Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive remote-sensing techniques

  1. Adaptive Remote-Sensing Techniques Implementing Swarms of Mobile Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, R.B.; Cameron, S.M.; Loubriel, G.M.; Robinett, R.D.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-25

    In many situations, stand-off remote-sensing and hazard-interdiction techniques over realistic operational areas are often impractical "and difficult to characterize. An alternative approach is to implement an adap- tively deployable array of sensitive agent-specific devices. Our group has been studying the collective be- havior of an autonomous, multi-agent system applied to chedbio detection and related emerging threat applications, The current physics-based models we are using coordinate a sensor array for mukivanate sig- nal optimization and coverage as re,alized by a swarm of robots or mobile vehicles. These intelligent control systems integrate'glob"ally operating decision-making systems and locally cooperative learning neural net- works to enhance re+-timp operational responses to dynarnical environments examples of which include obstacle avoidance, res~onding to prevailing wind patterns, and overcoming other natural obscurants or in- terferences. Collectively',tkensor nefirons with simple properties, interacting according to basic community rules, can accomplish complex interconnecting functions such as generalization, error correction, pattern recognition, sensor fusion, and localization. Neural nets provide a greater degree of robusmess and fault tolerance than conventional systems in that minor variations or imperfections do not impair performance. The robotic platforms would be equipped with sensor devices that perform opticaI detection of biologicais in combination with multivariate chemical analysis tools based on genetic and neural network algorithms, laser-diode LIDAR analysis, ultra-wideband short-pulsed transmitting and receiving antennas, thermal im- a:ing sensors, and optical Communication technology providing robust data throughput pathways. Mission scenarios under consideration include ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detection of underground struc- tures, airborne systems, and plume migration and mitigation. We will describe our research in

  2. Adaptive Remote-Sensing Techniques Implementing Swarms of Mobile Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, S.M.; Loubriel, G.M.; Rbinett, R.D. III; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on our recent work at Sandia National Laboratories toward engineering a physics-based swarm of mobile vehicles for distributed sensing applications. Our goal is to coordinate a sensor array that optimizes sensor coverage and multivariate signal analysis by implementing artificial intelligence and evolutionary computational techniques. These intelligent control systems integrate both globally operating decision-making systems and locally cooperative information-sharing modes using genetically-trained neural networks. Once trained, neural networks have the ability to enhance real-time operational responses to dynamical environments, such as obstacle avoidance, responding to prevailing wind patterns, and overcoming other natural obscurants or interferences (jammers). The swarm realizes a collective set of sensor neurons with simple properties incorporating interactions based on basic community rules (potential fields) and complex interconnecting functions based on various neural network architectures, Therefore, the swarm is capable of redundant heterogeneous measurements which furnishes an additional degree of robustness and fault tolerance not afforded by conventional systems, while accomplishing such cognitive tasks as generalization, error correction, pattern recognition, and sensor fission. The robotic platforms could be equipped with specialized sensor devices including transmit/receive dipole antennas, chemical or biological sniffers in combination with recognition analysis tools, communication modulators, and laser diodes. Our group has been studying the collective behavior of an autonomous, multi-agent system applied to emerging threat applications. To accomplish such tasks, research in the fields of robotics, sensor technology, and swarms are being conducted within an integrated program. Mission scenarios under consideration include ground penetrating impulse radar (GPR) for detection of under-ground structures, airborne systems, and plume

  3. Some adaptive filtering techniques applied to the passive remote sensing problem. [for Tiros-N and Nimbus 6 experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toldalagi, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of recursive statistical regression techniques incorporating past or past and future observations through smoothing and Kalman filtering, respectively; with results for the cases of the Tiros-N/MSU and Nimbus-6/Scams remote sensing satellite experiments. In response to the lack of a satisfactory model for the medium sounded, which is presently a major limitation on retrieval technique performance, a novel, global approach is proposed which casts the retrieval problem into the framework of adaptive filtering. A numerical implementation of such an adaptive system is presented, with a multilayer, semi-spectral general circulation model for the atmosphere being used to fine-tune the sensor as well as the dynamical equations of a Kalman filter. It is shown that the assimilation of radiometric data becomes a straightforward subproblem.

  4. Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

  5. Laser Remote Sensing: Velocimetry Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl; Steinvall, Ove

    Laser-based velocity measurement is an area of the field of remote sensing where the coherent properties of laser radiation are the most exposed. Much of the published literature deals with the theory and techniques of remote sensing. We restrict our discussion to current trends in this area, gathered from recent conferences and professional journals. Remote wind sensing and vibrometry are promising in their new scientific, industrial, military, and biomedical applications, including improving flight safety, precise weapon correction, non-contact mine detection, optimization of wind farm operation, object identification based on its vibration signature, fluid flow studies, and vibrometry-associated diagnosis.

  6. Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the basics behind remote-sensing physics, techniques, and technology. The physics of wave/matter interactions, techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the concepts behind remote sensing techniques now established and future ones under development are discussed. Applications of remote sensing are described for a wide variety of earth and planetary atmosphere and surface sciences. Solid surface sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, ocean surface sensing, basic principles of atmospheric sensing and radiative transfer, and atmospheric remote sensing in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and infrared regions are examined.

  7. Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring Aquatic Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Alfonso

    Hydrilla is an important submerged aquatic vegetation because it has a large capacity to absorb pollutants and it is an indicator of the eutrophic status of a waterbody. Monitoring and restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation is key for the preservation and restoration of the Chesapeake Bay. Remote sensing techniques have been used for assessing wetlands and non-invasive aquatic species, but there is limited studies of hydrilla monitoring combined with space-borne, airborne and in-situ remote sensing measurements for detecting and mapping hydrilla infestation. The first objective of this research was to establish a database of hydrilla spectral signatures from an experimental tank and from a field setting using a handheld spectrometer. The spectral signatures collected will be used to identify the optimal spectral and spatial characteristics that are required to identify and classify the distribution of hydrilla canopies in water bodies. The second objective is to process and analyze two hyperspectral images from a space-borne (Hyperion) and airborne (AISA) sensors with ENVI for detecting and mapping the infestation of hydrilla vertillicata in a coastal estuary in Chesapeake Bay. The third objective was to validate the satellite and airborne hyperspectral images with the spectral signatures collected with the in-situ field measurements. In addition, the Hyperion and AISA imaging results were compared with ground surveys and aerial photos collected by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources and the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences for verifying the extent and the location of the hydrilla canopies. The hyperspectral analysis of both sensors provided for a dual results, one is the identification and classification of hydrilla from hyperspectral imaging sensors and secondly the identification of algae blooms in very productive waters. A hydrilla spectral signature database was established and housed in GMU's EastFIRE Lab of Environmental Science and

  8. Evaluation of reforestation using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.

  9. Remote sensing techniques for mining waste characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M. A.; Savastru, R. S.; Savastru, D. M.; Miclos, S. I.; Tautan, M. N. M.

    2009-09-01

    Environmental monitoring is essential information routinely required by the mining industry and regulators to demonstrate that the environment is not adversely impacted by exploration and mining. New mining technologies can not only exploit low-grade ores but also produce high volumes of tailings as mining wastes. Satellite remote sensing imagery provided by Landsat TM and ETM sensors is an important investigation tool of mining waste cover screening, mapping and monitoring at local and regional scales of areas containing multiple sources of mining-related heavy metals. By this, satellite remote sensing data can help to rapidly assess the dimension of mining waste risk and therefore better manage such a geohazard as well as for remediation programs. Based on Landsat TM, ETM satellite data over 1989-2007 period, was possible to be achieved a discrimination between weathered materials and other prone to acidification as well as to perform a spatio temporal landcover change detection analysis in some mining waste areas in Maramures County, Romania. Accuracy of image processing results (mineralogical classification) was confirmed through ground sampling and analysis of reflectance spectra with portable GER 2600 spectroradiometer.

  10. Layered classification techniques for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.; Wu, C. L.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Hauska, H.

    1975-01-01

    The single-stage method of pattern classification utilizes all available features in a single test which assigns the unknown to a category according to a specific decision strategy (such as the maximum likelihood strategy). The layered classifier classifies the unknown through a sequence of tests, each of which may be dependent on the outcome of previous tests. Although the layered classifier was originally investigated as a means of improving classification accuracy and efficiency, it was found that in the context of remote sensing data analysis, other advantages also accrue due to many of the special characteristics of both the data and the applications pursued. The layered classifier method and several of the diverse applications of this approach are discussed.

  11. Monitoring asphalt pavement damages using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Christofe, Andreas; Pilakoutas, Kypros; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2015-06-01

    One of the main issues in the maintenance plans of road agencies or governmental organizations is the early detection of damaged asphalt pavements. The development of a smart and non-destructive systematic technique for monitoring damaged asphalt pavements is considered a main priority to fill this gap. During the 1970's, remote sensing was used to map road surface distress, while during the last decade, remote sensing became more advanced, thereby assisting in the evolution of the identification and mapping of roads. Various techniques were used in order to explore condition, age, weaknesses and imperfections of asphalted pavements. These methods were fairly successful in the classification of asphalted surfaces and in the detection of some of their characteristics. This paper explores the state of the art of using remote sensing techniques for monitoring damaged pavements and some typical spectral profiles of various asphalt pavements in Cyprus area acquired using the SVC1024 field spectroradiometer.

  12. Natural resource inventory for urban planning utilizing remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, K. E.; Mackey, P. F.; Bonham, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to the lower Pantano Wash area to acquire data for planning an ecological balance between the expanding Tucson metropolitan area and its environment. The types and distribution of vegetation are discussed along with the hydrologic aspects of the Wash.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES FOR AGRICULTURAL FEEDLOT POLLUTION DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research effort was directed toward the application of remote sensing techniques to the detection and monitoring of pollution from cattle feeding operations. Five livestock feeding operations were selected for the study along the James River from Huron to Redfield, South Dak...

  14. Estimation of sugarcane sucrose and biomass with remote sensing techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing techniques were used to predict sucrose levels (TRS) and gross cane yield in field-grown sugarcane. To estimate sucrose levels, leaves were collected from plant-cane and first-ratoon sugarcane plants from the variety maturity studies conducted at the USDA-ARS-SRRC, Sugarcane Research...

  15. USE OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES IN A SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION OF AN UNCONTROLLED HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the use and evaluation of several remote sensing techniques in conjunction with direct sample collection in order to develop a systematic approach for subsurface investigations at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Remote sensing techniques (electrical resi...

  16. Adaptive regularized scheme for remote sensing image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Sizhang; Shen, Chaomin; Zhang, Guixu

    2016-06-01

    We propose an adaptive regularized algorithm for remote sensing image fusion based on variational methods. In the algorithm, we integrate the inputs using a "grey world" assumption to achieve visual uniformity. We propose a fusion operator that can automatically select the total variation (TV)-L1 term for edges and L2-terms for non-edges. To implement our algorithm, we use the steepest descent method to solve the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves remarkable results.

  17. Data acquisition and preprocessing techniques for remote sensing field research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1983-01-01

    A crops and soils data base has been developed at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing using spectral and agronomic measurements made by several government and university researchers. The data are being used to (1) quantitatively determine the relationships of spectral and agronomic characteristics of crops and soils, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques. Researchers follow defined data acquisition and preprocessing techniques to provide fully annotated and calibrated sets of spectral, agronomic, and meteorological data. These procedures enable the researcher to combine his data with that acquired by other researchers for remote sensing research. The key elements or requirements for developing a field research data base of spectral data that can be transported across sites and years are appropriate experiment design, accurate spectral data calibration, defined field procedures, and through experiment documentation.

  18. The Application of Remote Sensing Techniques to Urban Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques useful in acquiring data concerning housing quality is discussed. Conclusions reached from the investigation were: (1) Use of individuals with a higher degree of training in photointerpretation should significantly increase the percentage of successful classifications. (2) Small area classification of urban housing quality can definitely be accomplished via high resolution aerial photography. Such surveys, at the levels of accuracy demonstrated, can be of major utility in quick look surveys. (3) Survey costs should be significantly reduced.

  19. Remote sensing techniques in cultural resource management archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jay K.; Haley, Bryan S.

    2003-04-01

    Cultural resource management archaeology in the United States concerns compliance with legislation set in place to protect archaeological resources from the impact of modern activities. Traditionally, surface collection, shovel testing, test excavation, and mechanical stripping are used in these projects. These methods are expensive, time consuming, and may poorly represent the features within archaeological sites. The use of remote sensing techniques in cultural resource management archaeology may provide an answer to these problems. Near-surface geophysical techniques, including magnetometry, resistivity, electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar, have proven to be particularly successful at efficiently locating archaeological features. Research has also indicated airborne and satellite remote sensing may hold some promise in the future for large-scale archaeological survey, although this is difficult in many areas of the world where ground cover reflect archaeological features in an indirect manner. A cost simulation of a hypothetical data recovery project on a large complex site in Mississippi is presented to illustrate the potential advantages of remote sensing in a cultural resource management setting. The results indicate these techniques can save a substantial amount of time and money for these projects.

  20. Remote sensing techniques for support of coastal zone resource management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Description of remote sensing studies carried out for the purpose of developing and/or demonstrating techniques which can be employed for land use inventory, marsh vegetation classification, and water characteristics surveys. Attention is given to results obtained with (1) photo interpretation techniques and procedures for the development of land use information from high-altitude aircraft and satellite imagery, (2) computer based pattern recognition techniques utilizing multispectral scanner data for marsh vegetation classification, and (3) infrared and microwave techniques for the monitoring and surveying of coastal water temperature and salinity characteristics.

  1. Integration of geological remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.; Trautwein, Charles M.

    1976-01-01

    Geological remote sensing is defined as the study of the Earth utilizing electromagnetic radiation which is either reflected or emitted from its surface in wavelengths ranging from 0.3 micrometre to 3 metres. The natural surface of the Earth is composed of a diversified combination of surface cover types, and geologists must understand the characteristics of surface cover types to successfully evaluate remotely-sensed data. In some areas landscape surface cover changes throughout the year, and analysis of imagery acquired at different times of year can yield additional geological information. Integration of different scales of analysis allows landscape features to be effectively interpreted. Interpretation of the static elements displayed on imagery is referred to as an image interpretation. Image interpretation is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's understanding of the fundamental aspects of image formation, and (2.) his ability to detect, delineate, and classify image radiometric data; recognize radiometric patterns; and identify landscape surface characteristics as expressed on imagery. A geologic interpretation integrates surface characteristics of the landscape with subsurface geologic relationships. Development of a geologic interpretation from imagery is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's ability to interpret geomorphic processes from their static surface expression as landscape characteristics on imagery, (2) his ability to conceptualize the dynamic processes responsible for the evolution 6f interpreted geologic relationships (his ability to develop geologic models). The integration of geologic remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis is illustrated by development of an exploration model for ground water in the Tucson area of Arizona, and by the development of an exploration model for mineralization in southwest Idaho.

  2. Estimation of Insulator Contaminations by Means of Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Cui, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The accurate estimation of deposits adhering on insulators is critical to prevent pollution flashovers which cause huge costs worldwide. The traditional evaluation method of insulator contaminations (IC) is based sparse manual in-situ measurements, resulting in insufficient spatial representativeness and poor timeliness. Filling that gap, we proposed a novel evaluation framework of IC based on remote sensing and data mining. Varieties of products derived from satellite data, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), digital elevation model (DEM), land use and land cover and normalized difference vegetation index were obtained to estimate the severity of IC along with the necessary field investigation inventory (pollution sources, ambient atmosphere and meteorological data). Rough set theory was utilized to minimize input sets under the prerequisite that the resultant set is equivalent to the full sets in terms of the decision ability to distinguish severity levels of IC. We found that AOD, the strength of pollution source and the precipitation are the top 3 decisive factors to estimate insulator contaminations. On that basis, different classification algorithm such as mahalanobis minimum distance, support vector machine (SVM) and maximum likelihood method were utilized to estimate severity levels of IC. 10-fold cross-validation was carried out to evaluate the performances of different methods. SVM yielded the best overall accuracy among three algorithms. An overall accuracy of more than 70% was witnessed, suggesting a promising application of remote sensing in power maintenance. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to introduce remote sensing and relevant data analysis technique into the estimation of electrical insulator contaminations.

  3. Remote sensing techniques applied to seismic vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Arranz, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Hahgi, Azade; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Advances in remote sensing and photogrammetry techniques have increased the degree of accuracy and resolution in the record of the earth's surface. This has expanded the range of possible applications of these data. In this research, we have used these data to document the construction characteristics of the urban environment of Lorca, Spain. An exposure database has been created with the gathered information to be used in seismic vulnerability assessment. To this end, we have used data from photogrammetric flights at different periods, using both orthorectified images in the visible and infrared spectrum. Furthermore, the analysis is completed using LiDAR data. From the combination of these data, it has been possible to delineate the building footprints and characterize the constructions with attributes such as the approximate date of construction, area, type of roof and even building materials. To carry out the calculation, we have developed different algorithms to compare images from different times, segment images, classify LiDAR data, and use the infrared data in order to remove vegetation or to compute roof surfaces with height value, tilt and spectral fingerprint. In addition, the accuracy of our results has been validated with ground truth data. Keywords: LiDAR, remote sensing, seismic vulnerability, Lorca

  4. A satellite remote sensing technique for geological structure horizon mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.; Huggins, P.; Rees, J.

    1996-08-01

    A Satellite Remote Sensing Technique is demonstrated for generating near surface geological structure data. This technique enables the screening of large areas and targeting of seismic acquisition during hydrocarbon exploration. This is of particular advantage in terrains where surveying is logistically difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data and a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM), are used to identify and map outcropping horizons. These are used to reconstruct the near surface structure. The technique is applied in Central Yemen which is characterised by a {open_quote}layer-cake{close_quote} geological and low dipping terrain. The results are validated using 2D seismic data. The near surface map images faults and structure not apparent in the raw data. Comparison with the structure map generated from a 2D seismic data indicates very good structural and fault correlation. The near surface map successfully highlights areas of potential closure at reservoir depths.

  5. Remote sensing techniques for prediction of watershed runoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Hydrologic parameters of watersheds for use in mathematical models and as design criteria for flood detention structures are sometimes difficult to quantify using conventional measuring systems. The advent of remote sensing devices developed in the past decade offers the possibility that watershed characteristics such as vegetative cover, soils, soil moisture, etc., may be quantified rapidly and economically. Experiments with visible and near infrared data from the LANDSAT-1 multispectral scanner indicate a simple technique for calibration of runoff equation coefficients is feasible. The technique was tested on 10 watersheds in the Chickasha area and test results show more accurate runoff coefficients were obtained than with conventional methods. The technique worked equally as well using a dry fall scene. The runoff equation coefficients were then predicted for 22 subwatersheds with flood detention structures. Predicted values were again more accurate than coefficients produced by conventional methods.

  6. Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

  7. An overview of the development of remote sensing techniques for the screwworm eradication program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Forsberg, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    The current status of remote sensing techniques developed for the screwworm eradication program of the Mexican-American Screwworm Eradication Commission was reported. A review of the type of data and equipment used in the program is presented. Future applications of remote sensing techniques are considered.

  8. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  9. Estimation of ambient BVOC emissions using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Janet; Wong, Man Sing

    2011-06-01

    The contribution of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) to local air quality modelling is often ignored due to the difficulty of obtaining accurate spatial estimates of emissions. Yet their role in the formation of secondary aerosols and photochemical smog is thought to be significant, especially in hot tropical cities such as Hong Kong, which are situated downwind from dense forests. This paper evaluates Guenther et al.'s [Guenther, A., Hewitt, C.N., Erickson, D., Fall, R., Geron, C., Graedel, T.E., Harley, P., Klinger, L., Lerdau, M., McKay, W.A., Pierce, T., Scholes, B., Steinbrecher, R., Tallamraju, R., Taylor, J., Zimmerman, P., 1995. A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892] global model of BVOC emissions, for application at a spatially detailed level to Hong Kong's tropical forested landscape using high resolution remote sensing and ground data. The emission estimates are based on a landscape approach which assigns emission rates directly to ecosystem types not to individual species, since unlike in temperate regions where one or two single species may dominate over large regions, Hong Kong's vegetation is extremely diverse with up to 300 different species in one hectare. The resulting BVOC emission maps are suitable for direct input to regional and local air quality models giving 10 m raster output on an hourly basis over the whole of the Hong Kong territory, an area of 1100 km 2. Due to the spatially detailed mapping of isoprene emissions over the study area, it was possible to validate the model output using field data collected at a precise time and place by replicating those conditions in the model. The field measurement of emissions used for validating the model was based on a canister sampling technique, undertaken under different climatic conditions for Hong Kong's main ecosystem types in both urban and rural areas. The model-derived BVOC flux distributions appeared to be

  10. Integration of remote sensing and geophysical techniques for coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Carone, M. T.; Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Imbrenda, V.; D'Emilio, M.; Guariglia, A.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal areas are of great environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational relevance; therefore, the implementation of suitable monitoring and protection actions is fundamental for their preservation and for assuring future use of this resource. Such actions have to be based on an ecosystem perspective for preserving coastal environment integrity and functioning and for planning sustainable resource management of both the marine and terrestrial components (ICZM-EU initiative). We implemented an integrated study based on remote sensing and geophysical techniques for monitoring a coastal area located along the Ionian side of Basilicata region (Southern Italy). This area, between the Bradano and Basento river mouths, is mainly characterized by a narrow shore (10-30 m) of fine sandy formations and by a pine forest planted in the first decade of 50's in order to preserve the coast and the inland cultivated areas. Due to drought and fire events and saltwater intrusion phenomena, such a forest is affected by a strong decline with consequent environmental problems. Multispectral satellite data were adopted for evaluating the spatio-temporal features of coastal vegetation and the structure of forested patterns. The increase or decrease in vegetation activity was analyzed from trends estimated on a time series of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps. The fragmentation/connection levels of vegetated patterns was assessed form a set of landscape ecology metrics elaborated at different structure scales (patch, class and landscape) on satellite cover classifications. Information on shoreline changes were derived form a multi-source data set (satellite data, field-GPS surveys and Aerial Laser Scanner acquisitions) by taking also into account tidal effects. Geophysical campaigns were performed for characterizing soil features and limits of salty water infiltrations. Form vertical resistivity soundings (VES), soil resistivity maps at different a deeps (0

  11. The application of remote sensing techniques to selected inter and intra urban data acquisition problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1970-01-01

    The utility of remote sensing techniques to urban data acquisition problems in several distinct areas was identified. This endeavor included a comparison of remote sensing systems for urban data collection, the extraction of housing quality data from aerial photography, utilization of photographic sensors in urban transportation studies, urban change detection, space photography utilization, and an application of remote sensing techniques to the acquisition of data concerning intra-urban commercial centers. The systematic evaluation of variable extraction for urban modeling and planning at several different scales, and the model derivation for identifying and predicting economic growth and change within a regional system of cities are also studied.

  12. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    University of California investigations to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques have concentrated on the water resources of the state. The studies consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships.

  13. A forestry application simulation of man-machine techniques for analyzing remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, J.; Russell, J.; Lube, B.

    1976-01-01

    The typical steps in the analysis of remotely sensed data for a forestry applications example are simulated. The example uses numerically-oriented pattern recognition techniques and emphasizes man-machine interaction.

  14. Successful integration of remote sensing and ground based exploration techniques in an arid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.F.E. ); Oehlers, M. )

    1995-03-06

    Twenty years ago, remote sensing promised to revolutionize exploration; unfortunately, many of the early promises made were unfulfilled and remote sensing tended to drop out of mainstream exploration. Both these extremes are unrealistic, and projects undertaken by Clyde in Yemen illustrate some of the ways remote sensing can become a successful and cost-effective part of an exploration program. Firstly, the remote sensed data, integrated with a minimum of ground control work, provided maps to use in subsequent fieldwork, a surface geology map, and a digital elevation model with its derived topographic contour maps. Secondly, the remote sensed data enabled the authors to create a structural contour map of a near surface horizon at a very low cost per square kilometer. Thirdly, the remote sensed data became a crucial planning tool for seismic operations to optimize data quality and minimize acquisition cost without having to resort to costly and time-consuming swath shooting or similar high-effort techniques. Finally, the surface geological map derived from the image interpretation enabled them to create geological cross sections along the shot seismic lines in a matter of hours without having a field geologist mapping along the lines. Remote sensing can provide highly cost-effective benefits to an exploration program in an arid region, and many of the applications can also be developed for use in areas with vegetation cover.

  15. The application of remote sensing techniques to the study of ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing methods are a powerful tool for detailed geologic analysis, especially in inaccessible regions of the earth's surface. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands are shown to provide spectral information bearing on the lithologic, structural, and geochemical character of rock bodies such as ophiolites, allowing for a more comprehensive assessment of the lithologies present, their stratigraphic relationships, and geochemical character. Most remote sensing data are widely available for little or no cost, along with user-friendly software for non-specialists. In this paper we review common remote sensing systems and methods that allow for the discrimination of solid rock (lithologic) components of ophiolite complexes and their structural relationships. Ophiolites are enigmatic rock bodies which associated with most, if not all, plate collision sutures. Ophiolites are ideal for remote sensing given their widely recognized diversity of lithologic types and structural relationships. Accordingly, as a basis for demonstrating the utility of remote sensing techniques, we briefly review typical ophiolites in the Tethyan tectonic belt. As a case study, we apply integrated remote sensing studies of a well-studied example, the Muslim Bagh ophiolite, located in Balochistan, western Pakistan. On this basis, we attempt to demonstrate how remote sensing data can validate and reconcile existing information obtained from field studies. The lithologic and geochemical diversity of Muslim Bagh are representative of Tethyan ophiolites. Despite it's remote location it has been extensively mapped and characterized by structural and geochemical studies, and is virtually free of vegetative cover. Moreover, integrating the remote sensing data with 'ground truth' information thus offers the potential of an improved template for interpreting remote sensing data sets of other ophiolites for which little or no field information is available.

  16. Remote Sensing Techniques as a Tool for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, K.; AlAhmad, M.; Shaker, A.

    2012-07-01

    The disposal of the solid wastes in landfill sites should be properly monitored by analyzing samples from soil, water, and landfill gases within the landfill site. Nevertheless, ground monitoring systems require intensive efforts and cost. Furthermore, ground monitoring may be difficult to be achieved in large geographic extent. Remote sensing technology has been introduced for waste disposal management and monitoring effects of the landfill sites on the environment. In this paper, two case studies are presented in the Trail Road landfill, Ottawa, Canada and the Al-Jleeb landfill, Al-Farwanyah, Kuwait to evaluate the use of multi-temporal remote sensing images to monitor the landfill sites. The work objectives are: 1) to study the usability of multi-temporal Landsat images for landfill site monitoring by studying the land surface temperature (LST) in the Trail Road landfill, 2) to investigate the relationship between the LST and the amount of the landfill gas emitted in the Trail Road landfill, and 3) to use the multi-temporal LST images to detect the suspicious dumping areas within the Al-Jleeb landfill site. Free archive of multi-temporal Landsat images are obtained from the USGS EarthExplorer. The Landsat images are then atmospherically corrected and the LST images are derived from the thermal band of the corrected Landsat images. In the Trail Road landfill, the results reveal that the LST of the landfill site is always higher than the air temperature by 10°C in average as well as the surroundings. A correlation is also observed between the recorded emitted methane (CH4) from the ground monitoring stations and the LST derived from the Landsat images. Based on the findings in the Al-Jleeb landfill, five locations are identified as suspicious dumping areas by overlaying the highest LST contours generated from the multi-temporal LST images. The study demonstrates that the use of multi-temporal remote sensing images can provide supplementary information for

  17. The application of remote sensing techniques: Technical and methodological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Wagner, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Capabilities and limitations of modern imaging electromagnetic sensor systems are outlined, and the products of such systems are compared with those of the traditional aerial photographic system. Focus is given to the interface between the rapidly developing remote sensing technology and the information needs of operational agencies, and communication gaps are shown to retard early adoption of the technology by these agencies. An assessment is made of the current status of imaging remote sensors and their potential for the future. Public sources of remote sensor data and several cost comparisons are included.

  18. Introduction to This Special Issue on Geostatistics and Geospatial Techniques in Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Peter; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The germination of this special Computers & Geosciences (C&G) issue began at the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) (RGS-IBG) annual meeting in January 1997 held at the University of Exeter, UK. The snow and cold of the English winter were tempered greatly by warm and cordial discussion of how to stimulate and enhance cooperation on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing 'across the big pond' between UK and US researchers. It was decided that one way forward would be to hold parallel sessions in 1998 on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing at appropriate venues in both the UK and the US. Selected papers given at these sessions would be published as special issues of C&G on the UK side and Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (PE&RS) on the US side. These issues would highlight the commonality in research on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence, a session on "Geostatistics and Geospatial Techniques for Remote Sensing of Land Surface Processes" was held at the RGS-IBG annual meeting in Guildford, Surrey, UK in January 1998, organized by the Modeling and Advanced Techniques Special Interest Group (MAT SIG) of the Remote Sensing Society (RSS). A similar session was held at the Association of American Geographers (AAG) annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts in March 1998, sponsored by the AAG's Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG). The 10 papers that make up this issue of C&G, comprise 7 papers from the UK and 3 papers from the LIS. We are both co-editors of each of the journal special issues, with the lead editor of each journal issue being from their respective side of the Atlantic. The special issue of PE&RS (vol. 65) that constitutes the other half of this co-edited journal series was published in early 1999, comprising 6 papers by US authors. We are indebted to the International Association for Mathematical

  19. Investigation of remote sensing techniques of measuring soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, R. W. (Principal Investigator); Blanchard, A. J.; Nieber, J. L.; Lascano, R.; Tsang, L.; Vanbavel, C. H. M.

    1981-01-01

    Major activities described include development and evaluation of theoretical models that describe both active and passive microwave sensing of soil moisture, the evaluation of these models for their applicability, the execution of a controlled field experiment during which passive microwave measurements were acquired to validate these models, and evaluation of previously acquired aircraft microwave measurements. The development of a root zone soil water and soil temperature profile model and the calibration and evaluation of gamma ray attenuation probes for measuring soil moisture profiles are considered. The analysis of spatial variability of soil information as related to remote sensing is discussed as well as the implementation of an instrumented field site for acquisition of soil moisture and meteorologic information for use in validating the soil water profile and soil temperature profile models.

  20. New techniques for clay mineral identification by remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, M.J.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Lang, H.

    1983-03-01

    In the past three years there have been major advancements in our ability to identify clay minerals by remote sensing. Multispectral scanners, including NASA's Thematic Mapper Simulator (analog for Landsat-D Thematic Mapper) have had several broad-band channels in the wavelength region of 1.0 to 2.5 ..mu..m. In particular, the wavelength region 2.0 to 2.5 ..mu..m contains diagnostic spectral-absorption features for most layered silicates. Computer processing of image data obtained with these scanners has allowed the identification of the presence of clay minerals, without, however, being able to identify specific mineralogies. Studies of areas with known hydrocarbon deposits and porphyry copper deposits have demonstrated the value of this information for rock-type discrimination and recognition of hydrothermal alteration zones. Non-imaging, narrow-band radiometers and spectrometers have been used in the field, from aircraft, and from space to identify individual mineralogical constituents. This can be done because of diagnostic spectral absorption features in the 2.0 to 2.5 ..mu..m region characteristic of different clay types. Preliminary analysis of SMIRR data over Egypt showed that kaolinite, carbonate rocks, and possibly montmorillonite, could be identified directly. Plans are currently under way for development of narrow-band imaging systems which will be capable of producing maps showing the surface distribution of individual clay types. This will represent a major step in remote sensing, by allowing unique identification of minerals rather than the current ability only to discriminate among materials. Applications of this technology will provide geologists with a powerful new tool for resource exploration and general geologic mapping problems.

  1. Surveillance of Arthropod Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases Using Remote Sensing Techniques: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed. PMID:17967056

  2. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-10-26

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed. PMID:17967056

  3. Remote sensing techniques for conservation and management of natural vegetation ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Verdesio, J. J.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of using remote sensing techniques, in the visible and near-infrared ranges, for mapping, inventory, conservation and management of natural ecosystems is discussed. Some examples realized in Brazil or other countries are given to evaluate the products from orbital platform (MSS and RBV imagery of LANDSAT) and aerial level (photography) for ecosystems study. The maximum quantitative and qualitative information which can be obtained from each sensor, at different level, are discussed. Based on the developed experiments it is concluded that the remote sensing technique is a useful tool in mapping vegetation units, estimating biomass, forecasting and evaluation of fire damage, disease detection, deforestation mapping and change detection in land-use. In addition, remote sensing techniques can be used in controling implantation and planning natural/artificial regeneration.

  4. Observations of the global structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere with sounding rockets and with remote sensing techniques from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Krueger, A. J.; Nordberg, W.; Prabhakara, C.; Theon, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the techniques involved in determining the global structure of the mesosphere and stratosphere based on sounding rocket observations and satellite remotely sensed measurements.

  5. The investigation of advanced remote sensing techniques for the measurement of aerosol characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.; Becher, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques and inversion methods for the measurement of characteristics of aerosol and gaseous species in the atmosphere were investigated. Of particular interest were the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, such as their size distribution, number concentration, and complex refractive index, and the vertical distribution of these properties on a local as well as global scale. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring of tropospheric aerosols were developed as well as satellite monitoring of upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Computer programs were developed for solving multiple scattering and radiative transfer problems, as well as inversion/retrieval problems. A necessary aspect of these efforts was to develop models of aerosol properties.

  6. Rapid Damage Assessment Using High-resolution Remote Sensing Imagery: Tools and Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Chandola, Varun; Graesser, Jordan B

    2011-01-01

    Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to growing population, as well as human migration to disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid damage assessment and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques and tools are important in disaster damage assessment and reporting activities. In this review, we will look into the state of the art techniques in damage assessment using remote sensing and GIS.

  7. Update and review of accuracy assessment techniques for remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congalton, R. G.; Heinen, J. T.; Oderwald, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Research performed in the accuracy assessment of remotely sensed data is updated and reviewed. The use of discrete multivariate analysis techniques for the assessment of error matrices, the use of computer simulation for assessing various sampling strategies, and an investigation of spatial autocorrelation techniques are examined.

  8. Considerations and techniques for incorporating remotely sensed imagery into the land resource management process.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooner, W. G.; Nichols, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a scheme for utilizing remote sensing technology in an operational program for regional land use planning and land resource management program applications. The scheme utilizes remote sensing imagery as one of several potential inputs to derive desired and necessary data, and considers several alternative approaches to the expansion and/or reduction and analysis of data, using automated data handling techniques. Within this scheme is a five-stage program development which includes: (1) preliminary coordination, (2) interpretation and encoding, (3) creation of data base files, (4) data analysis and generation of desired products, and (5) applications.

  9. Cavity ring-down technique for remote sensing: a proof-of-concept for displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Susana; Marques, M. B.; Frazão, O.

    2016-05-01

    This work demonstrates the viability of using a cavity ring-down technique (CRD) for remote sensing. A conventional CRD configuration is used where and optical circulator is added inside the fibre loop to couple 20 km of optical fibre with a gold mirror at its end with the purpose of remote sensing. As a proof-of-concept, an intensity sensor based on an eight-figure configuration is used at the end of the 20 km of fibre for displacement sensing. In this case, a commercial OTDR is used as modulated light source to send impulses down to the fibre ring.

  10. Remote sensing techniques for the detection of soil erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Griffin, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following paper is a summary of a number of techniques initiated under the AgRISTARS (Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing) project for the detection of soil degradation caused by water erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices for resource inventories. Discussed are methods to utilize a geographic information system to determine potential soil erosion through a USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model; application of the Kauth-Thomas Transform to detect present erosional status; and the identification of conservation practices through visual interpretation and a variety of enhancement procedures applied to digital remotely sensed data.

  11. Classification of remotely sensed data using OCR-inspired neural network techniques. [Optical Character Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Neural networks have been applied to classifications of remotely sensed data with some success. To improve the performance of this approach, an examination was made of how neural networks are applied to the optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten digits and letters. A three-layer, feedforward network, along with techniques adopted from OCR, was used to classify Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data. Good results were obtained. To overcome the difficulties that are characteristic of remote sensing applications and to attain significant improvements in classification accuracy, a special network architecture may be required.

  12. An adaptive PCA fusion method for remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qing; Li, An; Zhang, Hongqun; Feng, Zhongkui

    2014-10-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA) method is a popular fusion method used for its efficiency and high spatial resolution improvement. However, the spectral distortion is often found in PCA. In this paper, we propose an adaptive PCA method to enhance the spectral quality of the fused image. The amount of spatial details of the panchromatic (PAN) image injected into each band of the multi-spectral (MS) image is appropriately determined by a weighting matrix, which is defined by the edges of the PAN image, the edges of the MS image and the proportions between MS bands. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, the qualitative visual and quantitative analyses are introduced. The correlation coefficient (CC), the spectral discrepancy (SPD), and the spectral angle mapper (SAM) are used to measure the spectral quality of each fused band image. Q index is calculated to evaluate the global spectral quality of all the fused bands as a whole. The spatial quality is evaluated by the average gradient (AG) and the standard deviation (STD). Experimental results show that the proposed method improves the spectral quality very much comparing to the original PCA method while maintaining the high spatial quality of the original PCA.

  13. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing techniques for evaluating the effects of surface mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography contains 39 citations of technical papers and other publications dealing with the applications of remote sensing techniques for analyzing and monitoring surface mining. These references summarize recent developments in methods used to identify, map, analyze, and monitor surface mining, particularly coal surface mining.

  14. A solar energy estimation procedure using remote sensing techniques. [watershed hydrologic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to design a remote sensing-aided procedure for daily location-specific estimation of solar radiation components over the watershed(s) of interest. This technique has been tested on the Spanish Creek Watershed, Northern California, with successful results.

  15. Lithology intelligent identification using support vector machine and adaptive cellular automata in multispectral remote sensing image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Niu, Ruiqing; Wu, Ke

    2011-07-01

    Remote sensing provides a new idea and an advanced method for lithology identification, but lithology identification by remote sensing is quite difficult because 1. the disciplines of lithology identification in a concrete region are often quite different from the experts' experience; 2. in the regions with flourishing vegetation, lithology information is poor, so it is very difficult to identify the lithologies by remote sensing images. At present, the studies on lithology identification by remote sensing are primarily conducted on the regions with low vegetation coverage and high rock bareness. And there is no mature method of lithology identification in the regions with flourishing vegetation. Traditional methods lacking in the mining and extraction of the various complicated lithology information from a remote sensing image, often need much manual intervention and possess poor intelligence and accuracy. An intelligent method proposed in this paper for lithology identification based on support vector machine (SVM) and adaptive cellular automata (ACA) is expected to solve the above problems. The method adopted Landsat-7 ETM+ images and 1:50000 geological map as the data origins. It first derived the lithology identification factors on three aspects: 1. spectra, 2. texture and 3. vegetation cover. Second, it plied the remote sensing images with the geological map and established the SVM to obtain the transition rules according to the factor values of the samples. Finally, it established an ACA model to intelligently identify the lithologies according to the transition and neighborhood rules. In this paper an ACA model is proposed and compared with the traditional one. Results of 2 real-world examples show that: 1. The SVM-ACA method obtains a good result of lithology identification in the regions with flourishing vegetation; 2. it possesses high accuracies of lithology identification (with the overall accuracies of 92.29% and 85.54%, respectively, in the two

  16. USE OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES IN DETERMINING SPECIES DIVERSITY AND SUCCESSION TRENDS IN AN OLD FIELD ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Utilize visual spectrum aerial color and other remote sensing techniques at the Gaar Corner ecological research site. Remote sensing images will be in a native digital format or will be scanned into a digital format. Benchmarks will be established on site by using GPS equipmen...

  17. Development of analysis techniques for remote sensing of vegetation resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    Various data handling and analysis techniques are summarized for evaluation of ERTS-A and supporting high flight imagery. These evaluations are concerned with remote sensors applied to wildland and agricultural vegetation resource inventory problems. Monitoring California's annual grassland, automatic texture analysis, agricultural ground data collection techniques, and spectral measurements are included.

  18. Application of remote sensing techniques for identification of irrigated crop lands in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    Satellite imagery was used in a project developed to demonstrate remote sensing methods of determining irrigated acreage in Arizona. The Maricopa water district, west of Phoenix, was chosen as the test area. Band rationing and unsupervised categorization were used to perform the inventory. For both techniques the irrigation district boundaries and section lines were digitized and calculated and displayed by section. Both estimation techniques were quite accurate in estimating irrigated acreage in the 1979 growing season.

  19. Estimation of Regional Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature. Part 2: Application of Equilibrium Evaporation Model to Estimate Evapotranspiration by Remote Sensing Technique. [Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotoda, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Kai, K.; Yoshino, M. M.; Takeda, K.; Seki, K.

    1985-01-01

    In a humid region like Japan, it seems that the radiation term in the energy balance equation plays a more important role for evapotranspiration then does the vapor pressure difference between the surface and lower atmospheric boundary layer. A Priestley-Taylor type equation (equilibrium evaporation model) is used to estimate evapotranspiration. Net radiation, soil heat flux, and surface temperature data are obtained. Only temperature data obtained by remotely sensed techniques are used.

  20. Remote sensing of stress using electro-optics imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tong; Yuen, Peter; Hong, Kan; Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Kam, Firmin; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark; Oxford, William; Piper, Jonathan; Thomas, Francis; Lightman, Stafford

    2009-09-01

    Emotional or physical stresses induce a surge of adrenaline in the blood stream under the command of the sympathetic nerve system, which, cannot be suppressed by training. The onset of this alleviated level of adrenaline triggers a number of physiological chain reactions in the body, such as dilation of pupil and an increased feed of blood to muscles etc. This paper reports for the first time how Electro-Optics (EO) technologies such as hyperspectral [1,2] and thermal imaging[3] methods can be used for the detection of stress remotely. Preliminary result using hyperspectral imaging technique has shown a positive identification of stress through an elevation of haemoglobin oxygenation saturation level in the facial region, and the effect is seen more prominently for the physical stressor than the emotional one. However, all results presented so far in this work have been interpreted together with the base line information as the reference point, and that really has limited the overall usefulness of the developing technology. The present result has highlighted this drawback and it prompts for the need of a quantitative assessment of the oxygenation saturation and to correlate it directly with the stress level as the top priority of the next stage of research.

  1. A comprehensive review of earthquake-induced building damage detection with remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Laigen; Shan, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Earthquakes are among the most catastrophic natural disasters to affect mankind. One of the critical problems after an earthquake is building damage assessment. The area, amount, rate, and type of the damage are essential information for rescue, humanitarian and reconstruction operations in the disaster area. Remote sensing techniques play an important role in obtaining building damage information because of their non-contact, low cost, wide field of view, and fast response capacities. Now that more and diverse types of remote sensing data become available, various methods are designed and reported for building damage assessment. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these methods in two categories: multi-temporal techniques that evaluate the changes between the pre- and post-event data and mono-temporal techniques that interpret only the post-event data. Both categories of methods are discussed and evaluated in detail in terms of the type of remote sensing data utilized, including optical, LiDAR and SAR data. Performances of the methods and future efforts are drawn from this extensive evaluation.

  2. Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to map Groundwater Recharge and Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweed, S.; Leblanc, M.; Webb, J.; Lubczynski, M.; Stagnitti, F.

    2006-12-01

    In salinity prone catchments, effective management of water resources involves balancing the requirements of sustainable resource allocation with salinity mitigation programs and ecosystem protection. Understanding groundwater recharge and discharge processes is a key component to achieving this balance. In this study, surface and sub-surface features are linked with recharge and discharge processes by incorporating GIS and remote sensing mapping techniques for an unconfined basalt aquifer, in a salinity and drought prone region of southeast Australia. The basalt aquifer covers ~11,500 km2 in an agriculturally intensive region. The approach requires (a) knowledge of local hydrogeological processes, to choose appropriate surface/sub-surface indicators, (b) adequate remote sensing and GIS techniques as well as necessary datasets to map these indicators, and (c) validation of the results at test sites and at the catchment-scale. This approach, applied systematically across a catchment, provides a framework for mapping recharge and discharge areas. A key component in assigning surface and sub-surface indicators is the relevance to the dominant recharge and discharge processes occurring, and using appropriate remote sensing and GIS techniques with the capacity to identify these.

  3. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  4. Introduction. [usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying components of California water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Since May 1970, personnel on several campuses of the University of California have been conducting investigations which seek to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Emphasis has been given to California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan. This study is designed to consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships. The specific geographic areas studied are the Feather River drainage in northern California, the Chino-Riverside Basin and Imperial Valley areas in southern California, and selected portions of the west side of San Joaquin Valley in central California. An analysis is also given on how an effective benefit-cost study of remote sensing in relation to California's water resources might best be made.

  5. The application of remote sensing for climate change adaptation in Sahel region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deafalla, Taisser H. H.; Csaplovics, Elmar; El-Abbas, Mustafa M.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, there is no doubt that global climate change (CC) has observable development impacts, which seriously threatens the ability of individuals and communities at all levels. During this process, the clear degradation in the situation of ecosystems has produced a global concern of the urgency to mitigate climate threats and related effects. Assessing the impacts and vulnerability of CC requires accurate, up-to-date and improved information. Coupled with the ready availability of historical remote sensing (RS) data, the reduction in data cost and increased resolution from satellite platforms, RS technology appears poised to make a great impact on planning agencies and providing better understanding the dynamics of the climate system, predict and mitigate the expected global changes and the effects on human civilization involved in mapping Land Use Land Cover (LU/LC) at a variety of spatial scales. This research was designed to study the impact of CC in conflict zones and potential flashpoints in Sudan namely Nuba Mountains, where the community in this area living in fragile and unstable conditions, which making them more vulnerable to the risk of violent conflict and CC effects. And to determine the factors that exacerbate vulnerability in the study area as well as to map and assess the LU/LC change during the period 1984 to 2011 covered the years (1999, 2002 and 2009). Multispectral satellite data (i.e. LANDSAT TM and TERRA ASTER) were used. Change detection techniques were applied to analyze the rate of changes, causal factors as well as the drivers of changes. Recent study showed the importance of spatial variables in tackling CC which promoted the use of maps made within a RS. In addition to provide an input for climate models; and thus plan adaptation strategies.

  6. Remote sensing of carbon monoxide by open-path FTIR spectroscopy: comparison of different analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briz, Susana; Diez, Sarai; de Castro, Antonio J.; Lopez, Fernando; Schafer, Klaus

    2004-11-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for monitoring air pollutants by extractive methods. Remote sensing by Open-Path FTIR technique incorporates the advantages of a non-intrusive technique. EPA and VDI have recommended some guidelines for the application of this promising technique. However, it is necessary to do more research to assess the quality of these systems on the basis of European standards. The analysis of FTIR spectra are usually carried out by using methods based on classical least squares (CLS) procedures. In this work a line-by-line method (SFIT) is additionally used. SFIT is a non-linear least-squares fitting program that was designed to analyse solar absorption spectra. For this work, SFIT has been adapted and applied to Open-Path FTIR spectra. The objective of this work is to study the capability of both methods to analyse open-path measurements of carbon monoxide. From a previous work it was inferred that the selection of the analysis spectral window is a relevant parameter of SFIT analysis. Therefore, the first step has been to analyse synthetic spectra of known concentration to select the best spectral region and other parameters of analysis. Afterwards, the SFIT software has been applied to Open-Path experimental spectra. Results of the SFIT method have been compared with the results of the two methods of EVAL analysis. EVAL is a commercial software (provided with the instrument) that is based on a CLS procedure and on the absorption peak intensity. The result has been validated by comparison to a standard extractive method.

  7. Estimation of seismic building structural types using multi-sensor remote sensing and machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiß, Christian; Aravena Pelizari, Patrick; Marconcini, Mattia; Sengara, Wayan; Edwards, Mark; Lakes, Tobia; Taubenböck, Hannes

    2015-06-01

    Detailed information about seismic building structural types (SBSTs) is crucial for accurate earthquake vulnerability and risk modeling as it reflects the main load-bearing structures of buildings and, thus, the behavior under seismic load. However, for numerous urban areas in earthquake prone regions this information is mostly outdated, unavailable, or simply not existent. To this purpose, we present an effective approach to estimate SBSTs by combining scarce in situ observations, multi-sensor remote sensing data and machine learning techniques. In particular, an approach is introduced, which deploys a sequential procedure comprising five main steps, namely calculation of features from remote sensing data, feature selection, outlier detection, generation of synthetic samples, and supervised classification under consideration of both Support Vector Machines and Random Forests. Experimental results obtained for a representative study area, including large parts of the city of Padang (Indonesia), assess the capabilities of the presented approach and confirm its great potential for a reliable area-wide estimation of SBSTs and an effective earthquake loss modeling based on remote sensing, which should be further explored in future research activities.

  8. Integrating remote sensing techniques at Cuprite, Nevada: AVIRIS, Thematic Mapper, and field spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Bradley; Nash, Greg; Ridd, Merrill; Hauff, Phoebe L.; Ebel, Phil

    1992-01-01

    The Cuprite mining district in southwestern Nevada has become a test site for remote sensing studies with numerous airborne scanners and ground sensor data sets collected over the past fifteen years. Structurally, the Cuprite region can be divided into two areas with slightly different alteration and mineralogy. These zones lie on either side of a postulated low-angle structural discontinuity that strikes nearly parallel to US Route 95. Hydrothermal alternation at Cuprite was classified into three major zones: silicified, opalized, and argillized. These alteration types form a bulls-eye pattern east of the highway and are more linear on the west side of the highway making a striking contrast from the air and the imagery. Cuprite is therefore an ideal location for remote sensing research as it exhibits easily identified hydrothermal zoning, is relatively devoid of vegetation, and contains a distinctive spectrally diagnostic mineral suite including the ammonium feldspar buddingtonite, several types of alunite, different jarosites, illite, kaolinite, smectite, dickite, and opal. This present study brings a new dimension to these previous remote sensing and ground data sets compiled for Cuprite. The development of a higher resolution field spectrometer now provides the capability to combine extensive in-situ mineralogical data with a new geologic field survey and detailed Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images. The various data collection methods and the refinement of the integrated techniques are discussed.

  9. Geographic techniques and recent applications of remote sensing to landscape-water quality studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article overviews recent advances in studies of landscape-water quality relationships using remote sensing techniques. With the increasing feasibility of using remotely-sensed data, landscape-water quality studies can now be more easily performed on regional, multi-state scales. The traditional method of relating land use and land cover to water quality has been extended to include landscape pattern and other landscape information derived from satellite data. Three items are focused on in this article: 1) the increasing recognition of the importance of larger-scale studies of regional water quality that require a landscape perspective; 2) the increasing importance of remotely sensed data, such as the imagery-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenological metrics derived from time-series NDVI data; and 3) landscape pattern. In some studies, using landscape pattern metrics explained some of the variation in water quality not explained by land use/cover. However, in some other studies, the NDVI metrics were even more highly correlated to certain water quality parameters than either landscape pattern metrics or land use/cover proportions. Although studies relating landscape pattern metrics to water quality have had mixed results, this recent body of work applying these landscape measures and satellite-derived metrics to water quality analysis has demonstrated their potential usefulness in monitoring watershed conditions across large regions.

  10. A Novel Graph Based Fuzzy Clustering Technique For Unsupervised Classification Of Remote Sensing Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, B.; Krishna Moohan, B.

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of unsupervised land-cover classification of multi-spectral remotely sensed images in the context of self-learning by exploring different graph based clustering techniques hierarchically. The only assumption used here is that the number of land-cover classes is known a priori. Object based image analysis paradigm which processes a given image at different levels, has emerged as a popular alternative to the pixel based approaches for remote sensing image segmentation considering the high spatial resolution of the images. A graph based fuzzy clustering technique is proposed here to obtain a better merging of an initially oversegmented image in the spectral domain compared to conventional clustering techniques. Instead of using Euclidean distance measure, the cumulative graph edge weight is used to find the distance between a pair of points to better cope with the topology of the feature space. In order to handle uncertainty in assigning class labels to pixels, which is not always a crisp allocation for remote sensing data, fuzzy set theoretic technique is incorporated to the graph based clustering. Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) based clustering technique is used to over-segment the image at the first level. Furthermore, considering that the spectral signature of different land-cover classes may overlap significantly, a self-learning based Maximum Likelihood (ML) classifier coupled with the Expectation Maximization (EM) based iterative unsupervised parameter retraining scheme is used to generate the final land-cover classification map. Results on two medium resolution images establish the superior performance of the proposed technique in comparison to the traditional fuzzy c-means clustering technique.

  11. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  12. LIFES: Laser Induced Fluorescence and Environmental Sensing. [remote sensing technique for marine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, W. R.; Stephenson, D. G.; Measures, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory investigation has been conducted to evaluate the detection and identification capabilities of laser induced fluorescence as a remote sensing technique for the marine environment. The relative merits of fluorescence parameters including emission and excitation profiles, intensity and lifetime measurements are discussed in relation to the identification of specific targets of the marine environment including crude oils, refined petroleum products, fish oils and algae. Temporal profiles displaying the variation of lifetime with emission wavelength have proven to add a new dimension of specificity and simplicity to the technique.

  13. On the determination of agricultural prospects using remote sensing and field technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emetere, Moses Eterigho; Omotosho, T. V.; Olusola, Kayode

    2016-02-01

    The food budget is gradually depleting due to climatic change. The research problem is to see the extent of climate change via catalytic factor e.g. soil compaction. The field work has been reported and the remote sensing technique was used to compliment salient findings established. The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) was used to obtain five years satellite imagery between 2008 and 2012. The results were used to propound a simple model which shows that the effects of either H >ɛ σ Tr4 or H <ɛ σ Tr4 may be detrimental to crop survival in the nearest future.

  14. Mapping Glauconite Unites with Using Remote Sensing Techniques in North East of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadirouhani, R.; Samiee, S.

    2014-10-01

    Glauconite is a greenish ferric-iron silicate mineral with micaceous structure, characteristically formed in shallow marine environments. Glauconite has been used as a pigmentation agent for oil paint, contaminants remover in environmental studies and a source of potassium in plant fertilizers, and other industries. Koppeh-dagh basin is extended in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan countries and Glauconite units exist in this basin. In this research for enhancing and mapping glauconitic units in Koppeh-dagh structural zone in north east of Iran, remote sensing techniques such as Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM), band ratio and band composition methods on SPOT, ASTER and Landsat data in 3 steps were applied.

  15. Utilization of remotely sensed data for agricultural insurance as adaptation to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, C.; Ogasawara, C.; Sigit, G.; Tamura, E.

    2015-12-01

    Impact of climate change is not only seen on food production but also on food security, socio-economics of the poor and sustainable development of society. Adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue throughout the world to reduce the risks along with the plans and strategies for food security and sustainable development. As a key adaptation to the climate change, agricultural insurance is expected to play an important role in stabilizing agricultural production through compensating the losses caused by the climate change, meaning that the agricultural insurance can contribute to promotion of the stability in food security as one of 4 pillars defined by FOA of the United Nations. Having the above as background, we conducted research on utilization of remote sensing data including satellite data to assess damage ratio of rice production which could be used for calculation of indemnity in the agricultural insurance. Our study site was in West Java, Indonesia. For assessment of the damage ratio, estimation of rice yield is a key. As the result of our study, rice yield in dry season could be estimated at level of 1 % significance using SPOT5 satellite data taken in 2014, and the 10-fold cross-validation result was 0.7t/ha. Then, the decrease ratio in rice yield about each individual paddy field was calculated using data on the estimated result and the average yield of the past 10 years. According to the Indonesian agricultural insurance, if the damage of rice reaches 75% or above, the indemnity shall be paid to farmers. In our study site, the result showed that about 80 paddy fields located in lower irrigation region were the area to be paid by the insurance. Our study results suggest that the utilization of remote sensing data is much useful and promising for assessment of the damage ratio of rice production with precise, quick and quantitative, and also it can be incorporated into the insurance procedures.

  16. Studing some water quality parametres using remote sensing techniques in the Eastern Harbor, Alexandria, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geurguess, Maged Shoukry Kamel

    The environmental problems of Alexandria have grown rapidly in recent decades, in proportion to the growth in population and population density, as well as to the urban and industrial development. The rate of development has accelerated considerably since the turn of the century. A daily volume of more than one million cubic meters of mixed sewage water is drained from the city. About one third of this is disposed of without any treatment, into the Eastern and Western Harbors and their surroundings. The Qait Bey outfall, located a few hundred meters from the recently surveyed Pharos site, releases 200,000 m3 of waste water per day. The Eastern Harbor is the recipient of 7 outfalls. This semi-closed harbor remains permanently turbid, and water visibility is drastically reduced. Some studies were made in Eastern Harbor region, but special studies are needed to understand the variability of the water quality (Total suspended matter (TSM), transparency and chlorophyll) . Therefore, the objective of this study is to use the remote sensing application on marine environment for detecting transparency, total suspended matter and chlorophyll and its influences on Eastern Harbor based on the remote sensing techniques. Remote sensing techniques assess water quality in Eastern Harbor with special algorithms to extract all possible information using different satalittes images for the four seasons during 2006. The resulted images have been compared with ground measurements and showed high agreement significant relation between them. Eastern Harbor area are very closed and the harbor prevents the renew of water, so the transparency had been decreased while TSM and chlorophyll have been increased.

  17. Quantifying the change in soil moisture modeling uncertainty from remote sensing observations using Bayesian inference techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Kenneth W.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Santanello, Joseph A.

    2012-11-01

    Operational land surface models (LSMs) compute hydrologic states such as soil moisture that are needed for a range of important applications (e.g., drought, flood, and weather prediction). The uncertainty in LSM parameters is sufficiently great that several researchers have proposed conducting parameter estimation using globally available remote sensing data to identify best fit local parameter sets. However, even with in situ data at fine modeling scales, there can be significant remaining uncertainty in LSM parameters and outputs. Here, using a new uncertainty estimation subsystem of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) (described herein), a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique is applied to conduct Bayesian analysis for the accounting of parameter uncertainties. The Differential Evolution Markov Chain (DE-MC) MCMC algorithm was applied, for which a new parallel implementation was developed. A case study is examined that builds on previous work in which the Noah LSM was calibrated to passive (L-band) microwave remote sensing estimates of soil moisture for the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. In keeping with prior related studies, the parameters subjected to the analysis were restricted to the soil hydraulic properties (SHPs). The main goal is to estimate SHPs and soil moisture simulation uncertainty before and after consideration of the remote sensing data. The prior SHP uncertainty is based on the original source of the standard SHP lookup tables for the Noah LSM. Conclusions are drawn regarding the value and viability of Bayesian analysis over alternative approaches (e.g., parameter estimation, lookup tables) and further research needs are identified.

  18. Utility of Close-Range Remote Sensing Techniques for Mapping Topography and Bathymetry in Small Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonstad, M. A.; Dietrich, J.

    2012-12-01

    River science is in the midst of a methodological revolution, where various remote sensing appraoches have been applied to the problem of mapping river forms and processes at high resolution and over large areas. Most of these advancements has been advanced by airborne and spaceborne remote sensing platforms, yielding ground resolutions at meter-scale or larger. Close-range remote-sensing approaches (helicopters, UAS platforms, helikites) have yielded much higher resolutions, but with increased costs, range limitations, and/or technical complexity. Many river researchers, however, still measure riverscapes in small study areas and with a desire for high precision measurements. As such, it is reasonable to infer that ground-based remote sensing techniques might yield highly-precise, low-cost, and easy to acquire information in small streams and be useful for a large user base. Some of the small-stream features that are potentially mappable with close-range imaging include particle sizes, riparian vegetation, water depth, water surface elevations and superelevations, and riverbank and near-floodplain topography. Some of the important comparative metrics include (a) spatial resolution, (b) precision and accuracy, (c) cost, (d) ease of use, (e) speed and ability to map large areas, (f) the importance of specific observation platform, (g) software and hardware considerations, and (h) systematic vs. random errors. In order to compare the utility of mapping approaches against these various metrics, we have mapped a 100m stream test reach in eastern Oregon with both a high-quality dSLR camera and a Kinect active near-IR distance sensor. The camera can map topography through the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric approach, and can map bathymetry using either SfM or through spectral depth approaches. The Kinect potentially can map above-water topography for land and water. We test the camera-based methods and the Kinect sensor on two platforms. First, by hand

  19. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps,William S.; Wilson, Emily L.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of remote sensing radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and tested from both ground and aircraft platform. The sensor uses direct or reflected sunlight and has channels for measuring column concentration of carbon dioxide at 1570 nm, oxygen lines sensitive to pressure and temperature at 762 and 768 nm, and water vapor (940 nm). A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a tunable narrow bandpass filter to restrict the measurement to the gas of interest's absorption bands. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refraction of its material, the transmission fringes can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption lines of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosphere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The technique is applicable to different chemical species. We have performed simulations and instrument design studies for CH4, "Cot isotope, and CO detection. Index Terms- Absorbing media, Atmospheric measurements, Fabry-Perot interferometers, Optical interferometry, Remote sensing.

  20. A Study on Integrated Community Based Flood Mitigation with Remote Sensing Technique in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    'Ainullotfi, A. A.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Masron, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study is conducted to establish a community based flood management system that is integrated with remote sensing technique. To understand local knowledge, the demographic of the local society is obtained by using the survey approach. The local authorities are approached first to obtain information regarding the society in the study areas such as the population, the gender and the tabulation of settlement. The information about age, religion, ethnic, occupation, years of experience facing flood in the area, are recorded to understand more on how the local knowledge emerges. Then geographic data is obtained such as rainfall data, land use, land elevation, river discharge data. This information is used to establish a hydrological model of flood in the study area. Analysis were made from the survey approach to understand the pattern of society and how they react to floods while the analysis of geographic data is used to analyse the water extent and damage done by the flood. The final result of this research is to produce a flood mitigation method with a community based framework in the state of Kelantan. With the flood mitigation that involves the community's understanding towards flood also the techniques to forecast heavy rainfall and flood occurrence using remote sensing, it is hope that it could reduce the casualties and damage that might cause to the society and infrastructures in the study area.

  1. Remote sensing of irregularities in the equatorial ionosphere using the radio scintillation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental measurements of signal level fluctuations (scintillation) on VHF and microwave signals from two geostationary communications satellites are studied in detail. The signals were recorded at an equatorial location which is almost directly beneath the satellites. The scintillation is caused by refraction and diffraction of the signals by variations of the refractive index in the Flayer of the ionosphere. This study is directed toward using the observed multifrequency scintillation to remotely sense the characteristics of the ionospheric irregularities. This is done by considering both statistical and deterministic models for the scintillation producing irregularities. The models are combined with existing propagation theory using analytical and numerical simulation techniques in order to predict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the multifrequency scintillation. Comparison with the observations is used to verify the models. Extensive use is made of numerical simulation. This makes it possible to study both weak and strong scintillations which occur simultaneously on the microwave and VHF frequencies, respectively. In all cases, the models are chosen to be consistent with results from other remote sensing techniques and in situ measurements. Geophysical implications of the results are discussed in light of what is known about equatorial irregularities from previous experimental and theoretical studies.

  2. Analysis of field data to evaluate performance of optical remote sensing techniques to estimate fugitive emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, R.J.; Lew, F.; Zwicker, J.O.; Feldman, H.

    1999-07-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has developed data sets for the evaluation of dispersion modeling and optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques. An initial field study featuring several tracer gas releases from simulated point, area, and volume sources was conducted in early 1995 at an open field site (Duke Forest, North Carolina). A second experiment (Project OPTEX) took place at an operational petrochemical facility in Texas and featured tracer releases at heights up to 41 meters from points located in an active process unit. This paper discusses the results of an analysis to evaluate the capability for remote sensing techniques to estimate the magnitude and location of emission sources in an industrial complex setting. Three major issues that the paper reports on are: (1) can ORS technology be used to determine emission rates when the source locations are known; (2) can ORS technology be used to locate sources in unknown locations, therefore promising to replace or at least streamline leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs at petrochemical facilities; and (3) what are the constraints for real-time operation, interpretation, and responsiveness involving ORS technology?

  3. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  4. Use of remote-sensing techniques to survey the physical habitat of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffery W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.

    1997-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques that can be used to quantitatively characterize the physical habitat in large rivers in the United States where traditional survey approaches typically used in small- and medium-sized streams and rivers would be ineffective or impossible to apply. The state-of-the-art remote-sensing technologies that we discuss here include side-scan sonar, RoxAnn, acoustic Doppler current profiler, remotely operated vehicles and camera systems, global positioning systems, and laser level survey systems. The use of these technologies will permit the collection of information needed to create computer visualizations and hard copy maps and generate quantitative databases that can be used in real-time mode in the field to characterize the physical habitat at a study location of interest and to guide the distribution of sampling effort needed to address other habitat-related study objectives. This report augments habitat sampling and characterization guidance provided by Meador et al. (1993) and is intended for use primarily by U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment program managers and scientists who are documenting water quality in streams and rivers of the United States.

  5. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad Haji; Melesse, Assefa M; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water's surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc.) of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). PMID:27537896

  6. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seinfeld, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions are derived for the "reconstructability' of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data is developed.

  7. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seinfeld, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The data assimilation problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three-dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions were derived for the reconstructability of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data was developed.

  8. An improved dual-frequency technique for the remote sensing of ocean currents and wave spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, D. L.; Eng, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    A two frequency microwave radar technique for the remote sensing of directional ocean wave spectra and surface currents is investigated. This technique is conceptually attractive because its operational physical principle involves a spatial electromagnetic scattering resonance with a single, but selectable, long gravity wave. Multiplexing of signals having different spacing of the two transmitted frequencies allows measurements of the entire long wave ocean spectrum to be carried out. A new scatterometer is developed and experimentally tested which is capable of making measurements having much larger signal/background values than previously possible. This instrument couples the resonance technique with coherent, frequency agility radar capabilities. This scatterometer is presently configured for supporting a program of surface current measurements.

  9. A Remote Sensing Technique For Combustion Gas Temperature Measurement In Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charagundla, S. R.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    A remote sensing technique, based on the principles of emission spectroscopy, is being developed for temperature measurements in black liquor recovery boilers. Several tests have been carried out, both in the laboratory and at a number of recovery boilers, to characterize the emission spectra in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 800 nm. These tests have pointed out the potential for temperature measurements using the line intensity ratio technique based on a pair of emission lines at 404.4 nm and 766.5 nm observed in the recovery boiler combustion zone; these emission lines are due to potassium, a common constituent found in all the black liquors. Accordingly, a fiber optics based four-color system has been developed. This in-situ, nonintrusive temperature measurement technique, together with some of the more recent results, is described in this paper.

  10. Martian lavas: Three complementary remote sensing techniques to derive flow properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes-Gautier, R.; Bruno, B. C.; Taylor, G. J.; Rowland, S.; Kilburn, C. R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Several remote sensing techniques have been developed to determine various properties of lava flows. We are currently focusing on three such techniques to interpret Martian lava flows on Alba Patera, which are based on measurements of distal flow lobe widths which can be used to infer silica content; convolution of flow margins which can distinguish between pahoehoe and a'a types of basaltic flows; final flow field dimensions which can be combined with ground slope to derive effusion duration and average effusion rate. These methods are extremely complementary and together provide a more significant and complete understanding of extra-terrestrial lava flows. However, each of these techniques have specific and distinct data requirements.

  11. Integration of remote sensing techniques for the evaluation of the landslide hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, F.; Singhroy, V.; Parise, M.; Ramondini, M.

    2009-12-01

    Slope movements are worldwide recognized as the most damaging natural hazard, even though sometimes their effects are erroneously attributed to other hazards such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, etc.: they affect wide areas, producing severe economic damage, as well as direct and indirect losses, in function of both landslide velocity and exposure of the main elements at risk. Evaluation of the landslide hazard is therefore of extreme importance, in order to address the future development of built-up areas toward territories not affected by slope movements. Remote sensing techniques, that is the observation and analysis of the earth landscape from a distance, have being used since many decades at this aim. In the last 20 years, the use of satellite images considerably increased the role of remote sensing techniques, opening the ground to many new, technologically-advanced, applications. In this paper we present the results obtained by integrating different remote sensing techniques for the evaluation of the hazard related to slow-moving, intermittent landslides in the Southern Apennines of Italy. The work has been carried out by means of multi-temporal analysis of aerial photographs, that allowed to assess the spatial and temporal evolution of slope movements in a 50-years time span. Landslide inventory maps, produced for each pair of available aerial photos, have been compared to obtain landslide activity maps, that represent a shortcut for assessing the evolution of slope movements, since they focus on the effects of slope instabilities rather than on the causative conditions and processes. In these maps, the landslide activity trends are based on the variations in areal frequency of mass movements in time; thus, the estimates of these variations need not reflect the exact absolute values of landsliding. The stereoscopic observation and interpretation of vertical aerial photographs have been then integrated by analysis of satellite images (years 1992

  12. A satellite remote-sensing technique for geological horizon structure mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Huggins, P.; Cleverley, P.H.; Rees, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    A Satellite Remote Sensing technique is demonstrated which provides accurate and cost effective near-surface geological structure data. In the exploration phase the technique enables the rapid and inexpensive screening of open licences and the targeting of seismic acquisition, particularly important in terrains of difficult data acquisition. This paper describes the satellite data used, the technique of horizon surface data extraction and the analysis of a case study from Yemen. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data and a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM), generated from stereo SPOT panchromatic images, are used in conjunction to identify a number of outcropping horizons and map their spatial position and height. Geological contacts are identified and digitised from the Landsat TM data and the elevations of these points taken from the digital elevation data. The extracted x,y,z co-ordinates are then gridded to construct a horizon structure map. The technique is applied to an area of central Yemen which is characterised by a near-surface {open_quote}layer cake{close_quote} geological structure in an extremely low dipping terrain (Less than 1{degrees}). The remote sensing interpretation is validated by comparison with 2D seismic across the area. Regional flexural structures with bed dips of as little as 0.25{degrees} can be mapped. Trend analysis and residual calculations on the horizon structure map show the techniques ability to identify and quantify horizon deformation related to faulting. Surface geological structure was successfully interpolated into the subsurface indicating potential fault closure at reservoir target depths.

  13. Application of Remote Sensing Techniques for Appraising Changes in Wildlife Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. K.; Klett, A. T.; Johnston, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of airborne, multispectral, line scanner data acquisition and computer-implemented automatic recognition techniques for providing useful information about waterfowl breeding habitat in North Dakota. The spectral characteristics of the components of a landscape containing waterfowl habitat can be detected with airborne scanners. By analyzing these spectral characteristics it is possible to identify and map the landscape components through analog and digital processing methods. At the present stage of development multispectral remote sensing techniques are not ready for operational application to surveys of migratory bird habitat and other such resources. Further developments are needed to: (1) increase accuracy; (2) decrease retrieval and processing time; and (3) reduce costs.

  14. Comparison of some very high resolution remote sensing techniques for the monitoring of a sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaud, M.; Delacourt, C.; Allemand, P.; Deschamps, A.; Cancouët, R.; Ammann, J.; Grandjean, P.; Suanez, S.; Fichaut, B.; Cuq, V.

    2011-12-01

    Because the anthropogenic pressure on the coastal fringe is continuously increasing, the comprehension of morphological coastal changes is a key problem. An efficient, practical and affordable monitoring strategy is essential to investigate the physical processes that are on the origin of these changes and to model the changes to come. This paper presents an assessment of several very high resolution remote sensing techniques (DGPS, stereo-photogrammetry by drone, Terrestrial Laser Scanning and shallow-water multi-beam echo-sounder) which have been jointly used to survey a beach in French Brittany. These techniques allow an integrated approach for Digital Elevation Model (DEM) differencing in order to quantify morphological changes and to monitor the beach evolution. Gathering topographic and bathymetric data enables to draw up the sediment budget of a complete sediment compartment.

  15. Application of remote sensing techniques at different scales of observation on wetland evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Chung-Hsin

    The establishment and maintenance of the structure and functions in wetland ecosystems is greatly influenced by hydrologic conditions. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the major output component in the hydrologic water budget. Therefore, in order to provide efficient information for water resources management and the conservation of wetland ecosystems, research on ET is urgently needed. Moreover, to overcome the variable spatial vegetation distribution and the temporal change of wetlands, appropriate remote sensing techniques are also greatly needed. The goal of this research was to study fundamental wetland ET and then with the aid of remote sensing techniques from the micro scale to the macro scale to develop useful wetland ET estimation methods. The study site was located in the Ft. Drum Marsh, Upper St. John's River Basin in Indian River County, Florida. The site is a freshwater marsh with southern cattail ( Typha domingensis Pers.) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) as the dominant vegetation species. There were four stages of the study: (1) a fundamental ET study with a lysimeter system, (2) ground measurements and analyses of spectral responses of wetland vegetation using a field spectroradiometer, (3) wetland vegetation mapping using aerial hyperspectral images, and (4) application of satellite images to delineate wetland vegetation and estimate marsh-wide ET. The results of the fundamental ET study showed the various important vegetation parameters of sawgrass and cattail. A more appropriate estimation method of canopy resistance for sawgrass and cattail was proposed. Among the various ET estimation methods, the Priestley-Taylor method was found to be most applicable. The ground spectral response measurements of sawgrass and cattail demonstrated a distinguishable difference in red wavebands and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which indicated the spectral separability of the two wetland species. Leaf area index and stomatal resistance

  16. Water impact studies. [impact of remote sensing techniques on management storage, flow, and delivery of California water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has begun into the potential impact of using modern remote sensing techniques as an aid in managing, even on a day-to-day basis, the storage, flow, and delivery of water made available through the California Water Project. It is obvious that the amount of this impact depends upon the extent to which remote sensing is proven to be useful in improving predictions of both the amount of water that will be available and the amount that will be needed. It is also proposed to investigate the potential impact of remote sensing techniques as an aid in monitoring, and perhaps even in directing, changes in land use and life style being brought about through the increased availability of water in central and southern California as a result of the California Water Project. The impact of remote sensing can be of appreciable significance only if: (1) the induced changes are very substantial ones; (2) remote sensing is found, in this context, to be very useful and potentially very cost effective; and (3) resource managers adopt this new technology. Analyses will be conducted of the changing economic bases and the new land use demands resulting from increased water availability in central and southern California.

  17. Quantifying Stream Habitat: Relative Effort Versus Quality of Competing Remote Sensing & Ground-Based Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the quantity and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field sketches or ‘tape and stick’ ground-based surveys, through to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although some investigators have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the inter-comparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to quantify relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from different ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as enumerate the effort and cost in completing the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Three different traditional (“stick and tape”) survey techniques were used, including a variant using map-grade GPS. Complete topographic/bathymetric surveys were attempted at each site using separate rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR, boat-based echo-sounding (w/ ADCP), traditional airborne LiDaR, and imagery-based spectral methods. Separate, georectified aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Preliminary results from the surveys highlight that no single technique works across the full range of conditions where stream habitat surveys are needed. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each approach in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete quantification of habitat conditions in rivers.

  18. Applications of remote sensing techniques to county land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. B.; Conn, J. S.; Miller, D. A.; Mouat, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in Arizona is discussed. Land use and flood hazard mapping completed by the Applied Remote Sensing Program is described. Areas subject to periodic flood inundation are delineated and land use maps monitoring the growth within specific counties are provided.

  19. Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Remotely sensed data allows archeologists and historic preservationists the ability to non-destructively detect phenomena previously unobservable to them. Archeologists have successfully used aerial photography since the turn of the century and it continues to be an important research tool today. Multispectral scanners and computer-implemented analysis techniques extend the range of human vision and provides the investigator with innovative research designs at scales previously unimaginable. Pioneering efforts in the use of remote sensing technology have demonstrated its potential, but it is the recent technological developments in remote sensing instrumentation and computer capability that provide for unlimited, cost-effective applications in the future. The combination of remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are radically altering survey, inventory, and modelling approaches.

  20. Improved technique for retrieval of forest parameters from hyperspectral remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kozoderov, Vladimir V; Dmitriev, Egor V; Sokolov, Anton A

    2015-11-30

    This paper describes an approach of machine-learning pattern recognition procedures for the land surface objects using their spectral and textural features on remotely sensed hyperspectral images together with the biological parameters retrieval for the recognized classes of forests. Modified Bayesian classifier is used to improve the related procedures in spatial and spectral domains. Direct and inverse problems of atmospheric optics are solved based on modeling results of the projective cover and density of the forest canopy for the selected classes of forests of different species and ages. Applying the proposed techniques to process images of high spectral and spatial resolution, we have detected object classes including forests within their contours on a particular image and can retrieve the phytomass amount of leaves/needles as well as the relevant total biomass amount for the forest canopy. PMID:26698785

  1. Techniques for accuracy assessment of tree locations extracted from remotely sensed imagery.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Trisalyn; Boots, Barry; Wulder, Michael A

    2005-02-01

    Remotely sensed imagery is becoming a common source of environmental data. Consequently, there is an increasing need for tools to assess the accuracy and information content of such data. Particularly when the spatial resolution of imagery is fine, the accuracy of image processing is determined by comparisons with field data. However, the nature of error is more difficult to assess. In this paper we describe a set of tools intended for such an assessment when tree objects are extracted and field data are available for comparison. These techniques are demonstrated on individual tree locations extracted from an IKONOS image via local maximum filtering. The locations of the extracted trees are compared with field data to determine the number of found and missed trees. Aspatial and spatial (Voronoi) analysis methods are used to examine the nature of errors by searching for trends in characteristics of found and missed trees. As well, analysis is conducted to assess the information content of found trees. PMID:15644266

  2. Application of remote sensing techniques to the geology of the bonanza volcanic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A program is reported for evaluating remote sensing as an aid to geologic mapping for the past four years. Data tested in this evaluation include color and color infrared photography, multiband photography, low sun-angle photography, thermal infrared scanner imagery, and side-looking airborne radar. The relative utility of color and color infrared photography was tested as it was used to refine geologic maps in previously mapped areas, as field photos while mapping in the field, and in making photogeologic maps prior to field mapping. The latter technique served as a test of the maximum utility of the photography. In this application the photography was used successfully to locate 75% of all faults in a portion of the geologically complex Bonanza volcanic center and to map and correctly identify 93% of all Quaternary deposits and 62% of all areas of Tertiary volcanic outcrop in the area.

  3. Electrooptical remote sensing methods as nondestructive testing and measuring techniques in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Myers, V I; Allen, W A

    1968-09-01

    Characteristics of plants that influence reflectance and emission of electromagnetic energy are discussed. Four main spectral regions are influenced by plants. These wavelength bands include the visible region of chlorophyll absorption, very near ir wavelengths, where plant structure is of major importance, the near and middle ir wavelengths, where water and CO(2) absorption predominate, and the far ir region of thermal ir emission. Soil characteristics that influence reflectance and emission of energy are discussed. Nondestructive testing techniques described include laboratory spectrophotometry, field spectrometry, color photography, radiometry, and generation of line scan imagery. Spectrophotometer and spectrometer reflectance data obtained in the laboratory and field are related to interpretation of remote sensing imagery. Model studies that permit predictions of reflectance from plant canopies are described. The principle of multispectral sensing which permits utilization of multiple wavelength channels for establishing unique plant and soil signature is reviewed. PMID:20068888

  4. Comparison of multispectral remote-sensing techniques for monitoring subsurface drain conditions. [Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettelman, R. C.; Grass, L. B.; Millard, J. P.; Nixon, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The following multispectral remote-sensing techniques were compared to determine the most suitable method for routinely monitoring agricultural subsurface drain conditions: airborne scanning, covering the visible through thermal-infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum; color-IR photography; and natural-color photography. Color-IR photography was determined to be the best approach, from the standpoint of both cost and information content. Aerial monitoring of drain conditions for early warning of tile malfunction appears practical. With careful selection of season and rain-induced soil-moisture conditions, extensive regional surveys are possible. Certain locations, such as the Imperial Valley, Calif., are precluded from regional monitoring because of year-round crop rotations and soil stratification conditions. Here, farms with similar crops could time local coverage for bare-field and saturated-soil conditions.

  5. A Study of Flood Evacuation Center Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Rosli, M. F.; Abustan, M. S.; Adib, R.; Rosli, M. I.; Masiri, K.; Saifullizan, B.

    2016-07-01

    This research demonstrated the use of Remote Sensing technique and GIS to determine the suitability of an evacuation center. This study was conducted in Batu Pahat areas that always hit by a series of flood. The data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was obtained by ASTER database that has been used to delineate extract contour line and elevation. Landsat 8 image was used for classification purposes such as land use map. Remote Sensing incorporate with GIS techniques was used to determined the suitability location of the evacuation center from contour map of flood affected areas in Batu Pahat. GIS will calculate the elevation of the area and information about the country of the area, the road access and percentage of the affected area. The flood affected area map may provide the suitability of the flood evacuation center during the several levels of flood. The suitability of evacuation centers can be determined based on several criteria and the existing data of the evacuation center will be analysed. From the analysis among 16 evacuation center listed, there are only 8 evacuation center suitable for the usage during emergency situation. The suitability analysis was based on the location and the road access of the evacuation center toward the flood affected area. There are 10 new locations with suitable criteria of evacuation center proposed on the study area to facilitate the process of rescue and evacuating flood victims to much safer and suitable locations. The results of this study will help in decision making processes and indirectly will help organization such as fire-fighter and the Department of Social Welfare in their work. Thus, this study can contribute more towards the society.

  6. The application of remote sensing techniques to inter and intra urban analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    This is an effort to assess the applicability of air and spaceborne photography toward providing data inputs to urban and regional planning, management, and research. Through evaluation of remote sensing inputs to urban change detection systems, analyzing an effort to replicate an existing urban land use data file using remotely sensed data, estimating population and dwelling units from imagery, and by identifying and evaluating a system of urban places ultilizing space photography, it was determined that remote sensing can provide data concerning land use, changes in commercial structure, data for transportation planning, housing quality, residential dynamics, and population density.

  7. Spatial and functional characterization, identification and assessment of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, Florida, USA - GIS and remote sensing techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing mapping techniques were developed to identify the locations of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, FL, a 2510 sq km area in north-central Florida with diverse geology and numerous isolated wetlands. The resul...

  8. Analysis of slow - moving landslides by means of integration of ground measurements and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, F.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    Slow-moving landslides are among the most costly geological hazards in Italy, widely affecting properties and infrastructures. The analysis of unstable slopes characterized by slow movements (that is, velocity comprised between few mm/year to few cm/year) requires a regular and continuous monitoring in order to correctly establish the causes of the instability and to prevent the possible catastrophic phase. However, the sustainability for long time intervals of an effective monitoring network based on traditional measurement methods is, in most of the cases, hampered by financial and technical limitations. "Innovative" monitoring techniques, known as remote sensing techniques, may contribute in overcome these problems. This paper focuses on the application of an integrated monitoring system based on ground and satellite techniques to two case studies, Moio della Civitella (Salerno province) and Calitri (Avellino province), located in the Campania Region of Southern Italy. Detailed geomorphological analysis, carried out through multi-temporal air-photo interpretation and field surveys, resulted in thematic maps (landslides inventory map, landslides activity map, etc) that showed the high density of slope instability phenomena at both the study sites. The main triggering factors are heavy and/or prolonged rainfall, anthropogenic factors and earthquakes (as in the case of the large landslide at Calitri, induced by the 1980 Irpinia earthquake, and which directly involved the historical part of the town). In addition to the geomorphological approach, both sites are being monitored with inclinometers and topographic measurements. These ground data are being, in turn, integrated with the results obtained by applying remote sensing monitoring, in particular interferometric techniques. Current descending Radarsat-2 Ultra-Fine images have been processed with Standard Differential Interferometry, and ERS-1/ERS-2 images acquired from 1992 - 2001 with Permanent Scatterers

  9. Wetland functional health assessment using remote sensing and other techniques: Literature search and overview. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Patience, N.; Klemas, V.

    1993-03-01

    Contents: introduction; remote sensing of wetland biomass and other wetland condition indicators; conceptual approaches in wetland assessment; wetland extent and type; landscape and wetland patterns; wetland biomass and productivity; wetland vegetation; wetland habitat quality; wetland hydrology; and conclusions and recommendations.

  10. Applying remote sensing and GIS techniques in solving rural county information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Chris J.; Fernandez, R. Norberto; Lozano-Garcia, D. Fabian

    1992-01-01

    The project designed was to acquaint county government officials and their clientele with remote sensing and GIS products that contain information about land conditions and land use. Other users determined through the course of this project were federal agencies working at the county level, agricultural businesses and others in need of spatial information. The specific project objectives were: (1) to investigate the feasibility of using remotely sensed data to identify and quantify specific land cover categories and conditions for purposes of tax assessment, cropland area measurements and land use evaluation; (2) to investigate the use of satellite remote sensing data as an aid in assessing soil management practices; and (3) to evaluate the use of remotely sensed data to assess soil resources and conditions which affect productivity.

  11. Comparison of Remote Sensing Image Processing Techniques to Identify Tornado Damage Areas from Landsat TM Data

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Soe W.; Yuan, May; Cerveny, Randall S.; Giri, Chandra P.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been shown effective for large-scale damage surveys after a hazardous event in both near real-time or post-event analyses. The paper aims to compare accuracy of common imaging processing techniques to detect tornado damage tracks from Landsat TM data. We employed the direct change detection approach using two sets of images acquired before and after the tornado event to produce a principal component composite images and a set of image difference bands. Techniques in the comparison include supervised classification, unsupervised classification, and object-oriented classification approach with a nearest neighbor classifier. Accuracy assessment is based on Kappa coefficient calculated from error matrices which cross tabulate correctly identified cells on the TM image and commission and omission errors in the result. Overall, the Object-oriented Approach exhibits the highest degree of accuracy in tornado damage detection. PCA and Image Differencing methods show comparable outcomes. While selected PCs can improve detection accuracy 5 to 10%, the Object-oriented Approach performs significantly better with 15-20% higher accuracy than the other two techniques.

  12. Comparison of remote sensing image processing techniques to identify tornado damage areas from Landsat TM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been shown effective for large-scale damage surveys after a hazardous event in both near real-time or post-event analyses. The paper aims to compare accuracy of common imaging processing techniques to detect tornado damage tracks from Landsat TM data. We employed the direct change detection approach using two sets of images acquired before and after the tornado event to produce a principal component composite images and a set of image difference bands. Techniques in the comparison include supervised classification, unsupervised classification, and objectoriented classification approach with a nearest neighbor classifier. Accuracy assessment is based on Kappa coefficient calculated from error matrices which cross tabulate correctly identified cells on the TM image and commission and omission errors in the result. Overall, the Object-oriented Approach exhibits the highest degree of accuracy in tornado damage detection. PCA and Image Differencing methods show comparable outcomes. While selected PCs can improve detection accuracy 5 to 10%, the Object-oriented Approach performs significantly better with 15-20% higher accuracy than the other two techniques. ?? 2008 by MDPI.

  13. Satellite remote sensing of wetlands and a comparison of classification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozesmi, Stacy Lee

    Wetland conservation and management requires inventory and monitoring of wetlands and their adjacent uplands. Satellite remote sensing has several advantages for monitoring wetland resources, especially for large geographic areas. This dissertation summarizes the literature on satellite remote sensing of wetlands, including what classification techniques were most successful in identifying wetlands and separating them from other land cover types. Then the use of different features and classification methods were evaluated for their effect on classification accuracy in two large study areas with heterogeneous landcover types, the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota, USA (TCMA) and the Kizilirmak Delta on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The features examined were all derived from the Landsat MSS or TM imagery: texture, landscape metrics, and indices. The classification methods were conventional per pixel maximum likelihood, three contextual techniques, maximum likelihood with 3 x 3 majority filter, ECHO, and a hybrid segmention method, and one artificial neural network technique, the feedforward multilayer perceptron with backpropagation for training. The use of multitemporal Landsat TM imagery, June, September, and April image dates, and indices were the set of features that gave the highest classification accuracy for the TCMA. Tests with indices highlighted some opportunities for improving wetland classification. For the Kizilirmak Delta, texture features in addition to the MSS bands, gave the highest classification accuracy. For the TCMA, the hybrid segmentation method generally gave the highest overall classification accuracy, followed by followed by the per pixel maximum likelihood with 3 x 3 majority filter, and the ECHO classifier. For the Kizilirmak Delta, the ANN classifier had the best performance. The ANN classifier generally had equal or better classification accuracy than the maximum likelihood classifier, for the full training set and also for a

  14. Remote sensing of row crop structure and component temperatures using directional radiometric temperatures and inversion techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    A physically based sensor response model of a row crop was used as the mathematical framework from which several inversion strategies were tested for extracting row structure information and component temperatures using a series of sensor view angles. The technique was evaluated on ground-based radiometric thermal infrared data of a cotton row crop that covered 48 percent of the ground in the vertical projection. The results showed that the accuracies of the predicted row heights and widths, vegetation temperatures, and soil temperatures of the cotton row crop were on the order of 5 cm, 1 deg, and 2 deg C, respectively. The inversion techniques can be applied to directional sensor data from aircraft platforms and even space platforms if the effects of atmospheric absorption and emission can be corrected. In theory, such inversion techniques can be applied to a wide variety of vegetation types and thus can have significant implications for remote sensing research and applications in disciplines that deal with incomplete vegetation canopies.

  15. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.

  16. Development of Satellite Remote Sensing Techniques for Quantifying Volcanic Ash Cloud Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavolonis, Michael J.

    Novel new approaches to automatically detect and characterize volcanic ash using satellite data are presented. The Spectrally Enhanced Cloud Objects (SECO) ash detection algorithm, combines radiative transfer theory, Bayesian methods, and image processing/computer vision concepts to identify volcanic ash clouds in satellite data with skill that is generally comparable to a human expert, especially with respect to false alarm rate. The SECO method is globally applicable and can be applied to virtually any low earth orbit or geostationary satellite sensor. The new ash detection approach was quantitatively proven to be significantly more skillful than traditional pixel based approaches, including the commonly used "split-window" technique. The performance of the SECO approach is extremely promising and well suited for a variety of new and improved applications. A new approach to retrieve volcanic ash cloud properties from infrared satellite measurements was also developed. The algorithm utilizes an optimal estimation framework to retrieve ash cloud height, mass loading, and effective particle radius. Optimal estimation allows uncertainties in the measurements and forward model to be taken into account and uncertainty estimates for each of the retrieved parameters to be determined. Background atmospheric water vapor, surface temperature, and surface emissivity are explicitly accounted for on a pixel-by-pixel basis, so the algorithm is globally applicable. In addition, the ash cloud retrieval algorithm is unique because it allows the cloud temperature/height to be a free parameter. Volcanic ash clouds are a major aviation hazard. Fine-grained ash from explosive eruptions can be transported long distances (>1000 km) from the source volcano by atmospheric winds, severely disrupting aviation operations. Volcanic ash clouds are complex and the background environment in which they reside can be as well. Thus, sophisticated satellite remote sensing techniques for extracting

  17. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

    2015-05-01

    Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping. PMID:25930205

  18. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  19. Urban Mapping and Growth Prediction using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Pune, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, V.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to map the urban area in and around Pune region between the year 1991 and 2010, and predict its probable future growth using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite images of 1991, 2001 and 2010 were used for analyzing urban land use class. Urban class was extracted / mapped using supervised classification technique with maximum likelihood classifier. The accuracy assessment was carried out for classified maps. The achieved overall accuracy and Kappa statistics were 86.33 % & 0.76 respectively. Transition probability matrix and area change were obtained using different classified images. A plug-in was developed in QGIS software (open source) based on Markov Chain model algorithm for predicting probable urban growth for the future year 2021. Based on available data set, the result shows that urban area is expected to grow much higher in the year 2021 when compared to 2010. This study provides an insight into understanding of urban growth and aids in subsequent infrastructure planning, management and decision-making.

  20. Application of remote sensing techniques to hydrography with emphasis on bathymetry. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Meireles, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are utilized for the determination of hydrographic characteristics, with emphasis in bathymetry. Two sensor systems were utilized: the Metric Camera Wild RC-10 and the Multispectral Scanner of LANDSAT Satellite (MSS-LANDSAT). From photographs of the metric camera, data of photographic density of points with known depth are obtained. A correlation between the variables density x depth is calculated through a regression straight line. From this line, the depth of points with known photographic density is determined. The LANDSAT MSS images are interpreted automatically in the Iterative Multispectral Analysis System (I-100) with the obtention of point subareas with the same gray level. With some simplifications done, it is assumed that the depth of a point is directly related with its gray level. Subareas with points of the same depth are then determined and isobathymetric curves are drawn. The coast line is obtained through the sensor systems already mentioned. Advantages and limitations of the techniques and of the sensor systems utilized are discussed and the results are compared with ground truth.

  1. Geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials An evaluation of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Morrissey, L. A.; Horn, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Color and color infrared aerial photography and imagery acquired from a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral airborne scanner were employed in an investigation to discriminate ultramafic rock types in a test site in southwest Oregon. An analysis of the relationships between vegetation characteristics and parent materials was performed using a vegetation classification and map developed for the project, lithologic information derived from published geologic maps of the region, and terrain information gathered in the field. Several analytical methods, including visual image analysis, band ratioing, principal components analysis, and contrast enhancement and subsequent color composite generation were used in the investigation. There was a close correspondence between vegetation types and major rock types. These were readily discriminated by the remote sensing techniques. It was found that ultramafic rock types were separable from non-ultramafic rock types and serpentine was distinguishable from non-serpentinized peridotite. Further investigations involving spectroradiometric and digital classification techniques are being performed to further identify rock types and to discriminate chromium and nickel-bearing rock types.

  2. Irrigated rice area estimation using remote sensing techniques: Project's proposal and preliminary results. [Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.; Moreira, M. A.; Novaes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a methodology for annual estimates of irrigated rice crop in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using remote sensing techniques is proposed. The project involves interpretation, digital analysis, and sampling techniques of LANDSAT imagery. Results are discussed from a preliminary phase for identifying and evaluating irrigated rice crop areas in four counties of the State, for the crop year 1982/1983. This first phase involved just visual interpretation techniques of MSS/LANDSAT images.

  3. Comparing the effects of Different Remote Sensing Techniques for Extracting Deciduous Broadleaf Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilushin, D.; Richardson, A. D.; Toomey, M. P.; Pless, R.; Shapiro, A.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation phenology, annual life cycles of plants, provides a key feedback with climate variability and change and is an important parameter in land surface models used to predict global climate. As such, there is a need to track the rhythm of the seasons with more detail. Common remote sensing methods used to track phenology are limited by their coarse temporal and/or spatial resolutions. Alternatively, I look to explore the usability of publicly available 'webcams' as an indicator of phenological trends. More specifically, I address the question of how this new measurement relates to that of satellite imagery, a common technique for remote sensing of phenology. I have used a subset of images from publically available, geo-referenced webcams from the Archive of Many Outdoor Scenes, a repository maintained by faculty at Washington University in St. Louis, as my test data. From the GCC (Greenness Chromatic Coordinate, or average greenness) time series produced from each of the 685 cameras used, I extract the phenological transition dates calculated for both spring and fall using curve fitting or threshold methods and compared these values to corresponding dates extracted from satellite imagery. Firstly, I look to the efficacy of reproducing reliable dates of phenological transition from data with missing information, with preliminary results showing that up to twenty percent of data can be missing while still resulting in reliable results. Next, I determine the relationship of differing date extraction methods on the webcams to find out their utility in arriving at dates that correspond with visual cues of phenological dates. These phenologically derived dates are further compared with their corresponding satellite imagery dates to find whether or not there exist prevailing biases between measurements calculated using the near-infrared and visual spectrum versus solely the visual spectrum. Lastly, the resulting information is compared geospatially to look for both

  4. A self-adaptive mean-shift segmentation approach based on graph theory for high-resolution remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Luwan; Han, Ling; Ning, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    An auto new segmentation approach based on graph theory which named self-adaptive mean-shift for high-resolution remote sensing images was proposed in this paper. This approach could overcome some defects that classic Mean-Shift must determine the fixed bandwidth through trial many times, and could effectively distinguish the difference between different features in the texture rich region. Segmentation experiments were processed with WorldView satellite image. The results show that the presented method is adaptive, and its speed and precision can satisfy application, so it is a robust automatic segmentation algorithm.

  5. Monitoring landscape response to climate change using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Yuhas, R.H.; Dolan, P.H.; Goetz, A.F.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Increasing concern over the threat of global warming has precipitated the need for study sites which can be scientifically monitored to detect and follow the effects of environmental landscape change. Extensive eolian dune deposits in northeastern Colorado provide an ideal study site. These dune complexes, found along the South Platte River, are currently stabilized by a thin cover of shortgrass prairie vegetation. However, stratigraphic evidence demonstrates that during at least four times in the past 10,000 years, the dunes were actively migrating across the landscape. In addition, climate models indicate that the High Plains could be one of the first areas to react to climate changes when they occur. The scaling relationships that contribute to the evolution of the landscape are nearly impossible to understand without the regional perspective that remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) techniques provide. Imagery acquired with the NASA/JPL Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is processed to detect the amount of sand exposed, as well as the percent vegetation cover that is currently stabilizing the dunes. Excellent discrimination is found between areas of low and no vegetation, something not possible with traditional analysis methods. Seasonal changes are also emphasized. This information is incorporated into the GIS database the authors created, which also has information on parameters that influence the landscape: elevation, soil type, surface/subsurface hydrology, etc. With these data areas that are susceptible to climate change are highlighted, but more importantly, the reasons for the susceptibility are determined using the GIS's analytical capabilities.

  6. Feasibility study for locating archaeological village sites by satellite remote sensing techniques. [multispectral photography of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Stringer, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The objective is to determine the feasibility of detecting large Alaskan archaeological sites by satellite remote sensing techniques and mapping such sites. The approach used is to develop digital multispectral signatures of dominant surface features including vegetation, exposed soils and rock, hydrological patterns and known archaeological sites. ERTS-1 scenes are then printed out digitally in a map-like array with a letter reflecting the most appropriate classification representing each pixel. Preliminary signatures were developed and tested. It was determined that there was a need to tighten up the archaeological site signature by developing accurate signatures for all naturally-occurring vegetation and surface conditions in the vicinity of the test area. These second generation signatures have been tested by means of computer printouts and classified tape displays on the University of Alaska CDU-200 and by comparison with aerial photography. It has been concluded that the archaeological signatures now in use are as good as can be developed. Plans are to print out signatures for the entire test area and locate on topographic maps the likely locations of archaeological sites within the test area.

  7. Mapping small wetlands of Kenya and Tanzania using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwita, E.; Menz, G.; Misana, S.; Becker, M.; Kisanga, D.; Boehme, B.

    2013-04-01

    Although wetlands in Tanzania and Kenya have great potentials for agricultural production and a multitude of uses, many of them are not even documented on official maps. Lack of official recognition has done little in preventing there over utilization. As the wetlands continue to play remarkable roles in the movement of people and terrestrial species in the region, it is important that they are monitored and properly managed. This study was undertaken in Usambara highlands and the Pangani floodplain in Tanzania, the Mount Kenya highlands and Laikipia floodplain in Kenya to map the different types of wetlands in terms of their size, density, spatial distribution and use patterns. Remote sensing techniques and field surveys were adopted, and 51 wetlands were identified in flood plains within the semi-arid and sub-humid lowlands, and inland valleys in the region. The detailed maps generated showed the intensity of wetland use, inland valleys being the most intensively used, and are useful in monitoring changes in wetlands for their effective management. The use of multispatial resolution imagery, combined with field survey and GIS produced satisfactory results for the delineation and mapping of small wetlands and their uses.

  8. Monitoring the urban expansion of Sparta and Nafplio cities using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervakou, Alexandra D.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.; Tsombos, Panagiotis I.; Papanikolaou, George P.

    2008-10-01

    During the last four decades, Greece has suffered from an enormous internal immigration. The majority of small villages were abandoned and the population has been gathered into urban areas, usually into the prefectural capital cities. Because of the significant increase of population, the urban expansion was excessive and in some cases catastrophic. A lot of changes have been occurred to the landforms, drainage networks and landuse. The Institute of geology and Mineral Exploration of Greece (I.G.M.E.), in the frame of CSF 2000 - 2006 (Community Support Framework 2000-2006), has been implementing the pilot project titled "Collection, Codification and Documentation of geothematic information for urban and suburban areas in Greece - pilot applications". Four different cities (Drama - North Greece, Nafplio & Sparta -Peloponnesus and Thrakomakedones - Attica) were selected as pilot areas.For these cities we have tried to detect and map the urban extent and expansion and estimate their growth rate, using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Multitemporal and multiresolution satellite data covering the period 1975-2007 and topographic maps at a scale of 1:5.000 were used for the urban growth mapping and observation.The qualitative and quantitative results for the cities of Nafplio & Sparta are presented in this study.

  9. Estimation of flooded area in the Bahr El-Jebel basin using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamseddin, M. A. H.; Hata, T.; Tada, A.; Bashir, M. A.; Tanakamaru, T.

    2006-07-01

    In spite of the importance of Sudd (swamp) area estimation for any hydrological project in the southern Sudan, yet, no abroad agreement on its size, due to the inaccessibility and civil war. In this study, remote sensing techniques are used to estimate the Bahr El-Jebel flooded area. MODIS-Terra (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) level 1B satellite images are analyzed on basis of the unsupervised classification method. The annual mean of Bahr El-Jebel flooded area has been estimated at 20 400 km2, which is 96% of Sutcliffe and Park (1999) estimation on basis of water balance model prediction. And only, 53% of SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) model estimation. The accuracy of the classification is 71%. The study also found the swelling and shrinkage pattern of Sudd area throughout the year is following the trends of Lake Victoria outflow patterns. The study has used two evaporation methods (open water evaporation and SEBAL model) to estimate the annual storage volume of Bahr El-Jebel River by using a water balance model. Also the storage changes due time is generated throughout the study years.

  10. Impacts of soil sealing on potential agriculture in Egypt using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Elsayed Said; Belal, Abdelaziz; Shalaby, Adel

    2015-10-01

    This paper highlights the impacts of soil sealing on the agricultural soils in Nile Delta using remote sensing and GIS. The current work focuses on two aims. The first aim is to evaluate soil productivity lost to urban sprawl, which is a significant cause of soil sealing in Nile Delta. The second aim is to evaluate the Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LU LC) from 2001 to 2013 in El-Gharbia governorate as a case study. Three temporal data sets of images from two different sensors: Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with 30 m resolution acquired in 2001 and Landsat 8 acquired in 2013 with 30 m resolution, and Egypt sat acquired in 2010 with 7.8 m resolution, consequently were used. Four different supervised classification techniques (Maximum Likelihood (ML), Minimum Distance, Neural Networks (NN); and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were applied to monitor the changes of LULC in the investigated area. The results showed that the agricultural soils of the investigated area are characterized by high soil productivity depending on its chemical and physical properties. During 2010-2013, soil sealing took place on 1397 ha from the study area which characterized by soil productivity classes ranging between I and II. It is expected that the urban sprawl will be increased to 12.4% by 2020 from the study area, which means that additional 3400 ha of productive soils will be lost from agriculture. However, population growth is the most significant factor effecting urban sprawl in Nile Delta.

  11. The investigation of advanced remote sensing, radiative transfer and inversion techniques for the measurement of atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, Adarsh; Wang, Pi-Huan

    1985-01-01

    The research program is documented for developing space and ground-based remote sensing techniques performed during the period from December 15, 1977 to March 15, 1985. The program involved the application of sophisticated radiative transfer codes and inversion methods to various advanced remote sensing concepts for determining atmospheric constituents, particularly aerosols. It covers detailed discussions of the solar aureole technique for monitoring columnar aerosol size distribution, and the multispectral limb scattered radiance and limb attenuated radiance (solar occultation) techniques, as well as the upwelling scattered solar radiance method for determining the aerosol and gaseous characteristics. In addition, analytical models of aerosol size distribution and simulation studies of the limb solar aureole radiance technique and the variability of ozone at high altitudes during satellite sunrise/sunset events are also described in detail.

  12. Utilization of combined remote sensing techniques to detect environmental variables influencing malaria vector densities in rural West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The use of remote sensing has found its way into the field of epidemiology within the last decades. With the increased sensor resolution of recent and future satellites new possibilities emerge for high resolution risk modeling and risk mapping. Methods A SPOT 5 satellite image, taken during the rainy season 2009 was used for calculating indices by combining the image's spectral bands. Besides the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) other indices were tested for significant correlation against field observations. Multiple steps, including the detection of surface water, its breeding appropriateness for Anopheles and modeling of vector imagines abundance, were performed. Data collection on larvae, adult vectors and geographic parameters in the field, was amended by using remote sensing techniques to gather data on altitude (Digital Elevation Model = DEM), precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission = TRMM), land surface temperatures (LST). Results The DEM derived altitude as well as indices calculations combining the satellite's spectral bands (NDTI = Normalized Difference Turbidity Index, NDWI Mac Feeters = Normalized Difference Water Index) turned out to be reliable indicators for surface water in the local geographic setting. While Anopheles larvae abundance in habitats is driven by multiple, interconnected factors - amongst which the NDVI - and precipitation events, the presence of vector imagines was found to be correlated negatively to remotely sensed LST and positively to the cumulated amount of rainfall in the preceding 15 days and to the Normalized Difference Pond Index (NDPI) within the 500 m buffer zone around capture points. Conclusions Remotely sensed geographical and meteorological factors, including precipitations, temperature, as well as vegetation, humidity and land cover indicators could be used as explanatory variables for surface water presence, larval development and imagines densities. This modeling

  13. Development of satellite remote sensing techniques as an economic tool for forestry industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.; Jadkowski, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative commercial development project designed to focus on cost-effective and practical applications of satellite remote sensing in forest management is discussed. The project, initiated in September, 1988 is being executed in three phases: (1) development of a forest resource inventory and geographic information system (GIS) updating systems; (2) testing and evaluation of remote-sensing products against forest industry specifications; and (3) integration of remote-sensing services and products in an operational setting. An advisory group represented by eleven major forest-product companies will provide direct involvement of the target market. The advisory group will focus on the following questions: Does the technology work for them? How can it be packaged to provide the needed forest-management information? Can the products and information be provided in a cost-effective manner?

  14. Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

  15. Assessing grapevine canopy health in the Texas Hill Country with remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Adam J.

    Vineyards are typically managed uniformly over space, although known spatial variation exists in the performance of vines within and across vineyard blocks. Identifying spatial variability in crop performance at a large scale (one or a few vineyard blocks) is useful to vineyard managers wishing to address such variation by enacting separate management plans for differing areas of performance. Zonal management and the institution of precision viticultural practices (i.e. use of GIS and remote sensing techniques to study this spatial variation) has proven profitable for a number of reasons, namely zonal harvesting based on zone performance. This dissertation implements cutting-edge, practical, and low-cost equipment and techniques, specifically an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), digital cameras, and Structure from Motion (SfM), to identify spatial variation in grapevine canopy vigor at a vineyard in the Texas Hill Country American Viticultural Area. Three research objectives were addressed in this dissertation including: (1) the setup and implementation of a practical imaging system and processing methodology (digital cameras and a UAV) to produce very high spatial resolution orthophotomosaics of vineyards with visible and near-infrared bands, (2) observation of spatial and temporal variation in grapevine canopy vigor that can aid in improving vineyard management practice, and (3) development of a three-dimensional method for visualizing and quantifying vineyard canopy density. Results concluded that the low-cost tools and techniques outlined in this study provided a practical means by which to identify spatial variation in canopy vigor at the study vineyard. Of the three methods used to identify this variation, spectrally-based (NDVI), planimetrically-based (canopy extent), and three-dimensionally-derived (SfM point clouds), the latter two were most successful and would be recommended for future use. Most importantly, due to the low cost of the technology used to

  16. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties using Polarization and Lidar Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols cause a substantial forcing of the terrestrial climate, but the magnitude of this forcing remains largely unknown. This explains the significant interest of the climate community to the prospect of measuring key aerosol properties from space using advanced remote sensing techniques. It has been known for a long time that polarization of the scattered light is much more sensitive to the aerosol microphysics than the scattered intensity. It is, therefore, not surprising that the most recent addition to the New Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) payload is the so-called Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS). The main objective of this instrument is to measure the aerosol and cloud properties with accuracy and coverage sufficient for a reliable estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol forcings of climate. Accordingly, the first part of this lecture course will focus on describing the basic concept of the APS, the physical principles of polarization data analyses, and the results already obtained with an aircraft version of the APS. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) represent another poorly understood aerosol component of the terrestrial atmosphere which affects the climate by supporting chemical reactions destroying the ozone layer. The high altitude of the PSCs and their predominant occurrence in high latitude and polar regions make it very difficult to study PSCs using conventional in situ techniques. Most of the information that we have about this type of clouds has been gathered using ground-based polarization lidars. The second part of the course will focus on explaining the physical principles of the polarization lidar technique and describing retrievals of PSC particle microphysical characteristics by converting I multispectral lidar measurements of the backscattered intensity and depolarization.

  17. Optimized fractional cloudiness determination from five ground-based remote sensing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Boers, R.; de Haij, M. J.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Baltink, Henk K.; van Ulft, L. H.; Savenije, M.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-12-23

    A one-year record of fractional cloudiness at 10 minute intervals was generated for the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research [CESAR] (51°58’N, 4° 55’E) using an integrated assessment of five different observational methods. The five methods are based on active as well as passive systems and use either a hemispheric or column remote sensing technique. The one-year instrumental cloudiness data were compared against a 30 year climatology of Observer data in the vicinity of CESAR [1971- 2000]. In the intermediate 2 - 6 octa range, most instruments, but especially the column methods, report lower frequency of occurrence of cloudiness than the absolute minimum values from the 30 year Observer climatology. At night, the Observer records less clouds in the 1, 2 octa range than during the day, while the instruments registered more clouds. During daytime the Observer also records much more 7 octa cloudiness than the instruments. One column method combining a radar with a lidar outstrips all other techniques in recording cloudiness, even up to height in excess of 9 km. This is mostly due to the high sensitivity of the radar that is used in the technique. A reference algorithm was designed to derive a continuous and optimized record of fractional cloudiness. Output from individual instruments were weighted according to the cloud base height reported at the observation time; the larger the height, the lower the weight. The algorithm was able to provide fractional cloudiness observations every 10 minutes for 98% of the total period of 12 months [15 May 2008 - 14 May 2009].

  18. Comparison of remote sensing change detection techniques for assessing hurricane damage to forests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y Jun

    2010-03-01

    This study compared performance of four change detection algorithms with six vegetation indices derived from pre- and post-Katrina Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery and a composite of the TM bands 4, 5, and 3 in order to select an optimal remote sensing technique for identifying forestlands disturbed by Hurricane Katrina. The algorithms included univariate image differencing (UID), selective principal component analysis (PCA), change vector analysis (CVA), and postclassification comparison (PCC). The indices consisted of near-infrared to red ratios, normalized difference vegetation index, Tasseled Cap index of greenness, brightness, and wetness (TCW), and soil-adjusted vegetation index. In addition to the satellite imagery, the "ground truth" data of forest damage were also collected through field investigation and interpretation of post-Katrina aerial photos. Disturbed forests were identified by classifying the composite and the continuous change imagery with the supervised classification method. Results showed that the change detection techniques exerted apparent influence on detection results with an overall accuracy varying between 51% and 86% and a kappa statistics ranging from 0.02 to 0.72. Detected areas of disturbed forestlands were noticeable in two groups: 180,832-264,617 and 85,861-124,205 ha. The landscape of disturbed forests also displayed two unique patterns, depending upon the area group. The PCC algorithm along with the composite image contributed the highest accuracy and lowest error (0.5%) in estimating areas of disturbed forestlands. Both UID and CVA performed similarly, but caution should be taken when using selective PCA in detecting hurricane disturbance to forests. Among the six indices, TCW outperformed the other indices owing to its maximum sensitivity to forest modification. This study suggested that compared with the detection algorithms, proper selection of vegetation indices was more critical for obtaining satisfactory results. PMID

  19. Detecting Subsurface Agricultural Tile Drainage using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, M.; Gokkaya, K.; Tank, J. L.; Christopher, S. F.; Hanrahan, B.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface tile drainage is a common practice in many of the row crop dominated agricultural lands in the Upper Midwest, which increases yield by making the soil more productive. It is reported that nearly half of all cropland in Indiana benefits from some sort of artificial drainage. However, subsurface tile has a significant negative impact on surface water quality by providing a fast means of transport for nutrients from fertilizers. Therefore, generating spatial data of tile drainage in the field is important and useful for agricultural landscape and hydrological studies. Subsurface tile drains in Indiana's croplands are not widely mapped. In this study, we will delineate subsurface tile drainage in agricultural land in Shatto Ditch watershed, located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. We will use geo-spatial methodology, which was purposed by earlier researchers to detect tile drainage. We will use aerial color-infrared and satellite imagery along with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. In order to map tile lines with possible accuracy, we will use GIS-based analysis in combination with remotely sensed data. This research will be comprised of three stages: 1) masking out the potential drainage area using a decision tree rule based on land cover information, soil drainage category, surface slope, and satellite image differencing technique, 2) delineate tile lines using image processing techniques, and 3) check the accuracy of mapped tile lines with ground control points. To our knowledge, this study will be the first to check the accuracy of mapping with ground truth data. Based on the accuracy of results, we will extend the methodology to greater spatial scales. The results are expected to contribute to better characterizing and controlling water pollution sources in Indiana, which is a major environmental problem.

  20. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  1. Experimental validation of a millimeter wave radar technique to remotely sense atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments with a millimeter wave radar operating on the NASA CV-990 aircraft which validate the technique for remotely sensing atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface are described. Measurements show that the precise millimeter wave observations needed to deduce pressure from space with an accuracy of 1 mb are possible, that sea surface reflection properties agree with theory and that the measured variation of differential absorption with altitude corresponds to that expected from spectroscopic models.

  2. A new adaptive classifier using iterative filtering. [classification of remotely sensed data in visible and near infrared bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Actkinson, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    To cope with signature variability, an algorithm has been defined which will adaptively classify remotely sensed data in the visible and near infrared band. The signal is divided into a space-dependent component and a target-dependent component. The target-dependent component is assumed fixed across the image for each target type. The space-dependent component is estimated iteratively by a weighted, least-squares algorithm. Included are the derivations of the sensor model and the two-dimensional, estimation algorithm.

  3. Path integrated optical remote sensing technique to estimate ammonia and methane gas emissions from CAFOs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. EPA recently demonstrated the open-path optical remote sensing technology to identify hot spots and estimate mass flux of fugitive gases from closed landfill. The objective of this research is to validate this technology for estimating ammonia and methane emission from concentrated animal f...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF VEGETATION AND DRAINAGE IN STRIP MINED LAND UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research conducted during this project has utilized remote sensing images and data to study surface vegetation identification, vegetation biomass and drainage patterns on coal strip mined land. Study sites were located in Boone, Randolph and Macon counties in central Missouri. Th...

  5. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  6. Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  7. Integration of Remote Sensing Techniques With Statistical Methods For Landslide Monitoring and Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westen, Cees; Wunderle, Stefan; Pasquali, Paolo

    In the frame of the Date User Program 2 (DUP) of the European Space Agency (ESA) a new method will be presented to derive landslide hazards, which was developed in close co-operation with the end users in Honduras and Switzerland, respectively. The objective of thi s project is to define a sustainable service using the novel approach based on the fusion of two independent methods, namely combining differential SAR Interferometry techniques (DInSAR) with a statistical approach. The bivariate statistical analysis is based on parameter maps (slope, geomorphology, land use) derived from remote sensing data and field checks as well as on historical aerial photos. The hybrid method is based on SAR data of the last years and new ENVISAT-ASAR data as well as historical data (i.e. former landslides detected in aerial photos), respectively. The historical occurrence of landslides will be combined with actual land sliding and creeping obtained from DInSAR. The landslide occurrence map in high quality forms the input for the statistical landslide hazard analysis. The method intends to derive information on landslide hazards, preferably in the form of probabilities, which will be combined with information on building stock, infrastructure and population density. The vulnerability of population and infrastructure will be taken into account by a weighting factor. The resulting risk maps will be of great value for local authorities, Comisión Permanente de Contingencias (COPECO) of Honduras, local GIS specialists, policy makers and reinsurance companies. We will show the results of the Service Definition Project with some examples of the new method especially for Tegucigalpa the capital of Honduras with approximately 1 million inhabitants.

  8. Monitoring the coastline change of Hatiya Island in Bangladesh using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Manoj Kumer; Kumar, Lalit; Roy, Chandan

    2015-03-01

    A large percentage of the world's population is concentrated along the coastal zones. These environmentally sensitive areas are under intense pressure from natural processes such as erosion, accretion and natural disasters as well as anthropogenic processes such as urban growth, resource development and pollution. These threats have made the coastal zone a priority for coastline monitoring programs and sustainable coastal management. This research utilizes integrated techniques of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) to monitor coastline changes from 1989 to 2010 at Hatiya Island, Bangladesh. In this study, satellite images from Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) were used to quantify the spatio-temporal changes that took place in the coastal zone of Hatiya Island during the specified period. The modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) algorithm was applied to TM (1989 and 2010) and ETM (2000) images to discriminate the land-water interface and the on-screen digitizing approach was used over the MNDWI images of 1989, 2000 and 2010 for coastline extraction. Afterwards, the extent of changes in the coastline was estimated through overlaying the digitized maps of Hatiya Island of all three years. Coastline positions were highlighted to infer the erosion/accretion sectors along the coast, and the coastline changes were calculated. The results showed that erosion was severe in the northern and western parts of the island, whereas the southern and eastern parts of the island gained land through sedimentation. Over the study period (1989-2010), this offshore island witnessed the erosion of 6476 hectares. In contrast it experienced an accretion of 9916 hectares. These erosion and accretion processes played an active role in the changes of coastline during the study period.

  9. Geospatial Image Stream Processing: Models, techniques, and applications in remote sensing change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda-Velasquez, Carlos Alberto

    Detection of changes in environmental phenomena using remotely sensed data is a major requirement in the Earth sciences, especially in natural disaster related scenarios where real-time detection plays a crucial role in the saving of human lives and the preservation of natural resources. Although various approaches formulated to model multidimensional data can in principle be applied to the inherent complexity of remotely sensed geospatial data, there are still challenging peculiarities that demand a precise characterization in the context of change detection, particularly in scenarios of fast changes. In the same vein, geospatial image streams do not fit appropriately in the standard Data Stream Management System (DSMS) approach because these systems mainly deal with tuple-based streams. Recognizing the necessity for a systematic effort to address the above issues, the work presented in this thesis is a concrete step toward the foundation and construction of an integrated Geospatial Image Stream Processing framework, GISP. First, we present a data and metadata model for remotely sensed image streams. We introduce a precise characterization of images and image streams in the context of remotely sensed geospatial data. On this foundation, we define spatially-aware temporal operators with a consistent semantics for change analysis tasks. We address the change detection problem in settings where multiple image stream sources are available, and thus we introduce an architectural design for the processing of geospatial image streams from multiple sources. With the aim of targeting collaborative scientific environments, we construct a realization of our architecture based on Kepler, a robust and widely used scientific workflow management system, as the underlying computational support; and open data and Web interface standards, as a means to facilitate the interoperability of GISP instances with other processing infrastructures and client applications. We demonstrate our

  10. Remote-sensing based technique to account for sub-grid scale variability of land surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been presented for the representation of sub-grid scale variability of surface properties within a land surface processes model. The method uses remotely-sensed data to directly or indirectly estimate probability density functions (PDF's) or key surface variables. Application of this technique in a coupled land surface-atmosphere model requires only grid-scale values of the variables of interest, obtained from low-resolution satellite imagery or surface/remote sensing data assimilation. The PDF's of each controlling surface property are superimposed on the respective grid-scale values to simulate sub-grid scale heterogeneity. Sensitivity studies will be carried out to ascertain the relative importance of the heterogeneity of several variables, and the degree to which non-linear property-process interactions impact large-scale fluxes.

  11. Advanced laser remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  12. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  13. Predicting Species Cover of Marine Macrophyte and Invertebrate Species Combining Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, Machine Learning and Regression Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Jonne; Kutser, Tiit; Teeveer, Karolin; Vahtmäe, Ele; Pärnoja, Merli

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand biotic patterns and their changes in nature there is an obvious need for high-quality seamless measurements of such patterns. If remote sensing methods have been applied with reasonable success in terrestrial environment, their use in aquatic ecosystems still remained challenging. In the present study we combined hyperspectral remote sensing and boosted regression tree modelling (BTR), an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to test their applicability in predicting macrophyte and invertebrate species cover in the optically complex seawater of the Baltic Sea. The BRT technique combined with remote sensing and traditional spatial modelling succeeded in identifying, constructing and testing functionality of abiotic environmental predictors on the coverage of benthic macrophyte and invertebrate species. Our models easily predicted a large quantity of macrophyte and invertebrate species cover and recaptured multitude of interactions between environment and biota indicating a strong potential of the method in the modelling of aquatic species in the large variety of ecosystems. PMID:23755113

  14. Using Advanced Remote Sensing Data Fusion Techniques for Studying Earth Surface Processes and Hazards: A Landslide Detection Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulslander, D.

    2014-12-01

    A major problem in earth surface process and hazards research is we have little to no knowledge of precisely where and when the next significant event may occur. This makes it nearly impossible to set up adequate instrumentation and observation ahead of time. Furthermore, it is not practical to overcome this challenge by instrumenting and observing everywhere all the time. We can't be everywhere and see everything. Remote sensing helps us to fill that gap with missions such as Landsat and WorldView2 offering regular global coverage. However, remote sensing systems for global monitoring have several inherent compromises. Tradeoffs must be made between data storage, processing capacity, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and temporal resolution. Additionally, instruments and systems must be designed in advance and from a generalized standpoint to serve as many purposes as possible, often at the expense of high performance in specific tasks. Because of these practical constraints, when using remote sensing data to study earth surface processes it is critical to maximize signal content or information obtained from all available data. Several approaches, including multi-temporal data fusion, multi-sensor data fusion, and fusion with derivative products such as band ratios or vegetation indices can help expand how much information can be extracted from remote sensing acquisitions. Fused dataset results contain more coherent information than the sum of their individual constituents. Examples using Landsat and WorldView2 data in this study show this added information makes it possible to map earth surface processes and events, such as the 2011 Cinque Terre landslides, in a more automated and repeatable fashion over larger areas than is possible with manual imagery analysis techniques and with greater chance of successful detection.

  15. Known and unknown unknowns: the application of ensemble techniques to uncertainty estimation in satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povey, A. C.; Grainger, R. G.

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses a best-practice representation of uncertainty in satellite remote sensing data. An estimate of uncertainty is necessary to make appropriate use of the information conveyed by a measurement. Traditional error propagation quantifies the uncertainty in a measurement due to well-understood perturbations in a measurement and auxiliary data - known, quantified "unknowns". The underconstrained nature of most satellite remote sensing observations requires the use of various approximations and assumptions that produce non-linear systematic errors that are not readily assessed - known, unquantifiable "unknowns". Additional errors result from the inability to resolve all scales of variation in the measured quantity - unknown "unknowns". The latter two categories of error are dominant in underconstrained remote sensing retrievals and the difficulty of their quantification limits the utility of existing uncertainty estimates, degrading confidence in such data. This paper proposes the use of ensemble techniques to present multiple self-consistent realisations of a data set as a means of depicting unquantified uncertainties. These are generated using various systems (different algorithms or forward models) believed to be appropriate to the conditions observed. Benefiting from the experience of the climate modelling community, an ensemble provides a user with a more complete representation of the uncertainty as understood by the data producer and greater freedom to consider different realisations of the data.

  16. New simple and rapid remote sensing technique for enhancement and visual interpretation of submerged habitats in coastal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moufaddal, W.

    Optical remote sensing data particularly those form Landsat TM and ETM and SPOT has been proven for more than two decades to be capable of resolving of coarse-level habitat distribution in coastal environments However capability of these sensors for interpreting and resolving all major submerged coastal habitats in one color display is confounded by their relative low spectral resolution as well as by limitation of the color mode input to only three wavelength bands In a reef environment for example a true color image blue green and red visible bands in a blue-green-red display from Landsat TM or SPOT is only capable for interpreting coral reef types and bottom changes However information on the other coastal habitats such as seagrasses macro-algae and other submerged aquatic vegetation SAV types are suppressed or lacked because of absence of their spectral signature in this band combination In order to display or to be able to visually interpret SAV habitats the analyst should replace the red visible band with the near-infrared band in the last band combination so that it can reflect the characteristic spectral signature of the aquatic vegetation This adds similar difficulty when one tries to digitally classify a coastal environment with reef substrate types and SAV habitats Unfortunately review of the remote sensing literature reveals that there is no one remote sensing technique to date can visually enhance all substrate habitat types simultaneously The present paper tries to solve this problem through providing a new

  17. Assessing high altitude glacier thickness, volume and area changes using field, GIS and remote sensing techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduzzi, P.; Herold, C.; Silverio, W.

    2010-08-01

    Higher temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier area and volume losses and on current ice thickness. Remote sensing analyses of Coropuna glacier (Peru) delineate an acute glaciated area decline between 1955 and 2008. We tested how volume changes can be estimated with remote sensing and GIS techniques using digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a Ground Penetrating Radar coupled with a Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regression techniques. The results revealed a significant glacier volume loss; however the uncertainty is higher than the measured volume loss. We also provided an estimate of the remaining volume. The field study provided the scientific evidence needed by COPASA, a local Peruvian NGO, and GTZ, the German international cooperation agency, in order to alert local governments and communities and guide them in adopting new climate change adaptation policies.

  18. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli

    2016-03-01

    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  19. Laboratory analysis of techniques for remote sensing of estuarine parameters using laser excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Houghton, W. M.; Esaias, W.; Harriss, R. C.; Farmer, F. H.; White, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical concepts underlying remote sensing of estuarine parameters using laser excitation are examined. The concepts are extended to include Mie scattering as a measure of the total suspended solids and to develop the water Raman signal as an internal standard. Experimental validation of the theory was performed using backscattered laser light from a laboratory tank to simulate a remote-sensing geometry. Artificially prepared sediments and biological cultures were employed to check specific aspects of the theory under controlled conditions. Natural samples gathered from a variety of water types were also analyzed in the tank to further enhance the simulation. The results indicate that it should be possible to remotely quantify total suspended solids, dissolved organics, attenuation coefficient, chlorophyll a, and phycoerythrin in estuarine water using laser excitation.

  20. Engineering studies related to geodetic and oceanographic remote sensing using short pulsed techniques. [using laser probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical basis is presented for a feasibility study of measuring global ocean surface current pattern from satellites and aircraft. The analysis is supported by some preliminary laboratory experiments. Since the ultimate goal is to establish an operational routine for monitoring the global current pattern, a nondisturbing remote sensing device using a laser probe was developed. Detailed construction of the measuring system and the results of some preliminary observations are also presented.

  1. Analysis of multispectral signatures and investigation of multi-aspect remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Hieber, R. H.; Sarno, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two major aspects of remote sensing with multispectral scanners (MSS) are investigated. The first, multispectral signature analysis, includes the effects on classification performance of systematic variations found in the average signals received from various ground covers as well as the prediction of these variations with theoretical models of physical processes. The foremost effects studied are those associated with the time of day airborne MSS data are collected. Six data collection runs made over the same flight line in a period of five hours are analyzed, it is found that the time span significantly affects classification performance. Variations associated with scan angle also are studied. The second major topic of discussion is multi-aspect remote sensing, a new concept in remote sensing with scanners. Here, data are collected on multiple passes by a scanner that can be tilted to scan forward of the aircraft at different angles on different passes. The use of such spatially registered data to achieve improved classification of agricultural scenes is investigated and found promising. Also considered are the possibilities of extracting from multi-aspect data, information on the condition of corn canopies and the stand characteristics of forests.

  2. Remote Sensing of Surface Electric Potential on the Moon: A New Technique Using ENAs for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.

    2013-09-01

    Electric potential at lunar surface provides essential information for understanding fundamental science and environment of the Moon, which directly impacts on future lunar exploration. Here we present a new technique of remote sensing of surface electric potential at the Moon [4]. The technique relies on the energy spectra of the energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) backscattered from the Moon. We applied this technique to the existing dataset of ENAs, and created the first 2-D image of the electric potential distribution near a magnetic anomaly. The result revealed that the magnetized area provides a preferable landing site of the Moon, while strong surface potential exists.

  3. Adapting remotely sensed snow data for daily flow modeling on the Upper Humber River, Newfoundland and Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tom, Melissa

    meteorological data: rainfall, snow cover, and temperature. The results from the snowmelt runoff model using the snow cover data provided very good final Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.85 for the calibration stage and 0.81 for the validation stage, but a consistent one-day lag of the modeled flow values was also observed. Although these results were not superior to currently employed flood forecasting models for the Upper Humber (because of a one-day lag in the modeled flows), the methodology developed herein may be useful for other river basins in NL where the flows are dominated by snowmelt during the spring such as the Exploits River Basin located in central NL. Remotely sensed snow water equivalent (SWE) data obtained from an advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR-E), aboard the Aqua satellite, was also investigated for daily flow modeling applications. SWE often provide a better estimate of snowmelt than snow cover but this data had several disadvantages in the Humber River Basin. The major obstacles included large spatial resolution (25 km), data inaccuracy for wet snow, boreal forest, mountainous regions, and time step irregularities. Extremely large variances in the SWE data rendered the information inaccurate and ineffective for streamflow forecasting on Newfoundland and Labrador's Humber River. This research makes significant contributions to the field of hydrology providing a valuable methodology in adapting remotely sensed snow data to daily flow simulation and will be helpful to local authorities.

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing of paddy crop using insitu measurement and clustering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharana, S.; Dutta, S.

    2014-11-01

    Rice Agriculture, mainly cultivated in South Asia regions, is being monitored for extracting crop parameter, crop area, crop growth profile, crop yield using both optical and microwave remote sensing. Hyperspectral data provide more detailed information of rice agriculture. The present study was carried out at the experimental station of the Regional Rainfed Low land Rice Research Station, Assam, India (26.1400° N, 91.7700° E) and the overall climate of the study area comes under Lower Brahmaputra Valley (LBV) Agro Climatic Zones. The hyperspectral measurements were made in the year 2009 from 72 plots that include eight rice varieties along with three different level of nitrogen treatments (50, 100, 150 kg/ha) covering rice transplanting to the crop harvesting period. With an emphasis to varieties, hyperspectral measurements were taken in the year 2014 from 24 plots having 24 rice genotypes with different crop developmental ages. All the measurements were performed using a spectroradiometer with a spectral range of 350-1050 nm under direct sunlight of a cloud free sky and stable condition of the atmosphere covering more than 95 % canopy. In this study, reflectance collected from canopy of rice were expressed in terms of waveforms. Furthermore, generated waveforms were analysed for all combinations of nitrogen applications and varieties. A hierarchical clustering technique was employed to classify these waveforms into different groups. By help of agglomerative clustering algorithm a few number of clusters were finalized for different rice varieties along with nitrogen treatments. By this clustering approach, observational error in spectroradiometer reflectance was also nullified. From this hierarchical clustering, appropriate spectral signature for rice canopy were identified and will help to create rice crop classification accurately and therefore have a prospect to make improved information on rice agriculture at both local and regional scales. From this

  5. Application of Remote Sensing Technique to Suspended Sediment Estimation of Pinan River, Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Chang, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Because of the rapid compression between the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate, the Central Range of the Taiwan Island continued to quickly uplift. Moreover, because of being located in the subtropical area, Taiwan has abundant rainfall, and has distinct wet and dry season. Typhoons which almost brought violent rain, struck Taiwan average four times a year during the summer. This extreme tectonic and weather condition makes that a large number of sediments easily to be taken away from the mountainous area and output to the downstream estuary in a short time. These eroded sediments can be classified into two categories. One is bedrock sediments, and the other is suspended sediments which could be detected by the satellite remote sensing technique. In previous studies, some suspended sediment concentration (SSC) predictions were carried out by using optical satellites imagery in different areas. As we know, the more suspension sediment in water can directly reflect the higher reflectance of solar radiation. In addition, the exact form of the relationship between SSC and reflectance also depends on the mineralogy, color, and size of the sediments. Therefore, most studies developed unique relationships by relating field measurements of SSC to reflectance data from satellite imagery. The Pinan River is the largest river in eastern Taiwan. It rises in the Central Range and flows through Taitung County for 84 kilometers. Statistically, in Taiwan, more than 40 percent typhoons struck and landed from the Pinan River watershed. Abundant rainfall coupled with short channel caused plenty of sediments output from the Pinan River. In this study, we focus on Pinan River estuary by using SSC field data which was got from the Hydrological Year Book of Taiwan published by Water Resources Agency every year. Because of lack of field data, we got daily river discharge to establish the Rating Curve and predict daily SSC. Moreover, we also used FORMOSAT-2 imagery in band 3 and

  6. Soil Degradation Assessment in North Nile Delta Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Nahry, A. H.; Ibraheim, M. M.; El Baroudy, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The present work aims at monitoring soil degradation process within the last two decades in the northern part of Nile Delta. The investigated area lies between longitudes 31° 00- & 31° 15- E and latitudes 31° 00' & 31° 37' N., covering an area of about 161760 feddans. Detecting soil degradation and recognizing its various types is a necessity to take the practical measures for combating it as well as conserving and keeping the agricultural soil healthy. Land degradation was assessed by adopting new approach through the integration of GLASOD/FAO approach and Remote Sensing / GIS techniques .The main types of human induced soil degradation that observed in the studied area are salinity, alkalinity (sodicity), compaction and water logging .On the other hand water erosion because of sea rise is assessed. The obtained data showed that, areas that were affected by compaction increment have been spatially enlarged by 40.9 % and those affected by compaction decrease have been spatially reduced by 22.6 % of the total area ,meanwhile areas that have been unchanged were estimated by 36.5% of the total area. The areas that were affected by water logging increase have been spatially enlarged by 52.2 % and those affected by water logging decrease have been spatially reduced by 10.1 % of the total area, meanwhile the areas which have been unchanged were represented by 37.7 % of the total area. Areas that were affected by salinity increase have been spatially enlarged by 31.4 % of the total area and those affected by salinity decrease have been reduced by 43.3 % of the total area. An area represented by 25.2 % of the total area has been unchanged. Alkalinization (sodicity) was expressed by the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP).Areas that were affected by sodicity increase have been spatially enlarged by 33.7 %, meanwhile those affected by sodicity decrease have been spatially reduced by 33.6 % of the total area. An area represented by 32.6 % of the total area has been

  7. Realizing parameterless automatic classification of remote sensing imagery using ontology engineering and cyberinfrastructure techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ziheng; Fang, Hui; Di, Liping; Yue, Peng

    2016-09-01

    It was an untouchable dream for remote sensing experts to realize total automatic image classification without inputting any parameter values. Experts usually spend hours and hours on tuning the input parameters of classification algorithms in order to obtain the best results. With the rapid development of knowledge engineering and cyberinfrastructure, a lot of data processing and knowledge reasoning capabilities become online accessible, shareable and interoperable. Based on these recent improvements, this paper presents an idea of parameterless automatic classification which only requires an image and automatically outputs a labeled vector. No parameters and operations are needed from endpoint consumers. An approach is proposed to realize the idea. It adopts an ontology database to store the experiences of tuning values for classifiers. A sample database is used to record training samples of image segments. Geoprocessing Web services are used as functionality blocks to finish basic classification steps. Workflow technology is involved to turn the overall image classification into a total automatic process. A Web-based prototypical system named PACS (Parameterless Automatic Classification System) is implemented. A number of images are fed into the system for evaluation purposes. The results show that the approach could automatically classify remote sensing images and have a fairly good average accuracy. It is indicated that the classified results will be more accurate if the two databases have higher quality. Once the experiences and samples in the databases are accumulated as many as an expert has, the approach should be able to get the results with similar quality to that a human expert can get. Since the approach is total automatic and parameterless, it can not only relieve remote sensing workers from the heavy and time-consuming parameter tuning work, but also significantly shorten the waiting time for consumers and facilitate them to engage in image

  8. Regional adaptation of a dynamic global vegetation model using a remote sensing data derived land cover map of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvostikov, S.; Venevsky, S.; Bartalev, S.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) SEVER has been regionally adapted using a remote sensing data-derived land cover map in order to improve the reconstruction conformity of the distribution of vegetation functional types over Russia. The SEVER model was modified to address noticeable divergences between modelling results and the land cover map. The model modification included a light competition method elaboration and the introduction of a tundra class into the model. The rigorous optimisation of key model parameters was performed using a two-step procedure. First, an approximate global optimum was found using the efficient global optimisation (EGO) algorithm, and afterwards a local search in the vicinity of the approximate optimum was performed using the quasi-Newton algorithm BFGS. The regionally adapted model shows a significant improvement of the vegetation distribution reconstruction over Russia with better matching with the satellite-derived land cover map, which was confirmed by both a visual comparison and a formal conformity criterion.

  9. Analytical techniques for the study of some parameters of multispectral scanner systems for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiswell, E. R.; Cooper, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The concept of average mutual information in the received spectral random process about the spectral scene was developed. Techniques amenable to implementation on a digital computer were also developed to make the required average mutual information calculations. These techniques required identification of models for the spectral response process of scenes. Stochastic modeling techniques were adapted for use. These techniques were demonstrated on empirical data from wheat and vegetation scenes.

  10. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  11. Remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral recognition of the Aranjuez pilot zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemos, G. L.; Salinas, J.; Rebollo, M.

    1977-01-01

    A rectangular (7 x 14 km) area 40 km S of Madrid was remote-sensed with a three-stage recognition process. Ground truth was established in the first phase, airborne sensing with a multispectral scanner and photographic cameras were used in the second phase, and Landsat satellite data were obtained in the third phase. Agronomic and hydrological photointerpretation problems are discussed. Color, black/white, and labeled areas are displayed for crop recognition in the land-use survey; turbidity, concentrations of pollutants and natural chemicals, and densitometry of the water are considered in the evaluation of water resources.

  12. A regression technique for evaluation and quantification for water quality parameters from remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define optical physics and/or environmental conditions under which the linear multiple-regression should be applicable. An investigation of the signal-response equations is conducted and the concept is tested by application to actual remote sensing data from a laboratory experiment performed under controlled conditions. Investigation of the signal-response equations shows that the exact solution for a number of optical physics conditions is of the same form as a linearized multiple-regression equation, even if nonlinear contributions from surface reflections, atmospheric constituents, or other water pollutants are included. Limitations on achieving this type of solution are defined.

  13. Use of acoustic velocity methodology and remote sensing techniques to measure unsteady flow on the lower Yazoo River in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Cooper, Lance M.; Davis, Angela A.

    1998-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for computing continuous discharge during varied, non-uniform low and medium flows on the Yazoo River at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage below Steele Bayou near Long Lake, Mississippi, using acoustic signal processing and conventional streamgaging techniques. Procedures were also developed to compute locations of discharges during future high flow events when the stream reach is subject to hi-directional and reverse flow caused by rising stages on the Mississippi River using a combination of acoustic equipment and remote sensing technology. A description of the study area is presented. Selected results of these methods are presented for the period from March through September 1997.

  14. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  15. Water quality mapping using remote sensing technique in Penang Straits, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Alias, A. N.; Mohd. Saleh, N.

    2008-10-01

    The application of remote sensing to assess water quality for coastal and open ocean has escalated recently due to its capability of scanning wide water bodies within a short time period. In this paper, we examined the spatial variability of chlorophyll within Penang straits, Malaysia. Coastal and estuarine ecosystems typically exhibit high temporal and spatial variability in phytoplankton biomass that is often too difficult to characterize with a limited set of in situ shipboard measurements. In this study, we used ALOS satellite imagery acquired on 24 April 2007. An algorithm for retrieval of chlorophyll level was developed for ALOS data. Chlorophyll samples were collected using a small boat simultaneously with the acquisition of the satellite image. The water locations were determined using a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). And then the digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into radiance values and reflectance values. The reflectance values were used for calibration of the chlorophyll algorithm. For the regression model, the correlation coefficient (R) and the root-mean-square deviation (RMS) were noted. The proposed algorithm is considered superior based on the values of the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square The water quality image was generated using the multispectral data set and the proposed calibrated TSS algorithm. This study demonstrates that remote sensing can play an important role in water quality assessment by using high resolution satellite image of ALOS data.

  16. A fast auto-focusing technique for the long focal lens TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dejiang; Ding, Xu; Zhang, Tao; Kuang, Haipeng

    2013-02-01

    The key issue in automatic focus adjustment for long focal lens TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications is to achieve the optimum focus position as fast as possible. Existing auto-focusing techniques consume too much time as the mechanical focusing parts of the camera move in steps during the searching procedure. In this paper, we demonstrate a fast auto-focusing technique, which employs the internal optical elements and the TDI CCD itself to directly sense the deviations in back focal distance of the lens and restore the imaging system to a best-available focus. It is particularly advantageous for determination of the focus, due to that the relative motion between the TDI CCD and the focusing element can proceed without interruption. Moreover, the theoretical formulas describing the effect of imaging motion on the focusing precision and the effective focusing range are also developed. Finally, an experimental setup is constructed to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. The results of the experiment show a ±5 μm precision of auto-focusing in a range of ±500 μmdefocus, and the searching procedure could be accomplished within 0.125 s, which leads to remarkable improvement on the real-time imaging capability for high resolution TDI CCD camera in remote sensing applications.

  17. An overview of GNSS remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.

  18. Remote Sensing Techniques as a Tool for Geothermal Exploration: the Case Study of Blawan Ijen, East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqua, Claudio; Verdoya, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques in the initial phase of geothermal surveys represents a very cost-effective tool, which can contribute to a successful exploration program. Remote sensing allows the analysis of large surfaces and can lead to a significant improvement of the identification of surface thermal anomalies, through the use of thermal infra red data (TIR), as well as of zones of widespread and recent faulting, which can reflect larger permeability of geological formations. Generally, the fractures analysis from remote sensing can be fundamental to clarify the structural setting of an area. In a regional volcanic framework, it can also help in defining the spatial and time evolution of the different volcanic apparatuses. This paper describes the main results of a remote sensing study, conducted in the Blawan-Ijen volcanic area (East Java), which is at present subject of geothermal exploration. This area is characterized by the presence of a 15 km wide caldera originated by a collapsed strato volcano. This event was followed by the emplacement of several peri-calderic and intra-calderic volcanoes, among which G. Raung, as testified by the frequent occurrence of shallow earthquakes and by H2S emission and sulfur deposition, and G. Kawah Ijen, occurring at the eastern rim of the caldera, are still active. The summit of G. Kawah Ijen volcano consists of two interlocking craters forming an E-W elongated depression filled up by a hyperacidic lake. Along the southern shore of the lake, a small rhyolitic dome occurs, which exhibits strong fumarolic activity with temperature of as much as 600 °C. We performed an analysis based on the combined interpretation of Landsat ETM+7, Aster and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, focused on the identification of subsurface high permeability zones. The main trends of the linear features as derived from the fractures analysis, as well as their relation with the distribution of volcanic centres, were identified

  19. Irrigation Management with Remote Sensing Techniques. Crop Water Requirements and Biophysical Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toureiro, Célia; Serralheiro, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Saving water in irrigated agriculture is increasingly relevant, as the irrigation sector is in many regions the biggest water consumer, but must be a sustainable activity. Therefore, the need urges for water use control methods and water resources planning. In irrigated agriculture, the right way for saving water is constituted by the increase of efficiency in water management. This work validates procedures and methodologies with remote sensing to determine the water availability in the soil at each moment and therefore the opportunity for the application of the water volume strictly necessary to optimize crop growth (irrigation opportunity and irrigation amount). The analysis applied to the Irrigation District of Divor, Évora, having used 7 experiment plots, which are areas watered by center-pivot systems, cultivated to corn. Data were determined from multispectral and infrared images of the cultivated surface obtained by satellite or by flying unmanned platform and integrated with parameters of the atmosphere and of the crops for calculating biophysical indicators and indices of water stress in the vegetation (NDVI, Kc, Kcb, CWSI). Therefore, evapotranspiration (ETc) was estimated, with which crop water requirement was calculated, with the opportunity and the amount of irrigation water to allocate. As this information is geographic referenced, maps can be prepared with GIS technology, describing water situation and the opportunity for watering crops. If the remote images are available with enough high spatial and temporal resolution, the frequent availability of maps can serve as a basis for a farmers irrigation advice system and for the regional irrigation authority to make decisions on the irrigation management at the regional scale. This can be a significant contribute to an efficient water management technology and a sustainable irrigated agriculture. Key-Words: Remote Sensing, Vegetation Index, Crop Coefficients, Water Balance

  20. Study on the techniques of valuation of ecosystem services based on remote sensing in Anxin County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Li, Zengyuan; Gao, Zhihai; Wang, Bengyu; Bai, Lina; Wu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Wang, Zhibo

    2014-05-01

    The farmland ecosystem is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and has a fundamental role in the human life. The wetland is an unique and versatile ecological system. It is important for rational development and sustainable utilization of farmland and wetland resources to study on the measurement of valuation of farmland and wetland ecosystem services. It also has important significance for improving productivity. With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, it has become a powerful tool for evaluation of the value of ecosystem services. The land cover types in Anxin County mainly was farmland and wetland, the indicator system for ecosystem services valuation was brought up based on the remote sensing data of high spatial resolution ratio(Landsat-5 TM data and SPOT-5 data), the technology system for measurement of ecosystem services value was established. The study results show that the total ecosystem services value in 2009 in Anxin was 4.216 billion yuan, and the unit area value was between 8489 yuan/hm2 and 329535 yuan/hm2. The value of natural resources, water conservation value in farmland ecosystem and eco-tourism value in wetland ecosystem were higher than the other, total of the three values reached 2.858 billion yuan, and the percentage of the total ecosystem services values in Anxin was 67.79%. Through the statistics in the nine towns and three villages of Anxin County, the juantou town has the highest services value, reached 0.736 billion yuan. Scientific and comprehensive evaluation of the ecosystem services can conducive to promoting the understanding of the importance of the ecosystem. The research results had significance to ensure the sustainable use of wetland resources and the guidance of ecological construction in Anxin County.

  1. Estimation of evapotranspiration at different scales using traditional and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenstermaker, Lynn F.

    Water and its use or loss is critically important in the Southwestern United States where population growth is rapidly approaching the limit of available drinking water. It is therefore important to gain an understanding of water use by native and non-native species to ensure that sufficient water remains to maintain native ecosystems. This study examines water loss by the non-native tree species Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) at the leaf, branch and whole stand level using traditional methodologies as well as remote sensing. Transpiration measurements were estimated for open and closed stands of Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) at two sites within a desert riparian corridor on the lower Virgin River floodplain, southern Nevada. One site (open and closed stands) was within 10 meters of the river channel (River site), and the other site (open and closed stands) was more than 50 meters from the river channel near a Bowen ratio tower (Bowen site). At the leaf level, mid-morning stomatal conductances in trees from the River site were nearly three times higher than the Bowen site for all dates during the summer growing season. At the branch level, the results from sap flow measurements were not as clear-cut. While mean daily, accumulated sap flows were higher for the River site in comparison to the Bowen site, these differences were only significant for one date for each stand density. A comparison of the April 1994 and April 1996 remotely sensed data demonstrate the marked negative impact of a flood-induced channel diversion on downstream transpiration. Additionally, it was quite evident from the ET maps that even within apparently homogeneous closed stands there is a high degree of variability in transpiration.

  2. GIS and remote sensing techniques integration aimed for the evaluation of the Esino catchment impact on coastal water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunori, Carlo A.; Oliveri, Stefano; Luzi, Lucia; Zilioli, Eugenio

    1998-10-01

    The main aim of this work, carried out in the framework of the PRISMA2 national research program (Research and Experimentation Program for the Adriatic Sea) was the definition of an appropriate working methodology which allowed to estimate the impact of the Esino drainage-basin (central Italy), and of the anthropic activities lying on it, on the coastal water quality of the Adriatic sea. This aim was pursued by integrating techniques and instruments of analyses, such as GIS and remote sensing, which are often and often employed in natural resources managing and planning. They allowed to generate a database easily updating, relative to a very large area which is strongly differentiated in its natural and anthropic features. The database contains raw data, provided by local public organizations managing the territory, information derived from elaboration of the previous data and remote sensed frames (acquired by the hyperspectral sensor MIVIS) purposely acquired to the aim of the study. It was after all generated an 'open' system, continually updating with environmental information before long available; moreover, were explored the potentialities of the MIVIS sensor (102 band, from the visible to the thermic IR) in the study of marine coastal water quality.

  3. Locating pollutant emission sources with optical remote sensing measurements and an improved one-dimensional radial plume mapping technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-fu; Lin, Shih-Chun; Yeh, Cheng-Kai

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that there was a relatively large amount of uncertainty along the major wind direction in the results of locating emission sources using the one-dimensional radial plume mapping (RPM(1D)) technique based on optical remote sensing measurements. This paper proposes setting up an additional monitoring line that is perpendicular to the original scanning beam geometry to reduce this uncertainty. We first conducted a computer simulation study using the Gaussian dispersion model to generate the downwind concentrations of plumes from 400 source locations in a 201 m × 201 m spatial domain under various wind directions (n = 181). The optical remote sensing instrument was assumed to be at (0, 0) with two perpendicular monitoring lines, each of which had three beam segments of equal length. Each pair of the reconstructed downwind concentration profiles was then used to trace back to the source locations. The results showed that the accuracy of the method and its uncertainty were improved by using the proposed two-line RPM(1D) approach rather than the original one-line RPM(1D) approach at most simulated source locations. In a follow-up field experiment, a tracer gas was released at the coordinate of (100, 100). The release location was covered within the 0.25- to 0.5-probability area of the estimated results, and the distance between the actual and estimated source locations was 18.4 m (9.2% of the longest beam path). PMID:22382995

  4. Flood Vulnerability Analysis of the part of Karad Region, Satara District, Maharashtra using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warghat, Sumedh R.; Das, Sandipan; Doad, Atul; Mali, Sagar; Moon, Vishal S.

    2012-07-01

    Karad City is situated on the bank of confluence of river Krishna & Koyana, which is severely flood prone area. The floodwaters enter the city through the roads and disrupt the infrastructure in the whole city. Furthermore, due to negligence of the authorities and unplanned growth of the city, the people living in the city have harnessed the natural flow of water by constructing unnecessary embankments in the river Koyna. Due to this reason now river koyna is flowing in the form of a narrow channel, which very easily over-flows during very minor flooding.Flood Vulnerabilty Analysis has been done for the karad region of satara district, maharashtra using remote sensing and geographic information system technique. The aim of this study is to identify flood vulnerability zone by using GIS and RS technique and an attempt has been to demonstrat the application of remote sensing and GIS in order to map flood vulnerabilty area by utilizing ArcMap, and Erdas software. Flood vulnerabilty analysis of part the Karad Regian of Satara District, Maharashtra has been carried out with the objectives - Identify the Flood Prone area in the Koyana and Krishna river basin, Calculate surface runoff and Delineate flood sensitive areas. Delineate classified hazard Map, Evaluate the Flood affected area, Prepare the Flood Vulnerability Map by utilizing Remote Sensing and GIS technique. (C.J. Kumanan;S.M. Ramasamy)The study is based on GIS and spatial technique is used for analysis and understanding of flood problem in Karad Tahsil. The flood affected areas of the different magnitude has been identified and mapped using Arc GIS software. The analysis is useful for local planning authority for identification of risk areas and taking proper decision in right moment. In the analysis causative factors for flooding in watershed are taken into account as annual rainfall, size of watershed, basin slope, drainage density of natural channels and land use. (Dinand Alkema; Farah Aziz.)This study of

  5. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  6. SUPERFUND REMOTE SENSING SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task provides remote sensing technical support to the Superfund program. Support includes the collection, processing, and analysis of remote sensing data to characterize hazardous waste disposal sites and their history. Image analysis reports, aerial photographs, and assoc...

  7. Textbooks and technical references for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. D.; Bowden, L. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A selective bibliography is presented which cites 89 textbooks, monographs, and articles covering introductory and advanced remote sensing techniques, photointerpretation, photogrammetry, and image processing.

  8. Evaluation of the dark-object subtraction technique for adjustment of multispectral remote-sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James B.

    1993-03-01

    The well-known dark-object subtraction method has formed one of the oldest and widely used procedures for adjusting digital remote sensing data for effects of atmospheric scattering. The method's limited capabilities, relative to more sophisticated methods, are at least partially offset by its wide applicability, due its requirement for little information beyond the image itself. This study examines alternative applications of the procedure to evaluate its effectiveness, using a SPOT HRV XS image of irregular terrain in southwestern Virginia and a sequence of Landsat MSS data depicting a region in south central Virginia. Assessment of the success of the adjustment is conducted using chromaticity co-ordinates (using the method of Alfoldi and Munday (1978)), from corrected values, and comparing corrections to the original data. A successful correction shifts chromaticity co-ordinates away from the equal radiance point towards the purer regions near edges of the diagram. Further, some categories, when corrected successfully, will occupy known positions within chromaticity space. Assessment of the modification proposed by Chavez (1988) was conducted by examining the effects of choosing alternative starting haze values, and effects of alternative choices for atmospheric models. One difficulty in applying the 1988 modification is that it appears to be difficult to make accurate assessments of atmospheric conditions.

  9. Modelling submerged coastal environments: Remote sensing technologies, techniques, and comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Chris

    Built upon remote sensing and GIS littoral zone characterization methodologies of the past decade, a series of loosely coupled models aimed to test, compare and synthesize multi-beam SONAR (MBES), Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry (ALB), and satellite based optical data sets in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, eco-region. Bathymetry and relative intensity metrics for the MBES and ALB data sets were run through a quantitative and qualitative comparison, which included outputs from the Benthic Terrain Modeller (BTM) tool. Substrate classification based on relative intensities of respective data sets and textural indices generated using grey level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were investigated. A spatial modelling framework built in ArcGIS(TM) for the derivation of bathymetric data sets from optical satellite imagery was also tested for proof of concept and validation. Where possible, efficiencies and semi-automation for repeatable testing was achieved using ArcGIS(TM) ModelBuilder. The findings from this study could assist future decision makers in the field of coastal management and hydrographic studies. Keywords: Seafloor terrain characterization, Benthic Terrain Modeller (BTM), Multi-beam SONAR, Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry, Satellite Derived Bathymetry, ArcGISTM ModelBuilder, Textural analysis, Substrate classification.

  10. Virtual Sensors: Using Data Mining Techniques to Efficiently Estimate Remote Sensing Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Oza, Nikunj; Stroeve, Julienne

    2004-01-01

    Various instruments are used to create images of the Earth and other objects in the universe in a diverse set of wavelength bands with the aim of understanding natural phenomena. These instruments are sometimes built in a phased approach, with some measurement capabilities being added in later phases. In other cases, there may not be a planned increase in measurement capability, but technology may mature to the point that it offers new measurement capabilities that were not available before. In still other cases, detailed spectral measurements may be too costly to perform on a large sample. Thus, lower resolution instruments with lower associated cost may be used to take the majority of measurements. Higher resolution instruments, with a higher associated cost may be used to take only a small fraction of the measurements in a given area. Many applied science questions that are relevant to the remote sensing community need to be addressed by analyzing enormous amounts of data that were generated from instruments with disparate measurement capability. This paper addresses this problem by demonstrating methods to produce high accuracy estimates of spectra with an associated measure of uncertainty from data that is perhaps nonlinearly correlated with the spectra. In particular, we demonstrate multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernels, and SVMs with Mixture Density Mercer Kernels (MDMK). We call this type of an estimator a Virtual Sensor because it predicts, with a measure of uncertainty, unmeasured spectral phenomena.

  11. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013. PMID:25638059

  12. Deriving urban dynamic evolution rules from self-adaptive cellular automata with multi-temporal remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yingqing; Ai, Bin; Yao, Yao; Zhong, Fajun

    2015-06-01

    Cellular automata (CA) have proven to be very effective for simulating and predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of complex geographical phenomena. Traditional methods generally pose problems in determining the structure and parameters of CA for a large, complex region or a long-term simulation. This study presents a self-adaptive CA model integrated with an artificial immune system to discover dynamic transition rules automatically. The model's parameters are allowed to be self-modified with the application of multi-temporal remote sensing images: that is, the CA can adapt itself to the changed and complex environment. Therefore, urban dynamic evolution rules over time can be efficiently retrieved by using this integrated model. The proposed AIS-based CA model was then used to simulate the rural-urban land conversion of Guangzhou city, located in the core of China's Pearl River Delta. The initial urban land was directly classified from TM satellite image in the year 1990. Urban land in the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2009 and 2012 was correspondingly used as the observed data to calibrate the model's parameters. With the quantitative index figure of merit (FoM) and pattern similarity, the comparison was further performed between the AIS-based model and a Logistic CA model. The results indicate that the AIS-based CA model can perform better and with higher precision in simulating urban evolution, and the simulated spatial pattern is closer to the actual development situation.

  13. Application of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques to Evaluate Water Quality in Turbid Coastal Waters of South Carolina.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. A.; Ryan, K.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide valuable ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. Existing remote sensing ocean color products, such as the water quality proxy chlorophyll-a, are based on ocean derived bio-optical models that are primarily calibrated in Case 1 type waters. These traditional models fail to work when applied in turbid (Case 2 type), coastal waters due to spectral interference from other associated color producing agents such as colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments. In this work, we introduce a novel technique for the predictive modeling of chlorophyll-a using a multivariate-based approach applied to in situ hyperspectral radiometric data collected from the coastal waters of Long Bay, South Carolina. This method uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify prominent wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated color-producing agents. The new model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 μg/L. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from current and future hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight to point-sources and problem areas that may contribute to a decline in water quality. The utility of this tool is in its versatility to a diverse set of coastal waters and its use by coastal and fisheries managers with regard to recreation, regulation, economic and public health purposes.

  14. REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES APPLICATIONS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing technologies applications research supports the ORD Landscape Sciences Program (LSP) in two separate areas: operational remote sensing, and remote sensing research and development. Operational remote sensing is provided to the LSP through the use of current and t...

  15. Fiber Bragg grating interrogation technique for remote sensing (100km) using a hybrid Brillouin-Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Vallejo, M.; Leandro, D.; Loayssa, A.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2011-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel Fiber Bragg Grating interrogation technique for remote sensing based on the use of a hybrid Raman-Brillouin fiber laser configuration. The laser comprises 100 km of standard singlemode fiber (SMF) in a linear cavity configuration with four Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) arranged in series. The FBGs are used both for the sensing function and for the selection of the lasing wavelengths. A wavelength-swept laser pumps Brillouin gain in the fiber cavity, which is previously set just under lasing threshold by the Raman gain. Furthermore, the sensor signal is detected in the radio frequency domain instead of the optical domain so as to avoid signal to noise ratio limitations produced by Rayleigh scattering. Experimental results demonstrate that the shift of the Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensors can be precisely measured with good signal to noise ration when the FBG are used for temperature sensing.

  16. Assessment of practicality of remote sensing techniques for a study of the effects of strip mining in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H.; Dillion, A. C., III; White, J. R., Jr.; Drummond, S. E., Jr.; Hooks, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the volume of coal produced by strip mining, the proximity of mining operations, and the diversity of mining methods (e.g. contour stripping, area stripping, multiple seam stripping, and augering, as well as underground mining), the Warrior Coal Basin seemed best suited for initial studies on the physical impact of strip mining in Alabama. Two test sites, (Cordova and Searles) representative of the various strip mining techniques and environmental problems, were chosen for intensive studies of the correlation between remote sensing and ground truth data. Efforts were eventually concentrated in the Searles Area, since it is more accessible and offers a better opportunity for study of erosional and depositional processes than the Cordova Area.

  17. Techniques of the environmental observer: India's earth remote sensing program in the age of global information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denicola, Lane A.

    This research examines the emergence in India of earth remote sensing (ERS), a principal medium for environmental analysis, communication, and policy-making. ERS---the science and "craft" of analyzing images of terrestrial phenomena collected by aircraft or satellite---constitutes an information technology whose predominance in environmental discourse has grown continuously since first proposed for such applications by American researchers in 1962. Raising many thorny issues in information access and control, the use and popularization of ERS has intensified dramatically since the mid-1980s. In Westernized discourse (both popular and expert), space research and industry are often depicted at a double-remove from the so-called "developing world," where exotic technologies and esoteric goals are overshadowed by patent human needs and a lack of basic infrastructure. Yet advocates hail the utility of ERS in socially relevant applications, and India has amassed upwards of five decades of experience in space, with systems and products rivaled today only by those of the United States and China. A multi-sited ethnography of a nascent visual medium, the dissertation triangulates on its topic by tracing three analytical threads: (1) a diachronic analysis of Indian ERS satellites as an allegory of statehood and participation in the global present, (2) a synchronic analysis of ERS imagery as a discursive artifact and global information commodity, and (3) an analysis of interpretive practice as observed through a single class of Indian and foreign students at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), considered here as an "interpretive community" of environmental experts. The dissertation is the result of four years of research with ERS students, faculty, researchers, users and administrators in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey and India. In particular, I conducted nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in India in 2002 and 2005, the latter half of which was spent in participant

  18. Remote sensing techniques to monitor nitrogen-driven carbon dynamics in field corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    2009-08-01

    Patterns of change in vegetation growth and condition are one of the primary indicators of the present and future ecological status of the globe. Nitrogen (N) is involved in photochemical processes and is one of the primary resources regulating plant growth. As a result, biological carbon (C) sequestration is driven by N availability. Large scale monitoring of photosynthetic processes are currently possible only with remote sensing systems that rely heavily on passive reflectance (R) information. Unlike R, fluorescence (F) emitted from chlorophyll is directly related to photochemical reactions and has been extensively used for the elucidation of the photosynthetic pathways. Recent advances in passive fluorescence instrumentation have made the remote acquisition of solar-induced fluorescence possible. The goal of this effort is to evaluate existing reflectance and emerging fluorescence methodologies for determining vegetation parameters related to photosynthetic function and carbon sequestration dynamics in plants. Field corn N treatment levels of 280, 140, 70, and 0 kg N / ha were sampled from an intensive test site for a multi-disciplinary project, Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement (OPE). Aircraft, near-ground, and leaf-level measurements were used to compare and contrast treatment effects within this experiment site assessed with both reflectance and fluorescence approaches. A number of spectral indices including the R derivative index D730/D705, the normalized difference of R750 vs. R705, and simple ratio R800/R750 differentiated three of the four N fertilization rates and yielded high correlations to three important carbon parameters: C:N, light use efficiency, and grain yield. These results advocate the application of hyperspectral sensors for remotely monitoring carbon cycle dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems.

  19. Micro - Watershed Development Plans Using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques Panoli Village, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, Iindia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothuman, S.

    2013-05-01

    Sustainable development aims at maintaining the equilibrium between the human needs and economic developments within the parameters of environmental conservation through efficient use of natural resources to ensure tradeoff between desired productions - consumption levels. The well-known Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as a "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In essence, the sustainable development is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and instrumental changes, all are in harmony". The sustainable development of natural resources is based on maintaining the fragile ecosystem balance between the productivity functions and conservation practices through monitoring and identification of problem areas, agricultural practices, crop rotation, use of bio-fertilizers, energy efficient farming methods and reclamation of underutilized lands. Sustainable development requires a holistic approach towards natural resources after taking into account the precarious environmental conditions. Watershed development has become the main involvement in natural resource management in India. This Dissertation demonstrates the use of Remote Sensing and GIS-based modeling framework for local-level planning, incorporating the sustainability aspects of Micro-watershed development. A case study has been taken in Panoli Village, Parner Taluka, Ahmanagar District, Maharashtra state to demonstrate the implementation of these new technologies for watershed prioritization and sustainable development. Watershed development and its management is achieved through the combination of database within the watershed boundaries of a drainage area to optimally develop land, water and plant resources to meet the basic minimum needs of the people in a sustained manner.;

  20. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques in Predicting Phycocyanin Concentrations in Cyanobacteria: A Comprehensive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, D. R.; Schluchter, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance of existing spectral band ratio algorithms and develop a novel algorithm to quantify phycocyanin (PC) in cyanobacteria using hyperspectral remotely-sensed data. We performed four spectroscopic experiments on two different laboratory cultured cyanobacterial species and found that the existing band ratio algorithms are highly sensitive to chlorophylls, making them inaccurate in predicting cyanobacterial abundance in the presence of other chlorophyll-containing organisms. Our results also show that the widely used 654 nm reflectance peak in existing algorithms is highly sensitive to changes in chlorophyll-a concentration and offers poor PC predictive ability. We present a novel spectral band ratio algorithm that is least sensitive to the presence of chlorophyll. The newly developed band ratio model showed promising results by yielding low root mean squared error (RMSE, 15,260 cells mL-1) and significantly low relative root mean squared error (RMS, 101%) as compared to the existing band ratio algorithms. Natural logarithmic transformation of the new model yielded the lowest RMSE (13,885 cells mL-1) and a high coefficient of determination (0.95) between measured and predicted PC concentration. We also show that the new algorithm is species independent and accurately retrieves PC concentration in the presence of varying amount of chlorophyll-a in the system. Band setting of the model confirms that it can be used for retrieval of PC using hyperspectral sensors such as Hyperion as well as data acquired by other airborne sensors. Figure (A, B, C) Percent reflectance spectra of Synechocystis PCC 6803 from Exp I, II, III respectively. (D) Percent reflectance spectra of Anabaena from Exp IV. Data collected from these experiments were included in the evaluation of existing PC predictive models and the calibration and validation of the new spectral band ratio model.

  1. Remote sensing of wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Results are given for three separate investigations of remote sensing over wetlands, including the delineations of roseau cane and mangrove from both Landsat and aircraft MSS data, and the delineation of wetland communities for potential waste assimilation in a coastal river floodplain from Landsat MSS data only. Attention is also given to data processing and analysis techniques of varying levels of sophistication, which must increase with surface cover diversity. All computer processing in these studies was performed on a minicomputer configured with the adequate memory, image display capability, and associated peripherals, using state-of-the-art digital MSS data analysis software.

  2. Using passive, thermal remote sensing techniques for detecting subsurface gravel accumulations in vegetated, unconsolidated sedimentary terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Gregory S.; Scholen, Douglas E.

    1989-01-01

    Multiband radiometric data from an airborne imaging thermal scanner are being studied for use in finding buried gravel deposits. The techniques are based on measuring relative differences in the thermal properties between gravel-laden targets and the surrounding gravelless background. These properties are determined from modeling the spectral radiant emittance recorded over both types of surfaces in conjunction with ground measurements of the most significant heat flows above and below the surface. Thermodynamic properties of sampled materials from control sites are determined, and diurnal and annual subsurface heat waves are recorded. Thermal models that account for heat exchange at the surface, as well as varying levels of soil moisture, humidity, and vegetation, are needed for adaptation and modification to simulate the physical and radiative environments of this region.

  3. Remote sensing of auroral E region plasma structures by radio, radar, and UV techniques at solar minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Valladares, C.E. ); Basu, S.; Eastes, R.; Huffman, R.E. ); Daniell, R.E. ); Chaturvedi, P.K. ); Livingston, R.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The unique capability of the Polar BEAR satellite to simultaneously image auroral luminosities at multiple ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and to remote sense large-scale (hundreds to tens of kilometers) and small-scale (kilometers to hundreds of meters) plasma density structures with its multifrequency beacon package is utilized to probe the auroral E region in the vicinity of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) facility near Sondrestrom. In particular, we present coordinated observations on two nights obtained during the sunspot minimum (sunspot number < 10) January-February 1987 period when good spatial and temporal conjunction was obtained between Polar BEAR overflights and Sondrestrom ISR measurements. With careful coordinated observations we were able to confirm that the energetic particle precipitation responsible for the UV emissions causes the electron density increases in the E region. The integrations up to the topside of these ISR electron density profiles were consistent with the total electron content (TEC) measured by the Polar BEAR satellite. An electron transport model was utilized to determine quantitatively the electron density profiles which could be produced by the particle precipitation, which also produced multiple UV emissions measured by the imager; these profiles were found to be in good agreement with the observed ISR profiles in the E region. This outer scale size is also consistent with the measured phase to amplitude scintillation ratio. An estimate of the linear growth rate of the gradient-drift instability in the E region shows that these plasma density irregularities could have been generated by this process. The mutual consistency of these different sets of measurements provides confidence in the ability of the different techniques to remote sense large- and small-scale plasma density structures in the E region at least during sunspot minimum when the convection-dominated high-latitude F region is fairly weak. 56 refs., 16 figs.

  4. Remote sensing for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  5. Remote-Sensing of Precipitation Characteristics Using Multi-frequency Microwave Links and Polarimetric Radar Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastment, J. D.; Bradford, W. J.; Goddard, J. W.; Willis, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    The Radio Communications Research Unit at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) currently operates two separate experimental studies aimed at characterising the properties of rainfall using microwave remote-sensing. The first study involves the use of dual-frequency microwave measurements of precipitation-induced attenuation on a number of radio paths spanning a river catchment area to estimate path-integrated rainfall rate. This data is of interest for hydrological research connected with urban drainage, river level management and flood forecasting. Dual-frequency attenuation measurements have been employed because theoretical modelling showed them to be far less sensitive to rainfall drop-size distribution effects than single-frequency data. The experimental network comprises 9 microwave links spanning the frequency range 13 to 38 GHz installed on 5 different paths covering the catchment area of the rivers Croal and Irwell near Bolton in North-West England. For each transmitter-receiver link, excess path attenuation relative to the clear-air value is determined from measurements of received signal power level at a rate of 1 Hz. These data are logged by local computers at each receiver site, and periodically downloaded by modem to RAL for archiving and quality control. Analysis by colleagues at the Universities of Essex and Salford has shown that, due to the path-integrated nature of the attenuation measurements and the wide area-coverage obtained by a suitable choice of the multiple-path geometry, a small number of dual-frequency links can provide comparable hydrological data to that obtained from the more conventional dense network of rain-gauges. The second study employs a scanning polarimetric Doppler radar developed by RAL to measure the spatial distribution of hydrometeors along various operational microwave and mm-wave communication links within a 50 km radius of the University of St. Andrews in South-East Scotland. The UK Radiocommunications Agency and

  6. Development of remote sensing techniques for assessment of salinity induced plant stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stong, Matthew Harold

    Salinity has been shown to reduce vegetative growth, crop quality, and yield in agricultural crops. Remote sensing is capable of providing data about large areas. This project was designed to induce salinity stress in a crop, pak choi, and thereafter monitor the response of the crop as expressed by its spectral reflectances. The project was conducted in the National Taiwan University Phytotron, and spectral data was collected using a GER 2600. Yield and soil salinity (ECe) were also measured. After three seasons of data were collected, wavelengths sensitive to salinity were selected. These wavelengths, which are within the spectral response of biochemicals produced by plants as a response to soil salinity, were used to create two indices, the Salinity Stress Index (SSI) and the Normalized Salinity Stress Index (NSSI). After creating the indices tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of these indices in detecting salinity and drought stresses as compared to existing indices (SRVI and NDVI). This project induced salinity and drought stress in a crop, pak choi, and thereafter monitored the response of the crop as expressed by its spectral reflectances. The SSI and NSSI correlated well to both ECe and marketable yield. Additionally the SSI and NSSI were found to provide statistical differences between salinity stressed treatments and the control treatment. Drought stress was not detected well by any of the indices reviewed although the SSI and NSSI indices tended to increase with drought stress and decrease with salinity stress. As a final test, specific ion toxicities of sodium and chloride were tested against the developed indices (SSI and NSSI) and existing indices (NDVI, SRVI, and NDWI). There were no differences in SSI and NSSI responses to specific ion concentration in the high salinity treatments. These results indicated that the SSI and NSSI are not sensitive to the specific ion concentration in irrigation water. However, the SSI and NSSI were higher

  7. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (<10 years old), as young oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  8. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  9. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  10. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  11. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  12. A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

  13. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [planning and management of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Churchman, C. W.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, R.; Coulson, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The University of California has been conducting an investigation which seeks to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Most of the work has concentrated on California's water resources, but with some attention being given to other earth resources as well and to the interplay between them and California's water resources.

  14. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  15. Remote Sensing of Earth Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models that are useful and practical in relating remote sensing data to the important physical parameters characterizing Earth terrain are developed. The development of models that are useful in data analysis and interpretation, scene simulation, and developing new remote sensing approaches and techniques is discussed. Numerous theoretical models that are applicable to the active and passive remote sensing of plowed fields, atmospheric precipitation, vegetation, and snow fields were developed. The radiative transfer theory is used to interpret the active and passive data as a function of rain rate. Both the random medium model and the discrete scatterer model is used to study the remote sensing of vegetation fields. Due to the non-spherical geometry of the scatterers there is strong azimuthal dependence in the observed data. Thus, the anisotropic random medium model and the discrete scatterer model with nonspherical particles was developed. In order to relate the remote sensing data to the actual physical parameters, the scattering of electromagnetic waves from randomly distributed dielectric scatterers was studied. Both the rigorous random discrete scatterer theory and the strong fluctuation theory are used to derive the backscattering cross section in terms of the actual physical parameters and the results agree well with the data obtained from the snow fields.

  16. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  17. Remote Sensing in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)

  18. Morphostructural characterization of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola), based on remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Fernando Carlos; Pereira, Alcides José; Mantas, Vasco Manuel; Mpengo, Horácio Kativa

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of the main morphostructural features of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola) can be done by using remote sensing techniques associated with field work. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was built for this purpose. This model is based on altimeter data acquired from the Aster sensor, on which image processing techniques such as enhancement techniques, contrast change and filtering were applied. Other techniques, such as RGB colour composition, were also tested. The processed satellite images were interpreted by visual process and the results were then compared with available geological maps (scale 1: 1 000 000). To facilitate both analysis and interpretation, the edge of the plateau was divided into three sectors: northern (or Chongoroi Edge), central (or Humpata Edge) and southern (or Oncocua Edge). For each sector, the main morphological aspects and main lineament systems were identified and characterized. In the specific case of the central sector, these parameters were also confirmed by field work. This study shows that the morphology of the western edge of the plateau is dominated by N50°W-N60°W, N60°E and N-S trending main tectonic systems. These results have important implications in terms of geological mapping and regional tectonics as well as in land-use planning and other areas, such as hydrogeology or geotechnics.

  19. Morphostructural characterization of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola), based on remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Fernando Carlos; Pereira, Alcides José; Mantas, Vasco Manuel; Mpengo, Horácio Kativa

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of the main morphostructural features of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola) can be done by using remote sensing techniques associated with field work. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was built for this purpose. This model is based on altimeter data acquired from the Aster sensor, on which image processing techniques such as enhancement techniques, contrast change and filtering were applied. Other techniques, such as RGB colour composition, were also tested. The processed satellite images were interpreted by visual process and the results were then compared with available geological maps (scale 1: 1 000 000). To facilitate both analysis and interpretation, the edge of the plateau was divided into three sectors: northern (or Chongoroi Edge), central (or Humpata Edge) and southern (or Oncocua Edge). For each sector, the main morphological aspects and main lineament systems were identified and characterized. In the specific case of the central sector, these parameters were also confirmed by field work. This study shows that the morphology of the western edge of the plateau is dominated by N50°W-N60°W, N60°E and N-S trending main tectonic systems. These results have important implications in terms of geological mapping and regional tectonics as well as in land-use planning and other areas, such as hydrogeology or geotechnics.

  20. Streamlined environmental remediation characterization using remote sensing techniques: Case studies for the US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, D.M.; Smyre, J.L.; Evers, T.K.; King, A.L.

    1996-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Remote Sensing Program and discusses how data from this program have assisted the environmental restoration program in streamlining site-characterization activities. Three case studies are described where remote sensing imagery has provided a more focused understanding of site problems with a resultant reduction in the need for costly and time-consuming, ground-based sampling approaches.

  1. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  2. Remote Sensing in Archeology: Classifying Bajos of the Paten, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, James D., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This project focuses on the adaptation of human populations to their environments from prehistoric times to the present. It emphasizes interdisciplinary research to develop ecological baselines through the use of remotely sensed imagery, in situ field work, and the modeling of human population dynamics. It utilizes cultural and biological data from dated archaeological sites to assess the subsistence and settlement patterns of human societies in response to changing climatic and environmental conditions. The utilization of remote sensing techniques in archaeology is relatively new, exciting, and opens many doors.

  3. Applying aerial digital photography as a spectral remote sensing technique for macrophytic cover assessment in small rural streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker, Y.; Hershkovitz, Y.; Gasith, A.; Ben-Dor, E.

    2011-12-01

    Although remote sensing of fluvial ecosystems is well developed, the tradeoff between spectral and spatial resolutions prevents its application in small streams (<3m width). In the current study, a remote sensing approach for monitoring and research of small ecosystem was developed. The method is based on differentiation between two indicative vegetation species out of the ecosystem flora. Since when studied, the channel was covered mostly by a filamentous green alga (Cladophora glomerata) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale), these species were chosen as indicative; nonetheless, common reed (Phragmites australis) was also classified in order to exclude it from the stream ROI. The procedure included: A. For both section and habitat scales classifications, acquisition of aerial digital RGB datasets. B. For section scale classification, hyperspectral (HSR) dataset acquisition. C. For calibration, HSR reflectance measurements of specific ground targets, in close proximity to each dataset acquisition swath. D. For habitat scale classification, manual, in-stream flora grid transects classification. The digital RGB datasets were converted to reflectance units by spectral calibration against colored reference plates. These red, green, blue, white, and black EVA foam reference plates were measured by an ASD field spectrometer and each was given a spectral value. Each spectral value was later applied to the spectral calibration and radiometric correction of spectral RGB (SRGB) cube. Spectral calibration of the HSR dataset was done using the empirical line method, based on reference values of progressive grey scale targets. Differentiation between the vegetation species was done by supervised classification both for the HSR and for the SRGB datasets. This procedure was done using the Spectral Angle Mapper function with the spectral pattern of each vegetation species as a spectral end member. Comparison between the two remote sensing techniques and between the SRGB

  4. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  5. Romantic versus scientific perspective: the ruins of Radlin palace in Wielkopolska region in the light of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgocka, Aleksandra; Ruciński, Dominik; RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz

    2015-06-01

    Although ruins of palace in Radlin, localized in Wielkopolska Region (Poland), could have been a great inspiration for romantic landscape painters, they were hardly considered as the subject of artistic interest. Nevertheless they stand as a marker in a landscape as a romantic background for the village on one hand and a memento for the neighbouring graveyard on another. Small scale excavations carried out in late 1950s with historical maps and analysis of still standing remains gave a general idea about wings order, localisation of main entrance and communication routs inside courtyard. Those early research thereby were the first step to change the meaning of this place from romantic to more scientific. New remote sensing technology allows move even further into scientific direction. The ruins in Radlin have been included into project ArchEO - archaeological applications of Earth Observation techniques. The main aim of the project in case of Radlin is an attempt to answer the question to what extent very high resolution optical satellite imagery might allow better understanding the spatial structure of the place. The various processing techniques were applied to facilitate the detection of archaeological features' impact on the vegetation condition. It enabled to assess the usefulness of satellite based data in recognizing specific archaeological remains. Thus, potential and limitations of satellite imagery versus other sources of spatial information like historic maps, excavation results, aerial photographs and Lidar will be discussed.

  6. Using in-field and remote sensing techniques for the monitoring of small-scale permafrost decline in Northern Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Inga; Kim, Jun Su; Spannraft, Kati; Ludwig, Ralf; Hajnsek, Irena; Bernier, Monique; Allard, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Permafrost-affected soils represent about 45% of Canadian arctic and subarctic regions. Under the recently recorded changed climate conditions, the areas located in the discontinuous permafrost zones are likely to belong to the most impacted environments. Degradations of Palsas and lithalsas as being the most distinct permafrost landforms as well as an extension of wetlands have been observe during the past decades by several research teams all over the northern Arctic. These alterations, caused by longer an warmer thawing periods, are expected to become more and more frequent in the future. The effects on human beings and on the surrounding sensitive ecosystems are presumed to be momentous and of high relevance. Hence, there is a high demand for new techniques that are able to detect, and possibly even predict, the behavior of the permafrost within a changing environment. The presented study is part of an international research collaboration between LMU, INRS and UL within the framework of ArcticNet. The project intends to develop a monitoring system strongly based on remote sensing imagery and GIS-based data analysis, using a test site located in northern Quebec (Umiujaq, 56°33' N, 76°33' W). It shall be investigated to which extent the interpretation of satellite imagery is feasible to partially substitute costly and difficult geophysical point measurements, and to provide spatial knowledge about the major factors that control permafrost dynamics and ecosystem change. In a first step, these factors, mainly expected to be determined from changes in topography, vegetation cover and snow cover, are identified and validated by means of several consecutive ground truthing initiatives supporting the analysis of multi-sensoral time series of remotely sensed information. Both sources are used to generate and feed different concepts for modeling permafrost dynamics by ways of parameter retrieval and data assimilation. On this poster, the outcomes of the first project

  7. Remote sensing of Italian volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianchi, R.; Casacchia, R.; Coradini, A.; Duncan, A. M.; Guest, J. E.; Kahle, A.; Lanciano, P.; Pieri, D. C.; Poscolieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a July 1986 remote sensing campaign of Italian volcanoes are reviewed. The equipment and techniques used to acquire the data are described and the results obtained for Campi Flegrei and Mount Etna are reviewed and evaluated for their usefulness for the study of active and recently active volcanoes.

  8. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.

  9. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  10. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.

  11. Groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping in a geologically complex area by using stable isotopes, remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, Elias; Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2006-11-01

    Groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping is a relatively new scientific approach for facilitating planning and decision making processes in order to protect this valuable resource. Pan European methodology for aquifers vulnerability has recently been developed by assessing all the existing relevant techniques and emphasizing on karstic environments. In the particular study, state-of-the-art methods and tools have been implemented such as remote sensing, isotopic investigations and GIS to map the groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk in a geologically complex area of W. Greece. The updated land use map has been developed from a Landsat 7+TM image elaborated with image analysis software, while the detailed hydrogeologic properties of the area have been recorded with an intensive isotopic study. The local groundwater vulnerability map has been produced following the aforementioned Pan European method, in a GIS environment while the risk map, which was the final product of the study, has been developed after combining the vulnerability and the land use maps. The results indicated that the areas comprised of highly tectonized calcareous formations represented high vulnerability and risk zones while forested areas away from the karstic aquifer illustrated moderate to low vulnerability. Moreover, human activities increase the pollution risk in lowland areas consisting of sedimentary deposits that have been classified as moderate vulnerability. The particular methodology operated efficiently in this study and due to its accuracy and relatively easy implementation can be used as a decision support tool for local authorities.

  12. Application of remote-sensing techniques to hydrologic studies in selected coal-mine areas of southeastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenny, J.F.; McCauley, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances resulting from intensive coal mining in the Cherry Creek basin of southeastern Kansas were investigated using color and color-infrared aerial photography in conjunction with water-quality data from simultaneously acquired samples. Imagery was used to identify the type and extent of vegetative cover on strip-mined lands and the extent and success of reclamation practices. Drainage patterns, point sources of acid mine drainage, and recharge areas for underground mines were located for onsite inspection. Comparison of these interpretations with water-quality data illustrated differences between the eastern and western parts of the Cherry Creek basin. Contamination in the eastern part is due largely to circulation of water from unreclaimed strip mines and collapse features through the network of underground mines and subsequent discharge of acidic drainage through seeps. Contamination in the western part is primarily caused by runoff and seepage from strip-mined lands in which surfaces have frequently been graded and limed but are generally devoid of mature stands of soil-anchoring vegetation. The successful use of aerial photography in the study of Cherry Creek basin indicates the potential of using remote-sensing techniques in studies of other coal-mined regions. (USGS)

  13. Monitoring the urban expansion of Athens using remote sensing and GIS techniques in the last 35 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Chalkias, Christos; Manou, Dora

    2005-10-01

    During the last thirty-five years the capital of Greece has suffered from an enormous internal immigration. Its population has overpassed the five millions and today almost the half population of Greece is squeezed in Athens metropolitan area. Because of the significant increase of population, the urban expansion in the basin of Athens was also excessive and in some cases catastrophic. Buildings have covered all the free places, new roads have been constructed, the drainage networks have been covered or disappeared and a lot of changes have been occurred to the landforms. The construction of the new airport (Elefterios Venizelos) at the beginning of this decade created a new commercial and urban pole at the eastern part of Athens and the constructive activity has been moved to new areas around the airport. Our aim was to detect and map all the changes that occurred in the urban area, estimate the urban expansion rate and the human interferences in the natural landscape, using GIS and remote sensing techniques. We have used satellite images from three different periods (1973, 1992, 2002) and topographic maps of 1:25.000 scale. The spatial resolution of all the satellite images ranges from 5 to 10 meters and is it acceptable for the monitoring and mapping of the urban growth. Supervised classification and on screen digitizing methods have been used in order to map the changes. Finally the qualitative and quantitative results of this study are presented in this paper.

  14. Assessment of the capability of remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring reclamation success in coal mine degraded lands.

    PubMed

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to monitor reclamation activity in mining areas. Monitoring of these reclaimed sites in the vicinity of mining areas and on closed Over Burden (OB) dumps is critical for improving the overall environmental condition, especially in developing countries where area around the mines are densely populated. The present study evaluated the reclamation success in the Block II area of Jharia coal field, India, using Landsat satellite images for the years 2000 and 2015. Four image processing methods (support vector machine, ratio vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, and normalized difference vegetation index) were used to quantify the change in vegetation cover between the years 2000 and 2015. The study also evaluated the relationship between vegetation health and moisture content of the study area using remote sensing techniques. Statistical linear regression analysis revealed that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) coupled with Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) is the best method for vegetation monitoring in the study area when compared to other indices. A strong linear relationship (r(2) > 0.86) was found between NDVI and NDMI. An increase of 21% from 213.88 ha in 2000 to 258.9 ha in 2015 was observed in the vegetation cover of the reclaimed sites for an open cast mine, indicating satisfactory reclamation activity. NDVI results indicated that vegetation health also improved over the years. PMID:27491028

  15. Comparison of data inversion techniques for remotely sensed wide-angle observations of Earth emitted radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The shape factor, parameter estimation, and deconvolution data analysis techniques were applied to the same set of Earth emitted radiation measurements to determine the effects of different techniques on the estimated radiation field. All three techniques are defined and their assumptions, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Their results are compared globally, zonally, regionally, and on a spatial spectrum basis. The standard deviations of the regional differences in the derived radiant exitance varied from 7.4 W-m/2 to 13.5 W-m/2.

  16. Techniques for the processing of remotely sensed imagery. [digital processing of satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, E. S.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1974-01-01

    The following techniques are considered for classifying low resolution satellite imagery: (1) Gradient operations; (2) histogram methods; (3) gray level detection; (4) frequency domain operations; (5) Hadamard transform in digital image matching; and (6) edge and line detection schemes.

  17. A new technique for remote sensing of O2 density from 140 to 180 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, James H.; Christensen, Andrew B.; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Crowley, Geoff; Bishop, Rebeeca L.; Budzien, Scott A.; Stephan, Andrew W.; Evans, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Observations of molecular oxygen are difficult to make in the Earth's atmosphere between 140 and 200 km altitude. Perhaps the most accurate measurements to date have been obtained from satellite instruments that measure solar occultations of the limb. These do provide height-resolved O2 density measurements, but the nature of this technique is such that the temporal/spatial distribution of the measurements is uneven. Here a new space-based technique is described that utilizes two bright dayglow emissions, the (0,0) transition of the O2 atmospheric band and the O I (630 nm), to derive the height-resolved O2 density from 140 to 180 km. Data from the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System, which was placed on the International Space Station in late 2009, are used to illustrate this technique. The O2 density results for periods in May 2010 that were geomagnetically quiet and disturbed are compared to model predictions.

  18. Computer-implemented remote sensing techniques for measuring coastal productivity and nutrient transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    An automatic technique has been developed to measure marsh plant production by inference from a species classification derived from Landsat MSS data. A separate computer technique has been developed to calculate the transport path length of detritus and nutrients from their point of origin in the marsh to the shoreline from Landsat data. A nutrient availability indicator, the ratio of production to transport path length, was derived for each marsh-identified Landsat cell. The use of a data base compatible with the Landsat format facilitated data handling and computations.

  19. An information system design for watershed-wide modeling of water loss to the atmosphere using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of a study intended to develop a general location-specific remote-sensing procedure for watershed-wide estimation of water loss to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. The general approach involves a stepwise sequence of required information definition (input data), appropriate sample design, mathematical modeling, and evaluation of results. More specifically, the remote sensing-aided system developed to evaluate evapotranspiration employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Based on the discussed design, documentation, and feasibility analysis to yield timely, relatively accurate, and cost-effective evapotranspiration estimates on a watershed or subwatershed basis, work is now proceeding to implement this remote sensing-aided system.

  20. High-Sensitivity Optical Techniques for Atmospheric Spectroscopy, Kinetics and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A principal objective of the work supported by this Grant has been to use IntraCavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (ICLAS) to acquire data on weakly absorbing species of atmospheric interest that are not accessible, or cannot be determined with sufficient precision, using conventional spectroscopic instrumentation. The principal focus has been to adapt the existing instrument to carry out Kinetic studies using IntraCavity Absorption Spectroscopy (KICAS) in order to measure rate parameters for weakly absorbing, environmentally significant species. Additional related work has been carried out in collaboration with Prof. M.J. Molina's program on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area on modeling the role of these species in atmospheric chemistry.

  1. Remote sensing techniques for mapping range sites and estimating range yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, L. A.; Frazee, C. J.; Waltz, F. A.; Reed, C.; Carey, R. L.; Gropper, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Image interpretation procedures for determining range yield and for extrapolating range information were investigated for an area of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in southwestern South Dakota. Soil and vegetative data collected in the field utilizing a grid sampling design and digital film data from color infrared film and black and white films were analyzed statistically using correlation and regression techniques. The pattern recognition techniques used were K-class, mode seeking, and thresholding. The herbage yield equation derived for the detailed test site was used to predict yield for an adjacent similar field. The herbage yield estimate for the adjacent field was 1744 lbs. of dry matter per acre and was favorably compared to the mean yield of 1830 lbs. of dry matter per acre based upon ground observations. Also an inverse relationship was observed between vegetative cover and the ratio of MSS 5 to MSS 7 of ERTS-1 imagery.

  2. A regression technique for evaluation and quantification for water quality parameters from remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The paper attempts to define optical physics and/or environmental conditions under which the linear multiple-regression should be applicable. It is reported that investigation of the signal response shows that the exact solution for a number of optical physics conditions is of the same form as a linearized multiple-regression equation, even if nonlinear contributions from surface reflections, atmospheric constituents, or other water pollutants are included. Limitations on achieving this type of solution are defined. Laboratory data are used to demonstrate that the technique is applicable to water mixtures which contain constituents with both linear and nonlinear radiance gradients. Finally, it is concluded that instrument noise, ground-truth placement, and time lapse between remote sensor overpass and water sample operations are serious barriers to successful use of the technique.

  3. Research and development of web oriented remote sensing image publication system based on Servlet technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanle, Wang; Shuang, Li; Yunqiang, Zhu

    2005-10-01

    According to the requirements of China National Scientific Data Sharing Program (NSDSP), the research and development of web oriented RS Image Publication System (RSIPS) is based on Java Servlet technique. The designing of RSIPS framework is composed of 3 tiers, which is Presentation Tier, Application Service Tier and Data Resource Tier. Presentation Tier provides user interface for data query, review and download. For the convenience of users, visual spatial query interface is included. Served as a middle tier, Application Service Tier controls all actions between users and databases. Data Resources Tier stores RS images in file and relationship databases. RSIPS is developed with cross platform programming based on Java Servlet tools, which is one of advanced techniques in J2EE architecture. RSIPS's prototype has been developed and applied in the geosciences clearinghouse practice which is among the experiment units of NSDSP in China.

  4. Evaluation of remote sensing and automatic data techniques for characterization of wetlands. [Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartmill, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    This investigation has been conducted in the Atchafalaya River Basin of South Central Louisiana. This is a humid area of heavily forested swamps with a large volume of flow mostly from a diversion of the lower Mississippi River. Techniques to obtain enlarged imagery from computer compatible tapes of ERTS data without photographic enlargement is explained and illustrated. Techniques of extraction of environmental information from single bands and multiband pattern recognition procedures are explained and evaluated. A comparison of pattern recognition classifications of the Atchafalaya Basin by aircraft multispectral scanner and ERTS MSS data is made. Data for this comparison were gathered within three weeks of each other in the winter of 1973. Scorecards of the accuracy of the classifications are presented. Recommendations are made concerning the utilization of each sensor platform to perform specific tasks of wetlands characterization.

  5. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  6. A preliminary study of air-pollution measurement by active remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.; Proctor, E. K.; Gasiorek, L. S.; Liston, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollutants are identified, and the needs for their measurement from satellites and aircraft are discussed. An assessment is made of the properties of these pollutants and of the normal atmosphere, including interactions with light of various wavelengths and the resulting effects on transmission and scattering of optical signals. The possible methods for active remote measurement are described; the relative performance capabilities of double-ended and single-ended systems are compared qualitatively; and the capabilities of the several single-ended or backscattering techniques are compared quantitatively. The differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is shown to be superior to the other backscattering techniques. The lidar system parameters and their relationships to the environmental factors and the properties of pollutants are examined in detail. A computer program that models both the atmosphere (including pollutants) and the lidar system is described. The performance capabilities of present and future lidar components are assessed, and projections are made of prospective measurement capabilities for future lidar systems. Following a discussion of some important operational factors that affect both the design and measurement capabilities of airborne and satellite-based lidar systems, the extensive analytical results obtained through more than 1000 individual cases analyzed with the aid of the computer program are summarized and discussed. The conclusions are presented. Recommendations are also made for additional studies to investigate cases that could not be explored adequately during this study.

  7. Structural Analysis for Gold Mineralization Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Techniques in a GIS Environment: Island of Lesvos, Hellas

    SciTech Connect

    Rokos, D. Argialas, D. Mavrantza, R. St Seymour, K.; Vamvoukakis, C.; Kouli, M.; Lamera, S.; Paraskevas, H.; Karfakis, I.; Denes, G

    2000-12-15

    Exploration for epithermal Au has been active lately in the Aegean Sea of the eastern Mediterranean Basin, both in the islands of the Quaternary arc and in those of the back-arc region. The purpose of this study was the structural mapping and analysis for a preliminary investigation of possible epithermal gold mineralization, using remotely sensed data and techniques, structural and field data, and geochemical information, for a specific area on the Island of Lesvos. Therefore, Landsat-TM and SPOT-Pan satellite images and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were processed digitally using spatial filtering techniques for the enhancement and recognition of the geologically significant lineaments, as well as algebraic operations with band ratios and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the identification of alteration zones. Statistical rose diagrams and a SCHMIDT projection Stereo Net were generated from the lineament maps and the collected field data (dip and strike measurements of faults, joints, and veins), respectively. The derived lineament map and the band ratio images were manipulated in a GIS environment, in order to study the relation of the tectonic pattern to both the alteration zoning and the geomorphology of the volcanic field of the study area. Target areas of high interest for possible mineralization also were specified using geochemical techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, trace-element, and fluid-inclusion analysis. Finally, preliminary conclusions were derived about possible mineralization, the type (high or low sulfidation), and the extent of mineralization, by combining the structural information with geochemical information.

  8. a Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Urban Heat Island in Basin City Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsiao-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  9. Surface soil humidity retrieval using remote sensing techniques: a triangle method validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, Antonino; Cammalleri, Carmelo; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2010-10-01

    Soil humidity plays a key-role in hydrological and agricultural processes. In the rainfall-runoff processes the knowledge of its spatial distribution is fundamental to accurately model these phenomena. Furthermore in agronomy and agricultural sciences, assessing the water content of the root zone is required in order to optimize the plant productivity and to improve the irrigation systems management. Despite the importance of this variable the in situ measurements techniques based on Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) or on the standard thermo-gravimetric methods, are neither cost-effective nor representative of its spatial and temporal variability. Indirect estimations via Earth Observation (EO) images include the triangle method, which shows that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is prevalently controlled by surface and root zone humidity in bare and vegetated soils respectively. The effects of pre-processing techniques correcting for altimetry and seasonality are analyzed by means of shortwave and longwave airborne images acquired on a vineyard during a whole phenological period. The paper also discusses the advantages induced by replacing the absolute temperatures with relative values, that were obtained subtracting the temperatures measured by micrometeorological station or the surface temperature of high thermal inertia surfaces (as small irrigation reservoir) chosen as reference values. The validation with in situ data also highlights that a higher spatial resolution not necessarily imply a higher accuracy.

  10. Current research in geological applications of remote sensing techniques and implications for petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Settle, M.; Taranik, J.V.

    1983-03-01

    Exploration geologists have made extensive use of aerial photography and orbital Landsat imagery, primarily for purposes of structural mapping. The Landsat 4 spacecraft launched in July 1982 is carrying a new imaging instrument called the Thematic Mapper which represents a significant advance over earlier Landsat sensors. Experimental studies with airborne Thematic Mapper simulators tentatively indicate that these measurement capabilities will have a major payoff in terms of our ability to detect variations in clay mineralogy and abundance, to map bleaching effects in surficial rocks and soils that may be produced by hydrocarbon seepage, and to detect variations in the distribution and vigor of natural vegetation that are also related to seepage phenomena. The improved spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper will enable photogeologists to identify smaller scale landforms and drainage features which will also contribute to improved structural mapping capabilities. Research is currently underway to determine the utility of Thematic Mapper measurements for geologic mapping in complex areas characterized by large relief and extensive vegetation. Radar imaging techniques also represent an important source of information concerning geological conditions at the earth's surface. Exploration geologists have made extensive use of airborne radar surveys for terrain analysis and structural mapping, particularly in tropical environments. Orbital radar techniques may provide an important new tool for mapping facies variations within sedimentary basins.