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1

Cross-National Assessment of Adaptive Behavior in Three Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of adaptive behaviors provide an important tool in the repertoire of clinical and school/educational psychologists. Measures that assess adaptive behaviors typically have been built in Western cultures and developed in light of behaviors common to them. Nevertheless, these measures are used elsewhere despite a paucity of data that examine…

Oakland, Thomas; Iliescu, Dragos; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Juliet Honglei

2013-01-01

2

Assessing Minority Students: The Role of Adaptive Behavior Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive behavior scales can be very helpful in the overall assessment of minority children. In some states they are mandatory. Their weaknesses, particularly with the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale, are sampling bias and appropriateness in the areas of culture, language, and socioeconomic status. (Author)

Cervantes, Hermes; Baca, Leonard M.

1979-01-01

3

A system of assessment for adaptive behavior, social skills, behavioral function, medication side-effects, and psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

A reliable and valid assessment is necessary for the effective delivery of services to those with mental retardation (MR). With constraints placed on financial and human resources, assessment must be comprehensive, yet cost-effective. We describe a method of assessment that operates within these constraints using informant-based measures that assess adaptive and maladaptive behavior, psychiatric disorders, behavior function, and medication side-effects. PMID:12553969

Matson, Johnny L; Mayville, Stephen B; Laud, Rinita B

2003-01-01

4

Linking Screening for Emotional and Behavioral Problems to Problem-Solving Efforts: An Adaptive Model of Behavioral Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses several objectives of the special issue on universal screening by addressing gaps in the current research base concerning universal screening for mental, emotional, and behavioral health and by providing a framework for addressing the limitations of extant approaches. Specifically, an adaptive model of behavioral assessment

Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

2010-01-01

5

Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.  

PubMed

This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems. PMID:24079489

Koene, Paul

2013-01-01

6

The Assessment of Minority Students: Are Adaptive Behavior Scales the Answer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of adaptive behavior scales in the assessment of minority children was discussed. Positive and negative characteristics of the scales developed by Mercer and Lambert were identified and discussed. Recommendations included cautions for the use of such scales in the evaluation of culturally different minority children. (Author)

Baca, Leonard; Cervantes, Hermes

1978-01-01

7

Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the Teacher Form, Ages 5 to 21, of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model that highlighted 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II) was designed to be consistent with these models.…

Aricak, O. Tolga; Oakland, Thomas

2010-01-01

8

Applying Computer Adaptive Testing to Optimize Online Assessment of Suicidal Behavior: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce response burden and improve accuracy, and make the available pencil-and-paper tools more appropriate for online administration. Objective The aim was to test whether an item response–based computer adaptive simulation can be used to reduce the length of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS). Methods The data used for our simulation was obtained from a large multicenter trial from The Netherlands: the Professionals in Training to STOP suicide (PITSTOP suicide) study. We applied a principal components analysis (PCA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), a graded response model (GRM), and simulated a CAT. Results The scores of 505 patients were analyzed. Psychometric analyses showed the questionnaire to be unidimensional with good internal consistency. The computer adaptive simulation showed that for the estimation of elevation of risk of future suicidal behavior 4 items (instead of the full 19) were sufficient, on average. Conclusions This study demonstrated that CAT can be applied successfully to reduce the length of the Dutch version of the BSS. We argue that the use of CAT can improve the accuracy and the response burden when assessing the risk of future suicidal behavior online. Because CAT can be daunting for clinicians and applied scientists, we offer a concrete example of our computer adaptive simulation of the Dutch version of the BSS at the end of the paper. PMID:25213259

de Vries, Anton LM; de Groot, Marieke H; de Keijser, Jos; Kerkhof, Ad JFM

2014-01-01

9

Adaptive Selling Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive selling is defined as the flexibility of salespersons to recognize their clients' or potential clients' needs, environment, and behaviors, in order to enhance the sales relationship, by altering their normal communication style to a behavior with which the customer feels comfortable. A literature review and an exploratory study were conducted to further understand the role of adaptive selling. The

Noreen R. Lindberg

1993-01-01

10

Assessment of Social Competence, Adaptive Behaviors, and Approaches to Learning with Young Children. Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared in support of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), which will examine children's early school experiences beginning with kindergarten, this working paper focuses on research regarding the measurement of young children's social competence, adaptive behavior, and approaches to learning. The paper reviews the key variables and…

Meisels, Samuel J.; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Nicholson, Julie

11

Adaptive Behavior, Mental Retardation, and the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article focuses on the assessment of adaptive behavior as a variable in the diagnosis of mental retardation in defendants charged with capital murder. A brief history of the development of adaptive behavior assessment as a major component in the determination of mental retardation is provided. Current adaptive behavior measurement instruments used in the assessment of mental retardation in adults

Kay B. Stevens; J. Randall Price

2006-01-01

12

Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

2013-01-01

13

Adaptive Behavior. Abstract 26. Research & Resources on Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abstract sheet summarizes research reported in "Assessing and Developing the Adaptive Functioning of Handicapped Children and Youth" by Robert H. Bruininks. The research concerned the dimensions of adaptive behavior, its usefulness in placement and eligibility decisions, and differences between ratings of students' adaptive behavior by persons…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

14

Adaptive capacity and its assessment  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

Engle, Nathan L.

2011-04-20

15

Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II Parent/Primary Caregiver Form: Ages 0-5--Its Factor Structure and Other Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of…

Oakland, Thomas; Algina, James

2011-01-01

16

Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

2006-01-01

17

Evolving Dynamical Neural Networks for Adaptive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We would like the behavior of the artificial agents that we construct to be as well-adapted to their environments as natural animals are to theirs. Unfortunately, designing controllers with these properties is a very difficult task. In this article, we demonstrate that continuous-time recurrent neural networks are a viable mechanism for adaptive agent control and that the genetic algorithm can

Randall D. Beer; John C. Gallagher

1992-01-01

18

Behavioral adaptations and biometrical genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges J. Wilcock's suggestion that psychogenetics is likely to complement if not replace behavioral psychology as a contributor to the study of the evolution of behavior. Viewed with skepticism is the ability of measures of directional dominance made with domestic laboratory strains of rats to reveal information about (1) the genetic architecture of a trait in any single, natural population

Stephen C. Maxson

1973-01-01

19

Adaptive rapid environmental assessment system simulation framework  

E-print Network

Adaptive Rapid Environmental Assessment (AREA) is a new concept for minimizing the non model-based sonar performance prediction uncertainty and improving the model-based sonar performance by adaptive and rapid in situ ...

Wang, Ding, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

20

Behavior and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: Specifying Targets for Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with Down syndrome can demonstrate increased behavior problems as compared with typical peers. Few studies have explored whether behavior impacts adaptive functioning. Caregiver report from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL;…

Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

2014-01-01

21

Patterns of Adaptive Behavior in Very Young Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to investigate patterns of adaptive behavior in 30 children with autism who were under 3 years. Relative to controls, participants demonstrated weaker socialization and communication skills and greater discrepancies between adaptive behavior and mental age. The utility of the scales is discussed.…

Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Brown, Christia S.

1999-01-01

22

Adaptive Behavior of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis

2011-01-01

23

Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

2010-01-01

24

Risperidone and Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Method: Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute…

Williams, Susan K.; Scahill, Lawrence; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Ritz, Louise; Posey, David J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Hollway, Jill; Cronin, Pegeen; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Wheeler, Courtney; Cicchetti, Domenic; Sparrow, Sara

2006-01-01

25

Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale: School Version Technical Manual. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This test manual provides information on the Adaptive Behavior Education Scale-Revised (ABES-R), a 25-minute behavior scale designed to evaluate adaptive skills in students with behavioral, learning, and intellectual disabilities, including educationally relevant behavior which may be identified as contributing to more appropriate diagnosis,…

McCarney, Stephen B.

26

Adaptive Behavior Evaluation Scale: Home Version Technical Manual. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This test manual provides information on the Adaptive Behavior Education Scale-Home Version (ABES), a 25-minute behavior scale designed to evaluate adaptive skills in students with behavioral, learning, and intellectual disabilities, including educationally relevant behavior which may be identified as contributing to more appropriate diagnosis,…

McCarney, Stephen B.

27

Authentic Assessment in Adapted Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing frustration with assessment practices in adapted physical education and confusion with more traditional grading has led to a call for authentic assessment, which measures students' performances in more natural, real-world settings. Within authentic assessment, rubrics provide detailed guidelines for making scoring decisions, offering…

Block, Martin E.; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Connor-Kuntz, Fiona

1998-01-01

28

Trajectories and profiles of adaptive behavior in males with fragile X syndrome: Multicenter studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted two multicenter studies on adaptive trajectories and profiles in males with fragile X syndrome. Study 1 longitudinally assessed 29 males ages 1–20 years using ageequivalent scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Fragile X boys ages 1–10 years showed significant gains in adaptive skills from first to second testing; males ages 11–20 years were stable in their adaptive

Elisabeth Dykens; Sharon Ort; Ira Cohen; Brenda Finucane; Gail Spiridigliozzi; Ave Lachiewicz; Allan Reiss; Lisa Freund; Randi Hagerman; Rebecca O'Connor

1996-01-01

29

Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

2014-01-01

30

Spatial perception and adaptive sonar behavior.  

PubMed

Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time adaptations in the timing and spectro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular task and environment. To enable detailed, quantitative analyses of adaptive sonar behavior, echolocation call design was investigated in big brown bats, trained to rest on a stationary platform and track a tethered mealworm that approached from a starting distance of about 170 cm in the presence of a stationary sonar distracter. The distracter was presented at different angular offsets and distances from the bat. The results of this study show that the distance and the angular offset of the distracter influence sonar vocalization parameters of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Specifically, the bat adjusted its call duration to the closer of two objects, distracter or insect target, and the magnitude of the adjustment depended on the angular offset of the distracter. In contrast, the bat consistently adjusted its call rate to the distance of the insect, even when this target was positioned behind the distracter. The results hold implications for understanding spatial information processing and perception by echolocation. PMID:21218910

Aytekin, Murat; Mao, Beatrice; Moss, Cynthia F

2010-12-01

31

Adaptive behavior and problem behavior in young children with Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales-Interview edition and the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Primary Caregiver version (WS only). Children with WS had higher adaptive communication scores than children with other developmental disabilities. Children with WS demonstrated relative strengths in adaptive communication and socialization, coupled with relative weaknesses in daily living. Adaptive communication and socialization were negatively associated with problem behaviors in social relating in WS. PMID:24450321

Hahn, Laura J; Fidler, Deborah J; Hepburn, Susan L

2014-01-01

32

Behavioral Identification and Assessment of Gifted and Talented Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-five gifted students and 45 regular education students without identified exceptionalities were rated by teachers and administrators on the Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), a third-party behavior rating scale that rates students' adaptive and behavior problems. The gifted students in this study were rated significantly higher on three…

Bracken, Bruce A.; Brown, E. F.

2006-01-01

33

Psychometric properties of the portuguese version of the adaptive behavior scale.  

PubMed

Abstract The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to the adaptive behavior concept. In this article, we explain the adaptation and validation process of the Portuguese version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (PABS) on a sample of 1,875 people with and without intellectual disability. Results of the study are discussed in terms of the reliability and validity of PABS on the sample. The PABS appears to be a valid and reliable assessment of adaptive behavior in individuals in Portugal with intellectual disability. PMID:25247729

Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

2014-10-01

34

An occupational therapy approach to assessing psychiatric patients' adaptive functioning.  

PubMed

This study focused on the relative utility of the model of human occupation for occupational therapy assessment of persons having mental disorders. The organizational status of the human system and its relationship to adaptive level of functioning and degree of symptomatology were examined in a sample of 30 adult psychiatric patients. We used a six-test assessment battery developed for this study, which was based on the model of human occupation, to measure the organizational status of the following components of the human system: locus of control, goals, temporal orientation, interests, roles, and skills. Subtests of the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Adoptive Behavior Scale and the Modified Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to measure adaptive level functioning and symptomatology, respectively. When we compared organizational status with psychiatric diagnosis and symptomatology, we found organizational status to be the more significant index of adaptive level of functioning. PMID:3993720

Oakley, F; Kielhofner, G; Barris, R

1985-03-01

35

Quality assessment of adaptive 3D video streaming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The streaming of 3D video contents is currently a reality to expand the user experience. However, because of the variable bandwidth of the networks used to deliver multimedia content, a smooth and high-quality playback experience could not always be guaranteed. Using segments in multiple video qualities, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) of video content is a relevant advancement with respect to classic progressive download streaming. Mainly, it allows resolving these issues by offering significant advantages in terms of both user-perceived Quality of Experience (QoE) and resource utilization for content and network service providers. In this paper we discuss the impact of possible HAS client's behavior while adapting to the network capacity on enduser. This has been done through an experiment of testing the end-user response to the quality variation during the adaptation procedure. The evaluation has been carried out through a subjective test of the end-user response to various possible clients' behaviors for increasing, decreasing, and oscillation of quality in 3D video. In addition, some of the HAS typical impairments during the adaptation has been simulated and their effects on the end-user perception are assessed. The experimental conclusions have made good insight into the user's response to different adaptation scenarios and visual impairments causing the visual discomfort that can be used to develop the adaptive streaming algorithm to improve the end-user experience.

Tavakoli, Samira; Gutiérrez, Jesús; García, Narciso

2013-03-01

36

Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

1998-01-01

37

Adapting Robot Behavior for Human--Robot Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings subconsciously adapt their behaviors to a communication partner in order to make interactions run smoothly. In human-robot interactions, not only the human but also the robot is expected to adapt to its partner. Thus, to facilitate human-robot interactions, a robot should be able to read subconscious comfort and discomfort signals from humans and adjust its behavior accordingly, just

Noriaki Mitsunaga; Christian Smith; Takayuki Kanda; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Norihiro Hagita

2008-01-01

38

Neural Modeling of Social Adaptive Behaviors of Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

All the life forms such as humans, animals and insects, can behave adaptively even in diverse and complex environment in various types of behaviors. Such adaptive behaviors are considered to emerge from the interaction of the body, brain, and environment, which is induced by the active mobility of the cognitive subject. Base on the consideration, we call the intelligence for

Yusuke Ikemoto; Tomohisa Fujiki; Kuniaki Kawabata; Hitoshi Aonuma; Toru Miura; Hajime Asam

39

Assessing Communication Competency for Intercultural Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the recurrent problems associated with interpersonal, group, organizations, and intercultural training in communication is the assessment of outcomes. An approach is suggested for the evaluation of training and selection of programs utilizing behavioral assessment of participants' communication competence. (Author)

Ruben, Brent D.

1976-01-01

40

The Animat Path to Intelligent Adaptive Behavior Peter M. Todd  

E-print Network

The Animat Path to Intelligent Adaptive Behavior Peter M. Todd Rowland Institute for Science 100 intelligent behavior, such as theorem-proving, or playing chess, or understanding natural language. At some research to even match the behavioral repertoire of insects, let alone humans, and a heightened awareness

Todd, Peter M.

41

Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

2010-01-01

42

The Adaptive Web Server Based on Ant Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to establish an adaptive Web site, which is inspired by the ant colonies foraging behavior.\\u000a In this approach, artificial ants metaphorically guide users’ activity and adaptively mark the most significant links, by\\u000a means of the shortest route to target node. By the simulated experiment, we study those factors that influence Web user’s\\u000a behaviors, which can

Ping Guo; Qin Xie

43

Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities  

PubMed Central

Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341

Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

2006-01-01

44

Test Review: Bracken, B. A., & Keith, L. K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Behavior." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) is designed to assess both adaptive and problematic behaviors of children and adolescents from age 2 to 18 years. It can be individually or group administered, measures behaviors in different contexts, and includes both parent and teacher forms. The test was developed to be consistent with current…

Beran, Tanya N.

2006-01-01

45

Coordination Pattern Adaptability: Energy Cost of Degenerate Behaviors  

PubMed Central

This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: ‘freely-chosen’, ‘maximal glide’ and ‘minimal glide’. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under ‘maximal glide’ compared to ‘freely-chosen’ instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). In the ‘minimal glide’ condition, the swimmers did not show significantly shorter glide and lower energy cost, but they exhibited significantly lower deceleration of the center of mass, as well as modified limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). These results highlight that a variety of structural adaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal. PMID:25255016

Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Gregoire

2014-01-01

46

Confronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation  

E-print Network

Confronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation: A Conceptual Framework in which the inclusion of adaptation is likely to affect the simulations' results. #12;1 1. Introduction and adaptation into IAMs. However, systemic challenges to modeling adaptation continue to impede progress

Wing, Ian Sue

47

(Non)Behavioral Economics: A Programmatic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic theory has evolved without paying proper attention to behavioral approaches, especially to social, economic, and cognitive psychology. This has recently been addressed by including behavioral economics courses in many doctoral study programs. Although this new development is most welcome, the typical topics of the behavioral economics courses like aversion theories and simple adaptive (learning or evolutionary) dynamics are not

Werner Güth

2008-01-01

48

Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

2012-01-01

49

Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Adaptive Behavior Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The adaptive behavior construct has gained prominent attention in human services over the last several years in Portugal, and its measurement has become an integral part of the assessment of populations with intellectual disability. In Portugal, diagnosis remains exclusively based on IQ measures, although some attention recently has been given to…

Santos, Sofia; Morato, Pedro; Luckasson, Ruth

2014-01-01

50

The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed these hypotheses. As hypothesized, popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent

Joseph P. Allen; Maryfrances R. Porter; F. Christy McFarland; Penny Marsh; Kathleen Boykin McElhaney

2005-01-01

51

The adaptive significance of cultural behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I argue that human social behavior is a product of the coevolution of human biology and culture. While critical of attempts by anthropologists to explain cultural practices as if they were independent of the ability of individual human beings to survive and reproduce, I am also leery of attempts by biologists to explain the consistencies between neo-Darwinian

William H. Durham

1976-01-01

52

Cultural Adaptations of Behavioral Health Interventions: A Progress Report  

PubMed Central

Objective To reduce health disparities, behavioral health interventions must reach subcultural groups and demonstrate effectiveness in improving their health behaviors and outcomes. One approach to developing such health interventions is to culturally adapt original evidence-based interventions. The goals of the paper are to (a) describe consensus on the stages involved in developing cultural adaptations, (b) identify common elements in cultural adaptations, (c) examine evidence on the effectiveness of culturally enhanced interventions for various health conditions, and (d) pose questions for future research. Method Influential literature from the past decade was examined to identify points of consensus. Results There is agreement that cultural adaptation can be organized into five stages: information gathering, preliminary design, preliminary testing, refinement, and final trial. With few exceptions, reviews of several health conditions (e.g., AIDS, asthma, diabetes) concluded that culturally enhanced interventions are more effective in improving health outcomes than usual care or other control conditions. Conclusion Progress has been made in establishing methods for conducting cultural adaptations and providing evidence of their effectiveness. Future research should include evaluations of cultural adaptations developed in stages, tests to determine the effectiveness of cultural adaptations relative to the original versions, and studies that advance our understanding of cultural constructs’ contributions to intervention engagement and efficacy. PMID:22289132

Barrera, Manuel

2014-01-01

53

Adaption of the areas of change questionnaire for parent-child relationship assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reviewing the family assessment literature, there appears to be a need for behaviorally based report procedures capable of describing important aspects of family functioning. Thus far, most activity in this direction has involved the development of methods of evaluating marital relationships with relatively little attention to parent-adolescent assessment. This article introduces an adaptation of the Areas of Change Questionnaire

Theodore Jacob; Ruth Ann Seilhamer

1985-01-01

54

Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

1990-01-01

55

Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific\\u000a patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based\\u000a cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes were differentiated by taste\\u000a and smell sensitivity and movement-related sensory behavior. Further, sensory processing subtypes

Robyn L. Young; Amy E. Z. Baker; Manya T. Angley

2010-01-01

56

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

1993-01-01

57

Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

2014-01-01

58

Cross-Cultural Study of Adaptive Behavior in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of coping may lead to a better understanding of how children develop adaptive or maladaptive behaviors. Cross-cultural studies were conducted in 1965 and in 1968 with 10- and 14-year-old children from Brazil, England, Italy, Japan, Mexico, West Germany, Yugoslavia, and the United States. Attributes of attitudes, motivation, and coping…

Payne, Glen C.; And Others

59

Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

2009-01-01

60

The two faces of adolescents' success with peers: adolescent popularity, social adaptation, and deviant behavior.  

PubMed

This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed these hypotheses. As hypothesized, popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent levels of ego development, secure attachment, and more adaptive interactions with mothers and best friends. Longitudinal analyses supported a popularity-socialization hypothesis, however, in which popular adolescents were more likely to increase behaviors that receive approval in the peer group (e.g., minor levels of drug use and delinquency) and decrease behaviors unlikely to be well received by peers (e.g., hostile behavior with peers). PMID:15892790

Allen, Joseph P; Porter, Maryfrances R; McFarland, F Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

2005-01-01

61

Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6 years  

PubMed Central

The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

2014-01-01

62

Adaptive Assessment of Young Children with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…

Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul

2011-01-01

63

Examining the Theoretical Relationship Between Support Needs and Adaptive Behavior: A Construct Analysis of Children with Intellectual Disability  

E-print Network

Hospital and Training Center grant monies to explore the construct of adaptive behavior as a mechanism for assessment and remediation (Leland, 1972; Nihira, 1999). Subsequent studies generated the Adaptive Behavior Checklists (Nihira, Leland & Lambert... & Cobigo, 2008; Verdugo, Arias, Ibanéz, & G?mez, 2006). Criterion-related validity and construct validity studies have also been performed and resulted in conclusions that support the validity of the measure (Guscia, Harries, Kirby, Nettelbeck & Tapling...

Obremski, Emily Shea

2013-12-31

64

Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

2013-12-01

65

Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n?=?26), normally-developing children matched for mental age (MA, n?=?30), and normally-developing children matched for chronological age (CA, n?=?40). We compared the mean scores for each domain between the three groups. Results Children with WS had more siblings than children in the two control groups. The educational level of the caregivers of WS children was lower than that of the control children. We found no differences in locomotion, work skill, socialization, or self-management between the WS and MA groups. WS children obtained higher scores of self-dependence (df?=?54, Z?=??2.379, p?=?0.017) and had better communication skills (df?=?54, Z?=??2.222, p?=?0.026) compared with MA children. The CA children achieved higher scores than the WS children for all dimensions of adaptive behavior. Conclusions WS children have better adaptive behavior skills regarding communication and self-dependence than normal children matched for mental age. Targeted intervention techniques should be designed to promote social development in this population. PMID:24708693

2014-01-01

66

Risk of Behavioral and Adaptive Functioning Difficulties in Youth with Previous and Current Sleep Disordered Breathing  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the rates of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties among youth who never had sleep disordered breathing (SDB), had remitted SDB, had incident SDB, or had persistent SDB; and to determine if there were increased odds of behavioral difficulties among youth with varying SDB histories relative to those who never had SDB. Methods: 263 youth had valid polysomnography and neurobehavioral data at two time points approximately 5 years apart from the prospective Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study. Primary outcomes were the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children-2nd Edition Parent Report Form (BASC-PRF) and Self-Report of Personality (SRP), and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-2nd Edition (ABAS-2). Results: Compared to those who never had SDB, individuals with persistent SDB had significant odds and met more cutoff scores on the BASC-2-PRF Externalizing Problems Composite (odds ratio [OR] 3.29; 8.92% vs. 35.3%), Behavioral Symptoms Index (OR 6.82; 7.4% vs. 35.3%) and Hyperactivity subscale (OR 6.82; 11.1% vs. 41.2%). Similarly, greater difficulties was seen for the group with persistent SDB (relative to never) on the ABAS-2 Social Domain (OR 3.39; 22% vs. 50%), and Communication (OR 4.26; 15% vs. 42.9%) and Self-Care subscales (OR = 2.97; 25.2% vs. 50%). Relative to youth who never had SDB, youth who developed SDB at Time 2 had compromised adaptive skills as evidenced by the BASC-2 PRF Adaptive Behavior Composite (OR 3.34; 15.6% vs. 38.1%) and the ABAS-2 General Adaptive Composite (OR 2.83; 20.5% vs. 42.1%). Conclusions: Youth with current SDB exhibited hyperactivity, attention problems, aggressivity, lower social competency, poorer communication, and/or diminished adaptive skills. Citation: Perfect MM; Archbold K; Goodwin JL; Levine-Donnerstein D; Quan SF. Risk of behavioral and adaptive functioning difficulties in youth with previous and current sleep disordered breathing. SLEEP 2013;36(4):517-525. PMID:23543901

Perfect, Michelle M.; Archbold, Kristen; Goodwin, James L.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Quan, Stuart F.

2013-01-01

67

The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Evaluating its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.  

PubMed

The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was constructed with items across three domains - conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills - and normed on a representative sample of American individuals from 4 to 21 years of age. The DABS was developed to focus its assessment around the decision point for determining the presence or absence of significant limitations of adaptive behavior for the diagnosis of Intellectual Disability (ID). The purpose of this study, which was composed of 125 individuals with and 933 without an ID-related diagnosis, was to determine the ability of the DABS to correctly identify the individuals with and without ID (i.e., sensitivity and specificity). The results indicate that the DABS sensitivity coefficients ranged from 81% to 98%, specificity coefficients ranged from 89% to 91%, and that the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve were excellent or good. These results indicate that the DABS has very good levels of diagnostic efficiency. PMID:25105569

Balboni, Giulia; Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Thissen, David; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

2014-11-01

68

Behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation: a physiological strategy when mice behaviorally thermoregulate.  

PubMed

Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of ~22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller internal organs and longer tails compared to mice raised at 22°C. Since mice prefer Tas equal to their TNZ when housed in a thermocline, we hypothesized that mice reared for long periods (e.g., months) in a thermocline would undergo significant changes in organ development and tail length as a result of their thermoregulatory behavior. Groups of three female BALB/c mice at an age of 37 days were housed together in a thermocline consisting of a 90cm long aluminum runway with a floor temperature ranging from 23 to 39°C. Two side-by-side thermoclines allowed for a total of 6 mice to be tested simultaneously. Control mice were tested in isothermal runways maintained at a Ta of 22°C. All groups were given cotton pads for bedding/nest building. Mass of heart, lung, liver, kidney, brain, and tail length were assessed after 73 days of treatment. Mice in the thermocline and control (isothermal) runways were compared to cage control mice housed 3/cage with bedding under standard vivarium conditions. Mice in the thermocline generally remained in the warm end throughout the daytime with little evidence of nest building, suggesting a state of thermal comfort. Mice in the isothermal runway built elaborate nests and huddled together in the daytime. Mice housed in the thermocline had significantly smaller livers and kidneys and an increase in tail length compared to mice in the isothermal runway as well as when compared to the cage controls. These patterns of organ growth and tail length of mice in the thermocline are akin to warm adaptation. Thus, thermoregulatory behavior altered organ development, a process we term behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation. Moreover, the data suggest that the standard vivarium conditions are likely a cold stress that alters normal organ development relative to mice allowed to select their thermal preferendum. PMID:25086972

Gordon, Christopher J; Aydin, Cenk; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Johnstone, Andrew F M

2014-08-01

69

Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

2013-03-01

70

Day 1 Day 5 Adaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscusAdaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus  

E-print Network

Day 1 Day 5 Adaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscusAdaptive sonar and flight behavior of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus Ben Falk1,2, Lasse Jakobsen3 in a complex environment. We recorded the navigation behavior of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

Moss, Cynthia

71

Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.  

PubMed

Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

2014-01-01

72

Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots  

PubMed Central

Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

2014-01-01

73

A Behavior Adaptation Method for an Elderly Companion Robot - Rui  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes the state-of-the art of an elderly companion robot project, aimed towards the development of personal\\u000a service robots for the elderly population. We propose a behavior adaptation method that reads interaction signals from the\\u000a old people, and then adjust interaction output such as daily dialogues, news and whether broadcasting, motion speed and navigation-assist.\\u000a The method uses detecting the

Yong Tao; Tianmiao Wang; Hongxing Wei; Peijiang Yuan

2010-01-01

74

User Behavior Mining for On-Line GUI Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-Line Graphics User Interface (GUI) Adaptation technology, which can predict and highlight user’s next operation in menu\\u000a based graphics interface, is the key problem in next generation pervasive human computer interaction, especially for remote\\u000a control device like Wiimote assisting TV interaction. In this paper, a hierarchical Markov model is proposed for mining and\\u000a predicting user’s behavior from Wiimote control sequence.

Wei Pan; Yiqiang Chen; Junfa Liu

2009-01-01

75

Auditory skills, language development, and adaptive behavior of children with cochlear implants and additional disabilities  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of functional auditory skills, language, and adaptive behavior in deaf children with cochlear implants (CI) who also have additional disabilities (AD). Design A two-group, pre-test versus post-test design was used. Study sample Comparisons were made between 23 children with CIs and ADs, and an age-matched comparison group of 23 children with CIs without ADs (No-AD). Assessments were obtained pre-CI and within 12 months post-CI. Results All but two deaf children with ADs improved in auditory skills using the IT-MAIS. Most deaf children in the AD group made progress in receptive but not expressive language using the Preschool Language Scale, but their language quotients were lower than the No-AD group. Five of eight children with ADs made progress in daily living skills and socialization skills; two made progress in motor skills. Children with ADs who did not make progress in language, did show progress in adaptive behavior. Conclusions Children with deafness and ADs made progress in functional auditory skills, receptive language, and adaptive behavior. Expanded assessment that includes adaptive functioning and multi-center collaboration is recommended to best determine benefits of implantation in areas of expected growth in this clinical population. PMID:22509948

Beer, Jessica; Harris, Michael S.; Kronenberger, William G.; Holt, Rachael Frush; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

76

A Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Test Approach to Dyspnea Assessment  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and test a prototype dyspnea computer adaptive test. Design Prospective study. Setting Two outpatient medical facilities. Participants A convenience sample of 292 adults with COPD. Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measure We developed a modified and expanded item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) for the Dyspnea Management Questionnaire (DMQ), an outcome measure consisting of four dyspnea dimensions: dyspnea intensity, dyspnea anxiety, activity avoidance, and activity self-efficacy. Results Factor analyses supported a four-dimensional model underlying the 71 DMQ items. The DMQ item bank achieved acceptable Rasch model fit statistics, good measurement breadth with minimal floor and ceiling effects, and evidence of high internal consistency reliability (? = 0.92 to 0.98). Using CAT simulation analyses, the DMQ-CAT showed high measurement accuracy compared to the total item pool (r = .83 to .97, p < .0001) and evidence of good to excellent concurrent (r = ?.61 to ?0.80, p < .0001) validity. All DMQ-CAT domains showed evidence for known-groups validity (p ? 0.001). Conclusions The DMQ-CAT reliably and validly captured four distinct dyspnea domains. Multidimensional dyspnea assessment in COPD is needed to better measure the effectiveness of pharmacologic, pulmonary rehabilitation, and psychosocial interventions in not only alleviating the somatic sensation of dyspnea but also reducing dysfunctional emotions, cognitions, and behaviors associated with dyspnea, especially for anxious patients. PMID:21963123

Norweg, Anna; Ni, Pengsheng; Garshick, Eric; O'Connor, George; Wilke, Kira; Jette, Alan M.

2012-01-01

77

Adaptive Behavior of Primary School Students with Visual Impairments: The Impact of Educational Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the adaptive behavior of primary school students with visual impairments, as well as the impact of educational setting on their adaptive behavior. Instrumentation included an informal questionnaire and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Participants were 36 primary school students with visual impairments. The educational…

Metsiou, Katerina; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Agaliotis, Ioannis

2011-01-01

78

Adaptive Assessment of Student's Knowledge in Programming Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents Programming Adaptive Testing (PAT), a Web-based adaptive testing system for assessing students' programming knowledge. PAT was used in two high school programming classes by 73 students. The question bank of PAT is composed of 443 questions. A question is classified in one out of three difficulty levels. In PAT, the levels of…

Chatzopoulou, D. I.; Economides, A. A.

2010-01-01

79

Identifying Reading Problems with Computer-Adaptive Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development of an adaptive assessment called Interactive Computerised Assessment System (InCAS) that is aimed at children of a wide age and ability range to identify specific reading problems. Rasch measurement has been used to create the equal interval scales that form each part of the assessment. The rationale for the…

Merrell, C.; Tymms, P.

2007-01-01

80

Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in their local schools or social service agencies via videoconference. Case descriptions for 2 participants whose evaluations were conducted via telemedicine, and a brief summary of all outpatient assessments conducted over a 4-year period by the Biobehavioral Service, are provided. This report extends previous applications of functional analysis procedures by examining brief behavioral assessments conducted via telemedicine. PMID:17020213

Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K

2006-01-01

81

Calibrated Methodology for Assessing Adaptation Costs for Urban Drainage Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Changes in precipitation patterns associated with climate change may pose significant challenges for storm water management systems across much of the U.S. In particular, adapting these systems to more intense rainfall events will require significant investment. The assessment ...

82

Industry Cluster's Adaptive Co-competition Behavior Modeling Inspired by Swarm Intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptation helps the individual enterprise to adjust its behavior to uncertainties in environment and hence determines a healthy growth of both the individuals and the whole industry cluster as well. This paper is focused on the study on co-competition adaptation behavior of industry cluster, which is inspired by swarm intelligence mechanisms. By referencing to ant cooperative transportation and ant foraging behavior and their related swarm intelligence approaches, the cooperative adaptation and competitive adaptation behavior are studied and relevant models are proposed. Those adaptive co-competition behaviors model can be integrated to the multi-agent system of industry cluster to make the industry cluster model more realistic.

Xiang, Wei; Ye, Feifan

83

Assessment of Lower Extremity Motor Adaptation via an Extension of the Force Field Adaptation Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Lower extremity rehabilitation has seen recent increased interest. New tools are available to improve gait retraining in both adults and children. However, it remains difficult to determine optimal ways to plan interventions due to difficulties in continuously monitoring outcomes in patients undergoing rehabilitation. In this paper, we introduce an extension of the Force Field Adaptation Paradigm, used to quantitatively assess upper extremity motor adaptation, to the lower extremity. The algorithm is implemented on the Lokomat lower extremity gait orthosis and utilized to assess short-term motor adaptation. Establishing an understanding of how healthy adults’ motor systems adapt to external perturbations will be important to understanding how the adaptive mechanisms involved in gait are altered by disease. PMID:21095786

Cajigas, Iahn; Goldsmith, Mary T.; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Riener, Robert; Smith, Maurice A.; Brown, Emery N.; Bonato, Paolo

2012-01-01

84

Using Behavioral Questionnaires to Identify Adaptive Deficits in Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…

Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David

1994-01-01

85

PESTICIDE SPRAY APPLICATIONT BEHAVIOR. AND ASSESSMENT  

E-print Network

PESTICIDE SPRAY APPLICATIONT BEHAVIOR. AND ASSESSMENT: WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS PACIFIC SOUTHWEST. BERKELEY. CALIFORNIA 94701 USDA FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW- 15 11976 #12;Pesticide Spray................................................ 3 Harry Camp APPLICATION Physical Parameters Relating to Pesticide Application.......... 4

Standiford, Richard B.

86

Behavioral Assessment of a Hydranencephalic Neonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To clarify the role of the cerebral cortex in neonatal behavior, the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale--Kansas Revision was administered to a hydranencephalic infant. Extremely deviant responses on portions of the exam were found, including responses to items measuring response decrement and orientation. (Author/RH)

Francis, Patricia L.; And Others

1984-01-01

87

Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

Wysocki, Tim

2006-01-01

88

Human Adaptive Behavior in Common Pool Resource Systems  

PubMed Central

Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users’ expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users’ current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users’ perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns. PMID:23285180

Brandt, Gunnar; Merico, Agostino; Vollan, Bjorn; Schluter, Achim

2012-01-01

89

Adaptive Vocal Behavior Drives Perception by Echolocation in Bats  

PubMed Central

Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat’s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat’s active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. PMID:21705213

Moss, Cynthia F.; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

2011-01-01

90

Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment  

PubMed Central

International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries. PMID:23316097

Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

2012-01-01

91

Assessment Tools for Regular and Adapted Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment in Adapted Physical Education is no longer the exception, but the rule under the guidelines of Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Regular physical educators are currently becoming involved in assessment processes and joining school multidisciplinary teams for total profile development of school aged…

Fisher, Janet M.

92

INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION  

E-print Network

@mindspring.com 2School of Natural Resources, 344 Aiken Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, U, at the focus of economic damage assessments. The implications of decreases in predictability for the modelingINCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION EVELYN L

Vermont, University of

93

LSCI in Functional Behavior Assessment and Positive Behavioral Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandated a shift from reactive strategies toward proactive interventions with students who experience both disability and behavioral challenges. The author describes how the methodology of Life Space Crisis Intervention can provide a source of data for functional assessment

Marston, John R.

2001-01-01

94

Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

2011-01-01

95

Assessing working memory in Spanish-speaking children: Automated Working Memory Assessment battery adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11years. Verbal subtests were adapted and pilot tested on a small sample (n=26). A

Irene Injoque-Ricle; Alejandra D. Calero; Tracy P. Alloway; Débora I. Burin

2011-01-01

96

Increasing the On-Task Homework Behavior of Youth With Behavior Disorders Using Functional Behavioral Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)

Renee O. Hawkins; Michael I. Axelrod

2008-01-01

97

Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

1996-04-01

98

The relational basis of adolescent adjustment: trajectories of mother–child interactive behaviors from infancy to adolescence shape adolescents' adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of social-emotional growth propose that repeatedly-experienced parent–infant interactions shape the individual's adaptation across development, yet few studies examined interactive behaviors repeatedly from infancy to adolescence. This study assessed the trajectories of four mother–child relational behaviors at six time-points from 3 months to 13 years: maternal sensitivity, child social engagement, mother intrusiveness, and dyadic reciprocity. Trajectories were examined separately for

Ruth Feldman

2010-01-01

99

Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.  

SciTech Connect

This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

Senglaub, Michael E.

2007-01-01

100

Adolescents misperceive and are influenced by high-status peers' health risk, deviant, and adaptive behavior.  

PubMed

Most peer influence research examines socialization between adolescents and their best friends. Yet, adolescents also are influenced by popular peers, perhaps due to misperceptions of social norms. This research examined the extent to which out-group and in-group adolescents misperceive the frequencies of peers' deviant, health risk, and adaptive behaviors in different reputation-based peer crowds (Study 1) and the prospective associations between perceptions of high-status peers' and adolescents' own substance use over 2.5 years (Study 2). Study 1 examined 235 adolescents' reported deviant (vandalism, theft), health risk (substance use, sexual risk), and adaptive (exercise, studying) behavior, and their perceptions of jocks', populars', burnouts', and brains' engagement in the same behaviors. Peer nominations identified adolescents in each peer crowd. Jocks and populars were rated as higher status than brains and burnouts. Results indicated that peer crowd stereotypes are caricatures. Misperceptions of high-status crowds were dramatic, but for many behaviors, no differences between populars'/jocks' and others' actual reported behaviors were revealed. Study 2 assessed 166 adolescents' substance use and their perceptions of popular peers' (i.e., peers high in peer perceived popularity) substance use. Parallel process latent growth analyses revealed that higher perceptions of popular peers' substance use in Grade 9 (intercept) significantly predicted steeper increases in adolescents' own substance use from Grade 9 to 11 (slope). Results from both studies, utilizing different methods, offer evidence to suggest that adolescents misperceive high-status peers' risk behaviors, and these misperceptions may predict adolescents' own risk behavior engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365121

Helms, Sarah W; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Widman, Laura; Giletta, Matteo; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

2014-12-01

101

Personality Assessment Through Gaming Behavior Shoshannah Tekofsky  

E-print Network

), and reliability (self-report). Assessment through video game play offers a way of quantifying behavior, automating observations, and side-stepping self-report. To determine whether video games are a valuable addition) Con- scientiousness is negatively correlated with speed of action. (2) The game variable Unlock Score

Spronck, Pieter

102

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Fraser Valley & Metro Vancouver snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

103

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Livestock Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

104

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Grain & Oilseed Production Peace Region snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri

Pedersen, Tom

105

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Wine Grape & Tree Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

Pedersen, Tom

106

Authoring of Adaptive Computer Assisted Assessment of Free-Text Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptation techniques can be applied not only to the multimedia contents or navigational possibilities of a course, but also to the assessment. In order to facilitate the authoring of adaptive free-text assessment and its integration within adaptive web-based courses, Adaptive Hypermedia techniques and Free-text Computer Assisted Assessment are…

Alfonseca, Enrique; Carro, Rosa M.; Freire, Manuel; Ortigosa, Alvaro; Perez, Diana; Rodriguez, Pilar

2005-01-01

107

Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

2013-01-01

108

Climate Change Assessment and Adaptation Planning for the Southeast US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A climate change assessment is carried out for the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the southeast US following an integrated water resources assessment and planning framework. The assessment process begins with the development/selection of consistent climate, demographic, socio-economic, and land use/cover scenarios. Historical scenarios and responses are analyzed first to establish baseline conditions. Future climate scenarios are based on GCMs available through the IPCC. Statistical and/or dynamic downscaling of GCM outputs is applied to generate high resolution (12x12 km) atmospheric forcing, such as rainfall, temperature, and ET demand, over the ACF River Basin watersheds. Physically based watershed, aquifer, and estuary models (lumped and distributed) are used to quantify the hydrologic and water quality river basin response to alternative climate and land use/cover scenarios. Demand assessments are carried out for each water sector, for example, water supply for urban, agricultural, and industrial users; hydro-thermal facilities; navigation reaches; and environmental/ecological flow and lake level requirements, aiming to establish aspirational water use targets, performance metrics, and management/adaptation options. Response models for the interconnected river-reservoir-aquifer-estuary system are employed next to assess actual water use levels and other sector outputs under a specific set of hydrologic inputs, demand targets, and management/adaptation options. Adaptive optimization methods are used to generate system-wide management policies conditional on inflow forecasts. The generated information is used to inform stakeholder planning and decision processes aiming to develop consensus on adaptation measures, management strategies, and performance monitoring indicators. The assessment and planning process is driven by stakeholder input and is inherently iterative and sequential.

Georgakakos, A. P.; Yao, H.; Zhang, F.

2012-12-01

109

Adaptive categorization of ART networks in robot behavior learning using game-theoretic formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) networks are employed in robot behavior learning. Two of the difficulties in online robot behavior learning, namely, (1) exponential memory increases with time, (2) difficulty for operators to specify learning tasks accuracy and control learning attention before learning. In order to remedy the aforementioned difficulties, an adaptive categorization mechanism is introduced in ART networks for perceptual

Wai-keung Fung; Yun-hui Liu

2003-01-01

110

Exploring the Structure of Adaptive Behavior: Project Report Number 87-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results from three research studies that were designed to explore both the definition and the structure of the adaptive behavior construct. The first study investigated the structure of adaptive behavior as a function of age, developmental level, and type of handicap through an exploratory factor analysis of both the…

Bruininks, Robert H.; McGrew, Kevin

111

Longitudinal Study on the Adaptive and Challenging Behaviors of Deinstitutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive and challenging behavior changes associated with movement from Minnesota's state institutions to community homes were examined in 148 participants with mental retardation. Adaptive behavior declined among residents who moved to community programs but was unchanged for persons who moved to Home and Community Based Services Waiver-Funded…

Stancliffe, Roger J.; Hayden, Mary F.; Larson, Sheryl A.; Lakin, K. Charlie

2002-01-01

112

Maladaptive Behaviors Related to Adaptive Decline in Aging Adults with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in patterns of maladaptive behavior related to age-associated adaptive declines were investigated in 529 adults with mental retardation (ages 30 to 84), 202 with Down syndrome. Certain maladaptive behaviors were related to the onset of adaptive declines, (e.g., lack of boundaries). Findings suggest similarities in the course of…

Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

2003-01-01

113

Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

114

Profiles and Development of Adaptive Behavior in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The profiles and developmental trajectories of adaptive behavior were cross-sectionally examined in 80 children with Down syndrome ages 1 to 11.5 years using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Profile findings indicated a significant weakness in communication relative to daily living and socialization skills. Within communication itself,…

Dykens, Elisabeth; Hodapp, Robert; Evans, David

2006-01-01

115

Behavioral convergence and adaptive radiation: effects of habitat use on territorial behavior in Anolis lizards.  

PubMed

Most studies of adaptive radiations focus on morphological aspects of differentiation, yet behavior is also an important component of evolutionary diversification, often mediating the relationship between animal ecology and morphology. In species within radiations that are convergent in ecology and morphology, we then also expect convergence in behavior. Here, we examined 13 Anolis lizard species to determine whether territorial strategies have evolved convergently with morphology and habitat use. We evaluated two aspects of territoriality: behavioral defense of space via territorial displays, and territory overlap within and between sexes. Controlling for the phylogenetic relationships of the taxa in our study, we found that species similar in perch height and diameter convergently evolved patterns of territory overlap, whereas species similar in habitat visibility (the proportion of space that can be seen from a perch) convergently evolved display behavior. We also found that species with greater display time have more extensive male-male territory overlap. This study provides strong evidence for the role of habitat in the evolution of territoriality and suggests that the social structure of a species ultimately evolves in concert with habitat use and morphology. PMID:19891624

Johnson, Michele A; Revell, Liam J; Losos, Jonathan B

2010-04-01

116

Increasing the on-task homework behavior of youth with behavior disorders using functional behavioral assessment.  

PubMed

Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework are needed to increase students' academic success. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures may be helpful for intervention planning; however, there has been limited research on use of FBA with youth with EBD experiencing poor academic performance or task completion problems. In the current study, FBA methods were used to identify the contingencies maintaining the off-task behavior of four youth with behavior problems. Effects of interventions based on functional hypotheses were compared to the effects of interventions not linked to such hypotheses. Discussion focuses on utility of FBA procedures for developing and implementing effective interventions for youth with EBD. PMID:18490267

Hawkins, Renee O; Axelrod, Michael I

2008-11-01

117

Adaptive, robotic and mobile sensor systems for structural assessment Dryver Huston*a  

E-print Network

, mobile assessment, health monitoring, complex systems 1. INTRODUCTION The design and implementation1 Adaptive, robotic and mobile sensor systems for structural assessment Dryver Huston*a , Jonathan, rapidly deployable sensors and mobile sensors. Adaptive signal processing is where the processing

Huston, Dryver R.

118

Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The ? range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075

Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

2010-01-01

119

Adaptive genetic operators based on coevolution with fuzzy behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique for adapting control parameter settings associated with genetic operators. Its principal features are: 1) the adaptation takes place at the individual level by means of fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) and 2) the fuzzy rule bases used by the FLCs come from a separate genetic algorithm (GA) that coevolves with the GA that applies the genetic

Francisco Herrera; Manuel Lozano

2001-01-01

120

Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

2012-01-01

121

Adaptation processes in insect olfactory receptors. Mechanisms and behavioral significance.  

PubMed

Adaptation was studied in single olfactory receptor cells of male moths of Bombyx mori and Antheraea polyphemus. Receptor potential and nerve impulse generators have different and very likely, spatially separate adaptation mechanisms possibly located in the outer dendritic segment and the cell soma, respectively. Restricted portions of the receptor cell dendrite can be locally adapted. The impulse generator may exhibit at least two distinct adaptation processes with different kinetics, as deduced from a consideration of the phasic-tonic response and the different adaptation properties of each of these phases. The response characteristics of cells in the same sensillum are different. The "faster" responding cell types resolve odor pulses with frequencies up to 10 per second--a performance that is probably needed for orientation during flight toward a small odor source. PMID:3324874

Kaissling, K E; Zack Strausfeld, C; Rumbo, E R

1987-01-01

122

A comparative evaluation of adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with autism, Down syndrome, and normal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaptive behaviors of 20 autistic, 20 Down syndrome, and 20 developmentally normal children were compared using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Unlike previous studies, we included a comparison group of very young normally developing children and matched subjects on overall adaptive behavior as well as several pertinent demographic characteristics. Findings revealed that, relative to children with Down syndrome or

James R. Rodrigue; Sam B. Morgan; Gary R. Geffken

1991-01-01

123

Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

2011-01-01

124

Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

Steed, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

125

Artificial Life, Adaptive Behavior, Agents Application Oriented Routing with Biologicallyinspired Agents  

E-print Network

Artificial Life, Adaptive Behavior, Agents Application Oriented Routing with Biologically natural synergies when considering measured quality of service. However, it is difficult to know that making best use of network capacity implies load balancing; however, this is a simplistic assumption

White, Tony

126

The association of benefit finding to psychosocial and health behavior adaptation among HIV+ men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological and behavioral adaptation to HIV is integral to long-term survival. Although most research on coping with HIV\\u000a has focused on factors associated with poor adaptation, recent research has expanded to include positive concomitants of adaptation,\\u000a such as benefit finding. This study examined the occurrence of benefit finding among HIV+ men and women and evaluated the potential relevance of\\u000a benefit

Rae A. Littlewood; Peter A. Vanable; Michael P. Carey; Donald C. Blair

2008-01-01

127

Compensatory Expressive Behavior for Facial Paralysis: Adaptation to Congenital or Acquired Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although there has been little research on the adaptive behavior of people with congenital compared to acquired disability, there is reason to predict that people with congenital conditions may be better adapted because they have lived with their conditions for their entire lives (Smart, 2008). We examined whether people with congenital facial paralysis (FP), compared to people with acquired

Kathleen R. Bogart; Linda Tickle-Degnen; Nalini Ambady

2012-01-01

128

Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

2009-01-01

129

Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

2009-01-01

130

Brief Report: Adaptive Behavior and Cognitive Skills for Toddlers on the Autism Spectrum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined adaptive behavior and cognitive skills for 125 toddlers on the autism spectrum using the recently updated Vineland-II and Bayley-III. Delays in adaptive skills were apparent at 2 years of age. As a group, toddlers on the autism spectrum had a profile of Vineland-II standard scores in which Motor Skills greater than Daily Living…

Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Huai, Nan; Weismer, Susan Ellis

2011-01-01

131

Adaptive language behavior in HCI: how expectations and beliefs about a system affect users' word choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

People display adaptive language behaviors in face-to-face conversations, but will computer users do the same during HCI? We report an experiment (N=20) demonstrating that users' use of language (in terms of lexical choice) is influenced by their beliefs and expectations about a system: When users believe that the system is unsophisticated and restricted in capability, they adapt their language to

Jamie Pearson; Jiang Hu; Holly P. Branigan; Martin J. Pickering; Clifford I. Nass

2006-01-01

132

The brain has a body: adaptive behavior emerges from interactions of nervous system, body and environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of mechanisms of adaptive behavior generally focus on neurons and circuits. But adaptive behavior also depends on interactions among the nervous system, body and environment: sensory preprocessing and motor post-processing filter inputs to and outputs from the nervous system; co-evolution and co-development of nervous system and periphery create matching and complementarity between them; body structure creates constraints and opportunities

Hillel J. Chiel; Randall D. Beer

1997-01-01

133

Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2014-06-01

134

A bottomup approach with a clear view of the top: How human evolutionary psychology can inform adaptive behavior research  

E-print Network

adaptive behavior research Geoffrey F. Miller School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences University and maintenance of complex behavioral adaptations across all species (evolution) could inform and unify the study of human behavior (psychology) just as productively as it does the study of animal behavior (ethology

Todd, Peter M.

135

Assessing Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Transportation Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transportation infrastructure, with long design life of 50 years and more, is susceptible to climate change. This paper describes an approach for assessing climate change adaptation strategies for transportation infrastructure, principally roadways and bridges. It is acknowledged that the affects and timing of climate changes are difficult to anticipate and that planning and design has its own inherent risks that must be considered on top of the uncertainty of climate change. Those conditions notwithstanding, climatologists, planners, and engineers are working on ways to reduce uncertainty and deal with risks in ways that can result in facilities that can provide reasonable levels of service, appropriate to their requirements in ways that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. This paper first identifies the potential changes in climate and local environmental conditions and impacts that will be of interest to the transportation designer; then discusses the status of climate forecasting, one of the great uncertainties in climate adaptation planning; and finally addresses climate and design risk and suggests approaches to dealing with expected changes. The adaptation strategy must be responsive to future conditions that can be very different than those of the past. Therefore, the paper describes approaches that include allowing for flexibility in designs, developing alternative scenarios and responses, performing sensitivity analysis, incorporating risk assessment / management techniques integrated with climate forecasting and infrastructure design. By utilizing these approaches, transportation facilities can be designed so that they can be expected to meet their requirements without being over designed. Such an approach will also minimize the total life-cycle cost.

Armstrong, A.; Keller, J.; Meyer, M. D.; Flood, M.

2011-12-01

136

Applications of Risk Assessment in the Development of Climate Change Adaptation Policy  

E-print Network

1 Applications of Risk Assessment in the Development of Climate Change Adaptation Policy A of climate change will affect both natural systems and human populations. Adaptation policies that provide. Present applications of risk assessment for climate change adaptation have taken two main approaches

Michalak, Anna M.

137

Modular Adaptivity and Behavior Based Control Joanna Bryson  

E-print Network

networks community. Behavior­based artificial intelligence, with its emphasis on modular components, seems). Behavior­ based artificial intelligence (bbai), which models intelligence as interacting mod­ ules and Intelligent Systems Edinburgh University Level 8, Appleton Tower Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK Joanna

Bryson, Joanna J.

138

Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. MIT-ICLEI Climate Adaptation Survey Instrument  

E-print Network

The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

Carmin, JoAnn

2014-09-14

139

The Targeted Assessment Coaching Interview: Adapting the Assessment Process to Different Coaching Requirements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide readers with an understanding of how the assessment protocol for executive coaching can be adapted to more effectively meet the different needs of clients who are seeking developmental, transitional, or remedial coaching. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on the author's 20 years…

Barner, Robert

2006-01-01

140

Predicting Adaptive Behavior from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the proportion of variance in adaptive functioning predictable from mental ability, chronological age, I.Q., evidence of brain malfunction, seizure medication, and receptive and expressive language scores, 25 severely and profoundly retarded institutionalized persons (2-19 years old) were administered the Bayley Infant Scale Mental…

Hotard, Stephen; McWhirter, Richard

141

Observing and adapting user behavior in navigational 3D interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a navigation-oriented interaction paradigm, such as desktop, mixed and augmented virtual reality, recognizing the user needs is a valuable improvement, provided that the system is able to correctly anticipate the user actions. Methodologies for adapting both navigation and content allow the user to interact with a customized version of the 3D world, lessening the cognitive load needed for accomplishing

Augusto Celentano; Fabio Pittarello

2004-01-01

142

Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

2011-01-01

143

Adaptive Characteristics and Suicidal Behavior: A Gender Comparison of Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a demographic questionnaire. Results of this study suggest that there are significant differences between levels

Jon B. Ellis; Dorian A. Lamis

2007-01-01

144

Behavioral Adaptation of Alpine Skiers to Climate Change: Examining Activity Involvement and Place Loyalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed a visitor survey to analyze the influence that changing climatic conditions have on the substitution behaviors of alpine skiers (activity, spatial, temporal). It further focuses on the role that activity involvement plays in influencing behavioral adaptations (i.e., substitution) and also the extent to which place loyalty is affected. The Modified Involvement Scale (MIS) was used to segment

Jackie Dawson; Mark Havitz; Daniel Scott

2011-01-01

145

Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation  

PubMed Central

Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

Cardoso, Goncalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

2012-01-01

146

Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children's Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores young children's ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports children's construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six…

Mioduser, David; Levy, Sharona T.

2010-01-01

147

Neural adaptation and behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception in cochlear implant recipients.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine if one of the neural temporal features, neural adaptation, can account for the across-subject variability in behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception performance in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Neural adaptation is the phenomenon in which neural responses are the strongest at the beginning of the stimulus and decline following stimulus repetition (e.g., stimulus trains). It is unclear how this temporal property of neural responses relates to psychophysical measures of temporal processing (e.g., gap detection) or speech perception. The adaptation of the electrical compound action potential (ECAP) was obtained using 1000 pulses per second (pps) biphasic pulse trains presented directly to the electrode. The adaptation of the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) was obtained using a sequence of 1-kHz tone bursts presented acoustically, through the cochlear implant. Behavioral temporal processing was measured using the Random Gap Detection Test at the most comfortable listening level. Consonant nucleus consonant (CNC) word and AzBio sentences were also tested. The results showed that both ECAP and LAEP display adaptive patterns, with a substantial across-subject variability in the amount of adaptation. No correlations between the amount of neural adaptation and gap detection thresholds (GDTs) or speech perception scores were found. The correlations between the degree of neural adaptation and demographic factors showed that CI users having more LAEP adaptation were likely to be those implanted at a younger age than CI users with less LAEP adaptation. The results suggested that neural adaptation, at least this feature alone, cannot account for the across-subject variability in temporal processing ability in the CI users. However, the finding that the LAEP adaptive pattern was less prominent in the CI group compared to the normal hearing group may suggest the important role of normal adaptation pattern at the cortical level in speech perception. PMID:24386403

Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Murphy, Dora; Boian, Melissa; Scott, Michael; Keith, Robert; Xiang, Jing; Abbas, Paul

2013-01-01

148

Model of Evolutionary Emergence of Purposeful Adaptive Behavior. The Role of Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of evolutionary emergence of purposeful adaptive behavior is investigated by means of computer simulations. The\\u000a model proposed implies that there is an evolving population of simple agents, which have two natural needs: energy and reproduction.\\u000a Any need is characterized quantitatively by a corresponding motivation. Motivations determine goal-directed behavior of agents.\\u000a The model demonstrates that purposeful behavior does emerge

Mikhail S. Burtsev; Vladimir G. Red'ko; Roman V. Gusarev

2001-01-01

149

Walking Adaptability after a Stroke and Its Assessment in Clinical Settings  

PubMed Central

Control of walking has been described by a tripartite model consisting of stepping, equilibrium, and adaptability. This review focuses on walking adaptability, which is defined as the ability to modify walking to meet task goals and environmental demands. Walking adaptability is crucial to safe ambulation in the home and community environments and is often severely compromised after a stroke. Yet quantification of walking adaptability after stroke has received relatively little attention in the clinical setting. The objectives of this review were to examine the conceptual challenges for clinical measurement of walking adaptability and summarize the current state of clinical assessment for walking adaptability. We created nine domains of walking adaptability from dimensions of community mobility to address the conceptual challenges in measurement and reviewed performance-based clinical assessments of walking to determine if the assessments measure walking adaptability in these domains. Our literature review suggests the lack of a comprehensive well-tested clinical assessment tool for measuring walking adaptability. Accordingly, recommendations for the development of a comprehensive clinical assessment of walking adaptability after stroke have been presented. Such a clinical assessment will be essential for gauging recovery of walking adaptability with rehabilitation and for motivating novel strategies to enhance recovery of walking adaptability after stroke.

Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K.; Clark, David J.; Fox, Emily J.

2014-01-01

150

Behavioral assay for assessing effects of pollutants on fish chemoreception  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral assays are sensitive to sublethal levels of pollution but they usually require highly trained personnel and long observation periods. We describe a system that combines the sensitivity of a behavioral assay with commercially available automated monitoring equipment. The observation system consists of a special aquarium coupled to a recirculating water system, and an Opto-Varimex-Aqua activity tracking meter (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, Ohio) interfaced to a microcomputer. The tracking meter forms an intersecting, planar grid of light beams which, when interrupted by fish movements, is translated into a digitized signal and fed to the computer. The assay is based on the response of fish to natural chemical stimuli such as food odors or pheromones. When these stimulus solutions are injected into the water circulation the response of the fish is monitored by the computer system, which is capable of discriminating and quantifying changes in eight parameters. Normal responses to stimuli are compared with the response of fish that have been exposed to pollutants. We have successfully used this technique to examine effects of reduced pH on the response of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, to chemical feeding stimuli. The system should be easily adapted to any laboratory concerned with testing for effects of toxic substances, and will identify effects of pollution that have thus far been difficult or impossible to assess.

Lemly, A.D.; Smith, R.J.

1986-04-01

151

Abstract Behavior Representations for Self-Assessment Scott A. Wallace  

E-print Network

Abstract Behavior Representations for Self-Assessment Scott A. Wallace Washington State University which might be derived, for example, from observations of human experts (Wallace & Laird 2003). However

Wallace, Scott

152

Molar Functional Relations and Clinical Behavior Analysis: Implications for Assessment and Treatment  

PubMed Central

The experimental analysis of behavior has identified several molar functional relations that are highly relevant to clinical behavior analysis. These include matching, discounting, momentum, and variability. Matching provides a broader analysis of how multiple sources of reinforcement influence how individuals choose to allocate their time and offers an empirical rationale for reducing problem behavior by increasing adaptive behavior. Discounting highlights the functional relations that affect self-control. Momentum specifies the variables responsible for persistence in challenging situations. Variability characterizes a functional dimension of behavior that is essential for learning and problem solving. These concepts have important implications for clinical practice and research. A selective review of these concepts is presented, and their implications for assessment and treatment are discussed with two goals: to inform basic scientists about the relevance of their work and to invite clinical behavior analysts to broaden the conceptual basis for their work. PMID:22478513

Waltz, Thomas J; Follette, William C

2009-01-01

153

Behavioral contingencies improve counseling attendance in an adaptive treatment model.  

PubMed

Poor patient adherence remains a serious obstacle to improving the effectiveness of many drug abuse therapies and the overall quality of care delivered in programs. The present study evaluated the utility and efficacy of incorporating behavioral contingencies in a stepped care treatment approach to motivate patient attendance to the varying amounts of prescribed weekly counseling. Study participants were opioid-dependent patients (n = 127) newly admitted to an ambulatory treatment program that provides methadone. Participants were randomly assigned to a Motivated Stepped Care condition (MSC; n = 65) with behavioral contingencies to specifically motivate counseling attendance vs. a Standard Stepped Care condition (SSC; n = 62) without these contingencies. The MSC vs. SSC condition was associated with a higher rate of counseling attendance (83% vs. 44%, p < .001) and a lower rate of poor treatment response (46% vs. 79%, p < .001). The behavioral contingencies were well tolerated and strongly associated with excellent attendance across both lower and higher doses of weekly counseling. PMID:15501375

Brooner, Robert K; Kidorf, Michael S; King, Van L; Stoller, Kenneth B; Peirce, Jessica M; Bigelow, George E; Kolodner, Ken

2004-10-01

154

Using Multimethod-Multisource Functional Behavioral Assessment for Students with Behavioral Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using multimethod-multisource functional behavioral assessment (FBA), 3 students (in kindergarten, first grade, and ninth grade) with behavioral disabilities at risk for change of placement received interventions. Indirect assessments included the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff--Part A & B, the Student-Directed Functional…

Stage, Scott A.; Jackson, Hal G.; Moscovitz, Kara; Erickson, Marcia Jensen; Thurman, Stacy Ogier; Jessee, Wyeth; Olson, Erin M.

2006-01-01

155

Parental genetic effects in a cavefish adaptive behavior explain disparity between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic parental genetic effects are important in many biological processes but their roles in the evolution of adaptive traits and their consequences in naturally evolving populations remain to be addressed. By comparing two divergent blind cave-dwelling cavefish populations with a sighted surface-dwelling population (surface fish) of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, we report here that convergences in vibration attraction behavior (VAB), the lateral line sensory receptors underlying this behavior, and the feeding benefits of this behavior are controlled by parental genetic effects, either maternal or paternal inheritance. From behavioral studies and mathematical evolutionary simulations, we further demonstrate that disparity in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in one of these cavefish populations that has hybridized with surface fish can be explained by paternal inheritance of VAB. The results suggest that parental genetic effects in adaptive behaviors may be important factors in biasing mitochondrial DNA inheritance in natural populations that are subject to introgression. PMID:22946818

Yoshizawa, Masato; Ashida, Go; Jeffery, William R.

2012-01-01

156

HIV-Associated Changes in Adaptive, Emotional, and Behavioral Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Hemophilia: Results From the Hemophilia Growth and Development Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess changes in adaptive, emotional, and behavioral functioning over four years in children and adolescents with hemophilia and with or without HIV infection and to evaluate the relationship of these changes to immune status. Methods: Participants were 277 HIV-seropositive and 126 HIV-seronegative boys with hemophilia. Partici- pants with HIV infection were divided into three groups based on trajectory

Sharon Nichols; Elizabeth M. Mahoney; Patricia A. Sirois; Janice D. Bordeaux; James A. Stehbens; Katherine A. Loveland; Nancy Amodei

2000-01-01

157

Options for Managing Student Behavior: Adaptations for Individual Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…

Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

158

Observations on the visual-perceptual abilities and adaptive behavior in adults with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

In this research, we consider some psychological, social, and clinical implications of premature aging in persons with Down syndrome (DS). Perceptual and adaptive tests contribute to a better knowledge of the characteristics of mental decline and self-government in DS adults. Visual-perceptual abilities (as measured by the Frosting Development Test of Visual Perception) and behavioral and social adaptation (measured by the Brown Adaptive Behavioral Inventory) were examined in 44 DS subjects aged 14 to 43 years. The results indicated a general decline in performance in the older groups (over 25 years), except in the visual-motor subtest, where a decline is less evident, as this ability continues to be exercised in craft work. Statistical analysis indicates a significant correlation between perceptual abilities, adaptive scales, and mental age. From the data collected, we draw some general conclusions about the trend of perceptual abilities and self-government in relation to aging in DS persons. PMID:2149967

Saviolo-Negrin, N; Soresi, S; Baccichetti, C; Pozzan, G; Trevisan, E

1990-01-01

159

The Adaptive Authentication System for Behavior Biometrics Using Pareto Learning Self Organizing Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we propose an authentication system which can adapt to the temporal changes of the behavior biometrics with\\u000a accustoming to the system. We proposed the multi-modal authentication system using Supervised Pareto learning Self Organizing\\u000a Maps. In this paper, the adaptive authentication system with incremental learning which is applied as the feature of neural\\u000a networks is developed.

Hiroshi Dozono; Masanori Nakakuni; Shinsuke Itou; Shigeomi Hara

2010-01-01

160

A Pilot Study of Culturally Adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Hispanics with Major Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for major depression among Hispanics in primary care. Cultural adaptations were applied based on a range of cultural considerations described in the literature. Fifteen Hispanic primary care patients with major depression were enrolled. All participants received the 12-session intervention and completed baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up

Alejandro Interian; Lesley A. Allen; Michael A. Gara; Javier I. Escobar

2008-01-01

161

The adaptive trade-off between detection and discrimination in cortical representations and behavior.  

PubMed

It has long been posited that detectability of sensory inputs can be sacrificed in favor of improved discriminability and that sensory adaptation may mediate this trade-off. The extent to which this trade-off exists behaviorally and the complete picture of the underlying neural representations that likely subserve the phenomenon remain unclear. In the rodent vibrissa system, an ideal observer analysis of cortical activity measured using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in anesthetized animals was combined with behavioral detection and discrimination tasks, thalamic recordings from awake animals, and computational modeling to show that spatial discrimination performance was improved following adaptation, but at the expense of the ability to detect weak stimuli. Together, these results provide direct behavioral evidence for the trade-off between detectability and discriminability, that this trade-off can be modulated through bottom-up sensory adaptation, and that these effects correspond to important changes in thalamocortical coding properties. PMID:24607233

Ollerenshaw, Douglas R; Zheng, He J V; Millard, Daniel C; Wang, Qi; Stanley, Garrett B

2014-03-01

162

Urban climate resilience : a global assessment of city adaptation plans  

E-print Network

As policy makers accept climate change as an irrefutable threat, adaptation planning has emerged as a necessary action for countries, states, and municipalities. This thesis explores adaptive responses to climate change ...

Katich, Kristina Noel

2009-01-01

163

Behavioral Assessment of Joint Attention: A Methodological Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for joint attention responding and initiation. The assessment was given to 26 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and 21 typically developing children, aged two to four years. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures.…

MacDonald, Rebecca; Anderson, Jennifer; Dube, William V.; Geckeler, Amy; Green, Gina; Holcomb, William; Mansfield, Renee; Sanchez, June

2006-01-01

164

ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY.  

PubMed

On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Axia, Giovanna

2011-04-01

165

Organizational Adaptative Behavior: The Complex Perspective of Individuals-Tasks Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organizations with different organizational structures have different organizational behaviors when responding environmental changes. In this paper, we use a computational model to examine organizational adaptation on four dimensions: Agility, Robustness, Resilience, and Survivability. We analyze the dynamics of organizational adaptation by a simulation study from a complex perspective of the interaction between tasks and individuals in a sales enterprise. The simulation studies in different scenarios show that more flexible communication between employees and less hierarchy level with the suitable centralization can improve organizational adaptation.

Wu, Jiang; Sun, Duoyong; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Yu

166

Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Cognitive Abilities among Disabled Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined computerized adaptive testing and cognitive ability testing of adults with cognitive disabilities. Adult subjects (N=250) were given computerized tests on language usage and space relations in one of three administration conditions: paper and pencil, fixed length computer adaptive, and variable length computer adaptive.…

Engdahl, Brian

167

Reward stability determines the contribution of OFC to adaptive behavior  

PubMed Central

Animals respond to changing contingencies to maximize reward. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is important for flexible responding when established contingencies change, but the underlying cognitive mechanisms are debated. We tested rats with sham or OFC lesions in radial maze tasks that varied the frequency of contingency changes and measured both perseverative and non-perseverative errors. When contingencies were changed rarely, rats with sham lesions learned quickly and performed better than rats with OFC lesions. Rats with sham lesions made fewer non-perseverative errors, rarely entering non-rewarded arms, and more win-stay responses by returning to recently rewarded arms, compared to rats with OFC lesions. When contingencies were changed rapidly, however, rats with sham lesions learned slower, made more non-perseverative errors, fewer lose-shift responses, and returned more often to non-rewarded arms than rats with OFC lesions. The results support the view that the OFC integrates reward history, and suggests that the availability of outcome expectancy signals can either improve or impair adaptive responding depending on reward stability. PMID:23152622

Riceberg, Justin S.; Shapiro, Matthew L.

2012-01-01

168

Nonsocial Play Patterns of Young Children With Communication Disorders: Implications for Behavioral Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well established that young children with communication disorders (CD) have considerable difficulties interacting socially with peers in free-play settings. The central purpose of this study was to determine whether behavioral adaptations of children with CD could contribute to their peer interaction problems. To accomplish this, the behavioral patterns of reticent, solitary-passive, and solitary-active sub- types of nonsocial

Michael J. Guralnick; Mary A. Hammond; Robert Connor

2006-01-01

169

Making Sense by Building Sense: Kindergarten Children’s Construction and Understanding of Adaptive Robot Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores young children’s ability to construct and explain adaptive behaviors of a behaving artifact, an autonomous\\u000a mobile robot with sensors. A central component of the behavior construction environment is the RoboGan software that supports\\u000a children’s construction of spatiotemporal events with an a-temporal rule structure. Six kindergarten children participated\\u000a in the study, three girls and three boys. Activities and

David MioduserSharona; Sharona T. Levy

2010-01-01

170

Insect oviposition behavior affects the evolution of adaptation to Bt crops: consequences for refuge policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major lepidopteran insect pests of cotton and maize harbor intra-specific variation for behavior determining the selection\\u000a of host plants for oviposition. Yet, the consequences of behavioral adaptation for fitness have neither been modeled nor monitored\\u000a for Bt cotton and maize crops, the most widely grown transgenic herbivore-resistant plants. Here, we present a general two-locus\\u000a heuristic model to examine potential

Maarten A. Jongsma; Fred Gould; Mathieu Legros; Limei Yang; Joop J. A. van Loon; Marcel Dicke

2010-01-01

171

A tool for creating eye-aware applications that adapt to changes in user behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development tool is described that can be used to create eye-aware software applications that adapt in real-time to changes in a user’s natural eye-movement behaviors and intentions. The research involved in developing this tool focuses on identifying patterns of eye-movement that describe three behaviors: Knowledgeable Movement, Searching, and Prolonged Searching. In the process of doing the research, two important

Gregory W. Edwards; Archimedes Project

1998-01-01

172

Classroom/Behavior Management Skills Assessment Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

San Jose State University's School of Education is developing a pre/post test instrument to evaluate the effectiveness of classroom/behavior management courses offered to preservice education trainees. Expert input was sought from professors who teach courses on classroom/behavior management in order to find out what level of agreement would exist…

Grossman, Herbert

173

Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk  

PubMed Central

Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

2014-01-01

174

Professional Skills Self-Assessment Adapted from: myIDP at ScienceCareers.org  

E-print Network

Professional Skills Self-Assessment Adapted from: myIDP at ScienceCareers.org an online Individual Training and mentoring individuals 1 2 3 4 5 Seeking advice from advisors and mentors 1 2 3 4 5 Negotiating Skills Self-Assessment Adapted from: myIDP at ScienceCareers.org an online Individual Development Plan

Ferrari, Silvia

175

Anticipatory flood risk assessment under climate change scenarios: from assessment to adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Centre for Research on Epidemiology Disasters, floods are the type of natural disasters that affected the highest number of people from 1900 to 2008 worldwide. Specifically, Austria suffered from heavy floods in recent years, affecting thousands of people and causing billions of Euro in economic losses. Although there is yet no proof that these accumulated extreme events are a direct consequence of climate change, they may indicate what can be expected. Currently, comprehensive climate modelling research is being conducted for Austria that may lay the foundation for enhanced climate impact assessments (regional climate modelling under consideration of different global models and varying scenarios). However, the models so far have neither special focus on Austria nor a distinct definition of boundary conditions for Austria. Therefore, results of climate models are considered as too unreliable and inconsistent for predicting changes in flood characteristics, especially at a regional to local scale. As a consequence, adaptation strategies have to be derived from integrated impact analyses that are based on dissecting mechanisms and drivers for changes and not only on the dimension of climate change. This paper discusses a dynamic flood risk assessment methodology considering potential spatial and temporal developments of hazard and vulnerability under climate change scenarios. The approach integrates quantifiable results from assessments of hazard, exposure and sensitivity and the qualitative, interview based, assessment of adaptive capacities. Flood risk assessment will be conducted for the current state in Austria and enhanced by potential (1) flood scenarios increased by a climate change allowance (2) demographic development scenarios (3) land-use change scenarios and (4) adaptation policy assessment to identify regions especially prone to flooding. Comparing the current state with various anticipatory hazard and vulnerability scenarios provides the basis for a sensitivity analysis of whether climate change impacts or demographic and land use development mainly triggers the increase of damage potentials. Based on this sensitivity analysis, a ranking of priority regions with a current and future need for action will be conducted and illustrated by means of qualitative risk categories ranging from low priority to high priority. Out of these priority areas, three relevant case studies will be chosen and analysed on a micro scale level to enable risk analyses including climate change adaptation assessment on the regional and local level. In the frame of the case studies, a micro-scale risk assessment approach will be applied based on expected annual losses and the influence of adaptation capacity on the overall flood risk. All scientifically derived results will be discussed in community based scenario workshops. This participatory tool enables stakeholders to address the relevant determinants of vulnerability, to point at so far unconsidered locally important context conditions and to come to conclusions about envisaged useable adaptive measures.

Neuhold, C.; Hogl, K.; Seher, W.; Nachtnebel, H. P.; Scherhaufer, P.; Nordbeck, R.; Löschner, L.

2012-04-01

176

Assessment and Treatment of Problem Behavior Occasioned by Interruption of Free-Operant Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study describes the assessment and treatment of the problem behavior of 3 individuals with autism for whom initial functional analysis results were inconclusive. Subsequent analyses revealed that the interruption of free-operant behavior using ''do'' requests (Study 1) as well as ''do'' and ''don't'' requests (Study 2) occasioned problem behavior. Initially, treatment involved differential and noncontingent reinforcement without interruption.

LOUIS P. HAGOPIAN; Jennifer L Bruzek; L YNN G. BOWMAN; HEATHER K. JENNETT

2007-01-01

177

Naturalistic Study of the Behavior of Students with EBD Referred for Functional Behavioral Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A descriptive study of 22 students (K-10th grade) with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) who were referred for functional behavioral assessment (FBA) revealed less on-task and more avoidant and inappropriate behaviors in comparison to classroom peers without EBD. Students who had been diagnosed as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity…

Erickson, Marcia J.; Stage, Scott A.; Nelson, J. Ron

2006-01-01

178

Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Alternate Definitions to Assess Classroom Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) incorporates aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to provide an efficient means to collect time series data. This study extended the development and evaluation of DBR Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) as a behavior assessment tool. Eighty-eight undergraduate students used…

Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra; Jaffery, Rosemary

2011-01-01

179

Behavioral conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders.  

PubMed

Families of children with feeding disorders frequently present to primary care settings. Although providers are often knowledgeable about medical and developmental etiologies, behavioral etiologies may go unidentified and untreated. In this article, the authors review a biobehavioral approach for the assessment and treatment of feeding disorders. First, factors that affect the development of feeding behaviors are described including sensitive developmental periods for acquiring feeding skills and the effects of interpersonal relationships on feeding. Second, behavioral assessment and conceptualization strategies are discussed including the use of feeding questionnaires, caregiver interviews, and the use of feeding observations. Third, behavioral treatment strategies are described including the uses of feeding structure, manipulation of hunger, contingency management, shaping, and parent training. Finally, consideration of various behavioral treatment options are considered including the integration of psychology as part of an interdisciplinary team and the use of intensive behavioral treatment protocols that include inpatient behavioral programs. PMID:17647134

Fischer, Elizabeth; Silverman, Alan

2007-08-01

180

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: Supplementary Norms for Individuals with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 684 individuals yielded special population norms on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales for individuals with autism for mute children under 10, children with some verbal skills under 10, mute individuals who are 10 or older, and individuals with some verbal skills who are 10 or older. (Author/CR)

Carter, Alice S.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Sparrow, Sara S.; Wang, Jing-Jen; Lord, Catherine; And Others

1998-01-01

181

A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

2013-01-01

182

IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN A SIMPLE INSECT-LIKE ROBOT  

E-print Network

constructed robots that use a minimal complement of basic sensors is investigated. A hardware and simulated the importance of developing a physical device. The robot is endowed with instincts pertaining to obstacle1 IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN A SIMPLE INSECT-LIKE ROBOT by MARK LANTHIER, B

Lanthier, Mark

183

AntWeb - The Adaptive Web Server Based on the Ants? Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the AntWeb system, developed under the research area of Web Intelligence (WI). Our approach to AntWeb application is inspired by the ant colonies foraging behavior, to adaptively mark the most significant links, by means of the shortest route to arrive to target pages. We consider the Web users as artificial ants, and use the ant theory as a

Wesley Martins Teles; Weigang Li; Célia Ghedini Ralha

2003-01-01

184

Studying the Genetics of Behavior and Evolution by Adaptation and Natural Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an exercise designed to give students an appreciation for the genetic basis of behavior. Employs the phenomenon of glucose aversion as an example of evolution by mutation and accelerated natural selection, thereby revealing one of the ways in which organisms adapt to human interference. (DDR)

Silverman, Jules

1998-01-01

185

Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

2008-01-01

186

Comparison of the Adaptive Authentication Systems for Behavior Biometrics using the Variations of Self Organizing Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biometrics authentication systems take attentions to cover the weakness of password authentication system. In this paper, we focus attention on the multi modal-biometrics of behavior characteristics. For the integration of multi modal biometrics, some variations of Self Organizing maps and its incremental learning method for implementing adaptive authentication system are imple- mented and their performances are examined for the

Hiroshi Dozono; Shinsuke Itou; Masanori Nakakuni

187

Incidence and Temporal Patterns of Adaptive Behavior Change in Adults with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study found cumulative decline in adaptive behavior and functional skills in 248 adults with Down syndrome increased from less than .04 at age 50, to .67 by 72, whereas decline for 398 adults with mental retardation increased from less than .02 at age 50 to .52 at 88. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Urv, Tiina; Zigman, April; Silverman, Wayne

2002-01-01

188

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

2005-01-01

189

The AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale--Public School Version: A Normative Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This normative study of the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Adaptive Behavior Scale--Public School Version was based on 291 Texas public school children divided into 12 categories. The categories were: age, ethnic, or racial group (white or non-white), and assignment to regular classes or special education classes for the educable…

Boyd, Lenore A.; Chissom, Brad

190

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders  

E-print Network

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders Todd A independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb- weaving-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web

Blackledge, Todd

191

Patterns of Intellectual, Adaptive and Behavioral Functioning in Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many researchers have studied the population of individuals with mild mental retardation (MIMR) as if it is a clear entity. Few researchers have investigated potential subtypes within the MIMR population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate which subtypes can be identified on the basis of intellectual, adaptive and behavioral

Soenen, Sarah; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

2009-01-01

192

Heuristics as beliefs and as behaviors: the adaptiveness of the "hot hand".  

PubMed

and analyzed reasoning by asking: what are the reasoner's goals? This emphasizes the adaptiveness of behavior rather than whether a belief is normative. Belief in the "hot hand" in basketball suggests that players experiencing streaks should be given more shots, but this has been seen as a fallacy due to failure to find dependencies between players' shots. Based on their findings, I demonstrate by Markov modeling and simulation that streaks are valid allocation cues for deciding who to give shots to, because this behavior achieves the team goal of scoring more. Empirically I show that this adaptive heuristic is supported by the fallacious belief in dependency, more so as skill level increases. I extend the theoretical analysis to identify general conditions under which following streaks should be beneficial. Overall, this approach illustrates the advantages of analyzing reasoning in terms of adaptiveness. PMID:15020214

Burns, Bruce D

2004-05-01

193

Adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy for religious individuals with mental disorder: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an evidence-based psychological intervention for various mental disorders. However, mental health clinicians should be cognizant of the population that was used to validate the intervention and assess its acceptability to a target group that is culturally different. We systematically reviewed published empirical studies of CBT adapted for religious individuals with mental disorder to determine the extent to which religiously modified CBT can be considered an empirically supported treatment following the criteria delineated by the American Psychological Association Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Overall, nine randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study were included that compared the effectiveness of religiously modified CBT to standard CBT or other treatment modalities for the treatment of depressive disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. The majority of these studies either found no difference in effectiveness between religiously modified CBT compared to standard CBT or other treatment modalities, or early effects that were not sustained. Considering the methodological limitations of the reviewed studies, religiously modified CBT cannot be considered a well-established psychological intervention for the treatment of the foregoing mental disorders following the a priori set criteria at this juncture. Nevertheless, melding religious content with CBT may be an acceptable treatment modality for individuals with strong religious convictions. PMID:24813028

Lim, Caroline; Sim, Kang; Renjan, Vidhya; Sam, Hui Fang; Quah, Soo Li

2014-06-01

194

Assessing Adaptive Instructional Design Tools and Methods in ADAPT[IT].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ADAPT[IT] (Advanced Design Approach for Personalized Training - Interactive Tools) is a European project within the Information Society Technologies program that is providing design methods and tools to guide a training designer according to the latest cognitive science and standardization principles. ADAPT[IT] addresses users in two significantly…

Eseryel, Deniz; Spector, J. Michael

195

Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children  

PubMed Central

Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers’ child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank–behavior associations. PMID:23045637

Boyce, W. Thomas; Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

2012-01-01

196

Longitudinal Changes in Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Scores in Children and Adolescents with the Fragile X Mutation or Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of children and adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome (n=18) or autism (n=18) for changes in cognitive ability and adaptive behavior over 9 years found steeper decreases in IQ scores among Fragile X subjects with older autistic subjects autism exhibiting stable test-retest scores. Comparative declines in adaptive behavior scores were…

Fisch, Gene S.; Simensen, Richard J.; Schroer, R. J.

2002-01-01

197

A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.  

PubMed

The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations. PMID:25264467

Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

2014-09-01

198

Assessment of Social Behavior in Children with Autism: The Development of the Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a limited number of assessments available to examine social skills deficits in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children (BASYC) was developed as a direct assessment of social deficits in young children with ASD relative to children without ASD. The BASYC is a…

Gillis, Jennifer M.; Callahan, Emily H.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

2011-01-01

199

Behavioral Assessment of Self-Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a behavior disorder that can range in severity from self-inflicted mild bruising and abrasions,\\u000a to life-threatening tissue damage (Carr, 1977). The focus of this chapter is on SIB displayed by individuals with developmental\\u000a disabilities (DD), including autism. Although SIB occurs in psychiatric patients (e.g., self-mutilation) and in some otherwise\\u000a typically developing adolescents and adults (e.g., self-cutting),

Timothy R. Vollmer; Kimberly N. Sloman; Carrie S. W. Borrero

200

Assessment of feeding behavior in laboratory mice  

PubMed Central

Summary The global obesity epidemic has heightened the need for an improved understanding of how body weight is controlled, and research using mouse models is critical to this effort. In this perspective, we provide a conceptual framework for investigation of feeding behavior in this species, with an emphasis on factors that influence study design, data interpretation, and relevance to feeding behavior in humans. Although we focus on the mouse, the principles presented can be applied to most other animal models. This document represents the current consensus view of investigators from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Centers (MMPCs). PMID:20620991

Ellacott, Kate L.J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Woods, Stephen C.; Tso, Patrick; Schwartz, Michael W.

2010-01-01

201

Development and Validation of a Professional Behavior Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An assessment instrument to measure the professional behavior of occupational therapy students (n=317) in clinical placements was validated through factor and item analyses that demonstrated internal consistency, interrater reliability, and discriminant validity. (Contains 22 references.) (JOW)

Koenig, Kristie; Johnson, Caryn; Morano, Cathleen K.; Ducette, Joseph P.

2003-01-01

202

The Eating and Exercise Behavior Questionnaire: A Validity Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies assessing the Eating and Exercise Behavior Questionnaire indicated that it is reliable and useful in studying the eating patterns of the obese, differences in behavioral cue responses to eating, and multiple and single session weight loss training effectiveness.The research utility of the instrument is discussed. (CB)

Brandon, Jeffrey E.; And Others

1988-01-01

203

The Social Validity Assessment of Social Competence Intervention Behavior Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social validation is the value judgment from society on the importance of a study. The social validity of behavior goals used in the social competence intervention literature was assessed using the Q-sort technique. The stimulus items were 80 different social competence behavior goals taken from 78 classroom-based social competence intervention…

Hurley, Jennifer J.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Feurer, Irene D.

2010-01-01

204

Behavioral Insomnias of Childhood: Assessment and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Behavioral Insomnias of Childhood (BIC) include a series of problems of sleep initiation, continuity, maintenance, and\\u000a bedtime resistance. These sleep problems can place a significant burden on the parents who may be required to attend to a\\u000a child at the beginning or in the middle of the night. The resulting sleep loss can impact parents’ and children’s daytime\\u000a functioning

Daniel S. Lewin; Edward Huntley

205

Stability of Adaptive Behaviors in Middle-School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 5-year follow-up study examined the stability of adaptive functioning in two cognitive ability groups of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nonverbal intelligence (NVIQ) was assessed at the time of this study and no participant changed cognitive group membership from the previous study (High NVIQ greater than or equal to 97; Low…

Gabriels, Robin L.; Ivers, Bonnie Jean; Hill, Dina E.; Agnew, John A.; McNeill, John

2007-01-01

206

Assessment of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment

Plotts, Cynthia A.

2012-01-01

207

Assessment of Emotionally Disturbed/Behaviorally Disordered Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical issues such as unbiased assessment and expected incidence of students with emotional and behavior disorders are addressed in terms of such issues as unbiased assessment. Recommended practices are described in terms of a five-step process to aid in determining eligibility and making placement decisions. (CL)

Wood, Frank H.; Smith, Carl R.

1985-01-01

208

Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

Simon, Robert I.

2008-01-01

209

Measurement Properties of Indirect Assessment Methods for Functional Behavioral Assessment: A Review of Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indirect assessment instruments used during functional behavioral assessment, such as rating scales, interviews, and self-report instruments, represent the least intrusive techniques for acquiring information about the function of problem behavior. This article provides criteria for examining the measurement properties of these instruments…

Floyd, Randy G.; Phaneuf, Robin L.; Wilczynski, Susan M.

2005-01-01

210

Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

2013-08-01

211

Assessing leader behaviors in project managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research was to explore the leadership style of graduate project management students vs other MBA students. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Graduate project management and MBA students attending a regional comprehensive university in USA returned surveys that assess their leadership style emphasis of concern for task or concern for people. Findings – Project management students rate themselves

Paul H. Jacques; John Garger; Michael Thomas

2008-01-01

212

Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

Lee, Chuen-Chien

1991-01-01

213

Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Leisure Assessment Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Participation"--defined as engagement in life situations, including leisure and recreational activities--is associated with the improvement of people with disabilities' quality of life. Several specific instruments assess leisure, but none of them has been adapted to the Spanish context. The goal of this study is to adapt and validate the Spanish…

Badia, Marta; Orgaz-Baz, M. Begona; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Martinez-Aguirre, M. Magdalena; Longo-Araujo-de-Melo, Egmar; Ullan-de-la-Fuente, Ana M.

2012-01-01

214

Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges.  

PubMed Central

Two analyses investigated the effects of choice making on the responding of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral challenges. In the first analysis, 2 participants were given choices from menus of academic tasks, all of which were pertinent to their educational objectives in English and spelling, respectively. Reversal designs showed that the choice-making conditions increased task engagement and reduced disruptive behavior for both students. An additional analysis was performed with a 3rd student in an effort to further distinguish the effects of choice making from preference. In this study, one of the no-choice phases was yoked to a previous choice-making condition. This analysis demonstrated that the choice-making condition was superior to baseline and yoked control phases as determined by levels of task engagement and disruptive behavior. The findings of the two analyses contribute information relevant to students with emotional and behavioral disorders, and to a growing literature on the desirable effects of choice making for students with disabilities and challenging behaviors. PMID:7928792

Dunlap, G; dePerczel, M; Clarke, S; Wilson, D; Wright, S; White, R; Gomez, A

1994-01-01

215

A Module for Adaptive Course Configuration and Assessment in Moodle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personalization and Adaptation are among the main challenges in the field of e-learning, where currently just few Learning Management Systems, mostly experimental ones, support such features. In this work we present an architecture that allows Moodle to interact with the Lecomps system, an adaptive learning system developed earlier by our research group, that has been working in a stand-alone modality so far. In particular, the Lecomps responsibilities are circumscribed to the sole production of personalized learning objects sequences and to the management of the student model, leaving to Moodle all the rest of the activities for course delivery. The Lecomps system supports the "dynamic" adaptation of learning objects sequences, basing on the student model, i.e., learner's Cognitive State and Learning Style. Basically, this work integrates two main Lecomps tasks into Moodle, to be directly managed by it: Authentication and Quizzes.

Limongelli, Carla; Sciarrone, Filippo; Temperini, Marco; Vaste, Giulia

216

User—robot personality matching and assistive robot behavior adaptation for post-stroke rehabilitation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a hands-off socially assistive therapist robot designed to monitor, assist, encourage, and socially interact\\u000a with post-stroke users engaged in rehabilitation exercises. We investigate the role of the robot’s personality in the hands-off\\u000a therapy process, focusing on the relationship between the level of extroversion–introversion of the robot and the user. We\\u000a also demonstrate a behavior adaptation system capable

Adriana Tapus; Cristian ??pu?; Maja J. Matari?

2008-01-01

217

Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining

J. Mark Eddy

2005-01-01

218

Vulnerability Assessment, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures in Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the priority tasks of the climate change measures, the Republic of Slovenia estimates that special attention needs to be devoted to the following sectors in general: - sectors that currently indicate a strong vulnerability for the current climate variability (for instance, agriculture), - sectors where the vulnerability for climate change is increased by current trends (for instance, urban development, use of space), - sectors where the adaptation time is the longest and the subsequent development changes are connected with the highest costs (for instance, use of space, infrastructural objects, forestry, urban development, building stock). Considering the views of Slovenia to the climate change problem in Europe and Slovenia, priority measures and emphasis on future adaptation to climate change, the Republic of Slovenia has especially exposed the following action areas: - sustainable and integrated management of water sources for water power production, prevention of floods, provision of water for the enrichment of low flow rates, and preservation of environmental function as well as provision of water for other needs; - sustainable management of forest ecosystems, adjusted to changes, for the provision of their environmental function as well as being a source of biomass, wood for products for the conservation of carbon, and carbon sinks; - spatial planning as one of the important preventive instruments for the adaptation to climate change through the processes of integral planning of spatial and urban development; - sustainable use and preservation of natural wealth and the preservation of biodiversity as well as ecosystem services with measures and policies that enable an enhanced resistance of ecosystems to climate change, and the role of biological diversity in integral adaptation measures; - informing and awareness on the consequences of climate change and adaptation possibilities. For years, the most endangered sectors have been agriculture and forestry; therefore, they are also the only sectors for which a national adaptation strategy was adopted.

Cegnar, T.

2010-09-01

219

BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES R. Julian Preston Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA There ...

220

Assessment of the Adaptive Unstructured Tetrahedral Grid, Euler Flow Solver Code Felisa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison o...

M. J. Djomehri, L. L. Erickson

1994-01-01

221

Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. A Research Agenda  

E-print Network

The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

Carmin, JoAnn

2014-09-13

222

Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

Myers, Carl L.

2013-01-01

223

A New IDEA Mandate: The Use of Functional Assessment of Behavior and Positive Behavior Supports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses requirements under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments of 1997 for functional assessments of behavior (FABs) and provision of positive behavioral supports (PBSs). It describes steps in implementing FABs and examples of appropriate PBSs with students with disabilities. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.

2001-01-01

224

The translation and cultural adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for use in Israel (Hebrew), Korea, the US (Spanish), India (Malayalam and Kannada), and Spain  

PubMed Central

Background The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a caregiver rating scale for assessing the behavioral profile of children. It was developed in the US, and has been extensively translated and used in a large number of studies internationally. Objective The objective of this study was to translate the CBCL into six languages using a rigorous translation methodology, placing particular emphasis on cultural adaptation and ensuring that the measure has content validity with carers of children with epilepsy. Methods A rigorous translation and cultural adaptation methodology was used. This is a process which includes two forward translations, reconciliation, two back-translations, and cognitive debriefing interviews with five carers of children with epilepsy in each country. In addition, a series of open-ended questions were asked of the carers in order to provide evidence of content validity. Results A number of cultural adaptations were made during the translation process. This included adaptations to the examples of sports and hobbies. An addition of “milk delivery” was made to the job examples in the Malayalam translation. In addition, two sexual problem items were removed from the Hebrew translation for Israel. Conclusion An additional six translations of the CBCL are now available for use in multinational studies. These translations have evidence of content validity for use with parents of children with epilepsy and have been appropriately culturally adapted so that they are acceptable for use in the target countries. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation. PMID:22715318

Wild, Diane; Furtado, Tamzin; Angalakuditi, Mallik

2012-01-01

225

Increasing the on-Task Homework Behavior of Youth with Behavior Disorders Using Functional Behavioral Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown a positive correlation between time spent on homework and learning. However, students often engage in off-task behaviors to escape the demands of homework. Youth with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) are especially likely to engage in off-task behaviors. Effective interventions to increase on-task behavior during homework…

Hawkins, Renee O.; Axelrod, Michael I.

2008-01-01

226

Employer Assessment of Work-Related Competencies and Workplace Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study identified 17 work-related competencies that might relate to superior job performance and examined their relationship to the successful workplace adaptation of recent co-op engineering graduates. Traditional mail and web-based surveys were employed. The research questions were examined through correlations, t tests, ANOVAs,…

Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Sutton, Faye C.

2005-01-01

227

Flexibility and adaptation of the neural substrate that supports maternal behavior in mammals.  

PubMed

Maternal behavior is species-specific and expressed under different physiological conditions, and contexts. It is the result of neural processes that support different forms (e.g. postpartum, cycling sensitized and spontaneous maternal behavior) and modalities of mother-offspring interaction (e.g. maternal interaction with altricial/precocious young; selective/non-selective bond). To understand how the brain adapts to and regulates maternal behavior in different species, and physiological and social conditions we propose new neural models to explain different forms of maternal expression (e.g. sensitized and spontaneous maternal behavior) and the behavioral changes that occur across the postpartum period. We emphasize the changing role of the medial preoptic area in the neural circuitry that supports maternal behavior and the cortical regulation and adjustment of ongoing behavioral performance. Finally, we discuss how our accumulated knowledge about the psychobiology of mothering in animal models supports the validity of animal studies to guide our understanding of human mothering and to improve human welfare and health. PMID:23608126

Olazábal, Daniel E; Pereira, Mariana; Agrati, Daniella; Ferreira, Annabel; Fleming, Alison S; González-Mariscal, Gabriela; Lévy, Frederic; Lucion, Aldo B; Morrell, Joan I; Numan, Michael; Uriarte, Natalia

2013-09-01

228

Fish behavior, migration and environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Studies at the Pacific Northwst Laboratory have evaluated fish behavior and migration in response to thermal discharge, gas supersaturated water, water-soluble fractions of coal liquids, and other environmental stresses. Major findings including thermal discharges did not block upstream migration of sonic-tagged adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the Columbia River. Juvenile chinook slamon avoided thermal discharges in the laboratory when ..delta..ts exceeded 9 to 11)degree)C above ambient. However juvenile salmon were more susceptible to predation at 10 to 20% of the thermal dose causing loss of equilibrium. Radio-tagged adult chinook salmon swam deeper in supersaturated water than in normally saturated water in the Snake River and, thereby, avoided the upper, critical zone. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and black bullhead (Ictalurus melas) did not always avoid lethal gas levels in the laboratory and some fish died in the test apparatus. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) avoided the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a coal liquid at concentrations causing acute effects but not at those causing chronic effects. Rainbow trout did not avoid coal liquid WSFs although they reportedly avid the major constituent, phenol, tested a as pure compound. Susceptibility to predation of juvenile rainbow trout did not increase until phenol concentrations reached the acute LC/sub 50/. 67 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Gray, R.H.

1988-02-01

229

Functional assessment, curricular revision, and severe behavior problems.  

PubMed Central

An adolescent female with multiple handicaps and a long history of severely disruptive behavior participated in a functional assessment linked directly to specific revisions in her school curriculum. During Phase 1, reversal designs were used to test hypotheses pertaining to antecedent and curricular influences on problem behavior. During Phase 2, a multiple baseline across afternoon and morning time periods demonstrated that the curricular revisions were effective in eliminating severely disruptive behavior and increasing on-task responding. Data also showed that inappropriate "psychotic" speech was reduced and appropriate social interactions were increased. Follow-up results showed that the changes were maintained throughout the school year. Questionnaire data provided social validation of the procedures and outcomes. The findings are discussed in relation to their implications for functional assessment, individualized curricula, and positive programming for students with disabilities and serious behavior problems. PMID:1890054

Dunlap, G; Kern-Dunlap, L; Clarke, S; Robbins, F R

1991-01-01

230

Combining computer adaptive testing technology with cognitively diagnostic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major advantage of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is that it allows the test to home in on an examinee’s ability level\\u000a in an interactive manner. The aim of the new area of cognitive diagnosis is to provide information about specific content\\u000a areas in which an examinee needs help. The goal of this study was to combine the benefit of

Meghan McGlohen; Hua-Hua Chang

2008-01-01

231

The alliance of adaptive behavior and social competence: an examination of relationship between the scales of Independent Behavior and the Social Skills Rating System.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between ratings of adaptive behavior and social competence in a population of 208 students in kindergarten through third grade with a variety of disabilities using the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB; Bruininks, Woodcock, Weatherman, & Hill, 1984) and the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; Gresham & Elliott, 1990). Moderate yet statistically significant relationships between the SIB adaptive behavior scores and the SSRS social competence scores were found, with strongest correlations occurring between the SSRS and the Social and Communication subscale (r = .51) and Work Skills subscale (r = .60) on the SIB. Weak to near zero correlations were found between the SIB adaptive behavior scores and SSRS Problem Behaviors scores. This investigation provides new evidence for the concurrent criterion-related validity of both the SIB and the SSRS. PMID:8190971

Merrell, K W; Popinga, M R

1994-01-01

232

Use of behavioral endpoints in natural resource damage assessment  

SciTech Connect

Behavioral effects caused by exposure to hazardous substances can play an important role in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) cases. Behavioral avoidance has been recognized as a natural resource injury in the Department of Interior`s NRDA regulations. Behavioral avoidance may be particularly important as an NRDA endpoint because it can occur at exposure concentrations substantially less than lethal concentrations, and can result in the effective loss of aquatic habitat. For example, in a recent NRDA case, laboratory testing demonstrated behavioral avoidance at copper concentrations of 1.2 {micro}g/l and 6 {micro}g/l for rainbow and brown trout, respectively. Other behavioral effects may have similar adverse effects on populations in the wild and may merit inclusion in NRDA injury and restoration studies.

Lipton, J.; Marr, J. [RCG/Hagler Bailly, Boulder, CO (United States); Little, E.E. [National Biological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States)

1994-12-31

233

Shop 'til you drop II: Collective Adaptive Behavior of Simple Autonomous Trading Agents in Simulated `Retail' Markets  

E-print Network

from experiments where an elementary machine learning technique endows simple autonomous softwareShop 'til you drop II: Collective Adaptive Behavior of Simple Autonomous Trading Agents Autonomous Trading Agents in Simulated `Retail' Markets Dave Cli Arti cial Intelligence Laboratory

Tesfatsion, Leigh

234

Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

235

Ability to adapt: different generations of PAMAM dendrimers show different behaviors in binding siRNA.  

PubMed

This paper reports a molecular dynamic study to explore the diverse behavior of different generations of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers in binding siRNA. Our models show good accordance with experimental measurements. Simulations demonstrate that the molecular flexibility of PAMAMs plays a crucial role in the binding event, which is controlled by the modulation between enthalpy and entropy of binding. Importantly, the ability of dendrimers to adapt to siRNA is strongly dependent on the generation and on the pH due to backfolding. While G4 demonstrates good adaptability to siRNA, G6 behaves like a rigid sphere with a consistent loss in the binding affinity. G5 shows a hybrid behavior, maintaining rigid and flexible aspects, with a strong dependence of its properties on the pH. To define the "best binder", the mere energetic definition of binding affinity appears to be no longer effective and a novel concept of "efficiency" should be considered, being the balance between enthalpy and entropy of binding indivisible from the structural flexibility. With this aim, we propose an original criterion to define and rank the ability of these molecules to adapt their structure to bind a charged target. PMID:20146540

Pavan, Giovanni M; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Danani, Andrea

2010-03-01

236

Successfully Translating Language and Culture when Adapting Assessment Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A need exists for culturally valid and reliable developmental assessment tools for children with disabilities that are able to accommodate multiple languages. One way in which this goal can be achieved is through test translations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the use of translations of select developmental assessment

Bornman, Juan; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Pae, Hye Kyeong

2010-01-01

237

Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

2012-01-01

238

Adaptive grid methods for RLV environment assessment and nozzle analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid access to highly accurate data about complex configurations is needed for multi-disciplinary optimization and design. In order to efficiently meet these requirements a closer coupling between the analysis algorithms and the discretization process is needed. In some cases, such as free surface, temporally varying geometries, and fluid structure interaction, the need is unavoidable. In other cases the need is to rapidly generate and modify high quality grids. Techniques such as unstructured and/or solution-adaptive methods can be used to speed the grid generation process and to automatically cluster mesh points in regions of interest. Global features of the flow can be significantly affected by isolated regions of inadequately resolved flow. These regions may not exhibit high gradients and can be difficult to detect. Thus excessive resolution in certain regions does not necessarily increase the accuracy of the overall solution. Several approaches have been employed for both structured and unstructured grid adaption. The most widely used involve grid point redistribution, local grid point enrichment/derefinement or local modification of the actual flow solver. However, the success of any one of these methods ultimately depends on the feature detection algorithm used to determine solution domain regions which require a fine mesh for their accurate representation. Typically, weight functions are constructed to mimic the local truncation error and may require substantial user input. Most problems of engineering interest involve multi-block grids and widely disparate length scales. Hence, it is desirable that the adaptive grid feature detection algorithm be developed to recognize flow structures of different type as well as differing intensity, and adequately address scaling and normalization across blocks. These weight functions can then be used to construct blending functions for algebraic redistribution, interpolation functions for unstructured grid generation, forcing functions to attract/repel points in an elliptic system, or to trigger local refinement, based upon application of an equidistribution principle. The popularity of solution-adaptive techniques is growing in tandem with unstructured methods. The difficultly of precisely controlling mesh densities and orientations with current unstructured grid generation systems has driven the use of solution-adaptive meshing. Use of derivatives of density or pressure are widely used for construction of such weight functions, and have been proven very successful for inviscid flows with shocks. However, less success has been realized for flowfields with viscous layers, vortices or shocks of disparate strength. It is difficult to maintain the appropriate mesh point spacing in the various regions which require a fine spacing for adequate resolution. Mesh points often migrate from important regions due to refinement of dominant features. An example of this is the well know tendency of adaptive methods to increase the resolution of shocks in the flowfield around airfoils, but in the incorrect location due to inadequate resolution of the stagnation region. This problem has been the motivation for this research.

Thornburg, Hugh J.

1996-01-01

239

Adaptive Sampling Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Nuclear Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear simulations are often computationally expensive, time-consuming, and high-dimensional with respect to the number of input parameters. Thus exploring the space of all possible simulation outcomes is infeasible using finite computing resources. During simulation-based probabilistic risk analysis, it is important to discover the relationship between a potentially large number of input parameters and the output of a simulation using as few simulation trials as possible. This is a typical context for performing adaptive sampling where a few observations are obtained from the simulation, a surrogate model is built to represent the simulation space, and new samples are selected based on the model constructed. The surrogate model is then updated based on the simulation results of the sampled points. In this way, we attempt to gain the most information possible with a small number of carefully selected sampled points, limiting the number of expensive trials needed to understand features of the simulation space. We analyze the specific use case of identifying the limit surface, i.e., the boundaries in the simulation space between system failure and system success. In this study, we explore several techniques for adaptively sampling the parameter space in order to reconstruct the limit surface. We focus on several adaptive sampling schemes. First, we seek to learn a global model of the entire simulation space using prediction models or neighborhood graphs and extract the limit surface as an iso-surface of the global model. Second, we estimate the limit surface by sampling in the neighborhood of the current estimate based on topological segmentations obtained locally. Our techniques draw inspirations from topological structure known as the Morse-Smale complex. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a global prediction model versus local topological view of the simulation space, comparing several different strategies for adaptive sampling in both contexts. One of the most interesting models we propose attempt to marry the two by obtaining a coarse global representation using prediction models, and a detailed local representation based on topology. Our methods are validated on several analytical test functions as well as a small nuclear simulation dataset modeled after a simplified Pressurized Water Reactor.

Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

2013-09-01

240

Making climate change governable: the case of the UK climate change risk assessment and adaptation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment techniques are regarded as key devices for managing adaptation to climate change; this paper examines their use in the first UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. The conceptual framework is derived from the sociology of knowledge, which treats policy makers as co-producers of knowledge, in interaction with scientists and consultants. The paper considers the framing of the problem, the

Janette Webb

2011-01-01

241

A bottom-up approach with a clear view of the top: How human evolutionary psychology can inform adaptive behavior research  

E-print Network

adaptive behavior research Geoffrey F. Miller School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences University and maintenance of complex behavioral adaptations across all species (evolution) could inform and unify the study of human behavior (psychology) just as productively as it does the study of animal behavior (ethology

Todd, Peter M.

242

The Alliance of Adaptive Behavior and Social Competence: An Examination of Relationships between the Scales of Independent Behavior and the Social Skills Rating System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used the Scales of Independent Behavior (SIB) and the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) to examine the relationship between ratings of adaptive behavior and social competence with 208 students in kindergarten through third grade with a variety of disabilities. The study provided evidence for the concurrent criterion-related validity of…

Merrell, Kenneth W.; Popinga, Monique R.

1994-01-01

243

Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery resolution 20 percent, extending countermeasures keep-out range by a factor of 5, doubling the range for ladar detection and identification, and compensating for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft boundary layers. Innovative concepts are required for atmospheric pat hand boundary layer compensation. We have developed design that perform these tasks using high speed scene-based wavefront sensing, IR aerosol laser guide stars, and extended-object wavefront beacons. We have developed a number of adaptive optics system configurations that met the spatial resolution requirements and we have determined that sensing and signal processing requirements can be met. With the help of micromachined deformable mirrors and sensor, we will be able to integrate the systems into existing airborne pods and missiles as well as next generation electro-optical systems.

Tyson, Robert K.

1999-09-01

244

INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes,...

245

Adapting the Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool for health care  

E-print Network

The Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool (LESAT) is a product of the Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This tool has been applied by many organizations to gage their progress ...

Hernandez, Cynthia Lynn

2010-01-01

246

Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches  

PubMed Central

Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

2013-01-01

247

Adaptation of the ABS-S:2 for Use in Spain with Children with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As there is a dearth of Spanish-language standardized scales that assess adaptive behavior in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID), the authors adapted one of the most widely used and studied scales of adaptive behavior in the U.S., the ABS-S:2 (Adaptive Behavior Scale-School, 2nd Edition), and validated it for use in…

Garcia Alonso, Isabel; De La Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel; Fernandez Hawrylak, Maria

2010-01-01

248

Adaptations in humans for assessing physical strength from the voice  

PubMed Central

Recent research has shown that humans, like many other animals, have a specialization for assessing fighting ability from visual cues. Because it is probable that the voice contains cues of strength and formidability that are not available visually, we predicted that selection has also equipped humans with the ability to estimate physical strength from the voice. We found that subjects accurately assessed upper-body strength in voices taken from eight samples across four distinct populations and language groups: the Tsimane of Bolivia, Andean herder-horticulturalists and United States and Romanian college students. Regardless of whether raters were told to assess height, weight, strength or fighting ability, they produced similar ratings that tracked upper-body strength independent of height and weight. Male voices were more accurately assessed than female voices, which is consistent with ethnographic data showing a greater tendency among males to engage in violent aggression. Raters extracted information about strength from the voice that was not supplied from visual cues, and were accurate with both familiar and unfamiliar languages. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that both men and women can accurately assess men's physical strength from the voice, and suggest that estimates of strength are used to assess fighting ability. PMID:20554544

Sell, Aaron; Bryant, Gregory A.; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Krauss, Andre; Gurven, Michael

2010-01-01

249

Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action  

PubMed Central

Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception. PMID:24348358

Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

2013-01-01

250

A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

Koh, Seong A.

2010-01-01

251

Behavioral Assessment of Couples' Communication in Female Orgasmic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication problems are believed to play a central role in many sexual dysfunctions. The present study behaviorally assessed communication patterns within heterosexual couples in which the woman was experiencing female orgasmic disorder and within two groups of control couples. The sexually dysfunctional couples evidenced significantly poorer communication than controls, primarily but not exclusively when discussing sexual topics. Specifically, women with

Mary P. Kelly; Donald S. Strassberg; Charles M. Turner

2006-01-01

252

An Inventory for Assessing Food Behaviors of Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development, field-testing, and summary statistics of a series of inventories designed to assess food behaviors of 1,673 elementary school students (grades 1-6). Content focuses on personal cleanliness, personal safety, and food quality. Students respond to cartoon items by selecting one of three responses to indicate their typical…

Fanslow, Alyce M.; And Others

1982-01-01

253

Behavioral Assessment of Feeding Problems of Individuals with Severe Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A behavioral assessment procedure was evaluated with five children with severe/profound mental retardation who exhibited feeding problems of limited intake. Subjects were fed various types of foods. Results indicated each subject fit into one of four categories: (1) total food refusal, (2) food type selectivity, (3) food texture selectivity, or…

Munk, Dennis D.; Repp, Alan C.

1994-01-01

254

Reinforcer Assessment I: Using Problem Behavior to Select Reinforcers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen students, aged 7-24, with severe developmental disabilities who exhibited frequent aggression, self-injury, and/or tantrums were assessed to engage in problem behavior maintained by social attention or by escape from unpleasant situations. The differential effectiveness of praise and time-out was measured, indicating the importance of…

Durand, V. Mark; And Others

1989-01-01

255

Abstract of PsyOps: Personality Assessment Through Gaming Behavior  

E-print Network

assessment through video games. Video games combine the strengths of behavioral and ob- servational measures, while side-stepping the reliability issues inherent in self-report. Additionally, video games offer) The Big Five dimension Conscientiousness is negatively correlated with speed of action. (2) The game

Spronck, Pieter

256

Assessing Students with Serious Mental Health and Behavioral Problems: Clinical Assessment for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current intervention trend for many of the mental health and behavioral problems faced by today's youth is an integrative approach that involves the community, families, and schools. Clinical assessment for serious mental health and behavioral problems can be an important component in the development of school-based screening programs. The…

Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Conlon, Amy L.

257

Assessing confidence in management adaptation approaches for climate-sensitive ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of options are available for adapting ecosystem management to improve resilience in the face of climatic changes. However, uncertainty exists as to the effectiveness of these options. A report prepared for the US Climate Change Science Program reviewed adaptation options for a range of federally managed systems in the United States. The report included a qualitative uncertainty analysis of conceptual approaches to adaptation derived from the review. The approaches included reducing anthropogenic stressors, protecting key ecosystem features, maintaining representation, replicating, restoring, identifying refugia and relocating organisms. The results showed that the expert teams had the greatest scientific confidence in adaptation options that reduce anthropogenic stresses. Confidence in other approaches was lower because of gaps in understanding of ecosystem function, climate change impacts on ecosystems, and management effectiveness. This letter discusses insights gained from the confidence exercise and proposes strategies for improving future assessments of confidence for management adaptations to climate change.

West, J. M.; Julius, S. H.; Weaver, C. P.

2012-03-01

258

Dynamic DNA methylation: a prime candidate for genomic metaplasticity and behavioral adaptation.  

PubMed

DNA methylation was once considered to be a static epigenetic modification whose primary function was restricted to directing the development of cellular phenotype. However, it is now evident that the methylome is dynamically regulated across the lifespan: during development as a putative mechanism by which early experience leaves a lasting signature on the genome and during adulthood as a function of behavioral adaptation. Here, we propose that experience-dependent variations in DNA methylation, particularly within the context of learning and memory, represent a form of genomic metaplasticity that serves to prime the transcriptional response to later learning-related stimuli and neuronal reactivation. PMID:23041052

Baker-Andresen, Danay; Ratnu, Vikram S; Bredy, Timothy W

2013-01-01

259

Musically adapted social stories to modify behaviors in students with autism: four case studies.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a musical presentation of social story information on the behaviors of students with autism. Social stories are a means of incorporating an individual with autism's propensity toward visual learning with educationally necessary behavior modifications. Participants in the study were four first- and second-grade students with a primary diagnosis of autism attending an elementary school in eastern Iowa. A unique social story was created for each student that addressed a current behavioral goal. Subsequently, original music was composed using the text of the social story as lyrics. The independent variable for this study was one of three treatment conditions: baseline (A); reading the story (B); and singing the story (C). The reading and singing versions of the social stories were alternately presented to the students using the counterbalanced treatment order ABAC/ACAB. The dependent variable was the frequency with which the target behavior occurred under each condition of the independent variable. Data were collected for a period of 1 hour following presentation of the social story. Results from all four cases indicated that both the reading condition (B) and the singing condition (C) were significantly (p <.05) more effective in reducing the target behavior than the no-contact control condition (A). The singing condition was significantly more effective than the reading condition only in Case Study III. For the remaining case studies, the mean frequency of the target behavior was smaller during the singing condition, but not significantly so. These results suggested that the use of a musically adapted version of social stories is an effective and viable treatment option for modifying behaviors with this population. PMID:12213082

Brownell, Mike D

2002-01-01

260

National Curriculum Assessment in Wales: Adaptations and Divergence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National curriculum assessment (NCA) in Wales has evolved from common foundations into a system that is now distinct from that in England. The influence of the political and social milieu of Wales can be seen both in the distinctive features that have been in place from the outset and in the more radical changes introduced since 2002. In this…

Daugherty, Richard

2009-01-01

261

Risk assessment of nanomaterials and nanoproducts - adaptation of traditional approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different approaches have been adopted for assessing the potential risks of conventional chemicals and products for human health. In general, the traditional paradigm is a toxicological-driven chemical-by-chemical approach, focusing on single toxic endpoints. Scope and responsibilities for the development and implementation of a risk assessment concept vary across sectors and areas and depends on the specific regulatory environment and the specific protection goals. Thus, risk assessment implication is a complex task based not only on science based knowledge but also on the regulatory context involving different parties and stakeholders. Questions have been raised whether standard paradigms for conventional chemicals would be applicable and adequate for new materials, products and applications of nanotechnology. Most scientists and stakeholders assume that current standard methods are in principle applicable to nanomaterials, but specific aspects require further development. The paper presents additional technical improvements like the complementary use of the life cycle methodology and the support of risk-based classification systems. But also aspects improving the utility of risk assessment with regard to societal impacts on risk governance are discussed.

Jahnel, J.; Fleischer, T.; Seitz, S. B.

2013-04-01

262

Behavioral assessment of feeding problems of individuals with severe disabilities.  

PubMed

As many as 80% of the individuals with severe or profound mental retardation exhibit feeding problems. Although behavioral interventions have been used to treat these problems, no assessment procedure for determining a functional relationship between a person's acceptance of food and the type and texture of that food has been reported. The purpose of this study was to test a behavioral assessment procedure for a feeding problem of limited intake. Five individuals with severe or profound mental retardation were fed 10 to 12 types of foods with one or more textures. Behavioral categories of acceptance, rejection, expulsion, and other negative behavior were recorded. Results indicated that each subject fit into one of four categories of feeding problems: (a) total refusal, (b) type selectivity, (c) texture selectivity, or (d) type and texture selectivity. Thus, although all 5 subjects exhibited limited intake, the food characteristics correlated with the problem were different for each individual. Results suggest that treatments for limited intake may be based on assessments that show the association of food type or texture to a person's rejection or expulsion of food. PMID:8063624

Munk, D D; Repp, A C

1994-01-01

263

Leader personality and 360-degree assessments of leader behavior.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between personality and multi-source feedback, we assessed 190 health care managers by applying the Understanding Personal Potential personality test, which provides comprehensive measurement of the Big Five dimensions and eight narrower personality traits. Managers' leadership behaviors were assessed by colleagues, supervisors, a random sample of each manager's subordinates as well as the managers themselves using a 360-degree change, production, employee (CPE) instrument. Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis showed that the Big Five variables were significantly related to the Managers' leadership behavior in all CPE dimensions. Also, addition of narrow personality variables to the Big Five increased explained variance in leadership behavior. This study is the first of its kind to include the full range of viewpoints in a 360-degree instrument, along with a large number of subordinate assessments. We found that both the strength of the relationship between personality and behavior and the configuration of different predictors varied depending on who did the rating and what leadership orientation was investigated, and this observation merits further investigation. PMID:24833326

Bergman, David; Lornudd, Caroline; Sjöberg, Lennart; Von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

2014-08-01

264

Relationship between Adaptation after Returning to Competition and Psycho-behavioral Attitudes during Injury Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation after returning to competition and psychological and behavioral variables during the rehabilitation period. [Subjects] Athletes (N =113) that had experienced an injury (mean age = 20.22?years, SD = 1.07; mean weeks after stopping sports = 7.98 weeks, SD = 11.74) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to respond to the athletic injury version of the Temporal Perspective Scale (TP-S), existing scales including the DDF-S, AIPA-S, and ARD-S, and the outcome indices for rehabilitation. [Results] The results of a cluster analysis indicated three modalities of temporal perspective (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative sequences). The results of an analysis of variance showed that the positive chain modality was adaptive for future dominance. The subjects in this group demonstrated higher levels of acceptance of injuries during the rehabilitation period than the other groups, devotion to rehabilitation, and awareness of the recovery in competitive performance and a feeling of personal growth. [Conclusion] The level of acceptance of injury during the rehabilitation period, as well as the devotion to rehabilitation, influenced adaptation after returning to competition.

Tatsumi, Tomonori

2014-01-01

265

Adaptive Flexibility in the Foraging Behavior of Fishes' Simon Fra.~erUniversity, Departsnent of Biological Sciences, Bui-naby, B.C. V5A IS6  

E-print Network

Adaptive Flexibility in the Foraging Behavior of Fishes' Simon Fra.~erUniversity, Departsnent of Biological Sciences, Bui-naby, B.C. V5A IS6 DILL,L. M. 1983. Adaptive flexibility in the foraging behavior of fishes. Can. 5. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40: 398-408. Flexibility is an important adaptive feature

Dill, Lawrence M.

266

Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2014-01-01

267

[Assessment of hyper- and hypodopaminergic behaviors in Parkinson's disease].  

PubMed

The common perception that Parkinson's disease patients tend to be depressed, anxious, apathetic and harm-avoiding has currently been challenged by the recognition that they can also exhibit a hedonistic, novelty-seeking personality. Thus, Parkinson's disease patients may indulge in their passions in an irresponsible and disinhibited manner, and engage in repetitive, compulsive behaviors that may be harmful and destructive to their social or professional lives. The dopamine dysregulation syndrome includes hypersexuality, pathological gambling, and compulsive shopping; it is associated with addiction to dopaminergic medication. However, not all behavioral changes are necessarily accompanied by a dopaminergic addiction. After antiparkinson treatment is initiated, patients enter a 'honeymoon period' during which changes in mood and behavior reflect a return to the patients' premorbid personality. The increased motivation and higher level of activity in professional as well as leisure activities are considered positive changes by both the patients and their relatives. With prolonged and increased dopaminergic treatment, these positive behavioral changes can become excessive and evolve into nocturnal hyperactivity and stereotyped, repetitive and time consuming behaviors which ultimately disorganize the patient's everyday routine and herald behavioral addictions. These drug-induced behavioral changes are under-appreciated by neurologists and under-reported by the patients who neither complain about the behaviors nor understand the relationship between motivated behavior and dopaminergic medication. For these reasons, we propose a new scale for the assessment of behavior and mood to quantify and track changes related to Parkinson's disease, to dopaminergic medication, and to non-motor fluctuations. This scale is based on the concept of hypo- and hyperdopaminergic mood and behavior. The scale consists of 18 items addressing non-motor symptoms, grouped in four parts: general psychological evaluation, apathy, non-motor fluctuations and hyperdopaminergic behaviors. The rating in five points (0-4 from absent to severe) is carried out during a semi-structured interview. Open-ended questions introduce each item, allowing patients to express themselves as freely as possible. Close-ended questions permit the rating of severity and intensity. This new instrument can be used by psychologists, psychiatrists or neurologists familiar with Parkinson's disease. Designed to detect changes in mood and behavior of Parkinson's disease patients resulting either from the disease or its treatment, this tool can be used in conjunction with the neurocognitive evaluation, to help tailor the treatment of motor and non-motor symptoms to each individual's needs. PMID:19683776

Ardouin, C; Chéreau, I; Llorca, P-M; Lhommée, E; Durif, F; Pollak, P; Krack, P

2009-11-01

268

Nanocrystalline coating design for extreme applications based on the concept of complex adaptive behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of effective hard coatings for high performance dry machining, which is associated with high stress/temperatures during friction, is a major challenge. Newly developed synergistically alloyed nanocrystalline adaptive Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N plasma vapor deposited hard coatings exhibit excellent tool life under conditions of high performance dry machining of hardened steel, especially under severe and extreme cutting conditions. The coating is capable of sustaining cutting speeds as high as 600 m/min. Comprehensive investigation of the microstructure and properties of the coating was performed. The structure of the coating before and after service has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micromechanical characteristics of the coating have been investigated at elevated temperatures. Oxidation resistance of the coating has been studied by using thermogravimetry within a temperature range of 25-1100 °C in air. The coefficient of friction of the coatings was studied within a temperature range of 25-1200 °C. To determine the causes of excellent tool life and improved wear behavior of the TiAlCrSiYN coatings, its surface structure characteristics after service have been investigated by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and extended energy-loss fine spectroscopy. One of the major features of this coating is the dynamic formation of the protective tribo-oxide films (dissipative structures) on the surface during friction with a sapphire and mullite crystal structure. Aluminum- and silicon-rich tribofilms with dangling bonds form on the surface as well. These tribofilms act in synergy and protect the surface so efficiently that it is able to sustain extreme operating conditions. Moreover, the Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N coating possesses some features of a complex adaptive behavior because it has a number of improved characteristics (tribological adaptability, ultrafine nanocrystalline structure, hot hardness and plasticity, and oxidation stability) that work synergistically as a whole. Due to the complex adaptive behavior, this coating represents a higher ordered system that has an ability to achieve unattainable wear resistance under strongly intensifying and extreme tribological conditions.

Fox-Rabinovich, G. S.; Veldhuis, S. C.; Dosbaeva, G. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kovalev, A. I.; Wainstein, D. L.; Gershman, I. S.; Shuster, L. S.; Beake, B. D.

2008-04-01

269

Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health  

PubMed Central

Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

2014-01-01

270

Effects of sex and gender on adaptation to space: behavioral health.  

PubMed

Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

Goel, Namni; Bale, Tracy L; Epperson, C Neill; Kornstein, Susan G; Leon, Gloria R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stuster, Jack W; Dinges, David F

2014-11-01

271

Assessing the spontaneous cage behavior of the squirrel monkey ( Saimiri sciureus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Behavioral Activity Index for rapid assessment of spontaneous cage behavior of the squirrel monkey is described. Observing the behavior of six male squirrel monkeys, it was found that four readily identifiable behaviors accounted for 62% of the total activity during a 30 minutes observation period. The need for a technique to reliably assess changes in baseline behavior is discussed

Gary R. Francois; Ernest S. Barratt; Cornelia S. Harris

1970-01-01

272

The Colorado Climate Preparedness Project: A Systematic Approach to Assessing Efforts Supporting State-Level Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scholars and policy analysts often contend that an effective climate adaptation strategy must entail "mainstreaming," or incorporating responses to possible climate impacts into existing planning and management decision frameworks. Such an approach, however, makes it difficult to assess the degree to which decisionmaking entities are engaging in adaptive activities that may or may not be explicitly framed around a changing climate. For example, a drought management plan may not explicitly address climate change, but the activities and strategies outlined in it may reduce vulnerabilities posed by a variable and changing climate. Consequently, to generate a strategic climate adaptation plan requires identifying the entire suite of activities that are implicitly linked to climate and may affect adaptive capacity within the system. Here we outline a novel, two-pronged approach, leveraging social science methods, to understanding adaptation throughout state government in Colorado. First, we conducted a series of interviews with key actors in state and federal government agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, and other entities engaged in state issues. The purpose of these interviews was to elicit information about current activities that may affect the state’s adaptive capacity and to identify future climate-related needs across the state. Second, we have developed an interactive database cataloging organizations, products, projects, and people actively engaged in adaptive planning and policymaking that are relevant to the state of Colorado. The database includes a wiki interface, helping create a dynamic component that will enable frequent updating as climate-relevant information emerges. The results of this project are intended to paint a clear picture of sectors and agencies with higher and lower levels of adaptation awareness and to provide a roadmap for the next gubernatorial administration to pursue a more sophisticated climate adaptation agenda. Project results can also inform numerous other ongoing database efforts connected to the U.S. National Assessment of Climate Change.

Klein, R.; Gordon, E.

2010-12-01

273

Marketing Behavioral Health: Implications of Evidence Assessments for Behavioral Health Care in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe intervention science as it applies to psychosocial behavioral health interventions and its effects on the growing evidence assessment infrastructure. In the process we discuss parallels with intervention science in industry and physical healthcare. Emerging government policies in the United States, such as Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and

Stephen Leff; Jeremy Conley; Kevin Hennessy

2006-01-01

274

Adaptive water governance: Assessing the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-)management from a governance perspective and defining a research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-)management based on a literature review of the (water) governance literature. The adaptive (co-)management literature contains four institutional prescriptions: collaboration in a polycentric governance system, public participation, an experimental approach to resource management, and management at the bioregional scale. These prescriptions largely resonate with the theoretical and empirical insights embedded in the

Dave Huitema; Erik Mostert; Wouter Egas; Sabine Moellenkamp; Claudia Pahl-wostl; Resul Yalcin

2009-01-01

275

Cultural adaptation of an intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among patients attending a STI clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia.  

PubMed

Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf. collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants' engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as "triggers" and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants' risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed. PMID:23322231

Grau, Lauretta E; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Kozlov, Andrei P; Abdala, Nadia

2013-08-01

276

Cultural Adaptation of an Intervention to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors among Patients Attending a STI Clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia  

PubMed Central

Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants’ engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as “triggers” and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants’ risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed. PMID:23322231

Grau, Lauretta E.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Abdala, Nadia

2014-01-01

277

Ambulatory Assessment – Monitoring Behavior in Daily Life Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Ambulatory assessment refers to the use of computer-assisted methodology for self-reports, behavior records, or physiological measurements, while the participant undergoes normal daily activities. Since the 1980s, portable microcomputer systems and physiolog- ical recorders\\/analyzers have been developed for this purpose. In contrast to their use in medicine, these new methods have hardly entered the domain of psychology. Questionnaire methods are

Jochen Fahrenberg; Michael Myrtek; K Urt Pawlik; Meinrad Perrez

278

An assessment of the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral grid, Euler Flow Solver Code FELISA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison of computational and wind tunnel data and enhancement of numerical solutions by means of grid adaptivity are discussed. The mesh generation is based on the advancing front technique. The FELISA code consists of two solvers, the Taylor-Galerkin and the Runge-Kutta-Galerkin schemes, both of which are spacially discretized by the usual Galerkin weighted residual finite-element methods but with different explicit time-marching schemes to steady state. The solution-adaptive grid procedure is based on either remeshing or mesh refinement techniques. An alternative geometry adaptive procedure is also incorporated.

Djomehri, M. Jahed; Erickson, Larry L.

1994-01-01

279

GIM-TEC adaptive ionospheric weather assessment and forecast system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ionospheric Weather Assessment and Forecast (IWAF) system is a computer software package designed to assess and predict the world-wide representation of 3-D electron density profiles from the Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC). The unique system products include daily-hourly numerical global maps of the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the peak height (hmF2) generated with the International Reference Ionosphere extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, upgraded by importing the daily-hourly GIM-TEC as a new model driving parameter. Since GIM-TEC maps are provided with 1- or 2-days latency, the global maps forecast for 1 day and 2 days ahead are derived using an harmonic analysis applied to the temporal changes of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 at 5112 grid points of a map encapsulated in IONEX format (-87.5°:2.5°:87.5°N in latitude, -180°:5°:180°E in longitude). The system provides online the ionospheric disturbance warnings in the global W-index map establishing categories of the ionospheric weather from the quiet state (W=±1) to intense storm (W=±4) according to the thresholds set for instant TEC perturbations regarding quiet reference median for the preceding 7 days. The accuracy of IWAF system predictions of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 maps is superior to the standard persistence model with prediction equal to the most recent ‘true’ map. The paper presents outcomes of the new service expressed by the global ionospheric foF2, hmF2 and W-index maps demonstrating the process of origin and propagation of positive and negative ionosphere disturbances in space and time and their forecast under different scenarios.

Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Stanislawska, I.

2013-09-01

280

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment.  

PubMed

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant "one model fits all" paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES--both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

281

A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzak, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

282

A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

2014-01-01

283

Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment  

SciTech Connect

Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

Wende, Wolfgang, E-mail: W.Wende@ioer.de [Head of Research Area on Landscape Change and Management, Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [InteREAM, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Bobylev, Nikolai, E-mail: nikolaibobylev@gmail.com [School of Innovation Science, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251, Politechnicheskaya, 29, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg Research Centre for Ecological Safety of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 197110, Korpusnaya, 18, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Stratmann, Lars, E-mail: l.stratmann@ioer.de [Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

2012-01-15

284

Adaptive behavior for texture discrimination by the free-flying big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.  

PubMed

This study examined behavioral strategies for texture discrimination by echolocation in free-flying bats. Big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were trained to discriminate a smooth 16 mm diameter object (S+) from a size-matched textured object (S-), both of which were tethered in random locations in a flight room. The bat's three-dimensional flight path was reconstructed using stereo images from high-speed video recordings, and the bat's sonar vocalizations were recorded for each trial and analyzed off-line. A microphone array permitted reconstruction of the sonar beam pattern, allowing us to study the bat's directional gaze and inspection of the objects. Bats learned the discrimination, but performance varied with S-. In acoustic studies of the objects, the S+ and S- stimuli were ensonified with frequency-modulated sonar pulses. Mean intensity differences between S+ and S- were within 4 dB. Performance data, combined with analyses of echo recordings, suggest that the big brown bat listens to changes in sound spectra from echo to echo to discriminate between objects. Bats adapted their sonar calls as they inspected the stimuli, and their sonar behavior resembled that of animals foraging for insects. Analysis of sonar beam-directing behavior in certain trials clearly showed that the bat sequentially inspected S+ and S-. PMID:21246202

Falk, Ben; Williams, Tameeka; Aytekin, Murat; Moss, Cynthia F

2011-05-01

285

Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu\\/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http:\\/\\/www.climate.noaa.gov\\/cpo_pa\\/risa\\/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing

D. White; S. Trainor; J. Walsh; C. Gerlach

2008-01-01

286

Test Adaptation and Cross-Cultural Assessment From a Business Perspective: Issues and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Test adaptation and cross-cultural assessment activities are skyrocketing as the demand for educational opportunities and personnel selection grow both within the United States and across the industrializing world. We chose a qualitative, case study approach to identify central themes encountered by ACT, a not-for-profit organization that has…

Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steven B.

2005-01-01

287

Automatic assessment of articulation disorders using confident unit-based model adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to automatic assessment on articulation disorders using unsupervised acoustic model adaptation. Prior knowledge is obtained via the phonological analysis of the speech data from 453 articulation disordered children. A confusion matrix of the recognition units for a specific subject is re-estimated based on the prior knowledge and the recognition results to choose the confident units

Hung-Yu Su; Chung-Hsien Wu; Pei-Jen Tsai

2008-01-01

288

Rapid Dynamic Assessment of Expertise to Improve the Efficiency of Adaptive Elearning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we suggest a method of evaluating learner expertise based on assessment of the content of working memory and the extent to which cognitive load has been reduced by knowledge retrieved from long-term memory. The method was tested in an experiment with an elementary algebra tutor using a yoked control design. In the learner-adapted

Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

2005-01-01

289

Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in

D. Manful; K. Tscherning; K. Kersebaum; J. Dietz; O. Dietrich; C. Gomani; H. Böhm; M. Büchner; G. Lischeid; M. Ojoyi

2009-01-01

290

NIH toolbox for assessment of neurological and behavioral function.  

PubMed

At present, there are many studies that collect information on aspects of neurologic and behavioral function (cognition, sensation, movement, emotion), but with little uniformity among the measures used to capture these constructs. Further, available measures are generally expensive, normed on homogenous nondiverse populations, not easily administered, do not cover the lifespan (or have easily linked pediatric and adult counterparts for the purposes of longitudinal comparison), and not based on the current thinking in the neuroscience community. There is also a paucity of measurement tools to gauge normal children in the motor and sensation domain areas, and many of these measures rely heavily on proxy reporting. Investigators have expressed the need for brief assessment tools that could address these issues and be used as a form of "common currency" across diverse study designs and populations. This ability to assess functionality along a common metric and "crosswalk" across measures is essential to the process of being able to pool data, which is often necessary when a large and diverse sample is needed. When individual studies employ unique assessment batteries, comparisons between studies and combining data from multiple studies can be problematic. The contract for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (www.nihtoolbox.org) was initiated by the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research (www.neuroscienceblueprint.nih.gov) to develop a set of state-of-the-art measurement tools to enhance collection of data in large cohort studies and to advance the biomedical research enterprise. PMID:23479538

Gershon, Richard C; Wagster, Molly V; Hendrie, Hugh C; Fox, Nathan A; Cook, Karon F; Nowinski, Cindy J

2013-03-12

291

Uncertainty assessment of urban pluvial flood risk in a context of climate change adaptation decision making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a significant increase in climatic extremes in many regions. In Central and Northern Europe, this has led to more frequent and more severe floods. Along with improved flood modelling technologies this has enabled development of economic assessment of climate change adaptation to increasing urban flood risk. Assessment of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis of current risk, drivers of change of risk over time, and measures to reduce the risk. However, such studies are often associated with large uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from basic assumptions in the economic analysis and the hydrological model, but also from the projection of future societies to local climate change impacts and suitable adaptation options. This presents a challenge to decision makers when trying to identify robust measures. We present an integrated uncertainty analysis, which can assess and quantify the overall uncertainty in relation to climate change adaptation to urban flash floods. The analysis is based on an uncertainty cascade that by means of Monte Carlo simulations of flood risk assessments incorporates climate change impacts as a key driver of risk changes over time. The overall uncertainty is then attributed to six bulk processes: climate change impact, urban rainfall-runoff processes, stage-depth functions, unit cost of repair, cost of adaptation measures, and discount rate. We apply the approach on an urban hydrological catchment in Odense, Denmark, and find that the uncertainty on the climate change impact appears to have the least influence on the net present value of the studied adaptation measures-. This does not imply that the climate change impact is not important, but that the uncertainties are not dominating when deciding on action or in-action. We then consider the uncertainty related to choosing between adaptation options given that a decision of action has been taken. In this case the major part of the uncertainty on the estimated net present values is identical for all adaptation options and will therefore not affect a comparison between adaptation measures. This makes the chose among the options easier. Furthermore, the explicit attribution of uncertainty also enables a reduction of the overall uncertainty by identifying the processes which contributes the most. This knowledge can then be used to further reduce the uncertainty related to decision making, as a substantial part of the remaining uncertainty is epistemic.

Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Zhou, Qianqian

2014-05-01

292

Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of executive function. PMID:22587709

Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O'Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

2011-01-01

293

A self-adapting herding model: The agent judge-abilities influence the dynamic behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a self-adapting herding model, in which the financial markets consist of agent clusters with different sizes and market desires. The ratio of successful exchange and merger depends on the volatility of the market and the market desires of the agent clusters. The desires are assigned in term of the wealth of the agent clusters when they merge. After an exchange, the beneficial cluster’s desire keeps on the same, the losing one’s desire is altered which is correlative with the agent judge-ability. A parameter R is given to all agents to denote the judge-ability. The numerical calculation shows that the dynamic behaviors of the market are influenced distinctly by R, which includes the exponential magnitudes of the probability distribution of sizes of the agent clusters and the volatility autocorrelation of the returns, the intensity and frequency of the volatility.

Dong, Linrong

2008-10-01

294

Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.  

PubMed

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

2014-01-01

295

Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams  

PubMed Central

Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luis; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araujo, Duarte; Garganta, Julio

2014-01-01

296

Performance Monitoring and Assessment of Neuro-Adaptive Controllers for Aerospace Applications Using a Bayesian Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern exploration missions require modern control systems-control systems that can handle catastrophic changes in the system's behavior, compensate for slow deterioration in sustained operations, and support fast system ID. Adaptive controllers, based upon Neural Networks have these capabilities, but they can only be used safely if proper verification & validation (V&V) can be done. In this paper we present our V & V approach and simulation result within NASA's Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS).

Gupta, Pramod; Guenther, Kurt; Hodgkinson, John; Jacklin, Stephen; Richard, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Soares, Fola

2005-01-01

297

International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement  

SciTech Connect

The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

NONE

1995-08-01

298

Improved Behavior, Motor, and Cognition Assessments in Neonatal Piglets  

PubMed Central

Abstract The alterations of animal behavior after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be subtle, and their quantitative characterization can present significant methodological challenges. Meeting these challenges is a critical need, because quantitative measures are required in studies that compare the efficacy of different clinical interventions. We developed a battery of assessments to quantify behavioral, motor, and cognitive changes in neonatal piglets with good sensitivity and specificity to the detection of persistent deficits that correlate with axonal injury severity after a rapid non-impact head rotation with a diffuse pattern of axonal injury. The battery of measures developed included open field behaviors of sniffing and moving a toy, locomotion measures of Lempel-Ziv complexity and the probability of remaining in the current location, and a novel metric for evaluating motor performance. Our composite porcine disability score was able to detect brain injury with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.7% at day +4 post-injury for n=8 injured and n=7 sham piglets and significantly correlated with the percent axonal injury in these animals (day +4: ?=0.76, p=0.0011). A significant improvement over our previous assessments, this new porcine disability score has potential use in a wide variety of porcine disease and injury models. PMID:23758416

Sullivan, Sarah; Friess, Stuart H.; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen J.; Rapp, Paul E.

2013-01-01

299

Speech and Language Disorders in Kenyan Children: Adapting Tools For Regions With Few Assessment Resources  

PubMed Central

This study sought to adapt a battery of Western speech and language assessment tools to a rural Kenyan setting. The tool was developed for children whose first language was KiGiryama, a Bantu language. A total of 539 Kenyan children (males=271, females=268, ethnicity=100% Kigiryama. Data were collected from 303 children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and 206 age-matched children recruited from the village communities. The language assessments were based upon the Content, Form and Use (C/F/U) model. The assessment was based upon the adapted versions of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Test for the Reception of Grammar, Renfrew Action Picture Test, Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills in Children, Test of Word Finding and language specific tests of lexical semantics, higher level language. Preliminary measures of construct validity suggested that the theoretical assumptions behind the construction of the assessments were appropriate and re-test and inter-rater reliability scores were acceptable. These findings illustrate the potential to adapt Western speech and language assessments in other languages and settings, particularly those in which there is a paucity of standardised tools. PMID:24294109

Carter, Julie Anne; Murira, Grace; Gona, Joseph; Tumaini, Judy; Lees, Janet; Neville, Brian George; Newton, Charles Richard

2013-01-01

300

Assessing, Analyzing, and Adapting: Improving a Graduate Student Instruction Program through Needs Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article highlights an assessment of library instruction needs among graduate students in the social sciences. The article addresses the development and implementation of the assessment and the application of assessment results to an established set of library instruction workshops. The article provides a detailed summary of assessment

Roszkowski, Beth; Reynolds, Gretchen

2013-01-01

301

Ambulatory Assessment – Monitoring Behavior in Daily Life Settings: A Behavioral-Scientific Challenge for Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambulatory assessment refers to the use of computer-assisted methodology for self-reports, behavior records, or physiological measurements, while the participant undergoes normal daily activities. Since the 1980s, portable microcomputer systems and physiological recorders\\/analyzers have been developed for this purpose. In contrast to their use in medicine, these new methods have hardly entered the domain of psychology. Questionnaire methods are still preferred,

Jochen Fahrenberg; Michael Myrtek; Kurt Pawlik; Meinrad Perrez

2007-01-01

302

Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning  

SciTech Connect

Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and type of constraints and in task objectives, and can adapt to changes in kinematics configurations (change of module, change of tool, joint failure adaptation, etc.).

Pin, Francois G.

2002-06-01

303

A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior  

PubMed Central

Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite primary unresolved questions regarding adaptive response behavior and bystander behavior. The five features of major significance provided by the Microdose Model so far are 1.) Single Specific Energy Hits initiate Adaptive Response, 2.) Mammogram and diagnostic X-rays induce a protective Bystander Effect as well as Adaptive Response radio-protection. 3.) For mammogram X-rays the Adaptive Response protection is retained at high primer dose levels. 4.) The dose range of the AR protection depends on the value of the Specific Energy per Hit, . 5.) Alpha particle induced deleterious Bystander damage is modulated by low LET radiation. PMID:18648579

Leonard, Bobby E.

2008-01-01

304

Assessment of the Massachusetts Behavioral Health Program Year 6.  

PubMed

After a difficult transition from the previous vendor to the Massachusetts Behavioral Health Partnership (MBHP), Year 6 was a year of stability and incremental changes for the Massachusetts Behavioral Health Program. This assessment of Year 6 is based on interviews with key players, data provided by the MBHP, a survey of providers, as well as on the fifth year of an ongoing review of the program. Results indicate that enrollment grew, and new services were developed in response to identified needs. Providers considered access, utilization, and quality of care to be the same or better than a year earlier. Coordination improved, but was not optimal. Clinical and overall decisions with MBHP were collaborative or negotiated and less hierarchical in manner than the previous year. Providers rated MBHP better than other managed care organizations on quality of care and utilization review decisions, access, flexibility, and administration. PMID:11194120

Beinecke, R H; Woliver, R

2000-11-01

305

Some psychophysiological and behavioral aspects of adaptation to simulated autonomous Mission to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.

Gushin, V.; Shved, D.; Vinokhodova, A.; Vasylieva, G.; Nitchiporuk, I.; Ehmann, B.; Balazs, L.

2012-01-01

306

Examining the specific effects of context on adaptive behavior and achievement in a rural african community: six case studies from rural areas of Southern province, Zambia.  

PubMed

Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn. AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, SD = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

2014-02-01

307

Static aeroelasticity and free vibration behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two problems associated with the behavior of aircraft wing structures incorporating piezoelectric effects are investigated. These problems concern the free vibration and the static aeroelastic behavior of airplane wings modelled as thin-walled beams. The pertinent equations of adaptive thin-walled beams are established via a Hamilton variational principle extended to the case of a linear 3D piezoelectric medium. The results obtained

Liviu Librescu; Craig A. Rogers; Ohseop Song

1992-01-01

308

Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence  

PubMed Central

The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680

Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

2014-01-01

309

Decision-based climate analysis for vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible effects of climate change pose serious challenges for natural resources management. In response, natural resource managers and decision makers seek ways for assessing climate-related vulnerabilities and when necessary planning for adaptation to a changing climate. Managers and decision-makers face an overwhelming array of climate information sources and approaches to generating climate projections. However, there is no clear method for using those projections to inform vulnerability assessments or adaptation planning. In this presentation, we describe and demonstrate an original framework for incorporating climate information into climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning. Insights from scenario planning and decision analysis are leveraged to develop a process designed specifically for assessing and managing risk under climate change uncertainty. The process uses a decision analytic decision framework to characterize climate vulnerabilities, provide perspective relative to other uncertainties, and to inform the risks with what is credible in climate projections. Robustness and vulnerability to surprise are explicitly considered within the framework. The approach, which is continuing development as part of the Department of the Interior Northeast Climate Science Center, is demonstrated in applications to the Great Lakes and other recent studies.

Brown, C. M.

2012-12-01

310

Research, part of a Special Feature on New Methods for Adaptive Water Management Adaptive Water Governance: Assessing the Institutional Prescriptions of Adaptive (Co)Management from a Governance Perspective and Defining a Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the institutional prescriptions of adaptive (co-)management based on a literature review of the (water) governance literature. The adaptive (co-)management literature contains four institutional prescriptions: collaboration in a polycentric governance system, public participation, an experimental approach to resource management, and management at the bioregional scale. These prescriptions largely resonate with the theoretical and empirical insights embedded in the

Dave Huitema; Erik Mostert; Wouter Egas; Sabine Moellenkamp; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Resul Yalcin

311

An Overview of Intervention Options for Promoting Adaptive Behavior of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury and Minimally Conscious State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of the studies directed at helping post-coma persons with minimally conscious state improve their adaptive behavior. Twenty-one studies were identified for the 2000-2010 period (i.e., a period in which an intense debate has occurred about diagnostic, rehabilitative, prognostic, and ethical issues concerning people…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Bosco, Andrea; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff

2010-01-01

312

Factor Analytic Structure of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (Part I). Using Community-Based Subjects: Implications for Program Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test whether or not the factor structure of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (Part I) (ABS) differs when community-based mentally retarded subjects are used rather than institutionalized retarded subjects, the ABS was administered to 100 mentally retarded adults living at home and being served by community daytreatment programs. A principle…

Staik, Irene M.

313

Two Children with Multiple Disabilities Increase Adaptive Object Manipulation and Reduce Inappropriate Behavior via a Technology-Assisted Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persons with severe to profound multiple disabilities, such as intellectual, visual, and motor disabilities, may be characterized by low levels of adaptive engagement with the environment. They may also display forms of inappropriate, stereotypical behavior (like hand mouthing, that is, putting their fingers into or over their mouths) or…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca

2010-01-01

314

Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

2009-01-01

315

Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

Dereli-Iman, Esra

2013-01-01

316

Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

2012-01-01

317

Longitudinal Changes in Cognitive Ability and Adaptive Behavior in Children and Adolescents with the Fragile X Mutation or Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the outcomes of a study that examined 216 comparably aged children and adolescents (ages 2-18) with fragile X or autism to determine whether longitudinal change in cognitive ability and adaptive behavior was similar in the two groups. Results found decreases in Intelligence Quotient scores in young children with fragile X as…

Simensen, R. J.; Fisch, G. S.; Schroer, R. J.

318

Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

2007-01-01

319

Brief Report: The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders at Different Cognitive Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) data were examined in a large sample of young children with ASD (n = 290) of varying cognitive levels. IQ was higher than VABS composite score among high functioning children only; the opposite pattern was found in lower IQ subgroups. Profile analysis of VABS domains across cognitive levels demonstrated…

Perry, Adrienne; Flanagan, Helen E.; Dunn Geier, Jennifer; Freeman, Nancy L.

2009-01-01

320

Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

2004-01-01

321

An Adaptive Approach to Family Intervention: Linking Engagement in Family-Centered Intervention to Reductions in Adolescent Problem Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used Complier Average Causal Effect analysis (CACE; see G. Imbens & D. Rubin, 1997) to examine the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in the public schools on rates of substance use and antisocial behavior among students ages 11–17. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in 6th grade and offered a

Arin M. Connell; Thomas J. Dishion; Miwa Yasui; Kathryn Kavanagh

2007-01-01

322

Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation

Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

2012-01-01

323

The effect of western adaptation of Hispanic-Americans on their assessment of Korean facial profiles  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine Korean facial profile preferences based on lip position as assessed by Hispanic-Americans of varying western adaptation levels and to determine whether the age and sex of the rater had any influence. Methods For this study, 132 Hispanic-Americans and 68 Caucasians of varying age, sex and western adaptation levels volunteered to rate their preference of Korean male and female facial silhouettes having lips ranging from retruding to protruding. The Hispanic-Americans were also asked to complete a Bidimensional Acculturation Scale questionnaire to determine their western adaptation status: low-acculturated Hispanics (LAH; lesser western-adapted Hispanic participants) or high-acculturated Hispanics (HAH; higher western-adapted Hispanic participants). Results The LAHs preferred significantly more retruded lip positions (p < 0.05) while HAHs showed some similarities with Caucasian participants in the results for the Korean male profile, even though HAHs preferred more retruded lip positions for the Korean female profile than Caucasians did (p < 0.05). The age and sex of raters did not influence the preference of facial profiles (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that Hispanic-Americans prefer a flatter Korean lip profile. It would be prudent for orthodontists to offer patients the option of altering lip profile through orthodontic and/or orthognathic surgery treatments. PMID:24511513

Toureno, Leo; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Bayome, Mohamed

2014-01-01

324

Assessing implementation fidelity and adaptation in a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention.  

PubMed

Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed fidelity and adaptation of activity settings, targets and strategies implemented in the second year of four communities. Implementation integrity reflected fidelity and adaptation to local context, whereas efforts resulting in significant deviations from the original plan were deemed to lack fidelity and integrity. Staff implemented 284 strategies in 205 projects. Results show that 68.3 and 2.1% of strategies were implemented with fidelity or adapted, respectively. Overall, 70.4% of all strategies were implemented with integrity. Staff experienced barriers with 29.6% of strategies. Chi-square analyses show statistically significant associations between implementation integrity and strategy type, intervention and behavioural targets. These relationships are weak to modest. The strongest relationship was found between implementation integrity and proximal target. Staff experienced implementation barriers at the coalition, policy, organization, interpersonal and community levels. The greatest range of barriers was encountered working with organizations. To overcome these barriers, staff took greater ownership, invested more time, persisted and allocated more financial resources. PMID:25214513

Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

2014-12-01

325

Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

2005-09-01

326

The Stanford Climate Change Behavior Survey (SCCBS): assessing greenhouse gas emissions-related behaviors in individuals and populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many individual-level behaviors are associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reliable and valid assessment instruments\\u000a are needed to (1) identify behaviors and populations to target with emissions-reduction programs and policies, (2) evaluate\\u000a the effectiveness of such programs, (3) link self-reported and objective measures of GHG emissions to establish the impact\\u000a of specific behaviors, and (4) estimate frequencies of behaviors and

K. Carrie Armel; Katy Yan; Annika Todd; Thomas N. Robinson

2011-01-01

327

To Appear: Journal of Adaptive Behavior, June 2007 On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence  

E-print Network

To Appear: Journal of Adaptive Behavior, June 2007 On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence Alex (Sandy) Pentland Room E15-387, The Media Lab Massachusetts Appear: Journal of Adaptive Behavior, June 2007 On The Collective Nature of Human Intelligence Abstract

328

A Comparative Study of the Preliminary Effects in the Levels of Adaptive Behaviors: Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate preliminary intervention effects of the adaptive behavior on the autism intervention program known as the Learning Program for the Development of Children with Autism (LPDCA). The adaptive behavior scores of two groups of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were compared, with one group…

Shin, Sunwoo; Koh, Myung-sook; Yeo, Moon-Hwan

2012-01-01

329

Adaptivity Assessment of Regional Semi-Parametric VTEC Modeling to Different Data Distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-parametric modelling of Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) combines parametric and non-parametric models into a single regression model for estimating the parameters and functions from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations. The parametric part is related to the Differential Code Biases (DCBs), which are fixed unknown parameters of the geometry-free linear combination (or the so called ionospheric observable). On the other hand, the non-parametric component is referred to the spatio-temporal distribution of VTEC which is estimated by applying the method of Multivariate Adaptive Regression B-Splines (BMARS). BMARS algorithm builds an adaptive model by using tensor product of univariate B-splines that are derived from the data. The algorithm searches for best fitting B-spline basis functions in a scale by scale strategy, where it starts adding large scale B-splines to the model and adaptively decreases the scale for including smaller scale features through a modified Gram-Schmidt ortho-normalization process. Then, the algorithm is extended to include the receiver DCBs where the estimates of the receiver DCBs and the spatio-temporal VTEC distribution can be obtained together in an adaptive semi-parametric model. In this work, the adaptivity of regional semi-parametric modelling of VTEC based on BMARS is assessed in different ground-station and data distribution scenarios. To evaluate the level of adaptivity the resulting DCBs and VTEC maps from different scenarios are compared not only with each other but also with CODE distributed GIMs and DCB estimates .

Durmaz, Murat; Onur Karsl?o?lu, Mahmut

2014-05-01

330

Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

331

Learning from experience: event-related potential correlates of reward processing, neural adaptation, and behavioral choice.  

PubMed

To behave adaptively, we must learn from the consequences of our actions. Studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have been informative with respect to the question of how such learning occurs. These studies have revealed a frontocentral negativity termed the feedback-related negativity (FRN) that appears after negative feedback. According to one prominent theory, the FRN tracks the difference between the values of actual and expected outcomes, or reward prediction errors. As such, the FRN provides a tool for studying reward valuation and decision making. We begin this review by examining the neural significance of the FRN. We then examine its functional significance. To understand the cognitive processes that occur when the FRN is generated, we explore variables that influence its appearance and amplitude. Specifically, we evaluate four hypotheses: (1) the FRN encodes a quantitative reward prediction error; (2) the FRN is evoked by outcomes and by stimuli that predict outcomes; (3) the FRN and behavior change with experience; and (4) the system that produces the FRN is maximally engaged by volitional actions. PMID:22683741

Walsh, Matthew M; Anderson, John R

2012-09-01

332

Teacher Perceptions of the Usability of School-Based Behavior Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher perceptions of school-based behavior assessments were assessed over the course of a school year. Specifically, the utility and relevance of Direct Behavior Ratings-Single Item Scales, a hybrid direct observation method, relative to two school-based behavioral rating scales, the Social Skills Improvement System-Performance Screening Guide…

Miller, Faith G.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Fabiano, Gregory A.

2014-01-01

333

A Collaborative Needs Assessment and Work Plan in Behavioral Medicine Curriculum Development in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of family medicine education in the United States and abroad is behavioral medicine. Interpersonal and communication skills, mental health assessment, and sensitivity to diverse patient populations are areas of curricular importance. This article describes the behavioral medicine portion of a family medicine consultation with Vietnam, in progress since 1999. The needs assessment for behavioral medicine reveals few

Julie M. Schirmer; Cynthia Cartwright; Alain J. Montegut; George K. Dreher; Jeffrey Stovall

2004-01-01

334

Adapting Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Methods to Assess Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressor Combinations  

EPA Science Inventory

Presentation based on the following abstract: Chemical mixtures risk assessment methods are routinely used. To address combined chemical and nonchemical stressors, component-based approaches may be applicable, depending on the toxic action among diverse stressors. Such methods a...

335

Assessing regional impacts and adaptation strategies for climate change: the Washington Climate Change Impacts Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change in the twenty-first century will strongly affect the processes that define natural and human systems. The Washington\\u000a Climate Change Impacts Assessment (WACCIA) was intended to identify the nature and effects of climate change on natural and\\u000a human resources in Washington State over the next century. The assessment focused on eight sectors that were identified as\\u000a being potentially most

Edward L. Miles; Marketa M. Elsner; Jeremy S. Littell; Lara Whitely Binder; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2010-01-01

336

A Comparison of Experimental Functional Analysis and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) in the Assessment of Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compared two functional behavioral assessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…

Healy, Olive; Brett, Denise; Leader, Geraldine

2013-01-01

337

Health impacts of climate change in the solomon islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.  

PubMed

The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

2014-09-01

338

Multi-resolution adaptive data collection prioritisation for multi-risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and amount of potential losses due natural hazards are continuously, and sometimes abruptly varying, spatially and temporally. Changes in damage distribution are dependent both on the specific natural hazard (for instance flood hazard can depend on the season and on the weather) and on the evolution of vulnerability (in terms of variation in size and composition of the exposed assets). Considering space and time, moreover, the most appropriate scales at which the changes occur have to be taken into account. Furthermore, spatio-temporal variability of multi-risk assessment is depending on the distribution and quality of the information upon which the assessment is made. This information is subject to uncertainties that also vary over time, for instance as new data are collected and integrated. Multi-risk assessment is therefore a dynamical process aiming for a continuous monitoring of the expected consequences of the occurring of one or more natural events, given an uncertain and incomplete description of both the involved hazards and the composition and vulnerability of the exposed assets. A novel multi-resolution, adaptive data collection approach is explored, which is of particular interest in countries where multi-scale, multi-risk assessment is sought but limited resources are available for intensive exposure and vulnerability data collection. In this case a suitable prioritisation of data collection is proposed as an adaptive sampling scheme optimized to trade off between data collection cost and loss estimation uncertainty. Preliminary test cases will be presented and discussed.

Pittore, M.; Wieland, M.; Bindi, D.; Fleming, K.; Parolai, S.

2012-04-01

339

[Translation, adaptation and validation of the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment questionnaire with students in higher education].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to make the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment questionnaire in a group of students in higher education in Portugal. The process of translation and validation consisted of translation, back translation, expert committee review, pre-testing and testing of the psychometric properties. The final version adapted with 30 questions was applied to a sample of 707 university students. The results showed that the instrument demonstrated good overall internal consistency for an instrument used to measure a latent variable. When the items were grouped into domains, it was found that they all contributed equally to the stability of the instrument. The reproducibility assessed by intraclass correlation was high. Construct validity tested by the classification capacity of the instrument in four, three and two categories was 67.6%, 67.6% and 100%, with a Kappa index of 0.55, 0.55 and 1.00, respectively. The concurrent validity was also evaluated by correlating it with "My Lifestyle," namely another instrument measuring the same construct. The conclusion was that the Fantastic Lifestyle Assessment, is a reliable and valid instrument for lifestyle assessment in young adults. PMID:24897489

Silva, Armando Manuel Marques; Brito, Irma da Silva; Amado, João Manuel da Costa

2014-06-01

340

Using Functional Behavioral Assessment Data to Infer Learning Histories and Guide Interventions: A Consultation Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher requested behavioral consultation services to address a first-grade student's disruptive behavior. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) suggested the behavior was being reinforced by "negative" teacher attention (e.g., reprimands, redirections, response cost). Based on this analysis, the teacher and consultant posited that this student…

Parker, Megan; Skinner, Christopher; Booher, Joshua

2010-01-01

341

Assessment of the Relationship Between Flexibility and Adaptive Capacity in Flood Management Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discussions around adapting water management systems to future changes often state the need to increase system flexibility. Intuitively, a flexible, easily modifiable system seems desirable when faced with a wide range of uncertain, but plausible future conditions. Yet, despite the frequent use of the terms flexibility, very little work has examined what exactly it means to have a flexible water management system, what makes one system more flexible than another, or the extent to which flexibility increases adaptive capacity. This study applies a methodology for assessing the inherent flexibility of the structural and non-structural components of flood management systems using original flexibility metrics in the categories of: slack, intensity, connectivity, adjustability, and coordination. We use these metrics to assess the flexibility of three sub-systems within the Sacramento Valley flood management system in California, USA under current system conditions as well as with proposed management actions in place. We then assess the range of hydrologic conditions under which each sub-system can meet flood risk targets in order to determine whether more flexible systems are also more robust and able to perform over a wider range of hydrologic conditions. In doing so, we identify flexible characteristics of flood management systems that enhance the ability of the system to preform over a wide range of conditions making them better suited to adapt to an uncertain hydrologic future. We find that the flexibility characteristics that increase the range of conditions under which the system can meet performance goals varies depending on whether the region is considered urban, rural, or a small community. In some cases, a decrease in certain flexibility characteristics is associated with an increase in robustness, indicating that more flexibility is not always desirable. Future work will assess the transferability of these results to other regions and systems.

DiFrancesco, K.; Tullos, D. D.

2013-12-01

342

Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment in Italy: A Methodological Proposal Adapted to Regulatory Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Work-related stress is one of the major causes of occupational ill health. In line with the regulatory framework on occupational health and safety (OSH), adequate models for assessing and managing risk need to be identified so as to minimize the impact of this stress not only on workers' health, but also on productivity. Methods After close analysis of the Italian and European reference regulatory framework and work-related stress assessment and management models used in some European countries, we adopted the UK Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) Management Standards (MS) approach, adapting it to the Italian context in order to provide a suitable methodological proposal for Italy. Results We have developed a work-related stress risk assessment strategy, meeting regulatory requirements, now available on a specific web platform that includes software, tutorials, and other tools to assist companies in their assessments. Conclusion This methodological proposal is new on the Italian work-related stress risk assessment scene. Besides providing an evaluation approach using scientifically validated instruments, it ensures the active participation of occupational health professionals in each company. The assessment tools provided enable companies not only to comply with the law, but also to contribute to a database for monitoring and assessment and give access to a reserved area for data analysis and comparisons. PMID:23961332

Persechino, Benedetta; Valenti, Antonio; Ronchetti, Matteo; Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Di Tecco, Cristina; Vitali, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio

2013-01-01

343

Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. Semi-Structured Interview Instrument  

E-print Network

The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

Carmin, JoAnn

2014-09-13

344

[Item selection rules in a Computerized Adaptive Test for the assessment of written English].  

PubMed

Item selection rules in a Computerized Adaptive Test for the assessment of written English. e-CAT is a Computerized Adaptive Test for the evaluation of written English knowledge, using the item selection rule most commonly employed: the maximum Fisher information criterion. Some of the problems of this criterion have a negative impact in the estimation accuracy and in the item bank security. In this study, the performance of this item selection rule is compared, by means of simulation, with two other rules: selecting the item with maximum Fisher information in an interval (Veerkamp y Berger, 1997) and a new criterion, called "maximum Fisher information in an interval with geometric mean". In general, this new rule shows smaller measurement error and smaller item overlap rates. It seems, thus, recommendable, as it allows the simultaneous improvement of estimation accuracy and the maintenance of the item bank security of e-CAT. PMID:17296125

Barrada, Juan Ramón; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente; Abad, Francisco J

2006-11-01

345

Hierarchical adaptive nanostructured PVD coatings for extreme tribological applications: the quest for nonequilibrium states and emergent behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive wear-resistant coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are a relatively new generation of coatings which are attracting attention in the development of nanostructured materials for extreme tribological applications. An excellent example of such extreme operating conditions is high performance machining of hard-to-cut materials. The adaptive characteristics of such coatings develop fully during interaction with the severe environment. Modern adaptive coatings could be regarded as hierarchical surface-engineered nanostructural materials. They exhibit dynamic hierarchy on two major structural scales: (a) nanoscale surface layers of protective tribofilms generated during friction and (b) an underlying nano/microscaled layer. The tribofilms are responsible for some critical nanoscale effects that strongly impact the wear resistance of adaptive coatings. A new direction in nanomaterial research is discussed: compositional and microstructural optimization of the dynamically regenerating nanoscaled tribofilms on the surface of the adaptive coatings during friction. In this review we demonstrate the correlation between the microstructure, physical, chemical and micromechanical properties of hard coatings in their dynamic interaction (adaptation) with environment and the involvement of complex natural processes associated with self-organization during friction. Major physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics of the adaptive coating, which play a significant role in its operating properties, such as enhanced mass transfer, and the ability of the layer to provide dissipation and accumulation of frictional energy during operation are presented as well. Strategies for adaptive nanostructural coating design that enhance beneficial natural processes are outlined. The coatings exhibit emergent behavior during operation when their improved features work as a whole. In this way, as higher-ordered systems, they achieve multifunctionality and high wear resistance under extreme tribological conditions.

Fox-Rabinovich, German S.; Yamamoto, Kenji; Beake, Ben D.; Gershman, Iosif S.; Kovalev, Anatoly I.; Veldhuis, Stephen C.; Aguirre, Myriam H.; Dosbaeva, Goulnara; Endrino, Jose L.

2012-08-01

346

Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

2009-01-01

347

Commentary on the Current Status of Assessment in Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary focuses on the current status of assessment in rational-emotive and cognitive-behavior therapy, in the context\\u000a of making comments about three assessment articles published in the same journal issue. The commentary describes important\\u000a characteristics of rational-emotive and cognitive-behavior assessment measures, suggests several avenues of psychometric research\\u000a on behavioral tests of distress tolerance as clinical measures, reviews psychometric and other

John M. Malouff

2009-01-01

348

The OTOLITH Experiment - Assessment of Otolith Function During Postflight Re-adaption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing "Otolith" experiment is designed to comprehensively assess the otolith function during the re-adaptation phase after spaceflight. The novel protocol includes unilateral testing of each of the two otolith organs the utricle and the saccule. To assess utricle function, the otolith-ocular response (OOR) and the subjective visual vertical (SVV) are measured during unilateral centrifugation, which permits independent stimulation of the right and left ear. Measurement of the unilateral otolith-ocular response (uOOR) yields information on the response behaviour of the right and left peripheral utricles, whereas the SVV reflects the behaviour of the entire pathway from the peripheral otolith receptors to the vestibular cortex. Thus, by comparative evaluation of the results from the two tests, the degree of peripheral versus central adaptation during the post-flight period can be determined. To assess unilateral saccule function, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are recorded. Since the saccules are predominantly aligned to gravity, and interplay with the antigravity muscles, it is hypothesised that these potentials shall be altered after spaceflight. To date the study has been conducted with 5 of a planned 8 short-flight Shuttle astronauts. Preliminary results will be discussed together with those from clinical studies of dizziness patients, where the same test protocol is employed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (Grant DLR W130729) and is conducted under the auspices of ESA, in cooperation with NASA.

Clarke, A. H.; Wood, S. J.; Schoenfeld, U.

2010-01-01

349

Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)  

PubMed Central

Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Loboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; Loboz-Grudzien, Krystyna

2014-01-01

350

On and off-axis statistical behavior of adaptive-optics-corrected short-exposure Strehl ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical behavior of the adaptive-optics- (AO-) corrected short-exposure point-spread function (PSF) is derived assuming a perfect correction of the phase's low spatial frequencies. Analytical expressions of the Strehl ratio (SR) fluctuations of on- and off-axis short-exposure PSFs are obtained. A theoretical expression of the short SR angular correlation is proposed and used to derive a definition of an anisoplanatic angle

Thierry Fusco; Jean-Marc Conan

2004-01-01

351

Choosing and Using Climate Scenarios for Climate Impacts Assessment and Adaptation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased concern over climate change and its implications for human and natural systems is evidenced by the many efforts to assess climate impacts and develop adaptation strategies underway at a wide range of levels of governance in the United States. Scientists, resource managers and decision makers are increasingly expected to use climate information in assessment and planning, but struggle with the uncertainty associated with this information. This has lead to increasing requests for the climate modeling community to define the best climate model(s) and downscaling approach(es) for use in impacts analyses. However, choosing the "best" model may be very difficult and counter productive. Many of the barriers associated with the (real and perceived) uncertainty of projected climate change could be overcome by reassessing assumptions about what can and cannot be projected about future climate and by reorienting methods by which likely climate impacts are assessed. We propose that climate impacts assessment begin not with an examination of climate models, but with an introspective look at the system of interest, i.e., a vulnerability assessment framework that includes (1) understanding the system's climate sensitivity, (2) carefully specifying analytical time and space scales, (3) assessing "model" skill at projecting the parameter(s) of interest, and (4) using ensembles/bracketing scenarios instead of choosing the "best" model. We provide examples for application in marine and aquatic environments.

Snover, A. K.; Alexander, M. A.; Mantua, N. J.; Littell, J. S.; Nye, J.

2011-12-01

352

An exploratory study of the influence of firm market orientation on salesperson adaptive selling, customer orientation, interpersonal listening in personal selling and salesperson consulting behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to study one important firm level antecedent of salesperson's behaviors, namely the firm's market orientation. There have been many studies of personal antecedents of salesperson behaviors and performance, with little predictive success. But there are few studies of firm level influences on salesperson behaviors such as adaptive selling, customer orientation, listening and consulting. The

Alfred M. Pelham

2009-01-01

353

Assessing aggressiveness quickly and efficiently: the Spanish adaptation of Aggression Questionnaire-refined version.  

PubMed

The assessment of aggressiveness and the prediction of aggression has become a relevant research and applied topic in Psychiatry and Psychology. There have been many attempts in order to get a fast and reliable tool to measure aggression. Buss and Durkee started the pathway, and recently Bryant and Smith developed a tool with an enormous potential, a fast-applicable, reliable and valid test. We herein report a Spanish adaptation of this test and we show that aggressiveness can be measured rapidly, and in a simple, valid and reliable way across different populations. We focus on the discriminant capacity of this test to detect aggressive individuals. PMID:16675203

Gallardo-Pujol, David; Kramp, Uwe; García-Forero, Carlos; Pérez-Ramírez, Meritxell; Andrés-Pueyo, Antonio

2006-10-01

354

Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls  

PubMed Central

Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around), and their association with physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors. PMID:22013514

Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Graham, Daniel J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2012-01-01

355

Behavioral and neural correlates of visuomotor adaptation observed through a brain-computer interface in primary motor cortex  

PubMed Central

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide a defined link between neural activity and devices, allowing a detailed study of the neural adaptive responses generating behavioral output. We trained monkeys to perform two-dimensional center-out movements of a computer cursor using a BCI. We then applied a perturbation by randomly selecting a subset of the recorded units and rotating their directional contributions to cursor movement by a consistent angle. Globally, this perturbation mimics a visuomotor transformation, and in the first part of this article we characterize the psychophysical indications of motor adaptation and compare them with known results from adaptation of natural reaching movements. Locally, however, only a subset of the neurons in the population actually contributes to error, allowing us to probe for signatures of neural adaptation that might be specific to the subset of neurons we perturbed. One compensation strategy would be to selectively adapt the subset of cells responsible for the error. An alternate strategy would be to globally adapt the entire population to correct the error. Using a recently developed mathematical technique that allows us to differentiate these two mechanisms, we found evidence of both strategies in the neural responses. The dominant strategy we observed was global, accounting for ?86% of the total error reduction. The remaining 14% came from local changes in the tuning functions of the perturbed units. Interestingly, these local changes were specific to the details of the applied rotation: in particular, changes in the depth of tuning were only observed when the percentage of perturbed cells was small. These results imply that there may be constraints on the network's adaptive capabilities, at least for perturbations lasting only a few hundreds of trials. PMID:22496532

Kass, Robert E.; Schwartz, Andrew B.

2012-01-01

356

Web-based computer adaptive assessment of individual perceptions of job satisfaction for hospital workplace employees  

PubMed Central

Background To develop a web-based computer adaptive testing (CAT) application for efficiently collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job satisfaction, we examined whether a 37-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ-37) could evaluate the job satisfaction of individual employees as a single construct. Methods The JCQ-37 makes data collection via CAT on the internet easy, viable and fast. A Rasch rating scale model was applied to analyze data from 300 randomly selected hospital employees who participated in job-satisfaction surveys in 2008 and 2009 via non-adaptive and computer-adaptive testing, respectively. Results Of the 37 items on the questionnaire, 24 items fit the model fairly well. Person-separation reliability for the 2008 surveys was 0.88. Measures from both years and item-8 job satisfaction for groups were successfully evaluated through item-by-item analyses by using t-test. Workers aged 26 - 35 felt that job satisfaction was significantly worse in 2009 than in 2008. Conclusions A Web-CAT developed in the present paper was shown to be more efficient than traditional computer-based or pen-and-paper assessments at collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job content. PMID:21496311

2011-01-01

357

Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

2014-01-01

358

The Efficiency of Behavior Rating Scales to Assess Inattentive-Overactive and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors: Applying Generalizability Theory to Streamline Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the efficiency with which a wide range of behavioral data can be obtained makes behavior rating scales particularly attractive tools for the purposes of screening and evaluation, feasibility concerns arise in the context of formative assessment. Specifically, informant load, or the amount of time informants are asked to contribute to the…

Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

2011-01-01

359

Behavioral assessment of social performance: a rating system for social phobia.  

PubMed

The Social Performance Rating Scale (SPRS) is a modification of the rating system for behavioral assessment of social skills, originally developed by Trower, P., Bryant, B., & Argyle, M. (1978). Social skills and mental health. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press) and subsequently adapted by Turner and colleagues (e.g., Turner, S.M., Beidel, D.C., Dancu, C.V., & Keys, D.J. (1986). Psychopathology of social phobia and comparison to avoidant personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 389-394). Designed to yield ratings of social performance appropriate for use in a socially phobic population and based on videotaped role plays, the five SPRS ratings are gaze, vocal quality, speech length, discomfort, and conversation flow. The sum of these ratings provides an internally consistent total score. In an initial study of the psychometric properties of the SPRS, three groups were assessed: individuals with social phobia, another anxiety disorder, or no psychological disorder. Inter-rater reliability for individual items and the total score proved excellent, and positive evidence for convergent, divergent, and criterion-related validity was obtained. PMID:9714949

Fydrich, T; Chambless, D L; Perry, K J; Buergener, F; Beazley, M B

1998-10-01

360

Prototype for Adaptation to Climate Change Strategy Based on Risk Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paper covers approaches and methodology (prototype), suggested for development of strategies for adaptation to climate change available for wide usage. Concrete prototype would be going to be implemented, elaborating the strategy for Latvia. Main method, employed for this purpose, is risk assessment which is preceded by cause - effect analysis of climate change effects entailing important direct and indirect consequences. Negative effects (damages, losses, costs) as well as positive effects or consequences (gains, advantages, benefits) are considered to be taken into account before policy elaboration. Causal relations for given effects are analysed, using specific matrix or template for semi-quantitative assessment of causes, effects and potential actions and policies. Further, risk levels of all effects are estimated, enabling to shortlist the most important ones.

Bruneniece, I.; Brunenieks, J.

2010-09-01

361

Introduction to Assessing Michael Brian Schiffer and His Behavioral Archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over three decades ago (Schiffer 1972, 1976), Behavioral Archaeology was proposed to address the deficiencies of processual archaeology and thus complete the Kuhn-like paradigm shift in archaeology. Such a shift to Behavioral Archaeology, or any other type of archaeology, never transpired as planned. Instead, Behavioral Archaeology has become but one of a number of players in an ever expanding theoretical

J. Jefferson Reid; James M. Skibo

362

Assessment and Implementation of Positive Behavior Support in Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is increasing concern over the number of young children who exhibit challenging behaviors in early childhood settings. Comprehensive prevention models are needed to support teachers' management of challenging behaviors and to avert the development of such behaviors within at-risk populations. One approach utilizes a three-tier prevention…

Benedict, Elizabeth A.; Horner, Robert H.; Squires, Jane K.

2007-01-01

363

Assessing Perceptions of Sexual Harassment Behaviors in a Manufacturing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study, conducted in a manufacturing plant, investigated employee perceptions of the behaviors of supervisors and co-workers that constitute quid pro quo and hostile work environment sexual harassment. Responses indicated that the majority of employees can accurately identify behaviors that are frequently associated with quid pro quo harassment, but cannot identify behaviors that are used to establish evidence of

Marjorie L. Icenogle; Bruce W. Eagle; Sohel Ahmad; Lisa A. Hanks

2002-01-01

364

An Assessment of Self-Echoic Behavior in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the behavioral literature, self-echoic behavior has been hypothesized to play an important role in, for example, emergent conditional discriminations (e.g., Lowenkron, 1991), emergent verbal operants (Horne & Lowe, 1996), and problem solving (Skinner, 1957). Although early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism emphasize the…

Esch, John W.; Esch, Barbara E.; McCart, Jordon D.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

2010-01-01

365

The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...

366

Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior: Dispelling Myths, Overcoming Implementation Obstacles, and Developing New Lore  

PubMed Central

Hundreds of studies have shown the efficacy of treatments for problem behavior based on an understanding of its function. Assertions regarding the legitimacy of different types of functional assessment vary substantially across published articles, and best practices regarding the functional assessment process are sometimes difficult to cull from the empirical literature or from published discussions of the behavioral assessment process. A number of myths regarding the functional assessment process, which appear to be pervasive within different behavior-analytic research and practice communities, will be reviewed in the context of an attempt to develop new lore regarding the functional assessment process. Frequently described obstacles to implementing a critical aspect of the functional assessment process, the functional analysis, will be reviewed in the context of solutions for overcoming them. Finally, the aspects of the functional assessment process that should be exported to others versus those features that should remain the sole technological property of behavior analysts will be discussed. PMID:23326630

Hanley, Gregory P

2012-01-01

367

Beyond Dependency, Autonomy and Exchange: Prosocial Behavior in Late Life Adaptation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature on prosocial behavior in the elderly provides empirical data on the prevalence of helping behaviors among the elderly and the range of motives underlying their helping. Implications of these data for theories of social behavior in later life are considered, and questions are raised about the validity of the models…

Kahana, Eva; And Others

368

Adapting Simulated Behaviors For New Characters Jessica K. Hodgins and Nancy S. Pollard  

E-print Network

to adapt the control system in an on-line fashion to produce a physically real- istic metamorphosis from- form in ways that appear natural and are stylistically appropriate for the setting and character

Pollard, Nancy

369

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Cerebellar Contributions to Adaptive Control of Saccades  

E-print Network

, it needs to be adaptive and learn from endpoint errors. A computational framework that captures these ideas). This suggested that the forward model was learning from endpoint errors, steering the saccade to the target.

Shadmehr, Reza

370

Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

2011-01-01

371

Assessing the Behavior of Girls: What We See and What We Miss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three standardized measures of child and adolescent behavior for ages 12-18 are studied: (1) Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form; (2) Behavior Assessment System for Children; (3) Social Skills Rating System. Challenges to psychologists to include the experiences of girls in the knowledge-base grounding their practice and…

Henning-Stout, Mary

1998-01-01

372

Adapting forest health assessments to changing perspectives on threats--a case example from Sweden.  

PubMed

A revised Swedish forest health assessment system is presented. The assessment system is composed of several interacting components which target information needs for strategic and operational decision making and accommodate a continuously expanding knowledge base. The main motivation for separating information for strategic and operational decision making is that major damage outbreaks are often scattered throughout the landscape. Generally, large-scale inventories (such as national forest inventories) cannot provide adequate information for mitigation measures. In addition to broad monitoring programs that provide time-series information on known damaging agents and their effects, there is also a need for local and regional inventories adapted to specific damage events. While information for decision making is the major focus of the health assessment system, the system also contributes to expanding the knowledge base of forest conditions. For example, the integrated monitoring programs provide a better understanding of ecological processes linked to forest health. The new health assessment system should be able to respond to the need for quick and reliable information and thus will be an important part of the future monitoring of Swedish forests. PMID:21633796

Wulff, Sören; Lindelöw, Åke; Lundin, Lars; Hansson, Per; Axelsson, Anna-Lena; Barklund, Pia; Wijk, Sture; Ståhl, Göran

2012-04-01

373

Psychiatric and Psychological Morbidity as a Function of Adaptive Disability in Preschool Children with Aggressive and Hyperactive-Impulsive-Inattentive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with high levels of aggressive-hyperactive-impulsive-inattentive behavior (AHII; n = 154) were subdivided into those with (n = 38) and without (n = 116) adaptive disability (+AD\\/-AD) defined as a discrepancy between expected versus actual adaptive functioning. They were compared to each other and a control group of 47 normal children. Both AHII groups were more likely to have attention

Terri L. Shelton; Russell A. Barkley; Cheryl Crosswait; Maureen Moorehouse; Kenneth Fletcher; Susan Barrett; Lucy Jenkins; Lori Metevia

1998-01-01

374

Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and resource managers to document traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and integrate this knowledge with Western science for crafting adaptation response to climate impacts in rural Native Alaska.

White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

2008-12-01

375

The effects of exercise on the health, intelligence, and adaptive behavior of institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults: a systematic replication.  

PubMed

Institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults participated in a 7-month program of rigorous aerobic-type exercises. The effects of the treatment on the physical fitness, intelligence, and behavior of subjects were assessed. Fifty men and women were matched in pairs based on IQ, CA, and sex and assigned randomly to an experimental (E) or control (C) group. Those in the E group met 3 hours per day, 5 days per week and received a treatment that consisted of an exercise program that included jogging, running, dance-aerobics, and circuit training. The C group continued their normal institutional training programs. The treatment produced significant improvement in the cardiovascular efficiency of subjects; however, no changes in intelligence or adaptive behavior were obtained. Although standardized tests reflected little improvement in psychological or behavioral variables due to treatment, subjective reports suggest that exercise training may serve as a more practical habilitation program for severely and profoundly mentally retarded individuals than those typically employed in institutional settings. PMID:4073891

Tomporowski, P D; Ellis, N R

1985-01-01

376

A combined bottom-up and top-down approach for assessment of climate change adaptation options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focus of recent scientific research in the water sector has shifted from analysis of climate change impacts to assessment of climate change adaptation options. However, limited attention has been given to integration of bottom-up and top-down methods for assessment of adaptation options. The integrated approach used in this study uses hydrological modelling to assess the effect of stakeholder prioritized adaptation options for the Kangsabati river catchment in India. A series of 14 multi-level stakeholder consultations are used to ascertain locally relevant no-regret adaptation options using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and scenario analysis methods. A validated Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model is then used to project the effect of three options; option 1 check dams (CD), option 2 increasing forest cover (IFC) and option 3 combined CD and IFC, on future (2021-2050) streamflow. High resolution (˜25 km) climatic projections from four Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and their ensemble based on the SRES A1B scenario for the mid-21st century period are used to force the WEAP model. Results indicate that although all three adaptation options reduce streamflow, in comparison with scenario without adaptation, their magnitude, temporal pattern and effect on high and low streamflows are different. Options 2 and 3 reduce streamflow percentage by an order of magnitude greater than option 1. These characteristics affect their ability to address key adaptation requirements and therefore, we find that IFC emerges as a hydrologically suitable adaptation option for the study area. Based on study results we also conclude that such an integrated approach is advantageous and is a valuable tool for locally relevant climate change adaptation policymaking.

Bhave, Ajay Gajanan; Mishra, Ashok; Raghuwanshi, Narendra Singh

2014-10-01

377

Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food

Morteza Rafiei; Mark Nord; Atefeh Sadeghizadeh; Mohammad H Entezari

2009-01-01

378

Adaptation and assessment of M-44 ejectors in a fox-control program on Phillip Island, Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to adapt M-44 ejectors for use in sandy soils and to assess the feasibility of incorporating the modified M-44s into a long-term fox-control program on Phillip Island, Victoria. M-44s were adapted by burying a plastic cylinder around them, which prevented sandy soil from collapsing and inhibiting the trigger mechanism, and at the same time orientated the fox's

A. Marjolein; Roger KirkwoodA; Clive MarksB; B Victorian

379

Development and Validation of an Inventory to Assess Mealtime Behavior Problems in Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, no standardized measures have been developed to evaluate the mealtime behavior of children with autism. The Brief\\u000a Autism Mealtime Behavior Inventory (BAMBI) was designed to measure mealtime behavior problems observed in children with autism.\\u000a Caregivers of 40 typically developing children and 68 children with autism completed the BAMBI, the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding\\u000a Assessment Scale (BPFAS), the Gilliam Autism

Colleen Taylor Lukens; Thomas R. Linscheid

2008-01-01

380

Considerations for Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior Among Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness  

E-print Network

the interaction between behavior and environment in order to understand the va riables that maintain such problem behaviors as aggression, self-injury, destructive behavior, pica, and tantrums (Carr & Newsom, 1985; Mace, 1994; Mace & Knight, 1986; Mace, Page... that behavior, and includes a number of strategies (Foster-Johnson, & Dunlap, 1993; Shores, Wehby, & Jack, 1999). In this chapter, we refer to functional analysis as one type of functional assessment strategy that involves the manipulation of environmental...

Baker, Daniel J.; Blumberg, E. Richard; Freeman, Rachel L.

2002-01-01

381

Adaptation of Personality-Based Decision Making to Crowd Behavior Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of crowd behaviors in emergency contexts is a critical issue concerning human lives. However, lack of human behavioral\\u000a data in most of current simulation tools made them unrealistic. This is partially because of instability in the theoretical\\u000a issues due to complexity of human behavior, and partially because of the gap between theories and what that can be implemented\\u000a in

Fatemeh Alavizadeh; Caro Lucas; Behzad Moshiri

2008-01-01

382

Assessment of Vulnerability of Content Adaptation Mechanisms to RoQ Attacks  

E-print Network

of the content is adapted dynamically to mitigate overload conditions. Serving degraded content reduces strain widely employed mechanisms are admission controllers, load balancers and con- tent adaptation controllers mechanisms to mitigate overload.1 . In a content adaptation setting, the content adaptation con- troller

Guirguis, Mina S. - Department of Computer Science, Texas State University

383

Assessing the Role of Microfinance in Fostering Adaptation to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the current policy debate on adaptation to climate change has focussed on estimation of adaptation costs, ways to raise and to scale-up funding for adaptation, and the design of the international institutional architecture for adaptation financing. There is however little or no emphasis so far on actual delivery mechanisms to channel these resources at the sub-national level, particularly

Shardul Agrawala; Maëlis Carraro

2010-01-01

384

in vivo laser speckle imaging by adaptive contrast computation for microvasculature assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interference of light backscattered from a diffused surface leads to speckle formation in laser speckle imaging. These time integrated speckle patterns can be statistically analyzed to study the flow profile of moving scatterers. Simple speckle contrast analysis techniques have limited ability to distinguish thin structures due to presence of corrupting speckles. This paper presents a high resolution imaging technique by adaptive computation of contrast for laser speckle contrast analysis (adLASCA). Speckle images of retinal microvasculature in mice model are acquired during normal and reduced blood flow conditions. Initially, the speckle images are registered to compensate for movements, associated with heart beating and respiration. Adaptive computation is performed using local image statistics, estimated within a spatially moving window over successive time frames. Experimental evidence suggests that adLASCA outperforms other contrast analysis methods, substantiating significant improvement in contrast resolution. Fine vessels can be distinguished more efficiently with reduced fluctuations in contrast level. Quantitative performance of adLASCA is evaluated by computing standard deviation, corresponding to speckle fluctuations due to unwanted speckles. There is a significant reduction in standard deviation compared to other methods. Therefore, adLASCA can be used for enhancing microvasculature in high resolution perfusion imaging with reduced effect of corrupting speckles for effective assessment.

Basak, Kausik; Dey, Goutam; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mandal, Mahitosh; Dutta, Pranab Kumar

2014-11-01

385

Assessing the Stability of Teacher Behavior. Research Series No. 141.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the stability of teacher behavior over time was formulated through two major questions: (1) Is the behavior of an individual teacher consistent over time? and (2) Are individual differences among teachers consistent over time? Regrettably, the first question has rarely been considered in previous investigations of the stability of…

Rogosa, David; And Others

386

An Assessment of Outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH) is an emerging treatment that utilizes wilderness therapy to help adolescents struggling with behavioral and emotional problems. The approach involves immersion in wilderness or comparable lands, group living with wilderness leaders and peers, and individual and group therapy sessions facilitated by licensed therapists in the field. OBH also offers educational and psychoeducational curriculum all designed to

Keith Russell

2003-01-01

387

Assessment of the Quality of an Organizational Citizenship Behavior Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has been associated with organizational effectiveness in many studies. Therefore, it is important to learn more about how these behaviors can be improved in schools. Creating a reliable and valid measure of OCB that has conceptual equivalence across cultures is a first step in understanding and…

Gokturk, Soheyda

2011-01-01

388

The assessment of anxiety by physiological behavioral measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little research to support the contention that clearly defined patterns of physiological-behavioral responses associated with anxiety arousal can be distinguished from other arousal patterns. Intercorrelations among physiological measures of anxiety obtained under either resting states or under stress are generally low. No studies have been reported in which several measures of behavior were obtained simultaneously with a variety

Barclay Martin

1961-01-01

389

The Iowa Assessment Model in Behavioral Disorders: A Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual is intended to present professionally defensible and generally agreed on criteria for the identification of students with behavior disorders in Iowa. Six major topic areas are examined in separate chapters: (1) overview of behavioral disorders in Iowa (historical background, assumptions underlying definition, desired use of definition…

Wood, Frank H., Ed.; And Others

390

Assessing indigenous knowledge systems and climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture: A case study of Chagaka Village, Chikhwawa, Southern Malawi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Malawi, production from subsistence rain fed agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. In response to the adverse effects of climate change and variability, a National Adaptation Programme of Action is used as framework for implementing adaptation programmes. However, this framework puts limited significance on indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). In many parts of the world, IKS have shown potential in the development of locally relevant and therefore sustainable adaptation strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the role of IKS in adaptation to climate change and variability in the agricultural sector in a rural district of Chikhwawa, southern Malawi. The study used both qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews and quantitative data from household interviews and secondary data to address the research objectives. The study established that the local communities are able to recognise the changes in their climate and local environment. Commonly mentioned indicators of changing climatic patterns included delayed and unpredictable onset of rainfall, declining rainfall trends, warming temperatures and increased frequency of prolonged dry spells. An analysis of empirical data corroborates the people's perception. In addition, the community is able to use their IKS to adapt their agricultural systems to partially offset the effects of climate change. Like vulnerability to climate change, IKS varies over a short spatial scale, providing locally relevant adaptation to impacts of climate change. This paper therefore advocates for the integration of IKS in programmes addressing adaptation to climate change and vulnerability. This will serve to ensure sustainable and relevant adaptation strategies.

Nkomwa, Emmanuel Charles; Joshua, Miriam Kalanda; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Monjerezi, Maurice; Chipungu, Felistus

391

Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women With Binge Eating Disorders  

PubMed Central

Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women’s (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation process and highlighted the importance of balancing the fidelity and cultural relevance of evidence-based treatment when disseminating it across diverse racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23645969

Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

2013-01-01

392

Self-adaptive grain recognition of diamond grinding wheel and its grains assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved Canny operator based on the method of Maximum Classes Square Error is adopted to get a self-adaptive threshold for grain recognition. First, a grinding wheel surface was measured by using a vertical scanning white light interferometric (WLI) system and reconstructed with an improved centroid algorithm; then the grains were extracted using the proposed method based on the fact that the peak intensity difference (?I) between maximum and minimum intensities on interferometric curve from diamond is larger than that from bond due to different reflective characteristics of different materials; third the grain protrusion parameters are investigated for grinding performance analysis. The experiments proved that the proposed grain recognition method is effective and assessment parameters are useful for understanding grinding performance.

Cui, Changcai; Zhou, Lijun; Yu, Qing; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

2013-10-01

393

Assessing Adaptation with Asymmetric Climate Information: evidence from water bargaining field experiments in Northeast Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess how asymmetric climate information affects bargaining -- an adaptation institution. As often observed in the field, some actors lack information. This yields vulnerability, despite participation. We examine the loss for a participant from being uncertain about water quantity when bargaining with a fully informed participant in an ultimatum game in Northeast Brazil. When all are fully informed, our field populations in the capital city and an agricultural valley produce a typical 60-40 split between those initiating and responding in one-shot bargaining. With asymmetric information, when initiators know the water quantity is low they get 80%. Thus even within bargaining, i.e. given strong participation, better integrating climate science into water management via greater effort to communicate relevant information to all involved can help to avoid inequities that could arise despite all of the stakeholders being 'at the table', as may well occur within future water allocation along a large new canal in the case we study.

Pfaff, A.; Velez, M.; Taddei, R.; Broad, K.

2011-12-01

394

Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

2008-01-01

395

Adaptation and validation of the patient assessment of chronic illness care in the French context  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic diseases are major causes of disability worldwide with rising prevalence. Most patients suffering from chronic conditions do not always receive optimal care. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been developed to help general practitioners making quality improvements. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire was increasingly used in several countries to appraise the implementation of the CCM from the patients’ perspective. The objective of this study was to adapt the PACIC questionnaire in the French context and to test the validity of this adaptation in a sample of patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods The PACIC was translated into French language using a forward/backward procedure. The French version was validated using a sample of 150 patients treated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and having multiple chronic co-morbidities. Several forms of validity were analysed: content; face; construct; and internal consistency. The construct validity was investigated with an exploratory factorial analysis. Results The French-version of the PACIC consisted in 18 items, after merging two pairs of items due to redundancy. The high number of items exhibiting floor/ceiling effects and the non-normality of the ratings suggested that a 5-points rating scale was somewhat inappropriate to assess the patients’ experience of care. The construct validity of the French-PACIC was verified and resulted in a bi-dimensional structure. Overall this structure showed a high level of internal consistency. The PACIC score appeared to be significantly related to the age and self-reported health of the patients. Conclusions A French-version of the PACIC questionnaire is now available to evaluate the patients’ experience of care and to monitor the quality improvements realised by the medical structures. This study also pointed out some methodological issues about the PACIC questionnaire, related to the format of the rating scale and to the structure of the questionnaire. PMID:24947538

2014-01-01

396

Maternal beliefs about adaptive and maladaptive social behaviors in normal, aggressive, and withdrawn preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare mothers of normal, aggressive, and anxious-withdrawn preschoolers with regard to their beliefs about how socially competent behaviors are learned and their beliefs concerning the origins of two types of maladaptive behaviors-aggression and withdrawal. 121 mothers of 4- year olds were questioned about how they think social skills are acquired. They were also

Kenneth H. Rubin; Rosemary S. L. Mills

1990-01-01

397

The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to 23%…

Newland, Jessica Marie

2010-01-01

398

Improving the Social-Adaptive Behavior of Chronically Disruptive Students in an Elementary School Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practicum project addressed the need to improve antisocial behavior in disruptive elementary school children, using a skill deficit perspective. Six student participants were selected on the basis of a high number of school suspensions and their identification as disrespectful, confrontational, and self-absorbed, as well as behaviors that…

Abdul-Latif, Deatema L.

399

Improving Educational Assessment & An Inventory of Measures of Affective Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first half of this publication consists of four papers presented at a 1967 working conference intended to foster the development of a theory of educational assessment. Topics discussed in "The Purposes of Assessment" by Ralph W. Tyler include assessment for diagnosis, for individual guidance, for college admissions and placement, and…

Beatty, Walcott H., Ed.

400

Automata-Based Adaptive Behavior for Economic Modelling Using Game Theory  

E-print Network

with a major work by J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern and then with the works of John Nash in the 1950s [9]. John Nash has proposed an original equilibrium ruled by an adaptive criterium. In game theory, the Nash, then this set of strategies and the corresponding payoffs constitute a Nash equilibrium. We can understand

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

401

ccsd-00012927,version1-29Oct2005 AUTOMATA-BASED ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR FOR ECONOMIC  

E-print Network

with a major work by J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern and then with the works of John Nash in the 1950s [9]. John Nash has proposed an original equilibrium ruled by an adaptive cri- terium. In game theory, the Nash equilibrium is a kind of optimal strategy for games involving two or more players, whereby

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

402

Robot Behavior Adaptation for Human-Robot Interaction based on Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning  

E-print Network

, is required for smooth human-robot communication. The matters are further complicated by the fact that hu- man's movement speed [7]. This means that in order to construct a system that adapts to personal preferences that needs to be searched in order to nd the optimum. Another requirement for a system for this kind

Mitsunaga, Noriaki

403

Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Indian adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to

Jessica R. Goodkind; Marianna D. LaNoue; Jaime Milford

2010-01-01

404

Individual Differences in Behavioral, Physiological, and Genetic Sensitivities to Contexts: Implications for Development and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although exposure to adversity places children at high risk for developmental problems, there is considerable variation in the adaptation of children exposed to both low and high levels of adversity. In recent years, researchers have made significant progress in understanding how social environments shape children’s development. Studies indicate that not all children are equally susceptible to environmental effects. In this

W. Thomas Boyce

2009-01-01

405

Adaptive Behavior with Fixed Weights in RNN: An Overview Danil V. Prokhorov  

E-print Network

recent results on adaptive be- havior attained with fixed-weight recurrent neural networks (meta-learning meta-learning (learning how to learn) in [5], whereas the name accommodative is sug- gested in [4]. This paper consists of three sections. In the next section we briefly review recent results on meta-learning

Prokhorov, Danil

406

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats  

E-print Network

as tropical rainforests, arid deserts, and urban environments [1,2]. Over 1000 bat species echolocate's adaptive changes in sonar signal time�frequency structure as it detects, approaches, and intercepts food,10]. Frugivorous bats also feed on stationary food items, using a combination of echolocation and other sensory

Hill, Wendell T.

407

Aggressive Behavior in Response to Violence Exposure: Is It Adaptive for Middle-School Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of aggression in adaptation to family and community violence was examined in a sample of 667 inner-city schoolchildren studied annually over three years in middle school. Regression analyses indicated that the association between Year 1 exposure to family and community violence and Year 2 aggression was mediated by aggression occurring…

Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

2008-01-01

408

Correlates of Examinee Item Choice Behavior in Self-Adapted Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 148 college students taking a self-adapted computerized test of basic algebra skills, higher self-confidence and lower test anxiety were related to choosing more difficult first items but were not related to later choices. Overall, examinees chose items of moderate difficulty relative to their ability level. (SV)

Johnson, Phillip L.; And Others

1991-01-01

409

Adaptation of motor behavior to preserve task success in the presence of muscle fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve task goals in the various contexts of everyday life, the CNS has to adapt to short time scale changes in the properties of the neuromuscular system, such as those induced by fatigue. Here we investigated how humans preserve task success despite fatigue-induced changes within the neuromuscular system, when they have to aim at a target as fast and

O. Missenard; D. Mottet; S. Perrey

2009-01-01

410

Computerized Assessment of Social Approach Behavior in Mouse  

E-print Network

Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological basis of sociability and how this ...

Page, Damon T.

411

Assessing Causality in the Relationship Between Adolescents' Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of this Behavior  

PubMed Central

The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents’ risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate photos or videos to someone online, and sending one’s telephone number and address to someone exclusively known online. The relationship between these behaviors and adolescents’ perceptions of peer involvement, personal invulnerability, and risks and benefits was investigated. A two-wave longitudinal study among a representative sample of 1,445 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 was conducted (49% females). Autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that perceived peer involvement, perceived vulnerability, and perceived risks were all significant predictors of risky sexual online behavior 6 months later. No reverse causal paths were found. When the relationships between perceptions and risky sexual online behavior were modeled simultaneously, only perceived peer involvement was a determinant of risky sexual online behavior. Findings highlight the importance of addressing peer involvement in future interventions to reduce adolescents’ risky sexual online behavior. PMID:20177962

Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

2010-01-01

412

Culturally adapted cognitive behavioral guided self-help for binge eating: a feasibility study with Mexican Americans.  

PubMed

Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating, or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at posttreatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides "proof of concept" for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. PMID:25045955

Cachelin, Fary M; Shea, Munyi; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone; Wilson, G Terence; Thompson, Douglas R; Striegel, Ruth H

2014-07-01

413

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

414

Sensory modulation of muscle synergies for motor adaptation during natural behaviors  

E-print Network

To achieve any motor behavior, the central nervous system (CNS) must coordinate the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal apparatus. It has been suggested that the CNS simplifies this formidable task of coordination ...

Cheung, Vincent Chi-Kwan

2007-01-01

415

Integrated urban flood risk assessment - adapting a multicriteria approach to a city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. This paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment, that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. The study site is Leipzig, Germany. The "urban" approach includes a specific urban-type set of economic, social and ecological flood risk criteria, which focus on urban issues: population and vulnerable groups, differentiated residential land use classes, areas with social and health care but also ecological indicators such as recreational urban green spaces. These criteria are integrated using a "multicriteria decision rule" based on an additive weighting procedure which is implemented into the software tool FloodCalc urban. Based on different weighting sets we provide evidence of where the most flood-prone areas are located in a city. Furthermore, we can show that with an increasing inundation extent it is both the social and the economic risks that strongly increase.

Kubal, C.; Haase, D.; Meyer, V.; Scheuer, S.

2009-11-01

416

An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment With High Schools for Obesity Intervention*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles to conduct formative research in identifying acceptable and potentially sustainable obesity intervention strategies in 8 New Mexico school communities. METHODS We collected formative data from 8 high schools on areas of community interest for school health improvement through collaboration with local School Health Advisory Councils (SHACs) and interviews with students and parents. A survey based on formative results was created to assess acceptability of specific intervention strategies and was provided to SHACs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were evaluated using an iterative analytic process for thematic identification. RESULTS Key themes identified through the formative process included lack of healthy food options, infrequent curricular/extracurricular physical activity opportunities, and inadequate exposure to health/nutritional information. Key strategies identified as most acceptable by SHAC members included healthier food options and preparation, a healthy foods marketing campaign, yearly taste tests, an after-school noncompetitive physical activity program, and community linkages to physical activity opportunities. CONCLUSION An adaptive CBPR approach for formative assessment can be used to identify obesity intervention strategies that address community school health concerns. Eight high school SHACs identified 6 school-based strategies to address parental and student concerns related to obesity. PMID:22320339

Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

2013-01-01

417

Variation in songbird migratory behavior offers clues about adaptability to environmental change.  

PubMed

For seasonally migrating birds, aspects of migratory behavior, such as the use of temperate versus tropical wintering areas, may influence their ability to respond to environmental change. Here, we infer potential flexibility in songbird migration from variation in two alternative stopover behaviors. Hierarchical Bayesian mark-recapture modeling was used to quantify stopover decisions over 19 years for four temperate and four tropical migratory species at a stopover site in southern Canada. Short-distance temperate migrants exhibited higher variability in behavior and greater responses to local weather than longer-distance tropical migrants, as measured by transience (the proportion of birds stopping <24 h, i.e. seeking brief sanctuary or subsequently relocating) and departure (re-initiation of migration by birds that stopped over for >24 h). In contrast to many previous works on climate-migration associations, annual variation in stopover behavior did not show strong links to broad-scale climatic fluctuations for either temperate or tropical migrants, nor was there any indication of directional changes in stopover behavior over the past two decades. In addition to suggesting that migratory songbirds-particularly tropical-wintering species-may face increasing threats with future climatic variability, our study highlights the potential importance of flexibility in en-route behavior for resilience to environmental change. PMID:21927912

Calvert, Anna M; Mackenzie, Stuart A; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Taylor, Philip D; Walde, Sandra J

2012-03-01

418

Assessment of Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Psychometric Properties of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale and School Situations Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disruptive behavior disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) are increasingly being diagnosed in preschool children. However, the assessment and differential diagnosis of these disorders presents several challenges to clinicians. For example, most rating scales used to help diagnose such problems…

Pelletier, Julie; Collett, Brent; Gimpel, Gretchen; Crowley, Susan

2006-01-01

419

Training Mental Health Professionals to Assess and Manage Suicidal Behavior: Can Provider Confidence and Practice Behaviors Be Altered?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remarkably little systematic research has studied the effects of clinical suicidology training on changing practitioner attitudes and behaviors. In the current study we investigated whether training in an empirically-based assessment and treatment approach to suicidal patients administered through a continuing education workshop could meaningfully…

Oordt, Mark S.; Jobes, David A.; Fonseca, Vincent P.; Schmidt, Steven M.

2009-01-01

420

Treatment Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions for Children: An Assessment by Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study assesses the acceptability of six child-management interventions as rated by mothers (N=20) of children referred for treatment for a disruptive-behavior disorder. Positive reinforcement was rated as a more acceptable treatment than response time, time-out, differential attention, overcorrection, and spanking. Results validate findings of…

Jones, Melanie L.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Adams, Christina D.; Boggs, Stephen R.

1998-01-01

421

Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework  

SciTech Connect

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to address the potential health impacts of climate change.

Spickett, Jeffery T., E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.a [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Brown, Helen L., E-mail: h.brown@curtin.edu.a [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne, E-mail: Dianne.Katscherian@health.wa.gov.a [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Western Australian Department of Health, Department of Health WA, PO Box 8172, Perth Business Centre WA 6849 (Australia)

2011-04-15

422

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures of attention assess different constructs in children with traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological and behavioral measures are used to assess attention, but little convergence has been found between these two assessment methods. However, many prior studies have not considered attention as a multicomponent system, which may contribute to this lack of agreement between neuropsychological and behavioral measures. To address this the current study examined the relationship between the neuropsychological measures that comprise a four-component model of attention and parent-report behavioral ratings of attention problems and hyperactivity. A total of 65 children and adolescents who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) were included in the study. Principal components analysis identified the four attention components in this sample, which accounted for 80.9% of the variance. However, correlations between the neuropsychological measures of attention and behavioral ratings of attention and hyperactivity were low and non-significant. This minimal correspondence suggests that neuropsychological and behavioral measures assess different aspects of attentional disturbances in children with TBI. PMID:21902568

Barney, Sally J; Allen, Daniel N; Thaler, Nicholas S; Park, Brandon S; Strauss, Gregory P; Mayfield, Joan

2011-10-01

423

Assessment of Multiple Behavioral Procedures on Academic and Social Classroom Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes behavioral procedures used with adolescent students which involved manipulating type and delay of reinforcement, teaching desirable behaviors, and training in several skills. Implemented procedures through an independent group-oriented contingency system. These students performed significantly better on grades, school attendance, and…

Reese, Sandra C.; And Others

1981-01-01

424

The behavioral summarized evaluation: Validity and reliability of a scale for the assessment of autistic behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (BSE), is a 20-item paper- and-pencil rating scale specifically designed for the measurement of behavioral parameters which could be related to biological data in autistic children involved in educational programs, neurophysiological studies, and therapeutic trials. The development of the scale, the validity, and reliability studies are presented in this paper. The results suggest that the BSE

C. Barthelemy; J. L. Adrien; P. Tanguay; B. Garreau; J. Fermanian; S. Roux; D. Sauvage; G. Lelord

1990-01-01

425

Increased crop failure due to climate change: assessing adaptation options using models and socio-economic data for wheat in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools for projecting crop productivity under a range of conditions, and assessing adaptation options, are an important part of the endeavour to prioritize investment in adaptation. We present ensemble projections of crop productivity that account for biophysical processes, inherent uncertainty and adaptation, using spring wheat in Northeast China as a case study. A parallel 'vulnerability index' approach uses quantitative socio-economic

Andrew J. Challinor; Elisabeth S. Simelton; Evan D. G. Fraser; Debbie Hemming; Mathew Collins

2010-01-01

426

Exploring the Utility of Preference Assessments in Organizational Behavior Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study compared two variations of stimulus preference assessments: a survey in which direct service employees ranked their preferences for a variety of items, and a multiple stimulus preference assessment without replacement (MSWO), in which textual stimuli were used to represent the actual items. Results obtained for four participants…

Waldvogel, Jamie M.; Dixon, Mark R.

2008-01-01

427

Conceptual Modeling for Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management in the Barycz Valley, Lower Silesia, Poland  

PubMed Central

The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments (“hard path”) as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This “soft path” requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between “experts” and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs “Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment”. The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and “green” local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region’s sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability Models as well as more detailed sub-models of particular factors, processes, and feedback loops that appear critical to a sustainable future. The Regional Sustainability Model was used to identify a subset of key interacting factors (variables). For each variable, several sustainability indicators were suggested. The growing understanding and acceptance of the AM framework and systems analysis created a momentum both locally and within the region, which makes continued successful use of these indicators quite likely. In contrast to expert-driven projects that inject outside knowledge into a local context, this project established a broad basis for stakeholder-driven discussion that is articulated into goals, objectives, conceptual models, and indicators. The ability to learn and adapt in the AM framework increases the capacity to innovate and find policies and practices that enhance resilience and sustainability in a world in transition. PMID:16705818

Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

2005-01-01

428

ASSESSMENT OF ADOPTION BEHAVIOR OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE KOGA WATERSHED, HIGHLANDS OF  

E-print Network

ASSESSMENT OF ADOPTION BEHAVIOR OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE KOGA WATERSHED degradation, adoption of these practices remains below expectations. This research was conducted in the Koga

Walter, M.Todd

429

How Can a Robot Evaluate its own Behavior ? A Neural Model for Self-Assessment  

E-print Network

-assessment for guiding learning and mon- itoring strategies. Monitoring strategies requires feedbacks on the behavior/Action associations [2], [3]. Since this strategy has been sucessfully tested in small environment, we met issues

430

Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change in the Urban Environment: Assessing Climate Change Related Risk in UK Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conurbation?scale risk assessment methodology which aims to provide a screening tool to assist with planning for climate change?related risks in the urban environment. This work has been undertaken as part of a wider, interdisciplinary project, Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change in the Urban Environment (ASCCUE). The main focus of ASCCUE is to help improve understanding of

S. J. Lindley; J. F. Handley; N. Theuray; E. Peet; D. Mcevoy

2006-01-01

431

Communicating Climate Change Science to Stakeholders for Assessments of Impact and Adaptation: Experiences at the Municipal Level in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of climate change impacts and the identification of adaptation strategies require understandable communication of climate change science and its uncertainties to a diverse group of stakeholders. This paper will report on the experience being gained from a set of municipal case studies conducted in Canada, where climate change impacts such as water resource depletion, permafrost melting and coastal

P. R. Hill; D. Mate; J. D. Tansey

2004-01-01

432

An innovative cross-sectoral method for implementation of trade-off adaptation strategy assessment under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change will increase sharp risks to the water and food supply in coming decades. Although impact assessment and adaptation evaluation has been discussed a lot in recent years, the importance of adaptation implement should not be ignored. In Taiwan, and elsewhere, fallow is an option of adaptation strategy under climate change. Fallow would improve the water scarcity of domestic use, but the food security might be threatened. The trade-off effects of adaptation actions are just like the side effects of medicine which cannot be avoided. Thus, managing water resources with an integrated approach will be urgent. This study aims to establish a cross-sectoral framework for implementation the trade-off adaptation strategy. Not only fallow, but also other trade-off strategy like increasing the percentage of national grain self-sufficiency would be analyzed by a rational decision process. The recent percentage of grain self-sufficiency in Taiwan is around 32, which was decreasing from 53 thirty years ago. Yet, the goal of increasing grain self-sufficiency means much more water must be used in agriculture. In that way, domestic users may face the water shortage situation. Considering the conflicts between water supply and food security, the concepts from integrative negotiation are appropriate to apply. The implementation of trade-off adaptation strategies needs to start by quantifying the utility of water supply and food security were be quantified. Next, each side's bottom line can be found by BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) and ZOPA (Zone of Possible Agreement). ZOPA provides the entire possible outcomes, and BATNA ensures the efficiency of adaptation actions by moving along with Pareto frontier. Therefore, the optimal percentage of fallow and grain self-sufficiency can be determined. Furthermore, BATNA also provides the pathway step by step which can be a guideline of adaptation strategies. This framework allows analysts and stakeholder to systematically evaluate trade-off adaptation strategies and indicate the priority to implement.

Tsao, Jung-Hsuan; Tung, Ching-Pin; Liu, Tzu-Ming

2014-05-01

433

Assessment of IP injection of [ 18F]fallypride for behavioral neuroimaging in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great progress has been made toward using small animal PET to assess neurochemical changes during behavior. [18F]fallypride (FAL) is a D2\\/D3 antagonist that is sensitive to changes in endogenous dopamine, and, in theory, could be used to assess changes in dopamine during behavioral paradigms. Tail vein injections of tracer require restraint in awake animals, and catheter implantation is invasive and

Karmen K. Yoder; Bruce H. Mock; Qi-Huang Zheng; Brian P. McCarthy; Amanda A. Riley; Gary D. Hutchins

2011-01-01

434

Functional Assessment and Intervention for Disruptive Classroom Behaviors in Preschool and Head Start Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional assessment procedures have proven useful for developing effective individualized interventions for a wide variety\\u000a of populations and behavioral concerns. However, fewer studies have been conducted with preschool students who exhibit high\\u000a incidence problem behaviors. The current study includes data from comprehensive functional assessments and interventions implemented\\u000a in preschool and Head Start classrooms. Three preschool students and five teachers participated

Brad A. Dufrene; R. Anthony Doggett; Carlen Henington; T. Steuart Watson

2007-01-01

435

An Innovative Approach to Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Residential Care: A Service Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first 18 months after establishment of the Behaviour Assessment and Intervention Service (BAsIS), 31 clients living in Sydney Residential Aged Care Facilities were referred. Following comprehensive assessment, the BAsIS team recommended primarily psychosocial and environmental interventions that were case-specific and causality-focused. Behavioral observations and standardized measures of mood, behavior, and carer stress in relation to caring for the

Jane Turner; John Snowdon

2009-01-01

436

CONSUMER ONLINE SHOPPING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR: AN ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of studies of online shopping attitudes and behavior is investigated through an analysis of 35 empirical articles found in nine primary Information Systems (IS) journals and three major IS conference proceedings. A taxonomy is developed based on our analysis. A conceptual model of online shopping is presented and discussed in light of existing empirical studies. Areas for

Na Li; Ping Zhang

2002-01-01

437

The Behavioral Theory of the Firm: Assessment and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Behavioral Theory of the Firm has had an enormous influence on organizational theory, strategic management, and neighboring fields of socio-scientific inquiry. Its central concepts have become foundational to any theoretical and empirical work focussed on organizational phenomena. Unlike past reviews of this work, we start by focusing less on reviewing these concepts than we do on discussing the new

Giovanni Gavetti; Henrich R. Greve; Daniel A. Levinthal; William Ocasio

2012-01-01

438

Assessing the Eating Behaviors of Low-Income, Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a need for instruments that can accurately determine the effectiveness of nutrition interventions targeting low-income, inner-city adolescents. Purpose: To examine the development of a valid and reliable eating behavior scale (EBS) for use in school-based nutrition interventions in urban, inner-city communities dominated by…

Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo

2012-01-01

439

Assessment and Treatment of Deviant Behavior. Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interim report presents an introduction to a research study designed to develop educational procedures for modifying deviant behavior in children. A five-component treatment model was developed and research designed to evaluate the weights of each variable in the treatment process. Studies were designed to define strategies that would…

Mattson, Robert H.; And Others

440

Relative Contributions of Three Descriptive Methods: Implications for Behavioral Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the outcomes of three descriptive analysis methods--the ABC method, the conditional probability method, and the conditional and background probability method--to each other and to the results obtained from functional analyses. Six individuals who had been diagnosed with developmental delays and exhibited problem behavior

Pence, Sacha T.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Bourret, Jason C.; Ahearn, William H.

2009-01-01

441

A Functional Approach to the Assessment of Self-Mutilative Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied a functional approach to the assessment of self-mutilative behavior (SMB) among adolescent psychiatric inpatients. On the basis of past conceptualizations of different forms of self-injurious behavior, the authors hypothesized that SMB is performed because of the automatically reinforcing (i.e., reinforced by oneself; e.g.,…

Nock, Matthew K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

2004-01-01

442

The Effect of Emotional Feedback on Behavioral Intention to Use Computer Based Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study introduces emotional feedback as a construct in an acceptance model. It explores the effect of emotional feedback on behavioral intention to use Computer Based Assessment (CBA). A female Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) with empathetic encouragement behavior was displayed as emotional feedback. More specifically, this research aims…

Terzis, Vasileios; Moridis, Christos N.; Economides, Anastasios A.

2012-01-01

443

Challenging Behavior and Early Academic Skill Development: An Integrated Approach to Assessment and Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses an approach to assessment and intervention of challenging behavior in early education settings that integrates a focus on instructional conditions and early academic skill development. The authors suggest this approach allows for a better understanding of the relationship between social behavior and child performance with…

Hojnoski, Robin L.; Wood, Brenna K.

2012-01-01

444

Life Space Crisis Intervention and Functional Behavioral Assessment: The Guiding Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Conflict Cycle employed in Life Space Crisis Intervention offers a model for conducting functional assessment with students facing disciplinary action for behavior that may be related to emotional disturbance and other disabilities. This article analyzes the Conflict Cycle, using principles from cognitive behavioral science. (Contains 13…

McGowan, Lawrence P.

2002-01-01

445

Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral

Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.

2013-01-01

446

Assessment of Prosocial-Altruistic Behavior of Members and Non-Members of the Scout Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in prosocial altruistic behavior between children and young students who belong to the scout movement and those who do not belong to this or any other similar movement. The prosocial altruistic behavior has been assessed with questionnaires for the school: self-evaluation, teacher, classmate,…

Ruiz-Olivares, Rosario; Pino, M. Jose; Herruzo, Javier

2013-01-01

447

Functional Assessment-Based Interventions for Children At-Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional assessments were conducted to identify the variables maintaining disruptive behavior in eight, typically developing fifth-grade students enrolled in general education classrooms. Participants whose behavior was found to be functionally related to either task-avoidance or attention-seeking were randomly assigned to a treatment strategy…

Restori, Alberto F.; Gresham, Frank M.; Chang, Tae; Lee, Howard B.; Laija-Rodriquez, Wilda

2007-01-01

448

Assessment of Dysregulated Children Using the Child Behavior Checklist: A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disorders of self-regulatory behavior are common reasons for referral to child and adolescent clinicians. Here, the authors sought to compare 2 methods of empirically based assessment of children with problems in self-regulatory behavior. Using parental reports on 2,028 children (53% boys) from a U.S. national probability sample of the Child…

Althoff, Robert R.; Ayer, Lynsay A.; Rettew, David C.; Hudziak, James J.

2010-01-01

449

Assessing Nursing Assistants' Knowledge of Behavioral Approaches to Mental Health Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed and administered 17-item instrument to assess knowledge of specific mental health problems (depression, agitation, disorientation) and behavioral approaches to them to 191 nurse's aides and 21 clinicians with training in behavioral management and experience with older nursing home residents. Aides averaged 11 correct answers; clinicians…

Spore, Diana L.; And Others

1991-01-01

450

A New Method for Assessing the Interpersonal Behavior of Psychopathic Individuals: Preliminary Validation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined whether increased attention to interpersonal behaviors would improve assessments of the personality core underlying psychopathy. After item analysis, 21 items measuring interpersonal interactions and nonverbal behaviors associated with psychopathy were retained as the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P). Federal prison inmates (Study 1, N = 98) and undergraduates (Study 2, N = 92) were rated on occurrence

David S. Kosson; Brian L. Steuerwald; Adelle E. Forth; Katherine J. Kirkhart

1997-01-01

451

Assessing and Analyzing Behavior Strategies of Instructors in College Science Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed are university instructor behaviors in introductory and advanced level laboratories of botany, chemistry, geology, physics and zoology. Science Laboratory Interaction Categories--Teacher (SLIC) was used to assess 15 individual categories of teacher behaviors in the areas of questioning, giving directions, transmitting information,…

Kyle, William C., Jr.; And Others

1980-01-01

452

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

2005-01-01

453

Assessment of Behavior Disorders and Developmental Delay: Parent-Teacher Agreement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses a method of integrating parent report with teacher report on the Minnesota Child Development Inventory (MCDI) and the Burks Behavior Rating Scale (BBRS) to aid in the assessment and placement of young children with behavior disorders and developmental delay. Two samples of children were used to collect the data: 3 to 6 year old…

Ruttle, Kristi; Dick, Diane F.

454

Recent Research Findings on Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Youth: Implications for Clinical Assessment and Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing children and adolescents for po- tential violent behavior requires an organized approach that draws on clinical knowledge, a thorough diagnostic interview, and familiarity with relevant risk and protec- tive factors. This article reviews empirical evidence on risk factors, the impact of peers, developmental path- ways, physiological markers, subtyping of aggression, and differences in patterns of risk behaviors between sexes.

NANCY RAPPAPORT; CHRISTOPHER THOMAS

2004-01-01

455

Recent advances in the assessment of aberrant behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement in individuals with developmental disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aberrant behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities are maintained by “automatic reinforcement”. These behaviors are often difficult to treat, with the most effective behavioral interventions often resulting in only moderate success. However, a series of recent studies has advanced our ability to understand and treat these behaviors through the innovative use of behavioral assessment. We review the recent

Linda A. LeBlanc; Meeta R. Patel; James E. Carr

2000-01-01

456

Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning  

SciTech Connect

Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives and modular configuration.

Pin, Francois G.

2003-06-01

457

Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning  

SciTech Connect

Our overall objective is the development of a generalized methodology and code for the automated generation of the kinematics equations of robots and for the analytical solution of their motion planning equations subject to time-varying constraints, behavioral objectives, and modular configuration.

Pin, Grancois G.

2004-06-01

458

Psychometric Properties of the Polish Adaptation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire&-Revised (IBQ-R). A group of 396 pairs of parents was studied, and a 3-factor structure of IBQ-R emerged with differences comparing to the original U.S. sample and a prior replication Russian sample. Analyses demonstrated satisfactory…

Dragan, Wojciech L.; Kmita, Grazyna; Fronczyk, Krzysztof

2011-01-01