of Youth with Behavior Disorders Using Functional Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Axelrod, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework…

  14. Introduction. Organization and Stability of Newborn Behavior: A Commentary on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazelton, T. Berry

    1978-01-01

    Provides an overview of the development of the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), the nature of the instrument and conditions for its proper administration, and issues underlying the use of the NBAS in research (e.g., reliability). The first in a series of articles in a single monograph assessing the NBAS. (BH)

  15. Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Obradovi?, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers’ child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank–behavior associations. PMID:23045637

  16. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

  17. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations. PMID:25264467

  18. Quantitative Adaptation Analytics for Assessing Dynamic Systems of Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl; Vander Meer, Robert Charles,

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  19. Parental assessment of behavior in Chinese adoptees during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Rojewski, J W; Shapiro, M S; Shapiro, M

    2000-01-01

    The Parent Rating Scale of the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children (PRS-BASC) was used to examine the behavior of 45 Chinese adoptees. In all but one case, results from the 9 BASC-PRS scales ranged in the average, or normal, range. Thus, as a group, no deviations from normal behavior were revealed. However, the variability of ratings for several scales--Hyperactivity, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Attention Problems--indicated a greater potential for at-risk behavior. Age of adoption from China was not a significant influence on parents' perceptions of adoptees' behavior. However, older adoptees were more likely to be rated hyperactive or aggressive than younger children, while younger adoptees were more likely to exhibit withdrawal. PMID:11033930

  20. Treating Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors with Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in…

  1. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  2. Frontal Theta Links Prediction Errors to Behavioral Adaptation in Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.; Klein, Theresa J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations into action monitoring have consistently detailed a fronto-central voltage deflection in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) following the presentation of negatively valenced feedback, sometimes termed the Feedback Related Negativity (FRN). The FRN has been proposed to reflect a neural response to prediction errors during reinforcement learning, yet the single trial relationship between neural activity and the quanta of expectation violation remains untested. Although ERP methods are not well suited to single trial analyses, the FRN has been associated with theta band oscillatory perturbations in the medial prefrontal cortex. Medio-frontal theta oscillations have been previously associated with expectation violation and behavioral adaptation and are well suited to single trial analysis. Here, we recorded EEG activity during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task and fit the performance data to an abstract computational model (Q-learning) for calculation of single-trial reward prediction errors. Single-trial theta oscillatory activities following feedback were investigated within the context of expectation (prediction error) and adaptation (subsequent reaction time change). Results indicate that interactive medial and lateral frontal theta activities reflect the degree of negative and positive reward prediction error in the service of behavioral adaptation. These different brain areas use prediction error calculations for different behavioral adaptations: with medial frontal theta reflecting the utilization of prediction errors for reaction time slowing (specifically following errors), but lateral frontal theta reflecting prediction errors leading to working memory-related reaction time speeding for the correct choice. PMID:19969093

  3. A Self-Adaptive Behavior-Aware Recruitment Scheme for Participatory Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Li, Deshi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing services utilizing the abundant social participants with sensor-enabled handheld smart device resources are gaining high interest nowadays. One of the challenges faced is the recruitment of participants by fully utilizing their daily activity behavior with self-adaptiveness toward the realistic application scenarios. In the paper, we propose a self-adaptive behavior-aware recruitment scheme for participatory sensing. People are assumed to join the sensing tasks along with their daily activity without pre-defined ground truth or any instructions. The scheme is proposed to model the tempo-spatial behavior and data quality rating to select participants for participatory sensing campaign. Based on this, the recruitment is formulated as a linear programming problem by considering tempo-spatial coverage, data quality, and budget. The scheme enables one to check and adjust the recruitment strategy adaptively according to application scenarios. The evaluations show that our scheme provides efficient sensing performance as stability, low-cost, tempo-spatial correlation and self-adaptiveness. PMID:26389910

  4. Brazilian Version of the Functional Assessment Measure: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…

  5. A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Seong A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

  6. Toward the Automatic Assessment of Behavioral Disturbances of Dementia

    E-print Network

    Wactlar, Howard D.

    Toward the Automatic Assessment of Behavioral Disturbances of Dementia S. J. Allin1 , A. Bharucha2 of dementia among persons age 65 and older. The current annual direct and indirect cost of 100 billion dollars devoted to dementia care will increase as the number of Americans suffering from AD nearly triples to 14

  7. Abstract of PsyOps: Personality Assessment Through Gaming Behavior

    E-print Network

    Spronck, Pieter

    assessment through video games. Video games combine the strengths of behavioral and ob- servational measures, while side-stepping the reliability issues inherent in self-report. Additionally, video games offer) The Big Five dimension Conscientiousness is negatively correlated with speed of action. (2) The game

  8. An Inventory for Assessing Food Behaviors of Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanslow, Alyce M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes development, field-testing, and summary statistics of a series of inventories designed to assess food behaviors of 1,673 elementary school students (grades 1-6). Content focuses on personal cleanliness, personal safety, and food quality. Students respond to cartoon items by selecting one of three responses to indicate their typical…

  9. Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

  10. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS. PMID:26161466

  11. Using the IPCC and NOAA Based Frameworks in Assessing and Adapting to Sea Level Rise

    E-print Network

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Using the IPCC and NOAA Based Frameworks in Assessing and Adapting to Sea Level Rise Professor Sea level rise is considered to be one of the most severe climate stressors in recent decades for effectively adapting to sea level rise. I also present an example of how this methodology has been

  12. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Leisure Assessment Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Marta; Orgaz-Baz, M. Begona; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Martinez-Aguirre, M. Magdalena; Longo-Araujo-de-Melo, Egmar; Ullan-de-la-Fuente, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    "Participation"--defined as engagement in life situations, including leisure and recreational activities--is associated with the improvement of people with disabilities' quality of life. Several specific instruments assess leisure, but none of them has been adapted to the Spanish context. The goal of this study is to adapt and validate the Spanish…

  13. Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. A Research Agenda

    E-print Network

    Carmin, JoAnn

    2014-09-13

    The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

  14. Adoption, Reach, Implementation, and Maintenance of a Behavioral and Mental Health Assessment in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Krist, Alex H.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Sabo, Roy T.; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Heurtin-Roberts, Suzanne; Ory, Marcia G.; Johnson, Sallie Beth; Sheinfeld-Gorin, Sherri N.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Ritzwoller, Debra P.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Guidelines recommend screening patients for unhealthy behaviors and mental health concerns. Health risk assessments can systematically identify patient needs and trigger care. This study seeks to evaluate whether primary care practices can routinely implement such assessments into routine care. METHODS As part of a cluster-randomized pragmatic trial, 9 diverse primary care practices implemented My Own Health Report (MOHR)—an electronic or paper-based health behavior and mental health assessment and feedback system paired with counseling and goal setting. We observed how practices integrated MOHR into their workflows, what additional practice staff time it required, and what percentage of patients completed a MOHR assessment (Reach). RESULTS Most practices approached (60%) agreed to adopt MOHR. How they implemented MOHR depended on practice resources, informatics capacity, and patient characteristics. Three practices mailed patients invitations to complete MOHR on the Web, 1 called patients and completed MOHR over the telephone, 1 had patients complete MOHR on paper in the office, and 4 had staff help patients complete MOHR on the Web in the office. Overall, 3,591 patients were approached and 1,782 completed MOHR (Reach = 49.6%). Reach varied by implementation strategy with higher reach when MOHR was completed by staff than by patients (71.2% vs 30.2%, P <.001). No practices were able to sustain the complete MOHR assessment without adaptations after study completion. Fielding MOHR increased staff and clinician time an average of 28 minutes per visit. CONCLUSIONS Primary care practices can implement health behavior and mental health assessments, but counseling patients effectively requires effort. Practices will need more support to implement and sustain assessments. PMID:25384814

  15. Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2013-08-01

    In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

  16. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  17. Evolutionary Influences of Plastic Behavioral Responses Upon Environmental Challenges in an Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Susan A; Wund, Matthew A; Baker, John A

    2015-09-01

    At the end of the 19th century, the suggestion was made by several scientists, including J. M. Baldwin, that behavioral responses to environmental change could both rescue populations from extinction (Baldwin Effect) and influence the course of subsequent evolution. Here we provide the historical and theoretical background for this argument and offer evidence of the importance of these ideas for understanding how animals (and other organisms that exhibit behavior) will respond to the rapid environmental changes caused by human activity. We offer examples from long-term research on the evolution of behavioral and other phenotypes in the adaptive radiation of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a radiation in which it is possible to infer ancestral patterns of behavioral plasticity relative to the post-glacial freshwater radiation in northwestern North America, and to use patterns of parallelism and contemporary evolution to understand adaptive causes of responses to environmental modification. Our work offers insights into the complexity of cognitive responses to environmental change, and into the importance of examining multiple aspects of the phenotype simultaneously, if we are to understand how behavioral shifts contribute to the persistence of populations and to subsequent evolution. We conclude by discussing the origins of apparent novelties induced by environmental shifts, and the importance of accounting for geographic variation within species if we are to accurately anticipate the effects of anthropogenic environmental modification on the persistence and evolution of animals. PMID:26163679

  18. [Assessment of behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability: the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiological data show a high prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability. However there is a lack of standardized instruments designed to assess emotions and behaviors typically seen in mentally handicapped children. The results of a survey using the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form" are presented. Reliability coefficients, concordance of parent and teacher ratings, convergent and differential validity data are satisfactory to suggest its clinical use to identify problem areas which deserve special attention in the mental health care of children with intellectual disability. PMID:15216963

  19. The Behavioral Assessment of Parents and Coaches at Youth Sports: Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apache, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    A behavioral assessment system for scoring the behaviors of parents and coaches at youth sports games is described within this paper. The Youth Sports Behavior Assessment System (YSBAS) contains nine behavioral categories describing behaviors commonly seen during youth sports. The developmental process of YSBAS and the observer-training program…

  20. Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

    2010-01-01

    As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

  1. Leader personality and 360-degree assessments of leader behavior.

    PubMed

    Bergman, David; Lornudd, Caroline; Sjöberg, Lennart; Von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between personality and multi-source feedback, we assessed 190 health care managers by applying the Understanding Personal Potential personality test, which provides comprehensive measurement of the Big Five dimensions and eight narrower personality traits. Managers' leadership behaviors were assessed by colleagues, supervisors, a random sample of each manager's subordinates as well as the managers themselves using a 360-degree change, production, employee (CPE) instrument. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis showed that the Big Five variables were significantly related to the Managers' leadership behavior in all CPE dimensions. Also, addition of narrow personality variables to the Big Five increased explained variance in leadership behavior. This study is the first of its kind to include the full range of viewpoints in a 360-degree instrument, along with a large number of subordinate assessments. We found that both the strength of the relationship between personality and behavior and the configuration of different predictors varied depending on who did the rating and what leadership orientation was investigated, and this observation merits further investigation. PMID:24833326

  2. Assessing the information management requirements for behavioral health providers.

    PubMed

    Major, Leslie F; Turner, Michael G

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral health agencies will soon implement automated information-management systems to support their administrative, financial, and clinical care functions. Assessing current information-management capabilities and delineating future needs are prerequisite to recommending a specific information technology solution. Quantifying the discrepancy between current information-management capabilities and future requirements highlights the areas of greatest unmet need for information management. Selecting an information system that addresses the most critical areas of unmet need is a prudent purchase decision. This article describes the results of a process to assess the information-management requirements for agencies that were considering implementation of an integrated behavioral health information-management system. The assessment revealed that these agencies already employed automated systems to manage most financial functions and many administrative functions. Few agencies, however, utilized automated systems to manage clinical care functions. Selection of a behavioral health electronic medical record (EMR) effectively addressed clinical care information-management needs without duplicating existing financial and administrative management functions. Also, the EMR included features that addressed some administrative functions for which a discrepancy between current capabilities and future needs was found. Selecting an EMR instead of an integrated behavioral health information system was associated with a significant reduction in information system acquisition costs. PMID:14552101

  3. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

  4. Assessing an Assessment: Conceptual considerations, Methodological Issues, and a Perspective on the Future of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise

    1978-01-01

    Describes the conceptual model of newborn organization underlying the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Argues that while the NBAS allows for the identification of an individual's behavioral repertoire, attempts to synthesize the resulting data have been plagued with difficulties. Briefly outlines an alternative model for…

  5. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot

    PubMed Central

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles. Consequently, it can successfully explore and navigate in complex environments. We firstly tested our approach on a physical simulation environment and then applied it to our real biomechanical walking robot AMOSII with 19 DOFs to adaptively avoid obstacles and navigate in the real world. PMID:26528176

  6. Synaptic plasticity in a recurrent neural network for versatile and adaptive behaviors of a walking robot.

    PubMed

    Grinke, Eduard; Tetzlaff, Christian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like insects, with little neural computing can effectively perform complex behaviors. For example, they can walk around their environment, escape from corners/deadlocks, and avoid or climb over obstacles. While performing all these behaviors, they can also adapt their movements to deal with an unknown situation. As a consequence, they successfully navigate through their complex environment. The versatile and adaptive abilities are the result of an integration of several ingredients embedded in their sensorimotor loop. Biological studies reveal that the ingredients include neural dynamics, plasticity, sensory feedback, and biomechanics. Generating such versatile and adaptive behaviors for a many degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) walking robot is a challenging task. Thus, in this study, we present a bio-inspired approach to solve this task. Specifically, the approach combines neural mechanisms with plasticity, exteroceptive sensory feedback, and biomechanics. The neural mechanisms consist of adaptive neural sensory processing and modular neural locomotion control. The sensory processing is based on a small recurrent neural network consisting of two fully connected neurons. Online correlation-based learning with synaptic scaling is applied to adequately change the connections of the network. By doing so, we can effectively exploit neural dynamics (i.e., hysteresis effects and single attractors) in the network to generate different turning angles with short-term memory for a walking robot. The turning information is transmitted as descending steering signals to the neural locomotion control which translates the signals into motor actions. As a result, the robot can walk around and adapt its turning angle for avoiding obstacles in different situations. The adaptation also enables the robot to effectively escape from sharp corners or deadlocks. Using backbone joint control embedded in the the locomotion control allows the robot to climb over small obstacles. Consequently, it can successfully explore and navigate in complex environments. We firstly tested our approach on a physical simulation environment and then applied it to our real biomechanical walking robot AMOSII with 19 DOFs to adaptively avoid obstacles and navigate in the real world. PMID:26528176

  7. The alliance of adaptive behavior and social competence: an examination of relationship between the scales of Independent Behavior and the Social Skills Rating System.

    PubMed

    Merrell, K W; Popinga, M R

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between ratings of adaptive behavior and social competence in a population of 208 students in kindergarten through third grade with a variety of disabilities using the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB; Bruininks, Woodcock, Weatherman, & Hill, 1984) and the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; Gresham & Elliott, 1990). Moderate yet statistically significant relationships between the SIB adaptive behavior scores and the SSRS social competence scores were found, with strongest correlations occurring between the SSRS and the Social and Communication subscale (r = .51) and Work Skills subscale (r = .60) on the SIB. Weak to near zero correlations were found between the SIB adaptive behavior scores and SSRS Problem Behaviors scores. This investigation provides new evidence for the concurrent criterion-related validity of both the SIB and the SSRS. PMID:8190971

  8. The U.S. EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plans and the Nation Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, S.; Kemmerer, J.

    2014-12-01

    When the Council on Environmental Quality directed the U.S. EPA and other Federal departments and agencies to identify how they will maintain their missions in the face of a changing climate, the need for sound science as an essential foundation for climate preparedness was apparent. Fortunately, since 2000, the U.S. Global Change Research Program has produced the National Climate Assessment three times, with the most recent version being issued in May, 2014. The EPA turned to the National Climate Assessment for a key source of sound science as it drafted its national and regional climate adaptation plans. The assessment continues to be used as EPA staff are trained on climate change adaptation issues. Examples of recent EPA climate change adaptation national and regional products will be presented that highlight the utility of the National Climate Assessment. The importance to EPA of the National Climate Assessment as a common ground for all Federal agencies will also be discussed.

  9. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  10. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  11. Changes in cortical activity associated with adaptive behavior during repeated balance perturbation of unpredictable timing

    PubMed Central

    Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2015-01-01

    The compensation for a sudden balance perturbation, unpracticed and unpredictable in timing and magnitude is accompanied by pronounced postural instability that is suggested to be causal to falls. However, subsequent presentations of an identical perturbation are characterized by a marked decrease of the amplitude of postural reactions; a phenomenon called adaptation or habituation. This study aimed to identify cortical characteristics associated with adaptive behavior during repetitive balance perturbations based on single-trial analyses of the P1 and N1 perturbation-evoked potentials. Thirty-seven young men were exposed to ten transient balance perturbations while balancing on the dominant leg. Thirty two-channel electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (EMG) of the ankle plantar flexor muscles and postural sway (i.e., Euclidean distance of the supporting platform) were recorded simultaneously. The P1 and N1 potentials were localized and the amplitude/latency was analyzed trial by trial. The best match sources for P1 and N1 potentials were located in the parietal (Brodmann area (BA) 5) and midline fronto-central cortex (BA 6), respectively. The amplitude and latency of the P1 potential remained unchanged over trials. In contrast, a significant adaptation of the N1 amplitude was observed. Similar adaptation effects were found with regard to postural sway and ankle plantarflexors EMG activity of the non-dominant (free) leg; i.e., an indicator for reduced muscular co-contraction and/or less temporary bipedal stance to regain stability. Significant but weak correlations were found between N1 amplitude and postural sway as well as EMG activity. These results highlight the important role of the midline fronto-central cortex for adaptive behavior associated with balance control. PMID:26528154

  12. THE RELATION BETWEEN CHILDREN'S EARLY EXPOSURE TO COMMUNICATION-PROMOTING STRATEGIES AND LATER BEHAVIORAL ADJUSTMENT AND ADAPTIVE SKILLS

    E-print Network

    Powell, John

    2008-10-28

    of everyday adult-child interactions. The current study sought to determine whether children's early exposure to communication-promoting strategies that emphasize such concepts is associated with increased behavioral and emotional adjustment and adaptive...

  13. Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

  14. Assessing the Process of Marital Adaptation: The Marital Coping Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zborowski, Lydia L.; Berman, William H.

    Studies on coping with life events identify marriage as a distinct situational stressor, in which a wide range of coping strategies specific to the marital relationship are employed. This study examined the process of martial adaptation, identified as a style of coping, in 116 married volunteers. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the…

  15. Operant Procedures for Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Anne Marie; Floresco, Stan B.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions consist of multiple high-level cognitive processes that drive rule generation and behavioral selection. An emergent property of these processes is the ability to adjust behavior in response to changes in one’s environment (i.e., behavioral flexibility). These processes are essential to normal human behavior, and may be disrupted in diverse neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, alcoholism, depression, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease. Understanding of the neurobiology of executive functions has been greatly advanced by the availability of animal tasks for assessing discrete components of behavioral flexibility, particularly strategy shifting and reversal learning. While several types of tasks have been developed, most are non-automated, labor intensive, and allow testing of only one animal at a time. The recent development of automated, operant-based tasks for assessing behavioral flexibility streamlines testing, standardizes stimulus presentation and data recording, and dramatically improves throughput. Here, we describe automated strategy shifting and reversal tasks, using operant chambers controlled by custom written software programs. Using these tasks, we have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex governs strategy shifting but not reversal learning in the rat, similar to the dissociation observed in humans. Moreover, animals with a neonatal hippocampal lesion, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, are selectively impaired on the strategy shifting task but not the reversal task. The strategy shifting task also allows the identification of separate types of performance errors, each of which is attributable to distinct neural substrates. The availability of these automated tasks, and the evidence supporting the dissociable contributions of separate prefrontal areas, makes them particularly well-suited assays for the investigation of basic neurobiological processes as well as drug discovery and screening in disease models. PMID:25742506

  16. The Alliance of Adaptive Behavior and Social Competence: An Examination of Relationships between the Scales of Independent Behavior and the Social Skills Rating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Popinga, Monique R.

    1994-01-01

    This study used the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) and the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) to examine the relationship between ratings of adaptive behavior and social competence with 208 students in kindergarten through third grade with a variety of disabilities. The study provided evidence for the concurrent criterion-related validity of…

  17. Cognitive-behavioral assessment of body image disturbances.

    PubMed

    Reas, Deborah L; Grilo, Carlos M

    2004-09-01

    The construct of body image is multidimensional in nature and multidisciplinary in scope. The purpose of this review is to help clinicians navigate the basic theoretical and practical considerations associated with body image assessment. Common pitfalls reflect methodological problems and conceptual confusion surrounding the subjectivity, heterogeneity, lability, and complexity of the body image construct. By highlighting these core concepts, we provide a framework for conducting a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral assessment to inform case formulation and treatment planning. The strength and utility of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) model lies in its broad applicability and ability to identify the proximal factors that precipitate and maintain body image concerns, such as distorted patterns of thinking and maladaptive behavior (e.g., body checking, mirror gazing, avoidance, social comparison, reassurance seeking). Although the evidence base is still evolving, the basic tenets of a CBT approach appear to transcend disciplines and specialties. The article concludes by providing an example of self-monitoring, which is a cornerstone of CBT assessment and treatment, and referencing the steps of an established CBT manualized treatment program. PMID:15361746

  18. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed

  19. National Hydroclimatic Change and Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment: Region-Specific Adaptation Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change, land use and socioeconomic developments are principal variables that define the need and scope of adaptive engineering and management to sustain water resource and infrastructure development. As described in IPCC (2007), hydroclimatic changes in the next 30-50 ye...

  20. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  1. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-12-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  2. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24/28% HVAC energy savings in the winter/summer while also reducing thermal unacceptability; however, it is shown that the source of energy being saved must be considered in each case, as local heating options end up replacing cheaper, more carbon-friendly gas heating with expensive, emissions-heavy plug load electricity. The dissertation concludes with a summary of key outcomes and suggests how HABIT may be further developed in the future.

  3. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  4. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D.; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  5. Criticality as a Set-Point for Adaptive Behavior in Neuromorphic Hardware.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Stepp, Nigel D; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems. It has been widely demonstrated that criticality appears to be the default state of the brain and manifests in the form of spontaneous scale-invariant cascades of neural activity. Experiment, theory and recent models have shown that neuronal networks at criticality demonstrate optimal information transfer, learning and information processing capabilities that affect behavior. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding how large scale neuromorphic electronics can be designed to enable emergent adaptive behavior will require an understanding of how networks emulated by such hardware can self-tune local parameters to maintain criticality as a set-point. We believe that such capability will enable the design of truly scalable intelligent systems using neuromorphic hardware that embrace complexity in network dynamics rather than avoiding it. PMID:26648839

  6. Successfully Translating Language and Culture when Adapting Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornman, Juan; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Pae, Hye Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    A need exists for culturally valid and reliable developmental assessment tools for children with disabilities that are able to accommodate multiple languages. One way in which this goal can be achieved is through test translations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the use of translations of select developmental assessment

  7. Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception. PMID:24348358

  8. Assessing confidence in management adaptation approaches for climate-sensitive ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. M.; Julius, S. H.; Weaver, C. P.

    2012-03-01

    A number of options are available for adapting ecosystem management to improve resilience in the face of climatic changes. However, uncertainty exists as to the effectiveness of these options. A report prepared for the US Climate Change Science Program reviewed adaptation options for a range of federally managed systems in the United States. The report included a qualitative uncertainty analysis of conceptual approaches to adaptation derived from the review. The approaches included reducing anthropogenic stressors, protecting key ecosystem features, maintaining representation, replicating, restoring, identifying refugia and relocating organisms. The results showed that the expert teams had the greatest scientific confidence in adaptation options that reduce anthropogenic stresses. Confidence in other approaches was lower because of gaps in understanding of ecosystem function, climate change impacts on ecosystems, and management effectiveness. This letter discusses insights gained from the confidence exercise and proposes strategies for improving future assessments of confidence for management adaptations to climate change.

  9. Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Mélanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children. PMID:23667360

  10. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    PubMed

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies. PMID:26485734

  11. Complex macroscopic behavior in systems of phase oscillators with adaptive coupling

    E-print Network

    Per Sebastian Skardal; Dane Taylor; Juan G. Restrepo

    2012-12-21

    Using recent dimensionality reduction techniques in large systems of coupled phase oscillators exhibiting bistability, we analyze complex macroscopic behavior arising when the coupling between oscillators is allowed to evolve slowly as a function of either macroscopic or local system properties. For example, we observe macroscopic excitability and intermittent synchrony in a system of time-delayed Kuramoto oscillators with Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by considering systems with increasing complexity, including time-delayed oscillators with adaptive network structure and community interaction, as well as a system with bimodally distributed frequencies.

  12. Complex macroscopic behavior in systems of phase oscillators with adaptive coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Taylor, Dane; Restrepo, Juan G.

    2014-01-01

    Using recent dimensionality reduction techniques in large systems of coupled phase oscillators exhibiting bistability, we analyze the complex macroscopic behavior arising when the coupling between oscillators is allowed to evolve slowly as a function of either macroscopic or local system properties. For example, we observe macroscopic excitability and intermittent synchrony in a system of time-delayed Kuramoto oscillators with Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by considering systems with increasing complexity, including time-delayed oscillators with adaptive network structure and community interaction, as well as a system with bimodally distributed frequencies.

  13. Adaptive grid methods for RLV environment assessment and nozzle analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburg, Hugh J.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid access to highly accurate data about complex configurations is needed for multi-disciplinary optimization and design. In order to efficiently meet these requirements a closer coupling between the analysis algorithms and the discretization process is needed. In some cases, such as free surface, temporally varying geometries, and fluid structure interaction, the need is unavoidable. In other cases the need is to rapidly generate and modify high quality grids. Techniques such as unstructured and/or solution-adaptive methods can be used to speed the grid generation process and to automatically cluster mesh points in regions of interest. Global features of the flow can be significantly affected by isolated regions of inadequately resolved flow. These regions may not exhibit high gradients and can be difficult to detect. Thus excessive resolution in certain regions does not necessarily increase the accuracy of the overall solution. Several approaches have been employed for both structured and unstructured grid adaption. The most widely used involve grid point redistribution, local grid point enrichment/derefinement or local modification of the actual flow solver. However, the success of any one of these methods ultimately depends on the feature detection algorithm used to determine solution domain regions which require a fine mesh for their accurate representation. Typically, weight functions are constructed to mimic the local truncation error and may require substantial user input. Most problems of engineering interest involve multi-block grids and widely disparate length scales. Hence, it is desirable that the adaptive grid feature detection algorithm be developed to recognize flow structures of different type as well as differing intensity, and adequately address scaling and normalization across blocks. These weight functions can then be used to construct blending functions for algebraic redistribution, interpolation functions for unstructured grid generation, forcing functions to attract/repel points in an elliptic system, or to trigger local refinement, based upon application of an equidistribution principle. The popularity of solution-adaptive techniques is growing in tandem with unstructured methods. The difficultly of precisely controlling mesh densities and orientations with current unstructured grid generation systems has driven the use of solution-adaptive meshing. Use of derivatives of density or pressure are widely used for construction of such weight functions, and have been proven very successful for inviscid flows with shocks. However, less success has been realized for flowfields with viscous layers, vortices or shocks of disparate strength. It is difficult to maintain the appropriate mesh point spacing in the various regions which require a fine spacing for adequate resolution. Mesh points often migrate from important regions due to refinement of dominant features. An example of this is the well know tendency of adaptive methods to increase the resolution of shocks in the flowfield around airfoils, but in the incorrect location due to inadequate resolution of the stagnation region. This problem has been the motivation for this research.

  14. INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes,...

  15. Adapting the Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool for health care

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Cynthia Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool (LESAT) is a product of the Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This tool has been applied by many organizations to gage their progress ...

  16. Adaptive Sampling Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Nuclear Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear simulations are often computationally expensive, time-consuming, and high-dimensional with respect to the number of input parameters. Thus exploring the space of all possible simulation outcomes is infeasible using finite computing resources. During simulation-based probabilistic risk analysis, it is important to discover the relationship between a potentially large number of input parameters and the output of a simulation using as few simulation trials as possible. This is a typical context for performing adaptive sampling where a few observations are obtained from the simulation, a surrogate model is built to represent the simulation space, and new samples are selected based on the model constructed. The surrogate model is then updated based on the simulation results of the sampled points. In this way, we attempt to gain the most information possible with a small number of carefully selected sampled points, limiting the number of expensive trials needed to understand features of the simulation space. We analyze the specific use case of identifying the limit surface, i.e., the boundaries in the simulation space between system failure and system success. In this study, we explore several techniques for adaptively sampling the parameter space in order to reconstruct the limit surface. We focus on several adaptive sampling schemes. First, we seek to learn a global model of the entire simulation space using prediction models or neighborhood graphs and extract the limit surface as an iso-surface of the global model. Second, we estimate the limit surface by sampling in the neighborhood of the current estimate based on topological segmentations obtained locally. Our techniques draw inspirations from topological structure known as the Morse-Smale complex. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a global prediction model versus local topological view of the simulation space, comparing several different strategies for adaptive sampling in both contexts. One of the most interesting models we propose attempt to marry the two by obtaining a coarse global representation using prediction models, and a detailed local representation based on topology. Our methods are validated on several analytical test functions as well as a small nuclear simulation dataset modeled after a simplified Pressurized Water Reactor.

  17. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  18. Fidelity of Implementing an Assessment Translation and Adaptation Framework in a Study of an Emerging International Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Magda Yanira

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the complex process of translation and adaptation of two Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) performance tasks (PTs), originally developed in English for American students, into the languages and cultures of five participating countries. Focusing on confirming evidence bits (CEBs), disconfirming evidence bits (DEBs), and no…

  19. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C Dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (? > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (? between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (? > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures. PMID:25348356

  20. Assessing Causality in the Relationship between Adolescents' Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of This Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate…

  1. Spatially adaptive image quality metrics for perceptual image quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliegel, Karel

    2009-08-01

    The problem of objective image quality assessment has been known for couple of decades but with emerging multimedia technologies it becomes very important. This paper presents an approach to predict perceived quality of compressed images while incorporating real visual attention coordinates. Information about the visual attention is not usually taken into account in models for image quality assessment. Impact of the region of interest on estimation accuracy of a simple image quality metric has been investigated in our previous papers. The gaze coordinates were calculated using calibrated electro-oculogram records of human observers while watching a number of test images. This paper further investigates this idea using data from more observers. Obtained mean opinion scores of perceived image quality and eye tracking data were used to verify potential improvement of assessment accuracy for a simple image quality metric.

  2. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  3. Antipredatory behavior of zebrafish: adaptive function and a tool for translational research.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish is gaining popularity in behavioral brain research. It may be a cost-effective tool with which we can improve our understanding of the biological and genetic mechanisms of human brain function and dysfunction. Some, myself and collaborators included, have argued that such translational relevance may be best achieved if one considers the ecology and species-specific characteristics of the study organism. In this review, I focus on our own studies investigating zebrafish fear responses, which may be utilized in analyzing the mechanisms of fear and anxiety, and which may be used for screening anxiolytic drugs. I review how zebrafish respond to their natural and synthetic alarm substance as well as to other fear-inducing stimuli, including sympatric and allopatric predatory fish, sympatric or allopatric harmless fish, moving (animated) images of predatory fish and moving images of abstract shapes. I discuss the behavioral responses these stimuli elicit, summarize the methods of the quantification of the behaviors, and speculate about their possible adaptive nature. Although we utilize complex visual stimuli and do not yet know what key features zebrafish may be sensitive to, our results, together with those published by others, imply that this simple vertebrate may have a bright future in behavioral brain research. PMID:23864295

  4. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  5. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. PMID:25926277

  6. Model-on-Demand Predictive Control for Nonlinear Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a data-centric modeling and predictive control approach for nonlinear hybrid systems. System identification of hybrid systems represents a challenging problem because model parameters depend on the mode or operating point of the system. The proposed algorithm applies Model-on-Demand (MoD) estimation to generate a local linear approximation of the nonlinear hybrid system at each time step, using a small subset of data selected by an adaptive bandwidth selector. The appeal of the MoD approach lies in the fact that model parameters are estimated based on a current operating point; hence estimation of locations or modes governed by autonomous discrete events is achieved automatically. The local MoD model is then converted into a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) system representation which can be used directly in a model predictive control (MPC) law for hybrid systems using multiple-degree-of-freedom tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed MoD predictive control algorithm for nonlinear hybrid systems is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive behavioral intervention problem inspired by Fast Track, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can be useful for adaptive intervention problems exhibiting both nonlinear and hybrid character. PMID:21874087

  7. Relationship between Adaptation after Returning to Competition and Psycho-behavioral Attitudes during Injury Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation after returning to competition and psychological and behavioral variables during the rehabilitation period. [Subjects] Athletes (N =113) that had experienced an injury (mean age = 20.22?years, SD = 1.07; mean weeks after stopping sports = 7.98 weeks, SD = 11.74) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to respond to the athletic injury version of the Temporal Perspective Scale (TP-S), existing scales including the DDF-S, AIPA-S, and ARD-S, and the outcome indices for rehabilitation. [Results] The results of a cluster analysis indicated three modalities of temporal perspective (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative sequences). The results of an analysis of variance showed that the positive chain modality was adaptive for future dominance. The subjects in this group demonstrated higher levels of acceptance of injuries during the rehabilitation period than the other groups, devotion to rehabilitation, and awareness of the recovery in competitive performance and a feeling of personal growth. [Conclusion] The level of acceptance of injury during the rehabilitation period, as well as the devotion to rehabilitation, influenced adaptation after returning to competition. PMID:25435708

  8. A Novel Model Predictive Control Formulation for Hybrid Systems With Application to Adaptive Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nandola, Naresh N.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel model predictive control (MPC) formulation for linear hybrid systems. The algorithm relies on a multiple-degree-of-freedom formulation that enables the user to adjust the speed of setpoint tracking, measured disturbance rejection and unmeasured disturbance rejection independently in the closed-loop system. Consequently, controller tuning is more flexible and intuitive than relying on move suppression weights as traditionally used in MPC schemes. The formulation is motivated by the need to achieve robust performance in using the algorithm in emerging applications, for instance, as a decision policy for adaptive, time-varying interventions used in behavioral health. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a hypothetical adaptive intervention problem inspired by the Fast Track program, a real-life preventive intervention for improving parental function and reducing conduct disorder in at-risk children. Simulation results in the presence of simultaneous disturbances and significant plant-model mismatch are presented. These demonstrate that a hybrid MPC-based approach for this class of interventions can be tuned for desired performance under demanding conditions that resemble participant variability that is experienced in practice when applying an adaptive intervention to a population. PMID:20830213

  9. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  10. Effects of persistent inward currents, accommodation, and adaptation on motor unit behavior: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Revill, Ann L; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2011-09-01

    Motor neurons are often assumed to generate spikes in proportion to the excitatory synaptic input received. There are, however, many intrinsic properties of motor neurons that might affect this relationship, such as persistent inward currents (PICs), spike-threshold accommodation, or spike-frequency adaptation. These nonlinear properties have been investigated in reduced animal preparation but have not been well studied during natural motor behaviors because of the difficulty in characterizing synaptic input in intact animals. Therefore, we studied the influence of each of these intrinsic properties on spiking responses and muscle force using a population model of motor units that simulates voluntary contractions in human subjects. In particular, we focused on the difference in firing rate of low-threshold motor units when higher threshold motor units were recruited and subsequently derecruited, referred to as ?F. Others have used ?F to evaluate the extent of PIC activation during voluntary behavior. Our results showed that positive ?F values could arise when any one of these nonlinear properties was included in the simulations. Therefore, a positive ?F should not be considered as exclusive evidence for PIC activation. Furthermore, by systematically varying contraction duration and speed in our simulations, we identified a means that might be used experimentally to distinguish among PICs, accommodation, and adaptation as contributors to ?F. PMID:21697447

  11. Nanocrystalline coating design for extreme applications based on the concept of complex adaptive behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G. S.; Veldhuis, S. C.; Dosbaeva, G. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kovalev, A. I.; Wainstein, D. L.; Gershman, I. S.; Shuster, L. S.; Beake, B. D.

    2008-04-01

    The development of effective hard coatings for high performance dry machining, which is associated with high stress/temperatures during friction, is a major challenge. Newly developed synergistically alloyed nanocrystalline adaptive Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N plasma vapor deposited hard coatings exhibit excellent tool life under conditions of high performance dry machining of hardened steel, especially under severe and extreme cutting conditions. The coating is capable of sustaining cutting speeds as high as 600 m/min. Comprehensive investigation of the microstructure and properties of the coating was performed. The structure of the coating before and after service has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micromechanical characteristics of the coating have been investigated at elevated temperatures. Oxidation resistance of the coating has been studied by using thermogravimetry within a temperature range of 25-1100 °C in air. The coefficient of friction of the coatings was studied within a temperature range of 25-1200 °C. To determine the causes of excellent tool life and improved wear behavior of the TiAlCrSiYN coatings, its surface structure characteristics after service have been investigated by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and extended energy-loss fine spectroscopy. One of the major features of this coating is the dynamic formation of the protective tribo-oxide films (dissipative structures) on the surface during friction with a sapphire and mullite crystal structure. Aluminum- and silicon-rich tribofilms with dangling bonds form on the surface as well. These tribofilms act in synergy and protect the surface so efficiently that it is able to sustain extreme operating conditions. Moreover, the Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N coating possesses some features of a complex adaptive behavior because it has a number of improved characteristics (tribological adaptability, ultrafine nanocrystalline structure, hot hardness and plasticity, and oxidation stability) that work synergistically as a whole. Due to the complex adaptive behavior, this coating represents a higher ordered system that has an ability to achieve unattainable wear resistance under strongly intensifying and extreme tribological conditions.

  12. The Colorado Climate Preparedness Project: A Systematic Approach to Assessing Efforts Supporting State-Level Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Gordon, E.

    2010-12-01

    Scholars and policy analysts often contend that an effective climate adaptation strategy must entail "mainstreaming," or incorporating responses to possible climate impacts into existing planning and management decision frameworks. Such an approach, however, makes it difficult to assess the degree to which decisionmaking entities are engaging in adaptive activities that may or may not be explicitly framed around a changing climate. For example, a drought management plan may not explicitly address climate change, but the activities and strategies outlined in it may reduce vulnerabilities posed by a variable and changing climate. Consequently, to generate a strategic climate adaptation plan requires identifying the entire suite of activities that are implicitly linked to climate and may affect adaptive capacity within the system. Here we outline a novel, two-pronged approach, leveraging social science methods, to understanding adaptation throughout state government in Colorado. First, we conducted a series of interviews with key actors in state and federal government agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and other entities engaged in state issues. The purpose of these interviews was to elicit information about current activities that may affect the state’s adaptive capacity and to identify future climate-related needs across the state. Second, we have developed an interactive database cataloging organizations, products, projects, and people actively engaged in adaptive planning and policymaking that are relevant to the state of Colorado. The database includes a wiki interface, helping create a dynamic component that will enable frequent updating as climate-relevant information emerges. The results of this project are intended to paint a clear picture of sectors and agencies with higher and lower levels of adaptation awareness and to provide a roadmap for the next gubernatorial administration to pursue a more sophisticated climate adaptation agenda. Project results can also inform numerous other ongoing database efforts connected to the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change.

  13. INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We inadequa- cies in widespread model assumptions regarding the nature of catastrophes themselves and climate models, placing changes in climate predictability, rather than gradual changes in mean values

  14. Risk assessment of nanomaterials and nanoproducts - adaptation of traditional approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnel, J.; Fleischer, T.; Seitz, S. B.

    2013-04-01

    Different approaches have been adopted for assessing the potential risks of conventional chemicals and products for human health. In general, the traditional paradigm is a toxicological-driven chemical-by-chemical approach, focusing on single toxic endpoints. Scope and responsibilities for the development and implementation of a risk assessment concept vary across sectors and areas and depends on the specific regulatory environment and the specific protection goals. Thus, risk assessment implication is a complex task based not only on science based knowledge but also on the regulatory context involving different parties and stakeholders. Questions have been raised whether standard paradigms for conventional chemicals would be applicable and adequate for new materials, products and applications of nanotechnology. Most scientists and stakeholders assume that current standard methods are in principle applicable to nanomaterials, but specific aspects require further development. The paper presents additional technical improvements like the complementary use of the life cycle methodology and the support of risk-based classification systems. But also aspects improving the utility of risk assessment with regard to societal impacts on risk governance are discussed.

  15. Assessing Online Learning and Teaching: Adapting the Minute Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma

    2004-01-01

    Online learning is impacting current university practices and policies and quickly changing the fabric of higher education (Rowley, Lujan, & Dolence, 1998). Effective assessment techniques can improve an instructor's understanding of student needs and provide a learner-centered classroom. Understanding and evaluating student learning becomes…

  16. Distributed recurrent neural forward models with synaptic adaptation and CPG-based control for complex behaviors of walking robots

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures) with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of (1) central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, (2) distributed (at each leg) recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and (3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps, leg damage adaptations, as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to online forward models outperforms the adaptive neuron forward models, which have hitherto been the state of the art, to model a subset of similar walking behaviors in walking robots. PMID:26441629

  17. Distributed recurrent neural forward models with synaptic adaptation and CPG-based control for complex behaviors of walking robots.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Sakyasingha; Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2015-01-01

    Walking animals, like stick insects, cockroaches or ants, demonstrate a fascinating range of locomotive abilities and complex behaviors. The locomotive behaviors can consist of a variety of walking patterns along with adaptation that allow the animals to deal with changes in environmental conditions, like uneven terrains, gaps, obstacles etc. Biological study has revealed that such complex behaviors are a result of a combination of biomechanics and neural mechanism thus representing the true nature of embodied interactions. While the biomechanics helps maintain flexibility and sustain a variety of movements, the neural mechanisms generate movements while making appropriate predictions crucial for achieving adaptation. Such predictions or planning ahead can be achieved by way of internal models that are grounded in the overall behavior of the animal. Inspired by these findings, we present here, an artificial bio-inspired walking system which effectively combines biomechanics (in terms of the body and leg structures) with the underlying neural mechanisms. The neural mechanisms consist of (1) central pattern generator based control for generating basic rhythmic patterns and coordinated movements, (2) distributed (at each leg) recurrent neural network based adaptive forward models with efference copies as internal models for sensory predictions and instantaneous state estimations, and (3) searching and elevation control for adapting the movement of an individual leg to deal with different environmental conditions. Using simulations we show that this bio-inspired approach with adaptive internal models allows the walking robot to perform complex locomotive behaviors as observed in insects, including walking on undulated terrains, crossing large gaps, leg damage adaptations, as well as climbing over high obstacles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the newly developed recurrent network based approach to online forward models outperforms the adaptive neuron forward models, which have hitherto been the state of the art, to model a subset of similar walking behaviors in walking robots. PMID:26441629

  18. Cultural Adaptation of an Intervention to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors among Patients Attending a STI Clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Lauretta E.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Abdala, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants’ engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as “triggers” and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants’ risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed. PMID:23322231

  19. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light?dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence of long-term behavioral deficits in TETS-intoxicated mice on these six assays suggests that the neurobehavioral consequences of TETS exposure described in human survivors of acute TETS intoxication are likely due to sustained seizure activity, rather than a direct effect of the chemical itself. Future research efforts are directed toward developing an animal model that better recapitulates the SE and seizure duration reported in humans acutely intoxicated with TETS. PMID:25446016

  20. Long term post-flood damage assessments to analyze the strategies of adaptation at individual scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brémond, Pauline; Bonte, Bruno; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Grelot, Frédéric; Richert, Claire

    2015-04-01

    RETINA is a project which studies the opportunity for adaptation in the aftermath of flood events. To handle this research question, we consider adaptation to flood risk at individual and collective scale as well as the influence of the urban planning regulation (Flood risk mapping). For the purpose of this research, collective adaptation means actions that are undertaken at collective scale such as dikes, relocation of collective infrastructures (roads, treatment plant...) and individual adaptation means actions decided at individual level (households, enterprises or farmers) such as relocation, elevation of critical components, new organization.... In this presentation, we focus on individual adaptation and analyse which are the mechanisms that incite or constrain the adaptation to flood risk of individual assets considering their own trajectory. The originality of our approach is to carry out long term post-flood assessments and comprehensive interviews at individual scale. To catch the drivers of adaptation, we sequenced the interview guide in three periods: 1/ the situation before the reference event occurred, 2/ what happened during and just after the flood event, 3/ what happened from the flood event until the moment of the interview. Two case studies have been chosen. The first case study is the Aude department where an exceptional flooding occurred in 1999. The second case study is the Var department where more recent and frequent flood events occurred in 2010, 2011, 2014. On each case study, we plan to conduct about fifty interviews including households and economic activities. In this presentation, we will develop methodological aspects on long term post-flood damage assessments. Carrying out a long term post-flood assessment enabled us to consider adaptation to flood risk among the whole of strategic decisions a household or an enterprise has to take. Moreover, we found out that contrary to what is usually assumed, the fact that the reference event was relatively ancient (fifteen years on Aude case study), we collected precise data on flood damage and the recovery process. We will also present some results concerning a specific type of individual adaptation i.e relocation. In particular, we found out that relocation was a long term process which required then long term post-flood assessments to be analyzed. Interviews also revealed that even if it is an action often promoted, in practice, a lot of constraints have to be overcome by households and enterprises. Finally, we will give some insights for operational applications of this research. Mainly, it can be useful to improve flood damage functions or to help decision makers to define adaptation policies.

  1. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2005-09-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

  2. Developmental exposure to a complex PAH mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of PAH-adapted killifish.

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T

    2016-01-01

    Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental PAH exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some PAHs are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic PAH exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental PAH mixture exposure in both naive killifish and PAH-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level PAH mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04?g/L and 50.4?g/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental PAH exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the PAH-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following PAH exposure. PAH mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the PAH-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to PAH-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in killifish, and that locomotor alterations could be observed in early larval stages. Additionally, our study highlights the resistance to behavioral alterations caused by low-level PAH mixture exposure in the adapted killifish population. Furthermore, this is the first longitudinal behavioral study to use killifish, an environmentally important estuarine teleost fish, and this testing framework can be used for future contaminant assessment. PMID:26548404

  3. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    R. Julian Preston
    Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA

    There ...

  4. Test Adaptation and Cross-Cultural Assessment From a Business Perspective: Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steven B.

    2005-01-01

    Test adaptation and cross-cultural assessment activities are skyrocketing as the demand for educational opportunities and personnel selection grow both within the United States and across the industrializing world. We chose a qualitative, case study approach to identify central themes encountered by ACT, a not-for-profit organization that has…

  5. Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riis, Jason; Loewenstein, George; Baron, Jonathan; Jepson, Christopher; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    Healthy people generally underestimate the self-reported well-being of people with disabilities and serious illnesses. The cause of this discrepancy is in dispute, and the present study provides evidence for 2 causes. First, healthy people fail to anticipate hedonic adaptation to poor health. Using an ecological momentary assessment measure of…

  6. Climate Hazard Assessment for Stakeholder Adaptation Planning in New York City RADLEY M. HORTON

    E-print Network

    Climate Hazard Assessment for Stakeholder Adaptation Planning in New York City RADLEY M. HORTON for Space Studies, New York, New York VIVIEN GORNITZ AND DANIEL A. BADER Center for Climate Systems Research, Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York ALEX C. RUANE NASA Goddard Institute for Space

  7. Adapting SWAT for the Assessment of Thinly-Soiled Karst and Sinkhole features

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    Adapting SWAT for the Assessment of Thinly-Soiled Karst and Sinkhole features REPORT A patterned-2988 June 20, 2012 #12;ABSTRACT Thirty karst features were ranked for protection by extracting mixture of thinly-soiled karst, sinkholes, and glacial features such as end moraines, ground moraines

  8. Considering the Use of General and Modified Assessment Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Albano, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    This article used several data sets from a large-scale state testing program to examine the feasibility of combining general and modified assessment items in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for different groups of students. Results suggested that several of the assumptions made when employing this type of mixed-item CAT may not be met for…

  9. Using a signal cancellation technique to assess adaptive directivity of hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Bentler, Ruth A

    2007-07-01

    The directivity of an adaptive directional microphone hearing aid (DMHA) cannot be assessed by the method that calls for presenting a "probe" signal from a single loudspeaker to the DMHA that moves to different angles. This method is invalid because the probe signal itself changes the polar pattern. This paper proposes a method for assessing the adaptive DMHA using a "jammer" signal, presented from a second loudspeaker rotating with the DMHA, that simulates a noise source and freezes the polar pattern. Measurement at each angle is obtained by two sequential recordings from the DMHA, one using an input of a probe and a jammer, and the other with an input of the same probe and a phase-inverted jammer. After canceling out the jammer, the remaining response to the probe signal can be used to assess the directivity. In this paper, the new method is evaluated by comparing responses from five adaptive DMHAs to different jammer intensities and locations. This method was shown to be an accurate and reliable way to assess the directivity of the adaptive DMHA in a high-intensity-jammer condition. PMID:17614507

  10. Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat

    2011-01-01

    This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S?), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat’s three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat’s sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat’s directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S?. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S? stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S? were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S?. PMID:21246202

  11. Teacher Perceptions of the Usability of School-Based Behavior Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faith G.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Fabiano, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of school-based behavior assessments were assessed over the course of a school year. Specifically, the utility and relevance of Direct Behavior Ratings-Single Item Scales, a hybrid direct observation method, relative to two school-based behavioral rating scales, the Social Skills Improvement System-Performance Screening Guide…

  12. Uncertainty assessment of urban pluvial flood risk in a context of climate change adaptation decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Zhou, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    There has been a significant increase in climatic extremes in many regions. In Central and Northern Europe, this has led to more frequent and more severe floods. Along with improved flood modelling technologies this has enabled development of economic assessment of climate change adaptation to increasing urban flood risk. Assessment of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis of current risk, drivers of change of risk over time, and measures to reduce the risk. However, such studies are often associated with large uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from basic assumptions in the economic analysis and the hydrological model, but also from the projection of future societies to local climate change impacts and suitable adaptation options. This presents a challenge to decision makers when trying to identify robust measures. We present an integrated uncertainty analysis, which can assess and quantify the overall uncertainty in relation to climate change adaptation to urban flash floods. The analysis is based on an uncertainty cascade that by means of Monte Carlo simulations of flood risk assessments incorporates climate change impacts as a key driver of risk changes over time. The overall uncertainty is then attributed to six bulk processes: climate change impact, urban rainfall-runoff processes, stage-depth functions, unit cost of repair, cost of adaptation measures, and discount rate. We apply the approach on an urban hydrological catchment in Odense, Denmark, and find that the uncertainty on the climate change impact appears to have the least influence on the net present value of the studied adaptation measures-. This does not imply that the climate change impact is not important, but that the uncertainties are not dominating when deciding on action or in-action. We then consider the uncertainty related to choosing between adaptation options given that a decision of action has been taken. In this case the major part of the uncertainty on the estimated net present values is identical for all adaptation options and will therefore not affect a comparison between adaptation measures. This makes the chose among the options easier. Furthermore, the explicit attribution of uncertainty also enables a reduction of the overall uncertainty by identifying the processes which contributes the most. This knowledge can then be used to further reduce the uncertainty related to decision making, as a substantial part of the remaining uncertainty is epistemic.

  13. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  14. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wende, Wolfgang; Bond, Alan; Bobylev, Nikolai; Stratmann, Lars

    2012-01-15

    Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  15. A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  16. Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

    2005-10-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status. PMID:16287384

  17. International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

  18. Antenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment Induces Adaptations in Adult Midbrain Dopamine Neurons, which Underpin Sexually Dimorphic Behavioral Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Virdee, Kanwar; McArthur, Simon; Brischoux, Frédéric; Caprioli, Daniele; Ungless, Mark A; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Gillies, Glenda E

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT, gestational days 16–19) altered the size and organization of the adult rat midbrain dopaminergic (DA) populations. Here we investigated the consequences of these AGT-induced cytoarchitectural disturbances on indices of DA function in adult rats. We show that in adulthood, enrichment of striatal DA fiber density paralleled AGT-induced increases in the numbers of midbrain DA neurons, which retained normal basal electrophysiological properties. This was co-incident with changes in (i) striatal D2-type receptor levels (increased, both sexes); (ii) D1-type receptor levels (males decreased; females increased); (iii) DA transporter levels (males increased; females decreased) in striatal regions; and (iv) amphetamine-induced mesolimbic DA release (males increased; females decreased). However, despite these profound, sexually dimorphic changes in markers of DA neurotransmission, in-utero glucocorticoid overexposure had a modest or no effect on a range of conditioned and unconditioned appetitive behaviors known to depend on mesolimbic DA activity. These findings provide empirical evidence for enduring AGT-induced adaptive mechanisms within the midbrain DA circuitry, which preserve some, but not all, functions, thereby casting further light on the vulnerability of these systems to environmental perturbations. Furthermore, they demonstrate these effects are achieved by different, often opponent, adaptive mechanisms in males and females, with translational implications for sex biases commonly found in midbrain DA-associated disorders. PMID:23929547

  19. Cognitive Adaptations for n-person Exchange: The Evolutionary Roots of Organizational Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda; Price, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are composed of stable, predominantly cooperative interactions or n-person exchanges. Humans have been engaging in n-person exchanges for a great enough period of evolutionary time that we appear to have evolved a distinct constellation of species-typical mechanisms specialized to solve the adaptive problems posed by this form of social interaction. These mechanisms appear to have been evolutionarily elaborated out of the cognitive infrastructure that initially evolved for dyadic exchange. Key adaptive problems that these mechanisms are designed to solve include coordination among individuals, and defense against exploitation by free riders. Multi-individual cooperation could not have been maintained over evolutionary time if free riders reliably benefited more than contributors to collective enterprises, and so outcompeted them. As a result, humans evolved mechanisms that implement an aversion to exploitation by free riding, and a strategy of conditional cooperation, supplemented by punitive sentiment towards free riders. Because of the design of these mechanisms, how free riding is treated is a central determinant of the survival and health of cooperative organizations. The mapping of the evolved psychology of n-party exchange cooperation may contribute to the construction of a principled theoretical foundation for the understanding of human behavior in organizations. PMID:23814325

  20. Performance Monitoring and Assessment of Neuro-Adaptive Controllers for Aerospace Applications Using a Bayesian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Pramod; Guenther, Kurt; Hodgkinson, John; Jacklin, Stephen; Richard, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Soares, Fola

    2005-01-01

    Modern exploration missions require modern control systems-control systems that can handle catastrophic changes in the system's behavior, compensate for slow deterioration in sustained operations, and support fast system ID. Adaptive controllers, based upon Neural Networks have these capabilities, but they can only be used safely if proper verification & validation (V&V) can be done. In this paper we present our V & V approach and simulation result within NASA's Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS).

  1. Contextual Influences on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and Implications for Its Cross-cultural Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Marten; Super, Charles M.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale outside the standard hospital setting introduces variations in the physical and social context that influence scores on some of the behavioral items. (Author/BH)

  2. A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.

    2008-01-01

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite primary unresolved questions regarding adaptive response behavior and bystander behavior. The five features of major significance provided by the Microdose Model so far are 1.) Single Specific Energy Hits initiate Adaptive Response, 2.) Mammogram and diagnostic X-rays induce a protective Bystander Effect as well as Adaptive Response radio-protection. 3.) For mammogram X-rays the Adaptive Response protection is retained at high primer dose levels. 4.) The dose range of the AR protection depends on the value of the Specific Energy per Hit, . 5.) Alpha particle induced deleterious Bystander damage is modulated by low LET radiation. PMID:18648579

  3. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-06-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and type of constraints and in task objectives, and can adapt to changes in kinematics configurations (change of module, change of tool, joint failure adaptation, etc.).

  4. Some psychophysiological and behavioral aspects of adaptation to simulated autonomous Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushin, V.; Shved, D.; Vinokhodova, A.; Vasylieva, G.; Nitchiporuk, I.; Ehmann, B.; Balazs, L.

    2012-01-01

    “Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.

  5. Spontaneous Neuronal Network Dynamics Reveal Circuit’s Functional Adaptations for Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Sebastián A.; Pietri, Thomas; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Jouary, Adrien; Haudrechy, Mathieu; Sumbre, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous neuronal activity is spatiotemporally structured, influencing brain computations. Nevertheless, the neuronal interactions underlying these spontaneous activity patterns, and their biological relevance, remain elusive. Here, we addressed these questions using two-photon calcium imaging of intact zebrafish larvae to monitor the neuron-to-neuron spontaneous activity fine structure in the tectum, a region involved in visual spatial detection. Spontaneous activity was organized in topographically compact assemblies, grouping functionally similar neurons rather than merely neighboring ones, reflecting the tectal retinotopic map despite being independent of retinal drive. Assemblies represent all-or-none-like sub-networks shaped by competitive dynamics, mechanisms advantageous for visual detection in noisy natural environments. Notably, assemblies were tuned to the same angular sizes and spatial positions as prey-detection performance in behavioral assays, and their spontaneous activation predicted directional tail movements. Therefore, structured spontaneous activity represents “preferred” network states, tuned to behaviorally relevant features, emerging from the circuit’s intrinsic non-linear dynamics, adapted for its functional role. PMID:25704948

  6. Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention with Emotional/Behaviorally Disordered Students: In Pursuit of State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waguespack, Angela; Vaccaro, Terrence; Continere, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    The application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures for the purposes of developing interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) has received considerable attention since the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this paper is to review the…

  7. Applying Positive Behavioral Support and Functional Behavioral Assessment in Schools. Technical Assistance Guide 1, Version 1.4.3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugai, George; Horner, Robert H.; Dunlap, Glen; Hieneman, Meme; Lewis, Timothy J.; Nelson, C. Michael; Scott, Terrance; Liaupsin, Carl; Sailor, Wayne; Turnbull, Ann P.; Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Wickham, Donna; Ruef, Michael; Wilcox, Brennan

    This paper discusses how educators can apply positive behavioral support (PBS) to students with and without disabilities and conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). It begins by describing the challenges that educators face in educating an increasingly heterogeneous population of students, including students with external and internal…

  8. Using Electronic and Other New Ways To Help Students Improve Their Behavior: Functional Behavioral Assessment at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Kim A.; Tobin, Tary J.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents two case examples to demonstrate how teachers can use functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design behavior support plans. FBA helps a second grade "class clown" to learn new ways to get attention and a first grade "class lawyer" to learn to stop arguing and stay on task (with the help of an electronic record keeping…

  9. The German Adaptation and Standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    PubMed

    Groves, Julia A; Engel, Rolf R

    2007-02-01

    We developed the German Adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) under careful consideration of current adaptation literature and guidelines. The adaptation process included the translation of the 344 items into German, a back translation into English as well as the testing of the language equivalence using a bilingual sample. We then standardized the final German version of the PAI for the German population. We compared the American and German norm and reliability data. The observed differences in PAI scale means did not exceed 5 T scores. Internal consistency reliability showed a similar pattern in both language versions, although the German alpha coefficients were on average slightly lower than the American ones. Factor structure was similar in both versions. We discuss expectations about the German PAI and possible problems for its practical usefulness for the German-speaking population. PMID:17266414

  10. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680

  11. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma A?42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of A? peptides (A?40 and A?42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma A?42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma A?42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  12. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  13. An Overview of Intervention Options for Promoting Adaptive Behavior of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury and Minimally Conscious State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bosco, Andrea; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the studies directed at helping post-coma persons with minimally conscious state improve their adaptive behavior. Twenty-one studies were identified for the 2000-2010 period (i.e., a period in which an intense debate has occurred about diagnostic, rehabilitative, prognostic, and ethical issues concerning people…

  14. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…

  15. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  16. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation

  17. Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

  18. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale Scores as a Function of Age and Initial IQ in 210 Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, B. J.; Del'Homme, M.; Guthrie, D.; Zhang, F.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined how Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores changed in individuals with autism as a function of age and initial IQ. Results revealed that subjects (N=440) improved with age in all domains. The rate of growth on Communication and Daily Living Skills sub-tests was related to initial IQ while rate of growth in Social Skills was…

  19. 96 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 15, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 Adaptation of Orienting Behavior: From

    E-print Network

    Rucci, Michele

    96 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION, VOL. 15, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 Adaptation of Orienting Behavior: From the Barn Owl to a Robotic System Michele Rucci, Member, IEEE, Gerald M. Edelman, and Jonathan Wray Abstract-- Autonomous robotic systems need to adjust their sensorimotor coordinations so

  20. 77 FR 48989 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials; Availability AGENCY: Food and...Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials.'' The purpose of this guidance...treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials of drug and biological...

  1. To Appear: Journal of Adaptive Behavior, June 2007 On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence

    E-print Network

    To Appear: Journal of Adaptive Behavior, June 2007 On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence Alex (Sandy) Pentland Room E15-387, The Media Lab Massachusetts Appear: Journal of Adaptive Behavior, June 2007 On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence Abstract

  2. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options?

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.; Schwilch, G.; Stringer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change. PMID:25844020

  3. Assessing independent and interactive effects of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for a client with dual diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W; Piazza, C C; Page, T J

    1989-09-01

    Behavior analytic methods were applied to the assessment and treatment of the problem behaviors of an 8-year-old male classified as having moderate mental retardation and atypical psychosis. Functional assessment procedures demonstrated that verbal behaviors diagnosed as hallucinatory were affected by environmental contingencies. Next, a multi-element/multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of contingency management and pharmacologic interventions on three dependent variables: (1) psychotic speech; (2) aggressive-disruptive behavior; and (3) appropriate speech. Results indicated that contingency management without haloperidol was the most effective treatment for all inappropriate and appropriate behaviors. These results are important in that behavior analytic methods were shown to have utility for: (1) assessing the functional relationship between environmental contingencies and behaviors related to differential diagnosis; and (2) evaluating the independent and interactive effects of behavioral and pharmacologic treatments. PMID:2632592

  4. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    PubMed

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized. PMID:26189184

  5. The effect of western adaptation of Hispanic-Americans on their assessment of Korean facial profiles

    PubMed Central

    Toureno, Leo; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Bayome, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine Korean facial profile preferences based on lip position as assessed by Hispanic-Americans of varying western adaptation levels and to determine whether the age and sex of the rater had any influence. Methods For this study, 132 Hispanic-Americans and 68 Caucasians of varying age, sex and western adaptation levels volunteered to rate their preference of Korean male and female facial silhouettes having lips ranging from retruding to protruding. The Hispanic-Americans were also asked to complete a Bidimensional Acculturation Scale questionnaire to determine their western adaptation status: low-acculturated Hispanics (LAH; lesser western-adapted Hispanic participants) or high-acculturated Hispanics (HAH; higher western-adapted Hispanic participants). Results The LAHs preferred significantly more retruded lip positions (p < 0.05) while HAHs showed some similarities with Caucasian participants in the results for the Korean male profile, even though HAHs preferred more retruded lip positions for the Korean female profile than Caucasians did (p < 0.05). The age and sex of raters did not influence the preference of facial profiles (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that Hispanic-Americans prefer a flatter Korean lip profile. It would be prudent for orthodontists to offer patients the option of altering lip profile through orthodontic and/or orthognathic surgery treatments. PMID:24511513

  6. Prospective Assessment of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: An Internet Survey of Pharmaceutical Sponsor Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R.; Alphs, Larry D.; Bangs, Mark E.; Butler, Adam; DuBrava, Sarah J.; Greist, John H.; Lenderking, William R.; Mundt, James C.; Stewart, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey the current approaches of clinical trial sponsors in prospective suicidal ideation and behavior assessments and challenges encountered. Design: An internet-based survey. Setting: Inclusion of prospective assessments of suicidal ideation and behavior in industry-sponsored clinical studies were required following the release of the September 2010 United States Federal Drug Administration draft guidance. The International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and Methodology Suicidal Ideation and Behavior Assessment Workgroup conducted an online survey to understand industry practices and experiences in implementing suicidal ideation and behavior assessments in clinical trials. Participants: The survey was sent to 1,447 industry employees at 178 pharmaceutical companies. A total of 89 evaluable responses, representing 39 companies, were obtained. Measurements: A 30-item internet survey was developed asking about potential challenges and issues in implementing prospective suicidal ideation and behavior assessments. Results: Common factors in deciding whether to include suicidal ideation and behavior assessments in a clinical trial were psychiatric or neurologic drug product (95%); central nervous system activity (78%); disease (74%) and patient population (71%); and regulatory announcements and policies (74%). The most common challenges in implementing suicidal ideation and behavior assessments included cross-cultural differences in acceptance of SIB assessments (40%); obtaining adequate baseline history (36.8%); obtaining translations (35%); investigator/rater discomfort with asking about suicidal ideation and behavior (32%); and inadequate training of raters to administer suicidal ideation and behavior ratings (30%). Conclusion: Among sponsors surveyed, the implementation rate of suicidal ideation and behavior assessment in central nervous systems studies is very high. Most have used the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Challenges regarding standardization of retrospective assessment timeframes and differing approaches to summarizing and analyzing suicidal ideation and behavior-related study data were frequently reported. These results suggest that inconsistent reports of suicidal ideation and behavior within study datasets may occur and that integration of data across studies remains a concern. PMID:25520885

  7. The Efficiency of Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Inattentive-Overactive and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors: Applying Generalizability Theory to Streamline Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the…

  8. Behavioral assessment of social performance: a rating system for social phobia.

    PubMed

    Fydrich, T; Chambless, D L; Perry, K J; Buergener, F; Beazley, M B

    1998-10-01

    The Social Performance Rating Scale (SPRS) is a modification of the rating system for behavioral assessment of social skills, originally developed by Trower, P., Bryant, B., & Argyle, M. (1978). Social skills and mental health. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press) and subsequently adapted by Turner and colleagues (e.g., Turner, S.M., Beidel, D.C., Dancu, C.V., & Keys, D.J. (1986). Psychopathology of social phobia and comparison to avoidant personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 389-394). Designed to yield ratings of social performance appropriate for use in a socially phobic population and based on videotaped role plays, the five SPRS ratings are gaze, vocal quality, speech length, discomfort, and conversation flow. The sum of these ratings provides an internally consistent total score. In an initial study of the psychometric properties of the SPRS, three groups were assessed: individuals with social phobia, another anxiety disorder, or no psychological disorder. Inter-rater reliability for individual items and the total score proved excellent, and positive evidence for convergent, divergent, and criterion-related validity was obtained. PMID:9714949

  9. Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior: Dispelling Myths, Overcoming Implementation Obstacles, and Developing New Lore

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Gregory P

    2012-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have shown the efficacy of treatments for problem behavior based on an understanding of its function. Assertions regarding the legitimacy of different types of functional assessment vary substantially across published articles, and best practices regarding the functional assessment process are sometimes difficult to cull from the empirical literature or from published discussions of the behavioral assessment process. A number of myths regarding the functional assessment process, which appear to be pervasive within different behavior-analytic research and practice communities, will be reviewed in the context of an attempt to develop new lore regarding the functional assessment process. Frequently described obstacles to implementing a critical aspect of the functional assessment process, the functional analysis, will be reviewed in the context of solutions for overcoming them. Finally, the aspects of the functional assessment process that should be exported to others versus those features that should remain the sole technological property of behavior analysts will be discussed. PMID:23326630

  10. Adaptive model-based 3-D target detection: Part II - statistical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartless, Mac L.; Wang, Hong

    1992-08-01

    Previous work in adaptive space-time processing has concentrated on either covariance estimation or on using a region segmentation approach where a bank of filters is designed from previously collected data. The first method typically involves performing a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), which for a typical 3-D target signature involves estimation of an enormous number of covariance elements. The second method relies on filter construction from previously collected data. Two of the major penalties which are incurred in any covariance estimation technique include a large amount of computational complexity and a lack of robustness in a changing environment due to the large number of covariance samples required for statistical stability. The region segmentation approach is useful when the clutter being processed resembles that which was used for filter construction, but suffers large potential losses when the data which is operated on has different statistical properties than that which was used in filter construction. The method which is being addressed in this study for mitigating the problems associated with a space-time covariance estimation procedure and/or the dependence on a bank of fixed filters, is to assume a low degree of freedom model for the space-time clutter characteristics. This allows the adaptive filter to be estimated over a much smaller region. The detection algorithm can therefore track the clutter characteristics of a changing environment more closely while minimizing any losses in a stationary environment. This paper addresses the statistical behavior of the model-based algorithms. The statistical behavior is analyzed as a function of the number of filter tap weights and the estimation region size used for filter construction. Performance in a non-stationary environment is analyzed via Monte-Carlo techniques on both simulated and recently collected longwave IR clutter. The results indicate that the reduced degree of freedom model-based algorithms can provide significant performance improvement when the dimensions of the test vector are large and only a small amount of data is available for covariance estimation.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  12. Increasing Compliance in Students with Intellectual Disabilities Using Functional Behavioral Assessment and Self-Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Jamie P.; Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Noncompliance in three elementary age students with intellectual disabilities was assessed using functional behavioral assessments. Escape was identified as the primary function of the behavior in all three students, and access to tangible items was identified in one of the students as a secondary function. Teacher-monitoring and self-monitoring…

  13. 77 FR 48989 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in prospectively assessing the occurrence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials of drug and biological......

  14. Assessing the Behavior of Girls: What We See and What We Miss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning-Stout, Mary

    1998-01-01

    Three standardized measures of child and adolescent behavior for ages 12-18 are studied: (1) Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form; (2) Behavior Assessment System for Children; (3) Social Skills Rating System. Challenges to psychologists to include the experiences of girls in the knowledge-base grounding their practice and…

  15. Early Childhood Practitioner Involvement in Functional Behavioral Assessment and Function-Based Interventions: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brenna K.; Drogan, Robin R.; Janney, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers analyzed studies published from 1990 to 2012 to determine early childhood practitioner involvement in functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and function-based behavioral intervention plans (BIP) for children with challenging behavior, age 6 and younger. Coding of 30 studies included practitioner involvement in FBA and BIP processes,…

  16. An Assessment of Self-Echoic Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, John W.; Esch, Barbara E.; McCart, Jordon D.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    In the behavioral literature, self-echoic behavior has been hypothesized to play an important role in, for example, emergent conditional discriminations (e.g., Lowenkron, 1991), emergent verbal operants (Horne & Lowe, 1996), and problem solving (Skinner, 1957). Although early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism emphasize the…

  17. Structured Assessment of Correctional Adaptation (SACA): a measure of the impact of incarceration on the mentally ill in a therapeutic setting.

    PubMed

    Carr, W Amory; Rotter, Merrill; Steinbacher, Michael; Green, Debbie; Dole, Tia; Garcia-Mansilla, Alexandra; Goldberg, Sara; Rosenfeld, Barry

    2006-10-01

    Clinicians have observed that psychiatric patients with correctional histories evidence attitudes and behaviors that seem adaptive in penal environments but are maladaptive in mental health settings. This study sought to assess the reliability and concurrent validity of a rating scale designed to measure correctional adaptation using a sample of 64 patients from a state psychiatric hospital. Scale ratings were obtained through structured interviews, whereas predictor variables were gleaned from chart review and self-report. The scale demonstrated good interrater reliability (ICC = .83) and acceptable internal consistency (alpha= .67). Of the variables evaluated, two were significantly correlated with Structured Assessment of Correctional Adaptation (SACA) total scores, total months sentenced to prison or jail (r = .26), and frequency of disciplinary tickets while in prison or jail (r = .31). Stepwise regression analyses revealed only the latter variable significantly predicted SACA score (R = .31), F(1, 58) = 6.27, p < .05. Clinical implications of these findings, the scale, and the construct of correctional adaptation are discussed. PMID:16943381

  18. Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. Semi-Structured Interview Instrument

    E-print Network

    Carmin, JoAnn

    2014-09-13

    The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

  19. Adapting Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Methods to Assess Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressor Combinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation based on the following abstract: Chemical mixtures risk assessment methods are routinely used. To address combined chemical and nonchemical stressors, component-based approaches may be applicable, depending on the toxic action among diverse stressors. Such methods a...

  20. Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  1. Soil erosion and climate change: Assessing potential impacts and adaptation practices

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.J.; Phillips, D.L.; Benson, V.W.

    1999-07-01

    Changes in climate associated with changes in atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases might affect soil erosion by wind and water. Changes in erosion could in turn cause changes in productivity and sustainability of agricultural systems, and changes in air quality (PM{sub 10}) and water quality (sediment transport). Substantial effects on productivity may, however, only occur several decades after climate changes. This paper presents a procedure for assessing the potential effects of climate change on erosion and productivity. A preliminary screening process is used to identify and prioritize regions and management systems. Subsequent simulation of selected sites with the EPIC model is used to investigate potential practices to adapt agricultural systems to climate change. In some cases, proposed adaptation strategies might reduce sustainability if they are not matched to environmental conditions found at specific sites. As an example, the assessment procedure is applied to evaluate vulnerability and adaptation practices for a 20% increase in mean monthly wind speeds in the US corn belt.

  2. Using Qualitative Methods to Improve Questionnaires for Spanish Speakers: Assessing Face Validity of a Food Behavior Checklist

    PubMed Central

    BANNA, JINAN C.; VERA BECERRA, LUZ E.; KAISER, LUCIA L.; TOWNSEND, MARILYN S.

    2015-01-01

    Development of outcome measures relevant to health nutrition behaviors requires a rigorous process of testing and revision. Whereas researchers often report performance of quantitative data collection to assess questionnaire validity and reliability, qualitative testing procedures are often overlooked. This report outlines a procedure for assessing face validity of a Spanish-language dietary assessment tool. Reviewing the literature produced no rigorously validated Spanish-language food behavior assessment tools for the US Department of Agriculture’s food assistance and education programs. In response to this need, this study evaluated the face validity of a Spanish-language food behavior checklist adapted from a 16-item English version of a food behavior checklist shown to be valid and reliable for limited-resource English speakers. The English version was translated using rigorous methods involving initial translation by one party and creation of five possible versions. Photos were modified based on client input and new photos were taken as necessary. A sample of low-income, Spanish-speaking women completed cognitive interviews (n=20). Spanish translation experts (n=7) fluent in both languages and familiar with both cultures made minor modifications but essentially approved client preferences. The resulting checklist generated a readability score of 93, indicating low reading difficulty. The Spanish-language checklist has adequate face validity in the target population and is ready for further validation using convergent measures. At the conclusion of testing, this instrument may be used to evaluate nutrition education interventions in California. These qualitative procedures provide a framework for designing evaluation tools for low-literate audiences participating in the US Department of Agriculture food assistance and education programs. PMID:20102831

  3. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children With Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    PubMed

    Lemons, Christopher J; King, Seth A; Davidson, Kimberly A; Puranik, Cynthia S; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J

    2015-08-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down syndrome would increase children's learning of phonological awareness, letter sounds, and words. Five children with Down syndrome, ages 6 to 8 years, participated in a multiple baseline across participants single case design experiment in which response to an adapted phonological awareness intervention was compared with response to the nonadapted program. Results indicate a functional relation between the adapted program and phonological awareness. Suggestions for future research and implications for practice are provided. PMID:26214557

  4. The Behavior Assessment Battery: A Preliminary Study of Non-Stuttering Pakistani Grade-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Mukati, Samad A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the importance of a multimodal approach to the assessment of the person who stutters (PWS) has become increasingly recognized. The Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB), which is a normed test procedure developed by G. Brutten, makes it possible to assess the multidimensional facets of this disorder. The emotional and…

  5. A Method of Assessing Leadership Effectiveness: Introducing the Essential Behavioral Leadership Qualities Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyinlade, A. Olu

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of a leader is often a difficult exercise for many organizations. This is usually because most assessment procedures are influenced by organizational politics, they are not standard based, and the items on which a leader is assessed are undefined or poorly defined. This study presents the "Essential Behavioral

  6. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale as a biomarker of the effects of environmental agents on the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Tronick, E.Z.

    1987-10-01

    The organization of the newborn's brain and the nature of the effects of toxins and pollutants conspire to produce complex and difficult problems for the assessment of the behavioral effects of environmental agents. The newborn's brain can be characterized as relatively undifferentiated, and more vulnerable to, but potentially more capable of recovery from, the effects of environmental agents specific to this time period than it will be later in development. Environmental agents tend to have nonspecific, possibly subtle, effects that invade many areas of newborn functioning. These characteristics of the newborn and the behavioral effects of teratogens make assessment at this point in development difficult. Further exacerbating this difficulty is the nature of development. Development is critically dependent on the care the newborn receives. Distortions of a newborn's behavior can produce disturbances in the caretaking environment, and these caretaking disturbances can amplify the original behavioral distortion and produce other distortions. Attention to these types of effects must be built into an assessment. These considerations lead to the conclusion that an apical assessment of newborn behavior is required. The most standardized, valid, and reliable instrument currently available is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale developed by Brazelton. It assesses the integrated actions of the infant that function to regulate simultaneously the infant's internal state and exchanges with the animate (caretaking) and inanimate environment. The scale uses a set of reflex and behavioral items to assess the critical domains of infant functioning (e.g., the infant's ability to control his states of consciousness). 52 references.

  7. The OTOLITH Experiment - Assessment of Otolith Function During Postflight Re-adaption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, A. H.; Wood, S. J.; Schoenfeld, U.

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing "Otolith" experiment is designed to comprehensively assess the otolith function during the re-adaptation phase after spaceflight. The novel protocol includes unilateral testing of each of the two otolith organs the utricle and the saccule. To assess utricle function, the otolith-ocular response (OOR) and the subjective visual vertical (SVV) are measured during unilateral centrifugation, which permits independent stimulation of the right and left ear. Measurement of the unilateral otolith-ocular response (uOOR) yields information on the response behaviour of the right and left peripheral utricles, whereas the SVV reflects the behaviour of the entire pathway from the peripheral otolith receptors to the vestibular cortex. Thus, by comparative evaluation of the results from the two tests, the degree of peripheral versus central adaptation during the post-flight period can be determined. To assess unilateral saccule function, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are recorded. Since the saccules are predominantly aligned to gravity, and interplay with the antigravity muscles, it is hypothesised that these potentials shall be altered after spaceflight. To date the study has been conducted with 5 of a planned 8 short-flight Shuttle astronauts. Preliminary results will be discussed together with those from clinical studies of dizziness patients, where the same test protocol is employed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (Grant DLR W130729) and is conducted under the auspices of ESA, in cooperation with NASA.

  8. Dopaminergic control of light-adaptive synaptic plasticity and role in goldfish visual behavior.

    PubMed

    Yazulla, S; Lin, Z S; Studholme, K M

    1996-12-01

    Dopamine has been implicated in processes of retinal light and dark adaptation. In goldfish retina, horizontal cell dendrites elaborate neurite processes (spinules) into cone terminals, in a light- and dopamine-dependent manner. However, the functions of retinal dopamine and the horizontal cell spinules in visual behavior are unknown. These issues were addressed in behavioral, electroretinographic, and anatomical studies of normal fish and those with unilateral depletion of retinal dopamine induced by intraocular (i.o.) injections with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Dopamine interplexiform cells (DA-IPC) disappear within 2 weeks after 6-OHDA injection; cell bodies appear at the marginal zone within 6 weeks at which time neurites slowly reinnervate the retina with a sparse plexus over the next 12 months. We found that dopamine depletion increased light sensitivity at photopic but not scotopic backgrounds by 2.5 log units, an effect mimicked by i.o. injections of dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists. The ERG b-wave increment thresholds were the same for control and dopamine depleted eyes, indicating a normal transition from rod to cone systems in the ON pathway. Light-dependent spinule formation was reduced by about 60% in dopamine-depleted retinas, but returned to normal by 3 months and 9 months after injection in the entire retina, even areas not directly innervated with DA-IPC processes. Spinule formation in vivo was inhibited 50% with i.o. injection of SCH 23390 in control retinas as well as throughout 3 month 6-OHDA injected retinas, including DA-IPC free areas. This latter result indicates a volume effect of dopamine, diffusing laterally through the retina over several millimeters, in regulating spinules. We conclude that DA-IPCs regulate sensitivity to background at photopic levels not via the ON pathway, but perhaps the OFF pathway. Goldfish display both increased sensitivity to light and a normal Purkinje shift in the ERG b-wave whether or not horizontal cell spinules are present, indicating that dopamine control of photopic vision in fish is not mediated through light-induced spinule formation of horizontal cell dendrites. PMID:9068857

  9. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are most appropriate. For climate related health effects for which rough risk estimates are available, ‘robust decision-making’ is recommended. For health effects with limited societal and policy relevance, we recommend focusing on no-regret measures. For highly relevant health effects, precautionary measures can be considered. This study indicated that analysing and characterising uncertainty by means of a typology can be a very useful approach for selection and prioritization of preferred adaptation policies to reduce future climate related health risks. PMID:22992311

  10. Assessment of adaptation measures to high-mountain risks in Switzerland under climate uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccione, Veruska; Lontzek, Thomas; Huggel, Christian; Ott, Philipp; Salzmann, Nadine

    2015-04-01

    The economic evaluation of different adaptation options is important to support policy-makers that need to set priorities in the decision-making process. However, the decision-making process faces considerable uncertainties regarding current and projected climate impacts. First, physical climate and related impact systems are highly complex and not fully understood. Second, the further we look into the future, the more important the emission pathways become, with effects on the frequency and severity of climate impacts. Decision on adaptation measures taken today and in the future must be able to adequately consider the uncertainties originating from the different sources. Decisions are not taken in a vacuum but always in the context of specific social, economic, institutional and political conditions. Decision finding processes strongly depend on the socio-political system and usually have evolved over some time. Finding and taking decisions in the respective socio-political and economic context multiplies the uncertainty challenge. Our presumption is that a sound assessment of the different adaptation options in Switzerland under uncertainty necessitates formulating and solving a dynamic, stochastic optimization problem. Economic optimization models in the field of climate change are not new. Typically, such models are applied for global-scale studies but barely for local-scale problems. In this analysis, we considered the case of the Guttannen-Grimsel Valley, situated in the Swiss Bernese Alps. The alpine community has been affected by high-magnitude, high-frequency debris flows that started in 2009 and were historically unprecendented. They were related to thaw of permafrost in the rock slopes of Ritzlihorn and repeated rock fall events that accumulated at the debris fan and formed a sediment source for debris flows and were transported downvalley. An important transit road, a trans-European gas pipeline and settlements were severely affected and partly destroyed. Several adaptation measures were discussed by the responsible authorities but decision making is particularly challenging under multiple uncertainties. For this area, we developed a stochastic optimization model for concrete and real-case adaptation options and measures and use dynamic programming to explore the optimal adaptation decisions under uncertainty in face of uncertain impacts from climate change of debris flows and flooding. Even though simplification needed to be made the results produced were concrete and tangible, indicating that excavation is a preferable adaptation option based on our assumption and modeling in comparison to building a dam or relocation, which is not necessarily intuitive and adds an additional perspective to what has so far been sketched and evaluated by cantonal and communal authorities for Guttannen. Moreover, the building of an alternative cantonal road appears to be more expensive than costs incurring due to road closure.

  11. A Behavioral Science Assessment of Selected Principles of Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Monroe; Rees, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the bahavioral science support for a set of 20 food-buying principles. Three types of principles are found; they differ in the consumer behaviors they recommend and in the nature and strength of support they receive in the behavioral science literature. (Author/JOW)

  12. Behavioral Treatment and Assessment of Childhood Cross-Gender Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar

    This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child. The clinical history of S paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine…

  13. Assessment of the Quality of an Organizational Citizenship Behavior Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokturk, Soheyda

    2011-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been associated with organizational effectiveness in many studies. Therefore, it is important to learn more about how these behaviors can be improved in schools. Creating a reliable and valid measure of OCB that has conceptual equivalence across cultures is a first step in understanding and…

  14. Improving Educational Assessment & An Inventory of Measures of Affective Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Walcott H., Ed.

    The first half of this publication consists of four papers presented at a 1967 working conference intended to foster the development of a theory of educational assessment. Topics discussed in "The Purposes of Assessment" by Ralph W. Tyler include assessment for diagnosis, for individual guidance, for college admissions and placement, and…

  15. Assessing Causality in the Relationship Between Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of this Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents’ risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate photos or videos to someone online, and sending one’s telephone number and address to someone exclusively known online. The relationship between these behaviors and adolescents’ perceptions of peer involvement, personal invulnerability, and risks and benefits was investigated. A two-wave longitudinal study among a representative sample of 1,445 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 was conducted (49% females). Autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that perceived peer involvement, perceived vulnerability, and perceived risks were all significant predictors of risky sexual online behavior 6 months later. No reverse causal paths were found. When the relationships between perceptions and risky sexual online behavior were modeled simultaneously, only perceived peer involvement was a determinant of risky sexual online behavior. Findings highlight the importance of addressing peer involvement in future interventions to reduce adolescents’ risky sexual online behavior. PMID:20177962

  16. Assessing effects of climate change and adaptation strategies on irrigated pastures using DAISY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagimoto, Y.; Cuenca, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    The DAISY ecological model was applied for the flood-irrigated cool-season pastures in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon to study 1) the current condition of the pastures in the semi-arid environment, 2) effects of projected climate change, and 3) effects of introducing white clover and a sprinkler system as a potential adaptation strategy. The calibrated model indicated that productivity of the cool-season pastures was limited primarily by nitrogen (N) availability and temperature. The results of our scenario analysis indicated that the projected climate change would increase seasonal forage production (YF) and crop water use (AET) due to longer and warmer growing season. This study also found that introduction of white clover would significantly increase YF without changing AET by improving N availability due to increased nutrients deposition by cattle and increased symbiotic N fixation by white clover. In consequence, the mixed pasture could significantly improve water use efficiency (YF/AET) and, therefore the adaptability of the pasture in an area with high value water. Installing sprinkler system to the mixed pasture would increase YF by increasing net N input by increasing N mineralization and reducing denitrification. Furthermore, upgraded irrigation systems could increase water availability of the area during growing season by releasing significant amount of subsurface water to nearby surface water pools. This study demonstrated that ecological models such as DAISY can be a useful tool to model pasture systems and assess effects of projected climate changes and adaptation strategies.

  17. [The CAD-S, an instrument for the assessment of adaptation to divorce - separation].

    PubMed

    Yárnoz Yaben, Sagrario; Comino González, Priscila

    2010-02-01

    The CAD-S, an Instrument for the Assessment of Adaptation to Divorce - Separation. This paper presents an instrument for the evaluation of the adaptation to divorce-separation. The CAD-S is a questionnaire created in Spanish, made up of 20 items whose aim is the evaluation of the family's adaptation to divorce-separation, using one of the parents as informant. Data were collected in four different samples of divorced persons and their children from different autonomous comunities from the Spanish state. 223 parents and 160 children from divorced families took part in this study. Four factors emerged, accounting for 52.39 percent of the total variance: psychological and emotional difficulties, conflict with the ex-partner, disposition to co-parentality, and negative outcomes of separation for children. The results suggest that CAD-S appears to be a reliable and valid instrument, with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and adequate construct validity supported by its relations with measures of satisfaction with life (SWLS), in the case of parents, and conduct problems (CBCL) for children. PMID:20100443

  18. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov

    PubMed Central

    Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; K, Thangavel; N, Lalitha; S, Malmarugan; Sukumar, Kuppannan

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18th(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds. PMID:26413071

  19. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov.

    PubMed

    Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; K, Thangavel; N, Lalitha; S, Malmarugan; Sukumar, Kuppannan

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18(th)(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds. PMID:26413071

  20. The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP’s) National Assessment of ...

  1. Adapting Tests of Sign Language Assessment for Other Sign Languages--A Review of Linguistic, Cultural, and Psychometric Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from…

  2. Treatment Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions for Children: An Assessment by Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melanie L.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Adams, Christina D.; Boggs, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    Study assesses the acceptability of six child-management interventions as rated by mothers (N=20) of children referred for treatment for a disruptive-behavior disorder. Positive reinforcement was rated as a more acceptable treatment than response time, time-out, differential attention, overcorrection, and spanking. Results validate findings of…

  3. Training Mental Health Professionals to Assess and Manage Suicidal Behavior: Can Provider Confidence and Practice Behaviors Be Altered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oordt, Mark S.; Jobes, David A.; Fonseca, Vincent P.; Schmidt, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Remarkably little systematic research has studied the effects of clinical suicidology training on changing practitioner attitudes and behaviors. In the current study we investigated whether training in an empirically-based assessment and treatment approach to suicidal patients administered through a continuing education workshop could meaningfully…

  4. Stability Metrics for Simulation and Flight-Software Assessment and Monitoring of Adaptive Control Assist Compensators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodel, A. S.; Whorton, Mark; Zhu, J. Jim

    2008-01-01

    Due to a need for improved reliability and performance in aerospace systems, there is increased interest in the use of adaptive control or other nonlinear, time-varying control designs in aerospace vehicles. While such techniques are built on Lyapunov stability theory, they lack an accompanying set of metrics for the assessment of stability margins such as the classical gain and phase margins used in linear time-invariant systems. Such metrics must both be physically meaningful and permit the user to draw conclusions in a straightforward fashion. We present in this paper a roadmap to the development of metrics appropriate to nonlinear, time-varying systems. We also present two case studies in which frozen-time gain and phase margins incorrectly predict stability or instability. We then present a multi-resolution analysis approach that permits on-line real-time stability assessment of nonlinear systems.

  5. The Role of Cognition and Adaptive Behavior in Employment of People with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Chen, Ching-Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have specifically investigated the cognitive correlates of employment for persons with mental retardation. To evaluate the relationship of cognitive and adaptive functioning to work status, 56 competitively employed and 55 unemployed individuals with mental retardation underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological and adaptive

  6. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Adaptive Estimation of Three-Dimensional Structure in the

    E-print Network

    Kourtzi, Zoe

    of the adaptive context to resolve depth ambiguity and interpret 3D structure. Key words: ambiguous perception; bistability; fMRI adaptation; depth perception; psychophysics; vision Introduction Perceiving the three gained from short- and long-term experience. Perceptual aftereffects, in which the perception

  7. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

  8. Assessing the Validity and Reliability of the Peristomal Skin Lesion Assessment Instrument Adapted for Use in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ay, Ali; Bulut, Hulya

    2015-08-01

    Many ostomy patients experience peristomal skin lesions. A descriptive study was conducted to assess the validity, usability, and reliability of the Peristomal Skin Lesions Assessment instrument (SACS instrument) adapted to Turkish from English. The SACS Instrument consists of 2 main assessments: lesion type (utilizing definitions and photographs) and lesion area by location around the ostomy. The study was performed in 2 stages: 1) the SACS language was changed and its content validity established; and 2) the instrument\\'92s content validity and inter-observer agreement (consistency) were determined among pairs of nurses who used the tool to assess peristomal skin lesions. Patients (included if they were >18 years old and receiving treatment/observation at 1 of the 4 participating stomatherapy units) and 8 stomatherapy nurses also completed appropriate sociodemographic questionnaires. Of the 393 patients screened during the 7-month study, 100 (average age 56.74 \\'b1 14.03 years, 55 men) participated; most (79) had a planned operation. A little more than half (59) of the patients had colorectal cancer and 28 had their stoma site marked preoperatively by a stomatherapy nurse. The most common peristomal skin lesion risk factors were having an ileostomy and unplanned surgery. The content validity index of the entire Turkish SACS instrument was 1, and the inter-observer agreement Kappa statistic was very good (K = 0.90, 95% CI 0.80- 0.99). Individual SACS item K values ranged from K = 0.84 (95% CI 0.63\\'961) to K = 1 (95% CI 1). Most (62.5%) nurses found the terms and pictures used in the SACS classification adequate and suitable, and 50% believed the Turkish version of the SACS instrument was a valid and suitable assessment tool for use by Turkish stomatherapy nurses. Validity and reliability studies involving larger and more diverse patient and nurse samples are warranted. PMID:26291898

  9. Assessing base rates of sexual behavior using the unmatched count technique

    PubMed Central

    Starosta, Amy J.; Earleywine, Mitch

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the prevalence of sexual behaviors is difficult because of self-report biases. This is particularly relevant in assessing high-risk sexual behaviors for the purpose of reducing the transmission and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS. The present study employed the unmatched count technique (UCT), which provides estimates of the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors without requiring participants to confess to socially undesirable or stigmatized behaviors. Compared to a standard, anonymous self-report questionnaire, the UCT protocol revealed that people were less likely to notify their partners about STIs or discuss their history of sexual experiences. Effects were particularly large in women suggesting that women may be more likely to misrepresent their sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that conventional, anonymous self-report questionnaire data of base rates of risky sexual behavior and sexual communication are consistently inaccurate. These discrepant base rates suggest that the UCT might provide a better estimate of the frequency of these behaviors. Results suggest that inconsistent sexual behavior is more rampant than anonymous questionnaires suggest. They also underscore the need for improvements in the anonymity of assessment of sexual behaviors, which could in turn improve the targeting of prevention efforts. Results have important public health implications because accurate assessment of sexual behaviors is crucial for developing effective STI prevention interventions among target populations. PMID:25750777

  10. Computerized Assessment of Social Approach Behavior in Mouse

    E-print Network

    Page, Damon T.

    Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological basis of sociability and how this ...

  11. Nest sanitation behavior in hirundines as a pre-adaptation to egg rejection to counter brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that nest sanitation behavior may have been a pre-adaptation from which egg rejection of brood parasite eggs evolved. We tested this hypothesis in two swallow species, the red-rumped swallow (Cecropis daurica) and the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Our results indicated that the red-rumped swallow, which is an accepter of foreign eggs, rejected a low percentage of non-egg-shaped objects and did so less often than the barn swallow, which is an intermediate rejecter of foreign eggs. Furthermore, the egg rejection rates of the barn swallow increased with the increase in rejection rates of non-egg-shaped objects among different populations. These results showed that nest cleaning behavior could have evolved into a means of reducing the costs of brood parasitism, suggesting that egg recognition ability has evolved from recognition of non-egg-shaped objects. This finding advances our understanding of the evolution of egg recognition behavior in birds. PMID:25231538

  12. A Multivariate Analysis of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale in Several Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Milton E.; Rourke, Daniel L.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses differences in results of factor analyses of ten diverse samples which have been studied using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS). Concludes that a single common factor structure accounts for the intercorrelations among NBAS items. (Author/BH)

  13. A novel behavioral paradigm to assess multisensory processing in mice

    PubMed Central

    Siemann, Justin K.; Muller, Christopher L.; Bamberger, Gary; Allison, John D.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Wallace, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Human psychophysical and animal behavioral studies have illustrated the benefits that can be conferred from having information available from multiple senses. Given the central role of multisensory integration for perceptual and cognitive function, it is important to design behavioral paradigms for animal models to provide mechanistic insights into the neural bases of these multisensory processes. Prior studies have focused on large mammals, yet the mouse offers a host of advantages, most importantly the wealth of available genetic manipulations relevant to human disease. To begin to employ this model species for multisensory research it is necessary to first establish and validate a robust behavioral assay for the mouse. Two common mouse strains (C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv) were first trained to respond to unisensory (visual and auditory) stimuli separately. Once trained, performance with paired audiovisual stimuli was then examined with a focus on response accuracy and behavioral gain. Stimulus durations varied from 50 ms to 1 s in order to modulate the effectiveness of the stimuli and to determine if the well-established “principle of inverse effectiveness” held in this model. Response accuracy in the multisensory condition was greater than for either unisensory condition for all stimulus durations, with significant gains observed at the 300 ms and 100 ms durations. Main effects of stimulus duration, stimulus modality and a significant interaction between these factors were observed. The greatest behavioral gain was seen for the 100 ms duration condition, with a trend observed that as the stimuli became less effective, larger behavioral gains were observed upon their pairing (i.e., inverse effectiveness). These results are the first to validate the mouse as a species that shows demonstrable behavioral facilitations under multisensory conditions and provides a platform for future mechanistically directed studies to examine the neural bases of multisensory integration. PMID:25628549

  14. Life Space Crisis Intervention and Functional Behavioral Assessment: The Guiding Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Lawrence P.

    2002-01-01

    The Conflict Cycle employed in Life Space Crisis Intervention offers a model for conducting functional assessment with students facing disciplinary action for behavior that may be related to emotional disturbance and other disabilities. This article analyzes the Conflict Cycle, using principles from cognitive behavioral science. (Contains 13…

  15. Assessing Treatment Acceptability with Consumers of Outpatient Child Behavior Management Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Parents' and grandparents' ratings of alternative treatments for children with behavior disorders were assessed. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), time-out, response cost, spanking, and medication were applied to noncompliance, aggression, tantrums, and hyperactivity. DRO, response cost, and time-out were found significantly more…

  16. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  17. Challenging Behavior and Early Academic Skill Development: An Integrated Approach to Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojnoski, Robin L.; Wood, Brenna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an approach to assessment and intervention of challenging behavior in early education settings that integrates a focus on instructional conditions and early academic skill development. The authors suggest this approach allows for a better understanding of the relationship between social behavior and child performance with…

  18. An Evaluation of the Predictive Validity of Confidence Ratings in Identifying Functional Behavioral Assessment Hypothesis Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgmeier, Chris; Horner, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Faced with limited resources, schools require tools that increase the accuracy and efficiency of functional behavioral assessment. Yarbrough and Carr (2000) provided evidence that informant confidence ratings of the likelihood of problem behavior in specific situations offered a promising tool for predicting the accuracy of function-based…

  19. Assessing and Analyzing Behavior Strategies of Instructors in College Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, William C., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Analyzed are university instructor behaviors in introductory and advanced level laboratories of botany, chemistry, geology, physics and zoology. Science Laboratory Interaction Categories--Teacher (SLIC) was used to assess 15 individual categories of teacher behaviors in the areas of questioning, giving directions, transmitting information,…

  20. Emotional and Behavioral Profile Assessment Using the BASC-2 with Korean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myunghee Ahn, Christine; Ebesutani, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Korean middle school students are experiencing high rates of behavioral and emotional problems, suggesting a need for comprehensive screening instruments with strong psychometric properties in school settings. The present study investigated the utility of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Self-Report of Personality, Adolescent Form…

  1. Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.

    2013-01-01

    A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral

  2. Assessment of Dysregulated Children Using the Child Behavior Checklist: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Robert R.; Ayer, Lynsay A.; Rettew, David C.; Hudziak, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Disorders of self-regulatory behavior are common reasons for referral to child and adolescent clinicians. Here, the authors sought to compare 2 methods of empirically based assessment of children with problems in self-regulatory behavior. Using parental reports on 2,028 children (53% boys) from a U.S. national probability sample of the Child…

  3. Assessment of Behavioral Chaos with a Focus on Transitions in Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiby, Elaine M.

    1995-01-01

    This second article of the special section on chaos theory addresses implications of the definition of chaotic behavior for its measurement. The requirements to test the presence of chaotic relations among variables are in agreement with the conceptual and methodological hallmarks of behavioral assessment. (SLD)

  4. Construct Validation of a Measure to Assess Sustainability of School-Wide Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…

  5. Improving Your Instruction through Self-Evaluation: Part Five. Assessing Student Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Hans van der; And Others

    1994-01-01

    One way for physical educators to keep track of students' class behavior is to use Momentary Time Sampling (MTS), which enables teachers to assess their teaching effectiveness. The article explains how and why to use MTS, what to observe, appropriate student motor engagement, and on-task and off-task behavior. (SM)

  6. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  7. A Functional Approach to the Assessment of Self-Mutilative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2004-01-01

    This study applied a functional approach to the assessment of self-mutilative behavior (SMB) among adolescent psychiatric inpatients. On the basis of past conceptualizations of different forms of self-injurious behavior, the authors hypothesized that SMB is performed because of the automatically reinforcing (i.e., reinforced by oneself; e.g.,…

  8. District-Level Administrators' Perspectives on the Implementation of Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsiyannis, Antonis; Conroy, Maureen; Zhang, Dalun

    2008-01-01

    Since the reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 1997) through the current reauthorization (IDEA 2004), disciplinary procedures and functional behavioral assessment (FBA) have been widely used in school districts to assist in the prevention and amelioration of problem behaviors. Although researchers have…

  9. Formal Psychological Assessment in Evaluating Depression: A New Methodology to Build Exhaustive and Irredundant Adaptive Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Psychological Assessment can be defined as a complex procedure of information collection, analysis and processing. Formal Psychological Assessment (FPA) tries to improve this procedure by providing a formal framework to build assessment tools. In this paper, FPA is applied to depression. Seven questionnaires widely used for the self-evaluation of depression were selected. Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were derived from the DSM-5, literature and Seligman’s and Beck’s theories. A Boolean matrix was built, including 266 items from the questionnaires in the rows and 20 selected attributes, obtained through diagnostic criteria decomposition, in the columns. In the matrix, a 1 in a cell meant that the corresponding item investigated the specific attribute. It was thus possible to analyze the relationships between items and attributes and among items. While none of the considered questionnaires could alone cover all the criteria for the evaluation of depressive symptoms, we observed that a set of 30 items contained the same information that was obtained redundantly with 266 items. Another result highlighted by the matrix regards the relations among items. FPA allows in-depth analysis of currently used questionnaires based on the presence/absence of clinical elements. FPA allows for going beyond the mere score by differentiating the patients according to symptomatology. Furthermore, it allows for computerized-adaptive assessment. PMID:25875359

  10. Adapting the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test into American sign language.

    PubMed

    Enns, Charlotte J; Herman, Rosalind C

    2011-01-01

    Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed language skills. Although researchers have developed some checklists and experimental tests related to American Sign Language (ASL) assessment, at this time a standardized measure of ASL does not exist. There have been tests developed in other signed languages, for example, British Sign Language, that can serve as models in this area. The purpose of this study was to adapt the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test for use in ASL in order to begin the process of developing a standardized measure of ASL skills. The results suggest that collaboration between researchers in different signed languages can provide a valuable contribution toward filling the gap in the area of signed language assessment. PMID:21402732

  11. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  12. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, J. J.; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…

  13. Static and quasi-static behavior of an adaptive system to compensate path errors for smart fiber placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, M.; Monner, H. P.; Krombholz, C.; Kruse, F. F.

    2015-04-01

    Smart fiber placement is an ambitious topic in current research for automated manufacturing of large-scale composite structures, e.g. wing covers. Adaptive systems get in focus to obtain a high degree of observability and controllability of the manufacturing process. In particular, vibrational issues and material failure have to be studied to significantly increase the production rate with no loss in accuracy of the fiber layup. As one contribution, an adaptive system has been developed to be integrated into the fiber placement head. It decouples the compaction roller from disturbances caused by misalignments, varying components' behavior over a large work area and acceleration changes during operation. Therefore, the smart system axially adapts the position of the compaction roller in case of disturbances. This paper investigates the behavior of the system to compensate quasi-static deviations from the desired path. In particular, the compensation efficiency of a constant offset, a linear drift with constant gradient and a single-curved drift is studied. Thus, the test bed with measurement devices and scenarios is explained. Based on the knowledge obtained by the experimental data, the paper concludes with a discussion of the proposed approach for its use under operating conditions and further implementation.

  14. Building health behavior models to guide the development of just-in-time adaptive interventions: A pragmatic framework.

    PubMed

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Hekler, Eric B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Advances in wireless devices and mobile technology offer many opportunities for delivering just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs)-suites of interventions that adapt over time to an individual's changing status and circumstances with the goal to address the individual's need for support, whenever this need arises. A major challenge confronting behavioral scientists aiming to develop a JITAI concerns the selection and integration of existing empirical, theoretical and practical evidence into a scientific model that can inform the construction of a JITAI and help identify scientific gaps. The purpose of this paper is to establish a pragmatic framework that can be used to organize existing evidence into a useful model for JITAI construction. This framework involves clarifying the conceptual purpose of a JITAI, namely, the provision of just-in-time support via adaptation, as well as describing the components of a JITAI and articulating a list of concrete questions to guide the establishment of a useful model for JITAI construction. The proposed framework includes an organizing scheme for translating the relatively static scientific models underlying many health behavior interventions into a more dynamic model that better incorporates the element of time. This framework will help to guide the next generation of empirical work to support the creation of effective JITAIs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651462

  15. The Effects of Mothers' Depression on the Behavioral Assessment of Disruptive Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Margaret L.; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates some characteristics of families with disruptive children and depressed mothers, and compares the observed behaviors of disruptive children of depressed and non-depressed mothers. Differences observed suggest that, while children of depressed mothers employed a similar range of disruptive behaviors to other disruptive…

  16. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M. L.; LaPlante, A. M.; Altice, F. L.; Copenhaver, M.; Molina, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1) negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2) high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3) local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4) healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5) misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6) PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol's impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI. PMID:26697216

  17. A combined bottom-up and top-down approach for assessment of climate change adaptation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhave, Ajay Gajanan; Mishra, Ashok; Raghuwanshi, Narendra Singh

    2014-10-01

    Focus of recent scientific research in the water sector has shifted from analysis of climate change impacts to assessment of climate change adaptation options. However, limited attention has been given to integration of bottom-up and top-down methods for assessment of adaptation options. The integrated approach used in this study uses hydrological modelling to assess the effect of stakeholder prioritized adaptation options for the Kangsabati river catchment in India. A series of 14 multi-level stakeholder consultations are used to ascertain locally relevant no-regret adaptation options using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and scenario analysis methods. A validated Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model is then used to project the effect of three options; option 1 check dams (CD), option 2 increasing forest cover (IFC) and option 3 combined CD and IFC, on future (2021-2050) streamflow. High resolution (˜25 km) climatic projections from four Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and their ensemble based on the SRES A1B scenario for the mid-21st century period are used to force the WEAP model. Results indicate that although all three adaptation options reduce streamflow, in comparison with scenario without adaptation, their magnitude, temporal pattern and effect on high and low streamflows are different. Options 2 and 3 reduce streamflow percentage by an order of magnitude greater than option 1. These characteristics affect their ability to address key adaptation requirements and therefore, we find that IFC emerges as a hydrologically suitable adaptation option for the study area. Based on study results we also conclude that such an integrated approach is advantageous and is a valuable tool for locally relevant climate change adaptation policymaking.

  18. Model-Based Adaptive Behavior Framework for Optimal Acoustic Communication and Sensing by Marine Robots

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Toby

    In this paper, a hybrid data- and model-based autonomous environmental adaptation framework is presented which allows autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) with acoustic sensors to follow a path which optimizes their ability ...

  19. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  20. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: Neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Tobias U.; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12–16 years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning. PMID:25234119

  1. Assessment and behavioral treatment of feeding and sleeping disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kodak, Tiffany; Piazza, Cathleen C

    2008-10-01

    Children diagnosed with autism or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are more likely than other children to exhibit behaviors characteristic of a feeding or sleeping disorder. Parents of children with these disorders may be extremely concerned about the health and safety of their child. Sleeping and feeding problems can cause a great deal of stress to parents and other family members. Behavioral assessment and treatment procedures have been developed to address behavior problems related to sleeping and feeding disorders. This article reviews the literature about assessment and treatment, and provides recommendations regarding services to family members of individuals diagnosed with ASD and feeding or sleeping disorders. PMID:18775376

  2. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  3. Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

  4. The Development of a Test to Assess Drug Using Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Michael E.

    The objective of the study was to develop a test which could measure both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug-using behavior, including such factors as attitudes toward drugs, experience with drugs, and knowledge about drugs. The Drug Use Scale was developed containing 134 items and dealing with five classes of drugs: marijuana,…

  5. Relative Contributions of Three Descriptive Methods: Implications for Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Sacha T.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Bourret, Jason C.; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the outcomes of three descriptive analysis methods--the ABC method, the conditional probability method, and the conditional and background probability method--to each other and to the results obtained from functional analyses. Six individuals who had been diagnosed with developmental delays and exhibited problem behavior

  6. Assessing Levels of Adaptation during Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions: Introducing the Rogers-Rutten Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Richter, Donna L.; Hussey, Jim; Elder, Keith; Lindley, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV-prevention funding agencies require the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions, tested and proven to be effective through outcome evaluation. Adaptation of programs during implementation is common and may be influenced by many factors, including agency mission, time constraints, and funding streams. There are few theoretical…

  7. Integrative Consensus: A Systematic Approach to Integrating Comprehensive Assessment Data for Young Children with Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, Elisa S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessments that include parents and teachers are essential when assessing young children vulnerable to emotional and behavioral problems given the multiple systems and contexts that influence and support optimal development (U. Bronfenbrenner & P. A. Morris, 2006; M. J. Guralnick, 2011). However, more data complicate clinical…

  8. Effects of a Rubric-Driven Assessment on Teacher Performance with Regard to Behavioral Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this researcher was to evaluate the efficacy of an in-service training program in the use of a rubric-driven assessment system for classroom behavior management. Thirty randomly assigned teachers received in-service training and 30 teachers served as a control group. The use of a rubric-driven assessment provided both teachers and…

  9. A Qualitative Analysis of Rater Behavior on an L2 Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Human raters are normally involved in L2 performance assessment; as a result, rater behavior has been widely investigated to reduce rater effects on test scores and to provide validity arguments. Yet raters' cognition and use of rubrics in their actual rating have rarely been explored qualitatively in L2 speaking assessments. In this study three…

  10. Context-Based Assessment and Intervention for Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Sanja I.; Carr, Edward G.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Owen-DeSchryver, Jamie S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study used a context-based model of assessment and intervention to explore whether interventions that modify context result in reduction of problem behavior in ecologically valid settings (i.e., typical routines implemented by typical education personnel in neighborhood schools). The Contextual Assessment Inventory (CAI) and a…

  11. Assessing current and future exposure to flood hazards - proceedings of the project RiskAdapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löschner, Lukas; Seher, Walter

    2013-04-01

    The project RiskAdapt, funded by the Climate and Energy Fund Austria, applies a novel dynamic flood risk assessment approach. It analyses both aspects of risk - hazard and vulnerability - and considers their potential spatial and temporal developments under climate change scenarios on a macro scale (federal territory of Austria) and a micro scale (regional/local case studies). The conceptual framework of RiskAdapt integrates analytical perspectives of hazard and vulnerability, the latter comprising the analysis of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacities. In the framework of the macro scale risk assessment, a nationwide GIS based analysis of current hazard exposure is conducted based on the indicators "affected persons" and "traffic infrastructure" (roads and railroads) in calculated flooding areas. Provided by the Environment Agency Austria (UBA) for 500m river stretches, these indicators are evaluated for each municipality in Austria. To assess their future exposure to flood hazards, demographic and land-use change scenarios (timeframe: 2030) are established based on existing projections and available data suitable for extrapolation. Regarding population change, extrapolations of local demographic developments are correlated with regional forecasts provided by the Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning (ÖROK). Land-use change scenarios are established by extrapolating trends in the development of highly vulnerable land uses (including building land for housing, commercial and industrial purposes as well as land used for traffic infrastructure). Data on highly vulnerable land uses is available for the years 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2012 for each municipality of Austria (provided by UBA). Based on this analysis, municipalities will be clustered according to the present and expected degree of exposure. This simplified approach in exposure assessment contains uncertainties, in particular with regard to demographic and land-use change scenarios: -) While population growth usually leads to an increase in built up land, basing settlement scenarios on population developments/forecasts does not take into account housing densities and usage of existing buildings. Furthermore, demographic scenarios reflect the growth in industrial and commercial land uses only to a certain extent; -) Growth of highly vulnerable land uses does not automatically imply an increase in vulnerability to flood hazards. This is essentially determined by the location and the direction of future land use developments. These uncertainties cannot be taken into account in the nationwide exposure assessment. However, in order to reflect these uncertainties and their effects on the vulnerability assessments and to evaluate the influence of spatial planning on vulnerability reduction, additional research will be conducted in three local and/or regional case studies. Exposure information from the nationwide exposure assessment will be completed and refined by integrating detailed land-use information and demographic data (derived from document analyses of spatial planning instruments, (retrospective) analyses of orthophotos and expert interviews with regional and local stakeholders.

  12. Summarizing components of U.S. Department of the Interior vulnerability assessments to focus climate adaptation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Laura M.; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Carter, Shawn L.

    2015-01-01

    A secretarial order identified climate adaptation as a critical performance objective for future management of U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) lands and resources in response to global change. Vulnerability assessments can inform climate adaptation planning by providing insight into what natural resources are most at risk and why. Three components of vulnerability—exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity—were defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as necessary for identifying climate adaptation strategies and actions. In 2011, the DOI requested all internal bureaus report ongoing or completed vulnerability assessments about a defined range of assessment targets or climate-related threats. Assessment targets were defined as freshwater resources, landscapes and wildlife habitat, native and cultural resources, and ocean health. Climate-related threats were defined as invasive species, wildfire risk, sea-level rise, and melting ice and permafrost. Four hundred and three projects were reported, but the original DOI survey did not specify that information be provided on exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity collectively as part of the request, and it was unclear which projects adhered to the framework recommended by the IPCC. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center conducted a supplemental survey to determine how frequently each of the three vulnerability components was assessed. Information was categorized for 124 of the 403 reported projects (30.8 percent) based on the three vulnerability components, and it was discovered that exposure was the most common component assessed (87.9 percent), followed by sensitivity (68.5 percent) and adaptive capacity (33.1 percent). The majority of projects did not fully assess vulnerability; projects focused on landscapes/wildlife habitats and sea-level rise were among the minority that simultaneously addressed all three vulnerability components. To maintain consistency with the IPCC definition of vulnerability, DOI may want to focus initial climate adaptation planning only on the outcomes of studies that comprehensively address vulnerability as inclusive of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Although the present study results are preliminary and used an unstructured survey design, they illustrate the importance of a comprehensive and consistent vulnerability definition and of using information on vulnerability components in DOI surveys to ensure relevant data are used to identify adaptation options.

  13. Climate change impact and adaptation research requires integrated assessment and farming systems analysis: a case study in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidsma, Pytrik; Wolf, Joost; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Schaap, Ben F.; Mandryk, Maryia; Verhagen, Jan; van Ittersum, Martin K.

    2015-04-01

    Rather than on crop modelling only, climate change impact assessments in agriculture need to be based on integrated assessment and farming systems analysis, and account for adaptation at different levels. With a case study for Flevoland, the Netherlands, we illustrate that (1) crop models cannot account for all relevant climate change impacts and adaptation options, and (2) changes in technology, policy and prices have had and are likely to have larger impacts on farms than climate change. While crop modelling indicates positive impacts of climate change on yields of major crops in 2050, a semi-quantitative and participatory method assessing impacts of extreme events shows that there are nevertheless several climate risks. A range of adaptation measures are, however, available to reduce possible negative effects at crop level. In addition, at farm level farmers can change cropping patterns, and adjust inputs and outputs. Also farm structural change will influence impacts and adaptation. While the 5th IPCC report is more negative regarding impacts of climate change on agriculture compared to the previous report, also for temperate regions, our results show that when putting climate change in context of other drivers, and when explicitly accounting for adaptation at crop and farm level, impacts may be less negative in some regions and opportunities are revealed. These results refer to a temperate region, but an integrated assessment may also change perspectives on climate change for other parts of the world.

  14. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  15. Structural basis of the involvement of the striopallidum and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in the organization of adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Gorbachevskaya, A I; Chivileva, O G

    2007-10-01

    Retrograde axonal transport was used to study the organizational characteristics of the afferent and efferent projection systems of individual substructures of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and the functionally diverse (motor, limbic) areas of structures in the striopallidum. The structural bases of the conduction of functionally diverse information and its integration in the basal ganglia system and tegmental area were evaluated. The morphological data obtained here aid our understanding of the morphofunctional bases of the interaction of these structures and their involvement in adaptive behavior. PMID:17922249

  16. Technology-based intervention to help persons with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities perform environmentally relevant adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta

    2012-08-01

    Persons with a diagnosis of minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities tend to be passive and isolated. A way to help them improve their adaptive behavior (relate to their environment) involves the use of intervention packages combining assistive technology with motivational strategies. The types of assistive technology included in those packages may consist of (a) microswitches allowing direct access to environmental stimuli, (b) combinations of microswitches and voice output communication devices (VOCAs) allowing stimulus access and calls for caregivers' attention, respectively, and (c) computer presentations of stimulus options and microswitches allowing choice among those options and access to them. PMID:22806668

  17. Antecedent Assessment and Assessment-Based Treatment of Off-Task Behavior in a Child Diagnosed with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, William A.; Wilder, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Antecedent assessment and assessment-based intervention for off-task behavior by an 11-year-old with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is reported. Assessment correlated off-task behavior with difficult academic tasks; intervention included functional communication training that focused on teaching the child to request assistance, as well…

  18. Integrating human responses to climate change into conservation vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sean L; Venter, Oscar; Jones, Kendall R; Watson, James E M

    2015-10-01

    The impact of climate change on biodiversity is now evident, with the direct impacts of changing temperature and rainfall patterns and increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events on species distribution, populations, and overall ecosystem function being increasingly publicized. Changes in the climate system are also affecting human communities, and a range of human responses across terrestrial and marine realms have been witnessed, including altered agricultural activities, shifting fishing efforts, and human migration. Failing to account for the human responses to climate change is likely to compromise climate-smart conservation efforts. Here, we use a well-established conservation planning framework to show how integrating human responses to climate change into both species- and site-based vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans is possible. By explicitly taking into account human responses, conservation practitioners will improve their evaluation of species and ecosystem vulnerability, and will be better able to deliver win-wins for human- and biodiversity-focused climate adaptation. PMID:26555860

  19. Adaptation and validation of the patient assessment of chronic illness care in the French context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are major causes of disability worldwide with rising prevalence. Most patients suffering from chronic conditions do not always receive optimal care. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been developed to help general practitioners making quality improvements. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire was increasingly used in several countries to appraise the implementation of the CCM from the patients’ perspective. The objective of this study was to adapt the PACIC questionnaire in the French context and to test the validity of this adaptation in a sample of patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods The PACIC was translated into French language using a forward/backward procedure. The French version was validated using a sample of 150 patients treated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and having multiple chronic co-morbidities. Several forms of validity were analysed: content; face; construct; and internal consistency. The construct validity was investigated with an exploratory factorial analysis. Results The French-version of the PACIC consisted in 18 items, after merging two pairs of items due to redundancy. The high number of items exhibiting floor/ceiling effects and the non-normality of the ratings suggested that a 5-points rating scale was somewhat inappropriate to assess the patients’ experience of care. The construct validity of the French-PACIC was verified and resulted in a bi-dimensional structure. Overall this structure showed a high level of internal consistency. The PACIC score appeared to be significantly related to the age and self-reported health of the patients. Conclusions A French-version of the PACIC questionnaire is now available to evaluate the patients’ experience of care and to monitor the quality improvements realised by the medical structures. This study also pointed out some methodological issues about the PACIC questionnaire, related to the format of the rating scale and to the structure of the questionnaire. PMID:24947538

  20. Assessment of swimmer behaviors on pool water ingestion.

    PubMed

    Suppes, Laura M; Abrell, Leif; Dufour, Alfred P; Reynolds, Kelly A

    2014-06-01

    Enteric pathogens in pool water can be unintentionally ingested during swimming, increasing the likelihood of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). AGI cases in outbreaks are more likely to submerge heads than non-cases, but an association is unknown since outbreak data are self-reported and prone to bias. In the present study, head submersion frequency and duration were observed and analyzed for associations with pool water ingestion measured using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Frequency of splashes to the face was also quantified. Reliable tools that assess activities associated with pool water ingestion are needed to identify ingestion risk factors and at-risk populations. Objectives were to determine if the observed activities were associated with ingestion, and to test environmental sensor and videography assessment tools. Greater frequency and duration of head submersion were not associated with ingestion, but frequency of splashes to the face, leisurely swimming, and being ?18 were. Videography was validated for assessing swimmer head submersion frequency. Results demonstrate ingestion risk factors can be identified using videography and urine analysis techniques. Expanding surveys to include questions on leisure swimming participation and frequency of splashes to the face is recommended to improve exposure assessment during outbreak investigations. PMID:24937221

  1. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to 23%…

  2. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  3. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions implemented in Africa in the past include food aid, drought relief programs, growing of drought tolerate crops, saving livestock, water efficiency and construction or rehabilitation of boreholes, wells and small dams. In the North Africa - Maghreb Region and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin, respectively 73 and 39 organisations involved in drought mitigation, are identified, dealing with agriculture extension services (28), food aid (11), policy (11), advocacy (10) and water supply (3). The most common adaptation actions identified are water harvesting, construction of water infrastructure, rehabilitation of traditional/cultural practices or implementation of technologies, water conservation, crop monitoring and crop diversification. Regarding involvement of organisations in drought adaptation, 18 organisations in the North Africa - Maghreb Region and 20 in Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin are identified. These organisations are involved in water infrastructure development or management (7), agriculture extension services (7) and policy development (13). The paper clearly shows that there is need to improve the existing monitoring and early warning systems at continental, regional, national and local scales. It also shows that a lot of organisations emerge when there is a drought and are involved in drought mitigation but only a few are involved in drought adaptation.

  4. Assessing bio-economic impacts and climate adaptation potential in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to Global Circulation Model predictions, Belgium is situated on a wedge between a wetter and drier climatic regime. Observed changes show an increase of 1.3°C during the past decade, a higher frequency of warm summer days and a 6% increase in rainfall with a pronounced rise in winter precipitation of about 25% as compared to the normal (1961-1990). Since agriculture is particularly sensitive to climate variability and occupies more than 61% of the land surface in Flanders, the rural landscape will be confronted with profound changes. A combination of climate scenarios, production models and economic evaluation was used to assess climate impacts on agricultural goods & services, adaptation costs due to production losses and adaptation options. Agro-ecosystems offer a wide range of productive, supporting, regulating and cultural services to society. Productive services relate to crop, animal and energy production, but will alter with climate change. Supporting services such as biodiversity, soil and water quality will be negatively affected by a higher climate variability, increasing erosion and sediment transport, enhancing the breakdown of soil organic matter, lowering soil quality and increasing runoff or leaching of agri-chemicals. The effect of a warmer climate on regulating services is an intensification of most nutrient cycles with increased emissions, which may be compensated for by carbon storage in faster and longer growing crops. The need for flooding areas may result in a net-reduction of the agricultural area. A higher probability of dry weather during summer time and a longer growing season may enlarge the attraction of recreating in rural areas. Knowledge on the interaction of agro-ecosystem services and climate change is required to formulate sustainable adaptation measures. Heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields. The interaction between these effects depends on the crop type. The impact on crop production was simulated with a dynamic vegetation model for eight crops (winter wheat, potatoes, sugar beet, fodder maize, grass, grain maize, cauliflower spring, cauliflower autumn), three soil types (loamy sand, loam, clay) and four climatic data series (historic and three cc-scenarios). The three climate change scenarios were selected on the basis of multi-criteria analysis of the PRUDENCE RCM runs. In total 3480 year simulations were executed with a daily modelling step. Pronounced yield losses mainly due to water shortages and heat stress occur for all climate change scenario's, to a lesser extent in the case of winter and spring crops. Yield losses of up to 30% are simulated for sugar beet, whereas winter wheat losses are only 6 % on loamy sand. High critical temperatures lead to heat stress, decreased fodder uptake, outbreaks of diseases and ultimately to animal production losses. Changes in animal production were calculated with a threshold model, whereby a daily maximum temperature of 30°C was taken as the production limit. Calculated animal production losses are up to 9 % for sheep, 8 % for cattle, 6 % for pigs and 3% for poultry. An economic prognosis of the technical productivity, the price effect, the required agricultural area and number of animals was used to estimate the potential productivity for 16 agricultural activities. The impact of climate change was included through aggregating the modelled production losses for Flanders and assuming the agricultural area, the number of animals and the prices constant to the economic prognosis. The total financial impacts are 0.1 % or 6.6 million euro for the first scenario, 1.5% or 71 million euro for the second scenario and 4.1% or 201 million euro for the third scenario. The results represent the acceptable cost of adaptation measures to maintain current efficiencies and production levels. Three gradations of adaptation were defined as different adoption rates. In total 22 adaptation measures were identified. Meas

  5. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

  6. The Role of Adaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Functional Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Gerber, Andrew J.; Quirmbach, Linda M.; Sparrow, Sara S.; Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Saulnier, Celine A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology was examined in 1,089 verbal youths with ASD examining results on Vineland-II, IQ, and measures of ASD severity. Strong positive relationships were found between Vineland subscales and IQ. Vineland Composite was negatively associated with age. IQ accounted a significant amount…

  7. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    in bats Cynthia F Moss1 , Chen Chiu1 and Annemarie Surlykke2 Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available

  8. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive A Circadian Clock and Light/Dark Adaptation Differentially

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    ,rabbitneuralretinasweremaintainedbysuperfusionatdifferenttimesoftheregularlight/darkand circadian cycles. The adenosine level in the superfusate, representing adenosine overflow from the retinas circadian clock and dark-adaptive processes in the vertebrate retina. Key words: adenosine; circadian rhythm; Ribelayga et al., 2004), pH (Dmitriev and Mangel, 2000, 2001), and energy me- tabolism (Dmitriev and Mangel

  9. Assessment and management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Kales, Helen C; Gitlin, Laura N; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, wandering, and a variety of inappropriate behaviors. One or more of these symptoms will affect nearly all people with dementia over the course of their illness. These symptoms are among the most complex, stressful, and costly aspects of care, and they lead to a myriad of poor patient health outcomes, healthcare problems, and income loss for family care givers. The causes include neurobiologically related disease factors; unmet needs; care giver factors; environmental triggers; and interactions of individual, care giver, and environmental factors. The complexity of these symptoms means that there is no "one size fits all solution," and approaches tailored to the patient and the care giver are needed. Non-pharmacologic approaches should be used first line, although several exceptions are discussed. Non-pharmacologic approaches with the strongest evidence base involve family care giver interventions. Regarding pharmacologic treatments, antipsychotics have the strongest evidence base, although the risk to benefit ratio is a concern. An approach to integrating non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments is described. Finally, the paradigm shift needed to fully institute tailored treatments for people and families dealing with these symptoms in the community is discussed. PMID:25731881

  10. Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for Binge Eating: A Feasibility Study with Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cachelin, Fary M.; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G. Terence; Thompson, Douglas R.; Striegel, Ruth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at post-treatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pre-treatment to post-treatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides “proof of concept” for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955

  11. Solutions and Hope for Severe Behaviors: The Development of Functional Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Severe behavior disorders are among the most perplexing conditions encountered by clinicians, and as a front page article in the past Christmas Day's "New York Times" illustrates ("Parents defend school's use of shock therapy"), treatment options remain a topic of contentious debate. Not all that long ago physical restraint was the only option,…

  12. Adaptive and self-evaluating registration method for myocardial perfusion assessment.

    PubMed

    Delzescaux, T; Frouin, F; De Cesare, A; Philipp-Foliguet, S; Zeboudj, R; Janier, M; Todd-Pokropek, A; Herment, A

    2001-08-01

    With the advent of ultra-fast MRI, it is now possible to assess non-invasively regional myocardial perfusion with multislice coverage and sub-second temporal resolution. First-pass contrast enhanced studies are acquired with ECG-triggering and breath holding. Nevertheless, some respiratory induced movements still remain. Myocardial perfusion can be assessed locally by parametric imaging methods such as Factor Analysis of Medical Image Sequences (FAMIS), provided that residual motion can be corrected. An a posteriori registration method implemented in the image domain is proposed. It is based on an adaptive registration model of the heart combining three elementary shapes (left ventricle, right ventricle and pericardium). The registration procedure is performed on a potential map derived from the distance map. To evaluate the quality of the registration procedure a superimposition score between the registration model and the contour automatically extracted in the sequence is proposed. Rigid transformation hypotheses and registration analysis provide an efficient and automatic method which allows the rejection of outlier images, such as: out of synchronisation images, out of plane acquisitions. When compared to a manual registration method, this approach reduces processing time and requires a minimal intervention from the operator. The proposed method performs registration with a subpixel accuracy. It has been successfully applied to simulated images and clinical data. It should facilitate the use of MR first-pass perfusion studies in clinical practice. PMID:11410394

  13. Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction in: Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems: ABIALS 2008

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction W. Schenck in: Anticipatory Behavior;Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction Wolfram Schenck Computer Engineering Group, Faculty space perception within the framework of the "perception through anticipation" approach is proposed

  14. BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS TO SPATIALLY INTERMITTENT STREAMS BY THE LONGFIN DACE, 'AGOSIA CHRYSOGASTER', (CYPRINIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatially intermittent stream, with areas containing surface water separated by lengths of dry streambed, represents a common aquatic habitat in the Sonoran Desert. The longfin dace (Agosia chrysogaster) is the only fish to utilize this habitat consistently. Behavioral adapta...

  15. Sensory modulation of muscle synergies for motor adaptation during natural behaviors

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Vincent Chi-Kwan

    2007-01-01

    To achieve any motor behavior, the central nervous system (CNS) must coordinate the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal apparatus. It has been suggested that the CNS simplifies this formidable task of coordination ...

  16. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to address the potential health impacts of climate change.

  17. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: Psychosocial intervention effects on adaptation, disease course, and biobehavioral processes in cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 30 (2013) S88–S98 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Brain, Behavior, and Immunity j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / y b r b i Invited Minireview Psychosocial

  18. Parameter optimization for automated behavior assessment: plug-and-play or trial-and-error?

    PubMed Central

    Luyten, Laura; Schroyens, Natalie; Hermans, Dirk; Beckers, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral neuroscience is relying more and more on automated behavior assessment, which is often more time-efficient and objective than manual scoring by a human observer. However, parameter adjustment and calibration are a trial-and-error process that requires careful fine-tuning in order to obtain reliable software scores in each context configuration. In this paper, we will pinpoint some caveats regarding the choice of parameters, and give an overview of our own and other researchers' experience with widely used behavioral assessment software. We conclude that, although each researcher should weigh the pros and cons of relying on software vs. manual scoring, we should be aware of possible divergence between both scores, which might be especially relevant when dealing with subtle behavioral effects, like for example in generalization or genetic research. PMID:24550803

  19. Survey Development to Assess Parental Satisfaction with Adapted Physical Education Teachers' Abilities Working with Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columna, Luis; Cook, Allison; Foley, John T.; Bailey, JoEllen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically develop and validate an instrument to assess parental perceptions toward adapted physical education (APE) teachers, who work with children with autism. Methods: Participants included two expert panels and parents of children and youth with autism. The survey used a Likert-scale design where…

  20. Assessment of the Effects of VHF Nanotags on the Nesting Behavior and Breeding Success of Common and Roseate Terns

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Assessment of the Effects of VHF Nanotags on the Nesting Behavior and Breeding Success of Common terns with VHF nanotags affects their nesting behavior and breeding success. The goal is to tag 30 adult

  1. Promoting Behavior Change from Alcohol Use through Mobile Technology: The Future of Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hunter-Reel, Dorian; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactive and mobile technologies (i.e., smartphones such as Blackberries, iPhones, and palm-top computers) show promise as an efficacious and cost-effective means of communicating health-behavior risks, improving public health outcomes, and accelerating behavior change (Abroms and Maibach, 2008). The present study was conducted as a “needs assessment” to examine the current available mobile smartphone applications (e.g., apps) that utilize principles of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) -- daily self-monitoring or near real-time self-assessment of alcohol use behavior -- to promote positive behavior change, alcohol harm reduction, psycho-education about alcohol use, or abstinence from alcohol. Methods Data were collected and analyzed from iTunes for Apple iPhone©. An inventory assessed the number of available apps that directly addressed alcohol use and consumption, alcohol treatment, or recovery, and whether these apps incorporated empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Results Findings showed that few apps addressed alcohol use behavior change or recovery. Aside from tracking drinking consumption, a minority utilized empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Some apps claimed they could serve as an intervention, however no empirical evidence was provided. Conclusions More studies are needed to examine the efficacy of mobile technology in alcohol intervention studies. The large gap between availability of mobile apps and their use in alcohol treatment programs indicate several important future directions for research. PMID:21689119

  2. An innovative cross-sectoral method for implementation of trade-off adaptation strategy assessment under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Jung-Hsuan; Tung, Ching-Pin; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will increase sharp risks to the water and food supply in coming decades. Although impact assessment and adaptation evaluation has been discussed a lot in recent years, the importance of adaptation implement should not be ignored. In Taiwan, and elsewhere, fallow is an option of adaptation strategy under climate change. Fallow would improve the water scarcity of domestic use, but the food security might be threatened. The trade-off effects of adaptation actions are just like the side effects of medicine which cannot be avoided. Thus, managing water resources with an integrated approach will be urgent. This study aims to establish a cross-sectoral framework for implementation the trade-off adaptation strategy. Not only fallow, but also other trade-off strategy like increasing the percentage of national grain self-sufficiency would be analyzed by a rational decision process. The recent percentage of grain self-sufficiency in Taiwan is around 32, which was decreasing from 53 thirty years ago. Yet, the goal of increasing grain self-sufficiency means much more water must be used in agriculture. In that way, domestic users may face the water shortage situation. Considering the conflicts between water supply and food security, the concepts from integrative negotiation are appropriate to apply. The implementation of trade-off adaptation strategies needs to start by quantifying the utility of water supply and food security were be quantified. Next, each side's bottom line can be found by BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) and ZOPA (Zone of Possible Agreement). ZOPA provides the entire possible outcomes, and BATNA ensures the efficiency of adaptation actions by moving along with Pareto frontier. Therefore, the optimal percentage of fallow and grain self-sufficiency can be determined. Furthermore, BATNA also provides the pathway step by step which can be a guideline of adaptation strategies. This framework allows analysts and stakeholder to systematically evaluate trade-off adaptation strategies and indicate the priority to implement.

  3. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  4. Social cognitive model of career self-management: toward a unifying view of adaptive career behavior across the life span.

    PubMed

    Lent, Robert W; Brown, Steven D

    2013-10-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) currently consists of 4 overlapping, segmental models aimed at understanding educational and occupational interest development, choice-making, performance and persistence, and satisfaction/well-being. To this point, the theory has emphasized content aspects of career behavior, for instance, prediction of the types of activities, school subjects, or career fields that form the basis for people's educational/vocational interests and choice paths. However, SCCT may also lend itself to study of many process aspects of career behavior, including such issues as how people manage normative tasks and cope with the myriad challenges involved in career preparation, entry, adjustment, and change, regardless of the specific educational and occupational fields they inhabit. Such a process focus can augment and considerably expand the range of the dependent variables for which SCCT was initially designed. Building on SCCT's existing models, we present a social cognitive model of career self-management and offer examples of the adaptive, process behaviors to which it can be applied (e.g., career decision making/exploration, job searching, career advancement, negotiation of work transitions and multiple roles). PMID:23815631

  5. Assessing hippocampal development and language in early childhood: Evidence from a new application of the Automatic Segmentation Adapter Tool.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua K; Nordahl, Christine W; Amaral, David G; Lee, Aaron; Solomon, Marjorie; Ghetti, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Volumetric assessments of the hippocampus and other brain structures during childhood provide useful indices of brain development and correlates of cognitive functioning in typically and atypically developing children. Automated methods such as FreeSurfer promise efficient and replicable segmentation, but may include errors which are avoided by trained manual tracers. A recently devised automated correction tool that uses a machine learning algorithm to remove systematic errors, the Automatic Segmentation Adapter Tool (ASAT), was capable of substantially improving the accuracy of FreeSurfer segmentations in an adult sample [Wang et al., 2011], but the utility of ASAT has not been examined in pediatric samples. In Study 1, the validity of FreeSurfer and ASAT corrected hippocampal segmentations were examined in 20 typically developing children and 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 2 and 3 years. We showed that while neither FreeSurfer nor ASAT accuracy differed by disorder or age, the accuracy of ASAT corrected segmentations were substantially better than FreeSurfer segmentations in every case, using as few as 10 training examples. In Study 2, we applied ASAT to 89 typically developing children aged 2 to 4 years to examine relations between hippocampal volume, age, sex, and expressive language. Girls had smaller hippocampi overall, and in left hippocampus this difference was larger in older than younger girls. Expressive language ability was greater in older children, and this difference was larger in those with larger hippocampi, bilaterally. Overall, this research shows that ASAT is highly reliable and useful to examinations relating behavior to hippocampal structure. Hum Brain Mapp 36:4483-4496, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26279309

  6. Improving the Usability of Integrated Assessment for Adaptation Practice: Insights from the U.S. Southeast Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    de Bremond, Ariane; Preston, Benjamin; Rice, Jennie S.

    2014-10-01

    Energy systems comprise a key sector of the U.S. economy, and one that has been identified as potentially vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. However, understanding of adaptation processes in energy companies and private entities more broadly is limited. It is unclear, for example, the extent to which energy companies are well-served by existing knowledge and tools emerging from the impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV) and integrated assessment modeling (IAM) communities and/or what experiments, analyses, and model results have practical utility for informing adaptation in the energy sector. As part of a regional IAM development project, we investigated available evidence of adaptation processes in the energy sector, with a particular emphasis on the U.S. Southeast and Gulf Coast region. A mixed methods approach of literature review and semi-structured interviews with key informants from energy utilities was used to compare existing knowledge from the IAV community with that of regional stakeholders. That comparison revealed that much of the IAV literature on the energy sector is climate-centric and therefore disconnected from the more integrated decision-making processes and institutional perspectives of energy utilities. Increasing the relevance of research and assessment for the energy sector will necessitate a greater investment in integrated assessment and modeling efforts that respond to practical decision-making needs as well as greater collaboration between energy utilities and researchers in the design, execution, and communication of those efforts.

  7. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Polish Adaptation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragan, Wojciech L.; Kmita, Grazyna; Fronczyk, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire&-Revised (IBQ-R). A group of 396 pairs of parents was studied, and a 3-factor structure of IBQ-R emerged with differences comparing to the original U.S. sample and a prior replication Russian sample. Analyses demonstrated satisfactory…

  9. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Francois G.

    2003-06-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives and modular configuration.

  10. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Grancois G.

    2004-06-01

    Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives, and modular configuration.

  11. Treating Adaptive Living Skills of Persons with Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…

  12. Use of a local cone model to predict essential CSF light adaptation behavior used in the design of luminance quantization nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Scott; Golestaneh, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The human visual system's luminance nonlinearity ranges continuously from square root behavior in the very dark, gamma-like behavior in dim ambient, cube-root in office lighting, and logarithmic for daylight ranges. Early display quantization nonlinearities have been developed based on luminance bipartite JND data. More advanced approaches considered spatial frequency behavior, and used the Barten light-adaptive Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) modelled across a range of light adaptation to determine the luminance nonlinearity (e.g., DICOM, referred to as a GSDF {grayscale display function}). A recent approach for a GSDF, also referred to as an electrical-to-optical transfer function (EOTF), using that light-adaptive CSF model improves on this by tracking the CSF for the most sensitive spatial frequency, which changes with adaptation level. We explored the cone photoreceptor's contribution to the behavior of this maximum sensitivity of the CSF as a function of light adaptation, despite the CSF's frequency variations and that the cone's nonlinearity is a point-process. We found that parameters of a local cone model could fit the max sensitivity of the CSF model, across all frequencies, and are within the ranges of parameters commonly accepted for psychophysicallytuned cone models. Thus, a linking of the spatial frequency and luminance dimensions has been made for a key neural component. This provides a better theoretical foundation for the recently designed visual signal format using the aforementioned EOTF.

  13. The Efficiency of Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Inattentive-Overactive and Oppositional-Defiant Behavior: Applying Generalizability Theory to Streamline Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the assessment process, likely has a negative impact on the quality of data over time and the informant's willingness to participate. Two important determinants of informant load in progress monitoring are the length of the rating scale (i.e., the number of items) and how frequently informants are asked to provide ratings (i.e., the number of occasions). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the dependability of the IOWA Conners Teacher Rating Scale (Loney & Milich, 1982), which is used to differentiate inattentive-overactive from oppositional-defiant behaviors. Specifically, the facets of items and occasions were examined to identify combinations of these sources of error necessary to reach an acceptable level of dependability for both absolute and relative decisions. Results from D studies elucidated a variety of possible item–occasion combinations reaching the criteria for adequate dependability. Recommendations for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21215839

  14. Converging Indicators for Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles W.; Taylor, Bruce; Hines, Seleimah; Bright, Andrew; Dodds, Anika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new methodology for assessing the deleterious effects of spaceflight on crew health and performance. It is well known that microgravity results in various physiological alterations, e.g., headward fluid shifts which can impede physiological adaptation. Other factors that may affect crew operational efficiency include disruption of sleep-wake cycles, high workload, isolation, confinement, stress and fatigue. From an operational perspective, it is difficult to predict which individuals will be most or least affected in this unique environment given that most astronauts are first-time flyers. During future lunar and Mars missions space crews will include both men and women of multi-national origins, different professional backgrounds, and various states of physical condition. Therefore, new methods or technologies are needed to monitor and predict astronaut performance and health, and to evaluate the effects of various countermeasures on crew during long duration missions. This paper reviews several studies conducted in both laboratory and operational environments with men and women ranging in age between 18 to 50 years. The studies included the following: soldiers performing command and control functions during mobile operations in enclosed armored vehicles; subjects participating in laboratory tests of an anti-motion sickness medication; subjects exposed to chronic hypergravity aboard a centrifuge, and subject responses to 36-hours of sleep deprivation. Physiological measurements, performance metrics, and subjective self-reports were collected in each study. The results demonstrate that multivariate converging indicators provide a significantly more reliable method for assessing environmental effects on performance and health than any single indicator.

  15. [The striatonigral dopaminergic system and its role in adaptive conditioned reflex behavior].

    PubMed

    Suvorov, N F; Iakimovski?, A F; Saul'skaia, N B

    1984-05-01

    Neurochemical and pharmacological techniques helped to study the role of the nigro-strial dophaminergic system in adaptive conditioned behaviour of rats and dogs. The avoidance technique revealed that dophamine content in the rat neostriatum increased in a more complicated task performance, and administration of 3 micrograms of dophamine into the rostral neostriatum accelerated and improved the conditioning. Nonadaptive forms of behaviour were accompanied by a drop of the dophamine level in the neostriatum. Stimulation of the caudate nucleus' dophamine-reactive system in dogs by means of administration of dophamine (60 micrograms) and phenamine led to deterioration of conditioned and unconditioned components of feeding behaviour. The effects of the dophaminomimetics were suppressed by administration of haloperidol (10 micrograms) and naloxon (0.8 micrograms) into the same area of the caudate nucleus which attested a functional interrelationship between the dophamine- and enkephalin-containing systems of the neostriatum in regulation of feeding behaviour. The data obtained and literature references gave ground for discussing the role of the nigro-strial dophaminergic system in the positive modulation of adaptive conditioned behaviour under natural conditions. PMID:6468694

  16. Prevalence of Behavioral Symptoms: Comparison of the Minimum Data Set Assessments with Research Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Ashok J.; Vasilescu, Mihnea; Dew, Mary Amanda; Begley, Amy; Stevens, Scott; Degenholtz, Howard; Wactlar, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the total and domain-specific prevalence of verbally and physically abusive, socially inappropriate, and care-resistive behaviors according to the Minimum Data Set (MDS) compared with research instruments in nursing home residents with severe dementia. Design, Setting, and Methods As part of a longitudinal observational study, MDS behavioral symptoms data were compared with corresponding items from the Ryden Aggression Scale and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory for 15 nursing home residents with severe dementia. McNemar’s test was used to compare the difference in the proportion of subjects who experienced any symptoms, as well as specific symptoms in several domains, according to the MDS and the research instruments. Additionally, temporal fluctuations in behavioral symptoms were descriptively and graphically summarized. Results The MDS significantly underestimated both the total proportion of subjects experiencing any behavioral symptoms (P = .016), as well as the proportion of subjects experiencing verbally abusive symptoms (P < .002), physically abusive symptoms (P = .008), or socially inappropriate behaviors (P = .016) compared with corresponding items from the research instruments. Moreover, these behaviors exhibited considerable temporal instability, suggesting that the systematic daily collection of measures of behavioral disturbances is imperative during the week in which the MDS assessment is to be completed. Discussion Albeit from a small study sample, our findings call into question the validity of the MDS behavioral symptom items as they are currently recorded, and suggest that a simple intervention of twice daily completion of a behavioral symptoms checklist containing the MDS items during the week of the assessment may significantly improve the accuracy of the recorded data. PMID:18457799

  17. Combined Ecological Momentary Assessment and Global Positioning System Tracking to Assess Smoking Behavior: A Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John T.; Schick, Robert S.; Hallyburton, Matt; Dennis, Michelle F.; Kollins, Scott H.; Beckham, Jean C.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have provided a rich assessment of the contextual factors associated with a wide range of behaviors including alcohol use, eating, physical activity, and smoking. Despite this rich database, this information has not been linked to specific locations in space. Such location information, which can now be easily acquired from global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices, could provide unique information regarding the space-time distribution of behaviors and new insights into their determinants. In a proof of concept study, we assessed the acceptability and feasibility of acquiring and combining EMA and GPS data from adult smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Participants were adults with ADHD who were enrolled in a larger EMA study on smoking and psychiatric symptoms. Among those enrolled in the latter study who were approached to participate (N = 11), 10 consented, provided daily EMA entries, and carried a GPS device with them during a 7-day assessment period to assess aspects of their smoking behavior. Results The majority of those eligible to participate were willing to carry a GPS device and signed the consent (10 out of 11, 91%). Of the 10 who consented, 7 participants provided EMA entries and carried the GPS device with them daily for at least 70% of the sampling period. Data are presented on the spatial distribution of smoking episodes and ADHD symptoms on a subset of the sample to demonstrate applications of GPS data. Conclusions We conclude by discussing how EMA and GPS might be used to study the ecology of smoking and make recommendations for future research and analysis. PMID:24883050

  18. Better Methods, Better Solutions: Developments in School-Based Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    A "big idea" is a concept that gives meaning to discrete facts. In this article, the author proposes a small number of big ideas, as well as his own views on where he thinks the field needs to move to achieve its full promise in school-based behavioral and social-emotional assessment. The three big ideas he has selected include: (1) universal…

  19. Cluster-Derived Groupings of the Behavior Assessment System for Children among Male Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Zane T.; Glaser, Brian A.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Stefurak, Tres; Petrocelli, John V.

    2004-01-01

    Examined the cluster-derived typologies of males in a juvenile offender sample. Adolescent males, age 12-17, in a regional youth detention center were given the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Self Report-Adolescent (BASC-SRP-A; C. Reynolds &R. Kamphaus, 1992) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; T. Millon, 1993).…

  20. Young Children with Challenging Behavior: Function-Based Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brenna K.; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho; Ferro, Jolenea B.

    2009-01-01

    Using the five intervention elements described by Dunlap et al. (2006) as a guide, the authors of this article reviewed the functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and function-based intervention research of the past 17 years (1990-2007), focusing on a component analysis of FBA and function-based intervention procedures. Thirty-five studies were…

  1. An Assessment of Treatment Integrity in Behavioral Intervention Studies Conducted with Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, John J.; Mayton, Michael R.; Carter, Stacy L.; Chitiyo, Morgan; Menendez, Anthony L.; Huang, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which behavioral intervention studies conducted with persons with mental retardation operationally defined the independent variables and evaluated and reported measures of treatment integrity. The study expands the previous work in this area reported by Gresham, Gansle, and Noell (1993) and…

  2. Assessing Visitor Behavior and Attitudes in the medien.welten Exhibition

    E-print Network

    Hornecker, Eva

    Assessing Visitor Behavior and Attitudes in the medien.welten Exhibition Otmar Moritsch Technisches; multimedia; evaluation. INTRODUCTION The Technical Museum Vienna is currently hosting a long- term exhibition on media history and convergence. It com- bines traditional object exhibits, computer-enhanced hands

  3. An Assessment of the Potential Uses of Agonistic Behaviors in Termite Control1

    E-print Network

    An Assessment of the Potential Uses of Agonistic Behaviors in Termite Control1 Barbara L. Thorne Michael I. Haverty2 Abstract: The potential use of termite-termite agonism in pest control is explored and evaluated. Intra- and interspecific en- counters among termites from different colonies are known to result

  4. Conducting School-Based Assessments of Child and Adolescent Behavior. The Guilford School Practitioner Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Edward S., Ed.; Kratochwill, Thomas R., Ed.

    This guide brings educational practitioners up to date on how to administer and interpret a wide range of assessment methods for students presenting with emotional and behavioral difficulties. It offers insights and tools for K-12 practitioners and trainees in regular and special education. Delineating a concise conceptual framework, the first…

  5. Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride batteries

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride batteries Peyman Taheri-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries to heat generation during their operation. The model is based on integral in batteries with orthotropic thermal conductivities, where the heat generation is due to irreversible

  6. Examining the Efficacy of a Basic Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, Sheldon L.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of manualized training in "Basic" functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for typical school professionals on the ability of these professionals to complete technically adequate FBAs. Twelve school professionals participated in four 1-hr training sessions using the Basic FBA training handbook. After…

  7. Behavioral and physiological assessment of low concentrations of clove oil anaesthetic

    E-print Network

    Suski, Cory David

    Behavioral and physiological assessment of low concentrations of clove oil anaesthetic for handling form 21 June 2004; accepted 25 June 2004 Abstract Clove oil has become a popular fish anaesthetic of clove oil to achieve sedation for aquaculture procedures such as fish handling and transport

  8. Assessing the Interpersonal Circumplex Model in Late Childhood: The Interpersonal Behavior Questionnaire for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Blas, Lisa; Grassi, Michele; Luccio, Riccardo; Momente, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed the Interpersonal Behavior Questionnaire for Children with the aim of assessing the constructs of the interpersonal circumplex model, that is, Dominance and Love and their possible combinations, via third- to fifth-grade children's self- and peer reports. In the three studies presented herein, the authors examined several…

  9. Assessment of Alcohol and Other Drug Use Behaviors in Health Professions Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jeffrey N.; Scott, David M.; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Bartek, Jean K.; Davis-Hall, R. Ellen; Reardon, Thomas P.; DeSimone, Edward M., II

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors of health professions students (HPS) were assessed by surveying both university-based HPS and other nursing programs in a Midwestern state in 1999. Response was 2,646 (56.4%) of surveyed students. Family history of alcohol-related and drug-related problems were reported by 39.8% and 13.9%, respectively,…

  10. An Assessment of Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Health Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michele L.; Jacobs, Sue C.; Page, Kyle S.; Porras, Claudia V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (i.e., recognizing, expressing, monitoring, managing, and reflecting on emotions) (Presbury, Echterling, & McKee, 2007) and self-reported health behaviors among college students. A convenience sample of 418 undergraduates completed online surveys…

  11. Assessment of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Infancy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Rodriguez, Gabriela M.; Blake, Clair A.; Linares, Dainelys; Carter, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and emotional problems are highly prevalent in early childhood and represent an important focus of practice for clinical child and pediatric psychologists. Although psychological or psychiatric disorders are not typically diagnosed in children under the age of 2 years, recent research has demonstrated the appropriateness of assessing

  12. A Psychometric Assessment of the Alcohol Behavior, Attitude, and Awareness Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; And Others

    Psychometric properties of the Alcohol Behavior, Attitude, and Awareness Inventory (ABAA Inventory) were assessed using data collected in 1987 from 799 university students. Results suggested that the ABAA Inventory was internally-consistent (alpha = .82) and stable over time (test-retest coefficient = .77). Subscale alphas ranged from .45 to .92,…

  13. The Effect of Genetic Risk Information and Health Risk Assessment on Compliance with Preventive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberg, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results from a study of 82 males provide no statistical support and limited encouragement that genetic risk information may motivate persons to make positive changes in preventive health behaviors. Health risk assessments were used to identify subjects at risk for coronary heart disease or lung cancer because of genetic factors. (IAH)

  14. Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: An Assessment of the Social Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Christopher J.; Hirschfield, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Social Development Model (SDM) is a life course theory that integrates several extant criminological theories to specify the interactive social processes that lead to prosocial and antisocial behavior. Relatively little research has attempted to cross-validate this and other developmental theories of delinquency. The current study assesses the…

  15. Using Web-Mediated Experiential Case-Based Instruction To Teach Functional Behavioral Assessment Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.; Peterson, Stephanie M. Peck; Rule, Sarah; Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Three Web-mediated experiential case strategies were employed with 79 preservice teachers to facilitate practice of functional behavioral assessment skills. Results from the information group, chat group, and student interactions group suggest the three teaching tactics were equally effective in facilitating the application of functional…

  16. Cultural Bias: The Albatross of Assessing Behavior-Disordered Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Thomas F.

    1991-01-01

    The decision-making process for determining special education eligibility for students who may have behavior disorders is considered biased because of the subjectivity inherent in the process. Assessment procedures should allow for cultural freedom. Certain minority groups are still vulnerable to discriminatory practices within the field of…

  17. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  18. Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adolescents Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma: A Case Study With Two Teens

    PubMed Central

    DePrince, Anne P.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence indicates that interpersonal trauma increases risk for adolescent and adult depression. Findings from 4 clinical trials for adolescent depression show poorer response to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) among depressed adolescents with a trauma history than youth without such a history. This paper reports on the development of a modified CBT (mCBT) protocol that has been adapted for treating depressed adolescents who have been exposed to traumatic interpersonal events (physical/sexual abuse or witnessing domestic violence). First, we provide an empirical rationale for targeting executive function deficits and trauma-related cognitions in the mCBT protocol. Second, we present promising results from 2 community clinic cases. PMID:25598651

  19. A clash of values: Fear-relevant stimuli can enhance or corrupt adaptive behavior through competition between Pavlovian and instrumental valuation systems.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates preferentially learn to fear and avoid archetypical fear-relevant stimuli. Yet how these learning biases influence adaptive behavior, the basic mechanistic underpinnings of these biases, and how they interact with learning experiences during the life span of an individual remain unknown. To study this, we investigated how 4 classes of fear-relevant stimuli (snakes, threatening in-group faces, racial out-group faces, and guns) influenced adaptive behavior. We showed that stimulus-driven biases have a dramatic influence that can either promote or corrupt adaptive behavior depending on how a bias relates to the environment. We quantified and compared the effects of different fear-relevant stimuli on instrumental behavior using a computational reinforcement learning model that formalized the idea that the bias reflects competition between an instrumental and a Pavlovian valuation system. These results were further clarified by 2 independent rating studies showing that perceived danger of the stimuli corresponded well with their influence on adaptive behavior. PMID:25893448

  20. Emotion in languaging: languaging as affective, adaptive, and flexible behavior in social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for a view on languaging as inherently affective. Informed by recent ecological tendencies within cognitive science and distributed language studies a distinction between first order languaging (language as whole-body sense making) and second order language (language as system like constraints) is put forward. Contrary to common assumptions within linguistics and communication studies separating language-as-a-system from language use (resulting in separations between language vs. body-language and verbal vs. non-verbal communication etc.) the first/second order distinction sees language as emanating from behavior making it possible to view emotion and affect as integral parts languaging behavior. Likewise, emotion and affect are studied, not as inner mental states, but as processes of organism-environment interactions. Based on video recordings of interaction between (1) children with special needs, and (2) couple in therapy and the therapist patterns of reciprocal influences between interactants are examined. Through analyzes of affective stance and patterns of inter-affectivity it is exemplified how language and emotion should not be seen as separate phenomena combined in language use, but rather as completely intertwined phenomena in languaging behavior constrained by second order patterns. PMID:25076921

  1. Adding adaptable toe stiffness affects energetic efficiency and dynamic behaviors of bipedal walking.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiqi; Huang, Yan; Wang, Qining

    2016-01-01

    In human walking, toes play an important role in supporting the body and controlling the forward motion. These functions are achieved by muscles and tendons around toe joints. To further understand the importance of toe and how toe muscle functions affect the locomotion, we employ a simple bipedal walking model with compliant joints. The ankle joints and toe joints are modeled as torsional springs and the actuation patterns are similar to that of normal human walking. Experimental results show that adding adaptable compliant toe joints could benefit the stability and energy efficiency. By generating plantar flexion moment after heel-off, the toes contribute to stabilize the body and control the forward motion. In addition, multi-joint foot structure could improve the energy efficiency by reducing the energy consumption of ankle joints. A proper toe actuation pattern could result in a proper toe dorsiflexion and reduce the maximal ankle plantar flexion, leading to a smoother and more efficient locomotion. PMID:26519906

  2. Adaptation to Coriolis perturbations of voluntary body sway transfers to preprogrammed fall-recovery behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Joel; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In a rotating environment, goal-oriented voluntary movements are initially disrupted in trajectory and endpoint, due to movement-contingent Coriolis forces, but accuracy is regained with additional movements. We studied whether adaptation acquired in a voluntary, goal-oriented postural swaying task performed during constant-velocity counterclockwise rotation (10 RPM) carries over to recovery from falling induced using a hold and release (H&R) paradigm. In H&R, standing subjects actively resist a force applied to their chest, which when suddenly released results in a forward fall and activation of an automatic postural correction. We tested H&R postural recovery in subjects (n = 11) before and after they made voluntary fore-aft swaying movements during 20 trials of 25 s each, in a counterclockwise rotating room. Their voluntary sway about their ankles generated Coriolis forces that initially induced clockwise deviations of the intended body sway paths, but fore-aft sway was gradually restored over successive per-rotation trials, and a counterclockwise aftereffect occurred during postrotation attempts to sway fore-aft. In H&R trials, we examined the initial 10- to 150-ms periods of movement after release from the hold force, when voluntary corrections of movement path are not possible. Prerotation subjects fell directly forward, whereas postrotation their forward motion was deviated significantly counterclockwise. The postrotation deviations were in a direction consistent with an aftereffect reflecting persistence of a compensation acquired per-rotation for voluntary swaying movements. These findings show that control and adaptation mechanisms adjusting voluntary postural sway to the demands of a new force environment also influence the automatic recovery of posture. PMID:24304863

  3. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    PubMed Central

    Lamarão, Andressa M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken. PMID:25003273

  4. Autonomous adaptive environmental assessment and feature tracking via autonomous underwater vehicles

    E-print Network

    Petillo, Stephanie Marie

    In the underwater environment, spatiotemporally dynamic environmental conditions pose challenges to the detection and tracking of hydrographic features. A useful tool in combating these challenge is Autonomous Adaptive ...

  5. The Brazelton-Neonatal Assessment Scale as a Predictor of One- and Two-Year-Old Mastery Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donal B.; And Others

    This exploratory study investigated whether the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) can predict an infant's behavior on mastery motivation tasks at 1 and 2 years of age. Subjects were 31 normal, full-term infants from white, mostly middle class families. Infants were assessed using the NBAS with Kansas Supplements (NBAS-K) at a…

  6. Development and Climate Change: A Mainstreaming Approach for Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Adaptation Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Trærup, Sara

    2009-05-01

    The paper introduces the so-called climate change mainstreaming approach, where vulnerability and adaptation measures are assessed in the context of general development policy objectives. The approach is based on the application of a limited set of indicators. These indicators are selected as representatives of focal development policy objectives, and a stepwise approach for addressing climate change impacts, development linkages, and the economic, social and environmental dimensions related to vulnerability and adaptation are introduced. Within this context it is illustrated using three case studies how development policy indicators in practice can be used to assess climate change impacts and adaptation measures based on three case studies, namely a road project in flood prone areas of Mozambique, rainwater harvesting in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and malaria protection in Tanzania. The conclusions of the paper confirm that climate risks can be reduced at relatively low costs, but the uncertainty is still remaining about some of the wider development impacts of implementing climate change adaptation measures.

  7. Assessment of Multi-Joint Coordination and Adaptation in Standing Balance: A Novel Device and System Identification Technique.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, Denise; Schouten, Alfred C; Aarts, Ronald G K M; van der Kooij, Herman

    2015-11-01

    The ankles and hips play an important role in maintaining standing balance and the coordination between joints adapts with task and conditions, like the disturbance magnitude and type, and changes with age. Assessment of multi-joint coordination requires the application of multiple continuous and independent disturbances and closed loop system identification techniques (CLSIT). This paper presents a novel device, the double inverted pendulum perturbator (DIPP), which can apply disturbing forces at the hip level and between the shoulder blades. In addition to the disturbances, the device can provide force fields to study adaptation of multi-joint coordination. The performance of the DIPP and a novel CLSIT was assessed by identifying a system with known mechanical properties and model simulations. A double inverted pendulum was successfully identified, while force fields were able to keep the pendulum upright. The estimated dynamics were similar as the theoretical derived dynamics. The DIPP has a sufficient bandwidth of 7 Hz to identify multi-joint coordination dynamics. An experiment with human subjects where a stabilizing force field was rendered at the hip (1500 N/m), showed that subjects adapt by lowering their control actions around the ankles. The stiffness from upper and lower segment motion to ankle torque dropped with 30% and 48%, respectively. Our methods allow to study (pathological) changes in multi-joint coordination as well as adaptive capacity to maintain standing balance. PMID:25423654

  8. Communicative Alternatives to Challenging Behavior: Integrating Functional Assessment and Intervention Strategies. Volume 3. Communication and Language Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichle, Joe, Ed.; Wacker, David P., Ed.

    Emphasizing the use of communication training as the foundation for effective behavioral programming, this book explains how challenging behavior can be redirected into socially acceptable behavior through functional communication intervention. The book offers hands-on assessment and intervention strategies that can be used in school, home, work,…

  9. Psychometric properties of a culture-adapted Spanish version of AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The construct “identity” was discussed to be integrated as an important criterion for diagnosing personality disorders in DSM-5. According to Kernberg, identity diffusion is one of the relevant underlying structures in terms of personality organization for developing psychopathology, especially borderline personality disorder. Therefore, it would be important to differentiate healthy from pathological development already in adolescence. With the questionnaire termed AIDA (Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence), a reliable and valid self-rating inventory was introduced by Goth, Foelsch, Schlueter-Mueller, & Schmeck (2012) to assess pathology-related identity development in healthy and disturbed adolescents. To test the usefulness of the questionnaire in Mexico, we contributed to the development of a culture-specific Spanish translation of AIDA and tested the reliability and aspects of validity of the questionnaire in a juvenile Mexican sample. Methods An adapted Spanish translation of AIDA was developed by an expert panel from Chile, Mexico, and Spain in cooperation with the original authors, focusing on content equivalence and comprehensibility by considering specific idioms, life circumstances, and culture-specific aspects. The psychometric properties of the Spanish version were first tested in Mexico. Participants were 265 students from a state school (N?=?110) and private school (N?=?155), aged between 12 and 19 years (mean 14.15 years). Of these, 44.9% were boys and 55.1% were girls. Item characteristics were analyzed by several parameters, scale reliability by Cronbach’s Alpha, and systematic effects of gender, age, and socioeconomics by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). We evaluated aspects of criterion validity in a juvenile justice system sample (N?=?41) of adolescent boys in conflict with the law who displayed various types of behavioral problems by comparing the AIDA scores of a subgroup with signs for borderline pathology (N?=?14) with the scores obtained in the student sample using T-tests. Results The psychometric properties of the Spanish version of AIDA proved satisfactory in the Mexican sample for items as well as scales. The reliability coefficients were ??=?.94 for the total scale “Identity Diffusion”, ??=?.85 and .92 for the two primary scales “Discontinuity” and “Incoherence”, and between ??=?.70 and .83 for the subscales. However, some items of the item pool in the Spanish version of AIDA did not meet all criteria for test equivalence and should thus be reformulated, taking the Mexican culture into account. Significant effects for gender and age were found. In line with our theory, the AIDA scores in the domains “Discontinuity” (high effect size) and “Incoherence” (medium effect size) were markedly higher in the delinquent boys than in the student group. Conclusion The Spanish version of AIDA can be used in Mexico with satisfying psychometric properties, with only minor adaptions required. Our study contributes to the intercultural applicability of the AIDA instrument using the construct “identity integration vs. diffusion” as it was defined in the AIDA model for diagnostic purposes. Cultural differences, even those present in the various Spanish-speaking countries, should be modeled carefully. PMID:23899385

  10. Maternal stress and behavioral adaptation in methadone- or buprenorphine-exposed toddlers.

    PubMed

    Sarfi, Monica; Sundet, Jon Martin; Waal, Helge

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined the relationship between early interaction, parenting stress, maternal psychological distress symptoms, and behavior problems and health-related quality of life among children born to mothers in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) in Norway during the period 2005-2007 (N = 36). This group was compared with a normative sample of mothers without substance abuse problems and their children (N = 36). There were significant group differences (p < .01) in perceived child problems in toddlerhood. In a regression model, mothers' self-reported psychological distress symptoms in terms of depression and anxiety symptoms significantly predicted child behavior problems (p < .01) and health-related quality of life (p < .01) rather than parenting stress. No significant, unique effect of exposure was found after controlling for other factors that could influence developmental outcomes. These findings add to the growing evidence on the importance of maternal psychological well-being for child development, and underscore the need to address opioid-maintained women's personal maladjustment and the constellation of stress experienced by mothers in recovery. PMID:23999378

  11. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  12. A comparison of grazing behavior between desert adapted Mexican Criollo cattle and temperate british breeds using two diverse landscapes in New Mexico and Chihuahua.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to test how grazing behaviors differ between desert adapted Mexican criollo cattle and temperate British beef breeds, to learn how each breed interacts with environments common to the southwestern US and northwestern Mexico. Additionally, criollo cattle may be a better breed ...

  13. Feasibility of Adapting Multisystemic Therapy to Improve Illness Management Behaviors and Reduce Asthma Morbidity in High Risk African American Youth: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation

  14. Establishment of Joint Attention in Dyads Involving Hearing Mothers of Deaf and Hearing Children, and Its Relation to Adaptive Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Tasker, Susan L.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    Mounting evidence points to joint attention as a mediating variable in children's adaptive behavior. Joint attention in interactions between hearing mothers and congenitally deaf (n = 27) and hearing (n = 29) children, ages 18-36 months, was examined. All deaf children had severe to profound hearing loss. Mother-child interactions were coded for…

  15. Effects of Perspective Sentences in Social Stories[TM] on Improving the Adaptive Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Shingo; Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Yanagihara, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of adding perspective sentences to Social Stories[TM] on improving the adaptive behaviors of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and related disabilities. In Study 1, two students with ASD read two different types of Social Stories: Social Story without perspective sentences (SS without PS) and Social…

  16. Arctic Climate and Water Change: Model and Observation Relevance for Assessment and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bring, Arvid; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The Arctic is subject to growing economic and political interest. Meanwhile, its climate and water systems are in rapid transformation. In this paper, we review and extend a set of studies on climate model results, hydro-climatic change, and hydrological monitoring systems. Results indicate that general circulation model (GCM) projections of drainage basin temperature and precipitation have improved between two model generations. However, some inaccuracies remain for precipitation projections. When considering geographical priorities for monitoring or adaptation efforts, our results indicate that future projections by GCMs and recent observations diverge regarding the basins where temperature and precipitation changes currently are the most pronounced and where they will be so in the future. Regarding late twentieth-century discharge changes in major Arctic rivers, data generally show excess of water relative to precipitation changes. This indicates a possible contribution to sea-level rise of river water that was previously stored in permafrost or groundwater. The river contribution to the increasing Arctic Ocean freshwater inflow is similar in magnitude to the separate contribution from glaciers, which underlines the importance of considering all possible sources of freshwater when assessing sea-level change. We further investigate monitoring systems and find a lack of harmonized water chemistry data, which limits the ability to understand the origin and transport of nutrients, carbon and sediment to the sea. To provide adequate information for research and policy, Arctic hydrological and hydrochemical monitoring needs to be extended, better integrated and made more accessible. Further water-focused data and modeling efforts are required to resolve the source of excess discharge in Arctic rivers. Finally, improvements in climate model parameterizations are needed, in particular for precipitation projections.

  17. Online training course on critical appraisal for nurses: adaptation and assessment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research is an essential activity for improving quality and efficiency in healthcare. The objective of this study was to train nurses from the public Basque Health Service (Osakidetza) in critical appraisal, promoting continuous training and the use of research in clinical practice. Methods This was a prospective pre-post test study. The InfoCritique course on critical appraisal was translated and adapted. A sample of 50 nurses and 3 tutors was recruited. Educational strategies and assessment instruments were established for the course. A course website was created that contained contact details of the teaching team and coordinator, as well as a course handbook and videos introducing the course. Assessment comprised the administration of questionnaires before and after the course, in order to explore the main intervention outcomes: knowledge acquired and self-learning readiness. Satisfaction was also measured at the end of the course. Results Of the 50 health professionals recruited, 3 did not complete the course for personal or work-related reasons. The mean score on the pre-course knowledge questionnaire was 70.5 out of 100, with a standard deviation of 11.96. In general, participants’ performance on the knowledge questionnaire improved after the course, as reflected in the notable increase of the mean score, to 86.6, with a standard deviation of 10.00. Further, analyses confirmed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-course results (p?

  18. Preschool Temperament Assessment: A Quantitative Assessment of the Validity of Behavioral Style Questionnaire Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huelsman, Timothy J.; Gagnon, Sandra Glover; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Griggs, Marissa Swaim

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Child temperament is an important construct, but its measurement has been marked by a number of weaknesses that have diminished the frequency with which it is assessed in practice. We address this problem by presenting the results of a quantitative construct validation study. We calculated validity indices by hypothesizing the…

  19. Using behavioral observations and keeper questionnaires to assess social relationships among captive female African elephants.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Schulte, Bruce A; Brown, Janine L

    2010-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants are highly social animals that live in a society where age, size, kinship, and disposition all contribute to social rank. Although captive elephant herds are small and largely comprises of unrelated females, dominance hierarchies are common. The goal of this study was to delineate how the behavior of captive female African elephants varies with respect to age and social rank based on a combination of keeper questionnaires and behavioral observations. "Body movements" and "trunk to" behaviors of 33 nonpregnant female African elephants housed at 14 North American zoos were recorded over 8 hr. Keepers at each facility also rated each elephant based on a series of questions about interactions with herdmates. The assessment of social rank based on observations correlated strongly with ranks assigned by keepers via the questionnaires. Observations and questionnaire responses indicated that body weight of the female, and to a lesser extent age, were significantly related to rates and types of "body movements" and that these demographic factors dictate the captive elephant hierarchy, similar to that observed in the wild. Many of the observed "body movements," such as back away, displace, push, and present, were correlated with keeper questionnaire responses about elephant interactions. However, none of the "trunk to" behaviors were related to age, size, or questionnaire responses even though they occurred frequently. In conclusion, we demonstrated that short-term behavioral observations and keeper questionnaires provided similar behavioral profiles for female African elephants housed in North American zoos. PMID:19434684

  20. [Adaptability assessment of economic and environmental development of Tangshan, Hebei, China].

    PubMed

    Han, Rui-Ling; Zhu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Qiu-Luan

    2014-10-01

    It is vital to explore whether the economic system adapts to the environmental system as the relationship between economy and environment becomes a gradually concerned problem. Tangshan, a typical resource-based city, was chosen to study the adaptabilities and performances of economic developments in response to environmental changes from 1992 to 2011. It was found that the economic-environmental adaptation curve of Tangshan City had an overall fluctuating and increasing tendency. The systematic adaptability kept advancing, reflecting Tangshan paid much attention to environmental development in addition to economic performances, and the two aspects became more and more coordinated. Filtering analysis of the adaptive curve with Eviews software revealed that the potential systematic coordinating index was rising continuously, however, the sum of resilience gap for 20 years was still negative, which implied that fundamental contradictions between high economic development and high energy consumption and high pollutant emission still existed. Carrying out adaptive researches not only helps people to adapt to climate changes better, but also has significances for economic and environmental coordination and sustainability research. PMID:25796907