#### Sample records for adaptive grid algorithm

1. An adaptive grid algorithm for one-dimensional nonlinear equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gutierrez, William E.; Hills, Richard G.

1990-01-01

Richards' equation, which models the flow of liquid through unsaturated porous media, is highly nonlinear and difficult to solve. Step gradients in the field variables require the use of fine grids and small time step sizes. The numerical instabilities caused by the nonlinearities often require the use of iterative methods such as Picard or Newton interation. These difficulties result in large CPU requirements in solving Richards equation. With this in mind, adaptive and multigrid methods are investigated for use with nonlinear equations such as Richards' equation. Attention is focused on one-dimensional transient problems. To investigate the use of multigrid and adaptive grid methods, a series of problems are studied. First, a multigrid program is developed and used to solve an ordinary differential equation, demonstrating the efficiency with which low and high frequency errors are smoothed out. The multigrid algorithm and an adaptive grid algorithm is used to solve one-dimensional transient partial differential equations, such as the diffusive and convective-diffusion equations. The performance of these programs are compared to that of the Gauss-Seidel and tridiagonal methods. The adaptive and multigrid schemes outperformed the Gauss-Seidel algorithm, but were not as fast as the tridiagonal method. The adaptive grid scheme solved the problems slightly faster than the multigrid method. To solve nonlinear problems, Picard iterations are introduced into the adaptive grid and tridiagonal methods. Burgers' equation is used as a test problem for the two algorithms. Both methods obtain solutions of comparable accuracy for similar time increments. For the Burgers' equation, the adaptive grid method finds the solution approximately three times faster than the tridiagonal method. Finally, both schemes are used to solve the water content formulation of the Richards' equation. For this problem, the adaptive grid method obtains a more accurate solution in fewer work units and

2. A geometry-based adaptive unstructured grid generation algorithm for complex geological media

Bahrainian, Seyed Saied; Dezfuli, Alireza Daneh

2014-07-01

In this paper a novel unstructured grid generation algorithm is presented that considers the effect of geological features and well locations in grid resolution. The proposed grid generation algorithm presents a strategy for definition and construction of an initial grid based on the geological model, geometry adaptation of geological features, and grid resolution control. The algorithm is applied to seismotectonic map of the Masjed-i-Soleiman reservoir. Comparison of grid results with the “Triangle” program shows a more suitable permeability contrast. Immiscible two-phase flow solutions are presented for a fractured porous media test case using different grid resolutions. Adapted grid on the fracture geometry gave identical results with that of a fine grid. The adapted grid employed 88.2% less CPU time when compared to the solutions obtained by the fine grid.

3. SIMULATION OF DISPERSION OF A POWER PLANT PLUME USING AN ADAPTIVE GRID ALGORITHM

EPA Science Inventory

A new dynamic adaptive grid algorithm has been developed for use in air quality modeling. This algorithm uses a higher order numerical scheme?the piecewise parabolic method (PPM)?for computing advective solution fields; a weight function capable of promoting grid node clustering ...

4. A parallel dynamic load balancing algorithm for 3-D adaptive unstructured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vidwans, A.; Kallinderis, Y.; Venkatakrishnan, V.

1993-01-01

Adaptive local grid refinement and coarsening results in unequal distribution of workload among the processors of a parallel system. A novel method for balancing the load in cases of dynamically changing tetrahedral grids is developed. The approach employs local exchange of cells among processors in order to redistribute the load equally. An important part of the load balancing algorithm is the method employed by a processor to determine which cells within its subdomain are to be exchanged. Two such methods are presented and compared. The strategy for load balancing is based on the Divide-and-Conquer approach which leads to an efficient parallel algorithm. This method is implemented on a distributed-memory MIMD system.

5. An Adaptive Reputation-Based Algorithm for Grid Virtual Organization Formation

Cui, Yongrui; Li, Mingchu; Ren, Yizhi; Sakurai, Kouichi

A novel adaptive reputation-based virtual organization formation is proposed. It restrains the bad performers effectively based on the consideration of the global experience of the evaluator and evaluates the direct trust relation between two grid nodes accurately by consulting the previous trust value rationally. It also consults and improves the reputation evaluation process in PathTrust model by taking account of the inter-organizational trust relationship and combines it with direct and recommended trust in a weighted way, which makes the algorithm more robust against collusion attacks. Additionally, the proposed algorithm considers the perspective of the VO creator and takes required VO services as one of the most important fine-grained evaluation criterion, which makes the algorithm more suitable for constructing VOs in grid environments that include autonomous organizations. Simulation results show that our algorithm restrains the bad performers and resists against fake transaction attacks and badmouth attacks effectively. It provides a clear advantage in the design of a VO infrastructure.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Banks, D. W.; Hafez, M. M.

1996-01-01

Grid adaptation for structured meshes is the art of using information from an existing, but poorly resolved, solution to automatically redistribute the grid points in such a way as to improve the resolution in regions of high error, and thus the quality of the solution. This involves: (1) generate a grid vis some standard algorithm, (2) calculate a solution on this grid, (3) adapt the grid to this solution, (4) recalculate the solution on this adapted grid, and (5) repeat steps 3 and 4 to satisfaction. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated until some 'optimal' grid is converged to but typically this is not worth the effort and just two or three repeat calculations are necessary. They also may be repeated every 5-10 time steps for unsteady calculations.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nielsen, Eric J.

2006-01-01

Schemes based on discrete adjoint algorithms present several exciting opportunities for significantly advancing the current state of the art in computational fluid dynamics. Such methods provide an extremely efficient means for obtaining discretely consistent sensitivity information for hundreds of design variables, opening the door to rigorous, automated design optimization of complex aerospace configuration using the Navier-Stokes equation. Moreover, the discrete adjoint formulation provides a mathematically rigorous foundation for mesh adaptation and systematic reduction of spatial discretization error. Error estimates are also an inherent by-product of an adjoint-based approach, valuable information that is virtually non-existent in today's large-scale CFD simulations. An overview of the adjoint-based algorithm work at NASA Langley Research Center is presented, with examples demonstrating the potential impact on complex computational problems related to design optimization as well as mesh adaptation.

8. A new algorithm for high-dimensional uncertainty quantification based on dimension-adaptive sparse grid approximation and reduced basis methods

Chen, Peng; Quarteroni, Alfio

2015-10-01

In this work we develop an adaptive and reduced computational algorithm based on dimension-adaptive sparse grid approximation and reduced basis methods for solving high-dimensional uncertainty quantification (UQ) problems. In order to tackle the computational challenge of "curse of dimensionality" commonly faced by these problems, we employ a dimension-adaptive tensor-product algorithm [16] and propose a verified version to enable effective removal of the stagnation phenomenon besides automatically detecting the importance and interaction of different dimensions. To reduce the heavy computational cost of UQ problems modelled by partial differential equations (PDE), we adopt a weighted reduced basis method [7] and develop an adaptive greedy algorithm in combination with the previous verified algorithm for efficient construction of an accurate reduced basis approximation. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by several numerical experiments.

9. Structured adaptive grid generation using algebraic methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, Bharat K.; Roger, R. P.; Chan, Stephen C.

1993-01-01

The accuracy of the numerical algorithm depends not only on the formal order of approximation but also on the distribution of grid points in the computational domain. Grid adaptation is a procedure which allows optimal grid redistribution as the solution progresses. It offers the prospect of accurate flow field simulations without the use of an excessively timely, computationally expensive, grid. Grid adaptive schemes are divided into two basic categories: differential and algebraic. The differential method is based on a variational approach where a function which contains a measure of grid smoothness, orthogonality and volume variation is minimized by using a variational principle. This approach provided a solid mathematical basis for the adaptive method, but the Euler-Lagrange equations must be solved in addition to the original governing equations. On the other hand, the algebraic method requires much less computational effort, but the grid may not be smooth. The algebraic techniques are based on devising an algorithm where the grid movement is governed by estimates of the local error in the numerical solution. This is achieved by requiring the points in the large error regions to attract other points and points in the low error region to repel other points. The development of a fast, efficient, and robust algebraic adaptive algorithm for structured flow simulation applications is presented. This development is accomplished in a three step process. The first step is to define an adaptive weighting mesh (distribution mesh) on the basis of the equidistribution law applied to the flow field solution. The second, and probably the most crucial step, is to redistribute grid points in the computational domain according to the aforementioned weighting mesh. The third and the last step is to reevaluate the flow property by an appropriate search/interpolate scheme at the new grid locations. The adaptive weighting mesh provides the information on the desired concentration

10. Grid quality improvement by a grid adaptation technique

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.; Choo, Y. K.

1991-01-01

A grid adaptation technique is presented which improves grid quality. The method begins with an assessment of grid quality by defining an appropriate grid quality measure. Then, undesirable grid properties are eliminated by a grid-quality-adaptive grid generation procedure. The same concept has been used for geometry-adaptive and solution-adaptive grid generation. The difference lies in the definition of the grid control sources; here, they are extracted from the distribution of a particular grid property. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the versatility and effectiveness of the method.

11. Cubit Adaptive Meshing Algorithm Library

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

2004-09-01

CAMAL (Cubit adaptive meshing algorithm library) is a software component library for mesh generation. CAMAL 2.0 includes components for triangle, quad and tetrahedral meshing. A simple Application Programmers Interface (API) takes a discrete boundary definition and CAMAL computes a quality interior unstructured grid. The triangle and quad algorithms may also import a geometric definition of a surface on which to define the grid. CAMALs triangle meshing uses a 3D space advancing front method, the quadmore » meshing algorithm is based upon Sandias patented paving algorithm and the tetrahedral meshing algorithm employs the GHS3D-Tetmesh component developed by INRIA, France.« less

12. LAPS Grid generation and adaptation

Pagliantini, Cecilia; Delzanno, Gia Luca; Guo, Zehua; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xianzhu; Chacon, Luis

2011-10-01

LAPS uses a common-data framework in which a general purpose grid generation and adaptation package in toroidal and simply connected domains is implemented. The initial focus is on implementing the Winslow/Laplace-Beltrami method for generating non-overlapping block structured grids. This is to be followed by a grid adaptation scheme based on Monge-Kantorovich optimal transport method [Delzanno et al., J. Comput. Phys,227 (2008), 9841-9864], that equidistributes application-specified error. As an initial set of applications, we will lay out grids for an axisymmetric mirror, a field reversed configuration, and an entire poloidal cross section of a tokamak plasma reconstructed from a CMOD experimental shot. These grids will then be used for computing the plasma equilibrium and transport in accompanying presentations. A key issue for Monge-Kantorovich grid optimization is the choice of error or monitor function for equi-distribution. We will compare the Operator Recovery Error Source Detector (ORESD) [Lapenta, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng,59 (2004) 2065-2087], the Tau method and a strategy based on the grid coarsening [Zhang et al., AIAA J,39 (2001) 1706-1715] to find an ``optimal'' grid. Work supported by DOE OFES.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid

1997-01-01

14. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1995-01-01

To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

15. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

2016-01-01

A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Luong, Phu Vinh; Thompson, J. F.; Gatlin, B.; Mastin, C. W.; Kim, H. J.

1992-01-01

In the effort described here, the elliptic grid generation procedure in the EAGLE grid code was separated from the main code into a subroutine, and a new subroutine which evaluates several grid quality measures at each grid point was added. The elliptic grid routine can now be called, either by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to generate a new adaptive grid based on flow variables and quality measures through multiple adaptation, or by the EAGLE main code to generate a grid based on quality measure variables through static adaptation. Arrays of flow variables can be read into the EAGLE grid code for use in static adaptation as well. These major changes in the EAGLE adaptive grid system make it easier to convert any CFD code that operates on a block-structured grid (or single-block grid) into a multiple adaptive code.

17. Conservative treatment of boundary interfaces for overlaid grids and multi-level grid adaptations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moon, Young J.; Liou, Meng-Sing

1989-01-01

Conservative algorithms for boundaray interfaces of overlaid grids are presented. The basic method is zeroth order, and is extended to a higher order method using interpolation and subcell decomposition. The present method, strictly based on a conservative constraint, is tested with overlaid grids for various applications of unsteady and steady supersonic inviscid flows with strong shock waves. The algorithm is also applied to a multi-level grid adaptation in which the next level finer grid is overlaid on the coarse base grid with an arbitrary orientation.

18. Conservative treatment of boundary interfaces for overlaid grids and multi-level grid adaptations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moon, Young J.; Liou, Meng-Sing

1989-01-01

Conservative algorithms for boundary interfaces of overlaid grids are presented. The basic method is zeroth order, and is extended to a higher order method using interpolation and subcell decomposition. The present method, strictly based on a conservative constraint, is tested with overlaid grids for various applications of unsteady and steady supersonic inviscid flows with strong shock waves. The algorithm is also applied to a multi-level grid adaptation in which the next level finer grid is overlaid on the coarse base grid with an arbitrary orientation.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Choo, Yung K.; Henderson, Todd L.

1992-01-01

20. Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids

SciTech Connect

Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.

1999-06-03

We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.

1. Adaptive grid embedding for the two-dimensional Euler equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warren, Gary P.

1990-01-01

A numerical algorithm is presented for solving the two-dimensional flux-split Euler equations using a multigrid method with adaptive grid embedding. The method uses an unstructured data set along with a system of pointers for communication on the irregularly shaped grid topologies. An explicit two-stage time advancement scheme is implemented. A multigrid algorithm is used to provide grid level communication and to accelerate the convergence of the solution to steady state. Results are presented for an NACA 0012 airfoil in a freestream with Mach numbers of 0.95 and 1.054. Excellent resolution of the shock structures is obtained with the adaptive grid embedding method with significantly fewer grid points than the comparable structured grid.

2. INITIAL APPL;ICATION OF THE ADAPTIVE GRID AIR POLLUTION MODEL

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses an adaptive-grid algorithm used in air pollution models. The algorithm reduces errors related to insufficient grid resolution by automatically refining the grid scales in regions of high interest. Meanwhile the grid scales are coarsened in other parts of the d...

3. Solving Fluid Flow Problems on Moving and Adaptive Overlapping Grids

SciTech Connect

Henshaw, W

2005-07-28

Solution of fluid dynamics problems on overlapping grids will be discussed. An overlapping grid consists of a set of structured component grids that cover a domain and overlap where they meet. Overlapping grids provide an effective approach for developing efficient and accurate approximations for complex, possibly moving geometry. Topics to be addressed include the reactive Euler equations, the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and elliptic equations solved with a multigrid algorithm. Recent developments coupling moving grids and adaptive mesh refinement and preliminary parallel results will also be presented.

4. An Adaptive VOF Method on Unstructured Grid

Wu, L. L.; Huang, M.; Chen, B.

2011-09-01

In order to improve the accuracy of interface capturing and keeping the computational efficiency, an adaptive VOF method on unstructured grid is proposed in this paper. The volume fraction in each cell is regarded as the criterion to locally refine the interface cell. With the movement of interface, new interface cells (0 ≤ f ≤ 1) are subdivided into child cells, while those child cells that no longer contain interface will be merged back into the original parent cell. In order to avoid the complicated redistribution of volume fraction during the subdivision and amalgamation procedure, a predictor-corrector algorithm is proposed to implement the subdivision and amalgamation procedures only in empty or full cell ( f = 0 or 1). Thus volume fraction in the new cell can take the value from the original cell directly, and the interpolation of the interface is avoided. The advantage of this method is that the re-generation of the whole grid system is not necessary, so its implementation is very efficient. Moreover, an advection flow test of a hollow square was performed, and the relative shape error of the result obtained by adaptive mesh is smaller than those by non-refined grid, which verifies the validation of our method.

Xu, Songcen; de Lamare, Rodrigo C.; Poor, H. Vincent

2015-12-01

This paper presents adaptive link selection algorithms for distributed estimation and considers their application to wireless sensor networks and smart grids. In particular, exhaustive search-based least mean squares (LMS) / recursive least squares (RLS) link selection algorithms and sparsity-inspired LMS / RLS link selection algorithms that can exploit the topology of networks with poor-quality links are considered. The proposed link selection algorithms are then analyzed in terms of their stability, steady-state, and tracking performance and computational complexity. In comparison with the existing centralized or distributed estimation strategies, the key features of the proposed algorithms are as follows: (1) more accurate estimates and faster convergence speed can be obtained and (2) the network is equipped with the ability of link selection that can circumvent link failures and improve the estimation performance. The performance of the proposed algorithms for distributed estimation is illustrated via simulations in applications of wireless sensor networks and smart grids.

6. Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation procedure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Henderson, Todd L.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Ki D.

1992-01-01

TURBO-AD is an interactive solution adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on the unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaption is achieved by adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from the flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of the grid is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global controls.

Sun, M.; Takayama, K.

1999-03-01

The Lax-Wendroff scheme can be freed of spurious oscillations by introducing conservative smoothing. In this paper the approach is first tested in 1-D modeling equations and then extended to multidimensional flows by the finite volume method. The scheme is discretized by a space-splitting method on an adaptive quadrilateral grid. The artificial viscosity coefficients in the conservative smoothing step are specially designed to capture slipstreams and vortices. Algorithms are programmed using a vectorizable data structure, under which not only the flow solver but also the adaptation procedure is well vectorized. The good resolution and high efficiency of the approach are demonstrated in calculating both unsteady and steady compressible flows with either weak or strong shock waves.

8. A generic efficient adaptive grid scheme for rocket propulsion modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mo, J. D.; Chow, Alan S.

1993-01-01

The objective of this research is to develop an efficient, time-accurate numerical algorithm to discretize the Navier-Stokes equations for the predictions of internal one-, two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows. A generic, efficient, elliptic adaptive grid generator is implicitly coupled with the Lower-Upper factorization scheme in the development of ALUNS computer code. The calculations of one-dimensional shock tube wave propagation and two-dimensional shock wave capture, wave-wave interactions, shock wave-boundary interactions show that the developed scheme is stable, accurate and extremely robust. The adaptive grid generator produced a very favorable grid network by a grid speed technique. This generic adaptive grid generator is also applied in the PARC and FDNS codes and the computational results for solid rocket nozzle flowfield and crystal growth modeling by those codes will be presented in the conference, too. This research work is being supported by NASA/MSFC.

9. An adaptive grid with directional control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brackbill, J. U.

1993-01-01

An adaptive grid generator for adaptive node movement is here derived by combining a variational formulation of Winslow's (1981) variable-diffusion method with a directional control functional. By applying harmonic-function theory, it becomes possible to define conditions under which there exist unique solutions of the resulting elliptic equations. The results obtained for the grid generator's application to the complex problem posed by the fluid instability-driven magnetic field reconnection demonstrate one-tenth the computational cost of either a Eulerian grid or an adaptive grid without directional control.

10. Grid data extraction algorithm for ship routing

Li, Yuankui; Zhang, Yingjun; Yue, Xingwang; Gao, Zongjiang

2015-05-01

With the aim of extracting environmental data around routes, as the basis of ship routing optimization and other related studies, this paper, taking wind grid data as an example, proposes an algorithm that can effectively extract the grid data around rhumb lines. According to different ship courses, the algorithm calculates the wind grid index values in eight different situations, and a common computational formula is summarised. The wind grids around a ship route can be classified into `best-fitting' grids and `additional' grids, which are stored in such a way that, for example, when the data has a high-spacing resolution, only the `best-fitting' grids around ship routes are extracted. Finally, the algorithm was implemented and simulated with MATLAB programming. As the simulation results indicate, the algorithm designed in this paper achieved wind grid data extraction in different situations and further resolved the extraction problem of meteorological and hydrogeological field grids around ship routes efficiently. Thus, it can provide a great support for optimal ship routing related to meteorological factors.

11. An Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method by Grid Subdivision, Local Remeshing, and Grid Movement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1999-01-01

An unstructured grid adaptation technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The approach is based on a combination of grid subdivision, local remeshing, and grid movement. For solution adaptive grids, the surface triangulation is locally refined by grid subdivision, and the tetrahedral grid in the field is partially remeshed at locations of dominant flow features. A grid redistribution strategy is employed for geometric adaptation of volume grids to moving or deforming surfaces. The method is automatic and fast and is designed for modular coupling with different solvers. Several steady state test cases with different inviscid flow features were tested for grid/solution adaptation. In all cases, the dominant flow features, such as shocks and vortices, were accurately and efficiently predicted with the present approach. A new and robust method of moving tetrahedral "viscous" grids is also presented and demonstrated on a three-dimensional example.

12. The fundamentals of adaptive grid movement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eiseman, Peter R.

1990-01-01

Basic grid point movement schemes are studied. The schemes are referred to as adaptive grids. Weight functions and equidistribution in one dimension are treated. The specification of coefficients in the linear weight, attraction to a given grid or a curve, and evolutionary forces are considered. Curve by curve and finite volume methods are described. The temporal coupling of partial differential equations solvers and grid generators was discussed.

13. Parallel algorithms for dynamically partitioning unstructured grids

SciTech Connect

Diniz, P.; Plimpton, S.; Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

1994-10-01

Grid partitioning is the method of choice for decomposing a wide variety of computational problems into naturally parallel pieces. In problems where computational load on the grid or the grid itself changes as the simulation progresses, the ability to repartition dynamically and in parallel is attractive for achieving higher performance. We describe three algorithms suitable for parallel dynamic load-balancing which attempt to partition unstructured grids so that computational load is balanced and communication is minimized. The execution time of algorithms and the quality of the partitions they generate are compared to results from serial partitioners for two large grids. The integration of the algorithms into a parallel particle simulation is also briefly discussed.

14. SAGE: The Self-Adaptive Grid Code. 3

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

1999-01-01

The multi-dimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE, is an important tool in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It provides an efficient method to improve the accuracy of flow solutions while simultaneously reducing computer processing time. Briefly, SAGE enhances an initial computational grid by redistributing the mesh points into more appropriate locations. The movement of these points is driven by an equal-error-distribution algorithm that utilizes the relationship between high flow gradients and excessive solution errors. The method also provides a balance between clustering points in the high gradient regions and maintaining the smoothness and continuity of the adapted grid, The latest version, Version 3, includes the ability to change the boundaries of a given grid to more efficiently enclose flow structures and provides alternative redistribution algorithms.

15. Self-Avoiding Walks Over Adaptive Triangular Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

Space-filling curves is a popular approach based on a geometric embedding for linearizing computational meshes. We present a new O(n log n) combinatorial algorithm for constructing a self avoiding walk through a two dimensional mesh containing n triangles. We show that for hierarchical adaptive meshes, the algorithm can be locally adapted and easily parallelized by taking advantage of the regularity of the refinement rules. The proposed approach should be very useful in the runtime partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured grids.

16. Fast adaptive composite grid methods on distributed parallel architectures

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lemke, Max; Quinlan, Daniel

1992-01-01

The fast adaptive composite (FAC) grid method is compared with the adaptive composite method (AFAC) under variety of conditions including vectorization and parallelization. Results are given for distributed memory multiprocessor architectures (SUPRENUM, Intel iPSC/2 and iPSC/860). It is shown that the good performance of AFAC and its superiority over FAC in a parallel environment is a property of the algorithm and not dependent on peculiarities of any machine.

17. Grid adaptation using chimera composite overlapping meshes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

1994-01-01

The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite overlapping meshes in regions of large gradient to accurately capture the salient features during computation. The chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using trilinear interpolation. Application to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well-resolved.

18. Grid adaptation using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

1993-01-01

The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

19. Grid adaption using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

1993-01-01

The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

20. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, C. B.

1994-01-01

1. Adaptive mesh and algorithm refinement using direct simulation Monte Carlo

SciTech Connect

Garcia, A.L.; Bell, J.B.; Crutchfield, W.Y.; Alder, B.J.

1999-09-01

Adaptive mesh and algorithm refinement (AMAR) embeds a particle method within a continuum method at the finest level of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hierarchy. The coupling between the particle region and the overlaying continuum grid is algorithmically equivalent to that between the fine and coarse levels of AMR. Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is used as the particle algorithm embedded within a Godunov-type compressible Navier-Stokes solver. Several examples are presented and compared with purely continuum calculations.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biswas, Rupak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

Dynamic mesh adaptation on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing unsteady three-dimensional problems that require grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features. By locally refining and coarsening the mesh to capture phenomena of interest, such procedures make standard computational methods more cost effective. Highly refined meshes are required to accurately capture shock waves, contact discontinuities, vortices, and shear layers in fluid flow problems. Adaptive meshes have also proved to be useful in several other areas of computational science and engineering like computer vision and graphics, semiconductor device modeling, and structural mechanics. Local mesh adaptation provides the opportunity to obtain solutions that are comparable to those obtained on globally-refined grids but at a much lower cost. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

3. Adaptive refinement tools for tetrahedral unstructured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pao, S. Paul (Inventor); Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

An exemplary embodiment providing one or more improvements includes software which is robust, efficient, and has a very fast run time for user directed grid enrichment and flow solution adaptive grid refinement. All user selectable options (e.g., the choice of functions, the choice of thresholds, etc.), other than a pre-marked cell list, can be entered on the command line. The ease of application is an asset for flow physics research and preliminary design CFD analysis where fast grid modification is often needed to deal with unanticipated development of flow details.

4. A parallel adaptive mesh refinement algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quirk, James J.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.

1993-01-01

Over recent years, Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) algorithms which dynamically match the local resolution of the computational grid to the numerical solution being sought have emerged as powerful tools for solving problems that contain disparate length and time scales. In particular, several workers have demonstrated the effectiveness of employing an adaptive, block-structured hierarchical grid system for simulations of complex shock wave phenomena. Unfortunately, from the parallel algorithm developer's viewpoint, this class of scheme is quite involved; these schemes cannot be distilled down to a small kernel upon which various parallelizing strategies may be tested. However, because of their block-structured nature such schemes are inherently parallel, so all is not lost. In this paper we describe the method by which Quirk's AMR algorithm has been parallelized. This method is built upon just a few simple message passing routines and so it may be implemented across a broad class of MIMD machines. Moreover, the method of parallelization is such that the original serial code is left virtually intact, and so we are left with just a single product to support. The importance of this fact should not be underestimated given the size and complexity of the original algorithm.

5. Fully implicit adaptive mesh refinement MHD algorithm

Philip, Bobby

2005-10-01

In the macroscopic simulation of plasmas, the numerical modeler is faced with the challenge of dealing with multiple time and length scales. The former results in stiffness due to the presence of very fast waves. The latter requires one to resolve the localized features that the system develops. Traditional approaches based on explicit time integration techniques and fixed meshes are not suitable for this challenge, as such approaches prevent the modeler from using realistic plasma parameters to keep the computation feasible. We propose here a novel approach, based on implicit methods and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). Our emphasis is on both accuracy and scalability with the number of degrees of freedom. To our knowledge, a scalable, fully implicit AMR algorithm has not been accomplished before for MHD. As a proof-of-principle, we focus on the reduced resistive MHD model as a basic MHD model paradigm, which is truly multiscale. The approach taken here is to adapt mature physics-based technologyootnotetextL. Chac'on et al., J. Comput. Phys. 178 (1), 15- 36 (2002) to AMR grids, and employ AMR-aware multilevel techniques (such as fast adaptive composite --FAC-- algorithms) for scalability. We will demonstrate that the concept is indeed feasible, featuring optimal scalability under grid refinement. Results of fully-implicit, dynamically-adaptive AMR simulations will be presented on a variety of problems.

6. Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids

SciTech Connect

Stoyanov, Miroslav K

2013-09-01

We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.

7. A Multilevel Algorithm for the Solution of Second Order Elliptic Differential Equations on Sparse Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pflaum, Christoph

1996-01-01

A multilevel algorithm is presented that solves general second order elliptic partial differential equations on adaptive sparse grids. The multilevel algorithm consists of several V-cycles. Suitable discretizations provide that the discrete equation system can be solved in an efficient way. Numerical experiments show a convergence rate of order Omicron(1) for the multilevel algorithm.

8. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

DOEpatents

Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA

2009-04-28

An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

9. Self-Avoiding Walks over Adaptive Triangular Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

In this paper, we present a new approach to constructing a "self-avoiding" walk through a triangular mesh. Unlike the popular approach of visiting mesh elements using space-filling curves which is based on a geometric embedding, our approach is combinatorial in the sense that it uses the mesh connectivity only. We present an algorithm for constructing a self-avoiding walk which can be applied to any unstructured triangular mesh. The complexity of the algorithm is O(n x log(n)), where n is the number of triangles in the mesh. We show that for hierarchical adaptive meshes, the algorithm can be easily parallelized by taking advantage of the regularity of the refinement rules. The proposed approach should be very useful in the run-time partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured grids.

10. An adaptive mesh refinement algorithm for the discrete ordinates method

SciTech Connect

Jessee, J.P.; Fiveland, W.A.; Howell, L.H.; Colella, P.; Pember, R.B.

1996-03-01

The discrete ordinates form of the radiative transport equation (RTE) is spatially discretized and solved using an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm. This technique permits the local grid refinement to minimize spatial discretization error of the RTE. An error estimator is applied to define regions for local grid refinement; overlapping refined grids are recursively placed in these regions; and the RTE is then solved over the entire domain. The procedure continues until the spatial discretization error has been reduced to a sufficient level. The following aspects of the algorithm are discussed: error estimation, grid generation, communication between refined levels, and solution sequencing. This initial formulation employs the step scheme, and is valid for absorbing and isotopically scattering media in two-dimensional enclosures. The utility of the algorithm is tested by comparing the convergence characteristics and accuracy to those of the standard single-grid algorithm for several benchmark cases. The AMR algorithm provides a reduction in memory requirements and maintains the convergence characteristics of the standard single-grid algorithm; however, the cases illustrate that efficiency gains of the AMR algorithm will not be fully realized until three-dimensional geometries are considered.

11. Adaptive color image watermarking algorithm

Feng, Gui; Lin, Qiwei

2008-03-01

As a major method for intellectual property right protecting, digital watermarking techniques have been widely studied and used. But due to the problems of data amount and color shifted, watermarking techniques on color image was not so widespread studied, although the color image is the principal part for multi-medium usages. Considering the characteristic of Human Visual System (HVS), an adaptive color image watermarking algorithm is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, HSI color model was adopted both for host and watermark image, the DCT coefficient of intensity component (I) of the host color image was used for watermark date embedding, and while embedding watermark the amount of embedding bit was adaptively changed with the complex degree of the host image. As to the watermark image, preprocessing is applied first, in which the watermark image is decomposed by two layer wavelet transformations. At the same time, for enhancing anti-attack ability and security of the watermarking algorithm, the watermark image was scrambled. According to its significance, some watermark bits were selected and some watermark bits were deleted as to form the actual embedding data. The experimental results show that the proposed watermarking algorithm is robust to several common attacks, and has good perceptual quality at the same time.

12. Adaptive grid methods for RLV environment assessment and nozzle analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thornburg, Hugh J.

1996-01-01

Rapid access to highly accurate data about complex configurations is needed for multi-disciplinary optimization and design. In order to efficiently meet these requirements a closer coupling between the analysis algorithms and the discretization process is needed. In some cases, such as free surface, temporally varying geometries, and fluid structure interaction, the need is unavoidable. In other cases the need is to rapidly generate and modify high quality grids. Techniques such as unstructured and/or solution-adaptive methods can be used to speed the grid generation process and to automatically cluster mesh points in regions of interest. Global features of the flow can be significantly affected by isolated regions of inadequately resolved flow. These regions may not exhibit high gradients and can be difficult to detect. Thus excessive resolution in certain regions does not necessarily increase the accuracy of the overall solution. Several approaches have been employed for both structured and unstructured grid adaption. The most widely used involve grid point redistribution, local grid point enrichment/derefinement or local modification of the actual flow solver. However, the success of any one of these methods ultimately depends on the feature detection algorithm used to determine solution domain regions which require a fine mesh for their accurate representation. Typically, weight functions are constructed to mimic the local truncation error and may require substantial user input. Most problems of engineering interest involve multi-block grids and widely disparate length scales. Hence, it is desirable that the adaptive grid feature detection algorithm be developed to recognize flow structures of different type as well as differing intensity, and adequately address scaling and normalization across blocks. These weight functions can then be used to construct blending functions for algebraic redistribution, interpolation functions for unstructured grid generation

13. Parallel architectures for iterative methods on adaptive, block structured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gannon, D.; Vanrosendale, J.

1983-01-01

A parallel computer architecture well suited to the solution of partial differential equations in complicated geometries is proposed. Algorithms for partial differential equations contain a great deal of parallelism. But this parallelism can be difficult to exploit, particularly on complex problems. One approach to extraction of this parallelism is the use of special purpose architectures tuned to a given problem class. The architecture proposed here is tuned to boundary value problems on complex domains. An adaptive elliptic algorithm which maps effectively onto the proposed architecture is considered in detail. Two levels of parallelism are exploited by the proposed architecture. First, by making use of the freedom one has in grid generation, one can construct grids which are locally regular, permitting a one to one mapping of grids to systolic style processor arrays, at least over small regions. All local parallelism can be extracted by this approach. Second, though there may be a regular global structure to the grids constructed, there will be parallelism at this level. One approach to finding and exploiting this parallelism is to use an architecture having a number of processor clusters connected by a switching network. The use of such a network creates a highly flexible architecture which automatically configures to the problem being solved.

14. Adaptive-grid methods for time-dependent partial differential equations

SciTech Connect

Hedstrom, G.W.; Rodrique, G.H.

1981-01-01

This paper contains a survey of recent developments of adaptive-grid algorithms for time-dependent partial differential equations. Two lines of research are discussed. One involves the automatic selection of moving grids to follow propagating waves. The other is based on stationary grids but uses local mesh refinement in both space and time. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed. The development of adaptive-grid schemes shows promise of greatly increasing our ability to solve problems in several spatial dimensions.

15. Shape optimization including finite element grid adaptation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kikuchi, N.; Taylor, J. E.

1984-01-01

The prediction of optimal shape design for structures depends on having a sufficient level of precision in the computation of structural response. These requirements become critical in situations where the region to be designed includes stress concentrations or unilateral contact surfaces, for example. In the approach to shape optimization discussed here, a means to obtain grid adaptation is incorporated into the finite element procedures. This facility makes it possible to maintain a level of quality in the computational estimate of response that is surely adequate for the shape design problem.

16. Fast transport simulation with an adaptive grid refinement.

PubMed

Haefner, Frieder; Boy, Siegrun

2003-01-01

One of the main difficulties in transport modeling and calibration is the extraordinarily long computing times necessary for simulation runs. Improved execution time is a prerequisite for calibration in transport modeling. In this paper we investigate the problem of code acceleration using an adaptive grid refinement, neglecting subdomains, and devising a method by which the Courant condition can be ignored while maintaining accurate solutions. Grid refinement is based on dividing selected cells into regular subcells and including the balance equations of subcells in the equation system. The connection of coarse and refined cells satisfies the mass balance with an interpolation scheme that is implicitly included in the equation system. The refined subdomain can move with the average transport velocity of the subdomain. Very small time steps are required on a fine or a refined grid, because of the combined effect of the Courant and Peclet conditions. Therefore, we have developed a special upwind technique in small grid cells with high velocities (velocity suppression). We have neglected grid subdomains with very small concentration gradients (zero suppression). The resulting software, MODCALIF, is a three-dimensional, modularly constructed FORTRAN code. For convenience, the package names used by the well-known MODFLOW and MT3D computer programs are adopted, and the same input file structure and format is used, but the program presented here is separate and independent. Also, MODCALIF includes algorithms for variable density modeling and model calibration. The method is tested by comparison with an analytical solution, and illustrated by means of a two-dimensional theoretical example and three-dimensional simulations of the variable-density Cape Cod and SALTPOOL experiments. Crossing from fine to coarse grid produces numerical dispersion when the whole subdomain of interest is refined; however, we show that accurate solutions can be obtained using a fraction of the

17. On Accuracy of Adaptive Grid Methods for Captured Shocks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

2002-01-01

The accuracy of two grid adaptation strategies, grid redistribution and local grid refinement, is examined by solving the 2-D Euler equations for the supersonic steady flow around a cylinder. Second- and fourth-order linear finite difference shock-capturing schemes, based on the Lax-Friedrichs flux splitting, are used to discretize the governing equations. The grid refinement study shows that for the second-order scheme, neither grid adaptation strategy improves the numerical solution accuracy compared to that calculated on a uniform grid with the same number of grid points. For the fourth-order scheme, the dominant first-order error component is reduced by the grid adaptation, while the design-order error component drastically increases because of the grid nonuniformity. As a result, both grid adaptation techniques improve the numerical solution accuracy only on the coarsest mesh or on very fine grids that are seldom found in practical applications because of the computational cost involved. Similar error behavior has been obtained for the pressure integral across the shock. A simple analysis shows that both grid adaptation strategies are not without penalties in the numerical solution accuracy. Based on these results, a new grid adaptation criterion for captured shocks is proposed.

18. Adaptive Numerical Algorithms in Space Weather Modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Toth, Gabor; vanderHolst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; DeZeeuw, Darren; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Nakib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav

2010-01-01

Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising of several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit numerical

19. Adaptive numerical algorithms in space weather modeling

Tóth, Gábor; van der Holst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; De Zeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Najib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav

2012-02-01

Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different relevant physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit

20. Dynamic mesh adaption for triangular and tetrahedral grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger

1993-01-01

The following topics are discussed: requirements for dynamic mesh adaption; linked-list data structure; edge-based data structure; adaptive-grid data structure; three types of element subdivision; mesh refinement; mesh coarsening; additional constraints for coarsening; anisotropic error indicator for edges; unstructured-grid Euler solver; inviscid 3-D wing; and mesh quality for solution-adaptive grids. The discussion is presented in viewgraph form.

1. Techniques for grid manipulation and adaptation. [computational fluid dynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Choo, Yung K.; Eisemann, Peter R.; Lee, Ki D.

1992-01-01

Two approaches have been taken to provide systematic grid manipulation for improved grid quality. One is the control point form (CPF) of algebraic grid generation. It provides explicit control of the physical grid shape and grid spacing through the movement of the control points. It works well in the interactive computer graphics environment and hence can be a good candidate for integration with other emerging technologies. The other approach is grid adaptation using a numerical mapping between the physical space and a parametric space. Grid adaptation is achieved by modifying the mapping functions through the effects of grid control sources. The adaptation process can be repeated in a cyclic manner if satisfactory results are not achieved after a single application.

2. A chimera grid scheme. [multiple overset body-conforming mesh system for finite difference adaptation to complex aircraft configurations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steger, J. L.; Dougherty, F. C.; Benek, J. A.

1983-01-01

A mesh system composed of multiple overset body-conforming grids is described for adapting finite-difference procedures to complex aircraft configurations. In this so-called 'chimera mesh,' a major grid is generated about a main component of the configuration and overset minor grids are used to resolve all other features. Methods for connecting overset multiple grids and modifications of flow-simulation algorithms are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions indicate that the use of multiple overset grids can simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse effect on flow-field algorithms and computer code complexity.

3. A time-accurate multiple-grid algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jespersen, D. C.

1985-01-01

A time-accurate multiple-grid algorithm is described. The algorithm allows one to take much larger time steps with an explicit time-marching scheme than would otherwise be the case. Sample calculations of a scalar advection equation and the Euler equations for an oscillating airfoil are shown. For the oscillating airfoil, time steps an order of magnitude larger than the single-grid algorithm are possible.

4. Comparing Anisotropic Output-Based Grid Adaptation Methods by Decomposition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Park, Michael A.; Loseille, Adrien; Krakos, Joshua A.; Michal, Todd

2015-01-01

Anisotropic grid adaptation is examined by decomposing the steps of flow solution, ad- joint solution, error estimation, metric construction, and simplex grid adaptation. Multiple implementations of each of these steps are evaluated by comparison to each other and expected analytic results when available. For example, grids are adapted to analytic metric fields and grid measures are computed to illustrate the properties of multiple independent implementations of grid adaptation mechanics. Different implementations of each step in the adaptation process can be evaluated in a system where the other components of the adaptive cycle are fixed. Detailed examination of these properties allows comparison of different methods to identify the current state of the art and where further development should be targeted.

5. Adaptive Multigrid Algorithm for the Lattice Wilson-Dirac Operator

SciTech Connect

Babich, R.; Brower, R. C.; Rebbi, C.; Brannick, J.; Clark, M. A.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Osborn, J. C.

2010-11-12

We present an adaptive multigrid solver for application to the non-Hermitian Wilson-Dirac system of QCD. The key components leading to the success of our proposed algorithm are the use of an adaptive projection onto coarse grids that preserves the near null space of the system matrix together with a simplified form of the correction based on the so-called {gamma}{sub 5}-Hermitian symmetry of the Dirac operator. We demonstrate that the algorithm nearly eliminates critical slowing down in the chiral limit and that it has weak dependence on the lattice volume.

6. Adaptive multigrid algorithm for the lattice Wilson-Dirac operator.

PubMed

Babich, R; Brannick, J; Brower, R C; Clark, M A; Manteuffel, T A; McCormick, S F; Osborn, J C; Rebbi, C

2010-11-12

We present an adaptive multigrid solver for application to the non-Hermitian Wilson-Dirac system of QCD. The key components leading to the success of our proposed algorithm are the use of an adaptive projection onto coarse grids that preserves the near null space of the system matrix together with a simplified form of the correction based on the so-called γ5-Hermitian symmetry of the Dirac operator. We demonstrate that the algorithm nearly eliminates critical slowing down in the chiral limit and that it has weak dependence on the lattice volume. PMID:21231217

7. Adaptively-refined overlapping grids for the numerical solution of systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brislawn, Kristi D.; Brown, David L.; Chesshire, Geoffrey S.; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

1995-01-01

Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in conjunction with higher-order upwind finite-difference methods have been used effectively on a variety of problems in two and three dimensions. In this paper we introduce an approach for resolving problems that involve complex geometries in which resolution of boundary geometry is important. The complex geometry is represented by using the method of overlapping grids, while local resolution is obtained by refining each component grid with the AMR algorithm, appropriately generalized for this situation. The CMPGRD algorithm introduced by Chesshire and Henshaw is used to automatically generate the overlapping grid structure for the underlying mesh.

8. Moving and adaptive grid methods for compressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trepanier, Jean-Yves; Camarero, Ricardo

1995-01-01

This paper describes adaptive grid methods developed specifically for compressible flow computations. The basic flow solver is a finite-volume implementation of Roe's flux difference splitting scheme or arbitrarily moving unstructured triangular meshes. The grid adaptation is performed according to geometric and flow requirements. Some results are included to illustrate the potential of the methodology.

9. Genetic-Annealing Algorithm in Grid Environment for Scheduling Problems

Cruz-Chávez, Marco Antonio; Rodríguez-León, Abelardo; Ávila-Melgar, Erika Yesenia; Juárez-Pérez, Fredy; Cruz-Rosales, Martín H.; Rivera-López, Rafael

This paper presents a parallel hybrid evolutionary algorithm executed in a grid environment. The algorithm executes local searches using simulated annealing within a Genetic Algorithm to solve the job shop scheduling problem. Experimental results of the algorithm obtained in the "Tarantula MiniGrid" are shown. Tarantula was implemented by linking two clusters from different geographic locations in Mexico (Morelos-Veracruz). The technique used to link the two clusters and configure the Tarantula MiniGrid is described. The effects of latency in communication between the two clusters are discussed. It is shown that the evolutionary algorithm presented is more efficient working in Grid environments because it can carry out major exploration and exploitation of the solution space.

10. A multigrid method for steady Euler equations on unstructured adaptive grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Riemslagh, Kris; Dick, Erik

1993-01-01

A flux-difference splitting type algorithm is formulated for the steady Euler equations on unstructured grids. The polynomial flux-difference splitting technique is used. A vertex-centered finite volume method is employed on a triangular mesh. The multigrid method is in defect-correction form. A relaxation procedure with a first order accurate inner iteration and a second-order correction performed only on the finest grid, is used. A multi-stage Jacobi relaxation method is employed as a smoother. Since the grid is unstructured a Jacobi type is chosen. The multi-staging is necessary to provide sufficient smoothing properties. The domain is discretized using a Delaunay triangular mesh generator. Three grids with more or less uniform distribution of nodes but with different resolution are generated by successive refinement of the coarsest grid. Nodes of coarser grids appear in the finer grids. The multigrid method is started on these grids. As soon as the residual drops below a threshold value, an adaptive refinement is started. The solution on the adaptively refined grid is accelerated by a multigrid procedure. The coarser multigrid grids are generated by successive coarsening through point removement. The adaption cycle is repeated a few times. Results are given for the transonic flow over a NACA-0012 airfoil.

Fritts, Martin J.

1988-01-01

Free-Lagrangian methods have been employed in two-dimensional simulations of the long-term evolution of fluid instabilities for low speed flows. For example, calculations of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability have proceeded through the inversion and mixing of two fluid layers and simulations of droplet deformations have continued well beyond droplet shattering. The freedom to choose grid connections permits several important benefits for these calculations. 1. Mass conservation is enforced for all individual fluid elements. 2. Vertex movement is always Lagrangian. 3. Grid adjustments can be made automatically, with no user intervention. 4. Grid connections may be selected to ensure accuracy in the difference equations. 5. Adaptive gridding schemes are local, adding and deleting vertices as dictated by local accuracy estimators. 6. Any geometric configuration may be easily gridded, for any vertex distribution on the boundaries or in the interior of the fluids. This paper will review some two-dimensional results, with the emphasis on the adaptive gridding algorithms and the accuracy of the resultant difference templates for the mathematical operators. The relation of the triangular mesh to the Voronoi mesh will be explored, particularly for the case when they are dual meshes. Three-dimensional algorithms for adaptive gridding will be presented which are exact analogues to the two-dimensional case. Gridding efficiencies will be discussed for several schemes.

12. Cosmos++: Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics on Unstructured Grids with Local Adaptive Refinement

SciTech Connect

Anninos, P; Fragile, P C; Salmonson, J D

2005-05-06

A new code and methodology are introduced for solving the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. it provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threated oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. A number of tests are presented to demonstrate robustness of the numerical algorithms and adaptive mesh framework over a wide spectrum of problems, boosts, and astrophysical applications, including relativistic shock tubes, shock collisions, magnetosonic shocks, Alfven wave propagation, blast waves, magnetized Bondi flow, and the magneto-rotational instability in Kerr black hole spacetimes.

13. Stability of the DSI algorithm on a chevron grid

SciTech Connect

Brandon, S.T.; Rambo, P.W.

1995-06-01

The development of time domain electromagnetic solvers for nonorthogonal grids is an area of current research interest, stemming from the need to simulate complex geometries in a wide variety of applications. A notable example is the discrete surface integral (DSI) algorithm which solves the Maxwell curl equations in the time domain using a 3d, unstructured, mixed-polyhedral grid. Although this method is an extension of the time proven Yee algorithm, little is known about the numerical properties of the method when discretized on these more general grids. Dispersion relations for the DSI algorithm can be derived using 2d idealized grids, such as the skewed mesh analysis done by Ray and Rambo for both triangles and quadrilaterals. The present work applies the same techniques used for the skewed mesh analysis to another idealized, but nonorthogonal, 2d grid.

14. Algorithms and data structures for adaptive multigrid elliptic solvers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vanrosendale, J.

1983-01-01

Adaptive refinement and the complicated data structures required to support it are discussed. These data structures must be carefully tuned, especially in three dimensions where the time and storage requirements of algorithms are crucial. Another major issue is grid generation. The options available seem to be curvilinear fitted grids, constructed on iterative graphics systems, and unfitted Cartesian grids, which can be constructed automatically. On several grounds, including storage requirements, the second option seems preferrable for the well behaved scalar elliptic problems considered here. A variety of techniques for treatment of boundary conditions on such grids are reviewed. A new approach, which may overcome some of the difficulties encountered with previous approaches, is also presented.

15. Dynamic multi DAG scheduling algorithm for optical grid environment

Zhu, Liying; Sun, Zhenyu; Guo, Wei; Jin, Yaohui; Sun, Weiqiang; Hu, Weisheng

2007-11-01

Facing the evolvement of the Optical Grid technology, dynamic task scheduling can largely improve the efficiency of the Grid environment under the real circumstances. We propose a Serve On Time (SOT) algorithm - based on the idea of combining all the dynamic multi tasks so that all the tasks will obtain the rights to be served as soon as possible. We then introduce the basic First Come First Serve (FCFS) algorithm. A simulation will show the advantage of SOT.

16. Extending the MODPATH Algorithm to Rectangular Unstructured Grids.

PubMed

Pollock, David W

2016-01-01

The recent release of MODFLOW-USG, which allows model grids to have irregular, unstructured connections, requires a modification of the particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH. This paper describes a modification of the semi-analytical particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH that allows it to be extended to rectangular-based unstructured grids by dividing grid cells with multi-cell face connections into sub-cells. The new method will be incorporated in the next version of MODPATH which is currently under development. PMID:25754305

17. Extending the MODPATH algorithm to rectangular unstructured grids

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollock, David W.

2016-01-01

The recent release of MODFLOW-USG, which allows model grids to have irregular, unstructured connections, requires a modification of the particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH. This paper describes a modification of the semi-analytical particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH that allows it to be extended to rectangular-based unstructured grids by dividing grid cells with multi-cell face connections into sub-cells. The new method will be incorporated in the next version of MODPATH which is currently under development.

18. Development of a dynamically adaptive grid method for multidimensional problems

Holcomb, J. E.; Hindman, R. G.

1984-06-01

An approach to solution adaptive grid generation for use with finite difference techniques, previously demonstrated on model problems in one space dimension, has been extended to multidimensional problems. The method is based on the popular elliptic steady grid generators, but is 'dynamically' adaptive in the sense that a grid is maintained at all times satisfying the steady grid law driven by a solution-dependent source term. Testing has been carried out on Burgers' equation in one and two space dimensions. Results appear encouraging both for inviscid wave propagation cases and viscous boundary layer cases, suggesting that application to practical flow problems is now possible. In the course of the work, obstacles relating to grid correction, smoothing of the solution, and elliptic equation solvers have been largely overcome. Concern remains, however, about grid skewness, boundary layer resolution and the need for implicit integration methods. Also, the method in 3-D is expected to be very demanding of computer resources.

19. Workshop on adaptive grid methods for fusion plasmas

SciTech Connect

Wiley, J.C.

1995-07-01

The author describes a general `hp` finite element method with adaptive grids. The code was based on the work of Oden, et al. The term `hp` refers to the method of spatial refinement (h), in conjunction with the order of polynomials used as a part of the finite element discretization (p). This finite element code seems to handle well the different mesh grid sizes occuring between abuted grids with different resolutions.

20. QPSO-Based Adaptive DNA Computing Algorithm

PubMed Central

Karakose, Mehmet; Cigdem, Ugur

2013-01-01

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) computing that is a new computation model based on DNA molecules for information storage has been increasingly used for optimization and data analysis in recent years. However, DNA computing algorithm has some limitations in terms of convergence speed, adaptability, and effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach for improvement of DNA computing is proposed. This new approach aims to perform DNA computing algorithm with adaptive parameters towards the desired goal using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO). Some contributions provided by the proposed QPSO based on adaptive DNA computing algorithm are as follows: (1) parameters of population size, crossover rate, maximum number of operations, enzyme and virus mutation rate, and fitness function of DNA computing algorithm are simultaneously tuned for adaptive process, (2) adaptive algorithm is performed using QPSO algorithm for goal-driven progress, faster operation, and flexibility in data, and (3) numerical realization of DNA computing algorithm with proposed approach is implemented in system identification. Two experiments with different systems were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with comparative results. Experimental results obtained with Matlab and FPGA demonstrate ability to provide effective optimization, considerable convergence speed, and high accuracy according to DNA computing algorithm. PMID:23935409

1. A structured multi-block solution-adaptive mesh algorithm with mesh quality assessment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ingram, Clint L.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Mcrae, D. Scott

1995-01-01

The dynamic solution adaptive grid algorithm, DSAGA3D, is extended to automatically adapt 2-D structured multi-block grids, including adaption of the block boundaries. The extension is general, requiring only input data concerning block structure, connectivity, and boundary conditions. Imbedded grid singular points are permitted, but must be prevented from moving in space. Solutions for workshop cases 1 and 2 are obtained on multi-block grids and illustrate both increased resolution of and alignment with the solution. A mesh quality assessment criteria is proposed to determine how well a given mesh resolves and aligns with the solution obtained upon it. The criteria is used to evaluate the grid quality for solutions of workshop case 6 obtained on both static and dynamically adapted grids. The results indicate that this criteria shows promise as a means of evaluating resolution.

2. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alter, Stephen J.

2006-01-01

A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reductions in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

3. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alter, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reduction in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

4. Adaptive sensor fusion using genetic algorithms

SciTech Connect

1994-08-01

Past attempts at sensor fusion have used some form of Boolean logic to combine the sensor information. As an alteniative, an adaptive ``fuzzy`` sensor fusion technique is described in this paper. This technique exploits the robust capabilities of fuzzy logic in the decision process as well as the optimization features of the genetic algorithm. This paper presents a brief background on fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms and how they are used in an online implementation of adaptive sensor fusion.

5. Stability and error estimation for Component Adaptive Grid methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oliger, Joseph; Zhu, Xiaolei

1994-01-01

Component adaptive grid (CAG) methods for solving hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDE's) are discussed in this paper. Applying recent stability results for a class of numerical methods on uniform grids. The convergence of these methods for linear problems on component adaptive grids is established here. Furthermore, the computational error can be estimated on CAG's using the stability results. Using these estimates, the error can be controlled on CAG's. Thus, the solution can be computed efficiently on CAG's within a given error tolerance. Computational results for time dependent linear problems in one and two space dimensions are presented.

6. Volumetric Rendering of Geophysical Data on Adaptive Wavelet Grid

Vezolainen, A.; Erlebacher, G.; Vasilyev, O.; Yuen, D. A.

2005-12-01

Numerical modeling of geological phenomena frequently involves processes across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. In the last several years, transport phenomena governed by the Navier-Stokes equations have been simulated in wavelet space using second generation wavelets [1], and most recently on fully adaptive meshes. Our objective is to visualize this time-dependent data using volume rendering while capitalizing on the available sparse data representation. We present a technique for volumetric ray casting of multi-scale datasets in wavelet space. Rather of working with the wavelets at the finest possible resolution, we perform a partial inverse wavelet transform as a preprocessing step to obtain scaling functions on a uniform grid at a user-prescribed resolution. As a result, a function in physical space is represented by a superposition of scaling functions on a coarse regular grid and wavelets on an adaptive mesh. An efficient and accurate ray casting algorithm is based just on these scaling functions. Additional detail is added during the ray tracing by taking an appropriate number of wavelets into account based on support overlap with the interpolation point, wavelet amplitude, and other characteristics, such as opacity accumulation (front to back ordering) and deviation from frontal viewing direction. Strategies for hardware implementation will be presented if available, inspired by the work in [2]. We will pressent error measures as a function of the number of scaling and wavelet functions used for interpolation. Data from mantle convection will be used to illustrate the method. [1] Vasilyev, O.V. and Bowman, C., Second Generation Wavelet Collocation Method for the Solution of Partial Differential Equations. J. Comp. Phys., 165, pp. 660-693, 2000. [2] Guthe, S., Wand, M., Gonser, J., and Straßer, W. Interactive rendering of large volume data sets. In Proceedings of the Conference on Visualization '02 (Boston, Massachusetts, October 27 - November

7. Topology and grid adaption for high-speed flow computations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

1989-01-01

This study investigates the effects of grid topology and grid adaptation on numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In the first part of this study, a general procedure is presented for computation of high-speed flow over complex three-dimensional configurations. The flow field is simulated on the surface of a Butler wing in a uniform stream. Results are presented for Mach number 3.5 and a Reynolds number of 2,000,000. The O-type and H-type grids have been used for this study, and the results are compared together and with other theoretical and experimental results. The results demonstrate that while the H-type grid is suitable for the leading and trailing edges, a more accurate solution can be obtained for the middle part of the wing with an O-type grid. In the second part of this study, methods of grid adaption are reviewed and a method is developed with the capability of adapting to several variables. This method is based on a variational approach and is an algebraic method. Also, the method has been formulated in such a way that there is no need for any matrix inversion. This method is used in conjunction with the calculation of hypersonic flow over a blunt-nose body. A movie has been produced which shows simultaneously the transient behavior of the solution and the grid adaption.

8. Application of a modified gradient lease squares algorithm to an adaptive, actively quenched, sound field system

SciTech Connect

Belyakov, A.A.; Mal`tsev, A.A.; Medvedev, S.Yu.

1995-04-01

A modified least squares algorithm, preventing the overflow of the discharge grid of weight coefficients of an adaptive transverse filter and guaranteeing stable system operation, is suggested for the tuning of an adaptive system of an actively quenched sound field. Experimental results are provided for an adaptive filter with a modified algorithm in a system of several harmonic components of an actively quenched sound field.

9. Adaptivity and smart algorithms for fluid-structure interaction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oden, J. Tinsley

1990-01-01

This paper reviews new approaches in CFD which have the potential for significantly increasing current capabilities of modeling complex flow phenomena and of treating difficult problems in fluid-structure interaction. These approaches are based on the notions of adaptive methods and smart algorithms, which use instantaneous measures of the quality and other features of the numerical flowfields as a basis for making changes in the structure of the computational grid and of algorithms designed to function on the grid. The application of these new techniques to several problem classes are addressed, including problems with moving boundaries, fluid-structure interaction in high-speed turbine flows, flow in domains with receding boundaries, and related problems.

10. Eddy-current NDE inverse problem with sparse grid algorithm

Zhou, Liming; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Murphy, R. Kim; Bernacchi, William; Aldrin, John C.; Forsyth, David; Lindgren, Eric

2016-02-01

In model-based inverse problems, the unknown parameters (such as length, width, depth) need to be estimated. When the unknown parameters are few, the conventional mathematical methods are suitable. But the increasing number of unknown parameters will make the computation become heavy. To reduce the burden of computation, the sparse grid algorithm was used in our work. As a result, we obtain a powerful interpolation method that requires significantly fewer support nodes than conventional interpolation on a full grid.

11. Parallel grid generation algorithm for distributed memory computers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moitra, Stuti; Moitra, Anutosh

1994-01-01

A parallel grid-generation algorithm and its implementation on the Intel iPSC/860 computer are described. The grid-generation scheme is based on an algebraic formulation of homotopic relations. Methods for utilizing the inherent parallelism of the grid-generation scheme are described, and implementation of multiple levELs of parallelism on multiple instruction multiple data machines are indicated. The algorithm is capable of providing near orthogonality and spacing control at solid boundaries while requiring minimal interprocessor communications. Results obtained on the Intel hypercube for a blended wing-body configuration are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Fortran implementations bAsed on the native programming model of the iPSC/860 computer and the Express system of software tools are reported. Computational gains in execution time speed-up ratios are given.

12. Adaptive grid generation in a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm.

PubMed

Hodis, Simona; Kallmes, David F; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

2013-11-01

13. Adaptive grid generation in a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm

Hodis, Simona; Kallmes, David F.; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

2013-11-01

14. Fully implicit adaptive mesh refinement algorithm for reduced MHD

Philip, Bobby; Pernice, Michael; Chacon, Luis

2006-10-01

In the macroscopic simulation of plasmas, the numerical modeler is faced with the challenge of dealing with multiple time and length scales. Traditional approaches based on explicit time integration techniques and fixed meshes are not suitable for this challenge, as such approaches prevent the modeler from using realistic plasma parameters to keep the computation feasible. We propose here a novel approach, based on implicit methods and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). Our emphasis is on both accuracy and scalability with the number of degrees of freedom. As a proof-of-principle, we focus on the reduced resistive MHD model as a basic MHD model paradigm, which is truly multiscale. The approach taken here is to adapt mature physics-based technology to AMR grids, and employ AMR-aware multilevel techniques (such as fast adaptive composite grid --FAC-- algorithms) for scalability. We demonstrate that the concept is indeed feasible, featuring near-optimal scalability under grid refinement. Results of fully-implicit, dynamically-adaptive AMR simulations in challenging dissipation regimes will be presented on a variety of problems that benefit from this capability, including tearing modes, the island coalescence instability, and the tilt mode instability. L. Chac'on et al., J. Comput. Phys. 178 (1), 15- 36 (2002) B. Philip, M. Pernice, and L. Chac'on, Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, accepted (2006)

15. A new procedure for dynamic adaption of three-dimensional unstructured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger

1993-01-01

A new procedure is presented for the simultaneous coarsening and refinement of three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral meshes. This algorithm allows for localized grid adaption that is used to capture aerodynamic flow features such as vortices and shock waves in helicopter flowfield simulations. The mesh-adaption algorithm is implemented in the C programming language and uses a data structure consisting of a series of dynamically-allocated linked lists. These lists allow the mesh connectivity to be rapidly reconstructed when individual mesh points are added and/or deleted. The algorithm allows the mesh to change in an anisotropic manner in order to efficiently resolve directional flow features. The procedure has been successfully implemented on a single processor of a Cray Y-MP computer. Two sample cases are presented involving three-dimensional transonic flow. Computed results show good agreement with conventional structured-grid solutions for the Euler equations.

16. Self-adaptive parameters in genetic algorithms

Pellerin, Eric; Pigeon, Luc; Delisle, Sylvain

2004-04-01

Genetic algorithms are powerful search algorithms that can be applied to a wide range of problems. Generally, parameter setting is accomplished prior to running a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and this setting remains unchanged during execution. The problem of interest to us here is the self-adaptive parameters adjustment of a GA. In this research, we propose an approach in which the control of a genetic algorithm"s parameters can be encoded within the chromosome of each individual. The parameters" values are entirely dependent on the evolution mechanism and on the problem context. Our preliminary results show that a GA is able to learn and evaluate the quality of self-set parameters according to their degree of contribution to the resolution of the problem. These results are indicative of a promising approach to the development of GAs with self-adaptive parameter settings that do not require the user to pre-adjust parameters at the outset.

17. Scheduling in Sensor Grid Middleware for Telemedicine Using ABC Algorithm

PubMed Central

Vigneswari, T.; Mohamed, M. A. Maluk

2014-01-01

Advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanotechnology have enabled design of low power wireless sensor nodes capable of sensing different vital signs in our body. These nodes can communicate with each other to aggregate data and transmit vital parameters to a base station (BS). The data collected in the base station can be used to monitor health in real time. The patient wearing sensors may be mobile leading to aggregation of data from different BS for processing. Processing real time data is compute-intensive and telemedicine facilities may not have appropriate hardware to process the real time data effectively. To overcome this, sensor grid has been proposed in literature wherein sensor data is integrated to the grid for processing. This work proposes a scheduling algorithm to efficiently process telemedicine data in the grid. The proposed algorithm uses the popular swarm intelligence algorithm for scheduling to overcome the NP complete problem of grid scheduling. Results compared with other heuristic scheduling algorithms show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25548557

18. Methods for prismatic/tetrahedral grid generation and adaptation

Kallinderis, Y.

1995-10-01

The present work involves generation of hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is a method for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) type of aircraft geometry is considered. The generated hybrid grid required only 170 K tetrahedra instead of an estimated two million had a tetrahedral mesh been used in the prisms region as well. A solution adaptive scheme for viscous computations on hybrid grids is also presented. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples 3-D, isotropic division of tetrahedra and 2-D, directional division of prisms.

19. Efficient Unstructured Grid Adaptation Methods for Sonic Boom Prediction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Waithe, Kenrick A.

2008-01-01

This paper examines the use of two grid adaptation methods to improve the accuracy of the near-to-mid field pressure signature prediction of supersonic aircraft computed using the USM3D unstructured grid flow solver. The first method (ADV) is an interactive adaptation process that uses grid movement rather than enrichment to more accurately resolve the expansion and compression waves. The second method (SSGRID) uses an a priori adaptation approach to stretch and shear the original unstructured grid to align the grid with the pressure waves and reduce the cell count required to achieve an accurate signature prediction at a given distance from the vehicle. Both methods initially create negative volume cells that are repaired in a module in the ADV code. While both approaches provide significant improvements in the near field signature (< 3 body lengths) relative to a baseline grid without increasing the number of grid points, only the SSGRID approach allows the details of the signature to be accurately computed at mid-field distances (3-10 body lengths) for direct use with mid-field-to-ground boom propagation codes.

20. Computation of Transient Nonlinear Ship Waves Using AN Adaptive Algorithm

Çelebi, M. S.

2000-04-01

An indirect boundary integral method is used to solve transient nonlinear ship wave problems. A resulting mixed boundary value problem is solved at each time-step using a mixed Eulerian- Lagrangian time integration technique. Two dynamic node allocation techniques, which basically distribute nodes on an ever changing body surface, are presented. Both two-sided hyperbolic tangent and variational grid generation algorithms are developed and compared on station curves. A ship hull form is generated in parametric space using a B-spline surface representation. Two-sided hyperbolic tangent and variational adaptive curve grid-generation methods are then applied on the hull station curves to generate effective node placement. The numerical algorithm, in the first method, used two stretching parameters. In the second method, a conservative form of the parametric variational Euler-Lagrange equations is used the perform an adaptive gridding on each station. The resulting unsymmetrical influence coefficient matrix is solved using both a restarted version of GMRES based on the modified Gram-Schmidt procedure and a line Jacobi method based on LU decomposition. The convergence rates of both matrix iteration techniques are improved with specially devised preconditioners. Numerical examples of node placements on typical hull cross-sections using both techniques are discussed and fully nonlinear ship wave patterns and wave resistance computations are presented.

1. Variational method for adaptive grid generation

SciTech Connect

Brackbill, J.U.

1983-01-01

A variational method for generating adaptive meshes is described. Functionals measuring smoothness, skewness, orientation, and the Jacobian are minimized to generate a mapping from a rectilinear domain in natural coordinate to an arbitrary domain in physical coordinates. From the mapping, a mesh is easily constructed. In using the method to adaptively zone computational problems, as few as one third the number of mesh points are required in each coordinate direction compared with a uniformly zoned mesh.

2. ICASE/LaRC Workshop on Adaptive Grid Methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

South, Jerry C., Jr. (Editor); Thomas, James L. (Editor); Vanrosendale, John (Editor)

1995-01-01

Solution-adaptive grid techniques are essential to the attainment of practical, user friendly, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. In this three-day workshop, experts gathered together to describe state-of-the-art methods in solution-adaptive grid refinement, analysis, and implementation; to assess the current practice; and to discuss future needs and directions for research. This was accomplished through a series of invited and contributed papers. The workshop focused on a set of two-dimensional test cases designed by the organizers to aid in assessing the current state of development of adaptive grid technology. In addition, a panel of experts from universities, industry, and government research laboratories discussed their views of needs and future directions in this field.

3. Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Unconstrained Optimization

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. PMID:25298971

4. Adaptive cuckoo search algorithm for unconstrained optimization.

PubMed

Ong, Pauline

2014-01-01

Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. PMID:25298971

5. A parallel second-order adaptive mesh algorithm for incompressible flow in porous media.

PubMed

Pau, George S H; Almgren, Ann S; Bell, John B; Lijewski, Michael J

2009-11-28

In this paper, we present a second-order accurate adaptive algorithm for solving multi-phase, incompressible flow in porous media. We assume a multi-phase form of Darcy's law with relative permeabilities given as a function of the phase saturation. The remaining equations express conservation of mass for the fluid constituents. In this setting, the total velocity, defined to be the sum of the phase velocities, is divergence free. The basic integration method is based on a total-velocity splitting approach in which we solve a second-order elliptic pressure equation to obtain a total velocity. This total velocity is then used to recast component conservation equations as nonlinear hyperbolic equations. Our approach to adaptive refinement uses a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular grids with simultaneous refinement of the grids in both space and time. The integration algorithm on the grid hierarchy is a recursive procedure in which coarse grids are advanced in time, fine grids are advanced multiple steps to reach the same time as the coarse grids and the data at different levels are then synchronized. The single-grid algorithm is described briefly, but the emphasis here is on the time-stepping procedure for the adaptive hierarchy. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the algorithm's accuracy and convergence properties and to illustrate the behaviour of the method. PMID:19840985

6. A Parallel Second-Order Adaptive Mesh Algorithm for Incompressible Flow in Porous Media

SciTech Connect

Pau, George Shu Heng; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Lijewski, Michael J.

2008-04-01

In this paper we present a second-order accurate adaptive algorithm for solving multiphase, incompressible flows in porous media. We assume a multiphase form of Darcy's law with relative permeabilities given as a function of the phase saturation. The remaining equations express conservation of mass for the fluid constituents. In this setting the total velocity, defined to be the sum of the phase velocities, is divergence-free. The basic integration method is based on a total-velocity splitting approach in which we solve a second-order elliptic pressure equation to obtain a total velocity. This total velocity is then used to recast component conservation equations as nonlinear hyperbolic equations. Our approach to adaptive refinement uses a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular grids with simultaneous refinement of the grids in both space and time. The integration algorithm on the grid hierarchy is a recursive procedure in which coarse grids are advanced in time, fine grids areadvanced multiple steps to reach the same time as the coarse grids and the data atdifferent levels are then synchronized. The single grid algorithm is described briefly,but the emphasis here is on the time-stepping procedure for the adaptive hierarchy. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the algorithm's accuracy and convergence properties and to illustrate the behavior of the method.

7. A new algorithm for grid-based hydrologic analysis by incorporating stormwater infrastructure

Choi, Yosoon; Yi, Huiuk; Park, Hyeong-Dong

2011-08-01

We developed a new algorithm, the Adaptive Stormwater Infrastructure (ASI) algorithm, to incorporate ancillary data sets related to stormwater infrastructure into the grid-based hydrologic analysis. The algorithm simultaneously considers the effects of the surface stormwater collector network (e.g., diversions, roadside ditches, and canals) and underground stormwater conveyance systems (e.g., waterway tunnels, collector pipes, and culverts). The surface drainage flows controlled by the surface runoff collector network are superimposed onto the flow directions derived from a DEM. After examining the connections between inlets and outfalls in the underground stormwater conveyance system, the flow accumulation and delineation of watersheds are calculated based on recursive computations. Application of the algorithm to the Sangdong tailings dam in Korea revealed superior performance to that of a conventional D8 single-flow algorithm in terms of providing reasonable hydrologic information on watersheds with stormwater infrastructure.

8. Adaptive hybrid prismatic-tetrahedral grids for viscous flows

Kallinderis, Yannis; Khawaja, Aly; McMorris, Harlan

1995-03-01

The paper presents generation of adaptive hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is an Automatic Receding Method (ARM) for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples division of tetrahedra, as well as 2-D directional division of prisms.

9. Adaptive hybrid prismatic-tetrahedral grids for viscous flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kallinderis, Yannis; Khawaja, Aly; Mcmorris, Harlan

1995-01-01

The paper presents generation of adaptive hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is an Automatic Receding Method (ARM) for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples division of tetrahedra, as well as 2-D directional division of prisms.

10. Genetic algorithms in adaptive fuzzy control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karr, C. Lucas; Harper, Tony R.

1992-01-01

Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust fuzzy membership functions in response to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific computer-simulated chemical system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

11. A novel hyperbolic grid generation procedure with inherent adaptive dissipation

SciTech Connect

Tai, C.H.; Yin, S.L.; Soong, C.Y.

1995-01-01

This paper reports a novel hyperbolic grid-generation with an inherent adaptive dissipation (HGAD), which is capable of improving the oscillation and overlapping of grid lines. In the present work upwinding differencing is applied to discretize the hyperbolic system and, thereby, to develop the adaptive dissipation coefficient. Complex configurations with the features of geometric discontinuity, exceptional concavity and convexity are used as the test cases for comparison of the present HGAD procedure with the conventional hyerbolic and elliptic ones. The results reveal that the HGAD method is superior in orthogonality and smoothness of the grid system. In addition, the computational efficiency of the flow solver may be improved by using the present HGAD procedure. 15 refs., 8 figs.

12. A Grid Sourcing and Adaptation Study Using Unstructured Grids for Supersonic Boom Prediction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.

2008-01-01

NASA created the Supersonics Project as part of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program to advance technology that will make a supersonic flight over land viable. Computational flow solvers have lacked the ability to accurately predict sonic boom from the near to far field. The focus of this investigation was to establish gridding and adaptation techniques to predict near-to-mid-field (<10 body lengths below the aircraft) boom signatures at supersonic speeds using the USM3D unstructured grid flow solver. The study began by examining sources along the body the aircraft, far field sourcing and far field boundaries. The study then examined several techniques for grid adaptation. During the course of the study, volume sourcing was introduced as a new way to source grids using the grid generation code VGRID. Two different methods of using the volume sources were examined. The first method, based on manual insertion of the numerous volume sources, made great improvements in the prediction capability of USM3D for boom signatures. The second method (SSGRID), which uses an a priori adaptation approach to stretch and shear the original unstructured grid to align the grid and pressure waves, showed similar results with a more automated approach. Due to SSGRID s results and ease of use, the rest of the study focused on developing a best practice using SSGRID. The best practice created by this study for boom predictions using the CFD code USM3D involved: 1) creating a small cylindrical outer boundary either 1 or 2 body lengths in diameter (depending on how far below the aircraft the boom prediction is required), 2) using a single volume source under the aircraft, and 3) using SSGRID to stretch and shear the grid to the desired length.

13. The multidimensional Self-Adaptive Grid code, SAGE, version 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

1995-01-01

This new report on Version 2 of the SAGE code includes all the information in the original publication plus all upgrades and changes to the SAGE code since that time. The two most significant upgrades are the inclusion of a finite-volume option and the ability to adapt and manipulate zonal-matching multiple-grid files. In addition, the original SAGE code has been upgraded to Version 1.1 and includes all options mentioned in this report, with the exception of the multiple grid option and its associated features. Since Version 2 is a larger and more complex code, it is suggested (but not required) that Version 1.1 be used for single-grid applications. This document contains all the information required to run both versions of SAGE. The formulation of the adaption method is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code. The third section provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simple but extensive input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The SAGE code can accommodate two-dimensional and three-dimensional, finite-difference and finite-volume, single grid, and zonal-matching multiple grid flow problems.

14. Parallel Computation of Three-Dimensional Flows using Overlapping Grids with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

SciTech Connect

Henshaw, W; Schwendeman, D

2007-11-15

This paper describes an approach for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations in complex three-dimensional domains. The domains are represented by overlapping structured grids, and block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is employed to locally increase the grid resolution. In addition, the numerical method is implemented on parallel distributed-memory computers using a domain-decomposition approach. The implementation is flexible so that each base grid within the overlapping grid structure and its associated refinement grids can be independently partitioned over a chosen set of processors. A modified bin-packing algorithm is used to specify the partition for each grid so that the computational work is evenly distributed amongst the processors. All components of the AMR algorithm such as error estimation, regridding, and interpolation are performed in parallel. The parallel time-stepping algorithm is illustrated for initial-boundary-value problems involving a linear advection-diffusion equation and the (nonlinear) reactive Euler equations. Numerical results are presented for both equations to demonstrate the accuracy and correctness of the parallel approach. Exact solutions of the advection-diffusion equation are constructed, and these are used to check the corresponding numerical solutions for a variety of tests involving different overlapping grids, different numbers of refinement levels and refinement ratios, and different numbers of processors. The problem of planar shock diffraction by a sphere is considered as an illustration of the numerical approach for the Euler equations, and a problem involving the initiation of a detonation from a hot spot in a T-shaped pipe is considered to demonstrate the numerical approach for the reactive case. For both problems, the solutions are shown to be well resolved on the finest grid. The parallel performance of the approach is examined in detail for the shock diffraction problem.

15. The emergence of grid cells: Intelligent design or just adaptation?

PubMed

Kropff, Emilio; Treves, Alessandro

2008-01-01

Individual medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) 'grid' cells provide a representation of space that appears to be essentially invariant across environments, modulo simple transformations, in contrast to multiple, rapidly acquired hippocampal maps; it may therefore be established gradually during rodent development. We explore with a simplified mathematical model the possibility that the self-organization of multiple grid fields into a triangular grid pattern may be a single-cell process, driven by firing rate adaptation and slowly varying spatial inputs. A simple analytical derivation indicates that triangular grids are favored asymptotic states of the self-organizing system, and computer simulations confirm that such states are indeed reached during a model learning process, provided it is sufficiently slow to effectively average out fluctuations. The interactions among local ensembles of grid units serve solely to stabilize a common grid orientation. Spatial information, in the real mEC network, may be provided by any combination of feedforward cortical afferents and feedback hippocampal projections from place cells, since either input alone is likely sufficient to yield grid fields. PMID:19021261

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

1997-01-01

Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured- grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. We present a novel method to dynamically balance the processor workloads with a global view. This paper presents, for the first time, the implementation and integration of all major components within our dynamic load balancing strategy for adaptive grid calculations. Mesh adaption, repartitioning, processor assignment, and remapping are critical components of the framework that must be accomplished rapidly and efficiently so as not to cause a significant overhead to the numerical simulation. Previous results indicated that mesh repartitioning and data remapping are potential bottlenecks for performing large-scale scientific calculations. We resolve these issues and demonstrate that our framework remains viable on a large number of processors.

17. Vortical Flow Prediction Using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2003-01-01

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65 delta wing with different values of leading-edge radius. Although the geometry is quite simple, it poses a challenging problem for computing vortices originating from blunt leading edges. The second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the wind-tunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.

18. Vortical Flow Prediction Using an Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2001-01-01

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been employed to compute vortical flows around slender wing/body configurations. The emphasis of the paper is on the effectiveness of an adaptive grid procedure in "capturing" concentrated vortices generated at sharp edges or flow separation lines of lifting surfaces flying at high angles of attack. The method is based on a tetrahedral unstructured grid technology developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Two steady-state, subsonic, inviscid and Navier-Stokes flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical vortical flow problems. The first test case concerns vortex flow over a simple 65deg delta wing with different values of leading-edge bluntness, and the second case is that of a more complex fighter configuration. The superiority of the adapted solutions in capturing the vortex flow structure over the conventional unadapted results is demonstrated by comparisons with the windtunnel experimental data. The study shows that numerical prediction of vortical flows is highly sensitive to the local grid resolution and that the implementation of grid adaptation is essential when applying CFD methods to such complicated flow problems.

19. An adaptive guidance algorithm for aerospace vehicles

Bradt, J. E.; Hardtla, J. W.; Cramer, E. J.

The specifications for proposed space transportation systems are placing more emphasis on developing reusable avionics subsystems which have the capability to respond to vehicle evolution and diverse missions while at the same time reducing the cost of ground support for mission planning, contingency response and verification and validation. An innovative approach to meeting these goals is to specify the guidance problem as a multi-point boundary value problen and solve that problem using modern control theory and nonlinear constrained optimization techniques. This approach has been implemented as Gamma Guidance (Hardtla, 1978) and has been successfully flown in the Inertial Upper Stage. The adaptive guidance algorithm described in this paper is a generalized formulation of Gamma Guidance. The basic equations are presented and then applied to four diverse aerospace vehicles to demonstrate the feasibility of using a reusable, explicit, adaptive guidance algorithm for diverse applications and vehicles.

20. Optimal file-bundle caching algorithms for data-grids

SciTech Connect

Otoo, Ekow; Rotem, Doron; Romosan, Alexandru

2004-04-24

The file-bundle caching problem arises frequently in scientific applications where jobs need to process several files simultaneously. Consider a host system in a data-grid that maintains a staging disk or disk cache for servicing jobs of file requests. In this environment, a job can only be serviced if all its file requests are present in the disk cache. Files must be admitted into the cache or replaced in sets of file-bundles, i.e. the set of files that must all be processed simultaneously. In this paper we show that traditional caching algorithms based on file popularity measures do not perform well in such caching environments since they are not sensitive to the inter-file dependencies and may hold in the cache non-relevant combinations of files. We present and analyze a new caching algorithm for maximizing the throughput of jobs and minimizing data replacement costs to such data-grid hosts. We tested the new algorithm using a disk cache simulation model under a wide range of conditions such as file request distributions, relative cache size, file size distribution, etc. In all these cases, the results show significant improvement as compared with traditional caching algorithms.

1. Digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction with an adaptive voxel grid

Claus, Bernhard; Chan, Heang-Ping

2014-03-01

In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume datasets are typically reconstructed with an anisotropic voxel size, where the in-plane voxel size usually reflects the detector pixel size (e.g., 0.1 mm), and the slice separation is generally between 0.5-1.0 mm. Increasing the tomographic angle is expected to give better 3D image quality; however, the slice spacing in the reconstruction should be reduced, otherwise one may risk losing fine-scale image detail (e.g., small microcalcifications). An alternative strategy consists of reconstructing on an adaptive voxel grid, where the voxel height at each location is adapted based on the backprojected data at this location, with the goal to improve image quality for microcalcifications. In this paper we present an approach for generating such an adaptive voxel grid. This approach is based on an initial reconstruction step that is performed at a finer slice-spacing combined with a selection of an "optimal" height for each voxel. This initial step is followed by a (potentially iterative) reconstruction acting now on the adaptive grid only.

2. Turbo LMS algorithm: supercharger meets adaptive filter

Meyer-Baese, Uwe

2006-04-01

Adaptive digital filters (ADFs) are, in general, the most sophisticated and resource intensive components of modern digital signal processing (DSP) and communication systems. Improvements in performance or the complexity of ADFs can have a significant impact on the overall size, speed, and power properties of a complete system. The least mean square (LMS) algorithm is a popular algorithm for coefficient adaptation in ADF because it is robust, easy to implement, and a close approximation to the optimal Wiener-Hopf least mean square solution. The main weakness of the LMS algorithm is the slow convergence, especially for non Markov-1 colored noise input signals with high eigenvalue ratios (EVRs). Since its introduction in 1993, the turbo (supercharge) principle has been successfully applied in error correction decoding and has become very popular because it reaches the theoretical limits of communication capacity predicted 5 decades ago by Shannon. The turbo principle applied to LMS ADF is analogous to the turbo principle used for error correction decoders: First, an "interleaver" is used to minimize crosscorrelation, secondly, an iterative improvement which uses the same data set several times is implemented using the standard LMS algorithm. Results for 6 different interleaver schemes for EVR in the range 1-100 are presented.

3. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

DOE PAGESBeta

Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

2015-01-01

In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore » we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less

4. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

SciTech Connect

Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

2015-01-01

In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.

5. New iterative gridding algorithm using conjugate gradient method

Jiang, Xuguang; Thedens, Daniel

2004-05-01

Non-uniformly sampled data in MRI applications must be interpolated onto a regular Cartesian grid to perform fast image reconstruction using FFT. The conventional method for this is gridding, which requires a density compensation function (DCF). The calculation of DCF may be time-consuming, ambiguously defined, and may not be always reusable due to changes in k-space trajectories. A recently proposed reconstruction method that eliminates the requirement of DCF is block uniform resampling (BURS) which uses singular value decomposition (SVD). However, the SVD is still computationally intensive. In this work, we present a modified BURS algorithm using conjugate gradient method (CGM) in place of direct SVD calculation. Calculation of a block of grid point values in each iteration further reduces the computational load. The new method reduces the calculation complexity while maintaining a high-quality reconstruction result. For an n-by-n matrix, the time complexity per iteration is reduced from O(n*n*n) in SVD to O(n*n) in CGM. The time can be further reduced when we stop the iteration in CGM earlier according to the norm of the residual vector. Using this method, the quality of the reconstructed image improves compared to regularized BURS. The reduced time complexity and improved reconstruction result make the new algorithm promising in dealing with large-sized images and 3D images.

6. A Cell-Centered Multigrid Algorithm for All Grid Sizes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gjesdal, Thor

1996-01-01

Multigrid methods are optimal; that is, their rate of convergence is independent of the number of grid points, because they use a nested sequence of coarse grids to represent different scales of the solution. This nesting does, however, usually lead to certain restrictions of the permissible size of the discretised problem. In cases where the modeler is free to specify the whole problem, such constraints are of little importance because they can be taken into consideration from the outset. We consider the situation in which there are other competing constraints on the resolution. These restrictions may stem from the physical problem (e.g., if the discretised operator contains experimental data measured on a fixed grid) or from the need to avoid limitations set by the hardware. In this paper we discuss a modification to the cell-centered multigrid algorithm, so that it can be used br problems with any resolution. We discuss in particular a coarsening strategy and choice of intergrid transfer operators that can handle grids with both an even or odd number of cells. The method is described and applied to linear equations obtained by discretization of two- and three-dimensional second-order elliptic PDEs.

7. Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis

SciTech Connect

Chen, Pang C.

1993-03-01

Path planning has to be fast to support real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To alleviate this problem, we present a learning algorithm that uses past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful subgoals is learned to support faster planning. The algorithm is suitable for both stationary and incrementally-changing environments. To analyze our algorithm, we use a previously developed stochastic model that quantifies experience utility. Using this model, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, and provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior. The results are demonstrated with problems in manipulator planning. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently general that they may also be applied to task planning or other planning domains in which experience is useful.

8. Unstructured Adaptive Grid Computations on an Array of SMPs

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biswas, Rupak; Pramanick, Ira; Sohn, Andrew; Simon, Horst D.

1996-01-01

Dynamic load balancing is necessary for parallel adaptive methods to solve unsteady CFD problems on unstructured grids. We have presented such a dynamic load balancing framework called JOVE, in this paper. Results on a four-POWERnode POWER CHALLENGEarray demonstrated that load balancing gives significant performance improvements over no load balancing for such adaptive computations. The parallel speedup of JOVE, implemented using MPI on the POWER CHALLENCEarray, was significant, being as high as 31 for 32 processors. An implementation of JOVE that exploits 'an array of SMPS' architecture was also studied; this hybrid JOVE outperformed flat JOVE by up to 28% on the meshes and adaption models tested. With large, realistic meshes and actual flow-solver and adaption phases incorporated into JOVE, hybrid JOVE can be expected to yield significant advantage over flat JOVE, especially as the number of processors is increased, thus demonstrating the scalability of an array of SMPs architecture.

9. JPEG 2000 coding of image data over adaptive refinement grids

Gamito, Manuel N.; Dias, Miguel S.

2003-06-01

An extension of the JPEG 2000 standard is presented for non-conventional images resulting from an adaptive subdivision process. Samples, generated through adaptive subdivision, can have different sizes, depending on the amount of subdivision that was locally introduced in each region of the image. The subdivision principle allows each individual sample to be recursively subdivided into sets of four progressively smaller samples. Image datasets generated through adaptive subdivision find application in Computational Physics where simulations of natural processes are often performed over adaptive grids. It is also found that compression gains can be achieved for non-natural imagery, like text or graphics, if they first undergo an adaptive subdivision process. The representation of adaptive subdivision images is performed by first coding the subdivision structure into the JPEG 2000 bitstream, ina lossless manner, followed by the entropy coded and quantized transform coefficients. Due to the irregular distribution of sample sizes across the image, the wavelet transform must be applied on irregular image subsets that are nested across all the resolution levels. Using the conventional JPEG 2000 coding standard, adaptive subdivision images would first have to be upsampled to the smallest sample size in order to attain a uniform resolution. The proposed method for coding adaptive subdivision images is shown to perform better than conventional JPEG 2000 for medium to high bitrates.

10. Large-Scale Liquid Simulation on Adaptive Hexahedral Grids.

PubMed

Ferstl, Florian; Westermann, Rudiger; Dick, Christian

2014-10-01

Regular grids are attractive for numerical fluid simulations because they give rise to efficient computational kernels. However, for simulating high resolution effects in complicated domains they are only of limited suitability due to memory constraints. In this paper we present a method for liquid simulation on an adaptive octree grid using a hexahedral finite element discretization, which reduces memory requirements by coarsening the elements in the interior of the liquid body. To impose free surface boundary conditions with second order accuracy, we incorporate a particular class of Nitsche methods enforcing the Dirichlet boundary conditions for the pressure in a variational sense. We then show how to construct a multigrid hierarchy from the adaptive octree grid, so that a time efficient geometric multigrid solver can be used. To improve solver convergence, we propose a special treatment of liquid boundaries via composite finite elements at coarser scales. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for liquid simulations that would require hundreds of millions of simulation elements in a non-adaptive regime. PMID:26357387

11. Adaptive Harmonic Detection Control of Grid Interfaced Solar Photovoltaic Energy System with Power Quality Improvement

Singh, B.; Goel, S.

2015-03-01

This paper presents a grid interfaced solar photovoltaic (SPV) energy system with a novel adaptive harmonic detection control for power quality improvement at ac mains under balanced as well as unbalanced and distorted supply conditions. The SPV energy system is capable of compensation of linear and nonlinear loads with the objectives of load balancing, harmonics elimination, power factor correction and terminal voltage regulation. The proposed control increases the utilization of PV infrastructure and brings down its effective cost due to its other benefits. The adaptive harmonic detection control algorithm is used to detect the fundamental active power component of load currents which are subsequently used for reference source currents estimation. An instantaneous symmetrical component theory is used to obtain instantaneous positive sequence point of common coupling (PCC) voltages which are used to derive inphase and quadrature phase voltage templates. The proposed grid interfaced PV energy system is modelled and simulated in MATLAB Simulink and its performance is verified under various operating conditions.

12. Adaptive Trajectory Prediction Algorithm for Climbing Flights

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schultz, Charles Alexander; Thipphavong, David P.; Erzberger, Heinz

2012-01-01

Aircraft climb trajectories are difficult to predict, and large errors in these predictions reduce the potential operational benefits of some advanced features for NextGen. The algorithm described in this paper improves climb trajectory prediction accuracy by adjusting trajectory predictions based on observed track data. It utilizes rate-of-climb and airspeed measurements derived from position data to dynamically adjust the aircraft weight modeled for trajectory predictions. In simulations with weight uncertainty, the algorithm is able to adapt to within 3 percent of the actual gross weight within two minutes of the initial adaptation. The root-mean-square of altitude errors for five-minute predictions was reduced by 73 percent. Conflict detection performance also improved, with a 15 percent reduction in missed alerts and a 10 percent reduction in false alerts. In a simulation with climb speed capture intent and weight uncertainty, the algorithm improved climb trajectory prediction accuracy by up to 30 percent and conflict detection performance, reducing missed and false alerts by up to 10 percent.

13. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

PubMed

Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

2015-11-01

Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan. PMID:26644937

14. OMEGA: The operational multiscale environment model with grid adaptivity

SciTech Connect

Bacon, D.P.

1995-07-01

This review talk describes the OMEGA code, used for weather simulation and the modeling of aerosol transport through the atmosphere. Omega employs a 3D mesh of wedge shaped elements (triangles when viewed from above) that adapt with time. Because wedges are laid out in layers of triangular elements, the scheme can utilize structured storage and differencing techniques along the elevation coordinate, and is thus a hybrid of structured and unstructured methods. The utility of adaptive gridding in this moded, near geographic features such as coastlines, where material properties change discontinuously, is illustrated. Temporal adaptivity was used additionally to track moving internal fronts, such as clouds of aerosol contaminants. The author also discusses limitations specific to this problem, including manipulation of huge data bases and fixed turn-around times. In practice, the latter requires a carefully tuned optimization between accuracy and computation speed.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid

1996-01-01

Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured-grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. A dynamic load balancing method is presented that balances the workload across all processors with a global view. After each parallel tetrahedral mesh adaption, the method first determines if the new mesh is sufficiently unbalanced to warrant a repartitioning. If so, the adapted mesh is repartitioned, with new partitions assigned to processors so that the redistribution cost is minimized. The new partitions are accepted only if the remapping cost is compensated by the improved load balance. Results indicate that this strategy is effective for large-scale scientific computations on distributed-memory multiprocessors.

16. The multidimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

1992-01-01

This report describes the multidimensional self-adaptive grid code SAGE. A two-dimensional version of this code was described in an earlier report by the authors. The formulation of the multidimensional version is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code and provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simplified input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The new SAGE code can accommodate both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow problems.

17. Grid and basis adaptive polynomial chaos techniques for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

SciTech Connect

Perkó, Zoltán Gilli, Luca Lathouwers, Danny Kloosterman, Jan Leen

2014-03-01

The demand for accurate and computationally affordable sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is constantly on the rise and has become especially pressing in the nuclear field with the shift to Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty methodologies in the licensing of nuclear installations. Besides traditional, already well developed methods – such as first order perturbation theory or Monte Carlo sampling – Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) has been given a growing emphasis in recent years due to its simple application and good performance. This paper presents new developments of the research done at TU Delft on such Polynomial Chaos (PC) techniques. Our work is focused on the Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (NISP) approach and adaptive methods for building the PCE of responses of interest. Recent efforts resulted in a new adaptive sparse grid algorithm designed for estimating the PC coefficients. The algorithm is based on Gerstner's procedure for calculating multi-dimensional integrals but proves to be computationally significantly cheaper, while at the same it retains a similar accuracy as the original method. More importantly the issue of basis adaptivity has been investigated and two techniques have been implemented for constructing the sparse PCE of quantities of interest. Not using the traditional full PC basis set leads to further reduction in computational time since the high order grids necessary for accurately estimating the near zero expansion coefficients of polynomial basis vectors not needed in the PCE can be excluded from the calculation. Moreover the sparse PC representation of the response is easier to handle when used for sensitivity analysis or uncertainty propagation due to the smaller number of basis vectors. The developed grid and basis adaptive methods have been implemented in Matlab as the Fully Adaptive Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (FANISP) algorithm and were tested on four analytical problems. These show consistent good performance both

18. A Solution Adaptive Technique Using Tetrahedral Unstructured Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2000-01-01

An adaptive unstructured grid refinement technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The method is based on a combination of surface mesh subdivision and local remeshing of the volume grid Simple functions of flow quantities are employed to detect dominant features of the flowfield The method is designed for modular coupling with various error/feature analyzers and flow solvers. Several steady-state, inviscid flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical three-dimensional problems. In all cases, accurate solutions featuring complex, nonlinear flow phenomena such as shock waves and vortices have been generated automatically and efficiently.

19. Synaptic dynamics: linear model and adaptation algorithm.

PubMed

Yousefi, Ali; Dibazar, Alireza A; Berger, Theodore W

2014-08-01

In this research, temporal processing in brain neural circuitries is addressed by a dynamic model of synaptic connections in which the synapse model accounts for both pre- and post-synaptic processes determining its temporal dynamics and strength. Neurons, which are excited by the post-synaptic potentials of hundred of the synapses, build the computational engine capable of processing dynamic neural stimuli. Temporal dynamics in neural models with dynamic synapses will be analyzed, and learning algorithms for synaptic adaptation of neural networks with hundreds of synaptic connections are proposed. The paper starts by introducing a linear approximate model for the temporal dynamics of synaptic transmission. The proposed linear model substantially simplifies the analysis and training of spiking neural networks. Furthermore, it is capable of replicating the synaptic response of the non-linear facilitation-depression model with an accuracy better than 92.5%. In the second part of the paper, a supervised spike-in-spike-out learning rule for synaptic adaptation in dynamic synapse neural networks (DSNN) is proposed. The proposed learning rule is a biologically plausible process, and it is capable of simultaneously adjusting both pre- and post-synaptic components of individual synapses. The last section of the paper starts with presenting the rigorous analysis of the learning algorithm in a system identification task with hundreds of synaptic connections which confirms the learning algorithm's accuracy, repeatability and scalability. The DSNN is utilized to predict the spiking activity of cortical neurons and pattern recognition tasks. The DSNN model is demonstrated to be a generative model capable of producing different cortical neuron spiking patterns and CA1 Pyramidal neurons recordings. A single-layer DSNN classifier on a benchmark pattern recognition task outperforms a 2-Layer Neural Network and GMM classifiers while having fewer numbers of free parameters and

20. Parallel S{sub n} Sweeps on Unstructured Grids: Algorithms for Prioritization, Grid Partitioning, and Cycle Detection

SciTech Connect

Plimpton, Steven J.; Hendrickson, Bruce; Burns, Shawn P.; McLendon, William III; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

2005-07-15

The method of discrete ordinates is commonly used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. The solution in each ordinate direction is most efficiently computed by sweeping the radiation flux across the computational grid. For unstructured grids this poses many challenges, particularly when implemented on distributed-memory parallel machines where the grid geometry is spread across processors. We present several algorithms relevant to this approach: (a) an asynchronous message-passing algorithm that performs sweeps simultaneously in multiple ordinate directions, (b) a simple geometric heuristic to prioritize the computational tasks that a processor works on, (c) a partitioning algorithm that creates columnar-style decompositions for unstructured grids, and (d) an algorithm for detecting and eliminating cycles that sometimes exist in unstructured grids and can prevent sweeps from successfully completing. Algorithms (a) and (d) are fully parallel; algorithms (b) and (c) can be used in conjunction with (a) to achieve higher parallel efficiencies. We describe our message-passing implementations of these algorithms within a radiation transport package. Performance and scalability results are given for unstructured grids with up to 3 million elements (500 million unknowns) running on thousands of processors of Sandia National Laboratories' Intel Tflops machine and DEC-Alpha CPlant cluster.

1. CHARACTERIZATION OF DISCONTINUITIES IN HIGH-DIMENSIONAL STOCHASTIC PROBLEMS ON ADAPTIVE SPARSE GRIDS

SciTech Connect

Jakeman, John D; Archibald, Richard K; Xiu, Dongbin

2011-01-01

In this paper we present a set of efficient algorithms for detection and identification of discontinuities in high dimensional space. The method is based on extension of polynomial annihilation for edge detection in low dimensions. Compared to the earlier work, the present method poses significant improvements for high dimensional problems. The core of the algorithms relies on adaptive refinement of sparse grids. It is demonstrated that in the commonly encountered cases where a discontinuity resides on a small subset of the dimensions, the present method becomes optimal , in the sense that the total number of points required for function evaluations depends linearly on the dimensionality of the space. The details of the algorithms will be presented and various numerical examples are utilized to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

2. Adaptive grid artifact reduction in the frequency domain with spatial properties for x-ray images

Kim, Dong Sik; Lee, Sanggyun

2012-03-01

By applying band-rejection filters (BRFs) in the frequency domain, we can efficiently reduce the grid artifacts, which are caused by using the antiscatter grid in obtaining x-ray digital images. However, if the frequency component of the grid artifact is relatively close to that of the object, then simply applying a BRF may seriously distort the object and cause the ringing artifacts. Since the ringing artifacts are quite dependent on the shape of the object to be recovered in the spatial domain, the spatial property of the x-ray image should be considered in applying BRFs. In this paper, we propose an adaptive filtering scheme, which can cooperate such different properties in the spatial domain. In the spatial domain, we compare several approaches, such as the mangnitude, edge, and frequency-modulation (FM) model-based algorithms, to detect the ringing artifact or the grid artifact component. In order to perform a robust detection whether the ringing artifact is strong or not, we employ the FM model for the extracted signal, which corresponds to a specific grid artifact. A detection of the position for the ringing artifact is then conducted based on the slope detection algorithm, which is commonly used as an FM discriminator in the communication area. However, the detected position of the ringing artifact is not accurate. Hence, in order to obtain an accurate detection result, we combine the edge-based approach with the FM model approach. Numerical result for real x-ray images shows that applying BRFs in the frequency domain in conjunction with the spatial property of the ringing artifact can successfully remove the grid artifact, distorting the object less.

3. An Adaptive Path Planning Algorithm for Cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles

SciTech Connect

Cunningham, C.T.; Roberts, R.S.

2000-09-12

An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.

4. Adaptive path planning algorithm for cooperating unmanned air vehicles

SciTech Connect

Cunningham, C T; Roberts, R S

2001-02-08

An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.

5. Automation of assertion testing - Grid and adaptive techniques

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Andrews, D. M.

1985-01-01

Assertions can be used to automate the process of testing software. Two methods for automating the generation of input test data are described in this paper. One method selects the input values of variables at regular intervals in a 'grid'. The other, adaptive testing, uses assertion violations as a measure of errors detected and generates new test cases based on test results. The important features of assertion testing are that: it can be used throughout the entire testing cycle; it provides automatic notification of error conditions; and it can be used with automatic input generation techniques which eliminate the subjectivity in choosing test data.

6. Modeling scramjet combustor flowfields with a grid adaptation scheme

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ramakrishnan, R.; Singh, D. J.

1994-01-01

The accurate description of flow features associated with the normal injection of fuel into supersonic primary flows is essential in the design of efficient engines for hypervelocity aerospace vehicles. The flow features in such injections are complex with multiple interactions between shocks and between shocks boundary layers. Numerical studies of perpendicular sonic N2 injection and mixing in a Mach 3.8 scramjet combustor environment are discussed. A dynamic grid adaptation procedure based on the equilibration of spring-mass system is employed to enhanced the description of the complicated flow features. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements and indicate that the adaptation procedure enhances the capability of the modeling procedure to describe the flow features associated with scramjet combustor components.

7. A multilevel Cartesian non-uniform grid time domain algorithm

SciTech Connect

Meng Jun; Boag, Amir; Lomakin, Vitaliy; Michielssen, Eric

2010-11-01

A multilevel Cartesian non-uniform grid time domain algorithm (CNGTDA) is introduced to rapidly compute transient wave fields radiated by time dependent three-dimensional source constellations. CNGTDA leverages the observation that transient wave fields generated by temporally bandlimited and spatially confined source constellations can be recovered via interpolation from appropriately delay- and amplitude-compensated field samples. This property is used in conjunction with a multilevel scheme, in which the computational domain is hierarchically decomposed into subdomains with sparse non-uniform grids used to obtain the fields. For both surface and volumetric source distributions, the computational cost of CNGTDA to compute the transient field at N{sub s} observation locations from N{sub s} collocated sources for N{sub t} discrete time instances scales as O(N{sub t}N{sub s}logN{sub s}) and O(N{sub t}N{sub s}log{sup 2}N{sub s}) in the low- and high-frequency regimes, respectively. Coupled with marching-on-in-time (MOT) time domain integral equations, CNGTDA can facilitate efficient analysis of large scale time domain electromagnetic and acoustic problems.

8. An efficient second-order accurate and continuous interpolation for block-adaptive grids

Borovikov, Dmitry; Sokolov, Igor V.; Tóth, Gábor

2015-09-01

In this paper we present a second-order and continuous interpolation algorithm for cell-centered adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) grids. Continuity requirement poses a non-trivial problem at resolution changes. We develop a classification of the resolution changes, which allows us to employ efficient and simple linear interpolation in the majority of the computational domain. The algorithm is well suited for massively parallel computations. Our interpolation algorithm allows extracting jump-free interpolated data distribution along lines and surfaces within the computational domain. This capability is important for various applications, including kinetic particles tracking in three dimensional vector fields, visualization (i.e. surface extraction) and extracting variables along one-dimensional curves such as field lines, streamlines and satellite trajectories, etc. Particular examples are models for acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) along magnetic field-lines. As such models are sensitive to sharp gradients and discontinuities the capability to interpolate the data from the AMR grid to be passed to the SEP model without producing false gradients numerically becomes crucial. We provide a complete description of the algorithm and make the code publicly available as a Fortran 90 library.

9. An adaptive replacement algorithm for paged-memory computer systems.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thorington, J. M., Jr.; Irwin, J. D.

1972-01-01

A general class of adaptive replacement schemes for use in paged memories is developed. One such algorithm, called SIM, is simulated using a probability model that generates memory traces, and the results of the simulation of this adaptive scheme are compared with those obtained using the best nonlookahead algorithms. A technique for implementing this type of adaptive replacement algorithm with state of the art digital hardware is also presented.

10. Adaptive sparse grid expansions of the vibrational Hamiltonian

Strobusch, D.; Scheurer, Ch.

2014-02-01

The vibrational Hamiltonian involves two high dimensional operators, the kinetic energy operator (KEO), and the potential energy surface (PES). Both must be approximated for systems involving more than a few atoms. Adaptive approximation schemes are not only superior to truncated Taylor or many-body expansions (MBE), they also allow for error estimates, and thus operators of predefined precision. To this end, modified sparse grids (SG) are developed that can be combined with adaptive MBEs. This MBE/SG hybrid approach yields a unified, fully adaptive representation of the KEO and the PES. Refinement criteria, based on the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) and vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) methods, are presented. The combination of the adaptive MBE/SG approach and the VSCF plus VCI methods yields a black box like procedure to compute accurate vibrational spectra. This is demonstrated on a test set of molecules, comprising water, formaldehyde, methanimine, and ethylene. The test set is first employed to prove convergence for semi-empirical PM3-PESs and subsequently to compute accurate vibrational spectra from CCSD(T)-PESs that agree well with experimental values.

11. Adaptive sparse grid expansions of the vibrational Hamiltonian

SciTech Connect

Strobusch, D.; Scheurer, Ch.

2014-02-21

The vibrational Hamiltonian involves two high dimensional operators, the kinetic energy operator (KEO), and the potential energy surface (PES). Both must be approximated for systems involving more than a few atoms. Adaptive approximation schemes are not only superior to truncated Taylor or many-body expansions (MBE), they also allow for error estimates, and thus operators of predefined precision. To this end, modified sparse grids (SG) are developed that can be combined with adaptive MBEs. This MBE/SG hybrid approach yields a unified, fully adaptive representation of the KEO and the PES. Refinement criteria, based on the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) and vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) methods, are presented. The combination of the adaptive MBE/SG approach and the VSCF plus VCI methods yields a black box like procedure to compute accurate vibrational spectra. This is demonstrated on a test set of molecules, comprising water, formaldehyde, methanimine, and ethylene. The test set is first employed to prove convergence for semi-empirical PM3-PESs and subsequently to compute accurate vibrational spectra from CCSD(T)-PESs that agree well with experimental values.

12. The use of solution adaptive grids in solving partial differential equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anderson, D. A.; Rai, M. M.

1982-01-01

The grid point distribution used in solving a partial differential equation using a numerical method has a substantial influence on the quality of the solution. An adaptive grid which adjusts as the solution changes provides the best results when the number of grid points available for use during the calculation is fixed. Basic concepts used in generating and applying adaptive grids are reviewed in this paper, and examples illustrating applications of these concepts are presented.

13. Multi-Hop Localization Algorithm Based on Grid-Scanning for Wireless Sensor Networks*

PubMed Central

Wan, Jiangwen; Guo, Xiaolei; Yu, Ning; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian

2011-01-01

For large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with a minority of anchor nodes, multi-hop localization is a popular scheme for determining the geographical positions of the normal nodes. However, in practice existing multi-hop localization methods suffer from various kinds of problems, such as poor adaptability to irregular topology, high computational complexity, low positioning accuracy, etc. To address these issues in this paper, we propose a novel Multi-hop Localization algorithm based on Grid-Scanning (MLGS). First, the factors that influence the multi-hop distance estimation are studied and a more realistic multi-hop localization model is constructed. Then, the feasible regions of the normal nodes are determined according to the intersection of bounding square rings. Finally, a verifiably good approximation scheme based on grid-scanning is developed to estimate the coordinates of the normal nodes. Additionally, the positioning accuracy of the normal nodes can be improved through neighbors’ collaboration. Extensive simulations are performed in isotropic and anisotropic networks. The comparisons with some typical algorithms of node localization confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm. PMID:22163828

14. Adaptive grid embedding for the two-dimensional flux-split Euler equations. M.S. Thesis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warren, Gary Patrick

1990-01-01

A numerical algorithm is presented for solving the 2-D flux-split Euler equations using a multigrid method with adaptive grid embedding. The method uses an unstructured data set along with a system of pointers for communication on the irregularly shaped grid topologies. An explicit two-stage time advancement scheme is implemented. A multigrid algorithm is used to provide grid level communication and to accelerate the convergence of the solution to steady state. Results are presented for a subcritical airfoil and a transonic airfoil with 3 levels of adaptation. Comparisons are made with a structured upwind Euler code which uses the same flux integration techniques of the present algorithm. Good agreement is obtained with converged surface pressure coefficients. The lift coefficients of the adaptive code are within 2 1/2 percent of the structured code for the sub-critical case and within 4 1/2 percent of the structured code for the transonic case using approximately one-third the number of grid points.

15. Parallel Implementation and Scaling of an Adaptive Mesh Discrete Ordinates Algorithm for Transport

SciTech Connect

Howell, L H

2004-11-29

Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) uses a mesh structure built up out of locally-uniform rectangular grids. In the BoxLib parallel framework used by the Raptor code, each processor operates on one or more of these grids at each refinement level. The decomposition of the mesh into grids and the distribution of these grids among processors may change every few timesteps as a calculation proceeds. Finer grids use smaller timesteps than coarser grids, requiring additional work to keep the system synchronized and ensure conservation between different refinement levels. In a paper for NECDC 2002 I presented preliminary results on implementation of parallel transport sweeps on the AMR mesh, conjugate gradient acceleration, accuracy of the AMR solution, and scalar speedup of the AMR algorithm compared to a uniform fully-refined mesh. This paper continues with a more in-depth examination of the parallel scaling properties of the scheme, both in single-level and multi-level calculations. Both sweeping and setup costs are considered. The algorithm scales with acceptable performance to several hundred processors. Trends suggest, however, that this is the limit for efficient calculations with traditional transport sweeps, and that modifications to the sweep algorithm will be increasingly needed as job sizes in the thousands of processors become common.

16. An adaptive algorithm for motion compensated color image coding

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kwatra, Subhash C.; Whyte, Wayne A.; Lin, Chow-Ming

1987-01-01

This paper presents an adaptive algorithm for motion compensated color image coding. The algorithm can be used for video teleconferencing or broadcast signals. Activity segmentation is used to reduce the bit rate and a variable stage search is conducted to save computations. The adaptive algorithm is compared with the nonadaptive algorithm and it is shown that with approximately 60 percent savings in computing the motion vector and 33 percent additional compression, the performance of the adaptive algorithm is similar to the nonadaptive algorithm. The adaptive algorithm results also show improvement of up to 1 bit/pel over interframe DPCM coding with nonuniform quantization. The test pictures used for this study were recorded directly from broadcast video in color.

17. Developing Information Power Grid Based Algorithms and Software

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dongarra, Jack

1998-01-01

This was an exploratory study to enhance our understanding of problems involved in developing large scale applications in a heterogeneous distributed environment. It is likely that the large scale applications of the future will be built by coupling specialized computational modules together. For example, efforts now exist to couple ocean and atmospheric prediction codes to simulate a more complete climate system. These two applications differ in many respects. They have different grids, the data is in different unit systems and the algorithms for inte,-rating in time are different. In addition the code for each application is likely to have been developed on different architectures and tend to have poor performance when run on an architecture for which the code was not designed, if it runs at all. Architectural differences may also induce differences in data representation which effect precision and convergence criteria as well as data transfer issues. In order to couple such dissimilar codes some form of translation must be present. This translation should be able to handle interpolation from one grid to another as well as construction of the correct data field in the correct units from available data. Even if a code is to be developed from scratch, a modular approach will likely be followed in that standard scientific packages will be used to do the more mundane tasks such as linear algebra or Fourier transform operations. This approach allows the developers to concentrate on their science rather than becoming experts in linear algebra or signal processing. Problems associated with this development approach include difficulties associated with data extraction and translation from one module to another, module performance on different nodal architectures, and others. In addition to these data and software issues there exists operational issues such as platform stability and resource management.

18. Improved zonal wavefront reconstruction algorithm for Hartmann type test with arbitrary grid patterns

Li, Mengyang; Li, Dahai; Zhang, Chen; E, Kewei; Hong, Zhihan; Li, Chengxu

2015-08-01

Zonal wavefront reconstruction by use of the well known Southwell algorithm with rectangular grid patterns has been considered in the literature. However, when the grid patterns are nonrectangular, modal wavefront reconstruction has been extensively used. We propose an improved zonal wavefront reconstruction algorithm for Hartmann type test with arbitrary grid patterns. We develop the mathematical expressions to show that the wavefront over arbitrary grid patterns, such as misaligned, partly obscured, and non-square mesh grids, can be estimated well. Both iterative solution and least-square solution for the proposed algorithm are described and compared. Numerical calculation shows that the zonal wavefront reconstruction over nonrectangular profile with the proposed algorithm results in a significant improvement in comparison with the Southwell algorithm.

19. Improving GPU-accelerated adaptive IDW interpolation algorithm using fast kNN search.

PubMed

Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong; Xu, Liangliang

2016-01-01

This paper presents an efficient parallel Adaptive Inverse Distance Weighting (AIDW) interpolation algorithm on modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The presented algorithm is an improvement of our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm by adopting fast k-nearest neighbors (kNN) search. In AIDW, it needs to find several nearest neighboring data points for each interpolated point to adaptively determine the power parameter; and then the desired prediction value of the interpolated point is obtained by weighted interpolating using the power parameter. In this work, we develop a fast kNN search approach based on the space-partitioning data structure, even grid, to improve the previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. The improved algorithm is composed of the stages of kNN search and weighted interpolating. To evaluate the performance of the improved algorithm, we perform five groups of experimental tests. The experimental results indicate: (1) the improved algorithm can achieve a speedup of up to 1017 over the corresponding serial algorithm; (2) the improved algorithm is at least two times faster than our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm; and (3) the utilization of fast kNN search can significantly improve the computational efficiency of the entire GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. PMID:27610308

20. Anisotropic Solution Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation Using AFLR

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marcum, David L.

2007-01-01

An existing volume grid generation procedure, AFLR3, was successfully modified to generate anisotropic tetrahedral elements using a directional metric transformation defined at source nodes. The procedure can be coupled with a solver and an error estimator as part of an overall anisotropic solution adaptation methodology. It is suitable for use with an error estimator based on an adjoint, optimization, sensitivity derivative, or related approach. This offers many advantages, including more efficient point placement along with robust and efficient error estimation. It also serves as a framework for true grid optimization wherein error estimation and computational resources can be used as cost functions to determine the optimal point distribution. Within AFLR3 the metric transformation is implemented using a set of transformation vectors and associated aspect ratios. The modified overall procedure is presented along with details of the anisotropic transformation implementation. Multiple two-and three-dimensional examples are also presented that demonstrate the capability of the modified AFLR procedure to generate anisotropic elements using a set of source nodes with anisotropic transformation metrics. The example cases presented use moderate levels of anisotropy and result in usable element quality. Future testing with various flow solvers and methods for obtaining transformation metric information is needed to determine practical limits and evaluate the efficacy of the overall approach.

1. An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

SciTech Connect

2014-11-03

In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

2. A wavelet-optimized, very high order adaptive grid and order numerical method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jameson, Leland

1996-01-01

Differencing operators of arbitrarily high order can be constructed by interpolating a polynomial through a set of data followed by differentiation of this polynomial and finally evaluation of the polynomial at the point where a derivative approximation is desired. Furthermore, the interpolating polynomial can be constructed from algebraic, trigonometric, or, perhaps exponential polynomials. This paper begins with a comparison of such differencing operator construction. Next, the issue of proper grids for high order polynomials is addressed. Finally, an adaptive numerical method is introduced which adapts the numerical grid and the order of the differencing operator depending on the data. The numerical grid adaptation is performed on a Chebyshev grid. That is, at each level of refinement the grid is a Chebvshev grid and this grid is refined locally based on wavelet analysis.

3. Adaptive DNA Computing Algorithm by Using PCR and Restriction Enzyme

Kon, Yuji; Yabe, Kaoru; Rajaee, Nordiana; Ono, Osamu

In this paper, we introduce an adaptive DNA computing algorithm by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme. The adaptive algorithm is designed based on Adleman-Lipton paradigm[3] of DNA computing. In this work, however, unlike the Adleman- Lipton architecture a cutting operation has been introduced to the algorithm and the mechanism in which the molecules used by computation were feedback to the next cycle devised. Moreover, the amplification by PCR is performed in the molecule used by feedback and the difference concentration arisen in the base sequence can be used again. By this operation the molecules which serve as a solution candidate can be reduced down and the optimal solution is carried out in the shortest path problem. The validity of the proposed adaptive algorithm is considered with the logical simulation and finally we go on to propose applying adaptive algorithm to the chemical experiment which used the actual DNA molecules for solving an optimal network problem.

4. Three-dimensional adaptive grid generation for body-fitted coordinate system

Chen, S. C.

1988-08-01

This report describes a numerical method for generating 3-D grids for general configurations. The basic method involves the solution of a set of quasi-linear elliptic partial differential equations via pointwise relaxation with a local relaxation factor. It allows specification of the grid spacing off the boundary surfaces and the grid orthogonality at the boundary surfaces. It includes adaptive mechanisms to improve smoothness, orthogonality, and flow resolution in the grid interior.

5. Three-dimensional adaptive grid generation for body-fitted coordinate system

Chen, S. C.

This report describes a numerical method for generating 3-D grids for general configurations. The basic method involves the solution of a set of quasi-linear elliptic partial differential equations via pointwise relaxation with a local relaxation factor. It allows specification of the grid spacing off the boundary surfaces and the grid orthogonality at the boundary surfaces. It includes adaptive mechanisms to improve smoothness, orthogonality, and flow resolution in the grid interior.

6. FUN3D Grid Refinement and Adaptation Studies for the Ares Launch Vehicle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bartels, Robert E.; Vasta, Veer; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Park, Mike; Mineck, Raymond E.

2010-01-01

This paper presents grid refinement and adaptation studies performed in conjunction with computational aeroelastic analyses of the Ares crew launch vehicle (CLV). The unstructured grids used in this analysis were created with GridTool and VGRID while the adaptation was performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code FUN3D with a feature based adaptation software tool. GridTool was developed by ViGYAN, Inc. while the last three software suites were developed by NASA Langley Research Center. The feature based adaptation software used here operates by aligning control volumes with shock and Mach line structures and by refining/de-refining where necessary. It does not redistribute node points on the surface. This paper assesses the sensitivity of the complex flow field about a launch vehicle to grid refinement. It also assesses the potential of feature based grid adaptation to improve the accuracy of CFD analysis for a complex launch vehicle configuration. The feature based adaptation shows the potential to improve the resolution of shocks and shear layers. Further development of the capability to adapt the boundary layer and surface grids of a tetrahedral grid is required for significant improvements in modeling the flow field.

7. The use of the spectral method within the fast adaptive composite grid method

SciTech Connect

McKay, S.M.

1994-12-31

The use of efficient algorithms for the solution of partial differential equations has been sought for many years. The fast adaptive composite grid (FAC) method combines an efficient algorithm with high accuracy to obtain low cost solutions to partial differential equations. The FAC method achieves fast solution by combining solutions on different grids with varying discretizations and using multigrid like techniques to find fast solution. Recently, the continuous FAC (CFAC) method has been developed which utilizes an analytic solution within a subdomain to iterate to a solution of the problem. This has been shown to achieve excellent results when the analytic solution can be found. The CFAC method will be extended to allow solvers which construct a function for the solution, e.g., spectral and finite element methods. In this discussion, the spectral methods will be used to provide a fast, accurate solution to the partial differential equation. As spectral methods are more accurate than finite difference methods, the ensuing accuracy from this hybrid method outside of the subdomain will be investigated.

8. A time-accurate adaptive grid method and the numerical simulation of a shock-vortex interaction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bockelie, Michael J.; Eiseman, Peter R.

1990-01-01

A time accurate, general purpose, adaptive grid method is developed that is suitable for multidimensional steady and unsteady numerical simulations. The grid point movement is performed in a manner that generates smooth grids which resolve the severe solution gradients and the sharp transitions in the solution gradients. The temporal coupling of the adaptive grid and the PDE solver is performed with a grid prediction correction method that is simple to implement and ensures the time accuracy of the grid. Time accurate solutions of the 2-D Euler equations for an unsteady shock vortex interaction demonstrate the ability of the adaptive method to accurately adapt the grid to multiple solution features.

9. Cartesian Off-Body Grid Adaption for Viscous Time- Accurate Flow Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

An improved solution adaption capability has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid CFD code. Building on the Cartesian off-body approach inherent in OVERFLOW and the original adaptive refinement method developed by Meakin, the new scheme provides for automated creation of multiple levels of finer Cartesian grids. Refinement can be based on the undivided second-difference of the flow solution variables, or on a specific flow quantity such as vorticity. Coupled with load-balancing and an inmemory solution interpolation procedure, the adaption process provides very good performance for time-accurate simulations on parallel compute platforms. A method of using refined, thin body-fitted grids combined with adaption in the off-body grids is presented, which maximizes the part of the domain subject to adaption. Two- and three-dimensional examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness and performance of the adaption scheme.

10. Analysis of a Major Electric Grid -- Stability and Adaptive Protection

Alanzi, Sultan

11. Analysis of a Major Electric Grid -- Stability and Adaptive Protection

Alanzi, Sultan

12. Adaptive data management in the ARC Grid middleware

Cameron, D.; Gholami, A.; Karpenko, D.; Konstantinov, A.

2011-12-01

The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) Grid middleware was designed almost 10 years ago, and has proven to be an attractive distributed computing solution and successful in adapting to new data management and storage technologies. However, with an ever-increasing user base and scale of resources to manage, along with the introduction of more advanced data transfer protocols, some limitations in the current architecture have become apparent. The simple first-in first-out approach to data transfer leads to bottlenecks in the system, as does the built-in assumption that all data is immediately available from remote data storage. We present an entirely new data management architecture for ARC which aims to alleviate these problems, by introducing a three-layer structure. The top layer accepts incoming requests for data transfer and directs them to the middle layer, which schedules individual transfers and negotiates with various intermediate catalog and storage systems until the physical file is ready to be transferred. The lower layer performs all operations which use large amounts of bandwidth, i.e. the physical data transfer. Using such a layered structure allows more efficient use of the available bandwidth as well as enabling late-binding of jobs to data transfer slots based on a priority system. Here we describe in full detail the design and implementation of the new system.

13. Self-adaptive genetic algorithms with simulated binary crossover.

PubMed

Deb, K; Beyer, H G

2001-01-01

Self-adaptation is an essential feature of natural evolution. However, in the context of function optimization, self-adaptation features of evolutionary search algorithms have been explored mainly with evolution strategy (ES) and evolutionary programming (EP). In this paper, we demonstrate the self-adaptive feature of real-parameter genetic algorithms (GAs) using a simulated binary crossover (SBX) operator and without any mutation operator. The connection between the working of self-adaptive ESs and real-parameter GAs with the SBX operator is also discussed. Thereafter, the self-adaptive behavior of real-parameter GAs is demonstrated on a number of test problems commonly used in the ES literature. The remarkable similarity in the working principle of real-parameter GAs and self-adaptive ESs shown in this study suggests the need for emphasizing further studies on self-adaptive GAs. PMID:11382356

14. Generation and adaptation of 3-D unstructured grids for transient problems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loehner, Rainald

1990-01-01

Grid generation and adaptive refinement techniques suitable for the simulation of strongly unsteady flows past geometrically complex bodies in 3-D are described. The grids are generated using the advancing front technique. Emphasis is placed not to generate elements that are too small, as this would severely increase the cost of simulations with explicit flow solvers. The grids are adapted to an evolving flowfield using simple h-refinement. A grid change is performed every 5 to 10 timesteps, and only one level of refinement/coarsening is allowed per mesh change.

15. A Domain-Decomposed Multilevel Method for Adaptively Refined Cartesian Grids with Embedded Boundaries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.

2000-01-01

Preliminary verification and validation of an efficient Euler solver for adaptively refined Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries is presented. The parallel, multilevel method makes use of a new on-the-fly parallel domain decomposition strategy based upon the use of space-filling curves, and automatically generates a sequence of coarse meshes for processing by the multigrid smoother. The coarse mesh generation algorithm produces grids which completely cover the computational domain at every level in the mesh hierarchy. A series of examples on realistically complex three-dimensional configurations demonstrate that this new coarsening algorithm reliably achieves mesh coarsening ratios in excess of 7 on adaptively refined meshes. Numerical investigations of the scheme's local truncation error demonstrate an achieved order of accuracy between 1.82 and 1.88. Convergence results for the multigrid scheme are presented for both subsonic and transonic test cases and demonstrate W-cycle multigrid convergence rates between 0.84 and 0.94. Preliminary parallel scalability tests on both simple wing and complex complete aircraft geometries shows a computational speedup of 52 on 64 processors using the run-time mesh partitioner.

16. Automated Grid Disruption Response System: Robust Adaptive Topology Control (RATC)

SciTech Connect

2012-03-01

GENI Project: The RATC research team is using topology control as a mechanism to improve system operations and manage disruptions within the electric grid. The grid is subject to interruption from cascading faults caused by extreme operating conditions, malicious external attacks, and intermittent electricity generation from renewable energy sources. The RATC system is capable of detecting, classifying, and responding to grid disturbances by reconfiguring the grid in order to maintain economically efficient operations while guaranteeing reliability. The RATC system would help prevent future power outages, which account for roughly \$80 billion in losses for businesses and consumers each year. Minimizing the time it takes for the grid to respond to expensive interruptions will also make it easier to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources into the grid.

17. Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis

SciTech Connect

Chen, Pang C.

1995-03-01

To address the need for a fast path planner, we present a learning algorithm that improves path planning by using past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse work of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a framework in which a slow but effective planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less effective planner coupled with experience. We analyze algorithm by formalizing the concept of improvability and deriving conditions under which a planner can be improved within the framework. The analysis is based on two stochastic models, one pessimistic (on task complexity), the other randomized (on experience utility). Using these models, we derive quantitative bounds to predict the learning behavior. We use these estimation tools to characterize the situations in which the algorithm is useful and to provide bounds on the training time. In particular, we show how to predict the maximum achievable speedup. Additionally, our analysis techniques are elementary and should be useful for studying other types of probabilistic learning as well.

18. Aeroacoustic Simulation of Nose Landing Gear on Adaptive Unstructured Grids With FUN3D

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vatsa, Veer N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Park, Michael A.; Lockhard, David P.

2013-01-01

Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida's open-jet acoustic facility known as the UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center, is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. Starting with a coarse grid, a series of successively finer grids were generated using the adaptive gridding methodology available in the FUN3D code. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions obtained on these grids are compared with the measured data. In general, the correlation with the experimental data improves with grid refinement. A similar trend is observed for sound pressure levels obtained by using these CFD solutions as input to a FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the farfield noise levels. In general, the numerical solutions obtained on adapted grids compare well with the hand-tuned enriched fine grid solutions and experimental data. In addition, the grid adaption strategy discussed here simplifies the grid generation process, and results in improved computational efficiency of CFD simulations.

19. Optimal Pid Controller Design Using Adaptive Vurpso Algorithm

2015-04-01

The purpose of this paper is to improve theVelocity Update Relaxation Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (VURPSO). The improved algorithm is called Adaptive VURPSO (AVURPSO) algorithm. Then, an optimal design of a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is obtained using the AVURPSO algorithm. An adaptive momentum factor is used to regulate a trade-off between the global and the local exploration abilities in the proposed algorithm. This operation helps the system to reach the optimal solution quickly and saves the computation time. Comparisons on the optimal PID controller design confirm the superiority of AVURPSO algorithm to the optimization algorithms mentioned in this paper namely the VURPSO algorithm, the Ant Colony algorithm, and the conventional approach. Comparisons on the speed of convergence confirm that the proposed algorithm has a faster convergence in a less computation time to yield a global optimum value. The proposed AVURPSO can be used in the diverse areas of optimization problems such as industrial planning, resource allocation, scheduling, decision making, pattern recognition and machine learning. The proposed AVURPSO algorithm is efficiently used to design an optimal PID controller.

20. An adaptive inverse kinematics algorithm for robot manipulators

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.; Seraji, H.

1990-01-01

An adaptive algorithm for solving the inverse kinematics problem for robot manipulators is presented. The algorithm is derived using model reference adaptive control (MRAC) theory and is computationally efficient for online applications. The scheme requires no a priori knowledge of the kinematics of the robot if Cartesian end-effector sensing is available, and it requires knowledge of only the forward kinematics if joint position sensing is used. Computer simulation results are given for the redundant seven-DOF robotics research arm, demonstrating that the proposed algorithm yields accurate joint angle trajectories for a given end-effector position/orientation trajectory.

SciTech Connect

Lober, R.R.; Tautges, T.J.; Cairncross, R.A.

1995-11-01

2. Simulation of the dispersion of nuclear contamination using an adaptive Eulerian grid model.

PubMed

Lagzi, I; Kármán, D; Turányi, T; Tomlin, A S; Haszpra, L

2004-01-01

Application of an Eulerian model using layered adaptive unstructured grids coupled to a meso-scale meteorological model is presented for modelling the dispersion of nuclear contamination following the accidental release from a single but strong source to the atmosphere. The model automatically places a finer resolution grid, adaptively in time, in regions were high spatial numerical error is expected. The high-resolution grid region follows the movement of the contaminated air over time. Using this method, grid resolutions of the order of 6 km can be achieved in a computationally effective way. The concept is illustrated by the simulation of hypothetical nuclear accidents at the Paks NPP, in Central Hungary. The paper demonstrates that the adaptive model can achieve accuracy comparable to that of a high-resolution Eulerian model using significantly less grid points and computer simulation time. PMID:15149762

3. Synchronization Algorithms for Co-Simulation of Power Grid and Communication Networks

SciTech Connect

Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Fuller, Jason C.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.

2014-09-11

The ongoing modernization of power grids consists of integrating them with communication networks in order to achieve robust and resilient control of grid operations. To understand the operation of the new smart grid, one approach is to use simulation software. Unfortunately, current power grid simulators at best utilize inadequate approximations to simulate communication networks, if at all. Cooperative simulation of specialized power grid and communication network simulators promises to more accurately reproduce the interactions of real smart grid deployments. However, co-simulation is a challenging problem. A co-simulation must manage the exchange of informa- tion, including the synchronization of simulator clocks, between all simulators while maintaining adequate computational perfor- mance. This paper describes two new conservative algorithms for reducing the overhead of time synchronization, namely Active Set Conservative and Reactive Conservative. We provide a detailed analysis of their performance characteristics with respect to the current state of the art including both conservative and optimistic synchronization algorithms. In addition, we provide guidelines for selecting the appropriate synchronization algorithm based on the requirements of the co-simulation. The newly proposed algorithms are shown to achieve as much as 14% and 63% im- provement, respectively, over the existing conservative algorithm.

4. Adaptively resizing populations: Algorithm, analysis, and first results

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smith, Robert E.; Smuda, Ellen

1993-01-01

Deciding on an appropriate population size for a given Genetic Algorithm (GA) application can often be critical to the algorithm's success. Too small, and the GA can fall victim to sampling error, affecting the efficacy of its search. Too large, and the GA wastes computational resources. Although advice exists for sizing GA populations, much of this advice involves theoretical aspects that are not accessible to the novice user. An algorithm for adaptively resizing GA populations is suggested. This algorithm is based on recent theoretical developments that relate population size to schema fitness variance. The suggested algorithm is developed theoretically, and simulated with expected value equations. The algorithm is then tested on a problem where population sizing can mislead the GA. The work presented suggests that the population sizing algorithm may be a viable way to eliminate the population sizing decision from the application of GA's.

5. A Novel Hybrid Self-Adaptive Bat Algorithm

PubMed Central

Fister, Iztok; Brest, Janez

2014-01-01

Nature-inspired algorithms attract many researchers worldwide for solving the hardest optimization problems. One of the newest members of this extensive family is the bat algorithm. To date, many variants of this algorithm have emerged for solving continuous as well as combinatorial problems. One of the more promising variants, a self-adaptive bat algorithm, has recently been proposed that enables a self-adaptation of its control parameters. In this paper, we have hybridized this algorithm using different DE strategies and applied these as a local search heuristics for improving the current best solution directing the swarm of a solution towards the better regions within a search space. The results of exhaustive experiments were promising and have encouraged us to invest more efforts into developing in this direction. PMID:25187904

6. An adaptive algorithm for low contrast infrared image enhancement

Liu, Sheng-dong; Peng, Cheng-yuan; Wang, Ming-jia; Wu, Zhi-guo; Liu, Jia-qi

2013-08-01

An adaptive infrared image enhancement algorithm for low contrast is proposed in this paper, to deal with the problem that conventional image enhancement algorithm is not able to effective identify the interesting region when dynamic range is large in image. This algorithm begin with the human visual perception characteristics, take account of the global adaptive image enhancement and local feature boost, not only the contrast of image is raised, but also the texture of picture is more distinct. Firstly, the global image dynamic range is adjusted from the overall, the dynamic range of original image and display grayscale form corresponding relationship, the gray scale of bright object is raised and the the gray scale of dark target is reduced at the same time, to improve the overall image contrast. Secondly, the corresponding filtering algorithm is used on the current point and its neighborhood pixels to extract image texture information, to adjust the brightness of the current point in order to enhance the local contrast of the image. The algorithm overcomes the default that the outline is easy to vague in traditional edge detection algorithm, and ensure the distinctness of texture detail in image enhancement. Lastly, we normalize the global luminance adjustment image and the local brightness adjustment image, to ensure a smooth transition of image details. A lot of experiments is made to compare the algorithm proposed in this paper with other convention image enhancement algorithm, and two groups of vague IR image are taken in experiment. Experiments show that: the contrast ratio of the picture is boosted after handled by histogram equalization algorithm, but the detail of the picture is not clear, the detail of the picture can be distinguished after handled by the Retinex algorithm. The image after deal with by self-adaptive enhancement algorithm proposed in this paper becomes clear in details, and the image contrast is markedly improved in compared with Retinex

7. An adaptive, lossless data compression algorithm and VLSI implementations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Venbrux, Jack; Zweigle, Greg; Gambles, Jody; Wiseman, Don; Miller, Warner H.; Yeh, Pen-Shu

1993-01-01

This paper first provides an overview of an adaptive, lossless, data compression algorithm originally devised by Rice in the early '70s. It then reports the development of a VLSI encoder/decoder chip set developed which implements this algorithm. A recent effort in making a space qualified version of the encoder is described along with several enhancements to the algorithm. The performance of the enhanced algorithm is compared with those from other currently available lossless compression techniques on multiple sets of test data. The results favor our implemented technique in many applications.

8. An Algorithm for Converting Contours to Elevation Grids.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reid-Green, Keith S.

Some of the test questions for the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards deal with the site, including drainage, regrading, and the like. Some questions are most easily scored by examining contours, but others, such as water flow questions, are best scored from a grid in which each element is assigned its average elevation. This…

9. Three-dimensional algorithms for grid restructuring in Free-Lagrangian calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fritts, M.

1985-01-01

Grid restructuring algorithms which lower the price of three-dimensional Free-Lagrange calculations are presented. The algorithms are first given for the case of planar triangulated surfaces embedded in and spanning a three-dimensional region. The tetrahedra generated by this technique form a Delaunay mesh if the interplane spacing is comparable to the resolution within the planes. The algorithm can therefore be used for efficient determinations of Voronoi connections for initial grids. Modifications of the algorithm for the case of closely spaced surfaces are demonstrated in the context of restructuring algorithms which can accommodate colliding surfaces. Then, the restriction to planar surfaces is removed and regular surfaces are examined. The basic algorithm is the same, with an additional operation to project the vertices of one surface onto another. Finally, vertices on the surface are allowed to migrate anywhere in space.

10. Adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm for point-based rendering

Xu, Shaoping; Liu, Xiaoping P.

2015-03-01

Surgical simulation is a major application in computer graphics and virtual reality, and most of the existing work indicates that interactive real-time cutting simulation of soft tissue is a fundamental but challenging research problem in virtual surgery simulation systems. More specifically, it is difficult to achieve a fast enough graphic update rate (at least 30 Hz) on commodity PC hardware by utilizing traditional triangle-based rendering algorithms. In recent years, point-based rendering (PBR) has been shown to offer the potential to outperform the traditional triangle-based rendering in speed when it is applied to highly complex soft tissue cutting models. Nevertheless, the PBR algorithms are still limited in visual quality due to inherent contrast distortion. We propose an adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm as a postprocessing module for PBR, providing high visual rendering quality as well as acceptable rendering efficiency. Our approach is based on a perceptible image quality technique with automatic parameter selection, resulting in a visual quality comparable to existing conventional PBR algorithms. Experimental results show that our adaptive image contrast enhancement algorithm produces encouraging results both visually and numerically compared to representative algorithms, and experiments conducted on the latest hardware demonstrate that the proposed PBR framework with the postprocessing module is superior to the conventional PBR algorithm and that the proposed contrast enhancement algorithm can be utilized in (or compatible with) various variants of the conventional PBR algorithm.

11. Error and Symmetry Analysis of Misner's Algorithm for Spherical Harmonic Decomposition on a Cubic Grid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fiske, David R.

2004-01-01

In an earlier paper, Misner (2004, Class. Quant. Grav., 21, S243) presented a novel algorithm for computing the spherical harmonic components of data represented on a cubic grid. I extend Misner s original analysis by making detailed error estimates of the numerical errors accrued by the algorithm, by using symmetry arguments to suggest a more efficient implementation scheme, and by explaining how the algorithm can be applied efficiently on data with explicit reflection symmetries.

12. An Adaptive Hybrid Algorithm for Global Network Alignment.

PubMed

Xie, Jiang; Xiang, Chaojuan; Ma, Jin; Tan, Jun; Wen, Tieqiao; Lei, Jinzhi; Nie, Qing

2016-01-01

It is challenging to obtain reliable and optimal mapping between networks for alignment algorithms when both nodal and topological structures are taken into consideration due to the underlying NP-hard problem. Here, we introduce an adaptive hybrid algorithm that combines the classical Hungarian algorithm and the Greedy algorithm (HGA) for the global alignment of biomolecular networks. With this hybrid algorithm, every pair of nodes with one in each network is first aligned based on node information (e.g., their sequence attributes) and then followed by an adaptive and convergent iteration procedure for aligning the topological connections in the networks. For four well-studied protein interaction networks, i.e., C.elegans, yeast, D.melanogaster, and human, applications of HGA lead to improved alignments in acceptable running time. The mapping between yeast and human PINs obtained by the new algorithm has the largest value of common gene ontology (GO) terms compared to those obtained by other existing algorithms, while it still has lower Mean normalized entropy (MNE) and good performances on several other measures. Overall, the adaptive HGA is effective and capable of providing good mappings between aligned networks in which the biological properties of both the nodes and the connections are important. PMID:27295633

13. AN ADAPTIVE GRID ALGORITHM FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING. (R827028)

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

Shea, Peter J.; Kirk, Joe; Welchons, Dave

2007-04-01

15. Locally-adaptive and memetic evolutionary pattern search algorithms.

PubMed

Hart, William E

2003-01-01

Recent convergence analyses of evolutionary pattern search algorithms (EPSAs) have shown that these methods have a weak stationary point convergence theory for a broad class of unconstrained and linearly constrained problems. This paper describes how the convergence theory for EPSAs can be adapted to allow each individual in a population to have its own mutation step length (similar to the design of evolutionary programing and evolution strategies algorithms). These are called locally-adaptive EPSAs (LA-EPSAs) since each individual's mutation step length is independently adapted in different local neighborhoods. The paper also describes a variety of standard formulations of evolutionary algorithms that can be used for LA-EPSAs. Further, it is shown how this convergence theory can be applied to memetic EPSAs, which use local search to refine points within each iteration. PMID:12804096

16. Adaptive-mesh algorithms for computational fluid dynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powell, Kenneth G.; Roe, Philip L.; Quirk, James

1993-01-01

The basic goal of adaptive-mesh algorithms is to distribute computational resources wisely by increasing the resolution of 'important' regions of the flow and decreasing the resolution of regions that are less important. While this goal is one that is worthwhile, implementing schemes that have this degree of sophistication remains more of an art than a science. In this paper, the basic pieces of adaptive-mesh algorithms are described and some of the possible ways to implement them are discussed and compared. These basic pieces are the data structure to be used, the generation of an initial mesh, the criterion to be used to adapt the mesh to the solution, and the flow-solver algorithm on the resulting mesh. Each of these is discussed, with particular emphasis on methods suitable for the computation of compressible flows.

17. Development of a Dynamic Operational Scheduling Algorithm for an Independent Micro-Grid with Renewable Energy

Obara, Shin'ya

A micro-grid with the capacity for sustainable energy is expected to be a distributed energy system that exhibits quite a small environmental impact. In an independent micro-grid, “green energy,” which is typically thought of as unstable, can be utilized effectively by introducing a battery. In the past study, the production-of-electricity prediction algorithm (PAS) of the solar cell was developed. In PAS, a layered neural network is made to learn based on past weather data and the operation plan of the compound system of a solar cell and other energy systems was examined using this prediction algorithm. In this paper, a dynamic operational scheduling algorithm is developed using a neural network (PAS) and a genetic algorithm (GA) to provide predictions for solar cell power output. We also do a case study analysis in which we use this algorithm to plan the operation of a system that connects nine houses in Sapporo to a micro-grid composed of power equipment and a polycrystalline silicon solar cell. In this work, the relationship between the accuracy of output prediction of the solar cell and the operation plan of the micro-grid was clarified. Moreover, we found that operating the micro-grid according to the plan derived with PAS was far superior, in terms of equipment hours of operation, to that using past average weather data.

18. An Efficient Means of Adaptive Refinement Within Systems of Overset Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meakin, Robert L.

1996-01-01

An efficient means of adaptive refinement within systems of overset grids is presented. Problem domains are segregated into near-body and off-body fields. Near-body fields are discretized via overlapping body-fitted grids that extend only a short distance from body surfaces. Off-body fields are discretized via systems of overlapping uniform Cartesian grids of varying levels of refinement. a novel off-body grid generation and management scheme provides the mechanism for carrying out adaptive refinement of off-body flow dynamics and solid body motion. The scheme allows for very efficient use of memory resources, and flow solvers and domain connectivity routines that can exploit the structure inherent to uniform Cartesian grids.

19. Adaptive learning algorithms for vibration energy harvesting

Ward, John K.; Behrens, Sam

2008-06-01

By scavenging energy from their local environment, portable electronic devices such as MEMS devices, mobile phones, radios and wireless sensors can achieve greater run times with potentially lower weight. Vibration energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from parasitic vibrations can be converted into electrical energy through the use of piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers. Parasitic vibrations come from a range of sources such as human movement, wind, seismic forces and traffic. Existing approaches to vibration energy harvesting typically utilize a rectifier circuit, which is tuned to the resonant frequency of the harvesting structure and the dominant frequency of vibration. We have developed a novel approach to vibration energy harvesting, including adaptation to non-periodic vibrations so as to extract the maximum amount of vibration energy available. Experimental results of an experimental apparatus using an off-the-shelf transducer (i.e. speaker coil) show mechanical vibration to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 27-34%.

20. Adaptive NUC algorithm for uncooled IRFPA based on neural networks

Liu, Ziji; Jiang, Yadong; Lv, Jian; Zhu, Hongbin

2010-10-01

With developments in uncooled infrared plane array (UFPA) technology, many new advanced uncooled infrared sensors are used in defensive weapons, scientific research, industry and commercial applications. A major difference in imaging techniques between infrared IRFPA imaging system and a visible CCD camera is that, IRFPA need nonuniformity correction and dead pixel compensation, we usually called it infrared image pre-processing. Two-point or multi-point correction algorithms based on calibration commonly used may correct the non-uniformity of IRFPAs, but they are limited by pixel linearity and instability. Therefore, adaptive non-uniformity correction techniques are developed. Two of these adaptive non-uniformity correction algorithms are mostly discussed, one is based on temporal high-pass filter, and another is based on neural network. In this paper, a new NUC algorithm based on improved neural networks is introduced, and involves the compare result between improved neural networks and other adaptive correction techniques. A lot of different will discussed in different angle, like correction effects, calculation efficiency, hardware implementation and so on. According to the result and discussion, it could be concluding that the adaptive algorithm offers improved performance compared to traditional calibration mode techniques. This new algorithm not only provides better sensitivity, but also increases the system dynamic range. As the sensor application expended, it will be very useful in future infrared imaging systems.

1. Extended TA Algorithm for Adapting a Situation Ontology

Zweigle, Oliver; Häussermann, Kai; Käppeler, Uwe-Philipp; Levi, Paul

In this work we introduce an improved version of a learning algorithm for the automatic adaption of a situation ontology (TAA) [1] which extends the basic principle of the learning algorithm. The approach bases on the assumption of uncertain data and includes elements from the domain of Bayesian Networks and Machine Learning. It is embedded into the cluster of excellence Nexus at the University of Stuttgart which has the aim to build a distributed context aware system for sharing context data.

2. An adaptive algorithm for modifying hyperellipsoidal decision surfaces

SciTech Connect

Kelly, P.M.; Hush, D.R.; White, J.M.

1992-05-01

The LVQ algorithm is a common method which allows a set of reference vectors for a distance classifier to adapt to a given training set. We have developed a similar learning algorithm, LVQ-MM, which manipulates hyperellipsoidal cluster boundaries as opposed to reference vectors. Regions of the input feature space are first enclosed by ellipsoidal decision boundaries, and then these boundaries are iteratively modified to reduce classification error. Results obtained by classifying the Iris data set are provided.

3. An adaptive algorithm for modifying hyperellipsoidal decision surfaces

SciTech Connect

Kelly, P.M.; Hush, D.R. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); White, J.M. )

1992-01-01

The LVQ algorithm is a common method which allows a set of reference vectors for a distance classifier to adapt to a given training set. We have developed a similar learning algorithm, LVQ-MM, which manipulates hyperellipsoidal cluster boundaries as opposed to reference vectors. Regions of the input feature space are first enclosed by ellipsoidal decision boundaries, and then these boundaries are iteratively modified to reduce classification error. Results obtained by classifying the Iris data set are provided.

4. An efficient algorithm for mapping imaging data to 3D unstructured grids in computational biomechanics.

PubMed

Einstein, Daniel R; Kuprat, Andrew P; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P; Einstein, David M; Jacob, Richard E; Corley, Richard A

2013-01-01

Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging-based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: (i) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstructured ventricular grid; (ii) the mapping of serial cyrosection histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and (iii) the mapping of computed tomography-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case. PMID:23293066

5. An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics

SciTech Connect

Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P.; Einstein, David M.; Corley, Richard A.; Jacob, Rick E.

2013-01-01

Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: 1) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstuctured ventricular grid; 2) the mapping of serial cyro-section histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and 3) the mapping of CT-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case.

6. A grid generating algorithm for simulating a fluctuating water table boundary in heterogeneous unconfined aquifers

Crowe, A. S.; Shikaze, S. G.; Schwartz, F. W.

An algorithm is presented for generating finite element grids that can be used to calculate the position of a fluctuating water table and the formation of seepage faces within a heterogeneous unconfined aquifer. Our approach overcomes limitations with existing techniques by allowing the water table to rise or decline through hydrostratigraphic boundaries yet maintains numerical and conceptual accuracy with respect to hydrostratigraphic geometry. The algorithm involves (1) limited stretching or shrinking of elements along the water table if the change in the position of the water table is small with respect to the vertical grid spacing, and (2) the addition or removal of nodes and elements in the finite element mesh along the water table as the change becomes large with respect to the vertical grid spacing. This technique is applicable to any 2-D or 3-D finite element code that contains an automatic finite-element grid generator.

7. Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids

Cortes, Andres

Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i

8. Data-adaptive algorithms for calling alleles in repeat polymorphisms.

PubMed

Stoughton, R; Bumgarner, R; Frederick, W J; McIndoe, R A

1997-01-01

Data-adaptive algorithms are presented for separating overlapping signatures of heterozygotic allele pairs in electrophoresis data. Application is demonstrated for human microsatellite CA-repeat polymorphisms in LiCor 4000 and ABI 373 data. The algorithms allow overlapping alleles to be called correctly in almost every case where a trained observer could do so, and provide a fast automated objective alternative to human reading of the gels. The algorithm also supplies an indication of confidence level which can be used to flag marginal cases for verification by eye, or as input to later stages of statistical analysis. PMID:9059812

9. A Hierarchical and Distributed Approach for Mapping Large Applications to Heterogeneous Grids using Genetic Algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sanyal, Soumya; Jain, Amit; Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak

2003-01-01

In this paper, we propose a distributed approach for mapping a single large application to a heterogeneous grid environment. To minimize the execution time of the parallel application, we distribute the mapping overhead to the available nodes of the grid. This approach not only provides a fast mapping of tasks to resources but is also scalable. We adopt a hierarchical grid model and accomplish the job of mapping tasks to this topology using a scheduler tree. Results show that our three-phase algorithm provides high quality mappings, and is fast and scalable.

10. Adaptive clustering algorithm for community detection in complex networks.

PubMed

Ye, Zhenqing; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

2008-10-01

Community structure is common in various real-world networks; methods or algorithms for detecting such communities in complex networks have attracted great attention in recent years. We introduced a different adaptive clustering algorithm capable of extracting modules from complex networks with considerable accuracy and robustness. In this approach, each node in a network acts as an autonomous agent demonstrating flocking behavior where vertices always travel toward their preferable neighboring groups. An optimal modular structure can emerge from a collection of these active nodes during a self-organization process where vertices constantly regroup. In addition, we show that our algorithm appears advantageous over other competing methods (e.g., the Newman-fast algorithm) through intensive evaluation. The applications in three real-world networks demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm to find communities that are parallel with the appropriate organization in reality. PMID:18999501

11. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

SciTech Connect

Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

2012-05-08

This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of

12. Game and Balance Multicast Architecture Algorithms for Sensor Grid

PubMed Central

Fan, Qingfeng; Wu, Qiongli; Magoulés, Frèdèric; Xiong, Naixue; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.; He, Yanxiang

2009-01-01

We propose a scheme to attain shorter multicast delay and higher efficiency in the data transfer of sensor grid. Our scheme, in one cluster, seeks the central node, calculates the space and the data weight vectors. Then we try to find a new vector composed by linear combination of the two old ones. We use the equal correlation coefficient between the new and old vectors to find the point of game and balance of the space and data factorsbuild a binary simple equation, seek linear parameters, and generate a least weight path tree. We handled the issue from a quantitative way instead of a qualitative way. Based on this idea, we considered the scheme from both the space and data factor, then we built the mathematic model, set up game and balance relationship and finally resolved the linear indexes, according to which we improved the transmission efficiency of sensor grid. Extended simulation results indicate that our scheme attains less average multicast delay and number of links used compared with other well-known existing schemes. PMID:22399992

13. The Kernel Adaptive Autoregressive-Moving-Average Algorithm.

PubMed

Li, Kan; Príncipe, José C

2016-02-01

In this paper, we present a novel kernel adaptive recurrent filtering algorithm based on the autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) model, which is trained with recurrent stochastic gradient descent in the reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. This kernelized recurrent system, the kernel adaptive ARMA (KAARMA) algorithm, brings together the theories of adaptive signal processing and recurrent neural networks (RNNs), extending the current theory of kernel adaptive filtering (KAF) using the representer theorem to include feedback. Compared with classical feedforward KAF methods, the KAARMA algorithm provides general nonlinear solutions for complex dynamical systems in a state-space representation, with a deferred teacher signal, by propagating forward the hidden states. We demonstrate its capabilities to provide exact solutions with compact structures by solving a set of benchmark nondeterministic polynomial-complete problems involving grammatical inference. Simulation results show that the KAARMA algorithm outperforms equivalent input-space recurrent architectures using first- and second-order RNNs, demonstrating its potential as an effective learning solution for the identification and synthesis of deterministic finite automata. PMID:25935049

Son, Seokho; Sim, Kwang Mong

Since participants in a Cloud may be independent bodies, mechanisms are necessary for resolving different preferences in leasing Cloud services. Whereas there are currently mechanisms that support service-level agreement negotiation, there is little or no negotiation support for concurrent price and timeslot for Cloud service reservations. For the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation, a tradeoff algorithm to generate and evaluate a proposal which consists of price and timeslot proposal is necessary. The contribution of this work is thus to design an adaptive tradeoff algorithm for multi-issue negotiation mechanism. The tradeoff algorithm referred to as "adaptive burst mode" is especially designed to increase negotiation speed and total utility and to reduce computational load by adaptively generating concurrent set of proposals. The empirical results obtained from simulations carried out using a testbed suggest that due to the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation mechanism with adaptive tradeoff algorithm: 1) both agents achieve the best performance in terms of negotiation speed and utility; 2) the number of evaluations of each proposal is comparatively lower than previous scheme (burst-N).

15. Computations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-fitted Grid Systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1994-01-01

A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

16. A Modified Rife Algorithm for Off-Grid DOA Estimation Based on Sparse Representations.

PubMed

Chen, Tao; Wu, Huanxin; Guo, Limin; Liu, Lutao

2015-01-01

In this paper we address the problem of off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation based on sparse representations in the situation of multiple measurement vectors (MMV). A novel sparse DOA estimation method which changes MMV problem to SMV is proposed. This method uses sparse representations based on weighted eigenvectors (SRBWEV) to deal with the MMV problem. MMV problem can be changed to single measurement vector (SMV) problem by using the linear combination of eigenvectors of array covariance matrix in signal subspace as a new SMV for sparse solution calculation. So the complexity of this proposed algorithm is smaller than other DOA estimation algorithms of MMV. Meanwhile, it can overcome the limitation of the conventional sparsity-based DOA estimation approaches that the unknown directions belong to a predefined discrete angular grid, so it can further improve the DOA estimation accuracy. The modified Rife algorithm for DOA estimation (MRife-DOA) is simulated based on SRBWEV algorithm. In this proposed algorithm, the largest and sub-largest inner products between the measurement vector or its residual and the atoms in the dictionary are utilized to further modify DOA estimation according to the principle of Rife algorithm and the basic idea of coarse-to-fine estimation. Finally, simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective and can reduce the DOA estimation error caused by grid effect with lower complexity. PMID:26610521

17. A Modified Rife Algorithm for Off-Grid DOA Estimation Based on Sparse Representations

PubMed Central

Chen, Tao; Wu, Huanxin; Guo, Limin; Liu, Lutao

2015-01-01

In this paper we address the problem of off-grid direction of arrival (DOA) estimation based on sparse representations in the situation of multiple measurement vectors (MMV). A novel sparse DOA estimation method which changes MMV problem to SMV is proposed. This method uses sparse representations based on weighted eigenvectors (SRBWEV) to deal with the MMV problem. MMV problem can be changed to single measurement vector (SMV) problem by using the linear combination of eigenvectors of array covariance matrix in signal subspace as a new SMV for sparse solution calculation. So the complexity of this proposed algorithm is smaller than other DOA estimation algorithms of MMV. Meanwhile, it can overcome the limitation of the conventional sparsity-based DOA estimation approaches that the unknown directions belong to a predefined discrete angular grid, so it can further improve the DOA estimation accuracy. The modified Rife algorithm for DOA estimation (MRife-DOA) is simulated based on SRBWEV algorithm. In this proposed algorithm, the largest and sub-largest inner products between the measurement vector or its residual and the atoms in the dictionary are utilized to further modify DOA estimation according to the principle of Rife algorithm and the basic idea of coarse-to-fine estimation. Finally, simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective and can reduce the DOA estimation error caused by grid effect with lower complexity. PMID:26610521

18. An Adaptive Immune Genetic Algorithm for Edge Detection

Li, Ying; Bai, Bendu; Zhang, Yanning

An adaptive immune genetic algorithm (AIGA) based on cost minimization technique method for edge detection is proposed. The proposed AIGA recommends the use of adaptive probabilities of crossover, mutation and immune operation, and a geometric annealing schedule in immune operator to realize the twin goals of maintaining diversity in the population and sustaining the fast convergence rate in solving the complex problems such as edge detection. Furthermore, AIGA can effectively exploit some prior knowledge and information of the local edge structure in the edge image to make vaccines, which results in much better local search ability of AIGA than that of the canonical genetic algorithm. Experimental results on gray-scale images show the proposed algorithm perform well in terms of quality of the final edge image, rate of convergence and robustness to noise.

19. Flight data processing with the F-8 adaptive algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hartmann, G.; Stein, G.; Petersen, K.

1977-01-01

An explicit adaptive control algorithm based on maximum likelihood estimation of parameters has been designed for NASA's DFBW F-8 aircraft. To avoid iterative calculations, the algorithm uses parallel channels of Kalman filters operating at fixed locations in parameter space. This algorithm has been implemented in NASA/DFRC's Remotely Augmented Vehicle (RAV) facility. Real-time sensor outputs (rate gyro, accelerometer and surface position) are telemetered to a ground computer which sends new gain values to an on-board system. Ground test data and flight records were used to establish design values of noise statistics and to verify the ground-based adaptive software. The software and its performance evaluation based on flight data are described

20. A new adaptive GMRES algorithm for achieving high accuracy

SciTech Connect

Sosonkina, M.; Watson, L.T.; Kapania, R.K.; Walker, H.F.

1996-12-31

GMRES(k) is widely used for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. However, it is inadequate either when it converges only for k close to the problem size or when numerical error in the modified Gram-Schmidt process used in the GMRES orthogonalization phase dramatically affects the algorithm performance. An adaptive version of GMRES (k) which tunes the restart value k based on criteria estimating the GMRES convergence rate for the given problem is proposed here. The essence of the adaptive GMRES strategy is to adapt the parameter k to the problem, similar in spirit to how a variable order ODE algorithm tunes the order k. With FORTRAN 90, which provides pointers and dynamic memory management, dealing with the variable storage requirements implied by varying k is not too difficult. The parameter k can be both increased and decreased-an increase-only strategy is described next followed by pseudocode.

1. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karr, C. L.

1993-01-01

Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

2. Adaptive Process Control with Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karr, C. L.

1993-01-01

Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision-making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

3. Developing Information Power Grid Based Algorithms and Software

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dongarra, Jack

1998-01-01

This exploratory study initiated our effort to understand performance modeling on parallel systems. The basic goal of performance modeling is to understand and predict the performance of a computer program or set of programs on a computer system. Performance modeling has numerous applications, including evaluation of algorithms, optimization of code implementations, parallel library development, comparison of system architectures, parallel system design, and procurement of new systems. Our work lays the basis for the construction of parallel libraries that allow for the reconstruction of application codes on several distinct architectures so as to assure performance portability. Following our strategy, once the requirements of applications are well understood, one can then construct a library in a layered fashion. The top level of this library will consist of architecture-independent geometric, numerical, and symbolic algorithms that are needed by the sample of applications. These routines should be written in a language that is portable across the targeted architectures.

4. SIMULATING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL FLOW WITH CONSTRAINED TRANSPORT AND ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT: ALGORITHMS AND TESTS OF THE AstroBEAR CODE

SciTech Connect

Cunningham, Andrew J.; Frank, Adam; Varniere, Peggy; Mitran, Sorin; Jones, Thomas W.

2009-06-15

A description is given of the algorithms implemented in the AstroBEAR adaptive mesh-refinement code for ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The code provides several high-resolution shock-capturing schemes which are constructed to maintain conserved quantities of the flow in a finite-volume sense. Divergence-free magnetic field topologies are maintained to machine precision by collating the components of the magnetic field on a cell-interface staggered grid and utilizing the constrained transport approach for integrating the induction equations. The maintenance of magnetic field topologies on adaptive grids is achieved using prolongation and restriction operators which preserve the divergence and curl of the magnetic field across collocated grids of different resolutions. The robustness and correctness of the code is demonstrated by comparing the numerical solution of various tests with analytical solutions or previously published numerical solutions obtained by other codes.

5. An optimal and efficient new gridding algorithm using singular value decomposition.

PubMed

Rosenfeld, D

1998-07-01

The problem of handling data that falls on a nonequally spaced grid occurs in numerous fields of science, ranging from radio-astronomy to medical imaging. In MRI, this condition arises when sampling under time-varying gradients in sequences such as echo-planar imaging (EPI), spiral scans, or radial scans. The technique currently being used to interpolate the nonuniform samples onto a Cartesian grid is called the gridding algorithm. In this paper, a new method for uniform resampling is presented that is both optimal and efficient. It is first shown that the resampling problem can be formulated as a problem of solving a set of linear equations Ax = b, where x and b are vectors of the uniform and nonuniform samples, respectively, and A is a matrix of the sinc interpolation coefficients. In a procedure called Uniform Re-Sampling (URS), this set of equations is given an optimal solution using the pseudoinverse matrix which is computed using singular value decomposition (SVD). In large problems, this solution is neither practical nor computationally efficient. Another method is presented, called the Block Uniform Re-Sampling (BURS) algorithm, which decomposes the problem into solving a small set of linear equations for each uniform grid point. These equations are a subset of the original equations Ax = b and are once again solved using SVD. The final result is both optimal and computationally efficient. The results of the new method are compared with those obtained using the conventional gridding algorithm via simulations. PMID:9660548

6. FLAG: A multi-dimensional adaptive free-Lagrange code for fully unstructured grids

SciTech Connect

Burton, D.E.; Miller, D.S.; Palmer, T.

1995-07-01

The authors describe FLAG, a 3D adaptive free-Lagrange method for unstructured grids. The grid elements were 3D polygons, which move with the flow, and are refined or reconnected as necessary to achieve uniform accuracy. The authors stressed that they were able to construct a 3D hydro version of this code in 3 months, using an object-oriented FORTRAN approach.

7. A Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method with adaptive gridding for advection-dispersion problems

SciTech Connect

Ijiri, Y.; Karasaki, K.

1994-02-01

In the present paper, a Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method with adaptive gridding for solving advection-dispersion equations is described. The code creates new grid points in the vicinity of sharp fronts at every time step in order to reduce numerical dispersion. The code yields quite accurate solutions for a wide range of mesh Peclet numbers and for mesh Courant numbers well in excess of 1.

8. Unstructured Grid Adaptation: Status, Potential Impacts, and Recommended Investments Toward CFD Vision 2030

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Park, Michael A.; Krakos, Joshua A.; Michal, Todd; Loseille, Adrien; Alonso, Juan J.

2016-01-01

Unstructured grid adaptation is a powerful tool to control discretization error for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It has enabled key increases in the accuracy, automation, and capacity of some fluid simulation applications. Slotnick et al. provides a number of case studies in the CFD Vision 2030 Study: A Path to Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences to illustrate the current state of CFD capability and capacity. The authors forecast the potential impact of emerging High Performance Computing (HPC) environments forecast in the year 2030 and identify that mesh generation and adaptivity continue to be significant bottlenecks in the CFD work flow. These bottlenecks may persist because very little government investment has been targeted in these areas. To motivate investment, the impacts of improved grid adaptation technologies are identified. The CFD Vision 2030 Study roadmap and anticipated capabilities in complementary disciplines are quoted to provide context for the progress made in grid adaptation in the past fifteen years, current status, and a forecast for the next fifteen years with recommended investments. These investments are specific to mesh adaptation and impact other aspects of the CFD process. Finally, a strategy is identified to diffuse grid adaptation technology into production CFD work flows.

9. Adaptive Flocking of Robot Swarms: Algorithms and Properties

Lee, Geunho; Chong, Nak Young

This paper presents a distributed approach for adaptive flocking of swarms of mobile robots that enables to navigate autonomously in complex environments populated with obstacles. Based on the observation of the swimming behavior of a school of fish, we propose an integrated algorithm that allows a swarm of robots to navigate in a coordinated manner, split into multiple swarms, or merge with other swarms according to the environment conditions. We prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm using Lyapunov stability theory. We also verify the effectiveness of the algorithm through extensive simulations, where a swarm of robots repeats the process of splitting and merging while passing around multiple stationary and moving obstacles. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is scalable, and robust to variations in the sensing capability of individual robots.

10. Higher-order schemes with CIP method and adaptive Soroban grid towards mesh-free scheme

Yabe, Takashi; Mizoe, Hiroki; Takizawa, Kenji; Moriki, Hiroshi; Im, Hyo-Nam; Ogata, Youichi

2004-02-01

A new class of body-fitted grid system that can keep the third-order accuracy in time and space is proposed with the help of the CIP (constrained interpolation profile/cubic interpolated propagation) method. The grid system consists of the straight lines and grid points moving along these lines like abacus - Soroban in Japanese. The length of each line and the number of grid points in each line can be different. The CIP scheme is suitable to this mesh system and the calculation of large CFL (>10) at locally refined mesh is easily performed. Mesh generation and searching of upstream departure point are very simple and almost mesh-free treatment is possible. Adaptive grid movement and local mesh refinement are demonstrated.

11. Grid coupling mechanism in the semi-implicit adaptive Multi-Level Multi-Domain method

Innocenti, M. E.; Tronci, C.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.

2016-05-01

The Multi-Level Multi-Domain (MLMD) method is a semi-implicit adaptive method for Particle-In-Cell plasma simulations. It has been demonstrated in the past in simulations of Maxwellian plasmas, electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities, plasma expansion in vacuum, magnetic reconnection [1, 2, 3]. In multiple occasions, it has been commented on the coupling between the coarse and the refined grid solutions. The coupling mechanism itself, however, has never been explored in depth. Here, we investigate the theoretical bases of grid coupling in the MLMD system. We obtain an evolution law for the electric field solution in the overlap area of the MLMD system which highlights a dependance on the densities and currents from both the coarse and the refined grid, rather than from the coarse grid alone: grid coupling is obtained via densities and currents.

12. Error-measure for anisotropic grid-adaptation in turbulence-resolving simulations

2015-11-01

Grid-adaptation requires an error-measure that identifies where the grid should be refined. In the case of turbulence-resolving simulations (DES, LES, DNS), a simple error-measure is the small-scale resolved energy, which scales with both the modeled subgrid-stresses and the numerical truncation errors in many situations. Since this is a scalar measure, it does not carry any information on the anisotropy of the optimal grid-refinement. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new error-measure for turbulence-resolving simulations that is capable of predicting nearly-optimal anisotropic grids. Turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 300 is used to assess the performance of the proposed error-measure. The formulation is geometrically general, applicable to any type of unstructured grid.

13. An object-oriented approach for parallel self adaptive mesh refinement on block structured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lemke, Max; Witsch, Kristian; Quinlan, Daniel

1993-01-01

Self-adaptive mesh refinement dynamically matches the computational demands of a solver for partial differential equations to the activity in the application's domain. In this paper we present two C++ class libraries, P++ and AMR++, which significantly simplify the development of sophisticated adaptive mesh refinement codes on (massively) parallel distributed memory architectures. The development is based on our previous research in this area. The C++ class libraries provide abstractions to separate the issues of developing parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications into those of parallelism, abstracted by P++, and adaptive mesh refinement, abstracted by AMR++. P++ is a parallel array class library to permit efficient development of architecture independent codes for structured grid applications, and AMR++ provides support for self-adaptive mesh refinement on block-structured grids of rectangular non-overlapping blocks. Using these libraries, the application programmers' work is greatly simplified to primarily specifying the serial single grid application and obtaining the parallel and self-adaptive mesh refinement code with minimal effort. Initial results for simple singular perturbation problems solved by self-adaptive multilevel techniques (FAC, AFAC), being implemented on the basis of prototypes of the P++/AMR++ environment, are presented. Singular perturbation problems frequently arise in large applications, e.g. in the area of computational fluid dynamics. They usually have solutions with layers which require adaptive mesh refinement and fast basic solvers in order to be resolved efficiently.

14. A self-adaptive-grid method with application to airfoil flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nakahashi, K.; Deiwert, G. S.

1985-01-01

A self-adaptive-grid method is described that is suitable for multidimensional steady and unsteady computations. Based on variational principles, a spring analogy is used to redistribute grid points in an optimal sense to reduce the overall solution error. User-specified parameters, denoting both maximum and minimum permissible grid spacings, are used to define the all-important constants, thereby minimizing the empiricism and making the method self-adaptive. Operator splitting and one-sided controls for orthogonality and smoothness are used to make the method practical, robust, and efficient. Examples are included for both steady and unsteady viscous flow computations about airfoils in two dimensions, as well as for a steady inviscid flow computation and a one-dimensional case. These examples illustrate the precise control the user has with the self-adaptive method and demonstrate a significant improvement in accuracy and quality of the solutions.

15. Adaptive sensor array algorithm for structural health monitoring of helmet

Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Wu, Nan; Sun, Kai; Wang, Xingwei

2011-04-01

The adaptive neural network is a standard technique used in nonlinear system estimation and learning applications for dynamic models. In this paper, we introduced an adaptive sensor fusion algorithm for a helmet structure health monitoring system. The helmet structure health monitoring system is used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull. Installed inside the helmet system, there is an optical fiber pressure sensors array. After implementing the adaptive estimation algorithm into helmet system, a dynamic model for the sensor array has been developed. The dynamic response characteristics of the sensor network are estimated from the pressure data by applying an adaptive control algorithm using artificial neural network. With the estimated parameters and position data from the dynamic model, the pressure distribution of the whole helmet can be calculated following the Bazier Surface interpolation method. The distribution pattern inside the helmet will be very helpful for improving helmet design to provide better protection to soldiers from head injuries.

16. A Solution Adaptive Structured/Unstructured Overset Grid Flow Solver with Applications to Helicopter Rotor Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Duque, Earl P. N.; Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger C.

1995-01-01

This paper summarizes a method that solves both the three dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations and the Euler equations using overset structured and solution adaptive unstructured grids with applications to helicopter rotor flowfields. The overset structured grids use an implicit finite-difference method to solve the thin-layer Navier-Stokes/Euler equations while the unstructured grid uses an explicit finite-volume method to solve the Euler equations. Solutions on a helicopter rotor in hover show the ability to accurately convect the rotor wake. However, isotropic subdivision of the tetrahedral mesh rapidly increases the overall problem size.

17. Estimating meme fitness in adaptive memetic algorithms for combinatorial problems.

PubMed

Smith, J E

2012-01-01

Among the most promising and active research areas in heuristic optimisation is the field of adaptive memetic algorithms (AMAs). These gain much of their reported robustness by adapting the probability with which each of a set of local improvement operators is applied, according to an estimate of their current value to the search process. This paper addresses the issue of how the current value should be estimated. Assuming the estimate occurs over several applications of a meme, we consider whether the extreme or mean improvements should be used, and whether this aggregation should be global, or local to some part of the solution space. To investigate these issues, we use the well-established COMA framework that coevolves the specification of a population of memes (representing different local search algorithms) alongside a population of candidate solutions to the problem at hand. Two very different memetic algorithms are considered: the first using adaptive operator pursuit to adjust the probabilities of applying a fixed set of memes, and a second which applies genetic operators to dynamically adapt and create memes and their functional definitions. For the latter, especially on combinatorial problems, credit assignment mechanisms based on historical records, or on notions of landscape locality, will have limited application, and it is necessary to estimate the value of a meme via some form of sampling. The results on a set of binary encoded combinatorial problems show that both methods are very effective, and that for some problems it is necessary to use thousands of variables in order to tease apart the differences between different reward schemes. However, for both memetic algorithms, a significant pattern emerges that reward based on mean improvement is better than that based on extreme improvement. This contradicts recent findings from adapting the parameters of operators involved in global evolutionary search. The results also show that local reward schemes

18. Adaptive grid finite element model of the tokamak scrapeoff layer

SciTech Connect

Kuprat, A.P.; Glasser, A.H.

1995-07-01

The authors discuss unstructured grids for application to transport in the tokamak edge SOL. They have developed a new metric with which to judge element elongation and resolution requirements. Using this method, the authors apply a standard moving finite element technique to advance the SOL equations while inserting/deleting dynamically nodes that violate an elongation criterion. In a tokamak plasma, this method achieves a more uniform accuracy, and results in highly stretched triangular finite elements, except near separatrix X-point where transport is more isotropic.

19. Minimizing the grid-resolution dependence of flow-routing algorithms for geomorphic applications

Pelletier, Jon D.

2010-10-01

The results of flow-routing methods currently used in the geomorphic literature depend on grid resolution. This poses a problem for landscape evolution models, which must be independent of grid resolution to the greatest extent possible. Here I illustrate a refinement of currently-used flow-routing algorithms that yields unit contributing areas (i.e. contributing areas per unit width of flow) with minimal grid-resolution effects. I illustrate the application of this method in idealized topography, in high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of real-world topography, and by integration into a landscape evolution model for ridge-and-valley topography. The landscape evolution model produces grid-resolution-independent results in a more straightforward way than previous models for this type of landscape.

20. Comparison between iterative wavefront control algorithm and direct gradient wavefront control algorithm for adaptive optics system

Cheng, Sheng-Yi; Liu, Wen-Jin; Chen, Shan-Qiu; Dong, Li-Zhi; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing

2015-08-01

1. Efficient implementation of the adaptive scale pixel decomposition algorithm

Zhang, L.; Bhatnagar, S.; Rau, U.; Zhang, M.

2016-08-01

Context. Most popular algorithms in use to remove the effects of a telescope's point spread function (PSF) in radio astronomy are variants of the CLEAN algorithm. Most of these algorithms model the sky brightness using the delta-function basis, which results in undesired artefacts when used to image extended emission. The adaptive scale pixel decomposition (Asp-Clean) algorithm models the sky brightness on a scale-sensitive basis and thus gives a significantly better imaging performance when imaging fields that contain both resolved and unresolved emission. Aims: However, the runtime cost of Asp-Clean is higher than that of scale-insensitive algorithms. In this paper, we identify the most expensive step in the original Asp-Clean algorithm and present an efficient implementation of it, which significantly reduces the computational cost while keeping the imaging performance comparable to the original algorithm. The PSF sidelobe levels of modern wide-band telescopes are significantly reduced, allowing us to make approximations to reduce the computational cost, which in turn allows for the deconvolution of larger images on reasonable timescales. Methods: As in the original algorithm, scales in the image are estimated through function fitting. Here we introduce an analytical method to model extended emission, and a modified method for estimating the initial values used for the fitting procedure, which ultimately leads to a lower computational cost. Results: The new implementation was tested with simulated EVLA data and the imaging performance compared well with the original Asp-Clean algorithm. Tests show that the current algorithm can recover features at different scales with lower computational cost.

2. Fast frequency acquisition via adaptive least squares algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kumar, R.

1986-01-01

A new least squares algorithm is proposed and investigated for fast frequency and phase acquisition of sinusoids in the presence of noise. This algorithm is a special case of more general, adaptive parameter-estimation techniques. The advantages of the algorithms are their conceptual simplicity, flexibility and applicability to general situations. For example, the frequency to be acquired can be time varying, and the noise can be nonGaussian, nonstationary and colored. As the proposed algorithm can be made recursive in the number of observations, it is not necessary to have a priori knowledge of the received signal-to-noise ratio or to specify the measurement time. This would be required for batch processing techniques, such as the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The proposed algorithm improves the frequency estimate on a recursive basis as more and more observations are obtained. When the algorithm is applied in real time, it has the extra advantage that the observations need not be stored. The algorithm also yields a real time confidence measure as to the accuracy of the estimator.

3. PHURBAS: AN ADAPTIVE, LAGRANGIAN, MESHLESS, MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS CODE. I. ALGORITHM

SciTech Connect

Maron, Jason L.; McNally, Colin P.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: cmcnally@amnh.org

2012-05-01

We present an algorithm for simulating the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics and other systems of differential equations on an unstructured set of points represented by sample particles. Local, third-order, least-squares, polynomial interpolations (Moving Least Squares interpolations) are calculated from the field values of neighboring particles to obtain field values and spatial derivatives at the particle position. Field values and particle positions are advanced in time with a second-order predictor-corrector scheme. The particles move with the fluid, so the time step is not limited by the Eulerian Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. Full spatial adaptivity is implemented to ensure the particles fill the computational volume, which gives the algorithm substantial flexibility and power. A target resolution is specified for each point in space, with particles being added and deleted as needed to meet this target. Particle addition and deletion is based on a local void and clump detection algorithm. Dynamic artificial viscosity fields provide stability to the integration. The resulting algorithm provides a robust solution for modeling flows that require Lagrangian or adaptive discretizations to resolve. This paper derives and documents the Phurbas algorithm as implemented in Phurbas version 1.1. A following paper presents the implementation and test problem results.

4. A Domain-Decomposed Multi-Level Method for Adaptively Refined Cartesian Grids with Embedded Boundaries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

The work presents a new method for on-the-fly domain decomposition technique for mapping grids and solution algorithms to parallel machines, and is applicable to both shared-memory and message-passing architectures. It will be demonstrated on the Cray T3E, HP Exemplar, and SGI Origin 2000. Computing time has been secured on all these platforms. The decomposition technique is an outgrowth of techniques used in computational physics for simulations of N-body problems and the event horizons of black holes, and has not been previously used by the CFD community. Since the technique offers on-the-fly partitioning, it offers a substantial increase in flexibility for computing in heterogeneous environments, where the number of available processors may not be known at the time of job submission. In addition, since it is dynamic it permits the job to be repartitioned without global communication in cases where additional processors become available after the simulation has begun, or in cases where dynamic mesh adaptation changes the mesh size during the course of a simulation. The platform for this partitioning strategy is a completely new Cartesian Euler solver tarcreted at parallel machines which may be used in conjunction with Ames' "Cart3D" arbitrary geometry simulation package.

5. An efficient Bayesian inference approach to inverse problems based on an adaptive sparse grid collocation method

Ma, Xiang; Zabaras, Nicholas

2009-03-01

A new approach to modeling inverse problems using a Bayesian inference method is introduced. The Bayesian approach considers the unknown parameters as random variables and seeks the probabilistic distribution of the unknowns. By introducing the concept of the stochastic prior state space to the Bayesian formulation, we reformulate the deterministic forward problem as a stochastic one. The adaptive hierarchical sparse grid collocation (ASGC) method is used for constructing an interpolant to the solution of the forward model in this prior space which is large enough to capture all the variability/uncertainty in the posterior distribution of the unknown parameters. This solution can be considered as a function of the random unknowns and serves as a stochastic surrogate model for the likelihood calculation. Hierarchical Bayesian formulation is used to derive the posterior probability density function (PPDF). The spatial model is represented as a convolution of a smooth kernel and a Markov random field. The state space of the PPDF is explored using Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms to obtain statistics of the unknowns. The likelihood calculation is performed by directly sampling the approximate stochastic solution obtained through the ASGC method. The technique is assessed on two nonlinear inverse problems: source inversion and permeability estimation in flow through porous media.

6. Landsat ecosystem disturbance adaptive processing system (LEDAPS) algorithm description

USGS Publications Warehouse

Schmidt, Gail; Jenkerson, Calli; Masek, Jeffrey; Vermote, Eric; Gao, Feng

2013-01-01

The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) software was originally developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland to produce top-of-atmosphere reflectance from LandsatThematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Level 1 digital numbers and to apply atmospheric corrections to generate a surface-reflectance product.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the LEDAPS algorithm for producing the Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record.This report discusses the LEDAPS algorithm, which was implemented by the USGS.

7. Adaptive Grid Based Localized Learning for Multidimensional Data

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saini, Sheetal

2012-01-01

Rapid advances in data-rich domains of science, technology, and business has amplified the computational challenges of "Big Data" synthesis necessary to slow the widening gap between the rate at which the data is being collected and analyzed for knowledge. This has led to the renewed need for efficient and accurate algorithms, framework,…

8. Adapting a commercial power system simulator for smart grid based system study and vulnerability assessment

Navaratne, Uditha Sudheera

The smart grid is the future of the power grid. Smart meters and the associated network play a major role in the distributed system of the smart grid. Advance Metering Infrastructure (AMI) can enhance the reliability of the grid, generate efficient energy management opportunities and many innovations around the future smart grid. These innovations involve intense research not only on the AMI network itself but as also on the influence an AMI network can have upon the rest of the power grid. This research describes a smart meter testbed with hardware in loop that can facilitate future research in an AMI network. The smart meters in the testbed were developed such that their functionality can be customized to simulate any given scenario such as integrating new hardware components into a smart meter or developing new encryption algorithms in firmware. These smart meters were integrated into the power system simulator to simulate the power flow variation in the power grid on different AMI activities. Each smart meter in the network also provides a communication interface to the home area network. This research delivers a testbed for emulating the AMI activities and monitoring their effect on the smart grid.

9. A De-Centralized Scheduling and Load Balancing Algorithm for Heterogeneous Grid Environments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arora, Manish; Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

In the past two decades, numerous scheduling and load balancing techniques have been proposed for locally distributed multiprocessor systems. However, they all suffer from significant deficiencies when extended to a Grid environment: some use a centralized approach that renders the algorithm unscalable, while others assume the overhead involved in searching for appropriate resources to be negligible. Furthermore, classical scheduling algorithms do not consider a Grid node to be N-resource rich and merely work towards maximizing the utilization of one of the resources. In this paper we propose a new scheduling and load balancing algorithm for a generalized Grid model of N-resource nodes that not only takes into account the node and network heterogeneity, but also considers the overhead involved in coordinating among the nodes. Our algorithm is de-centralized, scalable, and overlaps the node coordination time of the actual processing of ready jobs, thus saving valuable clock cycles needed for making decisions. The proposed algorithm is studied by conducting simulations using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigm.

10. A De-centralized Scheduling and Load Balancing Algorithm for Heterogeneous Grid Environments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arora, Manish; Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak

2002-01-01

In the past two decades, numerous scheduling and load balancing techniques have been proposed for locally distributed multiprocessor systems. However, they all suffer from significant deficiencies when extended to a Grid environment: some use a centralized approach that renders the algorithm unscalable, while others assume the overhead involved in searching for appropriate resources to be negligible. Furthermore, classical scheduling algorithms do not consider a Grid node to be N-resource rich and merely work towards maximizing the utilization of one of the resources. In this paper, we propose a new scheduling and load balancing algorithm for a generalized Grid model of N-resource nodes that not only takes into account the node and network heterogeneity, but also considers the overhead involved in coordinating among the nodes. Our algorithm is decentralized, scalable, and overlaps the node coordination time with that of the actual processing of ready jobs, thus saving valuable clock cycles needed for making decisions. The proposed algorithm is studied by conducting simulations using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigm.