Sample records for adaptive behavior assessment

  1. Assessing Minority Students: The Role of Adaptive Behavior Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Hermes; Baca, Leonard M.

    1979-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales can be very helpful in the overall assessment of minority children. In some states they are mandatory. Their weaknesses, particularly with the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale, are sampling bias and appropriateness in the areas of culture, language, and socioeconomic status. (Author)

  2. State Norms for IQ, Adaptive Behavior, and Sociocultural Status: Implications for Nonbiased Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J.; And Others

    Findings from the Iowa Assessment Project are examined regarding the assessment and use of information on adaptive behavior and sociocultural background in decisions about students with mild mental retardation. Background aspects reviewed include terminology regarding mild retardation; research, litigation, and legislation on the topic during the…

  3. The Assessment of Minority Students: Are Adaptive Behavior Scales the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Leonard; Cervantes, Hermes

    1978-01-01

    The use of adaptive behavior scales in the assessment of minority children was discussed. Positive and negative characteristics of the scales developed by Mercer and Lambert were identified and discussed. Recommendations included cautions for the use of such scales in the evaluation of culturally different minority children. (Author)

  4. Applying Computer Adaptive Testing to Optimize Online Assessment of Suicidal Behavior: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Anton LM; de Groot, Marieke H; de Keijser, Jos; Kerkhof, Ad JFM

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is used increasingly for both suicide research and prevention. To optimize online assessment of suicidal patients, there is a need for short, good-quality tools to assess elevated risk of future suicidal behavior. Computer adaptive testing (CAT) can be used to reduce response burden and improve accuracy, and make the available pencil-and-paper tools more appropriate for online administration. Objective The aim was to test whether an item response–based computer adaptive simulation can be used to reduce the length of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS). Methods The data used for our simulation was obtained from a large multicenter trial from The Netherlands: the Professionals in Training to STOP suicide (PITSTOP suicide) study. We applied a principal components analysis (PCA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), a graded response model (GRM), and simulated a CAT. Results The scores of 505 patients were analyzed. Psychometric analyses showed the questionnaire to be unidimensional with good internal consistency. The computer adaptive simulation showed that for the estimation of elevation of risk of future suicidal behavior 4 items (instead of the full 19) were sufficient, on average. Conclusions This study demonstrated that CAT can be applied successfully to reduce the length of the Dutch version of the BSS. We argue that the use of CAT can improve the accuracy and the response burden when assessing the risk of future suicidal behavior online. Because CAT can be daunting for clinicians and applied scientists, we offer a concrete example of our computer adaptive simulation of the Dutch version of the BSS at the end of the paper. PMID:25213259

  5. The Concept of Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas

    Two papers from a Houston seminar on the concept of adaptive behavior provide a review of adaptive behavior measures and a discussion of Jane Mercer's assessment model. Tables present information on administration and content of eight measures: the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) Clinical, and AAMD School, Caine-Levine, California…

  6. Adaptive Behavior Scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Frick; Christopher T. Barry; Randy W. Kamphaus

    \\u000a What is meant by the term adaptive behavior?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a What are the typical domains of adaptive behavior scales?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a How is adaptive behavior different from other constructs such as personality or intelligence?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a What are some of the most popular adaptive behavior scales?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The adaptive behavior construct traces its roots to early work in mental retardation, which, in turn, is linked to the

  7. The Relationship between Parent Report of Adaptive Behavior and Direct Assessment of Reading Ability in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arciuli. Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. Method: The authors investigated children's reading ability using the…

  8. Assessing heat-adaptive behaviors among older, urban-dwelling adults

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Parker, Edith A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Zhang, Zhenzhen; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Health studies have shown that the elderly are at a greater risk to extreme heat. The frequency and intensity of summer heat waves will continue to increase as a result of climate change. It is important that we understand the environmental and structural factors that increase heat vulnerability, as well as examine the behaviors used by the elderly to adapt to hot indoor temperatures. Study design From June 1 to August 31, 2009, residents in 29 homes in Detroit, MI, kept an hourly log of eight heat-adaptive behaviors: opening windows/doors, turning fans or the air conditioner on, changing clothes, taking a shower, going to the basement, the porch/yard, or leaving the house. Percentages of hourly behavior were calculated, overall and stratified by housing type and percent surface imperviousness. The frequency of behavior use, as a result of indoor and outdoor predetermined temperature intervals was compared to a reference temperature range of 21.1–23.8 °C. Results The use of all adaptive behaviors, except going to the porch or yard, was significantly associated with indoor temperature. Non-mechanical adaptations such as changing clothes, taking showers, and going outside or to the basement were rarely used. Residents living in high-rises and highly impervious areas reported a higher use of adaptive behaviors. The odds of leaving the house significantly increased as outdoor temperature increased. Conclusions These findings suggest that the full range of heat adaptation measures may be underused by the elderly and public health interventions need to focus on outreach to these populations. PMID:21782363

  9. Behavioral Adaptation and Late-Life Disability: A New Spectrum for Assessing Public Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Vicki A.; Kasper, Judith D.; Spillman, Brenda C.; Agree, Emily M.; Mor, Vincent; Wallace, Robert B.; Wolf, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Promoting independent functioning of older adults requires attention to how older adults carry out basic activities. This paper provides the first national estimates of late-life disability that explicitly recognize behavioral adaptations to functioning. METHODS We analyzed the National Health and Aging Trends Study, a study of Medicare enrollees ages 65 and older (N=8,077). For seven mobility and self-care activities we identify five hierarchical stages—fully able, successful accommodation with devices, activity reduction, difficulty despite accommodations, and receipt of help—and explore disparities and associations with quality of life measures. RESULTS 31% of older adults are fully able to complete self-care and mobility activities. The remaining groups successfully accommodate with devices (25%); reduce their activities (6%), report difficulty despite accommodations (18%), or receive help (21%). With successive stages physical and cognitive capacity decrease and symptoms and multi-morbidity increase. Successful accommodation is associated with maintaining participation in valued activities and high wellbeing, but substantial disparities by race, ethnicity and income exist. CONCLUSION Increased public health attention to behavioral adaptations to functional change can promote independence for older adults and may also enhance quality of life. PMID:24328656

  10. Assessing Cognitive Load in Adaptive Hypermedia Systems

    E-print Network

    Bremen, Universität

    Assessing Cognitive Load in Adaptive Hypermedia Systems: Physiological and Behavioral Methods of the methods proposed to assess cognitive load reveals: (1) that pupil size seems to be one of the most.1 Assessing Cognitive Load for Adaptive Hypermedia Systems There are many situations in which it would

  11. Original Paper Adaptive Behavior

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    The kinematics of human walking are largely driven by passive dynamics, but adaptation to varying terrain limitation on passive dynamic walk- ers, however, is that they are unable to accommodate environmental, dynamic walking, biped, reactive control, rough terrain, evolutionary robotics 1 Introduction 1

  12. Assessing pain in non-intubated critically ill patients unable to self report: an adaptation of the Behavioral Pain Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérald Chanques; Jean-François Payen; Grégoire Mercier; Sylvie de Lattre; Eric Viel; Boris Jung; Moussa Cissé; Jean-Yves Lefrant; Samir Jaber

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  To validate an adaptation of the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) for its use in non-intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients\\u000a unable to self-report their pain because of the occurrence of delirium. The “vocalization” domain was inserted to construct\\u000a the BPS-non intubated (BPS-NI) scale, ranging from 3 (no pain) to 12 (most pain).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective psychometric study in a medical-surgical ICU.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The

  13. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  14. Adaptive capture of expert behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barrett, C.L.; Hand, U.; Gordon, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors smoothed and captured a set of expert rules with adaptive networks. The motivation for doing this is discussed. (1) Smoothing leads to stabler control actions. (2) For some sets of rules, the evaluation of the rules can be sped up. This is important in large-scale simulations where many intelligent elements are present. (3) Variability of the intelligent elements can be achieved by adjusting the weights in an adaptive network. (4) After capture has occurred, the weights can be adjusted based on performance criteria. The authors thus have the capability of learning a new set of rules that lead to better performance. The set of rules the authors chose to capture were based on a set of threat determining rules for tank commanders. The approach in this paper: (1) They smoothed the rules. The rule set was converted into a simple set of arithmetic statements. Continuous, non-binary inputs, are now permitted. (2) An operational measure of capturability was developed. (3) They chose four candidate networks for the rule set capture: (a) multi-linear network, (b) adaptive partial least squares, (c) connectionist normalized local spline (CNLS) network, and (d) CNLS net with a PLS preprocessor. These networks were able to capture the rule set to within a few percent. For the simple tank rule set, the multi-linear network performed the best. When the rules were modified to include more nonlinear behavior, CNLS net performed better than the other three nets which made linear assumptions. (4) The networks were tested for robustness to input noise. Noise levels of plus or minus 10% had no real effect on the network performance. Noise levels in the plus or minus 30% range degraded performance by a factor of two. Some performance enhancement occurred when the networks were trained with noisy data. (5) The scaling of the evaluation time was calculated. (6) Human variation can be mimicked in all the networks by perturbing the weights.

  15. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  16. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Staci C. Martin; Pamela L. Wolters; Ann C. M. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with an age-appropriate test. Children scored below

  17. http://adb.sagepub.com Adaptive Behavior

    E-print Network

    to bear any resemblance to either real animals or real behav- ioral systems, while in adaptive behavior the study of real animal or human behavior is common. It should perhaps be pointed out that for somebody be treated as models and thus as theories or hypotheses of animal behavior and not only be seen in its

  18. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  19. Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2009-01-01

    The term "System for Mobility and Access to Rough Terrain" (SMART) denotes a theoretical framework, a control architecture, and an algorithm that implements the framework and architecture, for enabling a land-mobile robot to adapt to changing conditions. SMART is intended to enable the robot to recognize adverse terrain conditions beyond its optimal operational envelope, and, in response, to intelligently reconfigure itself (e.g., adjust suspension heights or baseline distances between suspension points) or adapt its driving techniques (e.g., engage in a crabbing motion as a switchback technique for ascending steep terrain). Conceived for original application aboard Mars rovers and similar autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile robots used in exploration of remote planets, SMART could also be applied to autonomous terrestrial vehicles to be used for search, rescue, and/or exploration on rough terrain.

  20. Construction of a Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasse, Marc J.; And Others

    Multilog (Thissen, 1991) was used to estimate parameters of 225 items from the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale (QABS). A database containing actual data from 2,439 subjects was used for the parameterization procedures. The two-parameter-logistic model was used in estimating item parameters and in the testing strategy. MicroCAT (Assessment Systems…

  1. Adaptive rapid environmental assessment system simulation framework

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ding, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive Rapid Environmental Assessment (AREA) is a new concept for minimizing the non model-based sonar performance prediction uncertainty and improving the model-based sonar performance by adaptive and rapid in situ ...

  2. Neurophysiology of performance monitoring and adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ullsperger, Markus; Danielmeier, Claudia; Jocham, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal-directed behavior requires not only correct action selection, planning, and execution but also the ability to flexibly adapt behavior when performance problems occur or the environment changes. A prerequisite for determining the necessity, type, and magnitude of adjustments is to continuously monitor the course and outcome of one's actions. Feedback-control loops correcting deviations from intended states constitute a basic functional principle of adaptation at all levels of the nervous system. Here, we review the neurophysiology of evaluating action course and outcome with respect to their valence, i.e., reward and punishment, and initiating short- and long-term adaptations, learning, and decisions. Based on studies in humans and other mammals, we outline the physiological principles of performance monitoring and subsequent cognitive, motivational, autonomic, and behavioral adaptation and link them to the underlying neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, psychological theories, and computational models. We provide an overview of invasive and noninvasive systemic measures, such as electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and lesion data. We describe how a wide network of brain areas encompassing frontal cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and monoaminergic brain stem nuclei detects and evaluates deviations of actual from predicted states indicating changed action costs or outcomes. This information is used to learn and update stimulus and action values, guide action selection, and recruit adaptive mechanisms that compensate errors and optimize goal achievement. PMID:24382883

  3. Behavior and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: Specifying Targets for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Hickey, Francis; Howe, Steven R.; Esbensen, Anna; Shear, Paula K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with Down syndrome can demonstrate increased behavior problems as compared with typical peers. Few studies have explored whether behavior impacts adaptive functioning. Caregiver report from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) and the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL;…

  4. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  5. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  6. The Adaptive Neuroplasticity Hypothesis of Behavioral Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is a seemingly simple and clinically potent method to decrease morbidity and mortality in people with coronary heart disease (CHD). Nonetheless, long-term maintenance of physical activity remains a frustratingly elusive goal for patients and practitioners alike. In this paper, we posit that among older adults with CHD, recidivism after the initiation of physical activity reflects maladaptive neuroplasticity of malleable neural networks, and people will revert back to learned and habitual physical inactivity patterns, particularly in the setting of stress or depression. We hypothesize that behavioral interventions that successfully promote physical activity may also enhance adaptive neuroplasticity and play a key role in the maintenance of physical activity through the development of new neuronal pathways that enhance functional ability in older adults. Conversely, without such adaptive neuroplastic changes, ingrained maladaptive neuroplasticity will prevail and long-term maintenance of physical activity will fail. In this paper we will: (1) describe the enormous potential for neuroplasticity in older adults; (2) review stress and depression as examples of maladaptive neuroplasticity; (3) describe an example of adaptive neuroplasticity achieved with a behavioral intervention that induced positive affect in people with CHD; and (4) discuss implications for future work in bench to bedside translational research. PMID:23125937

  7. Use of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II in Children with Autism--An Indian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manohari, S. M.; Raman, Vijaya; Ashok, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II Edition 2005 (Vineland-II) is useful in assessing abilities in autism spectrum disorder, where an accurate assessment of intelligence using standardized tools is difficult both due to the unique social and communication difficulties that these children present with and the behavioral issues that occur as…

  8. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  9. Visualizing Search Behavior with Adaptive Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert G.; Qadri, Muhammad A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined different aspects of the visual search behavior of a pigeon using an open-ended, adaptive testing procedure controlled by a genetic algorithm. The animal had to accurately search for and peck a gray target element randomly located from among a variable number of surrounding darker and lighter distractor elements. Display composition was controlled by a genetic algorithm involving the multivariate configuration of different parameters or genes (number of distractors, element size, shape, spacing, target brightness, and distractor brightness). Sessions were composed of random displays, testing randomized combinations of these genes, and selected displays, representing the varied descendants of displays correctly identified by the pigeon. Testing a larger number of random displays than done previously, it was found that the bird’s solution to the search task was highly stable and did not change with extensive experience in the task. The location and shape of this attractor was visualized using multivariate behavioral surfaces in which element size and the number of distractors were the most important factors controlling search accuracy and search time. The resulting visualizations of the bird’s search behavior are discussed with reference to the potential of using adaptive, open-ended experimental techniques for investigating animal cognition and their implications for Bond and Kamil’s innovative development of virtual ecologies using an analogous methodology. PMID:24370702

  10. Anomalous human behavior detection: an adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Coen; Halma, Arvid; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-05-01

    Detection of anomalies (outliers or abnormal instances) is an important element in a range of applications such as fault, fraud, suspicious behavior detection and knowledge discovery. In this article we propose a new method for anomaly detection and performed tested its ability to detect anomalous behavior in videos from DARPA's Mind's Eye program, containing a variety of human activities. In this semi-unsupervised task a set of normal instances is provided for training, after which unknown abnormal behavior has to be detected in a test set. The features extracted from the video data have high dimensionality, are sparse and inhomogeneously distributed in the feature space making it a challenging task. Given these characteristics a distance-based method is preferred, but choosing a threshold to classify instances as (ab)normal is non-trivial. Our novel aproach, the Adaptive Outlier Distance (AOD) is able to detect outliers in these conditions based on local distance ratios. The underlying assumption is that the local maximum distance between labeled examples is a good indicator of the variation in that neighborhood, and therefore a local threshold will result in more robust outlier detection. We compare our method to existing state-of-art methods such as the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) and the Local Distance-based Outlier Factor (LDOF). The results of the experiments show that our novel approach improves the quality of the anomaly detection.

  11. Communicating to Farmers about Skin Cancer: The Behavior Adaptation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Roxanne; Monahan, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Steiner, Carol

    1998-01-01

    States health campaign messages designed to encourage behavior adaptation have greater likelihood of success than campaigns promoting avoidance of at-risk behaviors that cannot be avoided. Tests a model of health risk behavior using four different behaviors in a communication campaign aimed at reducing farmers' risk for skin cancer--questions…

  12. Spatial perception and adaptive sonar behavior Murat Aytekina)

    E-print Network

    Moss, Cynthia

    adaptations in the timing and spec- tro-temporal design of sonar signals in response to a particular taskSpatial perception and adaptive sonar behavior Murat Aytekina) Department of Psychology, Institute September 2010; accepted 27 September 2010) Bat echolocation is a dynamic behavior that allows for real-time

  13. Adaptability by Behavior Selection and Observation for Mobile Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Michaud

    1997-01-01

    Behavior-based systems are very useful in making robots adapt to the dynamics of real-world environments. To make these systems more adaptable to various situations and goals to pursue in the world, an interesting idea is to dynamically select behaviors that control the actions of the system. One factor that can give a lot of information about the world is the

  14. Trajectory of Adaptive Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in mentally retarded males with fragile X syndrome was longitudinally examined in 17 subjects, ages 1 to 17. Findings included relative strength in daily living skills and weakness in socialization only for older subjects, and significant declines in adaptive behavior scores from first to second testing for the older subjects.…

  15. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  16. (Non)Behavioral Economics: A Programmatic Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Güth

    2008-01-01

    Economic theory has evolved without paying proper attention to behavioral approaches, especially to social, economic, and cognitive psychology. This has recently been addressed by including behavioral economics courses in many doctoral study programs. Although this new development is most welcome, the typical topics of the behavioral economics courses like aversion theories and simple adaptive (learning or evolutionary) dynamics are not

  17. Functional Assessment for Individuals with Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ui-Jung; Choi, Hye-Sung

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes articles related to functional assessment and its applications for individuals with problem behaviors. The research indicates functional assessment procedures have been established as a standard assessment tool that identifies environmental variables related to problem behaviors with links to the development of effective…

  18. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales for Young Children with Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L Harris GSAPP; Jan S. Handleman; Jill Belchic; Beth Glasberg

    1995-01-01

    Parents of 20 preschool children with Autistic Disorder were interviewed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition Survey Form, upon their child's admission to an intensive educational program, after one school year, and after two school years. Results showed that the Vineland was sensitive to changes in the children's adaptive functioning, and reflected differential changes in the four domains

  19. Learning Driver's Behavior to Improve Adaptive Cruise Control

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Sarit

    Learning Driver's Behavior to Improve Adaptive Cruise Control Avi Rosenfeld1 , Zevi Bareket2@cs.biu.ac.il, leblanc@umich.edu, omer.tsimhoni@gm.com ABSTRACT Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is a technology that allows to other do- mains as well. 1. INTRODUCTION Cruise control is a known technology that aids drivers

  20. An adaptive multiagent routing algorithm inspired by ants behavior

    E-print Network

    Ducatelle, Frederick

    An adaptive multi­agent routing algorithm inspired by ants behavior Gianni Di Caro and Marco Dorigo introduces AntNet, a novel adaptive approach to routing tables learning in connectionless communications networks. AntNet is inspired by the stigmergy communication model observed in ant colonies. We compare Ant

  1. Coordination Pattern Adaptability: Energy Cost of Degenerate Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Ludovic; Komar, John; Crettenand, Florent; Millet, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: ‘freely-chosen’, ‘maximal glide’ and ‘minimal glide’. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under ‘maximal glide’ compared to ‘freely-chosen’ instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). In the ‘minimal glide’ condition, the swimmers did not show significantly shorter glide and lower energy cost, but they exhibited significantly lower deceleration of the center of mass, as well as modified limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05). These results highlight that a variety of structural adaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal. PMID:25255016

  2. Confronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Confronting the Challenge of Integrated Assessment of Climate Adaptation: A Conceptual Framework to climate change adaptation. This paper proposes a framework for modeling climate impacts and adaptation into a conceptual model that distinguishes three different classes of adaptation-related activities. Based

  3. IN PRESS, ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR Positive Assortment for Peer Review

    E-print Network

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon

    1 IN PRESS, ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR Positive Assortment for Peer Review C. Athena Aktipis* Dept conscientious behavior on the part of reviewers that does not rely on financial transactions or punitive similar prosocial characteristics, is an essential ingredient in the recipe for promoting cooperation

  4. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  5. A Systematic Review and Psychometric Evaluation of Adaptive Behavior Scales and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Shands, Elizabeth I.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Phillips, Jessica F.; Autry, Beth K.; Mosteller, Jessica A.; Skinner, Mary; Irby, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior scales are vital in assessing children and adolescents who experience a range of disabling conditions in school settings. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the design characteristics, norming, scale characteristics, reliability and validity evidence, and bias identification studies supporting 14…

  6. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph P. Allen; Maryfrances R. Porter; F. Christy McFarland; Penny Marsh; Kathleen Boykin McElhaney

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed these hypotheses. As hypothesized, popular adolescents displayed higher concurrent

  7. The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Porter, Maryfrances R.; McFarland, F. Christy; Marsh, Penny; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the hypothesis that popularity in adolescence takes on a twofold role, marking high levels of concurrent adaptation but predicting increases over time in both positive and negative behaviors sanctioned by peer norms. Multimethod, longitudinal data, on a diverse community sample of 185 adolescents (13 to 14 years), addressed…

  8. [Adaptive behaviors to HIV risk of transmission in different populations].

    PubMed

    Grémy, I

    2005-05-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic in France, surveys aimed at better understanding risk perceptions of HIV infection and preventive sexual behaviors have been implemented in the general population, and in populations such as IVDU and homosexual men, more concerned by risks of HIV transmission. The objective of this article is to describe these surveys, to present their main results and to assess what has been the overall impact of prevention campaigns on the adoption of preventive sexual behaviors in these populations. The results show that very early after the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, both general and homosexual populations have adopted preventive sexual behaviors, mainly increasing condom use and implementing other preventive strategies. However, with the introduction of HAART in 1996, a slackening of these preventive behaviors is noted. The use of condom is less frequent, especially in the youngest generations of both general and homosexual populations. On the opposite, among IVDU, the use of sterile syringes increased dramatically as soon as over-the-counter sales of syringes was authorized in 1987, as well as the adoption of ways other than intravenous to take drugs. Both have contributed to almost stop the HIV epidemic in this specific group. The results of these surveys show that the benefits of prevention campaigns are different between populations and are reversible. It is necessary to renew the messages, campaigns and programs of prevention with the renewal of generations. It is also necessary to adapt these messages to the new scientific data, and to the evolution of social and individual representations of the disease. PMID:15878250

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2003 123 Methodology for Assessing Adaptive Cruise Control

    E-print Network

    Peng, Huei

    Methodology for Assessing Adaptive Cruise Control Behavior Zevi Bareket, Paul S. Fancher, Huei Peng, Kangwon the longitudinal performance of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. It reports Terms--Adaptive cruise control (ACC), clearance, global positioning system (GPS), range measurement

  10. http://adb.sagepub.com/ Adaptive Behavior

    E-print Network

    in Computational Chemo-ethology Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: International Society;387 Integrating Autopoiesis and Behavior: An Exploration in Computational Chemo-ethology Matthew D. Egbert- ing examination of the model. Keywords autopoiesis · agency · behavior · operational closure · chemo-ethology

  11. Development of a Computerized Adaptive Test for Schizotypy Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Menéndez, Luis Fernando; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypal traits in adolescents from the general population represent the behavioral expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Schizotypy assessment in this sector of population has advanced considerably in the last few years; however, it is necessary to incorporate recent advances in psychological and educational measurement. Objective The main goal of this study was to develop a Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT) to evaluate schizotypy through “The Oviedo Questionnaire for Schizotypy Assessment” (ESQUIZO-Q), in non-clinical adolescents. Methods The final sample consisted of 3,056 participants, 1,469 males, with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD?=?1.2). Results The results indicated that the ESQUIZO-Q scores presented adequate psychometric properties under both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory. The Information Function estimated using the Gradual Response Model indicated that the item pool effectively assesses schizotypy at the high end of the latent trait. The correlation between the CAT total scores and the paper-and-pencil test was 0.92. The mean number of presented items in the CAT with the standard error fixed at ?0.30 was of 34 items. Conclusion The CAT showed adequate psychometric properties for schizotypy assessment in the general adolescent population. The ESQUIZO-Q adaptive version could be used as a screening method for the detection of adolescents at risk for psychosis in both educational and mental health settings. PMID:24019907

  12. http://adb.sagepub.com/ Adaptive Behavior

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    are largely driven by passive dynamics, but adaptation to varying terrain conditions and responses for efficient 2D and 3D bipedal walking over rough terrain Published by: http.1177/1059712312462904 adb.sagepub.com Linear reactive control for efficient 2D and 3D bipedal walking over rough terrain

  13. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Behavioral Pain Scale

    PubMed Central

    Morete, Márcia Carla; Mofatto, Sarah Camargo; Pereira, Camila Alves; Silva, Ana Paula; Odierna, Maria Tereza

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Behavioral Pain Scale to Brazilian Portuguese and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this scale. Methods This study was conducted in two phases: the Behavioral Pain Scale was translated and culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese and the psychometric properties of this scale were subsequently assessed (reliability and clinical utility). The study sample consisted of 100 patients who were older than 18 years of age, admitted to an intensive care unit, intubated, mechanically ventilated, and subjected or not to sedation and analgesia from July 2012 to December 2012. Pediatric and non-intubated patients were excluded. The study was conducted at a large private hospital that was situated in the city of São Paulo (SP). Results Regarding reproducibility, the results revealed that the observed agreement between the two evaluators was 92.08% for the pain descriptor “adaptation to mechanical ventilation”, 88.1% for “upper limbs”, and 90.1% for “facial expression”. The kappa coefficient of agreement for “adaptation to mechanical ventilation” assumed a value of 0.740. Good agreement was observed between the evaluators with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.807 (95% confidence interval: 0.727-0.866). Conclusion The Behavioral Pain Scale was easy to administer and reproduce. Additionally, this scale had adequate internal consistency. The Behavioral Pain Scale was satisfactorily adapted to Brazilian Portuguese for the assessment of pain in critically ill patients. PMID:25607266

  14. Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Outcomes of Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldevik, Sigmund; Jahr, Erik; Eikeseth, Svein; Hastings, Richard P.; Hughes, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Data from Norway were analyzed to evaluate early behavioral intervention for children with intellectual disabilities. The intervention group (n = 11) received approximately 10 hours per week of behavioral intervention; the eclectic comparison group (n = 14) received treatment as usual. After 1 year, changes in intelligence and adaptive behavior

  15. http://adb.sagepub.com Adaptive Behavior

    E-print Network

    Theraulaz, Guy

    · Blattella germanica · swarm robotics 1 Introduction Decision-making mechanisms are of crucial impor- tance Behavior Simon Garnier, Jacques Gautrais, Masoud Asadpour, Christian Jost and Guy Theraulaz Robots Self Making in a Group of Cockroach-Like Robots Simon Garnier1 , Jacques Gautrais1 , Masoud Asadpour2

  16. Designing and Understanding Adaptive Group Behavior

    E-print Network

    Mataric, Maja J.

    behaviors. Section 5 describes the control ex­ periments we used to test heterogeneous alternatives for some intelligent animals live in a society of kin, obey its rules, and reap the benefits. Social interactions can allow animals to attack larger prey and increase their chances for survival and mating (McFarland 1985

  17. Using Telemedicine to Conduct Behavioral Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Barretto, Anjali; Wacker, David P; Harding, Jay; Lee, John; Berg, Wendy K

    2006-01-01

    We describe the use of telemedicine by the Biobehavioral Service at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics to conduct brief functional analyses for children with developmental and behavioral disorders who live in rural areas of Iowa. Instead of being served at our outpatient facility, participants received initial behavioral assessments in their local schools or social service agencies via videoconference. Case descriptions for 2 participants whose evaluations were conducted via telemedicine, and a brief summary of all outpatient assessments conducted over a 4-year period by the Biobehavioral Service, are provided. This report extends previous applications of functional analysis procedures by examining brief behavioral assessments conducted via telemedicine. PMID:17020213

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Vietnamese Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Michael R.; Dill, Charles A.; Shin, Jin Y.; Nhan, Nguyen Viet

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine an adaptation of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) [Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). "The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales." Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service; Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2005). "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition…

  19. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6years.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Morris J; Meador, Kimford J; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-11-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  20. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine potential risks associated with other AEDs, better define the risks to the neonate that are associated with AEDs for treatment of seizures, and understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse AED effects on the immature brain. PMID:24012508

  1. Adaptive Behavior in Toddlers under Two with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Loomis, Rebecca; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was administered to 54 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) before age 2, and a matching group of 18 toddlers with developmental delay (DD). The group with ASD was more impaired on all scales of the Vineland than DD peers. When 18 ASD/DD pairs very closely matched on age, verbal and nonverbal…

  2. Stability of the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Cheryl Yelich; Oakland, Thomas

    The stability of the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for children (ABIC) over a 4-year period was investigated. The sample was composed of 44 children, distributed approximately equally within racial and ethnic groups (Anglo-American, Black, Mexican-American), socioeconomic group (middle and lower), and gender. Three types of stability were…

  3. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Introduction to Psychosocial and Behavioral Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, R. Leigh; Decker, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    Defines amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as motor-neuron disease that is terminal. Discusses symptoms associated with ALS and identifies treatment options. Reviews psychological and behavioral adaptations in regard to ALS clients, their families, and professionals who work with them. Discusses support groups as method of reducing stress for ALS…

  4. The Study of Teacher Behaviors in an Adaptive Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, C. Dianne; Wang, Margaret C.

    A multi-aged primary classroom environment was observed to determine (1) the degree to which teacher behaviors specified by developers of an adaptive learning environment (ALE) are actually exhibited by the teachers, (2) the nature of classroom processes and interactions between teachers and students in an ALE, and (3) the extent to which…

  5. LIFE ON THE EDGE: MORPHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS FOR

    E-print Network

    Denny, Mark

    breaking waves, I show that fast reaction times allow barnacles to avoid damaging water flows while stillLIFE ON THE EDGE: MORPHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS FOR SURVIVAL ON WAVE-SWEPT SHORES. ___________________________________ Judith L. Connor Approved for the University Committee on Graduate Studies iii #12;iv #12;Abstract Wave

  6. Adaptive Assessment of Young Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…

  7. Adaptation in integrated assessment modeling: where do we stand?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Patt; Detlef P. van Vuuren; Frans Berkhout; Asbjørn Aaheim; Andries F. Hof; Morna Isaac; Reinhard Mechler

    2010-01-01

    Adaptation is an important element on the climate change policy agenda. Integrated assessment models, which are key tools\\u000a to assess climate change policies, have begun to address adaptation, either by including it implicitly in damage cost estimates,\\u000a or by making it an explicit control variable. We analyze how modelers have chosen to describe adaptation within an integrated\\u000a framework, and suggest

  8. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Headache

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrasik, Frank; Schwartz, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Headaches are quite common in children and adolescents, and they appear to persist into adulthood in a sizable number of individuals. Assessment approaches (interview, pain diaries, and general and specific questionnaires) and behavioral treatment interventions (contingency management, relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive behavior therapy) are…

  9. Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Pediatric Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wysocki, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical research literature on behavioral assessment and intervention methods in the context of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. The review summarizes the pathophysiology, medical management, and monitoring of pediatric type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Next, the article describes common behavioral barriers to…

  10. Covert Modeling, Imagery Assessment, and Assertive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was (a) to examine the effect of two variables in developing assertive behavior using covert modeling and (b) to develop a technique to assess ongoing imagery during treatment. The results indicated that imagining multiple models or model reinforcement enhanced behavior change. (Author)

  11. Caregiver Behaviors and Adaptive Behavior Development of Very Young Children in Home Care and Daycare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Jennifer Schroer; Mills, Belen Collantes

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of home-mother care and day care caregiver behaviors on the adaptive behavior development of infants between 18 and 24 months of age. Other variables under investigation included two indices of socioeconomic status: occupation and education of parents. The sample consisted of 72 children.…

  12. Behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation: a physiological strategy when mice behaviorally thermoregulate.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Aydin, Cenk; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Johnstone, Andrew F M

    2014-08-01

    Laboratory mice housed under standard vivarium conditions with an ambient temperature (Ta) of ~22°C are likely to be cold stressed because this Ta is below their thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Mice raised at Tas within the TNZ adapt to the warmer temperatures, developing smaller internal organs and longer tails compared to mice raised at 22°C. Since mice prefer Tas equal to their TNZ when housed in a thermocline, we hypothesized that mice reared for long periods (e.g., months) in a thermocline would undergo significant changes in organ development and tail length as a result of their thermoregulatory behavior. Groups of three female BALB/c mice at an age of 37 days were housed together in a thermocline consisting of a 90cm long aluminum runway with a floor temperature ranging from 23 to 39°C. Two side-by-side thermoclines allowed for a total of 6 mice to be tested simultaneously. Control mice were tested in isothermal runways maintained at a Ta of 22°C. All groups were given cotton pads for bedding/nest building. Mass of heart, lung, liver, kidney, brain, and tail length were assessed after 73 days of treatment. Mice in the thermocline and control (isothermal) runways were compared to cage control mice housed 3/cage with bedding under standard vivarium conditions. Mice in the thermocline generally remained in the warm end throughout the daytime with little evidence of nest building, suggesting a state of thermal comfort. Mice in the isothermal runway built elaborate nests and huddled together in the daytime. Mice housed in the thermocline had significantly smaller livers and kidneys and an increase in tail length compared to mice in the isothermal runway as well as when compared to the cage controls. These patterns of organ growth and tail length of mice in the thermocline are akin to warm adaptation. Thus, thermoregulatory behavior altered organ development, a process we term behaviorally mediated, warm adaptation. Moreover, the data suggest that the standard vivarium conditions are likely a cold stress that alters normal organ development relative to mice allowed to select their thermal preferendum. PMID:25086972

  13. Behavioral assessment technique as a clinical intervention.

    PubMed

    Rogers, H E; Duckro, P; Layton, B; Kass, W

    1981-07-01

    Behavioral assessment procedures have been used to predict the onset of addictive behaviors. However, no controlled studies have been conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of such procedures in the treatment of drug abuse. A group using the Behavioral Assessment Technique (BAT) as an indicator for clinical intervention was compared to a group in which the BAT was not used clinically. The results indicated that the BAT was not particularly effective for clinical purposes. This failure was independent of the BAT's accuracy in predicting drug usage. Alternative hypotheses were discussed. PMID:7327777

  14. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change: integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-12-01

    Several case studies show that social factors like institutions, perceptions and social capital strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Together with economic and technological development they are important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of social factors. After reviewing existing methodologies we identify the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) by Gupta et al. (2010), developed for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions, as the most comprehensive and operationalised framework to assess social factors. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess 6 dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate; "adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in northwestern Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  15. The PDD Behavior Inventory: A Rating Scale for Assessing Response to Intervention in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira L. Cohen; Susan Schmidt-Lackner; Raymond Romanczyk; Vicki Sudhalter

    2003-01-01

    The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) is a rating scale filled out by caregivers or teachers that was designed to assess children having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD; autism, Asperger disorder, PDD-NOS, or childhood disintegrative disorder). Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are assessed in the scale, making it useful for treatment studies in which decreases in maladaptive behaviors and improvements in

  16. A New Approach to the Measurement of Adaptive Behavior: Development of the PEDI-CAT for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jessica M.; Coster, Wendy J.; Kao, Ying-Chia; Snow, Anne; Orsmond, Gael I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of current adaptive behavior measures in practice and research is limited by their length and need for a professional interviewer. There is a need for alternative measures that more efficiently assess adaptive behavior in children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer…

  17. Adaption of the Areas of Change Questionnaire for Parent-Child Relationship Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Theodore; Seilhamer, Ruth Ann

    1985-01-01

    Need for behaviorally based report procedures capable of describing important aspects of family functioning is expressed. Adaptation of the Areas of Change Questionniare is presented for assessment of parent-adolescent relationships. The potential utility of this instrument in clinical and research efforts is described, and initial psychometric…

  18. Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n?=?26), normally-developing children matched for mental age (MA, n?=?30), and normally-developing children matched for chronological age (CA, n?=?40). We compared the mean scores for each domain between the three groups. Results Children with WS had more siblings than children in the two control groups. The educational level of the caregivers of WS children was lower than that of the control children. We found no differences in locomotion, work skill, socialization, or self-management between the WS and MA groups. WS children obtained higher scores of self-dependence (df?=?54, Z?=??2.379, p?=?0.017) and had better communication skills (df?=?54, Z?=??2.222, p?=?0.026) compared with MA children. The CA children achieved higher scores than the WS children for all dimensions of adaptive behavior. Conclusions WS children have better adaptive behavior skills regarding communication and self-dependence than normal children matched for mental age. Targeted intervention techniques should be designed to promote social development in this population. PMID:24708693

  19. Assessing institutional capacities to adapt to climate change - integrating psychological dimensions in the Adaptive Capacity Wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothmann, T.; Grecksch, K.; Winges, M.; Siebenhüner, B.

    2013-03-01

    Several case studies show that "soft social factors" (e.g. institutions, perceptions, social capital) strongly affect social capacities to adapt to climate change. Many soft social factors can probably be changed faster than "hard social factors" (e.g. economic and technological development) and are therefore particularly important for building social capacities. However, there are almost no methodologies for the systematic assessment of soft social factors. Gupta et al. (2010) have developed the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) for assessing the adaptive capacity of institutions. The ACW differentiates 22 criteria to assess six dimensions: variety, learning capacity, room for autonomous change, leadership, availability of resources, fair governance. To include important psychological factors we extended the ACW by two dimensions: "adaptation motivation" refers to actors' motivation to realise, support and/or promote adaptation to climate. "Adaptation belief" refers to actors' perceptions of realisability and effectiveness of adaptation measures. We applied the extended ACW to assess adaptive capacities of four sectors - water management, flood/coastal protection, civil protection and regional planning - in North Western Germany. The assessments of adaptation motivation and belief provided a clear added value. The results also revealed some methodological problems in applying the ACW (e.g. overlap of dimensions), for which we propose methodological solutions.

  20. [Aggressive behavior, its adaptive function and mechanisms of development of psychosomatic disorders and diseases of adaptation].

    PubMed

    Chichinadze, K N; Gachechiladze, L F

    2006-01-01

    A correlation between physiologic and behavioral responses to emotional stress and agonistic conflict (triad model), as well as ideas of autonomic-humoral support of subsequent activity suggest that motor activity and situational aggressive behavior are essential final stages of stress reaction and, therefore, mechanisms of adaptation. Failure in final the stage of adaptive response causes mobilization changes to be directed against the host organism itself. This phenomenon forms the basis for psychosomatic disorders. Aggression seems to be an adaptive response not only from ethologic, but from physiologic point of view as well. It has some elements of homeostatic control (together with non-homeostatic functions). Homeostatic role of aggression may be in "elimination" of mobilization metabolic changes caused by stress reaction and physical activity by means of expressive emotional response. Aggression as a non-homeostatic factor has an ethologic function. PMID:16583684

  1. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  2. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1996-04-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Duffard, R

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone,dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or changes in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. PMID:9182042

  4. An Adaptive Testing System for Supporting Versatile Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cheng, Shu-Chen

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test (CBT) with mobile learning (m-learning) especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test (CAT) is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves. In CAT, students are…

  5. Calibrated Methodology for Assessing Adaptation Costs for Urban Drainage Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in precipitation patterns associated with climate change may pose significant challenges for storm water management systems across much of the U.S. In particular, adapting these systems to more intense rainfall events will require significant investment. The assessment ...

  6. Assessing residents' prescribing behavior in renal impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. SALOMON; S. LEVU; G. DERAY; V. LAUNAY-VACHER; G. BRUCKER; P. RAVAUD

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Although fitting orders to renal function avoids overdosage and therefore iatrogenic risk, dosage adjustment is rarely made. The objective of this study was to assess residents' prescribing behavior in renal impairment, through a standardized simulated clinical setting. Method. This criterion-referenced study was carried out in a French teaching hospital. The hospital had 118 residents; 71 of them were asked

  7. Covert modeling, imagery assessment, and assertive behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan E. Kazdin

    1975-01-01

    Conducted an investigation to (a) examine the effect of 2 variables in developing assertive behavior using covert modeling and (b) develop a technique to assess ongoing imagery during treatment. Ss were 54 18-61 yr olds. In a 2 * 2 design, the number of models imagined (imagining several models vs imagining a single model perform assertively) and model reinforcement (imagining

  8. Academic and Behavioral Assessment: Program Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Joyce

    Academic and behavioral assessment of learning disabled students (ages 3-11 years) at the Greene County Learning Center (Xenia, OH) is comprised of three tests (Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests, the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and Group Learning Skills Tests) and teacher observation. An individualized educational program is determined based…

  9. Evaluation of the effect of vibration nonlinearity on convergence behavior of adaptive higher harmonic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.; Mookerjee, P.; Bar-Shalom, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of nonlinearity on convergence of the local linear and global linear adaptive controllers is evaluated. A nonlinear helicopter vibration model is selected for the evaluation which has sufficient nonlinearity, including multiple minimum, to assess the vibration reduction capability of the adaptive controllers. The adaptive control algorithms are based upon a linear transfer matrix assumption and the presence of nonlinearity has a significant effect on algorithm behavior. Simulation results are presented which demonstrate the importance of the caution property in the global linear controller. Caution is represented by a time varying rate weighting term in the local linear controller and this improves the algorithm convergence. Nonlinearity in some cases causes Kalman filter divergence. Two forms of the Kalman filter covariance equation are investigated.

  10. Forest climate change Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitale, V. S.; Shrestha, H. L.; Agarwal, N. K.; Choudhurya, D.; Gilani, H.; Dhonju, H. K.; Murthy, M. S. R.

    2014-11-01

    Forests offer an important basis for creating and safeguarding more climate-resilient communities over Hindu Kush Himalayan region. The forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment to climate change and developing knowledge base to identify and support relevant adaptation strategies is realized as an urgent need. The multi scale adaptation strategies portray increasing complexity with the increasing levels in terms of data requirements, vulnerability understanding and decision making to choose a particular adaptation strategy. We present here how such complexities could be addressed and adaptation decisions could be either directly supported by open source remote sensing based forestry products or geospatial analysis and modelled products. The forest vulnerability assessment under climate change scenario coupled with increasing forest social dependence was studied using IPCC Landscape scale Vulnerability framework in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in Nepal. Around twenty layers of geospatial information on climate, forest biophysical and forest social dependence data was used to assess forest vulnerability and associated adaptation needs using self-learning decision tree based approaches. The increase in forest fires, evapotranspiration and reduction in productivity over changing climate scenario was observed. The adaptation measures on enhancing productivity, improving resilience, reducing or avoiding pressure with spatial specificity are identified to support suitable decision making. The study provides spatial analytical framework to evaluate multitude of parameters to understand vulnerabilities and assess scope for alternative adaptation strategies with spatial explicitness.

  11. Human Adaptive Behavior in Common Pool Resource Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Gunnar; Merico, Agostino; Vollan, Björn; Schlüter, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users’ expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users’ current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users’ perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns. PMID:23285180

  12. Runtime Behavior Adaptation for Real-Time Interactive Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Mehta; Ashwin Ram

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—Intelligent agents,working,in real time,domains need,to adapt,to changing,circumstance,so that,they,can improve,their performance,and,avoid their mistakes. AI agents designed for interactive games, however, typically lack this ability. Game agents are , traditionally implemented using static, hand- authored,behaviors,or scripts that are brittle to changing,world dynamics,and,cause,a break,in player,experience,when,they repeatedly fail. Furthermore, their static nature causes a lot of effort for the,game,designers,as they,have,to think,of all imaginable,circumstances,that can,be

  13. Assessing Working Memory in Spanish-Speaking Children: Automated Working Memory Assessment Battery Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Calero, Alejandra D.; Alloway, Tracy P.; Burin, Debora I.

    2011-01-01

    The Automated Working Memory Assessment battery was designed to assess verbal and visuospatial passive and active working memory processing in children and adolescents. The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation and validation of the AWMA battery to Argentinean Spanish-speaking children aged 6 to 11 years. Verbal subtests were adapted and…

  14. The relational basis of adolescent adjustment: trajectories of mother–child interactive behaviors from infancy to adolescence shape adolescents' adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Feldman

    2010-01-01

    Theories of social-emotional growth propose that repeatedly-experienced parent–infant interactions shape the individual's adaptation across development, yet few studies examined interactive behaviors repeatedly from infancy to adolescence. This study assessed the trajectories of four mother–child relational behaviors at six time-points from 3 months to 13 years: maternal sensitivity, child social engagement, mother intrusiveness, and dyadic reciprocity. Trajectories were examined separately for

  15. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; Del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. PMID:25461715

  16. Subjective quality assessment of an adaptive video streaming model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Wang, Kun; Andrén, Börje; Shahid, Muhammad; Garcia, Narciso

    2014-01-01

    With the recent increased popularity and high usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) techniques, various studies have been carried out in this area which generally focused on the technical enhancement of HAS technology and applications. However, a lack of common HAS standard led to multiple proprietary approaches which have been developed by major Internet companies. In the emerging MPEG-DASH standard the packagings of the video content and HTTP syntax have been standardized; but all the details of the adaptation behavior are left to the client implementation. Nevertheless, to design an adaptation algorithm which optimizes the viewing experience of the enduser, the multimedia service providers need to know about the Quality of Experience (QoE) of different adaptation schemes. Taking this into account, the objective of this experiment was to study the QoE of a HAS-based video broadcast model. The experiment has been carried out through a subjective study of the end user response to various possible clients' behavior for changing the video quality taking different QoE-influence factors into account. The experimental conclusions have made a good insight into the QoE of different adaptation schemes which can be exploited by HAS clients for designing the adaptation algorithms.

  17. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors

  18. Conceptual, methodological, and clinical issues in cognitive-behavioral assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R. Harris

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews cognitive-behavioral assessment principles and procedures. The functions of such assessments are noted, and issues and advances in cognitive assessment are discussed. The need for integrated cognitive, behavioral, and affective assessments is then explored. Finally, conceptual methodological, and clinical issues in the integration of assessments and study of reciprocal determinants are presented.

  19. Robot Behavior Adaptation for Human-Robot Interaction based on Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning

    E-print Network

    Mitsunaga, Noriaki

    Robot Behavior Adaptation for Human-Robot Interaction based on Policy Gradient Reinforcement adaptation toindividualpreferencesbyanexperimentwithtwelvesubjects. Index Termspolicy gradient reinforcement]. For humans, this is mostly subconscious, but when two persons interact, there is an automatic adjustment

  20. Habitat Utilization Assessment - Building in Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Blume, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Habitability, and the associated architectural and design attributes of an environment, is a powerful performance shaping factor. By identifying how inhabitants use an area, we can draw conclusions about what design or architectural attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance. We are analyzing how a crew uses a long duration habitat and work environment during a four-day underwater mission and identifying certain architectural and design attributes that are related to, and potential enablers of, certain crew behaviors. By identifying how inhabitants use the habitat, we can draw conclusions about what habitability attributes cause what behaviors and systematically design in desired human performance (applicable to NASA's Bioastronautics Human Behavior and Performance Critical Path Roadmap question 6.12). This assessment replicates a methodology reported in a chapter titled "Sociokinetic Analysis as a Tool for Optimization of Environmental Design" by C. Adams.' That study collected video imagery of certain areas of a closed habitat during a 91 day test and from that data calculated time spent in different volumes during the mission, and characterized the behaviors occurring in certain habitat volumes thus concluding various rules for design of such habitats. This study assesses the utilization of the Aquarius Habitat, an underwater station, which will support six Aquanauts for a fourteen-day mission during which the crew will perform specific scientific and engineering studies. Video is recorded for long uninterrupted periods of time during the mission and from that data the time spent in each area is calculated. In addition, qualitative and descriptive analysis of the types of behaviors in each area is performed with the purpose of identifying any behaviors that are not typical of a certain area. If a participant uses an area in a way different from expected, a subsequent analysis of the features of that area may result in conclusions of performance shaping factors. With the addition of this study, we can make comparisons between the two different habitats and begin drawing correlation judgments about design features and behavior. Ideally, this methodology should be repeated in additional Aquarius missions and other analog environments because the real information will come from comparisons between habitats.

  1. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  2. Behaviors and Corresponding Functions Addressed via Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Horovitz, Max; Worley, Julie A.; Shoemaker, Mary E.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    One-hundred seventy-three studies that employed functional assessment were evaluated with respect to types of challenging behaviors studied and the functions identified that maintained those behaviors. For most studies, two to three behaviors were targeted. Of the 38 different challenging behaviors identified, self-injurious behavior (SIB) and…

  3. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Fraser Valley & Metro Vancouver snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry

  4. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Livestock Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

  5. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Grain & Oilseed Production Peace Region snapshot report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri

  6. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Series Wine Grape & Tree Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry of Environment Pacific Institute for Climate

  7. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys With Fragile X Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Sarimski

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30–88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors (i.e., strengths in domestic daily living) and behavioral challenges (i.e., high

  8. Adaptive Peircean decision aid project summary assessments.

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    This efforts objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain. The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill's's canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment/domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of ancillary queries.

  9. Iron supplementation in infancy contributes to more adaptive behavior at 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M; Smith, Julia B; Sturza, Julie

    2014-06-01

    Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14-0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. PMID:24717366

  10. Spontaneous Neuronal Network Dynamics Reveal Circuit's Functional Adaptations for Behavior.

    PubMed

    Romano, Sebastián A; Pietri, Thomas; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Jouary, Adrien; Haudrechy, Mathieu; Sumbre, Germán

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous neuronal activity is spatiotemporally structured, influencing brain computations. Nevertheless, the neuronal interactions underlying these spontaneous activity patterns, and their biological relevance, remain elusive. Here, we addressed these questions using two-photon calcium imaging of intact zebrafish larvae to monitor the neuron-to-neuron spontaneous activity fine structure in the tectum, a region involved in visual spatial detection. Spontaneous activity was organized in topographically compact assemblies, grouping functionally similar neurons rather than merely neighboring ones, reflecting the tectal retinotopic map despite being independent of retinal drive. Assemblies represent all-or-none-like sub-networks shaped by competitive dynamics, mechanisms advantageous for visual detection in noisy natural environments. Notably, assemblies were tuned to the same angular sizes and spatial positions as prey-detection performance in behavioral assays, and their spontaneous activation predicted directional tail movements. Therefore, structured spontaneous activity represents "preferred" network states, tuned to behaviorally relevant features, emerging from the circuit's intrinsic non-linear dynamics, adapted for its functional role. PMID:25704948

  11. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR FOR FIGHTING GAME CHARACTERS Presented to

    E-print Network

    Pollett, Chris

    .......................................................................................................12 3.1 Requirements for Adaptive Game AI........................................................12 3

  12. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Input-Driven Components of Spike-Frequency Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Input-Driven Components of Spike-Frequency Adaptation Can Be Unmasked-frequencyadaptationaffectstheresponsecharacteristicsofmanysensoryneurons,anddifferentbiophysicalprocessescontribute to this phenomenon. Many cellular mechanisms underlying adaptation are triggered by the spike output of the neuron adaptation in hair cells, and short-term synaptic depression. For a functional characterization of spike

  13. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  14. Psychopathological Manifestations of Children with Intellectual Disabilities According to Their Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Karine N.; Richer, Louis; Lachance, Lise; Cote, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in cognitive abilities and adaptive behavior which increase the risk of psychopathological disorders. This exploratory study aims at delineating profiles of children based on their cognitive functioning and adaptive behaviors, and to compare them on psychopathological manifestations. A…

  15. Review of Adaptive Behavior Studies in Mentally Retarded Persons with Autism\\/Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Kraijer

    2000-01-01

    A review is presented of the investigations carried out concerning the adaptive behavior of persons with the dual disability of mental retardation and autism\\/PDD. A close correspondence is found between the results obtained by means of a Dutch set of scales, the SRZ, SGZ, and SMZ, and those obtained by means of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Compared with matched

  16. Validity and reliability of the infant Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (IBSE): A rating scale for the assessment of young children with autism and developmental disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Adrien; C. Barthélémy; A. Perrot; S. Roux; P. Lenoir; L. Hameury; D. Sauvage

    1992-01-01

    The Infant Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (IBSE) is a rating scale adapted from the Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (BSE) and specifically related to the assessment of behaviors of young children having autistic disorders. Content validity and reliability studies described in the paper were made from behavior ratings of videotapes for 89 children aged from 6 to 48 months. Results show a significant

  17. An Impact Assessment Model for Distributed Adaptive Security Situation Assessment*

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Teknowledge Corporation Abstract: The goal of any intrusion detection, anti-virus, firewall or other security of a system to complete its mission. A human or robot analyst can use the model to assess the security status of a monitored system and to allocate resources in an optimal way. 1. Introduction* Intrusion detection and other

  18. Using Information Technology to Prepare Personnel to Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavior Support.

    E-print Network

    Sailor, Wayne; Freeman, Rachel L.; Britten, Jody; McCart, Amy; Smith, Christopher; Scott, Terry; Nelson, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Topic: Positive Behavior Support BOTTOM LINE TIPS Sailor, W., Freeman, R.L., Britten, J., McCart, A., & Smith, C.L. (2000). Using information technology to pre- pare personnel to implement functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral...EXCEPTIONALITY, 8(3), 217-230 Copyright © 1999-2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Using Information Technology to Prepare Personnel to Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavioral Support Wayne...

  19. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins. PMID:25573801

  20. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The ? range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075

  1. Modeling of bone adaptative behavior based on cells activities.

    PubMed

    Bonfoh, Napo; Novinyo, Edem; Lipinski, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Bone remodeling occurs in an adult's skeleton to adapt its architecture to external loadings. This involves bone resorption by osteoclasts cells followed by formation of new bone by osteoblasts cells. During bone remodeling, osteoclasts and osteoblasts interact with each other by expressing autocrine and paracrine factors that regulate cells' population. Therefore, changes in bone density depend on the amount of each acting cell population. The aim of this paper is to propose a model for the bone remodeling process, which takes into account the opposite activity of both types of cells. For this purpose, a system of differential equations, proposed by Komarova et al. (Bone 33:206-215, 2003), is introduced to describe bone cell interactions using parameters which characterize the autocrine and paracrine factors. Such equations allow us to determine how the autocrine and paracrine factors vary in response to an external stimulus. It is assumed that an equilibrium state can be obtained for values of stimulus near to some reference quantity. Far from this value, unbalanced activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts is observed, which leads to bone apposition or resorption. The proposed model has been implemented into the finite element software ABAQUS to analyze the qualitative response of a bone structure when subjected to certain mechanical loadings. Obtained results are satisfactory and in accordance with the expected bone remodeling behavior. PMID:21136134

  2. Structured Assessment of Correctional Adaptation (SACA)A Measure of the Impact of Incarceration on the Mentally Ill in a Therapeutic Setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Amory Carr; Merrill Rotter; Michael Steinbacher; Debbie Green; Tia Dole; Alexandra Garcia-Mansilla; Sara Goldberg; Barry Rosenfeld

    2006-01-01

    Clinicians have observed that psychiatric patients with correctional histories evidence attitudes and behaviors that seem adaptive in penal environments but are maladaptive in mental health settings. This study sought to assess the reliability and concurrent validity of a rating scale designed to measure correctional adaptation using a sample of 64 patients from a state psychiatric hospital. Scale ratings were obtained

  3. Personality assessment in the Great Apes: Comparing ecologically valid behavior measures, behavior ratings, and adjective ratings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Uher; Jens B. Asendorpf

    2008-01-01

    Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed

  4. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  5. The Confounding of Perception of I.Q. on a Measure of Adaptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobner, Ronald F.; And Others

    Teacher perception of a student's IQ may bias adaptive behavior measures used for placement in special classes. The study investigated the effect of perceived IQ on teachers' ratings of disturbed and normal children on the Devereux Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale. Fifty-two urban severe behavior handicapped students, Grades K through 12,…

  6. The Reactive Accompanist: Adaptation and Behavior Decomposition in a Music System

    E-print Network

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    The Reactive Accompanist: Adaptation and Behavior Decomposition in a Music System Joanna Bryson This paper describes a reactive, behavior­based system that mim­ ics a human musical skill --- chord­ ogy. This paper discusses the design task of behavior decomposition for such a system, and recommends

  7. Behavioral assay for assessing effects of pollutants on fish chemoreception

    SciTech Connect

    Lemly, A.D.; Smith, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Behavioral assays are sensitive to sublethal levels of pollution but they usually require highly trained personnel and long observation periods. We describe a system that combines the sensitivity of a behavioral assay with commercially available automated monitoring equipment. The observation system consists of a special aquarium coupled to a recirculating water system, and an Opto-Varimex-Aqua activity tracking meter (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, Ohio) interfaced to a microcomputer. The tracking meter forms an intersecting, planar grid of light beams which, when interrupted by fish movements, is translated into a digitized signal and fed to the computer. The assay is based on the response of fish to natural chemical stimuli such as food odors or pheromones. When these stimulus solutions are injected into the water circulation the response of the fish is monitored by the computer system, which is capable of discriminating and quantifying changes in eight parameters. Normal responses to stimuli are compared with the response of fish that have been exposed to pollutants. We have successfully used this technique to examine effects of reduced pH on the response of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, to chemical feeding stimuli. The system should be easily adapted to any laboratory concerned with testing for effects of toxic substances, and will identify effects of pollution that have thus far been difficult or impossible to assess.

  8. Treating Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors With Adapted Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julie F.; Brown, Milton Z.; Dibiasio, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one third of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities have emotion dysregulation and challenging behaviors (CBs). Although research has not yet confirmed that existing treatments adequately reduce CBs in this population, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) holds promise, as it has been shown to effectively reduce CBs in other emotionally dysregulated populations. This longitudinal single-group pilot study examined whether individuals with impaired intellectual functioning would show reductions in CBs while receiving standard DBT individual therapy used in conjunction with the Skills System (DBT-SS), a DBT emotion regulation skills curriculum adapted for individuals with cognitive impairment. Forty adults with developmental disabilities (most of whom also had intellectual disabilities) and CBs, including histories of aggression, self-injury, sexual offending, or other CBs, participated in this study. Changes in their behaviors were monitored over 4 years while in DBT-SS. Large reductions in CBs were observed during the 4 years. These findings suggest that modified DBT holds promise for effectively treating individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:23914278

  9. Technology for Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. Graham; Bond, Dale S.; Sarwer, David B.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Patients’ behaviors have a substantial impact on postoperative outcomes following bariatric surgery. Thus, studying patients’ behaviors is essential to learning how to optimize postoperative outcomes. In order to be most effective, this research should employ the best tools available for assessing patient behaviors. Unfortunately, traditional methods of behavioral assessment (e.g., questionnaires and clinical interviews) rely primarily on patients’ retrospective self-report, which is often inaccurate. Despite their significant shortcomings, these types of assessments continue to predominate. However, technological advances now allow for much greater accuracy in the assessment of patient behaviors via devices such as accelerometers and palmtop computers. Accelerometers allow for patients’ physical activity to be measured objectively in great detail, in real-time, in patients’ natural environment. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) via palmtop computer or mobile phone allows for assessment of important behaviors, such as eating and activity behaviors, to be measured with many of the same advantages. Furthermore, new computer-assisted technologies are in development that will further facilitate behavioral assessment. Technology also has the potential to play an important role in the delivery of behavioral interventions aimed at bariatric surgery patients, given that Internet-based treatments have already proven effective for non- surgical weight loss, are often highly cost-effective and easily disseminable. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of these programs for bariatric patients. PMID:21514246

  10. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Harrison H; Myers, Kyle J; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2006-12-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed. PMID:17106464

  11. Objective assessment of image quality. IV. Application to adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Myers, Kyle J.; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The methodology of objective assessment, which defines image quality in terms of the performance of specific observers on specific tasks of interest, is extended to temporal sequences of images with random point spread functions and applied to adaptive imaging in astronomy. The tasks considered include both detection and estimation, and the observers are the optimal linear discriminant (Hotelling observer) and the optimal linear estimator (Wiener). A general theory of first- and second-order spatiotemporal statistics in adaptive optics is developed. It is shown that the covariance matrix can be rigorously decomposed into three terms representing the effect of measurement noise, random point spread function, and random nature of the astronomical scene. Figures of merit are developed, and computational methods are discussed. PMID:17106464

  12. Behavioral assessment of joint attention: A methodological report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca MacDonald; Jennifer Anderson; William V. Dube; Amy Geckeler; Gina Green; William Holcomb; Renee Mansfield; June Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for joint attention responding and initiation. The assessment was given to 26 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and 21 typically developing children, aged two to four years. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures. Children with autism had relatively minor deficits in joint attention responding and

  13. Assessment Instruments for Identification of Young Children with Behavioral Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosberg, Merilee A.

    This paper is a discussion of the assessment instruments available for identification of young children with behavioral disorders. Behavioral disorders are defined and the problems encountered in the identification of such disorders among preschool aged children are discussed. A selection of assessment instruments including nine different…

  14. Behavioral Assessment of Joint Attention: A Methodological Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Anderson, Jennifer; Dube, William V.; Geckeler, Amy; Green, Gina; Holcomb, William; Mansfield, Renee; Sanchez, June

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a highly structured assessment protocol with objective behavioral measures for joint attention responding and initiation. The assessment was given to 26 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and 21 typically developing children, aged two to four years. Interobserver agreement was high for all behavioral measures.…

  15. Using an Adaptive Gene Network Model for Self-Organizing Multicellular Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Ali H.; Shen, Xiling

    2015-01-01

    Using the transient interleukin (IL)-2 secretion of effector T helper (Teff) cells as an example, we show that self-organizing multicellular behavior can be modeled and predicted by an adaptive gene network model. Incorporating an adaptation algorithm we established previously, we construct a network model that has the parameter values iteratively updated to cope with environmental change governed by diffusion and cell-cell interactions. In contrast to non-adaptive models, we find that the proposed adaptive model for individual Teff cells can generate transient IL-2 secretory behavior that is observed experimentally at the population level. The proposed adaptive modeling approach can be a useful tool in the study of self-organizing behavior observed in other contexts in biology, including microbial pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, embryonic development, tumor formation, etc. PMID:23367162

  16. Adaptation processes in insect olfactory receptors. Mechanisms and behavioral significance.

    PubMed

    Kaissling, K E; Zack Strausfeld, C; Rumbo, E R

    1987-01-01

    Adaptation was studied in single olfactory receptor cells of male moths of Bombyx mori and Antheraea polyphemus. Receptor potential and nerve impulse generators have different and very likely, spatially separate adaptation mechanisms possibly located in the outer dendritic segment and the cell soma, respectively. Restricted portions of the receptor cell dendrite can be locally adapted. The impulse generator may exhibit at least two distinct adaptation processes with different kinetics, as deduced from a consideration of the phasic-tonic response and the different adaptation properties of each of these phases. The response characteristics of cells in the same sensillum are different. The "faster" responding cell types resolve odor pulses with frequencies up to 10 per second--a performance that is probably needed for orientation during flight toward a small odor source. PMID:3324874

  17. Relationship between Community Environments and Resident Changes in Adaptive Behavior: A Path Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Eyman, Richard K.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between environmental ratings of community homes using factor scores derived from the Program Analysis of Service Systems and changes in adaptive behavior of 245 developmentally disabled residents living in those facilites was investigated. (Author/PHR)

  18. [Translation and adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire: a Brazilian version].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta Paula Schell; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Machado, Mônica; Williams, Anna Virginia; Matte, Breno Córdova; Pechansky, Flavio; Rohde, Luis Augusto Paim; Szobot, Claudia Maciel

    2012-06-01

    Traffic accidents are a leading cause of death in young adults. In Brazil, traffic accidents are proportionally more prevalent among motorcyclists as compared to automobile drivers. Although numerous data indicate that individual characteristics are involved in traffic accident risk, there is no instrument in Brazil to assess motorcyclists' traffic behavior. The authors thus proposed to perform translation and cultural adaptation of the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ) into Brazilian Portuguese. The translation process consisted of: two independent translations into Brazilian Portuguese; unification of the translations; back-translation into English; formal assessment of semantic equivalence; application of a summary version in a convenience sample of motorcyclists; generation of a final version; and back-translation and submission to the original author, who approved this version. The Brazilian version maintained its semantic equivalence and was accepted by the convenience sample, an important characteristic for a self-completed instrument. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the questionnaire's psychometric properties in the Brazilian cultural context. PMID:22666824

  19. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PMID:24219847

  20. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care…

  1. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care PatientsAn Open Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Uebelacker; Risa B. Weisberg; Ryan Haggarty; Ivan W. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care patients (n = 12) with persistent

  2. Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

  3. Adaptive language behavior in HCI: how expectations and beliefs about a system affect users' word choice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie Pearson; Jiang Hu; Holly P. Branigan; Martin J. Pickering; Clifford I. Nass

    2006-01-01

    People display adaptive language behaviors in face-to-face conversations, but will computer users do the same during HCI? We report an experiment (N=20) demonstrating that users' use of language (in terms of lexical choice) is influenced by their beliefs and expectations about a system: When users believe that the system is unsophisticated and restricted in capability, they adapt their language to

  4. Someone has to give in: theta oscillations correlate with adaptive behavior in social bargaining.

    PubMed

    Billeke, Pablo; Zamorano, Francisco; López, Tamara; Rodriguez, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others' intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others' behaviors will be consistent with one's expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated ultimatum game. We found that subjects adapted their offers to obtain more acceptances in the last round and that this adaptation correlated negatively with prefrontal theta oscillations. People with higher prefrontal theta activity related to a rejection did not adapt their offers along the game to maximize their earning. Moreover, between-subject variation in posterior theta oscillations correlated positively with how individual theta activity influenced the change of offer after a rejection, reflecting a process of behavioral adaptation to the others' demands. Interestingly, people adapted better their offers when they knew that they where playing against a computer, although the behavioral adaptation did not correlate with prefrontal theta oscillation. Behavioral changes between human and computer games correlated with prefrontal theta activity, suggesting that low adaptation in human games could be a strategy. Taken together, these results provide evidence for specific roles of prefrontal and posterior theta oscillations in social bargaining. PMID:24493841

  5. Assessing the Importance of Natural Behavior for Animal Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. M. Bracke; H. Hopster

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals\\u000a need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the\\u000a context of the scientific framework for welfare assessment. Natural behavior may be defined as behavior that animals have\\u000a a tendency to exhibit

  6. Adapting the Behavior Education Program for Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steed, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior Education Program (BEP) is the most researched targeted intervention that is used in schoolwide positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS). It is a daily check-in and check-out system in which students receive extra attention for positive social behavior throughout their school day. This extra attention is intended to prevent…

  7. Translation, cultural adaptation and content re-validation of the observational teamwork assessment for surgery tool.

    PubMed

    Amaya Arias, Ana Carolina; Barajas, Rocío; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H; Wheelock, Ana; Gaitán Duarte, Hernando; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Background. Poor teamwork and nontechnical skill performance are increasingly recognized as important contributing factors to errors and adverse events in the operating room. Assessment of these safety critical skills is important to facilitate improvement, however there are no tools available to assess these safety skills in Latin America. This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and content validate the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool for use in Latin America. Methods. A multi-phase, multi-method study was conducted: Phase 1: translation and back-translation; Phase 2: content validity assessed via expert consensus; Phase 3: inter-rater reliability assessed via real-time observation in 98 general surgical procedures using OTAS-S. Results. The first change in OTAS-S, was to distinguish between the surgical nurses and scrub technicians (both OR team members are captured in the nursing sub-team in the original OTAS). OTAS-S consists of 168 exemplar behaviors: 60/114 identical to the exemplars listed in the original OTAS tool, 48/114 original exemplars underwent minor modifications, 13 were duplicated (to account for the additional sub-team distinguished in OTAS-S), 6 original exemplars were removed, and 47 new exemplar behaviors were added. Inter-observer agreement was substantial (KW = 0.602; IC: 0.581-0.620). The calculated KW by phase, behaviors and teams were between 0.534 and 0.678. Conclusions. The study provides a content validated teamwork assessment tool for use within Colombian operating rooms and potentially Latin-American. OTAS-S can be used to assess the quality of teamwork in ORs, facilitate structured debriefing and thus improve patient safety and reduce team-related errors. PMID:25462706

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City to determine a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

  9. Modular Adaptivity and Behavior Based Control Joanna Bryson

    E-print Network

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    processes(McClelland, McNaughton & O'Reilly 1995, Moll & Miikkulainen 1997, Turney, Whitley & Anderson 1996 included adaptive elements (Maes, Mataric, Meyer, Pollack & Wilson 1996), these elements tend to be either

  10. The Animat Path to Intelligent Adaptive Behavior Peter M. Todd

    E-print Network

    Todd, Peter M.

    frogs can do the same, a small robot street-sweeper that satisfied its goals of collecting garbage asphalt environment. The environment the adaptively-behaving agents exist in can be, as in the street-sweeper

  11. FOOD NEEDS OF ADULT PARASITOIDS: BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS AND CONSEQUENCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most parasitoids need both carbohydrates and hosts to maximize their reproductive potential. We reviewed the literature for potential interactions between food resource acquisition of adult parasitoids and determined that they are influenced mainly by morphological adaptations for feeding, the dete...

  12. Behavioral Finance: An Impartial Assessment or Does \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Vissing-Jorgensen

    The paper discusses the current state of the behavioral finance literature. I argue that more direct evidence on investors' actions and expectations would make existing theories more convincing to outsiders and would help sort among behavioral theories for a given asset pricing phenomenon. Furthermore, evidence on the dependence of a given bias on investor wealth\\/sophistication would be useful firstly for

  13. Direct Behavior Rating: An Evaluation of Alternate Definitions to Assess Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra; Jaffery, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    The method of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) incorporates aspects of both systematic direct observation and behavior rating scales to provide an efficient means to collect time series data. This study extended the development and evaluation of DBR Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) as a behavior assessment tool. Eighty-eight undergraduate students used…

  14. The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

  15. Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. MIT-ICLEI Climate Adaptation Survey Instrument

    E-print Network

    Carmin, JoAnn

    2014-09-14

    The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

  16. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  17. Visual Behaviors and Adaptations Associated with Cortical and Ocular Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, J. E.; Groenveld, M.

    1993-01-01

    This article shows the usefulness of understanding visual behaviors in the diagnosis of various types of visual impairments that are due to ocular and cortical disorders. Behaviors discussed include nystagmus, ocular motor dyspraxia, head position, close viewing, field loss adaptations, mannerisms, photophobia, and abnormal color perception. (JDD)

  18. Adaptive Skills and Maladaptive Behavior of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Attending Special Schools in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the profile of and relationships between adaptive skills and the maladaptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending special schools in Singapore. Parents of 20 adolescents with ASD attending special schools completed the Development Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995;…

  19. Walking Adaptability after a Stroke and Its Assessment in Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K.; Clark, David J.; Fox, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    Control of walking has been described by a tripartite model consisting of stepping, equilibrium, and adaptability. This review focuses on walking adaptability, which is defined as the ability to modify walking to meet task goals and environmental demands. Walking adaptability is crucial to safe ambulation in the home and community environments and is often severely compromised after a stroke. Yet quantification of walking adaptability after stroke has received relatively little attention in the clinical setting. The objectives of this review were to examine the conceptual challenges for clinical measurement of walking adaptability and summarize the current state of clinical assessment for walking adaptability. We created nine domains of walking adaptability from dimensions of community mobility to address the conceptual challenges in measurement and reviewed performance-based clinical assessments of walking to determine if the assessments measure walking adaptability in these domains. Our literature review suggests the lack of a comprehensive well-tested clinical assessment tool for measuring walking adaptability. Accordingly, recommendations for the development of a comprehensive clinical assessment of walking adaptability after stroke have been presented. Such a clinical assessment will be essential for gauging recovery of walking adaptability with rehabilitation and for motivating novel strategies to enhance recovery of walking adaptability after stroke. PMID:25254140

  20. Neural Adaptation and Behavioral Measures of Temporal Processing and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Murphy, Dora; Boian, Melissa; Scott, Michael; Keith, Robert; Xiang, Jing; Abbas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine if one of the neural temporal features, neural adaptation, can account for the across-subject variability in behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception performance in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Neural adaptation is the phenomenon in which neural responses are the strongest at the beginning of the stimulus and decline following stimulus repetition (e.g., stimulus trains). It is unclear how this temporal property of neural responses relates to psychophysical measures of temporal processing (e.g., gap detection) or speech perception. The adaptation of the electrical compound action potential (ECAP) was obtained using 1000 pulses per second (pps) biphasic pulse trains presented directly to the electrode. The adaptation of the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) was obtained using a sequence of 1-kHz tone bursts presented acoustically, through the cochlear implant. Behavioral temporal processing was measured using the Random Gap Detection Test at the most comfortable listening level. Consonant nucleus consonant (CNC) word and AzBio sentences were also tested. The results showed that both ECAP and LAEP display adaptive patterns, with a substantial across-subject variability in the amount of adaptation. No correlations between the amount of neural adaptation and gap detection thresholds (GDTs) or speech perception scores were found. The correlations between the degree of neural adaptation and demographic factors showed that CI users having more LAEP adaptation were likely to be those implanted at a younger age than CI users with less LAEP adaptation. The results suggested that neural adaptation, at least this feature alone, cannot account for the across-subject variability in temporal processing ability in the CI users. However, the finding that the LAEP adaptive pattern was less prominent in the CI group compared to the normal hearing group may suggest the important role of normal adaptation pattern at the cortical level in speech perception. PMID:24386403

  1. Effects of the emotion system on adaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Giske, Jarl; Eliassen, Sigrunn; Fiksen, Øyvind; Jakobsen, Per J; Aksnes, Dag L; Jørgensen, Christian; Mangel, Marc

    2013-12-01

    A central simplifying assumption in evolutionary behavioral ecology has been that optimal behavior is unaffected by genetic or proximate constraints. Observations and experiments show otherwise, so that attention to decision architecture and mechanisms is needed. In psychology, the proximate constraints on decision making and the processes from perception to behavior are collectively described as the emotion system. We specify a model of the emotion system in fish that includes sensory input, neuronal computation, developmental modulation, and a global organismic state and restricts attention during decision making for behavioral outcomes. The model further includes food competition, safety in numbers, and a fluctuating environment. We find that emergent strategies in evolved populations include common emotional appraisal of sensory input related to fear and hunger and also include frequency-dependent rules for behavioral responses. Focused attention is at times more important than spatial behavior for growth and survival. Spatial segregation of the population is driven by personality differences. By coupling proximate and immediate influences on behavior with ultimate fitness consequences through the emotion system, this approach contributes to a unified perspective on the phenotype, by integrating effects of the environment, genetics, development, physiology, behavior, life history, and evolution. PMID:24231532

  2. Field behavior and adaptive strategies of appendicularians (Chordata: Tunicata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Alldredge

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of 7 species of appendicularians from the family Oikopleuridae was observed using SCUBA in the Gulf of California and the Florida Current. The frequency and orientation of feeding and the pattern of swimming while within the house varied considerably among species. Appendicularians expanded new houses in 1 1\\/2 to 5 min. House-expansion behavior was complex and variable among

  3. Naturalistic Study of the Behavior of Students With EBD Referred for Functional Behavioral Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia J. Erickson; Scott A. Stage; J. Ron Nelson

    2006-01-01

    A descriptive study of 22 students (K—10th grade) with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) who were referred for functional behavioral assessment (FBA) revealed less on-task and more avoidant and inappropriate behaviors in comparison to classroom peers without EBD. Students who had been diagnosed as having attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder and were taking psychotropic medications had higher levels of inappropriate behavior. However, sequential

  4. Development and Validation of a Professional Behavior Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kristie; Johnson, Caryn; Morano, Cathleen K.; Ducette, Joseph P.

    2003-01-01

    An assessment instrument to measure the professional behavior of occupational therapy students (n=317) in clinical placements was validated through factor and item analyses that demonstrated internal consistency, interrater reliability, and discriminant validity. (Contains 22 references.) (JOW)

  5. Behavioral Tests for Preclinical Intervention Assessment Timothy Schallert

    E-print Network

    Schallert, Tim

    Behavioral Tests for Preclinical Intervention Assessment Timothy Schallert Departments and issues of concern for trans- lational research. An emphasis is placed on careful quantitative compensatory learning. In a number of preclinical outcome tests, animals can develop remarkably effective

  6. The Multidimensional Behavior Rating Scale: An Assessment Device for Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothblum, Esther D.; Green, Leon

    The Multidimensional Behavior Rating Scale (MBRS) was constructed to assess symptoms of depression across seven modalities: behavior, affect, sensation, imagery, cognition, interpersonal relationship, and drugs. Subjects (N=33) were matched by level of depression on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Depression Scale to either a…

  7. Structure Learning of a Behavior Network for Context Dependent Adaptability

    E-print Network

    Hu, Xiaolin

    dominance hierarchy of a group of crayfish will dramatically change individual crayfish's behaviors: when two (or more) size-matched crayfish are initially put together, they fight aggressively to compete

  8. Parental genetic effects in a cavefish adaptive behavior explain disparity between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Ashida, Go; Jeffery, William R

    2012-09-01

    Epigenetic parental genetic effects are important in many biological processes but their roles in the evolution of adaptive traits and their consequences in naturally evolving populations remain to be addressed. By comparing two divergent blind cave-dwelling cavefish populations with a sighted surface-dwelling population (surface fish) of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, we report here that convergences in vibration attraction behavior (VAB), the lateral line sensory receptors underlying this behavior, and the feeding benefits of this behavior are controlled by parental genetic effects, either maternal or paternal inheritance. From behavioral studies and mathematical evolutionary simulations, we further demonstrate that disparity in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in one of these cavefish populations that has hybridized with surface fish can be explained by paternal inheritance of VAB. The results suggest that parental genetic effects in adaptive behaviors may be important factors in biasing mitochondrial DNA inheritance in natural populations that are subject to introgression. PMID:22946818

  9. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the student), pedagogy ontology, and learner ontology (defines time constraint, comment, profile).

  10. USING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TO ASSESS STUDENT BEHAVIOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur McLin

    2006-01-01

    School, which is generally recognized as a place for adolescents to learn socially appropriate behavior, has become an institution whereby interpersonal disputes between teachers and students have increasingly resulted in aggravated assault and the use of lethal weapons. Surveys of high school students reported that a startlingly high proportion of them are unaware of effective methods for solving social conflict.

  11. Modeling bee swarming behavior through diffusion adaptation with asymmetric information sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinchao; Sayed, Ali H.

    2012-12-01

    Honeybees swarm when they move to a new site for their hive. During the process of swarming, their behavior can be analyzed by classifying them as informed bees or uninformed bees, where the informed bees have some information about the destination while the uninformed bees follow the informed bees. The swarm's movement can be viewed as a network of mobile nodes with asymmetric information exchange about their destination. In these networks, adaptive and mobile agents share information on the fly and adapt their estimates in response to local measurements and data shared with neighbors. Diffusion adaptation is used to model the adaptation process in the presence of asymmetric nodes and noisy data. The simulations indicate that the models are able to emulate the swarming behavior of bees under varied conditions such as a small number of informed bees, sharing of target location, sharing of target direction, and noisy measurements.

  12. THEORY AND PRACTICE IN ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND FACILITATING ADAPTATION

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Mick

    THEORY AND PRACTICE IN ASSESSING VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND FACILITATING ADAPTATION P. M and adaptation. In search of a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms of the capacity of individuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recover from or adapt to

  13. Biomarkers for assessing population and individual health and disease related to stress and adaptation.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2015-03-01

    Biomarkers are important in stress biology in relation to assessing individual and population health. They facilitate tapping meaningfully into the complex, non-linear interactions that affect the brain and multiple systems of the body and promote adaptation or, when dysregulated, they can accelerate disease processes. This has demanded a multifactorial approach to the choice of biomarkers. This is necessary in order to adequately describe and predict how an individual embedded in a particular social and physical environment, and with a unique genotype and set of lifetime experiences, will fare in terms of health and disease risk, as well as how that individual will respond to an intervention. Yet, at the same time, single biomarkers can have a predictive or diagnostic value when combined with carefully designed longitudinal assessment of behavior and disease related to stress. Moreover, the methods of brain imaging, themselves the reflection of the complexity of brain functional architecture, have provided new ways of diagnosing, and possibly differentiating, subtypes of depressive illness and anxiety disorders that are precipitated or exacerbated by stress. Furthermore, postmortem assessment of brain biomarkers provides important clues about individual vulnerability for suicide related to depression and this may lead to predictive biomarkers to better treat individuals with suicidal depression. Once biomarkers are available, approaches to prevention and treatment should take advantage of the emerging evidence that activating brain plasticity together with targeted behavioral interventions is a promising strategy. PMID:25496803

  14. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  15. Functional Behavioral Assessment in Practice: Concepts and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANDRA L. HARRIS; BETH A. GLASBERG

    The technology of functional assessment is among the most important developments in several decades for the education and treatment of people with mental retardation, autism, and other developmental disabilities. These powerful methods for understanding maladaptive behavior and linking intervention closely to assessment have made a difference in the lives of countless people with developmental disabilities and should be part of

  16. Using brief assessments to evaluate aberrant behavior maintained by attention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK F. O'REILLY; GIULIO E. LANCIONI; LISA KING; G RAINNE LALLY; ORLA NIC DHOMHNAILL

    2000-01-01

    We examined the use of brief functional assessments to identify idiosyncratic variables associated with aberrant behavior maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention. Two participants with severe developmental disabilities and their parents were involved in the assessment and treatment evaluation process. A modified attention con- dition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Results

  17. Assessment of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotts, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment and identification of children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) is complex and involves multiple techniques, levels, and participants. While federal law sets the general parameters for identification in school settings, these criteria are vague and may lead to inconsistencies in selection and interpretation of assessment

  18. Cognitive assessment of social anxiety: Affective and behavioral correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol R. Glass; Michael Furlong

    1990-01-01

    Issues in the cognitive assessment of extreme social anxiety in adults were explored, with a major focus on the relationship between and utility of structured questionnaire and protocol analysis methods. The assessment of underlying cognitive factors associated with concerns over evaluation by others was also of interest, as were the affective and behavioral correlates of cognitive variables. Reports of negative

  19. Tracking behavior assessment methodology and support strategies: a national survey of how schools utilize functional behavioral assessments and behavior intervention plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Couvillon; Lyndal M. Bullock; Robert A. Gable

    2009-01-01

    Although functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) have been utilized since the 1960s, their use has steadily increased since the passing of IDEA 1997 which mandated their use in specified circumstances. References to FBAs and BIPs in No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the 2004 re-authorization of IDEA, and in positive behavioral supports programming has also

  20. Behavioral Insomnias of Childhood: Assessment and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Lewin; Edward Huntley

    \\u000a The Behavioral Insomnias of Childhood (BIC) include a series of problems of sleep initiation, continuity, maintenance, and\\u000a bedtime resistance. These sleep problems can place a significant burden on the parents who may be required to attend to a\\u000a child at the beginning or in the middle of the night. The resulting sleep loss can impact parents’ and children’s daytime\\u000a functioning

  1. Cybernetic control model from ethology for adaptive coordination of robot behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Bernd

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we propose a cybernetic approach to behavior based robotics. We present a distributed adaptive control architecture for coordination of different motivations and behaviors of an autonomous vehicle. The system is based on the Zurich Model of Social Motivation, a cybernetic approach to mammalian behavior by the Swiss ethologist BISCHOF. Our system controls a simulated autonomous robot by teaching a reflective associative memory to propose an action based on the input of eight range sensors. The emerging behavior at every stage reflects the system's experience, and the robust in unexpected situations.

  2. ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN YOUNG CHILDREN: A UNIQUE CULTURAL COMPARISON IN ITALY

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Livia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Axia, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    On account of a series of unique historical events, the present-day denizens of South Tyrol inhabit a cultural, political, and linguistic autonomous region that intercalates Italians and Austrian/German Italians. We compared contemporary Italian and Austrian/German Italian girls' and boys' adaptive behaviors in everyday activities in this region. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, we first interviewed mothers about their children's communication, daily living, socialization, and motor skills. Main effects of local culture (and no interactions with gender) emerged: Austrian/German Italian children were rated higher than Italian children in both adaptive daily living and socialization skills. Next, we explored ethnic differences in childrearing. Austrian/German Italians reported fostering greater autonomy in their children than Italians, and children's autonomy was associated with their adaptive behavior. Children living in neighboring Italian and Austrian/German Italian cultural niches appear to experience subtle but consequentially different conditions of development that express themselves in terms of differing levels of adaptive behaviors. PMID:21532914

  3. The blind breeding the blind: Adaptive behavior without looking

    E-print Network

    Somayaji, Anil

    in simple simu- lated creatures lacking all direct contact with their en- vironment -- evolutionarily shaped blind action may suffice to keep a population of creatures alive and re- producing. In this paper, we consider the evolution of the behavioral repertoires of such sensor-less creatures in response

  4. Options for Managing Student Behavior: Adaptations for Individual Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

    This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…

  5. Adaptive Force Sonorheometry for Assessment of Whole Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Mauldin, F. William; Viola, Francesco; Hamer, Theresa C.; Ahmed, Eman M.; Crawford, Shawna B.; Haverstick, Doris M.; Lawrence, Michael B.; Walker, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Viscoelastic diagnostics that monitor the hemostatic function of whole blood (WB), such as thromboelastography, have been developed with demonstrated clinical utility. By measuring the cumulative effects of all components of hemostasis, viscoelastic diagnostics have circumvented many of the challenges associated with more common tests of blood coagulation. Methods: We describe a new technology, called sonorheometry, that adaptively applies acoustic radiation force to assess coagulation function in WB. The repeatability (precision) of coagulation parameters was assessed using citrated WB samples. A reference range of coagulation parameters, along with corresponding measurements from prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT), were obtained from WB samples of 20 healthy volunteers. In another study, sonorheometry monitored anticoagulation with heparin (0 – 5 IU/ml) and reversal from varied dosages of protamine (0 – 10 IU/ml) in heparinized WB (2 IU/ml). Results: Sonorheometry exhibited low CVs for parameters: clot initiation time (TC1), < 7%; clot stabilization time (TC2), < 6.5%; and clotting angle (?), < 3.5%. Good correlation was observed between clotting times, TC1 and TC2, and PTT (r = 0.65 and 0.74 respectively; n=18). Linearity to heparin dosage was observed with average linearity r > 0.98 for all coagulation parameters. We observed maximum reversal of heparin anticoagulation at protamine to heparin ratios of 1.4:1 from TC1 (P=0.6) and 1.2:1 from ? (P=0.55). Conclusions: Sonorheometry is a non-contact method for precise assessment of WB coagulation. PMID:20096680

  6. An Assessment of the Necessary Strength of Behavioral Treatments for Severe Behavior Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Northup; Wayne Fisher; Sung Woo Kahang; Robert Harrell; Patricia Kurtz

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a clinical assessment of the effects of different levels of treatment implementation for behavioral treatments of aggression and pica for three participants with developmental disabilities. Treatments were based on differential reinforcement of an alternative behavior and brief time-out. Two treatment components, the schedule of reinforcement and time-out, were systematically varied in a range from 100%, to 50%, to

  7. Assessment of Behavior Management and Behavioral Interventions in State Child Welfare Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    Official state program reviews of 204 substitute care facilities were assessed for the types of behavior management and behavioral interventions used and the extent to which agency practices were consistent with learning theory principles. Data were also collected on the type and number of professional staff available to implement and oversee…

  8. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

  9. Anticipatory flood risk assessment under climate change scenarios: from assessment to adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, C.; Hogl, K.; Seher, W.; Nachtnebel, H. P.; Scherhaufer, P.; Nordbeck, R.; Löschner, L.

    2012-04-01

    According to the Centre for Research on Epidemiology Disasters, floods are the type of natural disasters that affected the highest number of people from 1900 to 2008 worldwide. Specifically, Austria suffered from heavy floods in recent years, affecting thousands of people and causing billions of Euro in economic losses. Although there is yet no proof that these accumulated extreme events are a direct consequence of climate change, they may indicate what can be expected. Currently, comprehensive climate modelling research is being conducted for Austria that may lay the foundation for enhanced climate impact assessments (regional climate modelling under consideration of different global models and varying scenarios). However, the models so far have neither special focus on Austria nor a distinct definition of boundary conditions for Austria. Therefore, results of climate models are considered as too unreliable and inconsistent for predicting changes in flood characteristics, especially at a regional to local scale. As a consequence, adaptation strategies have to be derived from integrated impact analyses that are based on dissecting mechanisms and drivers for changes and not only on the dimension of climate change. This paper discusses a dynamic flood risk assessment methodology considering potential spatial and temporal developments of hazard and vulnerability under climate change scenarios. The approach integrates quantifiable results from assessments of hazard, exposure and sensitivity and the qualitative, interview based, assessment of adaptive capacities. Flood risk assessment will be conducted for the current state in Austria and enhanced by potential (1) flood scenarios increased by a climate change allowance (2) demographic development scenarios (3) land-use change scenarios and (4) adaptation policy assessment to identify regions especially prone to flooding. Comparing the current state with various anticipatory hazard and vulnerability scenarios provides the basis for a sensitivity analysis of whether climate change impacts or demographic and land use development mainly triggers the increase of damage potentials. Based on this sensitivity analysis, a ranking of priority regions with a current and future need for action will be conducted and illustrated by means of qualitative risk categories ranging from low priority to high priority. Out of these priority areas, three relevant case studies will be chosen and analysed on a micro scale level to enable risk analyses including climate change adaptation assessment on the regional and local level. In the frame of the case studies, a micro-scale risk assessment approach will be applied based on expected annual losses and the influence of adaptation capacity on the overall flood risk. All scientifically derived results will be discussed in community based scenario workshops. This participatory tool enables stakeholders to address the relevant determinants of vulnerability, to point at so far unconsidered locally important context conditions and to come to conclusions about envisaged useable adaptive measures.

  10. Adaptive Voice Spam Control with User Behavior Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Bai; Xiao Su; Bharat Bhargava

    2009-01-01

    Spit (Spam over Internet Telephony), known as unsolicited bulk calls sent via VoIP networks, is a major problem that undermines the usability of VoIP. Countermeasures against spit face challenges in identifying and filtering spit in real time. A user behavior based on three parameters (interaction,historical, and social ratio) is used to design an anti-spit technique. The rationale for the technique

  11. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the sub-population that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, i.e. increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors, and to develop strategies to minimize their impact. PMID:23470300

  12. A tool for creating eye-aware applications that adapt to changes in user behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory W. Edwards; Archimedes Project

    1998-01-01

    A development tool is described that can be used to create eye-aware software applications that adapt in real-time to changes in a user’s natural eye-movement behaviors and intentions. The research involved in developing this tool focuses on identifying patterns of eye-movement that describe three behaviors: Knowledgeable Movement, Searching, and Prolonged Searching. In the process of doing the research, two important

  13. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We have further analyzed the FMT data to characterize strategic and adaptive components during the postflight readaptation period. Crewmembers walked at a preferred pace through an obstacle course set up on a base of 10 cm thick medium density foam (Sunmate Foam, Dynamic Systems, Inc., Leicester, NC). The 6.0m X 4.0m course consisted of several pylons made of foam; a Styrofoam barrier 46.0cm high that crewmembers stepped over; and a portal constructed of two Styrofoam blocks, each 31cm high, with a horizontal bar covered by foam and suspended from the ceiling which was adjusted to the height of the crewmember s shoulder. The portal required crewmembers to bend at the waist and step over a barrier simultaneously. All obstacles were lightweight, soft and easily knocked over. Crewmembers were instructed to walk through the course as quickly and as safely as possible without touching any of the objects on the course. This task was performed three times in the clockwise direction and three times in the counterclockwise direction that was randomly chosen. The dependent measures for each trial were: time to complete the course (seconds) and the number of obstacles touched or knocked down. For each crewmember, the time to complete each FMT trial from postflight days 1, 2, 4, 7 and 25 were further analyzed. A single logarithmic curve using a least squares calculation was fit through these data to produce a single comprehensive curve (macro). This macro curve composed of data spanning 25 days, illustrates the re-adaptive learning function over the longer time scale term. Additionally, logarithmic curves were fit to the 6 data trials within each individual post flight test day to produce 5 separate daily curves. These micro curves, produced from data obtained over the course of minutes, illustrates the strategic learning function exhibited over a relative shorter time scale. The macro curve for all subjects exhibited adaptive motor learning patterns over the 25 day period. Howev, 9/16 crewmembers exhibited significant strategic motor learning patterns in their micro curves,

  14. Hypothetical Use of Multidimensional Adaptive Testing for the Assessment of Student Achievement in the Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) for the assessment of student literacy in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) was examined within a real data simulation study. The responses of N = 14,624 students who participated in the PISA assessments of the years 2000, 2003, and 2006 in Germany were used to…

  15. Stereotypy I: A review of behavioral assessment and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Rapp; Timothy R. Vollmer

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we review definitional issues related to stereotypy, behavioral interpretations of stereotypy, procedures for determining operant function(s) of stereotypy, and behavioral interventions for stereotypy. In general, a preponderance of the assessment literature suggests that most forms of stereotypy are maintained by automatic reinforcement. Review of the treatment literature suggests that antecedent (e.g., environmental enrichment) and consequent (e.g., differential

  16. Team-based assessment of professional behavior in medical students

    PubMed Central

    RAEE, HOJAT; AMINI, MITRA; MOMEN NASAB, AMENEH; MALEK POUR, ABDOLRASOUL; JAFARI, MOHAMMAD MORAD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Self and peer assessment provides important information about the individual’s performance and behavior in all aspects of their professional environment work. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional behavior and performance in medical students in the form of team based assessment. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 medical students in the 7th year of education were randomly selected and enrolled; for each student five questionnaires were filled out, including one self-assessment, two peer assessments and two residents assessment. The scoring system of the questionnaires was based on seven point Likert scale.  After filling out the questions in the questionnaire, numerical data and written comments provided to the students were collected, analyzed and discussed. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the questionnaires was assessed. A p<0.05 was considered as significant level. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.83). Interviews revealed that the majority of students and assessors interviewed found the method acceptable. The range of scores was 1-6 (Mean±SD=4.39±0.57) for the residents' assessment, 2-6 (Mean±SD= 4.49±0.53) for peer assessment, and 3-7 (Mean±SD=5.04±0.32) for self-assessment. There was a significant difference between self assessment and other methods of assessment. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a team-based assessment is an acceptable and feasible method for peer and self-assessment of medical students’ learning in a clinical clerkship, and has some advantages over traditional assessment methods. Further studies are needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25512933

  17. A Post-Genomic View of Behavioral Development and Adaptation to the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFreniere, Peter; MacDonald, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular genetics and epigenetics are reviewed that have major implications for the bio-behavioral sciences and for understanding how organisms adapt to their environments at both phylogenetic and ontogenic levels. From a post-genomics perspective, the environment is as crucial as the DNA sequence for constructing the…

  18. Neurodevelopmental Status and Adaptive Behaviors in Preschool Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Peter J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Icard, Phil F.; Hower, Sarah J.; Mamak, Eva G.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Gipson, Debbie S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the early neurodevelopmental function of infants and preschool children who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifteen patients with CKD are compared to a healthy control group using the "Mullen Scales of Early Learning" (MSEL) and the "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale" (VABS). Multivariate analysis reveals significant…

  19. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

  20. Patterns of Intellectual, Adaptive and Behavioral Functioning in Individuals with Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenen, Sarah; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the population of individuals with mild mental retardation (MIMR) as if it is a clear entity. Few researchers have investigated potential subtypes within the MIMR population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate which subtypes can be identified on the basis of intellectual, adaptive and behavioral

  1. Black Children's Adaptive Functioning and Maladaptive Behavior Associated with Quality of Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Christopher W.; Tucker, Carolyn M.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated differences in low-income African-American children's (n=107) adaptive functioning and maladaptive behavior in association with their father-figures' presence or absence, grade level, gender, and quality of family support as perceived by the children's caregivers. Conflict was the only dimension of quality of family support that was…

  2. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

  3. Adaptive Behavior of Preschool Children with Developmental Delays: Parent versus Teacher Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jessie G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study compared mothers' and teachers' ratings of adaptive behavior of 20 children (ages 24-38 months) with developmental delays in an early childhood education program, to determine whether their observations differed. Results are analyzed in terms of child's age, gender, and length of time spent in the program. (Author/JDD)

  4. Physical interaction learning: Behavior adaptation in cooperative human-robot tasks involving physical contact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuhei Ikemoto; Heni Ben Amor; T. Minato; H. Ishiguro; B. Jung

    2009-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to engage in direct physical interaction several requirements have to be met. Among others, robots need to be able to adapt their behavior in order to facilitate the interaction with a human partner. This can be achieved using machine learning techniques. However, most machine learning scenarios to-date do not address the question of how

  5. Behavior Generation for a Mobile Robot Based on the Adaptive Fitness Function

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Behavior Generation for a Mobile Robot Based on the Adaptive Fitness Function Eiji Uchibe, Masakazu the evaluation (fitness) function to evaluate the performance of the robot when we apply the ma- chine learning techniques to the robot application. In many cases, the fitness function is composed of several aspects

  6. Studying the Genetics of Behavior and Evolution by Adaptation and Natural Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Jules

    1998-01-01

    Provides an exercise designed to give students an appreciation for the genetic basis of behavior. Employs the phenomenon of glucose aversion as an example of evolution by mutation and accelerated natural selection, thereby revealing one of the ways in which organisms adapt to human interference. (DDR)

  7. A Behavioral Adaptation Approach to Identifying Visual Dependence of Haptic Perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Sulzer; Arsalan Salamat; Vikram S. Chib; J. Edward Colgate

    2007-01-01

    Both haptic and visual senses play a role in how we explore our environment. Previous studies have shown that vision plays a very strong role in perception of object stiffness, yet quantification of the contributions of both haptic and visual feedback remains elusive. This study uses a behavioral adaptation approach in order to better understand how humans perceive stiffness. Namely,

  8. CARLINK: A SMART CARSHARING SYSTEM--A STUDY OF BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATION

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    , Research Scientist at Institute of Transportation Studies, One Shields Ave., University of CaliforniaLink concept, conducted in 1998; and describes an early CarLink adopter profile for the East San Francisco Bay: A SMART CARSHARING SYSTEM-- A STUDY OF BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATION Susan Shaheen, Research Scientist

  9. Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders

    E-print Network

    Blackledge, Todd

    Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders Todd A independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb- weaving-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web

  10. Adaptation of robot behaviors toward user perception on fuzzy linguistic information by fuzzy voice feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. B. P. Jayasekara; K. Watanabe; K. Kiguchi; K. Izumi

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to adapt robot behaviors toward user's perception by human teaching. Human-friendly robotic system should be able to understand the fuzzy linguistic information based on the user's guidance and the environmental conditions. The contextual meaning of fuzzy linguistic information depends on the conditions of the environment. Therefore, user's perception is acquired to evaluate the fuzzy linguistic

  11. Adapted behavior therapy for persistently depressed primary care patients: an open trial.

    PubMed

    Uebelacker, Lisa A; Weisberg, Risa B; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W

    2009-05-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, the authors used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care patients (n = 12) with persistent symptoms of depression, despite antidepressant medication treatment. Ten of 12 participants completed 10 sessions of therapy over the course of 4 months, and all endorsed high levels of treatment satisfaction. Participants' depression scores declined significantly over time, and 75% of participants experienced at least 50% change on a self-report measure of depression symptoms. There were trends for social functioning, pain, and general health perceptions to improve over time. These results highlight the acceptability and feasibility of adapting behavior therapy for primary care, and support the continuation of this research. PMID:19282506

  12. Adapted Behavior Therapy for Persistently Depressed Primary Care Patients: An Open Trial

    PubMed Central

    Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Weisberg, Risa; Haggarty, Ryan; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is commonly treated in primary care settings. Psychotherapy occurring in primary care should take advantage of the unique aspects of the setting and must adapt to the problems and limitations of the setting. In this open trial, we used a treatment development model to adapt behavior therapy for primary care patients (n = 12) with persistent symptoms of depression, despite antidepressant medication treatment. Ten of 12 participants completed 10 sessions of therapy over the course of 4 months, and all endorsed high levels of treatment satisfaction. Participants' depression scores declined significantly over time, and 75% of participants experienced at least 50% change on a self-report measure of depression symptoms. There were trends for social functioning, pain, and general health perceptions to improve over time. These results highlight the acceptability and feasibility of adapting behavior therapy for primary care, and support the continuation of this research. PMID:19282506

  13. Changes in taste neurons support the emergence of an adaptive behavior in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Silverman, Jules; Schal, Coby

    2013-05-24

    In response to the anthropogenic assault of toxic baits, populations of the German cockroach have rapidly evolved an adaptive behavioral aversion to glucose (a phagostimulant component of baits). We hypothesized that changes in the peripheral gustatory system are responsible for glucose aversion. In both wild-type and glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches, D-fructose and D-glucose stimulated sugar-gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), whereas the deterrent caffeine stimulated bitter-GRNs. In contrast, in GA cockroaches, D-glucose also stimulated bitter-GRNs and suppressed the responses of sugar-GRNs. Thus, D-glucose is processed as both a phagostimulant and deterrent in GA cockroaches, and this newly acquired peripheral taste sensitivity underlies glucose aversion in multiple GA populations. The rapid emergence of this highly adaptive behavior underscores the plasticity of the sensory system to adapt to rapid environmental change. PMID:23704571

  14. 75 FR 22596 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...Request; NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...Title: NIH-Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral...and behavioral functioning (cognitive, emotional, motor and sensory...single 1710 1 3 5,130...

  15. Fish behavior, migration and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1988-02-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwst Laboratory have evaluated fish behavior and migration in response to thermal discharge, gas supersaturated water, water-soluble fractions of coal liquids, and other environmental stresses. Major findings including thermal discharges did not block upstream migration of sonic-tagged adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and a rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the Columbia River. Juvenile chinook slamon avoided thermal discharges in the laboratory when ..delta..ts exceeded 9 to 11)degree)C above ambient. However juvenile salmon were more susceptible to predation at 10 to 20% of the thermal dose causing loss of equilibrium. Radio-tagged adult chinook salmon swam deeper in supersaturated water than in normally saturated water in the Snake River and, thereby, avoided the upper, critical zone. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and black bullhead (Ictalurus melas) did not always avoid lethal gas levels in the laboratory and some fish died in the test apparatus. Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) avoided the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a coal liquid at concentrations causing acute effects but not at those causing chronic effects. Rainbow trout did not avoid coal liquid WSFs although they reportedly avid the major constituent, phenol, tested a as pure compound. Susceptibility to predation of juvenile rainbow trout did not increase until phenol concentrations reached the acute LC/sub 50/. 67 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Group Selection as Behavioral Adaptation to Systematic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J.; Lo, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite many compelling applications in economics, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology, group selection is still one of the most hotly contested ideas in evolutionary biology. Here we propose a simple evolutionary model of behavior and show that what appears to be group selection may, in fact, simply be the consequence of natural selection occurring in stochastic environments with reproductive risks that are correlated across individuals. Those individuals with highly correlated risks will appear to form “groups”, even if their actions are, in fact, totally autonomous, mindless, and, prior to selection, uniformly randomly distributed in the population. This framework implies that a separate theory of group selection is not strictly necessary to explain observed phenomena such as altruism and cooperation. At the same time, it shows that the notion of group selection does captures a unique aspect of evolution—selection with correlated reproductive risk–that may be sufficiently widespread to warrant a separate term for the phenomenon. PMID:25353167

  17. Quantitative Adaptation Analytics for Assessing Dynamic Systems of Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, John H.; Miner, Nadine E.; Wilson, Michael L.; Le, Hai D.; Kao, Gio K; Melander, Darryl J.; Longsine, Dennis Earl [Sandia National Laboratories, Unknown, Unknown; Vander Meer, Robert Charles,

    2015-01-01

    Our society is increasingly reliant on systems and interoperating collections of systems, known as systems of systems (SoS). These SoS are often subject to changing missions (e.g., nation- building, arms-control treaties), threats (e.g., asymmetric warfare, terrorism), natural environments (e.g., climate, weather, natural disasters) and budgets. How well can SoS adapt to these types of dynamic conditions? This report details the results of a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at developing metrics and methodologies for quantifying the adaptability of systems and SoS. Work products include: derivation of a set of adaptability metrics, a method for combining the metrics into a system of systems adaptability index (SoSAI) used to compare adaptability of SoS designs, development of a prototype dynamic SoS (proto-dSoS) simulation environment which provides the ability to investigate the validity of the adaptability metric set, and two test cases that evaluate the usefulness of a subset of the adaptability metrics and SoSAI for distinguishing good from poor adaptability in a SoS. Intellectual property results include three patents pending: A Method For Quantifying Relative System Adaptability, Method for Evaluating System Performance, and A Method for Determining Systems Re-Tasking.

  18. Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Obradovi?, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Kim, Young Shin; Adler, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is the single most potent determinant of health within human populations, from infancy through old age. Although the social stratification of health is nearly universal, there is persistent uncertainty regarding the dimensions of SES that effect such inequalities and thus little clarity about the principles of intervention by which inequalities might be abated. Guided by animal models of hierarchical organization and the health correlates of subordination, this prospective study examined the partitioning of children's adaptive behavioral development by their positions within kindergarten classroom hierarchies. A sample of 338 5-y-old children was recruited from 29 Berkeley, California public school classrooms. A naturalistic observational measure of social position, parent-reported family SES, and child-reported classroom climate were used in estimating multilevel, random-effects models of children's adaptive behavior at the end of the kindergarten year. Children occupying subordinate positions had significantly more maladaptive behavioral outcomes than their dominant peers. Further, interaction terms revealed that low family SES and female sex magnified, and teachers’ child-centered pedagogical practices diminished, the adverse influences of social subordination. Taken together, results suggest that, even within early childhood groups, social stratification is associated with a partitioning of adaptive behavioral outcomes and that the character of larger societal and school structures in which such groups are nested can moderate rank–behavior associations. PMID:23045637

  19. A control systems engineering approach for adaptive behavioral interventions: illustration with a fibromyalgia intervention.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W; Nandola, Naresh N

    2014-09-01

    The term adaptive intervention has been used in behavioral medicine to describe operationalized and individually tailored strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic, relapsing disorders. Control systems engineering offers an attractive means for designing and implementing adaptive behavioral interventions that feature intensive measurement and frequent decision-making over time. This is illustrated in this paper for the case of a low-dose naltrexone treatment intervention for fibromyalgia. System identification methods from engineering are used to estimate dynamical models from daily diary reports completed by participants. These dynamical models then form part of a model predictive control algorithm which systematically decides on treatment dosages based on measurements obtained under real-life conditions involving noise, disturbances, and uncertainty. The effectiveness and implications of this approach for behavioral interventions (in general) and pain treatment (in particular) are demonstrated using informative simulations. PMID:25264467

  20. Academic, behavioral, and social adaptation of boys with hemophilia/HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Colegrove, R W; Huntzinger, R M

    1994-08-01

    Examined the intelligence, academic achievement, behavior, and social competency of 37 school-aged boys with hemophilia, 56% with HIV infection. IQ scores fell in the average range, but total reading scores were almost 1 standard deviation below the mean. Parent and teacher ratings of social functioning and behavior fell in the normal range. Absenteeism, an average of 27 days for the previous school year, was inversely correlated with most teacher ratings, indicating that absenteeism may be a significant factor in the academic and social adaptation of children with hemophilia. Overall, boys infected with HIV demonstrated the same level of academic and behavioral adaptation as those uninfected. The need for special education programs and interventions to enhance competency in the school setting is discussed. PMID:7931932

  1. Power quality assessment using an adaptive neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, P.K.; Swain, D.P.; Mishra, B.R. [Regional Engineering Coll., Rourkela (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Rahman, S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents an adaptive neural network approach for the estimation of harmonic components of a power system and the power quality. The neural estimator is based on the use of an adaptive perceptron consisting of a linear adaptive neuron called Adaline. The learning parameters in the proposed algorithm are adjusted to force the error between the actual and desired outputs to satisfy a stable difference error equation. The estimator tracks the Fourier coefficients of the signal data corrupted with noise and decaying dc components very accurately. Adaptive tracking of harmonic components of a power system can easily be done using this algorithm. Several numerical tests have been conducted for the adaptive estimation of harmonic components, total harmonic distortion and power quality of power system signals mixed with noise and decaying dc components.

  2. Behavioral Assessment of Feeding Problems of Individuals with Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munk, Dennis D.; Repp, Alan C.

    1994-01-01

    A behavioral assessment procedure was evaluated with five children with severe/profound mental retardation who exhibited feeding problems of limited intake. Subjects were fed various types of foods. Results indicated each subject fit into one of four categories: (1) total food refusal, (2) food type selectivity, (3) food texture selectivity, or…

  3. Recent Case Law Regarding Functional Behavioral Assessments: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    While functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) are currently federally mandated requirements, public schools have not been provided clear federal guidance concerning what constitutes an acceptable FBA through Individuals With Disabilities Education Act or related regulations. The purpose of this article is to examine recent rulings regarding FBAs…

  4. Behavioral Assessment of Couples' Communication in Female Orgasmic Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary P. Kelly; Donald S. Strassberg; Charles M. Turner

    2006-01-01

    Communication problems are believed to play a central role in many sexual dysfunctions. The present study behaviorally assessed communication patterns within heterosexual couples in which the woman was experiencing female orgasmic disorder and within two groups of control couples. The sexually dysfunctional couples evidenced significantly poorer communication than controls, primarily but not exclusively when discussing sexual topics. Specifically, women with

  5. Toward the Automatic Assessment of Behavioral Disturbances of Dementia

    E-print Network

    Wactlar, Howard D.

    Toward the Automatic Assessment of Behavioral Disturbances of Dementia S. J. Allin1 , A. Bharucha2 of dementia among persons age 65 and older. The current annual direct and indirect cost of 100 billion dollars devoted to dementia care will increase as the number of Americans suffering from AD nearly triples to 14

  6. Assessing Healthy Behavior Recognition in Preschool, Head Start Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Teri; Wiley, David C.

    The purpose of this study was to assess healthy behavior recognition in Head Start, preschool children through picture identification. Participants in the study were 172 children in 7 Head Start centers, in 3 counties in Central Texas. The testing instrument was a booklet containing 30 questions, with 3 pictures per question, of which 1…

  7. Assessing Sexual Health Behaviors of Resident Physicians and Graduate Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Williams; Deborah Goebert

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sexual practices of 44 resident physicians with those of 88 non- medical graduate students, including law students and master's-level social work students, by using the Safe Sex Behavioral Questionnaire (SSBQ). Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, the SSBQ, used to assess the sexual practices of these two groups, was distributed to participants at a state university via

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Adaptation of Four Assessments for Offenders with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jenny A.; Rose, John L.; Beech, Anthony R.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Appropriate assessment is an essential part of treating sexual offenders. Few assessments exist that can be used with offenders who have lower levels of intellectual functioning and/or literacy deficits. Method: This study describes the adaptation of four self-report assessments for sexual offenders with special needs: (i) the "Social…

  9. Brazilian Version of the Functional Assessment Measure: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Reliability Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenco Jorge, Liliana; Garcia Marchi, Flavia Helena; Portela Hara, Ana Clara; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM) into Brazilian Portuguese, and to assess the test-retest reliability. The instrument was translated, back-translated, pretested, and reviewed by a committee. The Brazilian version was assessed in 61 brain-injury patients.…

  10. Positional behavior and limb bone adaptations in red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    PubMed

    Schön Ybarra, M A; Schön, M A

    1987-01-01

    Morphological adaptations to climbing (a scansorial mode of quadrupedal, arboreal locomotion practised on twigs and small branches) are identified by relating anatomical details of limb bones to a sample of 6,136 instantaneous observational recordings on the positional behavior and support uses of 20 different free-ranging, adult red howlers. Our findings are used to infer the original habitat in which proto-red howlers may have acquired such adaptations and to hypothesize that climbing and its related anatomy are a primitive condition for anthropoids. PMID:3454342

  11. Adaptive behavior of preschool children with developmental delays: parent versus teacher ratings.

    PubMed

    Shaw, J G; Hammer, D; Leland, H

    1991-02-01

    Parents and teachers of 20 children with developmental delays, 24 through 38 months of age, from an early education program in Columbus, Ohio, were interviewed using the Adaptive Behavior Scale for Infants and Early Childhood. Significant differences were found between some of the ratings over the 23 domain and 11 subdomain scores, specifically in regard to sex of the child and length of time of the child's participation in the program. Parents provided higher ratings than did teachers on some domains. In general, parents and teachers tended to agree on the overall adaptive functional levels. PMID:2017050

  12. Using Item Response Theory and Adaptive Testing in Online Career Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.; Turner, Brandon M.

    2011-01-01

    The present article describes the potential utility of item response theory (IRT) and adaptive testing for scale evaluation and for web-based career assessment. The article describes the principles of both IRT and adaptive testing and then illustrates these with reference to data analyses and simulation studies of the Career Confidence Inventory…

  13. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish Version of the Leisure Assessment Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Marta; Orgaz-Baz, M. Begona; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel; Martinez-Aguirre, M. Magdalena; Longo-Araujo-de-Melo, Egmar; Ullan-de-la-Fuente, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    "Participation"--defined as engagement in life situations, including leisure and recreational activities--is associated with the improvement of people with disabilities' quality of life. Several specific instruments assess leisure, but none of them has been adapted to the Spanish context. The goal of this study is to adapt and validate the Spanish…

  14. Learners and Knowledge: A New Personalization Factor Perspective for Adaptive Computer-based Assessment Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Aguilar; Unidad Monterrey Cinvestav Mexico; Kenji Kaijiri

    This paper introduces a work -in-progress about the development of the Adaptive Computer-based Assessment System called SPEBC (Sistema Personalizado de Evaluaci ón Basada en Computadora). Teachers by using SPEBC, as a tool to attend the class diversity, will be able to request the generation of assignments and learners will use their voting systems to send the answers in. The adaptation

  15. A framework to assess adaptive capacity of the water resources system in Nepalese river basins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishnu Prasad Pandey; Mukand S. Babel; Sangam Shrestha; Futaba Kazama

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an indicator-based framework – consisting of seven indicators, four parameters, and an index – to assess adaptive capacity of the water resources system in the Nepalese context and applies this framework to the Bagmati River Basin (BRB) in Nepal. With respect to the BRB, and Nepal in general, the study results show variations in adaptive capacity of

  16. Graph-Based Construction and Assessment of Motion-Adaptive Transforms

    E-print Network

    Flierl, Markus

    Graph-Based Construction and Assessment of Motion-Adaptive Transforms Du Liu and Markus Flierl}@kth.se Abstract-- In this paper, we propose two algorithms to con- struct motion-adaptive transforms in transforms. The vertex-weighted graph defines a one dimensional linear subspace. Thus, our transform basis

  17. Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

  18. Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. A Research Agenda

    E-print Network

    Carmin, JoAnn

    2014-09-13

    The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

  19. Behavioral assessment of feeding problems of individuals with severe disabilities.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, D D; Repp, A C

    1994-01-01

    As many as 80% of the individuals with severe or profound mental retardation exhibit feeding problems. Although behavioral interventions have been used to treat these problems, no assessment procedure for determining a functional relationship between a person's acceptance of food and the type and texture of that food has been reported. The purpose of this study was to test a behavioral assessment procedure for a feeding problem of limited intake. Five individuals with severe or profound mental retardation were fed 10 to 12 types of foods with one or more textures. Behavioral categories of acceptance, rejection, expulsion, and other negative behavior were recorded. Results indicated that each subject fit into one of four categories of feeding problems: (a) total refusal, (b) type selectivity, (c) texture selectivity, or (d) type and texture selectivity. Thus, although all 5 subjects exhibited limited intake, the food characteristics correlated with the problem were different for each individual. Results suggest that treatments for limited intake may be based on assessments that show the association of food type or texture to a person's rejection or expulsion of food. PMID:8063624

  20. Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2013-08-01

    In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

  1. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

  2. A health impact assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

  3. Modeling the behavioral substrates of associate learning and memory - Adaptive neural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen-Chien

    1991-01-01

    Three adaptive single-neuron models based on neural analogies of behavior modification episodes are proposed, which attempt to bridge the gap between psychology and neurophysiology. The proposed models capture the predictive nature of Pavlovian conditioning, which is essential to the theory of adaptive/learning systems. The models learn to anticipate the occurrence of a conditioned response before the presence of a reinforcing stimulus when training is complete. Furthermore, each model can find the most nonredundant and earliest predictor of reinforcement. The behavior of the models accounts for several aspects of basic animal learning phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning beyond previous related models. Computer simulations show how well the models fit empirical data from various animal learning paradigms.

  4. Validation of a behavioral observation tool to assess pig welfare.

    PubMed

    Smulders, D; Verbeke, G; Mormède, P; Geers, R

    2006-10-30

    Accurately measuring and monitoring of animal behavior is an important factor when assessing on-farm animal welfare. First we developed a feasible and simple method aiming at consistently on-farm measuring of pig's behavior. This test should cover a broad range of welfare-related pig behavior. The reaction towards a novel object, startling, tail and ear biting, play and aggressive behavior, stereotypies, coughing, sneezing, skin lesions, defecation, urination and cleanliness of body and pen are included. The development of accurate measures of on-farm behavior first requires the reliability assessment of the procedure. Therefore, the methodology was tested in a first part by three observers scoring simultaneously and independently pre-defined behavioral characteristics of 108 group-housed fattening pigs. The inter-observer repeatability of the measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 1. In a second part, the objective was to validate the behavioral characteristics against salivary cortisol, urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine and production traits. Salivary cortisol concentrations significantly increased in ear-bitten pigs and in pigs with tail lesions. Growth rate significantly dropped when cortisol levels rose. An age effect was also found. The percentage of animals approaching the novel object is positively correlated with the urinary epinephrine concentration. Pigs defecating during the test showed significantly higher epinephrine levels. Urinary norepinephrine concentration decreased significantly with age. Faster growing animals and animals with tail lesions showed significantly higher levels of norepinephrine. Pen dirtiness and number of animals per pen were associated with higher norepinephrine concentrations. Finally, barrows had higher norepinephrine concentrations than sows. PMID:16904137

  5. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mark Eddy

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining

  6. User—robot personality matching and assistive robot behavior adaptation for post-stroke rehabilitation therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Tapus; Cristian ??pu?; Maja J. Matari?

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a hands-off socially assistive therapist robot designed to monitor, assist, encourage, and socially interact\\u000a with post-stroke users engaged in rehabilitation exercises. We investigate the role of the robot’s personality in the hands-off\\u000a therapy process, focusing on the relationship between the level of extroversion–introversion of the robot and the user. We\\u000a also demonstrate a behavior adaptation system capable

  7. Relationship between the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Classroom Edition and the Vineland Social Maturity Scales.

    PubMed

    Britton, W H; Eaves, R C

    1986-07-01

    Results of an investigation of the relationship between the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Classroom Edition (Harrison, 1985) and its predecessor, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (Doll, 1953) were presented. Subjects were both educable and trainable mentally retarded children. The concurrent validity of the two scales was moderate, r = .57 to .66. Of greater importance was the finding that the mean scores obtained from the newer instrument were significantly lower than the mean scores for the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. PMID:3740111

  8. Hands-Off Therapist Robot Behavior Adaptation to User Personality for Post-Stroke Rehabilitation Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana T; Cristian T; Maja J Matari ´

    This paper describes a hands-off therapist robot that monitors, assists, encourages, and socially interacts with post-stroke users in the process of rehabilitation exercises. We developed a behavior adaptation system that takes advantage of the users introversion-extroversion personality trait and the number of exercises performed in order to adjust its social interaction parameters (e.g., interaction distances\\/proxemics, speed, and vocal content) toward

  9. Behavior Completion Versus Stimulus Control in Compulsive GamblingImplications for Behavioral Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel Mcconaghy; Michael S. Armstrong; Alex Blaszczynski; Clive Allcock

    1988-01-01

    Twenty subjects were randomly allocated to receive either imaginal relaxation (IR) or imaginal desensitization (ID) to reduce compulsive gambling. As predicted from a behavioral completion model, but not a stimulus control model, subjects' response to IR was comparable with that to ID. Also as predicted, response correlated with subjects' levels of tension following treatment. Detailed assessment of the situations in

  10. Functional Behavioral Assessment for a Boy with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Problem Behavior: A Case Study from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoridou, Zoe; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design a positive behavior intervention (PBI) for a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who encounters serious difficulties at the mainstream school because of behavioral problems and physical limitations. After the definition of problem behavior and its…

  11. Behavioral Assessment of Occupational Skills of Learning Disabled Adolescents

    E-print Network

    Mathews, R. Mark; Whang, Paula L.; Fawcett, Stephen B.

    1980-01-01

    INSTITUTE RESEA~~~ IN LEARNING DISABILITIES ~:r~~~:~~~s~!.~~~:~ Emphasis on Adolescents and Young Adults Research Report #5 January, 1980 BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS OF LEARNING DISABLED ADOLESCENTS R. Mark Mathews, Paula....48) and in work experience from none to six part-time jobs (x = 2.5). Setting Assessments of occupational skills were made in an office containing a desk, chairs, paper, pencils, and a telephone. Each session was recorded on audiotape, with the cassette...

  12. Adapting Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Secure Juvenile Justice Settings: Improving Facility-Wide Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolivette, Kristine; Nelson, C. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The popularity and success of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in public schools across the United States has led professionals to advocate for its implementation in secure juvenile settings. Statewide implementation efforts have been mounted in several jurisdictions, and a number of secure facilities are applying it with…

  13. Employee recruitment: using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K

    2007-01-01

    The labor shortage of skilled health care professionals continues to make employee recruitment and retention a challenge for health care managers. Greater accountability is being placed on health care managers to retain their employees. The urgency to retain health care professionals is largely an issue that should be considered during the initial recruitment of potential employees. Health care managers should analyze candidates rigorously to ensure that appropriate hiring decisions are made. Behavioral assessments can be used as a useful employee selection tool to assist managers in the appropriate placement and training of potential new employees. When administered appropriately, these tools can provide managers with a variety of useful information. This information can assist health care managers in demystifying the hiring process. Although there are varying organizational concerns to address when using behavioral assessments as an employee selection tool, the potential return on investment is worth the effort. PMID:17938588

  14. Ambulatory Assessment – Monitoring Behavior in Daily Life Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Fahrenberg; Michael Myrtek; K Urt Pawlik; Meinrad Perrez

    Abstract. Ambulatory assessment refers to the use of computer-assisted methodology for self-reports, behavior records, or physiological measurements, while the participant undergoes normal daily activities. Since the 1980s, portable microcomputer systems and physiolog- ical recorders\\/analyzers have been developed for this purpose. In contrast to their use in medicine, these new methods have hardly entered the domain of psychology. Questionnaire methods are

  15. The factor structure of the Chinese family assessment instrument adapted for parent report.

    PubMed

    Mellor, David; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wong, Jessica; Richardson, Ben

    2014-02-01

    This article reports on a confirmatory factor analytic study of an adapted version of an instrument designed to assess family functioning of Chinese families. The Chinese Family Assessment Instrument, originally designed for completion by adolescents, was adapted for completion by parents. A sample of 700 parent dyads of elementary school children (382 girls and 318 boys) completed the adapted questionnaire. Initial factor analyses showed that the existing five-factor structure used for adolescents' responses was not a good fit for these data. Instead, a four-factor solution emerged where the factors were positive family functioning, negative family functioning, tolerance for family members, and parental understanding. This structure was the same for both mothers and fathers. Further studies of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument parent adaptation are required to test the factor structure that emerged. Following such studies, validation studies will be required. PMID:22070890

  16. Operant Procedures for Assessing Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Anne Marie; Floresco, Stan B.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions consist of multiple high-level cognitive processes that drive rule generation and behavioral selection. An emergent property of these processes is the ability to adjust behavior in response to changes in one’s environment (i.e., behavioral flexibility). These processes are essential to normal human behavior, and may be disrupted in diverse neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, alcoholism, depression, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease. Understanding of the neurobiology of executive functions has been greatly advanced by the availability of animal tasks for assessing discrete components of behavioral flexibility, particularly strategy shifting and reversal learning. While several types of tasks have been developed, most are non-automated, labor intensive, and allow testing of only one animal at a time. The recent development of automated, operant-based tasks for assessing behavioral flexibility streamlines testing, standardizes stimulus presentation and data recording, and dramatically improves throughput. Here, we describe automated strategy shifting and reversal tasks, using operant chambers controlled by custom written software programs. Using these tasks, we have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex governs strategy shifting but not reversal learning in the rat, similar to the dissociation observed in humans. Moreover, animals with a neonatal hippocampal lesion, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, are selectively impaired on the strategy shifting task but not the reversal task. The strategy shifting task also allows the identification of separate types of performance errors, each of which is attributable to distinct neural substrates. The availability of these automated tasks, and the evidence supporting the dissociable contributions of separate prefrontal areas, makes them particularly well-suited assays for the investigation of basic neurobiological processes as well as drug discovery and screening in disease models. PMID:25742506

  17. Operant procedures for assessing behavioral flexibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Brady, Anne Marie; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions consist of multiple high-level cognitive processes that drive rule generation and behavioral selection. An emergent property of these processes is the ability to adjust behavior in response to changes in one's environment (i.e., behavioral flexibility). These processes are essential to normal human behavior, and may be disrupted in diverse neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, alcoholism, depression, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding of the neurobiology of executive functions has been greatly advanced by the availability of animal tasks for assessing discrete components of behavioral flexibility, particularly strategy shifting and reversal learning. While several types of tasks have been developed, most are non-automated, labor intensive, and allow testing of only one animal at a time. The recent development of automated, operant-based tasks for assessing behavioral flexibility streamlines testing, standardizes stimulus presentation and data recording, and dramatically improves throughput. Here, we describe automated strategy shifting and reversal tasks, using operant chambers controlled by custom written software programs. Using these tasks, we have shown that the medial prefrontal cortex governs strategy shifting but not reversal learning in the rat, similar to the dissociation observed in humans. Moreover, animals with a neonatal hippocampal lesion, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, are selectively impaired on the strategy shifting task but not the reversal task. The strategy shifting task also allows the identification of separate types of performance errors, each of which is attributable to distinct neural substrates. The availability of these automated tasks, and the evidence supporting the dissociable contributions of separate prefrontal areas, makes them particularly well-suited assays for the investigation of basic neurobiological processes as well as drug discovery and screening in disease models. PMID:25742506

  18. Assessing the Efficiency of Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    This study investigated the efficiency of item selection in a computerized adaptive test (CAT), where efficiency was defined in terms of the accumulated test information at an examinee's true ability level. A simulation methodology compared the efficiency of 2 item selection procedures with 5 ability estimation procedures for CATs of 5, 10, 15,…

  19. Adaptive Assessment Using Granularity Hierarchies and Bayesian Nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason A. Collins; Jim E. Greer; Sherman X. Huang

    1996-01-01

    . Adaptive testing is impractical in real world situations wheremany different learner traits need to be measured in a single test. Recentstudent modelling approaches have attempted to solve this problemusing different course representations along with sound knowledge propagationschemes. This paper shows that these different representationscan be merged together and realized in a granularity hierarchy. Bayesianinference can be used to propagate

  20. Robust adaptation assessment – climate change and water supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Hall; Conor Murphy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to develop a framework to assist the identification of robust adaptation options that account for uncertainty in future climate change impacts for the water sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The water evaluation and planning (WEAP) tool, is to identify future water resource vulnerability in the Glore sub-catchment within the Moy catchment in the West of Ireland. Where

  1. Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. Tyson

    1999-01-01

    Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery

  2. [Repeated inflammatory pain syndrome in newborn male rats changes adaptive behavior during adolescent period of development].

    PubMed

    Butkevich, I P; Mikha?lenko, V A; Lavrova, Iu A; Ulanova, N A

    2014-11-01

    The study is devoted to the investigation of the effects of the repeated inflammatory pain syndrome of newborn male rat pups at the age of one and two days of life on characteristics of adaptive behaviors in the formalin test, the elevated-plus maze, the forced swim test and also in the swimming pool spatial test in these animals at the age of 25 days. The new data are enhancement of functional activity of the tonic nociceptive system, an increase in depression like behavior, impairment of spatial learning. A priority fact has been obtained that indicates that a short (60 min) repeated maternal deprivation of newborn rat pups (a stressful impact) without inflammatory noxious impact results in changes of the adaptive behaviors in 25-day-old animals. The evaluation of pain patterns organized at different levels of the central nervous system in the formalin test let us to find differences between effects of early painful and stressful impacts on the behavioral indices under study. PMID:25665402

  3. Examining the Theoretical Relationship Between Support Needs and Adaptive Behavior: A Construct Analysis of Children with Intellectual Disability

    E-print Network

    Obremski, Emily Shea

    2013-12-31

    This dissertation is composed of four stand-alone yet linked chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the theoretical underpinnings of the constructs of adaptive behavior and support needs and their evolution throughout history. There is also a...

  4. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed

  5. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  6. Human adaptations for the visual assessment of strength and fighting ability from the body and face

    E-print Network

    Sorenson, Michael

    social interactions favours the evolution of cognitive mechanisms for assessing physical formidabilityHuman adaptations for the visual assessment of strength and fighting ability from the body and face in conspecifics has been documented in a number of non-human species, but has not been demonstrated in humans

  7. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-12-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  8. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  9. National Hydroclimatic Change and Infrastructure Adaptation Assessment: Region-Specific Adaptation Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change, land use and socioeconomic developments are principal variables that define the need and scope of adaptive engineering and management to sustain water resource and infrastructure development. As described in IPCC (2007), hydroclimatic changes in the next 30-50 ye...

  10. Initial moments of adaptation to microgravity of human orientation behavior, in parabolic flight conditions.

    PubMed

    Tafforin, C

    1996-06-01

    The first ethological studies of astronauts' adaptation to microgravity dealt with the behavioral strategies observed during short-term space missions. No attempts had however been made to consider the initial moments of adaptation dynamics, when the subject is first submitted to conditions allowing body orientations in the full three dimensions of space. The present experimental approach was both longitudinal and transversal. It consisted of analysing, during a goal-directed orientation task in parabolic flight, the orientation behavior of 12 subjects with a past experience of 0, 30 or more than 300 parabolas. During each microgravity phase, the subjects were asked to orientate their bodies and touch, with the dominant hand, four coloured targets arranged inside the aircraft. Results showed that for inexperienced subjects, the time between two target contacts was longer than experienced subjects. They often failed to reach all targets in the series during the first parabolas. They showed right-left confusion and a preference for the "up-down" vertical body orientation. Their performance, described by the efficiency of orientation in all three dimensions, improved over time and according to the level of experience. The results are discussed for the spontaneous, preliminary and integrative stages of adaptation, emphasizing new relationships between the body references and those of the surroundings. Such experiences lead the subject to develop a new mental representation of space. PMID:11540756

  11. An International Assessment of the Emotional and Behavioral Strengths of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappalainen, Kristiina; Savolainen, Hannu; Kuorelahti, Matti; Epstein, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of emotional and behavioral strengths has been identified as an important part of the assessment process for children referred for specialized services. The Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-2 (BERS-2; Epstein, Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: a strength-based approach to assessment. PRO-Ed, Austin, TX, 2004) was developed…

  12. Successfully Translating Language and Culture when Adapting Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornman, Juan; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Pae, Hye Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    A need exists for culturally valid and reliable developmental assessment tools for children with disabilities that are able to accommodate multiple languages. One way in which this goal can be achieved is through test translations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the use of translations of select developmental assessment

  13. Improved Behavior, Motor, and Cognition Assessments in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah; Friess, Stuart H.; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen J.; Rapp, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The alterations of animal behavior after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be subtle, and their quantitative characterization can present significant methodological challenges. Meeting these challenges is a critical need, because quantitative measures are required in studies that compare the efficacy of different clinical interventions. We developed a battery of assessments to quantify behavioral, motor, and cognitive changes in neonatal piglets with good sensitivity and specificity to the detection of persistent deficits that correlate with axonal injury severity after a rapid non-impact head rotation with a diffuse pattern of axonal injury. The battery of measures developed included open field behaviors of sniffing and moving a toy, locomotion measures of Lempel-Ziv complexity and the probability of remaining in the current location, and a novel metric for evaluating motor performance. Our composite porcine disability score was able to detect brain injury with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.7% at day +4 post-injury for n=8 injured and n=7 sham piglets and significantly correlated with the percent axonal injury in these animals (day +4: ?=0.76, p=0.0011). A significant improvement over our previous assessments, this new porcine disability score has potential use in a wide variety of porcine disease and injury models. PMID:23758416

  14. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24/28% HVAC energy savings in the winter/summer while also reducing thermal unacceptability; however, it is shown that the source of energy being saved must be considered in each case, as local heating options end up replacing cheaper, more carbon-friendly gas heating with expensive, emissions-heavy plug load electricity. The dissertation concludes with a summary of key outcomes and suggests how HABIT may be further developed in the future.

  15. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  16. Ambulatory Assessment – Monitoring Behavior in Daily Life Settings: A Behavioral-Scientific Challenge for Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Fahrenberg; Michael Myrtek; Kurt Pawlik; Meinrad Perrez

    2007-01-01

    Ambulatory assessment refers to the use of computer-assisted methodology for self-reports, behavior records, or physiological measurements, while the participant undergoes normal daily activities. Since the 1980s, portable microcomputer systems and physiological recorders\\/analyzers have been developed for this purpose. In contrast to their use in medicine, these new methods have hardly entered the domain of psychology. Questionnaire methods are still preferred,

  17. Adaptive grid methods for RLV environment assessment and nozzle analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburg, Hugh J.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid access to highly accurate data about complex configurations is needed for multi-disciplinary optimization and design. In order to efficiently meet these requirements a closer coupling between the analysis algorithms and the discretization process is needed. In some cases, such as free surface, temporally varying geometries, and fluid structure interaction, the need is unavoidable. In other cases the need is to rapidly generate and modify high quality grids. Techniques such as unstructured and/or solution-adaptive methods can be used to speed the grid generation process and to automatically cluster mesh points in regions of interest. Global features of the flow can be significantly affected by isolated regions of inadequately resolved flow. These regions may not exhibit high gradients and can be difficult to detect. Thus excessive resolution in certain regions does not necessarily increase the accuracy of the overall solution. Several approaches have been employed for both structured and unstructured grid adaption. The most widely used involve grid point redistribution, local grid point enrichment/derefinement or local modification of the actual flow solver. However, the success of any one of these methods ultimately depends on the feature detection algorithm used to determine solution domain regions which require a fine mesh for their accurate representation. Typically, weight functions are constructed to mimic the local truncation error and may require substantial user input. Most problems of engineering interest involve multi-block grids and widely disparate length scales. Hence, it is desirable that the adaptive grid feature detection algorithm be developed to recognize flow structures of different type as well as differing intensity, and adequately address scaling and normalization across blocks. These weight functions can then be used to construct blending functions for algebraic redistribution, interpolation functions for unstructured grid generation, forcing functions to attract/repel points in an elliptic system, or to trigger local refinement, based upon application of an equidistribution principle. The popularity of solution-adaptive techniques is growing in tandem with unstructured methods. The difficultly of precisely controlling mesh densities and orientations with current unstructured grid generation systems has driven the use of solution-adaptive meshing. Use of derivatives of density or pressure are widely used for construction of such weight functions, and have been proven very successful for inviscid flows with shocks. However, less success has been realized for flowfields with viscous layers, vortices or shocks of disparate strength. It is difficult to maintain the appropriate mesh point spacing in the various regions which require a fine spacing for adequate resolution. Mesh points often migrate from important regions due to refinement of dominant features. An example of this is the well know tendency of adaptive methods to increase the resolution of shocks in the flowfield around airfoils, but in the incorrect location due to inadequate resolution of the stagnation region. This problem has been the motivation for this research.

  18. Behavioral assessments of auditory sensitivity in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Prosen, C A; Bath, K G; Vetter, D E; May, B J

    2000-04-01

    This report summarizes positive reinforcement conditioning procedures for assessing sensory function in transgenic mice. To illustrate these behavioral methods auditory sensitivity was measured in mice lacking alpha9 acetylcholine receptor subunits (alpha9 knock-out mice). These receptors are known to play an important role in the efferent pathways that modify cochlear responses to sound stimuli. The strategies of parameter manipulation that led these subjects through their preliminary training stages to stable threshold performances are described in detail. Techniques for estimating and interpreting sensory thresholds are discussed from the perspective of signal detection analyses. This study found no significant differences between alpha9 knock-out mice and control subjects when hearing thresholds were measured under quiet conditions, as predicted by previous behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. PMID:10771076

  19. Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, India; Perini, Irene; Dunham, James

    2013-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying nociception and pain perception are considered to serve the ultimate goal of limiting tissue damage. However, since pain usually occurs in complex environments and situations that call for elaborate control over behavior, simple avoidance is insufficient to explain a range of mammalian pain responses, especially in the presence of competing goals. In this integrative review we propose a Predictive Regulation and Action (PRA) model of acute pain processing. It emphasizes evidence that the nervous system is organized to anticipate potential pain and to adjust behavior before the risk of tissue damage becomes critical. Regulatory processes occur on many levels, and can be dynamically influenced by local interactions or by modulation from other brain areas in the network. The PRA model centers on neural substrates supporting the predictive nature of pain processing, as well as on finely-calibrated yet versatile regulatory processes that ultimately affect behavior. We outline several operational categories of pain behavior, from spinally-mediated reflexes to adaptive voluntary action, situated at various neural levels. An implication is that neural processes that track potential tissue damage in terms of behavioral consequences are an integral part of pain perception. PMID:24348358

  20. INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes,...

  1. Adaptive Sampling Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Nuclear Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear simulations are often computationally expensive, time-consuming, and high-dimensional with respect to the number of input parameters. Thus exploring the space of all possible simulation outcomes is infeasible using finite computing resources. During simulation-based probabilistic risk analysis, it is important to discover the relationship between a potentially large number of input parameters and the output of a simulation using as few simulation trials as possible. This is a typical context for performing adaptive sampling where a few observations are obtained from the simulation, a surrogate model is built to represent the simulation space, and new samples are selected based on the model constructed. The surrogate model is then updated based on the simulation results of the sampled points. In this way, we attempt to gain the most information possible with a small number of carefully selected sampled points, limiting the number of expensive trials needed to understand features of the simulation space. We analyze the specific use case of identifying the limit surface, i.e., the boundaries in the simulation space between system failure and system success. In this study, we explore several techniques for adaptively sampling the parameter space in order to reconstruct the limit surface. We focus on several adaptive sampling schemes. First, we seek to learn a global model of the entire simulation space using prediction models or neighborhood graphs and extract the limit surface as an iso-surface of the global model. Second, we estimate the limit surface by sampling in the neighborhood of the current estimate based on topological segmentations obtained locally. Our techniques draw inspirations from topological structure known as the Morse-Smale complex. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a global prediction model versus local topological view of the simulation space, comparing several different strategies for adaptive sampling in both contexts. One of the most interesting models we propose attempt to marry the two by obtaining a coarse global representation using prediction models, and a detailed local representation based on topology. Our methods are validated on several analytical test functions as well as a small nuclear simulation dataset modeled after a simplified Pressurized Water Reactor.

  2. Adaptations in humans for assessing physical strength from the voice

    PubMed Central

    Sell, Aaron; Bryant, Gregory A.; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Sznycer, Daniel; von Rueden, Christopher; Krauss, Andre; Gurven, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has shown that humans, like many other animals, have a specialization for assessing fighting ability from visual cues. Because it is probable that the voice contains cues of strength and formidability that are not available visually, we predicted that selection has also equipped humans with the ability to estimate physical strength from the voice. We found that subjects accurately assessed upper-body strength in voices taken from eight samples across four distinct populations and language groups: the Tsimane of Bolivia, Andean herder-horticulturalists and United States and Romanian college students. Regardless of whether raters were told to assess height, weight, strength or fighting ability, they produced similar ratings that tracked upper-body strength independent of height and weight. Male voices were more accurately assessed than female voices, which is consistent with ethnographic data showing a greater tendency among males to engage in violent aggression. Raters extracted information about strength from the voice that was not supplied from visual cues, and were accurate with both familiar and unfamiliar languages. These results provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that both men and women can accurately assess men's physical strength from the voice, and suggest that estimates of strength are used to assess fighting ability. PMID:20554544

  3. Performance assessment of MEMS adaptive optics in tactical airborne systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Robert K.

    1999-09-01

    Tactical airborne electro-optical systems are severely constrained by weight, volume, power, and cost. Micro- electrical-mechanical adaptive optics provide a solution that addresses the engineering realities without compromising spatial and temporal compensation requirements. Through modeling and analysis, we determined that substantial benefits could be gained for laser designators, ladar, countermeasures, and missile seekers. The developments potential exists for improving seeker imagery resolution 20 percent, extending countermeasures keep-out range by a factor of 5, doubling the range for ladar detection and identification, and compensating for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft boundary layers. Innovative concepts are required for atmospheric pat hand boundary layer compensation. We have developed design that perform these tasks using high speed scene-based wavefront sensing, IR aerosol laser guide stars, and extended-object wavefront beacons. We have developed a number of adaptive optics system configurations that met the spatial resolution requirements and we have determined that sensing and signal processing requirements can be met. With the help of micromachined deformable mirrors and sensor, we will be able to integrate the systems into existing airborne pods and missiles as well as next generation electro-optical systems.

  4. Assessing Causality in the Relationship between Adolescents' Risky Sexual Online Behavior and Their Perceptions of This Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the causal nature of the relationship between adolescents' risky sexual behavior on the internet and their perceptions of this behavior. Engagement in the following online behaviors was assessed: searching online for someone to talk about sex, searching online for someone to have sex, sending intimate…

  5. The changing brain--insights into the mechanisms of neural and behavioral adaptation to the environment.

    PubMed

    Bergersen, L H; Bramham, C R; Hugdahl, K; Sander, M; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2013-09-01

    The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience was awarded for the third time in September 2012, by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in Oslo. The accompanying Kavli Prize Symposium on Neuroscience, held in Bergen and Trondheim, was a showcase of excellence in neuroscience research. The common theme of the Symposium presentations was the mechanisms by which animals adapt to their environment. The symposium speakers--Michael Greenberg, Erin Schuman, Chiara Cirelli, Michael Meaney, Catherine Dulac, Hopi Hoekstra, and Stanislas Dehaene--covered topics ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems level and behavior. Thus a single amino acid change in a transcriptional repressor can disrupt gene regulation through neural activity (Greenberg). Deep sequencing analysis of the neuropil transcriptome indicates that a large fraction of the synaptic proteome is synthesized in situ in axons and dendrites, permitting local regulation (Schuman). The nature of the 'reset' function that makes animals dependent of sleep is being revealed (Cirelli). Maternal behavior can cause changes in gene expression that stably modify behavior in the offspring (Meaney). Removal of a single sensory channel protein in the vomero-nasal organ can switch off male-specific and switch on female-specific innate behavior of mice in response to environmental stimulation (Dulac). Innate behaviors can be stably transmitted from parent to offspring through generations even when those behaviors cannot be expressed, as illustrated by the elaborate burrowing behavior in a rodent species, in which independent genetic regions regulate distinct modules of the burrowing pattern (Hoekstra). Finally, at the other extreme of the nature-nurture scale, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis in children and adults identified a brain area specifically involved in reading (Dehaene). As the area must originally have developed for a purpose other than reading, such as shape recognition, this illustrates the use of a previously formed neural structure to tackle a new challenge. PMID:23602885

  6. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  7. A method to assess the organizing behaviors used in physicians’ counseling of standardized parents after newborn genetic screening

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Stephanie A.; Ahmad, Nadia Y.; Bradford, Lisa; Collins, Jenelle L.; Eskra, Kerry; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; O’Tool, Faith O.; Roedl, Sara J.; Farrell, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Well-organized conversation can improve people’s ability to comprehend and retain information. As part of a long-term effort to adapt Quality Improvement techniques for communication, we developed an explicit-criteria method to assess usage of three organizing behaviors (OBs): ‘opening behaviors’ to establish goals; ‘structuring behaviors’ to guide patients through conversation; and ‘emphasizing behaviors’ that signal a need for attention. Pairs of abstractors independently reviewed transcripts in a demonstration sample of conversations between physicians and standardized parents after newborn screening identifies carrier status for sickle cell disease. Criteria for at least one OB were identified in 50/84 transcripts (60%), including 27 with at least one opening behavior (32%), 5 with at least one structuring behavior (6%), and 38 with at least one emphasizing behavior (45%). The limited number of OBs raises concern about communication after newborn screening. Assessment and improvement of OB usage may improve understanding and allow parents to more actively participate in health care. PMID:24498695

  8. Static aeroelasticity and free vibration behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Librescu, Liviu; Rogers, Craig A.; Song, Ohseop

    Two problems associated with the behavior of aircraft wing structures incorporating piezoelectric effects are investigated. These problems concern the free vibration and the static aeroelastic behavior of airplane wings modelled as thin-walled beams. The pertinent equations of adaptive thin-walled beams are established via a Hamilton variational principle extended to the case of a linear 3D piezoelectric medium. The results obtained reveal the great potentialities of applying adaptive technology to the control of the behavior of wing structures from aeroelastic and vibrational points of view.

  9. Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scanavino, Marco de T; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Abdo, Carmita H N; Tavares, Hermano; Amaral, Maria L S do; Messina, Bruna; Reis, Sirlene C Dos; Martins, João P L B; Gordon, Marina C; Vieira, Julie C; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-10-28

    Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (? > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (? between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (? > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures. PMID:25348356

  10. Using Mutual Information for Adaptive Item Comparison and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin

    2005-01-01

    The author analyzes properties of mutual information between dichotomous concepts and test items. The properties generalize some common intuitions about item comparison, and provide principled foundations for designing item-selection heuristics for student assessment in computer-assisted educational systems. The proposed item-selection strategies…

  11. Risk assessment of nanomaterials and nanoproducts - adaptation of traditional approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnel, J.; Fleischer, T.; Seitz, S. B.

    2013-04-01

    Different approaches have been adopted for assessing the potential risks of conventional chemicals and products for human health. In general, the traditional paradigm is a toxicological-driven chemical-by-chemical approach, focusing on single toxic endpoints. Scope and responsibilities for the development and implementation of a risk assessment concept vary across sectors and areas and depends on the specific regulatory environment and the specific protection goals. Thus, risk assessment implication is a complex task based not only on science based knowledge but also on the regulatory context involving different parties and stakeholders. Questions have been raised whether standard paradigms for conventional chemicals would be applicable and adequate for new materials, products and applications of nanotechnology. Most scientists and stakeholders assume that current standard methods are in principle applicable to nanomaterials, but specific aspects require further development. The paper presents additional technical improvements like the complementary use of the life cycle methodology and the support of risk-based classification systems. But also aspects improving the utility of risk assessment with regard to societal impacts on risk governance are discussed.

  12. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) approximately 20min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72s. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1week, 1month and 2months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light?dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2months post-TETS intoxication. The general absence of long-term behavioral deficits in TETS-intoxicated mice on these six assays suggests that the neurobehavioral consequences of TETS exposure described in human survivors of acute TETS intoxication are likely due to sustained seizure activity, rather than a direct effect of the chemical itself. Future research efforts are directed toward developing an animal model that better recapitulates the SE and seizure duration reported in humans acutely intoxicated with TETS. PMID:25446016

  13. LABRADOR: a learning autonomous behavior-based robot for adaptive detection and object retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Brian; Moseley, Mark; Brookshire, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the TARDEC-funded CANINE (Cooperative Autonomous Navigation in a Networked Environment) Program, iRobot developed LABRADOR (Learning Autonomous Behavior-based Robot for Adaptive Detection and Object Retrieval). LABRADOR was based on the rugged, man-portable, iRobot PackBot unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with an explosives ordnance disposal (EOD) manipulator arm and a custom gripper. For LABRADOR, we developed a vision-based object learning and recognition system that combined a TLD (track-learn-detect) filter based on object shape features with a color-histogram-based object detector. Our vision system was able to learn in real-time to recognize objects presented to the robot. We also implemented a waypoint navigation system based on fused GPS, IMU (inertial measurement unit), and odometry data. We used this navigation capability to implement autonomous behaviors capable of searching a specified area using a variety of robust coverage strategies - including outward spiral, random bounce, random waypoint, and perimeter following behaviors. While the full system was not integrated in time to compete in the CANINE competition event, we developed useful perception, navigation, and behavior capabilities that may be applied to future autonomous robot systems.

  14. Vocal behavior and risk assessment in wild chimpanzees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Michael L.; Hauser, Marc D.; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2005-09-01

    If, as theory predicts, animal communication is designed to manipulate the behavior of others to personal advantage, then there will be certain contexts in which vocal behavior is profitable and other cases where silence is favored. Studies conducted in Kibale National Park, Uganda investigated whether chimpanzees modified their vocal behavior according to different levels of risk from intergroup aggression, including relative numerical strength and location in range. Playback experiments tested numerical assessment, and observations of chimpanzees throughout their range tested whether they called less frequently to avoid detection in border areas. Chimpanzees were more likely to call to playback of a stranger's call if they greatly outnumbered the stranger. Chimpanzees tended to reduce calling in border areas, but not in all locations. Chimpanzees most consistently remained silent when raiding crops: they almost never gave loud pant-hoot calls when raiding banana plantations outside the park, even though they normally give many pant-hoots on arrival at high-quality food resources. These findings indicate that chimpanzees have the capacity to reduce loud call production when appropriate, but that additional factors, such as advertising territory ownership, contribute to the costs and benefits of calling in border zones.

  15. Relationship between Adaptation after Returning to Competition and Psycho-behavioral Attitudes during Injury Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation after returning to competition and psychological and behavioral variables during the rehabilitation period. [Subjects] Athletes (N =113) that had experienced an injury (mean age = 20.22?years, SD = 1.07; mean weeks after stopping sports = 7.98 weeks, SD = 11.74) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to respond to the athletic injury version of the Temporal Perspective Scale (TP-S), existing scales including the DDF-S, AIPA-S, and ARD-S, and the outcome indices for rehabilitation. [Results] The results of a cluster analysis indicated three modalities of temporal perspective (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative sequences). The results of an analysis of variance showed that the positive chain modality was adaptive for future dominance. The subjects in this group demonstrated higher levels of acceptance of injuries during the rehabilitation period than the other groups, devotion to rehabilitation, and awareness of the recovery in competitive performance and a feeling of personal growth. [Conclusion] The level of acceptance of injury during the rehabilitation period, as well as the devotion to rehabilitation, influenced adaptation after returning to competition. PMID:25435708

  16. Effects of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space: Behavioral Health

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill; Kornstein, Susan G.; Leon, Gloria R.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stuster, Jack W.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, “The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space.” It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, “Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era,” which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup—consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector—investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight. PMID:25259837

  17. Nanocrystalline coating design for extreme applications based on the concept of complex adaptive behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Rabinovich, G. S.; Veldhuis, S. C.; Dosbaeva, G. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kovalev, A. I.; Wainstein, D. L.; Gershman, I. S.; Shuster, L. S.; Beake, B. D.

    2008-04-01

    The development of effective hard coatings for high performance dry machining, which is associated with high stress/temperatures during friction, is a major challenge. Newly developed synergistically alloyed nanocrystalline adaptive Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N plasma vapor deposited hard coatings exhibit excellent tool life under conditions of high performance dry machining of hardened steel, especially under severe and extreme cutting conditions. The coating is capable of sustaining cutting speeds as high as 600 m/min. Comprehensive investigation of the microstructure and properties of the coating was performed. The structure of the coating before and after service has been characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Micromechanical characteristics of the coating have been investigated at elevated temperatures. Oxidation resistance of the coating has been studied by using thermogravimetry within a temperature range of 25-1100 °C in air. The coefficient of friction of the coatings was studied within a temperature range of 25-1200 °C. To determine the causes of excellent tool life and improved wear behavior of the TiAlCrSiYN coatings, its surface structure characteristics after service have been investigated by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and extended energy-loss fine spectroscopy. One of the major features of this coating is the dynamic formation of the protective tribo-oxide films (dissipative structures) on the surface during friction with a sapphire and mullite crystal structure. Aluminum- and silicon-rich tribofilms with dangling bonds form on the surface as well. These tribofilms act in synergy and protect the surface so efficiently that it is able to sustain extreme operating conditions. Moreover, the Ti0.2Al0.55Cr0.2Si0.03Y0.02N coating possesses some features of a complex adaptive behavior because it has a number of improved characteristics (tribological adaptability, ultrafine nanocrystalline structure, hot hardness and plasticity, and oxidation stability) that work synergistically as a whole. Due to the complex adaptive behavior, this coating represents a higher ordered system that has an ability to achieve unattainable wear resistance under strongly intensifying and extreme tribological conditions.

  18. Scoring method for assessing rate adaptive pacemakers: application to two different activity sensors.

    PubMed

    Garrigue, S; Chaix, C; Gencel, L; Jaïs, P; Dartigues, J F; Haïssaguerre, M; Clémenty, J

    1998-03-01

    To optimize programming of rate adaptive pacemakers (RAPs), we explored a new mathematical method to assess the performance of RAPs during daily-life tests, using customized Windows-based software. By stepwise discriminant analysis and linear regression, this method allows calculation of the acceleration and deceleration capacity of pacemakers and their general behavior during effort and recovery phases. Twenty-three patients (10 females and 13 males; 68 +/- 8 years) with chronic atrial fibrillation and a slow ventricular response were evaluated. They randomly received an accelerometer-controlled VVIR Dash Intermedics pacemaker (10 patients) or a vibration piezoelectric-controlled VVIR Sensolog III Siemens pacemaker (13 patients). All patients underwent the same test protocol: 6 minutes walking, 1.5 minutes climbing stairs, 1.5 minutes descending stairs, and 0.5 minutes sit-ups. By definition, the pacemaker responsiveness slope was programmed so that the heart rate response of paced patients during the walking test corresponded best to that of healthy controls. The slope was left unchanged for the other tests. We considered four scores: an acceleration score (EA score), an effort rate score (ER score), a deceleration score (RD score), and a recovery rate score (RR score). Scores ranged from -10 (hypochronotropic behavior of the pacemaker) to +10 (hyperchronotropic behavior), based on daily-life tests of 15 healthy controls (7 females and 8 males, 65 +/- 9 years). A score of 0 represented exact concordance with healthy controls. During stair descent, the Sensolog III produced excessive acceleration (EA score = +2.9 +/- 1.1) compared to: (1) stair climbing (EA score = -4.0 +/- 1.9; P = 0.01, with the same pacemakers); and (2) the Dash (+1.8 +/- 1.9; P = 0.04) and healthy controls (P = 0.02). The sit-up tests revealed a hypochronotropic response of both pacemakers compared to healthy controls, with a larger difference for the Sensolog III (EA score = -2.0 +/- 5.8; P = 0.04; RD score = -6.8 +/- 3.8' P = 0.02). We conclude that activity-driven pacemakers can accommodate brief activities, except for isovolumetric exercise such as sit-ups. During daily activities, accelerometer-driven pacemakers seem to provide a heart rate resoibse closer to that of healthy controls. Our new mathematical analysis is a simple and reproducible method for evaluating and quantifying the efficacy of any sensor-driven pacemaker. PMID:9558681

  19. An assessment of the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral grid, Euler Flow Solver Code FELISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Erickson, Larry L.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison of computational and wind tunnel data and enhancement of numerical solutions by means of grid adaptivity are discussed. The mesh generation is based on the advancing front technique. The FELISA code consists of two solvers, the Taylor-Galerkin and the Runge-Kutta-Galerkin schemes, both of which are spacially discretized by the usual Galerkin weighted residual finite-element methods but with different explicit time-marching schemes to steady state. The solution-adaptive grid procedure is based on either remeshing or mesh refinement techniques. An alternative geometry adaptive procedure is also incorporated.

  20. A structured multi-block solution-adaptive mesh algorithm with mesh quality assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, Clint L.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Mcrae, D. Scott

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic solution adaptive grid algorithm, DSAGA3D, is extended to automatically adapt 2-D structured multi-block grids, including adaption of the block boundaries. The extension is general, requiring only input data concerning block structure, connectivity, and boundary conditions. Imbedded grid singular points are permitted, but must be prevented from moving in space. Solutions for workshop cases 1 and 2 are obtained on multi-block grids and illustrate both increased resolution of and alignment with the solution. A mesh quality assessment criteria is proposed to determine how well a given mesh resolves and aligns with the solution obtained upon it. The criteria is used to evaluate the grid quality for solutions of workshop case 6 obtained on both static and dynamically adapted grids. The results indicate that this criteria shows promise as a means of evaluating resolution.

  1. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  2. Cultural Adaptation of an Intervention to Reduce Sexual Risk Behaviors among Patients Attending a STI Clinic in St. Petersburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Lauretta E.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Abdala, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Cultural adaptation is an important step in the process of implementing health promotion interventions that, having been proven to be effective in one culture, are being applied in another. This study describes the results of a formative investigation to culturally adapt a STI/HIV risk reduction intervention for use in St. Petersburg, Russia. Analyses of data from brief elicitation interviews, focus groups, community experts, and a pilot test of the adapted intervention identified environmental, cognitive-information processing, and affect-motivation factors that needed to be addressed during the adaptation process. The participant/counselor relationship was adapted to reflect a hierarchical (cf collaborative) relationship in order to accommodate Russian expectations about patient interactions with healthcare experts. Key skills building activities (e.g., identification of personal risk behaviors, role-playing) were approached gradually or indirectly in order to maintain participants’ engagement in the intervention, and close-ended questions were added to assist participants in understanding unfamiliar concepts such as “triggers” and self-efficacy. Information about the prevalence of HIV/STI infections and alcohol use included data specific to St. Petersburg to increase the personal relevance of these materials and messages. Intervention components were tailored to participants’ risk reduction and informational needs. No gender differences that would have justified adaptation of the intervention approach or content were noted. Examples of specific adaptations and the key issues to attend to when adapting behavioral interventions for use in Russian clinical settings are discussed. PMID:23322231

  3. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. White; S. Trainor; J. Walsh; C. Gerlach

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu\\/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http:\\/\\/www.climate.noaa.gov\\/cpo_pa\\/risa\\/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing

  4. Consensual and behavioral validity of a measure of adaptive individual differences dimensions in human motivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry C. Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Data from three sources—an initial self sample (N = 108) and a friend sample (N = 103) and relative sample (N = 103) recruited by self sample participants—were used to test the consensual and behavioral validity of new individual differences\\u000a measures of 15 dimensions of motivation represented in the assessment of individual motives-questionnaire (AIM-Q). AIM-Q scores\\u000a for all three samples converged and hypotheses of their predicted

  5. Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats

    E-print Network

    Hoy, Ronald R.

    Adaptive auditory risk assessment in the dogbane tiger moth when pursued by bats John M. Ratcliffe1 bats. During such encounters, the toxic dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera uses the received intensity, noctuoid moths' auditory systems evoke evasive flight [1] and, in many tiger moths, also defensive sound

  6. Using a signal cancellation technique to assess adaptive directivity of hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Bentler, Ruth A

    2007-07-01

    The directivity of an adaptive directional microphone hearing aid (DMHA) cannot be assessed by the method that calls for presenting a "probe" signal from a single loudspeaker to the DMHA that moves to different angles. This method is invalid because the probe signal itself changes the polar pattern. This paper proposes a method for assessing the adaptive DMHA using a "jammer" signal, presented from a second loudspeaker rotating with the DMHA, that simulates a noise source and freezes the polar pattern. Measurement at each angle is obtained by two sequential recordings from the DMHA, one using an input of a probe and a jammer, and the other with an input of the same probe and a phase-inverted jammer. After canceling out the jammer, the remaining response to the probe signal can be used to assess the directivity. In this paper, the new method is evaluated by comparing responses from five adaptive DMHAs to different jammer intensities and locations. This method was shown to be an accurate and reliable way to assess the directivity of the adaptive DMHA in a high-intensity-jammer condition. PMID:17614507

  7. Assessing the speed and predictability of local adaptation in invasive California poppies (Eschscholzia californica)

    E-print Network

    Rice, Kevin

    Assessing the speed and predictability of local adaptation in invasive California poppies of the California poppy, Eschscholzia californica Cham., in Chile is well suited for testing both the speed with the California poppy, Eschscholzia californica, collected from a wide range of environments in both its native

  8. Assessing the Impact of Adaptive Generation in the COMIC Multimodal Dialogue System

    E-print Network

    Foster, Mary Ellen

    Assessing the Impact of Adaptive Generation in the COMIC Multimodal Dialogue System Mary Ellen into the output-planning process of the COMIC multimodal dialogue system, and present the results of experi- ments the output- planning process of the COMIC multimodal dialogue system, and present the results of experiments

  9. CCSF Lunch Summary 20 August, 2008 Assessing climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies for agriculture and

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    CCSF Lunch Summary ­ 20 August, 2008 Assessing climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies for agriculture and water resources in New York Attending: Host - Art DdGaetano, atd2@cornell.edu Host ­ Rebecca Schneider, rls11@cornell.edu Host­ David W. Wolfe, dww5@cornell.edu Host ­ Susan Riha

  10. Test Adaptation and Cross-Cultural Assessment From a Business Perspective: Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steven B.

    2005-01-01

    Test adaptation and cross-cultural assessment activities are skyrocketing as the demand for educational opportunities and personnel selection grow both within the United States and across the industrializing world. We chose a qualitative, case study approach to identify central themes encountered by ACT, a not-for-profit organization that has…

  11. Theory and Practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change andFacilitating Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Kelly; W. N. Adger

    2000-01-01

    We discuss approaches to the assessment of vulnerability to climatevariability and change andattempt to clarify the relationship between the concepts of vulnerability andadaptation. In searchof a robust, policy-relevant framework, we define vulnerability in terms ofthe capacity ofindividuals and social groups to respond to, that is, to cope with, recoverfrom or adapt to, anyexternal stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being.

  12. In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    In Vivo Assessment of Cold Adaptation in Insect Larvae by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic) imaging and spectroscopy have proven useful for in vivo investigations of a wide range of biological. Results: In vivo MR images were acquired from autumn-collected larvae at temperatures between 0u

  13. Adapting the Sheehan Disability Scale to Assess Child and Parent Impairment Related to Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes a child adaptation of the Sheehan Disability Scale, a measure of impairment among anxious adults. Parallel child and parent report forms were created to assess the degree to which anxiety interferes with child and parent social, educational/occupational, and family functioning. Data from 267 anxious children (140 boys ages…

  14. A Comparison of Experimental Functional Analysis and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) in the Assessment of Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Olive; Brett, Denise; Leader, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    We compared two functional behavioral assessment methods: the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF; a standardized test) and experimental functional analysis (EFA) to identify behavioral functions of aggressive/destructive behavior, self-injurious behavior and stereotypy in 32 people diagnosed with autism. Both assessments found that self…

  15. A Methodology for Adaptable and Robust Ecosystem Services Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts. PMID:24625496

  16. A methodology for adaptable and robust ecosystem services assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Johnson, Gary W.; Portela, Rosimeiry; Honzák, Miroslav; Batker, David

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem Services (ES) are an established conceptual framework for attributing value to the benefits that nature provides to humans. As the promise of robust ES-driven management is put to the test, shortcomings in our ability to accurately measure, map, and value ES have surfaced. On the research side, mainstream methods for ES assessment still fall short of addressing the complex, multi-scale biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics inherent in ES provision, flow, and use. On the practitioner side, application of methods remains onerous due to data and model parameterization requirements. Further, it is increasingly clear that the dominant “one model fits all” paradigm is often ill-suited to address the diversity of real-world management situations that exist across the broad spectrum of coupled human-natural systems. This article introduces an integrated ES modeling methodology, named ARIES (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), which aims to introduce improvements on these fronts. To improve conceptual detail and representation of ES dynamics, it adopts a uniform conceptualization of ES that gives equal emphasis to their production, flow and use by society, while keeping model complexity low enough to enable rapid and inexpensive assessment in many contexts and for multiple services. To improve fit to diverse application contexts, the methodology is assisted by model integration technologies that allow assembly of customized models from a growing model base. By using computer learning and reasoning, model structure may be specialized for each application context without requiring costly expertise. In this article we discuss the founding principles of ARIES - both its innovative aspects for ES science and as an example of a new strategy to support more accurate decision making in diverse application contexts.

  17. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wende, Wolfgang, E-mail: W.Wende@ioer.de [Head of Research Area on Landscape Change and Management, Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany); Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [InteREAM, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Bobylev, Nikolai, E-mail: nikolaibobylev@gmail.com [School of Innovation Science, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 195251, Politechnicheskaya, 29, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg Research Centre for Ecological Safety of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 197110, Korpusnaya, 18, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Stratmann, Lars, E-mail: l.stratmann@ioer.de [Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Weberplatz 1, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Countries are implementing CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 Degree-Sign C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO{sub 2} reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  18. GIM-TEC adaptive ionospheric weather assessment and forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Stanislawska, I.

    2013-09-01

    The Ionospheric Weather Assessment and Forecast (IWAF) system is a computer software package designed to assess and predict the world-wide representation of 3-D electron density profiles from the Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC). The unique system products include daily-hourly numerical global maps of the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the peak height (hmF2) generated with the International Reference Ionosphere extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, upgraded by importing the daily-hourly GIM-TEC as a new model driving parameter. Since GIM-TEC maps are provided with 1- or 2-days latency, the global maps forecast for 1 day and 2 days ahead are derived using an harmonic analysis applied to the temporal changes of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 at 5112 grid points of a map encapsulated in IONEX format (-87.5°:2.5°:87.5°N in latitude, -180°:5°:180°E in longitude). The system provides online the ionospheric disturbance warnings in the global W-index map establishing categories of the ionospheric weather from the quiet state (W=±1) to intense storm (W=±4) according to the thresholds set for instant TEC perturbations regarding quiet reference median for the preceding 7 days. The accuracy of IWAF system predictions of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 maps is superior to the standard persistence model with prediction equal to the most recent ‘true’ map. The paper presents outcomes of the new service expressed by the global ionospheric foF2, hmF2 and W-index maps demonstrating the process of origin and propagation of positive and negative ionosphere disturbances in space and time and their forecast under different scenarios.

  19. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of executive function. PMID:22587709

  20. Assessing, Analyzing, and Adapting: Improving a Graduate Student Instruction Program through Needs Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roszkowski, Beth; Reynolds, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights an assessment of library instruction needs among graduate students in the social sciences. The article addresses the development and implementation of the assessment and the application of assessment results to an established set of library instruction workshops. The article provides a detailed summary of assessment

  1. International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments: Conference summary and statement

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Assessments was held in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, from May 22--25, 1995. Sponsored by the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, the US Country Studies Program, and the directorate General for International Cooperation of the Netherlands Government, it was the first international conference focusing exclusively on adaptation to climate change. More than 100 people from 29 countries on five continents participated. The conference primarily addressed measures to anticipate the potential effects of climate change to minimize negative effects and take advantage of any positive effects. The focus was on what governments, institutions, and individuals can do to prepare for climate change. The conference dealt with two major topics: What adaptation options are most effective and efficient in anticipating climate change and what methods should be used to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of adaptation options. Brief summaries are given from the following sessions on agriculture; Water resources; coastal resources; ecosystems and forests; fisheries; human settlements; water and agriculture; and the panel session on international adaptation in national communications and other development plans and needs for technical assistance.

  2. Speech and Language Disorders in Kenyan Children: Adapting Tools For Regions With Few Assessment Resources

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Julie Anne; Murira, Grace; Gona, Joseph; Tumaini, Judy; Lees, Janet; Neville, Brian George; Newton, Charles Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to adapt a battery of Western speech and language assessment tools to a rural Kenyan setting. The tool was developed for children whose first language was KiGiryama, a Bantu language. A total of 539 Kenyan children (males=271, females=268, ethnicity=100% Kigiryama. Data were collected from 303 children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and 206 age-matched children recruited from the village communities. The language assessments were based upon the Content, Form and Use (C/F/U) model. The assessment was based upon the adapted versions of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Test for the Reception of Grammar, Renfrew Action Picture Test, Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills in Children, Test of Word Finding and language specific tests of lexical semantics, higher level language. Preliminary measures of construct validity suggested that the theoretical assumptions behind the construction of the assessments were appropriate and re-test and inter-rater reliability scores were acceptable. These findings illustrate the potential to adapt Western speech and language assessments in other languages and settings, particularly those in which there is a paucity of standardised tools. PMID:24294109

  3. Performance Monitoring and Assessment of Neuro-Adaptive Controllers for Aerospace Applications Using a Bayesian Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Pramod; Guenther, Kurt; Hodgkinson, John; Jacklin, Stephen; Richard, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Soares, Fola

    2005-01-01

    Modern exploration missions require modern control systems-control systems that can handle catastrophic changes in the system's behavior, compensate for slow deterioration in sustained operations, and support fast system ID. Adaptive controllers, based upon Neural Networks have these capabilities, but they can only be used safely if proper verification & validation (V&V) can be done. In this paper we present our V & V approach and simulation result within NASA's Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS).

  4. Adaptation and Implementation of Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with American Indian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Milford, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents experience higher rates of suicide and psychological distress than the overall U.S. adolescent population, and research suggests that these disparities are related to higher rates of violence and trauma exposure. Despite elevated risk, there is limited empirical information to guide culturally appropriate treatment of trauma and related symptoms. We report a pilot study of an adaptation to the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools in a sample of 24 AI adolescents. Participants experienced significant decreases in anxiety and PTSD symptoms, and avoidant coping strategies, as well as a marginally significant decrease in depression symptoms. Improvements in anxiety and depression were maintained 6 months post-intervention; improvements in PTSD and avoidant coping strategies were not. Feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability of CBITS are discussed in the context of efforts to develop culturally sensitive interventions for AI youth. PMID:21058132

  5. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

  6. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of co-adaptive behaviors between interacting neurobiological social system agents in the context of sport performance. Such observations have broader implications for training design involving manipulations of numerical relations between interacting members of social collectives. PMID:25191870

  7. Cognitive Adaptations for n-person Exchange: The Evolutionary Roots of Organizational Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda; Price, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are composed of stable, predominantly cooperative interactions or n-person exchanges. Humans have been engaging in n-person exchanges for a great enough period of evolutionary time that we appear to have evolved a distinct constellation of species-typical mechanisms specialized to solve the adaptive problems posed by this form of social interaction. These mechanisms appear to have been evolutionarily elaborated out of the cognitive infrastructure that initially evolved for dyadic exchange. Key adaptive problems that these mechanisms are designed to solve include coordination among individuals, and defense against exploitation by free riders. Multi-individual cooperation could not have been maintained over evolutionary time if free riders reliably benefited more than contributors to collective enterprises, and so outcompeted them. As a result, humans evolved mechanisms that implement an aversion to exploitation by free riding, and a strategy of conditional cooperation, supplemented by punitive sentiment towards free riders. Because of the design of these mechanisms, how free riding is treated is a central determinant of the survival and health of cooperative organizations. The mapping of the evolved psychology of n-party exchange cooperation may contribute to the construction of a principled theoretical foundation for the understanding of human behavior in organizations. PMID:23814325

  8. Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention with Emotional/Behaviorally Disordered Students: In Pursuit of State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waguespack, Angela; Vaccaro, Terrence; Continere, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    The application of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) procedures for the purposes of developing interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) has received considerable attention since the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this paper is to review the…

  9. Using Electronic and Other New Ways To Help Students Improve Their Behavior: Functional Behavioral Assessment at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Kim A.; Tobin, Tary J.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents two case examples to demonstrate how teachers can use functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to design behavior support plans. FBA helps a second grade "class clown" to learn new ways to get attention and a first grade "class lawyer" to learn to stop arguing and stay on task (with the help of an electronic record keeping…

  10. A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.

    2008-01-01

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite primary unresolved questions regarding adaptive response behavior and bystander behavior. The five features of major significance provided by the Microdose Model so far are 1.) Single Specific Energy Hits initiate Adaptive Response, 2.) Mammogram and diagnostic X-rays induce a protective Bystander Effect as well as Adaptive Response radio-protection. 3.) For mammogram X-rays the Adaptive Response protection is retained at high primer dose levels. 4.) The dose range of the AR protection depends on the value of the Specific Energy per Hit, . 5.) Alpha particle induced deleterious Bystander damage is modulated by low LET radiation. PMID:18648579

  11. Static aeroelasticity and free vibration behavior of adaptive aircraft wing structures modelled as composite thin-walled beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liviu Librescu; Craig A. Rogers; Ohseop Song

    1992-01-01

    Two problems associated with the behavior of aircraft wing structures incorporating piezoelectric effects are investigated. These problems concern the free vibration and the static aeroelastic behavior of airplane wings modelled as thin-walled beams. The pertinent equations of adaptive thin-walled beams are established via a Hamilton variational principle extended to the case of a linear 3D piezoelectric medium. The results obtained

  12. Experimental assessment of the internal flow behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    Yang, David, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental assessment of the internal flow behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide. The investigation focused mainly on assessing condensation onset during rapid expansion of CO? into the two-phase ...

  13. The Validity and Reliability of the Self-Assessment and Program Review: Assessing School Progress in Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bridget; Cheney, Doug; Stage, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The "Self-Assessment and Program Review" (SAPR) was developed to provide an assessment tool that schools could use to track their progress in implementing key practices related to all three levels of schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS). The SAPR is a team-based assessment tool, using both individual and team ratings of 10 evidence-based…

  14. Decision-based climate analysis for vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The possible effects of climate change pose serious challenges for natural resources management. In response, natural resource managers and decision makers seek ways for assessing climate-related vulnerabilities and when necessary planning for adaptation to a changing climate. Managers and decision-makers face an overwhelming array of climate information sources and approaches to generating climate projections. However, there is no clear method for using those projections to inform vulnerability assessments or adaptation planning. In this presentation, we describe and demonstrate an original framework for incorporating climate information into climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning. Insights from scenario planning and decision analysis are leveraged to develop a process designed specifically for assessing and managing risk under climate change uncertainty. The process uses a decision analytic decision framework to characterize climate vulnerabilities, provide perspective relative to other uncertainties, and to inform the risks with what is credible in climate projections. Robustness and vulnerability to surprise are explicitly considered within the framework. The approach, which is continuing development as part of the Department of the Interior Northeast Climate Science Center, is demonstrated in applications to the Great Lakes and other recent studies.

  15. Happiness Inducing Behaviors in Everyday Life: An Empirical Assessment of “The How of Happiness”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca M. WarnerKerryellen; Kerryellen G. Vroman

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of Happiness Inducing Behaviors (HIB) was assessed in a survey of 903 university students; measures of Big Five\\u000a personality traits and happiness were also obtained. Students reported engaging in many HIBs about 1–3 times per week. Analysis\\u000a of HIB yielded three factors: Positive\\/Proactive Behaviors; Spiritual Behaviors; and Physical Health Behaviors. Positive\\/Proactive\\u000a behaviors predicted significant additional variance in happiness

  16. Evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors promotes eye regression in blind cavefish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background How and why animals lose eyesight during adaptation to the dark and food-limited cave environment has puzzled biologists since the time of Darwin. More recently, several different adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain eye degeneration based on studies in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, which consists of blind cave-dwelling (cavefish) and sighted surface-dwelling (surface fish) forms. One of these hypotheses is that eye regression is the result of indirect selection for constructive characters that are negatively linked to eye development through the pleiotropic effects of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. However, subsequent genetic analyses suggested that other mechanisms also contribute to eye regression in Astyanax cavefish. Here, we introduce a new approach to this problem by investigating the phenotypic and genetic relationships between a suite of non-visual constructive traits and eye regression. Results Using quantitative genetic analysis of crosses between surface fish, the Pachón cavefish population and their hybrid progeny, we show that the adaptive vibration attraction behavior (VAB) and its sensory receptors, superficial neuromasts (SN) specifically found within the cavefish eye orbit (EO), are genetically correlated with reduced eye size. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these three traits form two clusters of congruent or overlapping QTL on Astyanax linkage groups (LG) 2 and 17, but not at the shh locus on LG 13. Ablation of EO SN in cavefish demonstrated a major role for these sensory receptors in VAB expression. Furthermore, experimental induction of eye regression in surface fish via shh overexpression showed that the absence of eyes was insufficient to promote the appearance of VAB or EO SN. Conclusions We conclude that natural selection for the enhancement of VAB and EO SN indirectly promotes eye regression in the Pachón cavefish population through an antagonistic relationship involving genetic linkage or pleiotropy among the genetic factors underlying these traits. This study demonstrates a trade-off between the evolution of a non-visual sensory system and eye regression during the adaptive evolution of Astyanax to the cave environment. PMID:23270452

  17. Multi-optimization Criteria-based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Francois G.

    2002-06-01

    Robotic tasks are typically defined in Task Space (e.g., the 3-D World), whereas robots are controlled in Joint Space (motors). The transformation from Task Space to Joint Space must consider the task objectives (e.g., high precision, strength optimization, torque optimization), the task constraints (e.g., obstacles, joint limits, non-holonomic constraints, contact or tool task constraints), and the robot kinematics configuration (e.g., tools, type of joints, mobile platform, manipulator, modular additions, locked joints). Commercially available robots are optimized for a specific set of tasks, objectives and constraints and, therefore, their control codes are extremely specific to a particular set of conditions. Thus, there exist a multiplicity of codes, each handling a particular set of conditions, but none suitable for use on robots with widely varying tasks, objectives, constraints, or environments. On the other hand, most DOE missions and tasks are typically ''batches of one''. Attempting to use commercial codes for such work requires significant personnel and schedule costs for re-programming or adding code to the robots whenever a change in task objective, robot configuration, number and type of constraint, etc. occurs. The objective of our project is to develop a ''generic code'' to implement this Task-space to Joint-Space transformation that would allow robot behavior adaptation, in real time (at loop rate), to changes in task objectives, number and type of constraints, modes of controls, kinematics configuration (e.g., new tools, added module). Our specific goal is to develop a single code for the general solution of under-specified systems of algebraic equations that is suitable for solving the inverse kinematics of robots, is useable for all types of robots (mobile robots, manipulators, mobile manipulators, etc.) with no limitation on the number of joints and the number of controlled Task-Space variables, can adapt to real time changes in number and type of constraints and in task objectives, and can adapt to changes in kinematics configurations (change of module, change of tool, joint failure adaptation, etc.).

  18. Some psychophysiological and behavioral aspects of adaptation to simulated autonomous Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushin, V.; Shved, D.; Vinokhodova, A.; Vasylieva, G.; Nitchiporuk, I.; Ehmann, B.; Balazs, L.

    2012-01-01

    “Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.

  19. Spontaneous Neuronal Network Dynamics Reveal Circuit’s Functional Adaptations for Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Sebastián A.; Pietri, Thomas; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Jouary, Adrien; Haudrechy, Mathieu; Sumbre, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous neuronal activity is spatiotemporally structured, influencing brain computations. Nevertheless, the neuronal interactions underlying these spontaneous activity patterns, and their biological relevance, remain elusive. Here, we addressed these questions using two-photon calcium imaging of intact zebrafish larvae to monitor the neuron-to-neuron spontaneous activity fine structure in the tectum, a region involved in visual spatial detection. Spontaneous activity was organized in topographically compact assemblies, grouping functionally similar neurons rather than merely neighboring ones, reflecting the tectal retinotopic map despite being independent of retinal drive. Assemblies represent all-or-none-like sub-networks shaped by competitive dynamics, mechanisms advantageous for visual detection in noisy natural environments. Notably, assemblies were tuned to the same angular sizes and spatial positions as prey-detection performance in behavioral assays, and their spontaneous activation predicted directional tail movements. Therefore, structured spontaneous activity represents “preferred” network states, tuned to behaviorally relevant features, emerging from the circuit’s intrinsic non-linear dynamics, adapted for its functional role. PMID:25704948

  20. A randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive behavior therapy, cognitive adaptation training, their combination and treatment as usual in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn I; Tai, Sara; Roberts, David L; Maples-Aguilar, Natalie; Brown, Matt; Mintz, Jim; Turkington, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Following baseline assessment, 166 patients in medication maintenance at a community mental health center who were experiencing both persistent positive symptoms of schizophrenia and impairments in functioning were randomized to 1 of 4 treatments for 9 months: (1) Cognitive Behavior Therapy for psychosis (CBTp)-a therapy designed to identify and alter reasoning and appraisal biases that contribute to the formation and maintenance of positive symptoms, (2) Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT)-a treatment using environmental supports including signs, alarms, checklists and the organization of belongings established at weekly home visits to compensate for impairments in cognitive functioning and improve everyday functional outcomes, (3) Multi-modal Cognitive treatment-a combination of CBTp and CAT, and (4) Treatment as Usual. Data on symptoms and functional outcomes were obtained every 3 months. A mixed effects regression model with repeated measures using a 2 (CAT/no CAT) × 2 (CBT/no CBT) design indicated that functioning as measured by the Multnomah Community Ability Scale improved more in groups receiving CAT than other treatment groups. Auditory hallucinations and associated distress improved slightly more in groups receiving CAT. In this study, CBTp did not improve outcomes. Combining CAT with CBTp did not improve outcomes more than CAT alone. PMID:25193976

  1. Prospective Assessment of Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: An Internet Survey of Pharmaceutical Sponsor Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R.; Alphs, Larry D.; Bangs, Mark E.; Butler, Adam; DuBrava, Sarah J.; Greist, John H.; Lenderking, William R.; Mundt, James C.; Stewart, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey the current approaches of clinical trial sponsors in prospective suicidal ideation and behavior assessments and challenges encountered. Design: An internet-based survey. Setting: Inclusion of prospective assessments of suicidal ideation and behavior in industry-sponsored clinical studies were required following the release of the September 2010 United States Federal Drug Administration draft guidance. The International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and Methodology Suicidal Ideation and Behavior Assessment Workgroup conducted an online survey to understand industry practices and experiences in implementing suicidal ideation and behavior assessments in clinical trials. Participants: The survey was sent to 1,447 industry employees at 178 pharmaceutical companies. A total of 89 evaluable responses, representing 39 companies, were obtained. Measurements: A 30-item internet survey was developed asking about potential challenges and issues in implementing prospective suicidal ideation and behavior assessments. Results: Common factors in deciding whether to include suicidal ideation and behavior assessments in a clinical trial were psychiatric or neurologic drug product (95%); central nervous system activity (78%); disease (74%) and patient population (71%); and regulatory announcements and policies (74%). The most common challenges in implementing suicidal ideation and behavior assessments included cross-cultural differences in acceptance of SIB assessments (40%); obtaining adequate baseline history (36.8%); obtaining translations (35%); investigator/rater discomfort with asking about suicidal ideation and behavior (32%); and inadequate training of raters to administer suicidal ideation and behavior ratings (30%). Conclusion: Among sponsors surveyed, the implementation rate of suicidal ideation and behavior assessment in central nervous systems studies is very high. Most have used the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Challenges regarding standardization of retrospective assessment timeframes and differing approaches to summarizing and analyzing suicidal ideation and behavior-related study data were frequently reported. These results suggest that inconsistent reports of suicidal ideation and behavior within study datasets may occur and that integration of data across studies remains a concern. PMID:25520885

  2. Functional analysis of aberrant behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement: assessments of specific sensory reinforcers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meeta R. Patel; James E. Carr; Christine Kim; Adel Robles; Dixie Eastridge

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a systematic functional assessment package for aberrant behaviors maintained by nonsocial (automatic) reinforcement. The assessment package included four components: (1) functional analysis, (2) antecedent assessment of specific automatic reinforcement sources, (3) stimulus preference assessment, and (4) treatment evaluation. Functional analysis data indicated automatic reinforcement functions of the stereotypy exhibited by a 10-year-old

  3. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680

  4. Physiological, affective, and behavioral responses to interpersonal conflict among males from families with different levels of cohesion and adaptability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin T. Larkin; Nicole L. Frazer; Elizabeth M. Semenchuk

    1996-01-01

    To examine the relation between characteristics of a person's family of origin and cardiovascular, behavioral, cognitive, and affective response to interpersonal conflict, responses of 15 young males from families rated as extreme (EXT) on scales of cohesion (enmeshed or disengaged) or adaptability (chaotic or rigid) were compared to those of 25 young males from families rated as balanced (BAL) on

  5. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  6. An adaptive visual attentive tracker for human communicational behaviors using HMM-based TD learning with new State distinction capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minh Anh Thi Ho; Yoji Yamada; Yoji Umetani

    2005-01-01

    To develop a nonverbal communication channel between an operator and a system, we built a tracking system called the Adaptive Visual Attentive Tracker (AVAT) to track and zoom in to the operator's behavioral sequence which represents his\\/her intention. In our system, hidden Markov models (HMMs) first roughly model the gesture pattern. Then, the state transition probabilities in HMMs are used

  7. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  8. An Adaptive Approach to Family Intervention: Linking Engagement in Family-Centered Intervention to Reductions in Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arin M. Connell; Thomas J. Dishion; Miwa Yasui; Kathryn Kavanagh

    2007-01-01

    This study used Complier Average Causal Effect analysis (CACE; see G. Imbens & D. Rubin, 1997) to examine the impact of an adaptive approach to family intervention in the public schools on rates of substance use and antisocial behavior among students ages 11–17. Students were randomly assigned to a family-centered intervention (N = 998) in 6th grade and offered a

  9. Two Boys with Multiple Disabilities Increasing Adaptive Responding and Curbing Dystonic/Spastic Behavior via a Microswitch-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    A recent study has shown that microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of microswitches) and contingent stimulation could be used to increase adaptive responding and reduce dystonic/spastic behavior in two children with multiple disabilities [Lancioni, G. E., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Scalini, L., & Groeneweg, J. (2003). Microswitch clusters to…

  10. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation

  11. A Demonstration of the Effect of an Adaptation of Microteaching on the Instructional Behavior of Rural School Teachers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codwell, John E.

    A project designed to demonstrate the effect of an adaptation of the microteaching technique on the instructional behavior of rural school teachers was conducted in three rural school systems in Tennessee, Georgia, and Florida. Fifty-one teachers and 1,114 pupils participated. Teachers were pre-rated by a 5-member rating team utilizing the…

  12. Assessing implementation fidelity and adaptation in a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-12-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed fidelity and adaptation of activity settings, targets and strategies implemented in the second year of four communities. Implementation integrity reflected fidelity and adaptation to local context, whereas efforts resulting in significant deviations from the original plan were deemed to lack fidelity and integrity. Staff implemented 284 strategies in 205 projects. Results show that 68.3 and 2.1% of strategies were implemented with fidelity or adapted, respectively. Overall, 70.4% of all strategies were implemented with integrity. Staff experienced barriers with 29.6% of strategies. Chi-square analyses show statistically significant associations between implementation integrity and strategy type, intervention and behavioural targets. These relationships are weak to modest. The strongest relationship was found between implementation integrity and proximal target. Staff experienced implementation barriers at the coalition, policy, organization, interpersonal and community levels. The greatest range of barriers was encountered working with organizations. To overcome these barriers, staff took greater ownership, invested more time, persisted and allocated more financial resources. PMID:25214513

  13. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options?

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.; Schwilch, G.; Stringer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change.

  14. The effect of western adaptation of Hispanic-Americans on their assessment of Korean facial profiles

    PubMed Central

    Toureno, Leo; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Bayome, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine Korean facial profile preferences based on lip position as assessed by Hispanic-Americans of varying western adaptation levels and to determine whether the age and sex of the rater had any influence. Methods For this study, 132 Hispanic-Americans and 68 Caucasians of varying age, sex and western adaptation levels volunteered to rate their preference of Korean male and female facial silhouettes having lips ranging from retruding to protruding. The Hispanic-Americans were also asked to complete a Bidimensional Acculturation Scale questionnaire to determine their western adaptation status: low-acculturated Hispanics (LAH; lesser western-adapted Hispanic participants) or high-acculturated Hispanics (HAH; higher western-adapted Hispanic participants). Results The LAHs preferred significantly more retruded lip positions (p < 0.05) while HAHs showed some similarities with Caucasian participants in the results for the Korean male profile, even though HAHs preferred more retruded lip positions for the Korean female profile than Caucasians did (p < 0.05). The age and sex of raters did not influence the preference of facial profiles (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that Hispanic-Americans prefer a flatter Korean lip profile. It would be prudent for orthodontists to offer patients the option of altering lip profile through orthodontic and/or orthognathic surgery treatments. PMID:24511513

  15. Linguistic adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the Memorial Pain Assessment Card (MPAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yolanda Escobar; Manuel Domine; Jorge Contreras; Francisco Valcárcel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  The Memorial Pain Assessment Card (MPAC), validated in 1987, is a card utilised for the self-assessment of cancer pain. The\\u000a MPAC provides a quick, reliable measure of quality of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This study is a linguistic adaptation of the original version of the MPAC into the Spanish language and its validation. This\\u000a was a multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study. Linguistic

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ADOPTION BEHAVIOR OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE KOGA WATERSHED, HIGHLANDS OF

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    ASSESSMENT OF ADOPTION BEHAVIOR OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN THE KOGA WATERSHED Ethiopia. Even though a number of soil and water conservation methods were introduced to combat land' views on land degradation and to assess their adoption behavior of soil and water conservation knowledge

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) for Behavior Problems: An Independent Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, Elias; Underwood, Lisa; Sturmey, Peter; Bouras, Nick; McCarthy, Jane

    2011-01-01

    The present study employed the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) to assess problem behaviors in a large sample of adults with ID (N = 568) and evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Although the DAS problem behaviors were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.87), item analysis revealed one weak item…

  18. Assessment of Behavioral Chaos With a Focus on Transitions in Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine M. Heiby

    1995-01-01

    This article is the second of three in a special section on chaos theory and psychological assessment. The purpose of this article is to address implications for the measurement of some unstable, transitional human behaviors. One early hallmark of behavioral assessment is the idiographic measurement of temporal, causal, and target factors (e.g., M. R. Goldfried & R. N. Kent, 1972).

  19. Cognitive and behavioral assessment in experimental stroke research: will it prove useful?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Courtney DeVries; Randy J. Nelsonsupas; Richard J. Traystman; Patricia D. Hurn

    2001-01-01

    Stroke in humans is associated with deficits in sensorimotor and cognitive function. Consequently, many stroke researchers recently have expanded their techniques to assess cognitive and behavioral correlates of histologically-determined stroke damage in animal models. Although the incorporation of functional outcome assessment represents an important step forward in stroke research, reports of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced behavioral deficits often

  20. Best practices for assessing competence and performance of the behavioral Health workforce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip G. Bashook

    2005-01-01

    The need for mechanisms to assess the competence and performance of the behavioral health workforce has received increasing attention. This article reviews strategies used in general medicine and other disciplines for assessing trainees and practitioners. The possibilities and limitations of various approaches are reviewed, and the implications for behavioral health are addressed. A conceptual model of competence is presented, and

  1. Early Childhood Practitioner Involvement in Functional Behavioral Assessment and Function-Based Interventions: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brenna K.; Drogan, Robin R.; Janney, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers analyzed studies published from 1990 to 2012 to determine early childhood practitioner involvement in functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and function-based behavioral intervention plans (BIP) for children with challenging behavior, age 6 and younger. Coding of 30 studies included practitioner involvement in FBA and BIP processes,…

  2. Drinking and driving: a prospective assessment of the relation between risk cognitions and risk behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDERICK X. GIBBONS; MEG GERRARD; ELIZABETH A. POMERY; CARRIE L. LAUTRUP

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relations between risk cognitions and risk behavior. Adolescents' perceptions of the risks associated with driving after drinking (DAD) and their perceptions of the prevalence of this behavior among their peers were assessed, and these perceptions were used to predict their DAD behavior. Results provided evidence of a type of cognitive social influence: the more common adolescents

  3. A Classroom Assessment of Agriculture Teachers' Cognitive Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Ulmer; Robert M. Torres

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe teachers' levels of cognitive behaviors and to investigate characteristics that influence teaching at higher cognitive levels. Agriculture teachers in a Midwestern State were observed using the Florida Taxonomy of Cognitive Behaviors. Teachers' attitude toward teaching at higher levels of cognition was collected using a summated rating questionnaire. Teachers' cognitive behavior was found

  4. Assessment of Treatment Outcomes in Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Keith C.

    Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH) programs treat adolescents with emotional, behavioral, and substance abuse problems using wilderness therapy and related therapeutic and educational curricula. Elements of OBH are designed to reveal and address problem behaviors, foster personal and social responsibility, and enhance clients' emotional growth.…

  5. An Assessment of Self-Echoic Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esch, John W.; Esch, Barbara E.; McCart, Jordon D.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    In the behavioral literature, self-echoic behavior has been hypothesized to play an important role in, for example, emergent conditional discriminations (e.g., Lowenkron, 1991), emergent verbal operants (Horne & Lowe, 1996), and problem solving (Skinner, 1957). Although early behavioral intervention programs for children with autism emphasize the…

  6. An organizational assessment of disruptive clinician behavior: findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Walrath, Jo M; Dang, Deborah; Nyberg, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated registered nurses' (RNs) and physicians' (MD) experiences with disruptive behavior, triggers, responses, and impacts on clinicians, patients, and the organization. Using the Disruptive Clinician Behavior Survey for Hospital Settings, it was found that RNs experienced a significantly higher frequency of disruptive behaviors and triggers than MDs; MDs (45% of 295) and RNs (37% of 689) reported that their peer's disruptive behavior affected them most negatively. The most frequently occurring trigger was pressure from high census, volume, and patient flow; 189 incidences of harm to patients as a result of disruptive behavior were reported. Findings provide organizational leaders with evidence to customize interventions to strengthen the culture of safety. PMID:23072933

  7. Adaptivity Assessment of Regional Semi-Parametric VTEC Modeling to Different Data Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmaz, Murat; Onur Karsl?o?lu, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    Semi-parametric modelling of Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) combines parametric and non-parametric models into a single regression model for estimating the parameters and functions from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations. The parametric part is related to the Differential Code Biases (DCBs), which are fixed unknown parameters of the geometry-free linear combination (or the so called ionospheric observable). On the other hand, the non-parametric component is referred to the spatio-temporal distribution of VTEC which is estimated by applying the method of Multivariate Adaptive Regression B-Splines (BMARS). BMARS algorithm builds an adaptive model by using tensor product of univariate B-splines that are derived from the data. The algorithm searches for best fitting B-spline basis functions in a scale by scale strategy, where it starts adding large scale B-splines to the model and adaptively decreases the scale for including smaller scale features through a modified Gram-Schmidt ortho-normalization process. Then, the algorithm is extended to include the receiver DCBs where the estimates of the receiver DCBs and the spatio-temporal VTEC distribution can be obtained together in an adaptive semi-parametric model. In this work, the adaptivity of regional semi-parametric modelling of VTEC based on BMARS is assessed in different ground-station and data distribution scenarios. To evaluate the level of adaptivity the resulting DCBs and VTEC maps from different scenarios are compared not only with each other but also with CODE distributed GIMs and DCB estimates .

  8. Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

    2009-04-01

    Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

  9. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    PubMed

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. PMID:22556034

  10. Adapting Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Methods to Assess Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressor Combinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation based on the following abstract: Chemical mixtures risk assessment methods are routinely used. To address combined chemical and nonchemical stressors, component-based approaches may be applicable, depending on the toxic action among diverse stressors. Such methods a...

  11. Assessing regional impacts and adaptation strategies for climate change: the Washington Climate Change Impacts Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward L. Miles; Marketa M. Elsner; Jeremy S. Littell; Lara Whitely Binder; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

    2010-01-01

    Climate change in the twenty-first century will strongly affect the processes that define natural and human systems. The Washington\\u000a Climate Change Impacts Assessment (WACCIA) was intended to identify the nature and effects of climate change on natural and\\u000a human resources in Washington State over the next century. The assessment focused on eight sectors that were identified as\\u000a being potentially most

  12. Preparing Cities for Climate Change: An International Comparative Assessment of Urban Adaptation Planning. Semi-Structured Interview Instrument

    E-print Network

    Carmin, JoAnn

    2014-09-13

    The research objective of this project is to conduct an international comparative assessment of urban adaptation planning. Cities throughout the world are experiencing chronic problems and extreme events that are being ...

  13. Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  14. Adaptive Optics with a Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator and Its Behavior in Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Tomohiro; Takeno, Kohei; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Furukawa, Hiromitsu

    2009-07-01

    An adaptive optics system with a brand-new device of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) and its behavior in in vivo imaging of the human retina are described. We confirmed by experiments that closed-loop correction of ocular aberrations of the subject's eye was successfully achieved at the rate of 16.7 Hz in our system to obtain a clear retinal image in real time. The result suggests that an LCOS SLM is one of the promising candidates for a wavefront corrector in a prospective commercial ophthalmic instrument with adaptive optics.

  15. Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

    Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

  16. Negative Effects of Chemical Mutagenesis on the Adaptive Behavior of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROLYN H. LEE; DOROTHY L. GILBERTSON; ISABEL S. NOVELLA; RAMON HUERTA; ESTEBAN DOMINGO; ANDJOHN J. HOLLAND

    1997-01-01

    Changes in adaptability of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) upon treatment with chemical mutagens have been investigated. Results showed no improvement in virus viability or adaptability at any given level of mutagenesis. In fact, increasing inhibition of virus production and adaptability was observed with increasing levels of mutagenesis. This was true for all tested VSV variants replicating either in changing or

  17. Assessment of the Relationship Between Flexibility and Adaptive Capacity in Flood Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFrancesco, K.; Tullos, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Discussions around adapting water management systems to future changes often state the need to increase system flexibility. Intuitively, a flexible, easily modifiable system seems desirable when faced with a wide range of uncertain, but plausible future conditions. Yet, despite the frequent use of the terms flexibility, very little work has examined what exactly it means to have a flexible water management system, what makes one system more flexible than another, or the extent to which flexibility increases adaptive capacity. This study applies a methodology for assessing the inherent flexibility of the structural and non-structural components of flood management systems using original flexibility metrics in the categories of: slack, intensity, connectivity, adjustability, and coordination. We use these metrics to assess the flexibility of three sub-systems within the Sacramento Valley flood management system in California, USA under current system conditions as well as with proposed management actions in place. We then assess the range of hydrologic conditions under which each sub-system can meet flood risk targets in order to determine whether more flexible systems are also more robust and able to perform over a wider range of hydrologic conditions. In doing so, we identify flexible characteristics of flood management systems that enhance the ability of the system to preform over a wide range of conditions making them better suited to adapt to an uncertain hydrologic future. We find that the flexibility characteristics that increase the range of conditions under which the system can meet performance goals varies depending on whether the region is considered urban, rural, or a small community. In some cases, a decrease in certain flexibility characteristics is associated with an increase in robustness, indicating that more flexibility is not always desirable. Future work will assess the transferability of these results to other regions and systems.

  18. Assessment of Acute Pain in Farm Animals Using Behavioral and Physiological Measurements1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Molony; J. E. Kent

    In this paper various aspects of animal pain and methods for its assessment are considered. The responses of lambs and calves to castration and of lambs to tail docking are used to illustrate quantitative approaches to the recognition and assessment of acute pain in farm animals. The validation of physiological and behavioral measure- ments for assessment of pain is examined

  19. The Behavior Assessment Battery: A Preliminary Study of Non-Stuttering Pakistani Grade-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Mukati, Samad A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the importance of a multimodal approach to the assessment of the person who stutters (PWS) has become increasingly recognized. The Behavior Assessment Battery (BAB), which is a normed test procedure developed by G. Brutten, makes it possible to assess the multidimensional facets of this disorder. The emotional and…

  20. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale as a biomarker of the effects of environmental agents on the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Tronick, E.Z.

    1987-10-01

    The organization of the newborn's brain and the nature of the effects of toxins and pollutants conspire to produce complex and difficult problems for the assessment of the behavioral effects of environmental agents. The newborn's brain can be characterized as relatively undifferentiated, and more vulnerable to, but potentially more capable of recovery from, the effects of environmental agents specific to this time period than it will be later in development. Environmental agents tend to have nonspecific, possibly subtle, effects that invade many areas of newborn functioning. These characteristics of the newborn and the behavioral effects of teratogens make assessment at this point in development difficult. Further exacerbating this difficulty is the nature of development. Development is critically dependent on the care the newborn receives. Distortions of a newborn's behavior can produce disturbances in the caretaking environment, and these caretaking disturbances can amplify the original behavioral distortion and produce other distortions. Attention to these types of effects must be built into an assessment. These considerations lead to the conclusion that an apical assessment of newborn behavior is required. The most standardized, valid, and reliable instrument currently available is the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale developed by Brazelton. It assesses the integrated actions of the infant that function to regulate simultaneously the infant's internal state and exchanges with the animate (caretaking) and inanimate environment. The scale uses a set of reflex and behavioral items to assess the critical domains of infant functioning (e.g., the infant's ability to control his states of consciousness). 52 references.

  1. Assessment of Behavioral and Affective Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian B. Patterson; Audrey H. Schnell; Richard J. Martin; Mario F. Mendez; Kathleen A. Smyth; Peter J. Whitehouse

    1990-01-01

    Noncognitive behavioral symptoms occurring during the prior week were studied in 34 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 21 spousal control subjects via caregiver and patient interviews using the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Delusional or paranoid features were reported in 13 subjects (38%) and hallucinations in six (18%); patients with

  2. The OTOLITH Experiment - Assessment of Otolith Function During Postflight Re-adaption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, A. H.; Wood, S. J.; Schoenfeld, U.

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing "Otolith" experiment is designed to comprehensively assess the otolith function during the re-adaptation phase after spaceflight. The novel protocol includes unilateral testing of each of the two otolith organs the utricle and the saccule. To assess utricle function, the otolith-ocular response (OOR) and the subjective visual vertical (SVV) are measured during unilateral centrifugation, which permits independent stimulation of the right and left ear. Measurement of the unilateral otolith-ocular response (uOOR) yields information on the response behaviour of the right and left peripheral utricles, whereas the SVV reflects the behaviour of the entire pathway from the peripheral otolith receptors to the vestibular cortex. Thus, by comparative evaluation of the results from the two tests, the degree of peripheral versus central adaptation during the post-flight period can be determined. To assess unilateral saccule function, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are recorded. Since the saccules are predominantly aligned to gravity, and interplay with the antigravity muscles, it is hypothesised that these potentials shall be altered after spaceflight. To date the study has been conducted with 5 of a planned 8 short-flight Shuttle astronauts. Preliminary results will be discussed together with those from clinical studies of dizziness patients, where the same test protocol is employed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (Grant DLR W130729) and is conducted under the auspices of ESA, in cooperation with NASA.

  3. Adaptive Behavior in Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified: Microanalysis of Scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhea Paul; Stephanie Miles; Domenic Cicchetti; Sara Sparrow; Ami Klin; Fred Volkmar; Megan Coflin; Shelley Booker

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings indicate that the major area of difference between children with autism and

  4. Systematic Cultural Adaptation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Reduce Alcohol Use Among HIV-Infected Outpatients in Western Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca K. Papas; John E. Sidle; Steve Martino; Joyce B. Baliddawa; Rogers Songole; Otieno E. Omolo; Benson N. Gakinya; Michael M. Mwaniki; Japheth O. Adina; Tobista Nafula; Willis D. Owino-Ong’or; Kendall J. Bryant; Kathleen M. Carroll; Joseph L. Goulet; Amy C. Justice; Stephen A. Maisto

    2010-01-01

    Two-thirds of those with HIV worldwide live in sub-Saharan Africa. Alcohol use is associated with the HIV epidemic through\\u000a risky sex and suboptimal ARV adherence. In western Kenya, hazardous drinking was reported by HIV (53%) and general medicine\\u000a (68%) outpatients. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated strong efficacy to reduce alcohol use. This article\\u000a reports on a systematic cultural adaptation

  5. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerri L. Modry-Mandell; Wendy C. Gamble; Angela R. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation\\u000a in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start\\u000a Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of predominantly Mexican descent (95%)\\u000a participated in home interviews during the Fall

  6. Computerized Assessment of Social Approach Behavior in Mouse

    E-print Network

    Page, Damon T.

    Altered sociability is a core feature of a variety of human neurological disorders, including autism. Social behaviors may be tested in animal models, such as mice, to study the biological basis of sociability and how this ...

  7. Implications of Current Research on the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Support Planning in School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Av-Gay, Hadas

    2007-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment and function-based support have increasingly been used in school settings in the past decade. This increased use has come under scrutiny from some experts who have argued in the past that function-based support has not yet been proven to be effective in typical school settings with students without severe…

  8. Assessment of Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Psychometric Properties of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale and School Situations Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Julie; Collett, Brent; Gimpel, Gretchen; Crowley, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder) are increasingly being diagnosed in preschool children. However, the assessment and differential diagnosis of these disorders presents several challenges to clinicians. For example, most rating scales used to help diagnose such problems…

  9. Treatment Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions for Children: An Assessment by Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melanie L.; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Adams, Christina D.; Boggs, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    Study assesses the acceptability of six child-management interventions as rated by mothers (N=20) of children referred for treatment for a disruptive-behavior disorder. Positive reinforcement was rated as a more acceptable treatment than response time, time-out, differential attention, overcorrection, and spanking. Results validate findings of…

  10. Adaptation of computerized posturography to assess seated balance in persons with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Noam Y.; Asselin, Pierre K.; Fineberg, Drew B.; Pisano, Thomas J.; Bauman, William A.; Spungen, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to retain or improve seated balance function after spinal cord injury (SCI) may mean the difference between independence and requiring assistance for basic activities of daily living. Compared with assessments of standing and walking balance, seated balance assessments remain relatively underemphasized and under-utilized. Objective To optimize tools for assessing seated balance deficits and recovery in SCI. Design Cross-sectional observational study of different methods for assessing seated balance function. Setting Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury. Participants Seven able-bodied volunteers, seven participants with chronic motor-complete thoracic SCI. Interventions A computerized pressure-plate apparatus designed for testing standing balance was adapted into a seated balance assessment system. Outcome measures Seated section of Berg Balance Scale; modified functional reach test; and two posturography tests: limits of stability and clinical test of sensory integration on balance. Results Seated posturography demonstrated improved correlation with neurological level of lesion compared to that of routinely applied subjective clinical tests. Conclusion Seated posturography represents an appealing outcome measure that may be applied toward the measurement of functional changes in response to various rehabilitation interventions in individuals with paralysis. PMID:23809527

  11. MPH program adaptability in a competitive marketplace: the case for continued assessment.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Tutko, Holly

    2010-06-01

    In the last several years, the number of Master of Public Health (MPH) programs has increased rapidly in the US. As such, MPH programs, particularly smaller-sized ones, need to critically examine how their programs are meeting the needs and preferences of local public health practitioners. To assist in this necessity, the University of New Hampshire conducted a comprehensive educational assessment of its effectiveness as a smaller-sized, accredited MPH program. The aim of the assessment was to review the MPH program from the perspective of all stakeholders and then to agree on changes that would contribute to the fulfillment of the program's mission, as well as improve program quality and reach. The program's stakeholders examined the following components: policy development and implementation; target audience; marketing strategies; marketplace position; delivery model; curriculum design; and continuing education. Though assessment activities explored a wide array of program attributes, target audience, curriculum design, and delivery strategy presented significant challenges and opportunities for our smaller MPH Program to remain competitive. The effort put forth into conducting an in-depth assessment of the core components of our program also allowed for a comparison to the increasing number of MPH programs developing regionally. Since public health practice is changing and the education of public health practitioners must be adaptable, we propose that a routine assessment of an institution's MPH program could not only meet this need but also assist with keeping smaller, unbranded MPH programs competitive in a burgeoning marketplace. PMID:20127157

  12. Web-based computer adaptive assessment of individual perceptions of job satisfaction for hospital workplace employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To develop a web-based computer adaptive testing (CAT) application for efficiently collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job satisfaction, we examined whether a 37-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ-37) could evaluate the job satisfaction of individual employees as a single construct. Methods The JCQ-37 makes data collection via CAT on the internet easy, viable and fast. A Rasch rating scale model was applied to analyze data from 300 randomly selected hospital employees who participated in job-satisfaction surveys in 2008 and 2009 via non-adaptive and computer-adaptive testing, respectively. Results Of the 37 items on the questionnaire, 24 items fit the model fairly well. Person-separation reliability for the 2008 surveys was 0.88. Measures from both years and item-8 job satisfaction for groups were successfully evaluated through item-by-item analyses by using t-test. Workers aged 26 - 35 felt that job satisfaction was significantly worse in 2009 than in 2008. Conclusions A Web-CAT developed in the present paper was shown to be more efficient than traditional computer-based or pen-and-paper assessments at collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job content. PMID:21496311

  13. Assessing effects of climate change and adaptation strategies on irrigated pastures using DAISY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagimoto, Y.; Cuenca, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    The DAISY ecological model was applied for the flood-irrigated cool-season pastures in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon to study 1) the current condition of the pastures in the semi-arid environment, 2) effects of projected climate change, and 3) effects of introducing white clover and a sprinkler system as a potential adaptation strategy. The calibrated model indicated that productivity of the cool-season pastures was limited primarily by nitrogen (N) availability and temperature. The results of our scenario analysis indicated that the projected climate change would increase seasonal forage production (YF) and crop water use (AET) due to longer and warmer growing season. This study also found that introduction of white clover would significantly increase YF without changing AET by improving N availability due to increased nutrients deposition by cattle and increased symbiotic N fixation by white clover. In consequence, the mixed pasture could significantly improve water use efficiency (YF/AET) and, therefore the adaptability of the pasture in an area with high value water. Installing sprinkler system to the mixed pasture would increase YF by increasing net N input by increasing N mineralization and reducing denitrification. Furthermore, upgraded irrigation systems could increase water availability of the area during growing season by releasing significant amount of subsurface water to nearby surface water pools. This study demonstrated that ecological models such as DAISY can be a useful tool to model pasture systems and assess effects of projected climate changes and adaptation strategies.

  14. The Developmental Behavior Checklist: The development and validation of an instrument to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart L. Einfeld; Bruce J. Tonge

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC), a standardized instrument completed by lay informants to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR). Items describing common behavioral and emotional problems in this population were generated by extracting descriptions from 664 case files of children and adolescents with behavior disorders seen at

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability testing of Polish adaptation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS)

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; ?oboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaarsma, Tiny; ?oboz-Grudzie?, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of simple instruments for determination of self-care levels in heart failure (HF) patients is a subject of ongoing research. One such instrument, gaining growing popularity worldwide, is the European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior Scale (EHFScBS). The aim of this study was to adapt and to test reliability of the Polish version of EHFScBS. Method A standard guideline was used for translation and cultural adaptation of the English version of EHFScBS into Polish. The study included 100 Polish HF patients aged between 24 and 91 years, among them 67 men and 33 women. Cronbach’s alpha was used for analysis of the internal consistency of EHFScBS. Results Mean total self-care score in the study group was 34.2±8.1 points. Good or satisfactory level of self-care were documented in four out of 12 analyzed EHFScBS domains. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire questionnaire was 0.64. The value of Cronbach’s alpha after deletion of specific items ranged from 0.55 to 0.65. Conclusion Polish HF patients present significant deficits of self-care, which are to a large extent associated with inefficacy of the public health care system. Apart from cultural characteristics, the socioeconomic context of the target population should be considered during language adaptation of EHFScBS, as well as during interpretation of data obtained with this instrument. A number of self-care–related behaviors may be optimized as a result of appropriate educational activities, also those offered by nursing personnel. PMID:25382973

  16. The Role of Decision Support in Adapting to Climate Change: Findings from Three Place-based Regional Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the methodologies and findings of three regional assessments and considers the role of decision support in assisting adaptation to climate change. Background. In conjunction with the US Global Change Research Program?s (USGCRP?s) National Assessment of ...

  17. Adapting Tests of Sign Language Assessment for Other Sign Languages--A Review of Linguistic, Cultural, and Psychometric Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from…

  18. Stability Metrics for Simulation and Flight-Software Assessment and Monitoring of Adaptive Control Assist Compensators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodel, A. S.; Whorton, Mark; Zhu, J. Jim

    2008-01-01

    Due to a need for improved reliability and performance in aerospace systems, there is increased interest in the use of adaptive control or other nonlinear, time-varying control designs in aerospace vehicles. While such techniques are built on Lyapunov stability theory, they lack an accompanying set of metrics for the assessment of stability margins such as the classical gain and phase margins used in linear time-invariant systems. Such metrics must both be physically meaningful and permit the user to draw conclusions in a straightforward fashion. We present in this paper a roadmap to the development of metrics appropriate to nonlinear, time-varying systems. We also present two case studies in which frozen-time gain and phase margins incorrectly predict stability or instability. We then present a multi-resolution analysis approach that permits on-line real-time stability assessment of nonlinear systems.

  19. Assessment of the effectiveness of participatory developed adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, especially Asian cities are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reducing measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet flood proofing of buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. the model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in Expected Annual Damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea level scenarios and land use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modeling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is 0.31 million USD yr-1, increasing up to 0.78 million USD yr-1 in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5% range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet proofing and dry proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information on different strategies will be used by the government of Ho Chi Minh City for selecting a new flood protection strategy. Future research should focus on gathering empirical data right after a flood on the occurring damage, as this appears to be the most uncertain factor in the risk assessment.

  20. A novel behavioral paradigm to assess multisensory processing in mice

    PubMed Central

    Siemann, Justin K.; Muller, Christopher L.; Bamberger, Gary; Allison, John D.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Wallace, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Human psychophysical and animal behavioral studies have illustrated the benefits that can be conferred from having information available from multiple senses. Given the central role of multisensory integration for perceptual and cognitive function, it is important to design behavioral paradigms for animal models to provide mechanistic insights into the neural bases of these multisensory processes. Prior studies have focused on large mammals, yet the mouse offers a host of advantages, most importantly the wealth of available genetic manipulations relevant to human disease. To begin to employ this model species for multisensory research it is necessary to first establish and validate a robust behavioral assay for the mouse. Two common mouse strains (C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEv) were first trained to respond to unisensory (visual and auditory) stimuli separately. Once trained, performance with paired audiovisual stimuli was then examined with a focus on response accuracy and behavioral gain. Stimulus durations varied from 50 ms to 1 s in order to modulate the effectiveness of the stimuli and to determine if the well-established “principle of inverse effectiveness” held in this model. Response accuracy in the multisensory condition was greater than for either unisensory condition for all stimulus durations, with significant gains observed at the 300 ms and 100 ms durations. Main effects of stimulus duration, stimulus modality and a significant interaction between these factors were observed. The greatest behavioral gain was seen for the 100 ms duration condition, with a trend observed that as the stimuli became less effective, larger behavioral gains were observed upon their pairing (i.e., inverse effectiveness). These results are the first to validate the mouse as a species that shows demonstrable behavioral facilitations under multisensory conditions and provides a platform for future mechanistically directed studies to examine the neural bases of multisensory integration. PMID:25628549

  1. Exploring the Utility of Preference Assessments in Organizational Behavior Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie M. Waldvogel; Mark R. Dixon

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared two variations of stimulus preference assessments: a survey in which direct service employees ranked their preferences for a variety of items, and a multiple stimulus preference assessment without replacement (MSWO), in which textual stimuli were used to represent the actual items. Results obtained for four participants revealed identical preference hierarchies across each type of stimulus preference

  2. Exploring the Utility of Preference Assessments in Organizational Behavior Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldvogel, Jamie M.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared two variations of stimulus preference assessments: a survey in which direct service employees ranked their preferences for a variety of items, and a multiple stimulus preference assessment without replacement (MSWO), in which textual stimuli were used to represent the actual items. Results obtained for four participants…

  3. Functional Assessment and Intervention for Disruptive Classroom Behaviors in Preschool and Head Start Classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad A. Dufrene; R. Anthony Doggett; Carlen Henington; T. Steuart Watson

    2007-01-01

    Functional assessment procedures have proven useful for developing effective individualized interventions for a wide variety\\u000a of populations and behavioral concerns. However, fewer studies have been conducted with preschool students who exhibit high\\u000a incidence problem behaviors. The current study includes data from comprehensive functional assessments and interventions implemented\\u000a in preschool and Head Start classrooms. Three preschool students and five teachers participated

  4. Employing Relative Entropy Techniques for Assessing Modifications in Animal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Minoru; White, Eric J.; Torisawa, Shinsuke; Komeyama, Kazuyoshi; Takagi, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    In order to make quantitative statements regarding behavior patterns in animals, it is important to establish whether new observations are statistically consistent with the animal's equilibrium behavior. For example, traumatic stress from the presence of a telemetry transmitter may modify the baseline behavior of an animal, which in turn can lead to a bias in results. From the perspective of information theory such a bias can be interpreted as the amount of information gained from a new measurement, relative to an existing equilibrium distribution. One important concept in information theory is the relative entropy, from which we develop a framework for quantifying time-dependent differences between new observations and equilibrium. We demonstrate the utility of the relative entropy by analyzing observed speed distributions of Pacific bluefin tuna, recorded within a 48-hour time span after capture and release. When the observed and equilibrium distributions are Gaussian, we show that the tuna's behavior is modified by traumatic stress, and that the resulting modification is dominated by the difference in central tendencies of the two distributions. Within a 95% confidence level, we find that the tuna's behavior is significantly altered for approximately 5 hours after release. Our analysis reveals a periodic fluctuation in speed corresponding to the moment just before sunrise on each day, a phenomenon related to the tuna's daily diving pattern that occurs in response to changes in ambient light. PMID:22164249

  5. Prelude to a School Shooting? Assessing Threatening Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbrot, Deborah M.

    2008-01-01

    The necessity of assessing threatening behaviors in childhood and adolescence through psychiatric diagnostic evaluation is presented. Threats are categorized according to the level of realism and clinicians need to explore and formulate the meaning of the student's threat behavior after reviewing the students' history.

  6. Impact of Problem Alcohol Use on Patient Behavior and Caregiver Burden in a Geriatric Assessment Clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pirzada Sattar; Prasad R. Padala; Delores McArthur-Miller; William H. Roccaforte; Steven P. Wengel; William J. Burke

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding issues surrounding alcohol use in late life. Information about the relationship of alcohol use to behavioral problems in older persons living in the community is particularly limited. This study used information obtained from an outpatient geriatric assessment clinic to study this relationship and the effects of these behaviors on caregivers. Data on

  7. BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

  8. Behavioral Assessment of Gambling: An Application of the Timeline Followback Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    The Gambling Timeline Followback (G-TLFB), a measure of gambling behavior that uses the timeline followback methodology, was psychometrically evaluated with samples of frequent-gambling young adults. Seven dimensions of gambling behavior were assessed: type, frequency, duration, intent, risk, win-loss, and consumption of alcohol while gambling.…

  9. Construct Validation of a Measure to Assess Sustainability of School-Wide Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…

  10. Improving Your Instruction through Self-Evaluation: Part Five. Assessing Student Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Hans van der; And Others

    1994-01-01

    One way for physical educators to keep track of students' class behavior is to use Momentary Time Sampling (MTS), which enables teachers to assess their teaching effectiveness. The article explains how and why to use MTS, what to observe, appropriate student motor engagement, and on-task and off-task behavior. (SM)

  11. An Evaluation of the Predictive Validity of Confidence Ratings in Identifying Functional Behavioral Assessment Hypothesis Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgmeier, Chris; Horner, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Faced with limited resources, schools require tools that increase the accuracy and efficiency of functional behavioral assessment. Yarbrough and Carr (2000) provided evidence that informant confidence ratings of the likelihood of problem behavior in specific situations offered a promising tool for predicting the accuracy of function-based…

  12. Assessment of Dietary Intake and Food-related Behaviors of Gatekeepers in Homeless Families in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joda Derrickson; Dlan A. Gans

    1996-01-01

    We assessed diet quality and documented food-related behaviors of gatekeepers in homeless families with children in Hawaii. The dietary intake of gatekeepers residing in shelters (n = 44) was compared to that of gatekeepers living at beach parks (n = 13).The gatekeeper completed a 24-hour diet recall and answered questions about demographics and food-related behaviors. Diets were low in fiber,

  13. Assessing and Analyzing Behavior Strategies of Instructors in College Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, William C., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Analyzed are university instructor behaviors in introductory and advanced level laboratories of botany, chemistry, geology, physics and zoology. Science Laboratory Interaction Categories--Teacher (SLIC) was used to assess 15 individual categories of teacher behaviors in the areas of questioning, giving directions, transmitting information,…

  14. Imagery Assessment by Means of Self-Report and Behavioral Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Brian G.; Thoresen, Carl E.

    Three procedures for use in assessing imagery behavior were examined with the intent of finding a prognastic tool that would help the behavior therapist evaluate the applicability and/or the progress of an imagery intervention such as covert sensitization or implosion therapy. The authors attempted to replicate and extend portions of earlier…

  15. Assessment of Prosocial-Altruistic Behavior of Members and Non-Members of the Scout Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Olivares, Rosario; Pino, M. Jose; Herruzo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the differences in prosocial altruistic behavior between children and young students who belong to the scout movement and those who do not belong to this or any other similar movement. The prosocial altruistic behavior has been assessed with questionnaires for the school: self-evaluation, teacher, classmate,…

  16. Assessing Reliability of Early Adolescent Girls' Reports of Romantic and Sexual Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly D. Hearn; Lucia F. O'Sullivan; Cheryl D. Dudley

    2003-01-01

    Increasing rates of HIV among urban adolescents have raised concerns about their participation in sexual risk behaviors. The accuracy of adolescents' sexual reports is critical to the assessment of risk, which may later guide the development of public policy, interventions, and education efforts. The data presented here are part of a larger study on a range of sexual behaviors and

  17. Assessing Treatment Acceptability with Consumers of Outpatient Child Behavior Management Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Parents' and grandparents' ratings of alternative treatments for children with behavior disorders were assessed. Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), time-out, response cost, spanking, and medication were applied to noncompliance, aggression, tantrums, and hyperactivity. DRO, response cost, and time-out were found significantly more…

  18. Life Space Crisis Intervention and Functional Behavioral Assessment: The Guiding Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Lawrence P.

    2002-01-01

    The Conflict Cycle employed in Life Space Crisis Intervention offers a model for conducting functional assessment with students facing disciplinary action for behavior that may be related to emotional disturbance and other disabilities. This article analyzes the Conflict Cycle, using principles from cognitive behavioral science. (Contains 13…

  19. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  20. Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Personality Disorder: Introducing the CAT-PD Project

    PubMed Central

    Simms, Leonard J.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Roberts, John E.; Watson, David; Welte, John; Rotterman, Jane H.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of personality disorders (PD) has been hindered by reliance on the problematic categorical model embodied in the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Model of Mental Disorders (DSM), lack of consensus among alternative dimensional models, and inefficient measurement methods. This article describes the rationale for and early results from an NIMH-funded, multi-year study designed to develop an integrative and comprehensive model and efficient measure of PD trait dimensions. To accomplish these goals, we are in the midst of a five-phase project to develop and validate the model and measure. The results of Phase 1 of the project—which was focused on developing the PD traits to be assessed and the initial item pool—resulted in a candidate list of 59 PD traits and an initial item pool of 2,589 items. Data collection and structural analyses in community and patient samples will inform the ultimate structure of the measure, and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) will permit efficient measurement of the resultant traits. The resultant Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder (CAT-PD) will be well positioned as a measure of the proposed DSM-5 PD traits. Implications for both applied and basic personality research are discussed. PMID:22804677

  1. The Role of Cognition and Adaptive Behavior in Employment of People with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Lin, Yueh-Hsien; Wu, Yuh-Yih; Chen, Ching-Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have specifically investigated the cognitive correlates of employment for persons with mental retardation. To evaluate the relationship of cognitive and adaptive functioning to work status, 56 competitively employed and 55 unemployed individuals with mental retardation underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological and adaptive

  2. Recent advances in the assessment of aberrant behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement in individuals with developmental disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. LeBlanc; Meeta R. Patel; James E. Carr

    2000-01-01

    Many aberrant behaviors exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities are maintained by “automatic reinforcement”. These behaviors are often difficult to treat, with the most effective behavioral interventions often resulting in only moderate success. However, a series of recent studies has advanced our ability to understand and treat these behaviors through the innovative use of behavioral assessment. We review the recent

  3. Assessment of Multiple Behavioral Procedures on Academic and Social Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Sandra C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes behavioral procedures used with adolescent students which involved manipulating type and delay of reinforcement, teaching desirable behaviors, and training in several skills. Implemented procedures through an independent group-oriented contingency system. These students performed significantly better on grades, school attendance, and…

  4. Nest sanitation behavior in hirundines as a pre-adaptation to egg rejection to counter brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that nest sanitation behavior may have been a pre-adaptation from which egg rejection of brood parasite eggs evolved. We tested this hypothesis in two swallow species, the red-rumped swallow (Cecropis daurica) and the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Our results indicated that the red-rumped swallow, which is an accepter of foreign eggs, rejected a low percentage of non-egg-shaped objects and did so less often than the barn swallow, which is an intermediate rejecter of foreign eggs. Furthermore, the egg rejection rates of the barn swallow increased with the increase in rejection rates of non-egg-shaped objects among different populations. These results showed that nest cleaning behavior could have evolved into a means of reducing the costs of brood parasitism, suggesting that egg recognition ability has evolved from recognition of non-egg-shaped objects. This finding advances our understanding of the evolution of egg recognition behavior in birds. PMID:25231538

  5. Formal Psychological Assessment in Evaluating Depression: A New Methodology to Build Exhaustive and Irredundant Adaptive Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Psychological Assessment can be defined as a complex procedure of information collection, analysis and processing. Formal Psychological Assessment (FPA) tries to improve this procedure by providing a formal framework to build assessment tools. In this paper, FPA is applied to depression. Seven questionnaires widely used for the self-evaluation of depression were selected. Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were derived from the DSM-5, literature and Seligman’s and Beck’s theories. A Boolean matrix was built, including 266 items from the questionnaires in the rows and 20 selected attributes, obtained through diagnostic criteria decomposition, in the columns. In the matrix, a 1 in a cell meant that the corresponding item investigated the specific attribute. It was thus possible to analyze the relationships between items and attributes and among items. While none of the considered questionnaires could alone cover all the criteria for the evaluation of depressive symptoms, we observed that a set of 30 items contained the same information that was obtained redundantly with 266 items. Another result highlighted by the matrix regards the relations among items. FPA allows in-depth analysis of currently used questionnaires based on the presence/absence of clinical elements. FPA allows for going beyond the mere score by differentiating the patients according to symptomatology. Furthermore, it allows for computerized-adaptive assessment. PMID:25875359

  6. Psychiatric and Psychological Morbidity as a Function of Adaptive Disability in Preschool Children with Aggressive and Hyperactive-Impulsive-Inattentive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri L. Shelton; Russell A. Barkley; Cheryl Crosswait; Maureen Moorehouse; Kenneth Fletcher; Susan Barrett; Lucy Jenkins; Lori Metevia

    1998-01-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive-hyperactive-impulsive-inattentive behavior (AHII; n = 154) were subdivided into those with (n = 38) and without (n = 116) adaptive disability (+AD\\/-AD) defined as a discrepancy between expected versus actual adaptive functioning. They were compared to each other and a control group of 47 normal children. Both AHII groups were more likely to have attention

  7. Job Observation and Behavior Scale: A Supported Employment Assessment Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Michael P.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the role of the Job Observation and Behavior Scale (JOBS) in promoting objective employee performance evaluations and summarizes the technical properties of the instrument. JOBS is designed to be sensitive to both the work performance and support needs of people who participate in supported employment. (Contains references.)…

  8. Assessing Guessing Behavior Using the Three-Parameter Logistic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal M.

    Birnbaum's three-parameter logistic item response model was used to study guessing behavior of low ability examinees on the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test, Verbal Measure. GRE scoring procedures had recently changed, from a scoring formula which corrected for guessing, to number-right scoring. The three-parameter theory was used…

  9. The Behavioral Theory of the Firm: Assessment and Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Gavetti; Henrich R. Greve; Daniel A. Levinthal; William Ocasio

    2012-01-01

    The Behavioral Theory of the Firm has had an enormous influence on organizational theory, strategic management, and neighboring fields of socio-scientific inquiry. Its central concepts have become foundational to any theoretical and empirical work focussed on organizational phenomena. Unlike past reviews of this work, we start by focusing less on reviewing these concepts than we do on discussing the new

  10. Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation - Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams.

    PubMed

    Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis. PMID:20617189

  11. A combined bottom-up and top-down approach for assessment of climate change adaptation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhave, Ajay Gajanan; Mishra, Ashok; Raghuwanshi, Narendra Singh

    2014-10-01

    Focus of recent scientific research in the water sector has shifted from analysis of climate change impacts to assessment of climate change adaptation options. However, limited attention has been given to integration of bottom-up and top-down methods for assessment of adaptation options. The integrated approach used in this study uses hydrological modelling to assess the effect of stakeholder prioritized adaptation options for the Kangsabati river catchment in India. A series of 14 multi-level stakeholder consultations are used to ascertain locally relevant no-regret adaptation options using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and scenario analysis methods. A validated Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model is then used to project the effect of three options; option 1 check dams (CD), option 2 increasing forest cover (IFC) and option 3 combined CD and IFC, on future (2021-2050) streamflow. High resolution (˜25 km) climatic projections from four Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and their ensemble based on the SRES A1B scenario for the mid-21st century period are used to force the WEAP model. Results indicate that although all three adaptation options reduce streamflow, in comparison with scenario without adaptation, their magnitude, temporal pattern and effect on high and low streamflows are different. Options 2 and 3 reduce streamflow percentage by an order of magnitude greater than option 1. These characteristics affect their ability to address key adaptation requirements and therefore, we find that IFC emerges as a hydrologically suitable adaptation option for the study area. Based on study results we also conclude that such an integrated approach is advantageous and is a valuable tool for locally relevant climate change adaptation policymaking.

  12. Comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in long-term care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. C. M. Koopmans; S. U. Zuidema; R. Leontjevas; D. L. Gerritsen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The IPA Taskforce on Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Care Homes seeks to improve mental health care in long-term care (LTC) homes. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations on comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in order to further stimulate countries and professionals to enhance their quality of care. METHODS: Existing guidelines on comprehensive assessment

  13. Assessment-Based Intervention for Severe Behavior Problems in a Natural Family Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Bobbie J.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    1997-01-01

    Functional assessments and assessment-based interventions were conducted with an 8-year-old boy with disabilities and severe problem behavior in the context of two family routines: using the home bathroom and dining in a fast-food restaurant. A multiple baseline design demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention package as implemented by…

  14. Standardization of the Functional Assessment and Intervention Program (FAIR) with Children Who Have Externalizing Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie Hartwig; William R. Jenson

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop standardization data for the Functional Assessment Intervention Program (FAIP; University of Utah, Utah State University, & Utah State Office of Education, 1999), a computerized, functional behavioral assessment expert system. Reliability, validity, and utility analyses were conducted with students serving in either regular or special education classrooms who were rated by their teachers

  15. Standardization of the Functional Assessment and Intervention Program (FAIP) with Children Who Have Externalizing Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Laurie; Heathfield, Lora Tuesday; Jenson, William R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop standardization data for the Functional Assessment Intervention Program (FAIP; University of Utah, Utah State University, & Utah State Office of Education, 1999), a computerized, functional behavioral assessment expert system. Reliability, validity, and utility analyses were conducted with students serving…

  16. THE LATINO HEALTH PROJECT: PILOT TESTING A CULTURALLY ADAPTED BEHAVIORAL WEIGHT LOSS INTERVENTION IN OBESE AND OVERWEIGHT LATINO ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Corsino, Leonor; Rocha-Goldberg, María Pilar; Batch, Bryan C.; Ortiz-Melo, David I.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To pilot test a culturally adapted behavioral weight loss intervention in obese and overweight Latino adults. Design Pilot study. Setting Latino community organization in Durham, North Carolina. Participants Overweight and obese, self-identified Latinos ?18 years old. Intervention Intervention consisted of 20 weekly group sessions (90–120 minutes each) incorporating motivational interviewing techniques. The intervention goal was weight loss by adopting the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, increasing physical activity, and reducing caloric intake. The cultural adaptation included foods and physical activities commonly used in the Latino culture, using a Spanish-speaking interventionist, and conducting the intervention at a local Latino community organization. Main outcome measures Weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, dietary pattern, and physical activity were measured at baseline and at 20 weeks. Results A total of 56 participants are included in the final analysis. The average weight loss was 5.1 lbs (95% CI ?8.7 to ?1.5; P=.006); and there was a reduction in BMI of 1.3 kg/m2 (95% CI ?2.2 to ?0.5; P=.002) at 20 weeks. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 2.6 mm Hg (95% CI ?4.7 to ?0.6; P=.013). Conclusion A culturally adapted behavioral intervention for the treatment of overweight and obesity is potentially effective in a diverse group of Latino adults. PMID:22774309

  17. Governance in vulnerability assessment: the role of globalising decision-making networks in determining local vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Carina H. Keskitalo; H. Keskitalo

    2009-01-01

    Community-based vulnerability assessment has often assumed that the local is the relevant level of adaptation to climate change.\\u000a This paper suggests that not only do a number of levels from the international to the regional influence which adaptations\\u000a can take place locally, but the governance network that is made up by actors on different levels may to a large extent

  18. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morteza Rafiei; Mark Nord; Atefeh Sadeghizadeh; Mohammad H Entezari

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food

  19. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Theory, Treatment Adaptations, and Empirical Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Heather A.; Cheavens, Jennifer S.; Fristad, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed for chronically suicidal adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and emotion dysregulation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate DBT is associated with improvements in problem behaviors, including suicide ideation and behavior, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), attrition,…

  20. Toward a Mechanics of Adaptive Behavior: Evolutionary Dynamics and Matching Theory Statics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, J. J.; Popa, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    One theory of behavior dynamics instantiates the idea that behavior evolves in response to selection pressure from the environment in the form of reinforcement. This computational theory implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation, which operate on a population of potential behaviors by means of a genetic algorithm.…

  1. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and resource managers to document traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and integrate this knowledge with Western science for crafting adaptation response to climate impacts in rural Native Alaska.

  2. Assessing Levels of Adaptation during Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions: Introducing the Rogers-Rutten Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Richter, Donna L.; Hussey, Jim; Elder, Keith; Lindley, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV-prevention funding agencies require the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions, tested and proven to be effective through outcome evaluation. Adaptation of programs during implementation is common and may be influenced by many factors, including agency mission, time constraints, and funding streams. There are few theoretical…

  3. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-05-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence-favorably evaluated in the West-for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adapting behavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources. PMID:23667305

  4. The Chinese Life-Steps Program: A Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance HIV Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Chen, Wei-Ti; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Zhou, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the new frontier of the global AIDS pandemic. Although effective treatment for HIV is becoming widely available in China, adherence to treatment remains a challenge. This study aimed to adapt an intervention promoting HIV-medication adherence—favorably evaluated in the West—for Chinese HIV-positive patients. The adaptation process was theory-driven and covered several key issues of cultural adaptation. We considered the importance of interpersonal relationships and family in China and cultural notions of health. Using an evidence-based treatment protocol originally designed for Western HIV-positive patients, we developed an 11-step Chinese Life-Steps program with an additional culture-specific intervention option. We describe in detail how the cultural elements were incorporated into the intervention and put into practice at each stage. Clinical considerations are also outlined and followed by two case examples that are provided to illustrate our application of the intervention. Finally, we discuss practical and research issues and limitations emerging from our field experiments in a HIV clinic in Beijing. The intervention was tailored to address both universal and culturally specific barriers to adherence and is readily applicable to generalized clinical settings. This evidence-based intervention provides a case example of the process of adapting behavioral interventions to culturally diverse communities with limited resources. PMID:23667305

  5. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THREE DESCRIPTIVE METHODS: IMPLICATIONS FOR BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Pence, Sacha T; Roscoe, Eileen M; Bourret, Jason C; Ahearn, William H

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the outcomes of three descriptive analysis methods—the ABC method, the conditional probability method, and the conditional and background probability method—to each other and to the results obtained from functional analyses. Six individuals who had been diagnosed with developmental delays and exhibited problem behavior participated. Functional analyses indicated that participants' problem behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement (n ?=? 2), social negative reinforcement (n ?=? 2), or automatic reinforcement (n ?=? 2). Results showed that for all but 1 participant, descriptive analysis outcomes were similar across methods. In addition, for all but 1 participant, the descriptive analysis outcome differed substantially from the functional analysis outcome. This supports the general finding that descriptive analysis is a poor means of determining functional relations. PMID:19949536

  6. Race, blood pressure, and the behavioral assessment of hostility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary De Pasin

    1989-01-01

    A relationship between Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) and cardiovascular function has been suggested. This study investigated interrater reliability of TABP and components in a bi-racial sample. In addition, the relationship of global TABP and two components, potential for hostility (PoHo) and preferred mode of anger expression (Anger-In), to cardiovascular parameters during three challenging tasks (Structured Interview (SI), video game

  7. Rating Scale Systems for Assessing Psychopathology: The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) and the Behavior Assessment System for Children2 (BASC2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie A. Rescorla

    Over the past three decades, standardized rating forms obtained from multiple informants have become increasingly common in\\u000a both clinical and school settings for assessing children's behavioral and emotional problems. Two widely used systems that\\u000a assess a broad range of problems from the perspectives of parents, teachers, and children themselves are the Achenbach System\\u000a of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA; Achenbach &

  8. Assessing current and future exposure to flood hazards - proceedings of the project RiskAdapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löschner, Lukas; Seher, Walter

    2013-04-01

    The project RiskAdapt, funded by the Climate and Energy Fund Austria, applies a novel dynamic flood risk assessment approach. It analyses both aspects of risk - hazard and vulnerability - and considers their potential spatial and temporal developments under climate change scenarios on a macro scale (federal territory of Austria) and a micro scale (regional/local case studies). The conceptual framework of RiskAdapt integrates analytical perspectives of hazard and vulnerability, the latter comprising the analysis of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacities. In the framework of the macro scale risk assessment, a nationwide GIS based analysis of current hazard exposure is conducted based on the indicators "affected persons" and "traffic infrastructure" (roads and railroads) in calculated flooding areas. Provided by the Environment Agency Austria (UBA) for 500m river stretches, these indicators are evaluated for each municipality in Austria. To assess their future exposure to flood hazards, demographic and land-use change scenarios (timeframe: 2030) are established based on existing projections and available data suitable for extrapolation. Regarding population change, extrapolations of local demographic developments are correlated with regional forecasts provided by the Austrian Conference on Spatial Planning (ÖROK). Land-use change scenarios are established by extrapolating trends in the development of highly vulnerable land uses (including building land for housing, commercial and industrial purposes as well as land used for traffic infrastructure). Data on highly vulnerable land uses is available for the years 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2012 for each municipality of Austria (provided by UBA). Based on this analysis, municipalities will be clustered according to the present and expected degree of exposure. This simplified approach in exposure assessment contains uncertainties, in particular with regard to demographic and land-use change scenarios: -) While population growth usually leads to an increase in built up land, basing settlement scenarios on population developments/forecasts does not take into account housing densities and usage of existing buildings. Furthermore, demographic scenarios reflect the growth in industrial and commercial land uses only to a certain extent; -) Growth of highly vulnerable land uses does not automatically imply an increase in vulnerability to flood hazards. This is essentially determined by the location and the direction of future land use developments. These uncertainties cannot be taken into account in the nationwide exposure assessment. However, in order to reflect these uncertainties and their effects on the vulnerability assessments and to evaluate the influence of spatial planning on vulnerability reduction, additional research will be conducted in three local and/or regional case studies. Exposure information from the nationwide exposure assessment will be completed and refined by integrating detailed land-use information and demographic data (derived from document analyses of spatial planning instruments, (retrospective) analyses of orthophotos and expert interviews with regional and local stakeholders.

  9. Behavioral Summarized Evaluation: An Assessment Tool to Enhance Multidisciplinary and Parent-Professional Collaborations in Assessing Symptoms of Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger N. Reeb; Susan F. Folger; Brent J. Oneal

    2009-01-01

    The Behavioral Summarized Evaluation (BSE) was developed by Barthelemy and colleagues (Barthelemy et al., 1990; Barthelemy et al., 1997) for professionals and paraprofessionals to assess autism symptom severity over the course of treatment. The purpose of this article is to review empirical literature examining the utility of this psychometric instrument in research and clinical practice, with an emphasis on the

  10. Web application security assessment by fault injection and behavior monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao-Wen Huang; Shih-Kun Huang; Tsung-Po Lin; Chung-Hung Tsai

    2003-01-01

    As a large and complex application platform, the World Wide Web is capable of delivering a broad range of sophisticated applications. However, many Web applications go through rapid development phases with extremely short turnaround time, making it difficult to eliminate vulnerabilities. Here we analyze the design of Web application security assessment mechanisms in order to identify poor coding practices that

  11. Evaluating Curriculum-Based Measurement from a Behavioral Assessment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Roof, Claire M.; Klubnick, Cynthia; Carfolite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement Reading (CBM-R) is an assessment procedure used to evaluate students' relative performance compared to peers and to evaluate their growth in reading. Within the response to intervention (RtI) model, CBM-R data are plotted in time series fashion as a means modeling individual students' response to varying levels of…

  12. Assessment of swimmer behaviors on pool water ingestion.

    PubMed

    Suppes, Laura M; Abrell, Leif; Dufour, Alfred P; Reynolds, Kelly A

    2014-06-01

    Enteric pathogens in pool water can be unintentionally ingested during swimming, increasing the likelihood of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). AGI cases in outbreaks are more likely to submerge heads than non-cases, but an association is unknown since outbreak data are self-reported and prone to bias. In the present study, head submersion frequency and duration were observed and analyzed for associations with pool water ingestion measured using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Frequency of splashes to the face was also quantified. Reliable tools that assess activities associated with pool water ingestion are needed to identify ingestion risk factors and at-risk populations. Objectives were to determine if the observed activities were associated with ingestion, and to test environmental sensor and videography assessment tools. Greater frequency and duration of head submersion were not associated with ingestion, but frequency of splashes to the face, leisurely swimming, and being ?18 were. Videography was validated for assessing swimmer head submersion frequency. Results demonstrate ingestion risk factors can be identified using videography and urine analysis techniques. Expanding surveys to include questions on leisure swimming participation and frequency of splashes to the face is recommended to improve exposure assessment during outbreak investigations. PMID:24937221

  13. Assessing indigenous knowledge systems and climate change adaptation strategies in agriculture: A case study of Chagaka Village, Chikhwawa, Southern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkomwa, Emmanuel Charles; Joshua, Miriam Kalanda; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Monjerezi, Maurice; Chipungu, Felistus

    In Malawi, production from subsistence rain fed agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability. In response to the adverse effects of climate change and variability, a National Adaptation Programme of Action is used as framework for implementing adaptation programmes. However, this framework puts limited significance on indigenous knowledge systems (IKS). In many parts of the world, IKS have shown potential in the development of locally relevant and therefore sustainable adaptation strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the role of IKS in adaptation to climate change and variability in the agricultural sector in a rural district of Chikhwawa, southern Malawi. The study used both qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews and quantitative data from household interviews and secondary data to address the research objectives. The study established that the local communities are able to recognise the changes in their climate and local environment. Commonly mentioned indicators of changing climatic patterns included delayed and unpredictable onset of rainfall, declining rainfall trends, warming temperatures and increased frequency of prolonged dry spells. An analysis of empirical data corroborates the people's perception. In addition, the community is able to use their IKS to adapt their agricultural systems to partially offset the effects of climate change. Like vulnerability to climate change, IKS varies over a short spatial scale, providing locally relevant adaptation to impacts of climate change. This paper therefore advocates for the integration of IKS in programmes addressing adaptation to climate change and vulnerability. This will serve to ensure sustainable and relevant adaptation strategies.

  14. Development of instruments to assess assaultive behavior in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Gates, Donna M; Fitzwater, Evelyn; Deets, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The use of psychometric techniques is not usually considered in the development of non-scale tools. In the development of these tools, both content validation and inter-rater reliability were assessed in an effort to produce better quality tools than would have occurred otherwise. The procedure employing content experts for content validation followed the usual protocol for both of the tools. In each case, valuable information about the tools was obtained, in addition to data supporting the content validity of the tools. The development of vignettes for the inter-rater assessment would probably not have occurred if the authors were not familiar with the different techniques for assessing inter-rater reliability. The only way data concerning inter-rater reliability could be obtained was by having each respondent view the same stimuli. Creating vignettes was the best way to accomplish this goal in a cost-effective manner. The additional data obtained from the respondents also provided invaluable information for the development of the tools. This pilot study was conducted to assess all aspects of the tools in the nursing home setting. Clarity of items and usability of the tools were major considerations. Because NAs were involved in the pilot study, both readability by most NAs and clarity of the items in the revised tool were assured. Considerable time was spent assessing these tools, but the completed tools are evidence that the time was well spent. The use of psychometric techniques resulted in objective evidence that led to quality improvement decisions. The revised tools have the potential for use in obtaining quality data for research projects, in policy development by an agency, and for training agency personnel. PMID:13677159

  15. in vivo laser speckle imaging by adaptive contrast computation for microvasculature assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Kausik; Dey, Goutam; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mandal, Mahitosh; Dutta, Pranab Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Interference of light backscattered from a diffused surface leads to speckle formation in laser speckle imaging. These time integrated speckle patterns can be statistically analyzed to study the flow profile of moving scatterers. Simple speckle contrast analysis techniques have limited ability to distinguish thin structures due to presence of corrupting speckles. This paper presents a high resolution imaging technique by adaptive computation of contrast for laser speckle contrast analysis (adLASCA). Speckle images of retinal microvasculature in mice model are acquired during normal and reduced blood flow conditions. Initially, the speckle images are registered to compensate for movements, associated with heart beating and respiration. Adaptive computation is performed using local image statistics, estimated within a spatially moving window over successive time frames. Experimental evidence suggests that adLASCA outperforms other contrast analysis methods, substantiating significant improvement in contrast resolution. Fine vessels can be distinguished more efficiently with reduced fluctuations in contrast level. Quantitative performance of adLASCA is evaluated by computing standard deviation, corresponding to speckle fluctuations due to unwanted speckles. There is a significant reduction in standard deviation compared to other methods. Therefore, adLASCA can be used for enhancing microvasculature in high resolution perfusion imaging with reduced effect of corrupting speckles for effective assessment.

  16. Design and assessment of novel artificial anal sphincter with adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Yan, Sheng; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the in vitro assessment of a novel elastic scaling artificial anal sphincter system (ES-AASS) with an adaptive transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) for treatment of severe faecal incontinence (FI). The proposed adaptive TETS has a phase control, which can maintain the output voltage at ?7?V across the full range of the coupling coefficient variation (from 0.09-0.31) during the whole process of charging with a phase shift of 177.5° to 79.1°. A maximum surface temperature of 42.2?°C was measured above the secondary coil during an energy transmission of 3.5?W in air. The specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density analysis of the biological three-layers structure, including the skin, fat and muscle) surrounding the coil pair were analysed and the results of simulation analysis showed that the value of SAR and current density were very small at any given transmission condition compared with the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In conclusion, in vitro experimental results showed that the ES-AASS can control simulated faecal behaviour effectively and the performance of TETS was validated. PMID:25626127

  17. Naturalistic and Structured Assessments of Prosocial Behavior in Preschool Children: The Influence of Empathy and Perspective Taking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald J. Iannotti

    1985-01-01

    The interrelationship of different categories of prosocial behavior, different assessment procedures, and the role of empathy and perspective taking as mediators of different categories of prosocial behavior are examined in the present study. Prosocial behavior in 52 preschool children was assessed using three different approaches: (a) naturalistic observation of prosocial events, (b) structured measures of perspective taking, empathy, and two

  18. Adaptation and validation of the patient assessment of chronic illness care in the French context

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are major causes of disability worldwide with rising prevalence. Most patients suffering from chronic conditions do not always receive optimal care. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been developed to help general practitioners making quality improvements. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire was increasingly used in several countries to appraise the implementation of the CCM from the patients’ perspective. The objective of this study was to adapt the PACIC questionnaire in the French context and to test the validity of this adaptation in a sample of patients with multiple chronic conditions. Methods The PACIC was translated into French language using a forward/backward procedure. The French version was validated using a sample of 150 patients treated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and having multiple chronic co-morbidities. Several forms of validity were analysed: content; face; construct; and internal consistency. The construct validity was investigated with an exploratory factorial analysis. Results The French-version of the PACIC consisted in 18 items, after merging two pairs of items due to redundancy. The high number of items exhibiting floor/ceiling effects and the non-normality of the ratings suggested that a 5-points rating scale was somewhat inappropriate to assess the patients’ experience of care. The construct validity of the French-PACIC was verified and resulted in a bi-dimensional structure. Overall this structure showed a high level of internal consistency. The PACIC score appeared to be significantly related to the age and self-reported health of the patients. Conclusions A French-version of the PACIC questionnaire is now available to evaluate the patients’ experience of care and to monitor the quality improvements realised by the medical structures. This study also pointed out some methodological issues about the PACIC questionnaire, related to the format of the rating scale and to the structure of the questionnaire. PMID:24947538

  19. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women With Binge Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women’s (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation process and highlighted the importance of balancing the fidelity and cultural relevance of evidence-based treatment when disseminating it across diverse racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23645969

  20. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  1. Assessment of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bayram; Cetin, Mehmet; Cimen, Mesut; Yildiran, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the extent of Turkish junior male physicians’ exposure to mobbing behavior and its correlation with physicians' characteristics. Methods The study included physicians recruited for compulsory military service in April 2009. No sampling method was used, questionnaires were delivered to all physicians, and 278 of 292 (95%) questionnaires were returned. We used Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror including 45 items for data collection and structural equation model for data analysis. Results A total of 87.7% of physicians experienced mobbing behavior. Physicians who worked more than 40 hours a week, single physicians, physicians working in university hospitals and private hospitals, and physicians who did not have occupational commitment were more exposed to mobbing (P??0.05). All goodness-of- fit indices of the model were acceptable (?2?=?1.449, normed fit index?=?0.955, Tucker Lewis index?=?0.980, comparative fit index?=?0.985, and root mean square error of approximation?=?0.040). Conclusions Workplace mobbing is a critical problem for junior male physicians in Turkey. We suggest an introduction of a reporting system and education activities for physicians in high-risk groups. PMID:22911529

  2. Pain Assessment in Persons with Dementia: Relationship between Self-report and Behavioral Observation

    PubMed Central

    Horgas, Ann L.; Elliott, Amanda F.; Marsiske, Michael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between self-report and behavioral indicators of pain in cognitively impaired and intact older adults. DESIGN Quasi-experimental, correlational study of older adults. SETTING Data were collected from residents of nursing homes, assisted living, and retirement apartments in North/Central Florida. PARTICIPANTS 126 adults, mean age 83 years; 92 cognitively intact, 24 cognitively impaired. MEASUREMENTS Pain interviews (pain presence, intensity, locations, duration), pain behavior measure, MMSE, analgesic medications, and demographic characteristics. Participants completed an activity-based protocol to exacerbate pain. RESULTS 86% self-reported regular pain. Controlling for analgesics, cognitively impaired participants reported less pain after movement, but not at rest. Behavioral pain indicators did not differ between cognitively intact and impaired elders. Total number of pain behaviors was significantly related to self-reported pain intensity (Beta = .40, p = .000) in intact elders. CONCLUSION Self-reported pain is diminished in cognitively impaired elders relative to intact elders, independent of analgesics, but only when assessed following movement. Behavioral pain indicators do not differ between groups. The relationship between self-report and pain behaviors supports the validity of behavioral assessments in this population. Findings support multidimensional pain assessment in persons with dementia. PMID:19054191

  3. Establishing Behavioral and Assessment Criteria through the Use of a Behavioral Level System for Dealing with Self Contained EH Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelmann-Peper, Marcella

    This practicum was designed to establish behavioral and assessment criteria for dealing with seriously emotionally disturbed elementary students enrolled in self-contained emotionally handicapped (EH) units. A primary goal was to provide out-of-field EH teachers with an objective tool for continuously assessing students' individual behavioral and…

  4. Solutions and Hope for Severe Behaviors: The Development of Functional Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Severe behavior disorders are among the most perplexing conditions encountered by clinicians, and as a front page article in the past Christmas Day's "New York Times" illustrates ("Parents defend school's use of shock therapy"), treatment options remain a topic of contentious debate. Not all that long ago physical restraint was the only option,…

  5. Temporal Stability and Overlap of Behavioral and Questionnaire Assessments of Type A Behavior in Coronary Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLAN V. ABBOTT; RUTH K. PETERS; MARK E. VOGEL

    To examine the temporal stability of the Type A behavior pattern (TABP) after a cardiac event, both a Videotaped Clinical Interview (VCI) (formerly known as the Videotaped Structured Interview) and the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) were administered to 81 male and 19 female patients three times during the first year after hospitalization for an initial myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass

  6. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions implemented in Africa in the past include food aid, drought relief programs, growing of drought tolerate crops, saving livestock, water efficiency and construction or rehabilitation of boreholes, wells and small dams. In the North Africa - Maghreb Region and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin, respectively 73 and 39 organisations involved in drought mitigation, are identified, dealing with agriculture extension services (28), food aid (11), policy (11), advocacy (10) and water supply (3). The most common adaptation actions identified are water harvesting, construction of water infrastructure, rehabilitation of traditional/cultural practices or implementation of technologies, water conservation, crop monitoring and crop diversification. Regarding involvement of organisations in drought adaptation, 18 organisations in the North Africa - Maghreb Region and 20 in Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin are identified. These organisations are involved in water infrastructure development or management (7), agriculture extension services (7) and policy development (13). The paper clearly shows that there is need to improve the existing monitoring and early warning systems at continental, regional, national and local scales. It also shows that a lot of organisations emerge when there is a drought and are involved in drought mitigation but only a few are involved in drought adaptation.

  7. FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF FOUR ARBOREAL DARWIN'S FINCHES: ADAPTATIONS TO SPATIAL AND SEASONAL VARIABILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Tebbich; Michael Taborsky; Birgit Fessl; Michael Dvorak; Hans Winkler

    2004-01-01

    In the Galapagos Islands climate and food abundance vary strongly among vegetation zones and between seasons. We studied the foraging behavior of four mainly insectivorous Darwin's finch species on Santa Cruz Island. We compared foraging behavior between (1) the arid zone, where food is scarce, with the humid Scalesia zone, where food is abundant; and (2) within each zone between

  8. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to 23%…

  9. Simulated Creatures: Adapting Control for Variations in Model or Desired Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ringrose

    1993-01-01

    Within the domain of actively balanced legged locomotion, it is necessary to re-tune controlsystems to reflect changes in the simulation or the desired behavior. I have implementeda tuning algorithm which will re-tune an existing control system to take into account achange in model or desired behavior. Automatically tuning these control systems is challengingbecause for most sets of control parameters it

  10. Reproductive behavior of the cactus fly, Odontoloxozus longicornis , male territoriality and female guarding as adaptive strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Mangan

    1979-01-01

    1.Mating behavior in the cactus fly, Odontoloxozus longicornis Bigot, is investigated using a model modified from Parker (1974). Male territoriality at oviposition sites, repeated matings, and postcopulatory guarding behaviors are described for a population utilizing giant saguaro cacti (Carnega gigantea) in Pima County, Arizona. Observations of flies under varying physical conditions indicate that the males follow two general copulatory patterns.

  11. A study on behavioral structure of artificial market based on adaptive game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hamada; H. Kawamura; M. Yamamoto; A. Ohuchi

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of players in the situation where they recognize an identical situation as a simple market-like place differently. In our model a player considers the others as a representative player. We examine the player's behavior when with and without fluidity of players

  12. Assessing bio-economic impacts and climate adaptation potential in Flanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to Global Circulation Model predictions, Belgium is situated on a wedge between a wetter and drier climatic regime. Observed changes show an increase of 1.3°C during the past decade, a higher frequency of warm summer days and a 6% increase in rainfall with a pronounced rise in winter precipitation of about 25% as compared to the normal (1961-1990). Since agriculture is particularly sensitive to climate variability and occupies more than 61% of the land surface in Flanders, the rural landscape will be confronted with profound changes. A combination of climate scenarios, production models and economic evaluation was used to assess climate impacts on agricultural goods & services, adaptation costs due to production losses and adaptation options. Agro-ecosystems offer a wide range of productive, supporting, regulating and cultural services to society. Productive services relate to crop, animal and energy production, but will alter with climate change. Supporting services such as biodiversity, soil and water quality will be negatively affected by a higher climate variability, increasing erosion and sediment transport, enhancing the breakdown of soil organic matter, lowering soil quality and increasing runoff or leaching of agri-chemicals. The effect of a warmer climate on regulating services is an intensification of most nutrient cycles with increased emissions, which may be compensated for by carbon storage in faster and longer growing crops. The need for flooding areas may result in a net-reduction of the agricultural area. A higher probability of dry weather during summer time and a longer growing season may enlarge the attraction of recreating in rural areas. Knowledge on the interaction of agro-ecosystem services and climate change is required to formulate sustainable adaptation measures. Heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields. The interaction between these effects depends on the crop type. The impact on crop production was simulated with a dynamic vegetation model for eight crops (winter wheat, potatoes, sugar beet, fodder maize, grass, grain maize, cauliflower spring, cauliflower autumn), three soil types (loamy sand, loam, clay) and four climatic data series (historic and three cc-scenarios). The three climate change scenarios were selected on the basis of multi-criteria analysis of the PRUDENCE RCM runs. In total 3480 year simulations were executed with a daily modelling step. Pronounced yield losses mainly due to water shortages and heat stress occur for all climate change scenario's, to a lesser extent in the case of winter and spring crops. Yield losses of up to 30% are simulated for sugar beet, whereas winter wheat losses are only 6 % on loamy sand. High critical temperatures lead to heat stress, decreased fodder uptake, outbreaks of diseases and ultimately to animal production losses. Changes in animal production were calculated with a threshold model, whereby a daily maximum temperature of 30°C was taken as the production limit. Calculated animal production losses are up to 9 % for sheep, 8 % for cattle, 6 % for pigs and 3% for poultry. An economic prognosis of the technical productivity, the price effect, the required agricultural area and number of animals was used to estimate the potential productivity for 16 agricultural activities. The impact of climate change was included through aggregating the modelled production losses for Flanders and assuming the agricultural area, the number of animals and the prices constant to the economic prognosis. The total financial impacts are 0.1 % or 6.6 million euro for the first scenario, 1.5% or 71 million euro for the second scenario and 4.1% or 201 million euro for the third scenario. The results represent the acceptable cost of adaptation measures to maintain current efficiencies and production levels. Three gradations of adaptation were defined as different adoption rates. In total 22 adaptation measures were identified. Meas

  13. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  14. Behavioral Assessment of Gambling: An Application of the Timeline Followback Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremiah Weinstock; James P. Whelan; Andrew W. Meyers

    2004-01-01

    The Gambling Timeline Followback (G-TLFB), a measure of gambling behavior that uses the timeline followback methodology, was psychometrically evaluated with samples of frequent-gambling young adults. Seven dimensions of gambling behavior were assessed: type, frequency, duration, intent, risk, win-loss, and consumption of alcohol while gambling. The G-TLFB demonstrated adequate to excellent test-retest reliability with a sample of 57 frequent gamblers (r

  15. Ethological assessment of stable and labile social behaviors during acute psychiatric disorders: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    McGuire, M T; Polsky, R H

    1980-12-01

    Results are presented which illustrate the use of naturalistic observation techniques to study ongoing patterns of postural, gestural, and spacing behaviors among psychiatric patients hospitalized for acute psychiatric disorders. Behavioral frequencies are analyzed in terms of stable and labile characteristics by week of hospitalization, clinical diagnosis, and clinical outcome. Findings are interpreted from both clinical psychiatric and ethological perspectives. The discussion emphasizes the potential value of observational data gathering techniques for disorder assessment and theory development. PMID:6936724

  16. A Comparison of Functional Behavior Assessment Methodologies with Young Children: Descriptive Methods and Functional Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Alter; Maureen A. Conroy; G. Rich Mancil; Todd Haydon

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) to guide the development of behavior intervention plans continues to increase\\u000a since they were first mandated in IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, 20 U.S.C. Section\\u000a 1400 et seq, 1997). A variety of indirect and direct instruments have been developed to facilitate this process. Although\\u000a many researchers believe that a

  17. A Functional Approach to the Assessment of Self-Mutilative Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew K. Nock; Mitchell J. Prinstein

    2004-01-01

    This study applied a functional approach to the assessment of self-mutilative behavior (SMB) among adolescent psychiatric inpatients. On the basis of past conceptualizations of different forms of self-injurious behavior, the authors hypothesized that SMB is performed because of the automatically reinforcing (i.e., reinforced by oneself; e.g., emotion regulation) and\\/or socially reinforcing (i.e., reinforced by others; e.g., attention, avoidance-escape) properties associated

  18. Assessment of Eating Disordered Behaviors in Middle School Students Using the Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Affenito; E. J. Khu; K. Carroll

    1998-01-01

    Eating disorders commonly develop during adolescence. In order to devise a prevention\\/education program, it is necessary to assess the presence of eating disordered behaviors in this population. The Kids’ Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS) was used to gather data on body dissatisfaction, exercise and eating habits and restricting\\/purging behaviors. School and health professionals administered the self-report questionnaire to eighth grade students

  19. A MULTI-AGENT, MICROSCOPIC TRAFFIC SIMULATION ARCHITECTURE INCORPORATING ENTITIES WITH ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos Manouselis; Pythagoras Karampiperis; Elias Kosmatopoulos

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present an agent-based architecture for microscopic traffic simulations. Agents representing vehicles utilize database modules containing microscopic models and adaptive algorithms, in order to achieve precise simulation of real-life traffic entities. The analysis and design of the simulation system is made using the Gaia methodology, a formal way of going from a statement of requirements to an

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE BEHAVIORS IN A SIMPLE INSECT-LIKE ROBOT

    E-print Network

    Lanthier, Mark

    how these instincts can be coded using simple fixed weight neural networks which reduce the need ....................................................................... 31 2.1.1 Neural Networks ................................................................. 32 2 version of a robotic insect is presented which have the capability of adapting to a static, initially

  1. Statistical Indexes for Monitoring Item Behavior under Computer Adaptive Testing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Renbang; Yu, Feng; Liu, Su

    A computerized adaptive test (CAT) administration usually requires a large supply of items with accurately estimated psychometric properties, such as item response theory (IRT) parameter estimates, to ensure the precision of examinee ability estimation. However, an estimated IRT model of a given item in any given pool does not always correctly…

  2. Yoked Criteria Shifts in Decision System Adaptation: Computational and Behavioral Investigations

    E-print Network

    Plaut, David C.

    Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA Abstract We describe a theory of decision of the experiment largely parallel those of the simulation, suggesting that yoked decision shifts make an important contribution to error minimization in decision system adaptation. Keywords: decision making, decision system

  3. Individual Differences in Behavioral, Physiological, and Genetic Sensitivities to Contexts: Implications for Development and Adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Thomas Boyce

    2009-01-01

    Although exposure to adversity places children at high risk for developmental problems, there is considerable variation in the adaptation of children exposed to both low and high levels of adversity. In recent years, researchers have made significant progress in understanding how social environments shape children’s development. Studies indicate that not all children are equally susceptible to environmental effects. In this

  4. Feeding Behavior Reveals the Adaptive Nature of Plasticity in Barnacle Feeding Limbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KERRY B. MARCHINKO

    2007-01-01

    Barnacle feeding limbs are extremely plastic in response to spatial and temporal differences in wave exposure: indi- viduals have long, thin feeding limbs in habitats with little wave action, and short, thick feeding limbs in wave-exposed habitats. This difference in feeding limb morphology is assumed to be adaptive. Individuals with shorter limbs may have the ability to feed in breaking

  5. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Adaptation to Conflict via Context-Driven Anticipatory

    E-print Network

    and portions of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex specifically encodes the history of previously experienced in the Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex Guillermo Horga,1 Tiago V. Maia,1 Pengwei Wang,1,2 Zhishun Wang,1 Rachel Marsh,1 adaptations to conflict. We found that a neural system comprising the rostral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex

  6. Behavioral Adaptations to Heat Stress and Water Scarcity in White-Faced Capuchins (Cebus capucinus)

    E-print Network

    Fedigan, Linda M.

    , University of Calgary, AB, Canada KEY WORDS thermoregulation; temperature; humidity; water; monkeys ABSTRACTBehavioral Adaptations to Heat Stress and Water Scarcity in White-Faced Capuchins (Cebus capucinus. Finally, as surface water became scarce, home-range areas of heavy use became increasingly centered

  7. Behavioral Adaptation in C. elegans Produced by Antipsychotic Drugs Requires Serotonin and Is Associated with Calcium Signaling and Calcineurin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Dallas R.; Jarvis, Raymond A.; Weeks, Kathrine; Aamodt, Eric J.; Dwyer, Donard S.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs produces adaptive responses at the cellular and molecular levels that may be responsible for both the main therapeutic effects and rebound psychosis, which is often observed upon discontinuation of these drugs. Here we show that some antipsychotic drugs produce significant functional changes in serotonergic neurons that directly impact feeding behavior in the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, antipsychotic drugs acutely suppress pharyngeal pumping, which is regulated by serotonin from the NSM neurons. By contrast, withdrawal from food and drug is accompanied by a striking recovery and overshoot in the rate of pharyngeal pumping. This rebound response is absent or diminished in mutant strains that lack tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH-1) or the serotonin receptors SER-7 and SER-1, and is blocked by serotonin antagonists, which implicates serotonergic mechanisms in this adaptive response. Consistent with this, continuous drug exposure stimulates an increase in serotonin and the number of varicosities along the NSM processes. Cyclosporin A and calcineurin mutant strains mimic the effects of the antipsychotic drugs and reveal a potential role for the calmodulin-calcineurin signaling pathway in the response of serotonergic neurons. Similar molecular and cellular changes may contribute to the long-term adaptive response to antipsychotic drugs in patients. PMID:19447297

  8. Behavioral adaptation in C. elegans produced by antipsychotic drugs requires serotonin and is associated with calcium signaling and calcineurin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Dallas R; Jarvis, Raymond A; Weeks, Kathrine; Aamodt, Eric J; Dwyer, Donard S

    2009-07-01

    Chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs produces adaptive responses at the cellular and molecular levels that may be responsible for both the main therapeutic effects and rebound psychosis, which is often observed upon discontinuation of these drugs. Here we show that some antipsychotic drugs produce significant functional changes in serotonergic neurons that directly impact feeding behavior in the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, antipsychotic drugs acutely suppress pharyngeal pumping, which is regulated by serotonin from the NSM neurons. By contrast, withdrawal from food and drug is accompanied by a striking recovery and overshoot in the rate of pharyngeal pumping. This rebound response is absent or diminished in mutant strains that lack tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH-1) or the serotonin receptors SER-7 and SER-1, and is blocked by serotonin antagonists, which implicates serotonergic mechanisms in this adaptive response. Consistent with this, continuous drug exposure stimulates an increase in serotonin and the number of varicosities along the NSM processes. Cyclosporin A and calcineurin mutant strains mimic the effects of the antipsychotic drugs and reveal a potential role for the calmodulin-calcineurin signaling pathway in the response of serotonergic neurons. Similar molecular and cellular changes may contribute to the long-term adaptive response to antipsychotic drugs in patients. PMID:19447297

  9. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery T., E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.a [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Brown, Helen L., E-mail: h.brown@curtin.edu.a [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne, E-mail: Dianne.Katscherian@health.wa.gov.a [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Western Australian Department of Health, Department of Health WA, PO Box 8172, Perth Business Centre WA 6849 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to address the potential health impacts of climate change.

  10. Promoting Behavior Change from Alcohol Use through Mobile Technology: The Future of Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hunter-Reel, Dorian; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactive and mobile technologies (i.e., smartphones such as Blackberries, iPhones, and palm-top computers) show promise as an efficacious and cost-effective means of communicating health-behavior risks, improving public health outcomes, and accelerating behavior change (Abroms and Maibach, 2008). The present study was conducted as a “needs assessment” to examine the current available mobile smartphone applications (e.g., apps) that utilize principles of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) -- daily self-monitoring or near real-time self-assessment of alcohol use behavior -- to promote positive behavior change, alcohol harm reduction, psycho-education about alcohol use, or abstinence from alcohol. Methods Data were collected and analyzed from iTunes for Apple iPhone©. An inventory assessed the number of available apps that directly addressed alcohol use and consumption, alcohol treatment, or recovery, and whether these apps incorporated empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Results Findings showed that few apps addressed alcohol use behavior change or recovery. Aside from tracking drinking consumption, a minority utilized empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Some apps claimed they could serve as an intervention, however no empirical evidence was provided. Conclusions More studies are needed to examine the efficacy of mobile technology in alcohol intervention studies. The large gap between availability of mobile apps and their use in alcohol treatment programs indicate several important future directions for research. PMID:21689119

  11. Survey Development to Assess Parental Satisfaction with Adapted Physical Education Teachers' Abilities Working with Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columna, Luis; Cook, Allison; Foley, John T.; Bailey, JoEllen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically develop and validate an instrument to assess parental perceptions toward adapted physical education (APE) teachers, who work with children with autism. Methods: Participants included two expert panels and parents of children and youth with autism. The survey used a Likert-scale design where…

  12. The Development of an ICF-Oriented, Adaptive Physician Assessment Instrument of Mobility, Self-care, and Domestic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Erik; Fleitz, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was development and psychometric testing of an adaptive, International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-oriented questionnaire to be processed by the rehabilitation physician that aids in assessing mobility, self-care, and domestic life (Moses-Physician). The intent is to develop a physician…

  13. BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS TO SPATIALLY INTERMITTENT STREAMS BY THE LONGFIN DACE, 'AGOSIA CHRYSOGASTER', (CYPRINIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatially intermittent stream, with areas containing surface water separated by lengths of dry streambed, represents a common aquatic habitat in the Sonoran Desert. The longfin dace (Agosia chrysogaster) is the only fish to utilize this habitat consistently. Behavioral adapta...

  14. Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction in: Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems: ABIALS 2008

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction W. Schenck in: Anticipatory Behavior;Space Perception through Visuokinesthetic Prediction Wolfram Schenck Computer Engineering Group, Faculty space perception within the framework of the "perception through anticipation" approach is proposed

  15. Sensory modulation of muscle synergies for motor adaptation during natural behaviors

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Vincent Chi-Kwan

    2007-01-01

    To achieve any motor behavior, the central nervous system (CNS) must coordinate the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal apparatus. It has been suggested that the CNS simplifies this formidable task of coordination ...

  16. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity: Psychosocial intervention effects on adaptation, disease course, and biobehavioral processes in cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 30 (2013) S88–S98 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Brain, Behavior, and Immunity j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / y b r b i Invited Minireview Psychosocial

  17. An innovative cross-sectoral method for implementation of trade-off adaptation strategy assessment under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Jung-Hsuan; Tung, Ching-Pin; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Climate change will increase sharp risks to the water and food supply in coming decades. Although impact assessment and adaptation evaluation has been discussed a lot in recent years, the importance of adaptation implement should not be ignored. In Taiwan, and elsewhere, fallow is an option of adaptation strategy under climate change. Fallow would improve the water scarcity of domestic use, but the food security might be threatened. The trade-off effects of adaptation actions are just like the side effects of medicine which cannot be avoided. Thus, managing water resources with an integrated approach will be urgent. This study aims to establish a cross-sectoral framework for implementation the trade-off adaptation strategy. Not only fallow, but also other trade-off strategy like increasing the percentage of national grain self-sufficiency would be analyzed by a rational decision process. The recent percentage of grain self-sufficiency in Taiwan is around 32, which was decreasing from 53 thirty years ago. Yet, the goal of increasing grain self-sufficiency means much more water must be used in agriculture. In that way, domestic users may face the water shortage situation. Considering the conflicts between water supply and food security, the concepts from integrative negotiation are appropriate to apply. The implementation of trade-off adaptation strategies needs to start by quantifying the utility of water supply and food security were be quantified. Next, each side's bottom line can be found by BATNA (Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement) and ZOPA (Zone of Possible Agreement). ZOPA provides the entire possible outcomes, and BATNA ensures the efficiency of adaptation actions by moving along with Pareto frontier. Therefore, the optimal percentage of fallow and grain self-sufficiency can be determined. Furthermore, BATNA also provides the pathway step by step which can be a guideline of adaptation strategies. This framework allows analysts and stakeholder to systematically evaluate trade-off adaptation strategies and indicate the priority to implement.

  18. Conceptual Modeling for Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management in the Barycz Valley, Lower Silesia, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments (“hard path”) as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This “soft path” requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between “experts” and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs “Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment”. The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and “green” local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region’s sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability Models as well as more detailed sub-models of particular factors, processes, and feedback loops that appear critical to a sustainable future. The Regional Sustainability Model was used to identify a subset of key interacting factors (variables). For each variable, several sustainability indicators were suggested. The growing understanding and acceptance of the AM framework and systems analysis created a momentum both locally and within the region, which makes continued successful use of these indicators quite likely. In contrast to expert-driven projects that inject outside knowledge into a local context, this project established a broad basis for stakeholder-driven discussion that is articulated into goals, objectives, conceptual models, and indicators. The ability to learn and adapt in the AM framework increases the capacity to innovate and find policies and practices that enhance resilience and sustainability in a world in transition. PMID:16705818

  19. Sexual behavior in the bull: assessment by seminal vesicle size and response to gonadotropin releasing hormone

    E-print Network

    Rocha, Antonio Madureira

    1990-01-01

    . , 1987). The use of ultrasonography to assess male reproductive function has been limited. Studies of the genital organs and/or accessory sex glands of the stallion (Little and Woods, 1987; Weber and Woods, 1989), boar (Cartee et al. , 1980) and ram...SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE BULL: ASSESSMENT BY SEMINAL VESICLE SIZE AND RESPONSE TO GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE A Thesis by ANTONIO MADUREIRA ROCHA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment...

  20. Assessing hematopoietic (stem-) cell behavior during regenerative pressure.

    PubMed

    Stiehl, Thomas; Ho, Anthony D; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complex and strongly regulated process. In case of regenerative pressure, efficient recovery of blood cell counts is crucial for survival of an individual. We propose a quantitative mathematical model of white blood cell formation based on the following cell parameters: (1) proliferation rate, (2) self-renewal, and (3) cell death. Simulating this model we assess the change of these parameters under regenerative pressure. The proposed model allows to quantitatively describe the impact of these cell parameters on engraftment time after stem cell transplantation. Results indicate that enhanced self-renewal during the posttransplant period is crucial for efficient regeneration of blood cell counts while constant or reduced self-renewal leads to delayed recovery or graft failure. Increased cell death in the posttransplant period has a similar impact. In contrast, reduced proliferation or pre-homing cell death causes only mild delays in blood cell recovery which can be compensated sufficiently by increasing the dose of transplanted cells. PMID:25480650