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Sample records for adaptive short forms

  1. Efficiency of static and computer adaptive short forms compared to full-length measures of depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Hays, Ron D.; Cella, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Short-form patient-reported outcome measures are popular because they minimize patient burden. We assessed the efficiency of static short forms and computer adaptive testing (CAT) using data from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) project. Methods We evaluated the 28-item PROMIS depressive symptoms bank. We used post hoc simulations based on the PROMIS calibration sample to compare several short-form selection strategies and the PROMIS CAT to the total item bank score. Results Compared with full-bank scores, all short forms and CAT produced highly correlated scores, but CAT outperformed each static short form in almost all criteria. However, short-form selection strategies performed only marginally worse than CAT. The performance gap observed in static forms was reduced by using a two-stage branching test format. Conclusions Using several polytomous items in a calibrated unidimensional bank to measure depressive symptoms yielded a CAT that provided marginally superior efficiency compared to static short forms. The efficiency of a two-stage semi-adaptive testing strategy was so close to CAT that it warrants further consideration and study. PMID:19941077

  2. Short-Forms of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) for Self- and Collateral Ratings: Development, Reliability, and Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan, Elena; Clark, Lee Anna

    1999-01-01

    Reports the development of a paragraph-descriptor short form of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP); (L. Clark, 1993) with self- and other versions. Data from 294 college students, with parental ratings for 94 students, support the reliability and validity of the measure. (SLD)

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish version of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical function Short-form (HOOS-PS).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Gul, Ebru Demir; Bodur, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical function Short-form (HOOS-PS) to Turkish language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. After the translation from the source language (English) to the target language (Turkish), synthesis, back translation, revision, and pretest stages were done. Next, 50 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were asked to fill out the Turkish version of the HOOS-PS two times with one week interval. Internal consistency was tested using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was investigated by comparing the results of the HOOS-PS and WOMAC, Lequesne questionnaries using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was good with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.778 (>0.7) and ICC was 0.911 (>0.7). Both scores verify that the Turkish HOOS-PS is a reliable tool. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the HOOS-PS and overall WOMAC (r = 0.653), WOMAC physical functions (r = 0.626), WOMAC pain (r = 0.629) subscales, overall Lequesne (r = 0.650), and Lequesne daily living activities (r = 0.620) subscales were high (r > 0.6), and moderate correlations were found between the HOOS-PS and WOMAC stiffness (r = 0.511), Lequesne pain (r = 0.569), and Lequesne-walking distance (r = 0.578) subscales (0.6 > r > 0.2), thus providing proof for the validity of the Turkish form. The Turkish HOOS-PS was found to be reliable and valid for patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. PMID:24026527

  4. Cultural adaptation and validation of the “Kidney Disease and Quality of Life - Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) version 1.3” questionnaire in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) instruments need disease and country specific validation. In Arab countries, there is no specific validated questionnaire for assessment of HRQOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of this study was to present an Arabic translation, adaptation, and the subsequent validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form (KDQOL-SFTM) version 1.3 questionnaire in a representative series of Egyptian CKD patients. Methods KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 was translated into Arabic by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities were reconciled, the final Arabic questionnaire was tested by interviewing 100 pre-dialysis CKD (stage 1-4) patients randomly selected from outpatients attending the Nephrology clinic at the Main Alexandria University Hospital. Test re-test reliability was performed, with a subsample of 50 consecutive CKD patients, by two interviews 7 days apart and internal consistency estimated by Cronbach’s α. Discriminant, concept, and construct validity were assessed. Results All items of SF-36 met the criterion for internal consistency and were reproducible. Of the 10 kidney disease targeted scales, only three had Cronbach’s α <0.7: quality of social interaction (0.23), work status (0.28), and cognitive function (0.60). All disease specific scales were reproducible. Results from discriminant validity showed that the study questionnaire could discriminate between patients’ subgroups. As for concept validity, the correlation between all domains of the questionnaire with overall health ratewas significant for all domains except for the work status, sexual function, emotional wellbeing, and role emotional. Furthermore, the correlation between the disease specific domains and the two composite summaries of SF-36 (physical and mental composite summaries) was significant for all domains except for sexual function with mental composite

  5. Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.; Einfeld, Stewart L.; Dekker, Marielle C.; Koot, Hans M.; Emerson, Eric; Koskentausta, Terhi; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2007-01-01

    A 24-item short form of the 96-item Developmental Behaviour Checklist was developed to provide a brief measure of Total Behaviour Problem Score for research purposes. The short form Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC-P24) was chosen for low bias and high precision from among 100 randomly selected item sets. The DBC-P24 was developed from…

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the short-form condom attitude scale: validity assessment in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    properties for assessing attitudes toward condom use. Validated scale is a short, simple and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes towards condom use in vulnerable populations like current study sample. This culturally-customized scale can be used to monitor the progress of condom uptake and promotion activities in Bangladesh or similar settings. PMID:23510383

  7. 28 CFR 5.202 - Short form registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short form registration statement. 5.202... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.202 Short form registration statement. (a) Except as... a short form registration statement. (b) A partner, officer, director, associate, employee, or...

  8. 28 CFR 5.202 - Short form registration statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short form registration statement. 5.202... AGENTS REGISTRATION ACT OF 1938, AS AMENDED § 5.202 Short form registration statement. (a) Except as... a short form registration statement. (b) A partner, officer, director, associate, employee, or...

  9. Measurement Properties of the Spinal Cord Injury-Functional Index (SCI-FI) Short Forms

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Ni, Pengsheng; Tulsky, David S.; Jette, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index (SCI-FI) short forms (Basic Mobility, Self-Care, Fine Motor, Ambulation, Manual Wheelchair, and Power Wheelchair) based on internal consistency, correlations between short- and full item bank forms, and a 10-item compute adaptive test version, magnitude of ceiling and floor effects, and test information functions. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Participants 855 individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury recruited from 6 National Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems facilities. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures SCI-FI full item bank, 10-item computer adaptive test, and parallel short form scores. Results The SCI-FI short forms (with separate versions for individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia) demonstrate very good internal consistency, group-level reliability, excellent correlations between short forms and scores based on the total item bank, minimal ceiling and floor effects (except ceiling effects for persons with paraplegia on Self-Care, Fine Motor and Power Wheelchair ability, and floor effects for persons with tetraplegia on Self-Care, Fine Motor and Manual Wheelchair ability). The test information functions are acceptable across the range of scores where most persons in the sample performed. Conclusions clinicians and researchers should consider the SCI-FI short forms when computer adaptive testing is not feasible. PMID:24602551

  10. Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Karaolanis, Georgios; Pentazos, Panagiotis; Ladopoulos, Alexios; Papageorgiou, Evaggelos

    2015-06-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a clinical entity that includes loss of energy, fluid, electrolytes or micronutrient balance because of inadequate functional intestinal length. This case report demonstrates the case of a woman who compensated for short bowel syndrome through intestinal adaptation, which is a complex process worthy of further investigation for the avoidance of dependence on total parenteral nutrition and of intestinal transplantation in such patients. PMID:26206429

  11. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Short Form Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Short Form Disclosures A Appendix A to Part 37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEBT CANCELLATION CONTRACTS AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Short Form Disclosures •...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Short Form Disclosures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Short Form Disclosures A Appendix A to Part 37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEBT CANCELLATION CONTRACTS AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Short Form Disclosures •...

  13. Short-Form Philadelphia Naming Test: Rationale and Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create two matched short forms of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996) that yield similar results to the PNT for measuring anomia. Method: In Study 1, archived naming data from 94 individuals with aphasia were used to identify which PNT items should be included in the short forms. The 2…

  14. 48 CFR 53.301-1438 - Settlement Proposal (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement Proposal (Short Form). 53.301-1438 Section 53.301-1438 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1438 Settlement Proposal...

  15. 48 CFR 53.301-1438 - Settlement Proposal (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Settlement Proposal (Short Form). 53.301-1438 Section 53.301-1438 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1438 Settlement Proposal...

  16. Optimal Short Forms of the Spanish WAIS (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demsky, Yvonne; Gass, Carlton; Edwards, William T.; Golden, Charles J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated optimal two-, three-, four-, and five-test short forms of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), the Spanish form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1956). Results with 616 adults suggest that use of the EIWA should be limited to research and tracking cognitive changes over time. (SLD)

  17. A Short-Form Measure of Dentists' Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, Donna J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A 14-item instrument, the Dentist Satisfaction Survey-14, a form of a previously validated instrument, is described. Use with 522 dentists, and 29 in a follow-up, indicates that the short form is a parsimonious tool for general evaluation of dentists' job satisfaction. (SLD)

  18. NASA Safety and Health (Short Form). Final rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This final rule adopts with changes the interim rule published in the Federal Register on April 5, 2001 (65 FR 18051-18053), which amended the NASA FAR Supplement to implement a Safety and Health (Short Form) clause to address safety and occupational health in all NASA contracts above the micro-purchase threshold where the existing Safety and Health clause did not apply, and amended other safety and health clauses to be consistent with the new NASA Safety and Health (Short Form) clause.

  19. Development of a short form of the elemental psychopathy assessment.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Sherman, Emily D; Samuel, Douglas; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA) is a 178-item self-report measure designed to assess the basic elements of psychopathy from a Five-Factor Model perspective: Anger, Arrogance, Callousness, Coldness, Disobliged, Distrust, Dominance, Impersistence, Invulnerable, Manipulation, Opposition, Rashness, Self-Assurance, Self-Centered, Self-Contentment, Thrill-Seeking, Unconcern, and Urgency. The present article reports on the development of a short-form version of the EPA in two large undergraduate samples using item response theory. The validity of the resultant, 72-item, item response theory-derived short form is compared against the validity for the full scale in the undergraduate samples and smaller forensic sample. Results indicate that the 18 subscales of the EPA short form remain relatively reliable, possess an internal structure virtually identical to the full version, and manifest highly similar correlational profiles to a variety of criterion measures. The EPA short form is offered as a viable assessment of psychopathy when assessment time is limited. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23996849

  20. Rasch Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Karl S.; Green, Kathy E.; Cox, Enid O.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine scale dimensionality, reliability, invariance, targeting, continuity, cutoff scores, and diagnostic use of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) over time with a sample of 177 English-speaking U.S. elders. Design and Methods: An item response theory, Rasch analysis, was conducted with…

  1. WISC-R Short Forms: Long on Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Thomas A.; Tramontana, Michael G.

    To examine the validity of short forms of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), the WISC-R was first administered to 106 hospitalized psychiatric patients, aged 8-16. No subjects had a primary diagnosis of mental retardation or learning disability, and one-third were receiving psychotropic medication. WISC-R IQ scores…

  2. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--China Form: Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xixi; Li, Xu; Xu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--China Form consists of four subscales, with six items each to measure Concern, Control, Curiosity, and Confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. This study investigated the construction and validation of its Chinese Form. Results…

  3. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Taiwan Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Wang, Yu-Chen; Chu, Hui-Chuang; Huang, Tsu-Lun

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Career Adapt-Ability Scale--Taiwan Form (CAAS-Taiwan Form). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal…

  4. Short form Philadelphia Naming Test: Rationale and Empirical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To create two matched short forms of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT) that yield similar results to the PNT for measuring anomia. Methods Study 1: We first used archived naming data from 94 aphasic individuals to identify which PNT items should be included in the short forms, and the two constructed sets of 30 items, PNT30-A and PNT30-B, were validated using archived data from a separate group of 56 aphasic individuals. Study 2: We then evaluated the reliability of the PNT, PNT30-A, and PNT30-B across independent test administrations with a new group of 25 aphasic individuals selected to represent the full range of naming impairment. Results Study 1: PNT30-A and PNT30-B were found to be internally consistent; and accuracy scores on these subsets of items were highly correlated with the full PNT. Study 2: PNT accuracy was extremely reliable over the span of one week; and independent administrations of PNT30-A and PNT30-B produced similar results to the PNT and to each other. Conclusions The short forms can be used to reliably estimate PNT performance, and the results can be compared to the provided norms. The two matched tests allow for measurement of change in naming ability. PMID:22294412

  5. Validation of an Adapted French Form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in Four Francophone Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Claire S.; Broonen, Jean-Paul; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Hamtiaux, Armanda; Pouyaud, Jacques; Zecca, Gregory; Houssemand, Claude; Rossier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the validation of a French version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in four Francophone countries. The aim was to re-analyze the item selection and then compare this newly developed French-language form with the international form 2.0. Exploratory factor analysis was used as a tool for item selection, and confirmatory factor…

  6. Free energy landscapes of short peptide chains using adaptively biased molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpusenka, Vadzim; Babin, Volodymyr; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste

    2009-03-01

    We present the results of a computational study of the free energy landscapes of short polypeptide chains, as a function of several reaction coordinates meant to distinguish between several known types of helices. The free energy landscapes were calculated using the recently developed adaptively biased molecular dynamics method followed up with equilibrium ``umbrella correction'' runs. Specific polypeptides investigated include small chains of pure and mixed alanine, glutamate, leucine, lysine and methionine (all amino acids with strong helix-forming propensities), as well as glycine, proline(having a low helix forming propensities), tyrosine, serine and arginine. Our results are consistent with the existing experimental and other theoretical evidence.

  7. Use of Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 among Tibial Fracture Patients was Redundant

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores among patients undergoing operative management of tibial fractures. Study Design and Setting Between July 2000 and September 2005, we enrolled 1319 skeletally mature patients with open or closed fractures of the tibial shaft that were managed with intramedullary nailing. Patients were asked to complete the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment and Short Form-36 at discharge and 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. Results Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were highly correlated at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgical fixation. The difference in mean standardized change scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary, from 3 to 12 months post-surgical fixation, was not statistically significant. Both the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary scores were able to discriminate between healed and non-healed tibial fractures at 3, 6, and 12 months post surgery. Conclusion In patients with tibial shaft fractures, the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Dysfunction Index offered no important advantages over the Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary score. These results, along with the usefulness of the Short Form-36 for comparing populations, recommends the Short Form-36 for assessing physical function in studies of patients with tibial fractures. PMID:19364637

  8. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Marco Antonio Pereira; Bardagi, Marucia Patta; Lassance, Maria Celia Pacheco; Magalhaes, Mauro de Oliveira; Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form (CAASBrazil) consists of four scales which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The…

  9. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: Psychometric Characteristics and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dries, Nicky; Van Esbroeck, Raoul; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; De Cooman, Rein; Pepermans, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot survey was administered to 700 high school,…

  10. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-USA Form: Psychometric Properties and Relation to Vocational Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports construction and initial validation of the United States form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas.…

  11. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  12. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Icelandic Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…

  13. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Korea Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Korea Form consists of four subscales, each with six items. The subscales measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  14. Adaptive optics for ultra short pulsed lasers in UHV environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, Francois; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed an electro-mechanical deformable mirror compatible with Ultra High Vacuum environment, suitable for ultra short pulsed lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations. μ-AME actuators are driven by stepper motors, and their patented special design allows controlling the force with a very high accuracy. Materials and assembly method have been adapted to UHV constraints and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for standard MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The deformable mirror design allows changing easily an actuator or even the membrane if needed, in order to improve the facility availability. They are designed for circular, square or elliptical aperture from 30mm up to 500mm or more, with incidence angle from 0° to 45°. They can be equipped with passive or active cooling for high power lasers with high repetition rate.

  15. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Multiple-Form Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Jones, Douglas H.; Koppel, Nicole B.; Pashley, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    A multiple-form structure (MFS) is an ordered collection or network of testlets (i.e., sets of items). An examinee's progression through the network of testlets is dictated by the correctness of an examinee's answers, thereby adapting the test to his or her trait level. The collection of paths through the network yields the set of all possible…

  16. The Turkish Adaptation of the Burnout Measure-Short Version (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Version (CBMS) and the Relationship between Career and Couple Burnout Based on Psychoanalytic-Existential Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capri, Burhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to carry out the Turkish adaptation, validity, and reliability studies of Burnout Measure-Short Form (BMS) and Couple Burnout Measure-Short Form (CBMS) and also to analyze the correlation between the careers and couple burnout scores of the participants from the psychoanalytic-existential perspective. This research…

  17. A Short Form of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children.

    PubMed

    Wherry, Jeffrey N; Huffhines, Lindsay P; Walisky, Desiree N

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a short form (SF) of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The TSCC-SF) maintained 29 items, from the original 54 items, in a sample (N = 215) of sexually abused children who were seeking treatment at a child advocacy center. Exploratory factor analysis refined the original measure, and confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence for best fit for a six-factor, 29-item model. The TSCC-SF evidenced good internal reliability and showed convergent validity with child ratings of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms obtained from the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index. The TSCC-SF has promise as a shorter assessment measure with sexually abused children in numerous settings, including child advocacy centers and pediatric clinics, where efficient screening and assessment are essential for providing the best standard of care. PMID:26655211

  18. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  19. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  20. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  1. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  2. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  3. 7 CFR 3015.156 - Application for Federal assistance (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for Federal assistance (short form). 3015... Application for Federal Assistance § 3015.156 Application for Federal assistance (short form). Governments shall use the Application for Federal Assistance (Short Form) form prescribed by Circular A-102...

  4. 7 CFR 3015.156 - Application for Federal assistance (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application for Federal assistance (short form). 3015... Application for Federal Assistance § 3015.156 Application for Federal assistance (short form). Governments shall use the Application for Federal Assistance (Short Form) form prescribed by Circular A-102...

  5. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  6. 48 CFR 52.246-9 - Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Development (Short Form). 52.246-9 Section 52.246-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.246-9 Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form). As prescribed in 46.309, insert the following clause: Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form) (APR 1984) The Government has...

  7. 48 CFR 46.309 - Research and development contracts (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts (short form). 46.309 Section 46.309 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... (short form). The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-9, Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form), in solicitations and contracts for research and development when the...

  8. 48 CFR 46.309 - Research and development contracts (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contracts (short form). 46.309 Section 46.309 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... (short form). The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-9, Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form), in solicitations and contracts for research and development when the...

  9. 48 CFR 52.249-4 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form). 52.249-4 Section 52.249-4 Federal Acquisition... (Services) (Short Form). As prescribed in 49.502(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and... termination: Termination for Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form) (APR 1984) The...

  10. 48 CFR 52.246-9 - Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Development (Short Form). 52.246-9 Section 52.246-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.246-9 Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form). As prescribed in 46.309, insert the following clause: Inspection of Research and Development (Short Form) (APR 1984) The Government has...

  11. 78 FR 67397 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Short-Form...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Short-Form Registration Statement... Collection: Extension of a currently approved information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Short... capacity, file a short-form registration statement. (5) An estimate of the total number of respondents...

  12. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  13. The Adaptation of Short Stories into Screenplays: A Language Arts Program for the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulis, Chris

    1984-01-01

    A summer English class for gifted fifth- through eighth-grade students was designed to allow students to interact with literature by adapting short-stories into plays that the students then produced, performed, and filmed. During the prewriting phase, students discussed qualities most essential to a story or film, and compared a short story with…

  14. Development and psychometric analysis of the student–teacher relationship scale – short form

    PubMed Central

    Settanni, Michele; Longobardi, Claudio; Sclavo, Erica; Fraire, Michela; Prino, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the construction and validation of an Italian Short Form version of the Student–Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; Fraire et al., 2013). The analyses were conducted on 1256 students and 210 teachers. The STRS is a self-report measure assessing teachers’ perception of the quality of their relationship with students ranging from preschool to third grade. The items were selected from the original Italian adaptation of the regular STRS (Pianta, 2001) through Rasch (1960/1980) analysis, which allowed us to identify a subset of items with proven psychometric properties. The STRS-SF consists of two subscales: Conflict (eight items) and Closeness (six items). Results indicate that the 14-item instrument shows good internal consistency (α>0.80), high correlations with the scales from the regular STRS (r > 0.90) and equivalence across gender. PMID:26167156

  15. Development of a short form of the driving anger expression inventory.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Amanda N; Sullman, Mark J M

    2014-11-01

    The present study developed a revised version of the driving anger expression inventory (25-items) and a short (15-item) version using data from 551 drivers. Split half factor analyses on both versions confirmed the original four factors; personal physical aggressive expression, use of a vehicle to express anger, verbal aggressive expression and adaptive/constructive expression. The two DAX versions were strongly correlated, demonstrating the suitability of both forms of the scale and the aggressive forms of expression were higher for drivers who reported initiating road rage interactions. Total aggressive expression was also higher for drivers who reported recent crash-related conditions, such as: loss of concentration, losing control of their vehicle, moving violations, near-misses and major crashes. The revised DAX and DAX-short provide shorter versions of the 49-item DAX that can more easily be combined with other questionnaires and require smaller sample sizes to analyse. Further research is required to validate these tools among different samples and populations. PMID:25058842

  16. 77 FR 38061 - Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Supplemental Short-Form Instructions and Other Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Notice, 77 FR 32092, May 31, 2012, the Bureaus provided general instructions for completing FCC Form 180... COMMISSION Mobility Fund Phase I Auction Supplemental Short-Form Instructions and Other Information AGENCY... provide other information regarding Auction 901. DATES: Short-Form applications are due prior to 6 p.m....

  17. Development of an adaptive online fuzzy arbitrator for forecasting short-term natural gas usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Richard James, Jr.

    2001-07-01

    The focus of the work is on the development and utilization of a self-assembling Fuzzy logic controller for the purpose of improving short term natural gas load forecasts generated by artificial neural networks (ANN) and linear regression (LR) models. The approach is to form a matrix of dynamic post processors (DPP), composed of ARMAX models, which use load estimates generated by ANNs and LRs as inputs. The problem is to then determine the performance of each DPP under different operating conditions, and to generate a final load estimate using a Fuzzy logic controller. The contributions of this research are as follows. First, as part of a residuals analysis, prefiltering and nonlinear transforms are explored for the purpose of increasing the correlation of environmental input factors with gas load, while decreasing multicollinearity. This has the effect of reducing the covariance of model parameters and increasing forecast confidence. The result of this analysis will be used to develop ARMAX models to postfilter the ANN and LR forecast model estimates. The gas operating regions will be characterized by an adaptive clustering algorithm that will partition operating conditions into distinct patterns with unique consumption characteristics. Finally, an adaptive online Fuzzy controller identifies the characteristics of each DPP under different operating conditions, and generates a weighted average of the DPP estimators to produce the final gas load estimate.

  18. Accuracy of Short Forms of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence: Third Edition.

    PubMed

    Hurks, Petra; Hendriksen, Jos; Dek, Joelle; Kooij, Andress

    2016-04-01

    This article investigated the accuracy of six short forms of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third edition (WPPSI-III-NL) in estimating intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in healthy children aged 4 to 7 years (N = 1,037). Overall, accuracy for each short form was studied, comparing IQ equivalences based on the short forms with the original WPPSI-III-NL Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores. Next, our sample was divided into three groups: children performing below average, average, or above average, based on the WPPSI-III-NL FSIQ estimates of the original long form, to study the accuracy of WPPSI-III-NL short forms at the tails of the FSIQ distribution. While studying the entire sample, all IQ estimates of the WPPSI-III-NL short forms correlated highly with the FSIQ estimates of the original long form (all rs ≥ .83). Correlations decreased significantly while studying only the tails of the IQ distribution (rs varied between .55 and .83). Furthermore, IQ estimates of the short forms deviated significantly from the FSIQ score of the original long form, when the IQ estimates were based on short forms containing only two subtests. In contrast, unlike the short forms that contained two to four subtests, the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence short form (containing the subtests Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning) and the General Ability Index short form (containing the subtests Vocabulary, Similarities, Comprehension, Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concepts) produced less variations when compared with the original FSIQ score. PMID:25804438

  19. Developing an item bank and short forms that assess the impact of asthma on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian D; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Eberhart, Nicole K; Lara, Marielena

    2014-02-01

    The present work describes the process of developing an item bank and short forms that measure the impact of asthma on quality of life (QoL) that avoids confounding QoL with asthma symptomatology and functional impairment. Using a diverse national sample of adults with asthma (N = 2032) we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and item response theory and differential item functioning analyses to develop a 65-item unidimensional item bank and separate short form assessments. A psychometric evaluation of the RAND Impact of Asthma on QoL item bank (RAND-IAQL) suggests that though the concept of asthma impact on QoL is multi-faceted, it may be measured as a single underlying construct. The performance of the bank was then evaluated with a real-data simulated computer adaptive test. From the RAND-IAQL item bank we then developed two short forms consisting of 4 and 12 items (reliability = 0.86 and 0.93, respectively). A real-data simulated computer adaptive test suggests that as few as 4-5 items from the bank are needed to obtain highly precise scores. Preliminary validity results indicate that the RAND-IAQL measures distinguish between levels of asthma control. To measure the impact of asthma on QoL, users of these items may choose from two highly reliable short forms, computer adaptive test administration, or content-specific subsets of items from the bank tailored to their specific needs. PMID:24411842

  20. Short-term adaptation of the VOR: non-retinal-slip error signals and saccade substitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggers, Sscott D Z.; De Pennington, Nick; Walker, Mark F.; Shelhamer, Mark; Zee, David S.

    2003-01-01

    We studied short-term (30 min) adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in five normal humans using a "position error" stimulus without retinal image motion. Both before and after adaptation a velocity gain (peak slow-phase eye velocity/peak head velocity) and a position gain (total eye movement during chair rotation/amplitude of chair motion) were measured in darkness using search coils. The vestibular stimulus was a brief ( approximately 700 ms), 15 degrees chair rotation in darkness (peak velocity 43 degrees /s). To elicit adaptation, a straight-ahead fixation target disappeared during chair movement and when the chair stopped the target reappeared at a new location in front of the subject for gain-decrease (x0) adaptation, or 10 degrees opposite to chair motion for gain-increase (x1.67) adaptation. This position-error stimulus was effective at inducing VOR adaptation, though for gain-increase adaptation the primary strategy was to substitute augmenting saccades during rotation while for gain-decrease adaptation both corrective saccades and a decrease in slow-phase velocity occurred. Finally, the presence of the position-error signal alone, at the end of head rotation, without any attempt to fix upon it, was not sufficient to induce adaptation. Adaptation did occur, however, if the subject did make a saccade to the target after head rotation, or even if the subject paid attention to the new location of the target without actually looking at it.

  1. 48 CFR 46.309 - Research and development contracts (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research and development contracts (short form). 46.309 Section 46.309 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.309 Research and development contracts (short form). The contracting...

  2. Test-Retest Reproducibility of Two Short-Form Balance Measures Used in Individuals with Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Jau-Hong; Lo, Sing-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the test-retest reproducibility of the seven-item Short-Form Berg Balance Scale (SFBBS) and the five-item Short-Form Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SFPASS) in individuals with chronic stroke. Fifty-two chronic stroke patients from two rehabilitation departments were included in the study. Both…

  3. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  4. 48 CFR 52.249-4 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form). 52.249-4 Section 52.249-4 Federal Acquisition... termination: Termination for Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form) (APR 1984) The Contracting... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.249-4 Termination for Convenience of the...

  5. Development and Validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire, or DMQ-R SF, data from a second national sample…

  6. The School Short-Form Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory: Revised and Improved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter R.; Francis, Leslie J.; Jennings, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    The school short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory is a widely used measure of children's global self-esteem. Unlike the full-length scale, however, it has been generally understood that the short form does not allow differentiation between the major individual sources of self-esteem. The present study has examined the internal…

  7. A Comparison of Six MMPI Short Forms: Code Type Correspondence and Indices of Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcockson, James C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared six Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) short forms with the full-length MMPI for ability to identify code-types and indices of psychopathology in renal dialysis patients (N=53) and paranoid schizophrenics (N=58). Results suggested that the accuracy of the short forms fluctuates for different patient populations and…

  8. Item Selection for the Development of Short Forms of Scales Using an Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Huang, I-Chan; Marcoulides, George A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the use of an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm for the development of short forms of scales. An example 22-item short form is developed for the Diabetes-39 scale, a quality-of-life scale for diabetes patients, using a sample of 265 diabetes patients. A simulation study comparing the performance of the ACO algorithm and…

  9. Development and Validation of a Rasch-Derived CES-D Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jason C.; Rabin, Adele S.; Smith, Tom L.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2004-01-01

    The current study presents a Rasch-derived short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) for use as a depression screening tool in the general population. In contrast to short forms developed with reliance on classical measurement techniques, those developed using techniques based on item response theory produce a…

  10. Short forms of the Texas Social Behavior Inventory /TSBI/, an objective measure of self-esteem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R.; Stapp, J.

    1974-01-01

    Two short (16 item) forms of the Helmreich, Stapp, and Ervin (1974) Texas Social Behavior Inventory, a validated, objective measure of self-esteem or social competence are presented. Normative data and other statistics are described for males and females. Correlations between each short form and long (32-item) scale were .97. Factor analysis and part-whole correlations verified the similarity of the two forms. The utility of the scale in research is described.

  11. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Netherlands Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Ability, Personality, and Regulatory Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Koen, Jessie; Dries, Nicky

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Netherlands Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  12. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form). 1852.227-11 Section 1852.227-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-11 Patent Rights—Retention by the Contractor (Short...

  13. Second Graders Learn Animal Adaptations through Form and Function Analogy Object Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Baldwin, Samantha; Schell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of form and function analogy object boxes to teach second graders (n = 21) animal adaptations. The study used a pretest-posttest design to examine animal adaptation content learned through focused analogy activities as compared with reading and Internet searches for information about adaptations of animals followed by…

  14. Tradeoff between short-term and long-term adaptation in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Forster, Robert; Wilke, Claus O

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the competition dynamics of two microbial or viral strains that live in an environment that switches periodically between two states. One of the strains is adapted to the long-term environment, but pays a short-term cost, while the other is adapted to the short-term environment and pays a cost in the long term. We explore the tradeoff between these alternative strategies in extensive numerical simulations and present a simple analytic model that can predict the outcome of these competitions as a function of the mutation rate and the time scale of the environmental changes. Our model is relevant for arboviruses, which alternate between different host species on a regular basis. PMID:16383435

  15. A New Method for Estimating the Variance Overlap between the Short and the Long Form of a Psychological Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Nils; Hagemann, Dirk; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In response to the low standards in short form development, Smith, McCarthy, and Anderson (2000) introduced a set of guidelines for the construction and evaluation of short forms of psychological tests. One of their recommendations requires researches to show that the variance overlap between the short form and its long form is adequate. This…

  16. The dimensional structure of short forms of the Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales.

    PubMed

    Gross, Georgina M; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2015-08-01

    The Wisconsin Schizotypy Scales (WSS) are widely used for assessing schizotypy. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicates that a two-factor structure, positive and negative schizotypy, underlies these scales. Recently developed 15-item short forms of the WSS demonstrated good reliability and validity. This study examined the factor structure underlying the short-form WSS. Consistent with the original scales, CFA on three large samples (n=6137, 2171, and 2292, respectively) indicated that a two-factor model with positive and negative dimensions provided better fit than a generic schizotypy model for the short-form WSS. The short-form dimensions correlated highly with the original scale dimensions and displayed good stability across 10weeks. Preliminary construct validity was demonstrated through associations with interview and questionnaire measures of psychopathology, functioning, and personality comparable to those found with the original WSS. This is the first study examining the dimensional structure of the short WSS and the validity of these dimensions. The findings support the multidimensional nature of schizotypy and the appropriateness of dimensions derived from the short-form WSS. PMID:26036815

  17. SWAT system performance predictions. Project report. [SWAT (Short-Wavelength Adaptive Techniques)

    SciTech Connect

    Parenti, R.R.; Sasiela, R.J.

    1993-03-10

    In the next phase of Lincoln Laboratory's SWAT (Short-Wavelength Adaptive Techniques) program, the performance of a 241-actuator adaptive-optics system will be measured using a variety of synthetic-beacon geometries. As an aid in this experimental investigation, a detailed set of theoretical predictions has also been assembled. The computational tools that have been applied in this study include a numerical approach in which Monte-Carlo ray-trace simulations of accumulated phase error are developed, and an analytical analysis of the expected system behavior. This report describes the basis of these two computational techniques and compares their estimates of overall system performance. Although their regions of applicability tend to be complementary rather than redundant, good agreement is usually obtained when both sets of results can be derived for the same engagement scenario.... Adaptive optics, Phase conjugation, Atmospheric turbulence Synthetic beacon, Laser guide star.

  18. 48 CFR 952.227-11 - Patent rights-retention by the contractor (short form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights-retention by the contractor (short form). 952.227-11 Section 952.227-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.227-11 Patent...

  19. Short-Form Versions of the Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Maldonodo, Donna; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish-language MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (S-CDIs) are well-established parent report tools for assessing the language development of Spanish-speaking children under 3 years. Here, we introduce the short-form versions of the S-CDIs (SFI and SFII), offered as alternatives to the long forms for screening purposes or…

  20. Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms for Assessing Client Needs and Functioning in Addiction Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Knight, Kevin; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Gray, Julie S.

    2012-01-01

    The TCU Short Forms contain a revised and expanded set of assessments for planning and managing addiction treatment services. They are formatted as brief (one-page) forms to measure client needs and functioning, including drug use severity and history (TCUDS II), criminal thinking and cognitive orientation (CTSForm), motivation and readiness for…

  1. Validation of a Short Form of an Indecision Test: The Vocational Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, France; Frenette, Éric; Guay, Frédéric; Labrosse, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to validate the scores of a short form of a new instrument, "l'Épreuve de décision vocationnelle, forme scolaire" (EDV-9S; vocational assessment test), which measures six indecision-related problems (lack of self-knowledge, lack of readiness, lack of method in decision making, lack of information,…

  2. CARDIAC SULFONYLUREA RECEPTOR SHORT FORM-BASED CHANNELS CONFER A GLIBENCLAMIDE-INSENSITIVE KATP ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jie-Lin,; Ye, Bin; Kroboth, Stacie L.; McNally, Elizabeth M.; Makielski, Jonathan C.; Shi, Nian-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The cardiac sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) consists of a Kir6.2 pore and a SUR2 regulatory subunit, which is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. KATP channels have been proposed to play protective roles during ischemic preconditioning. A SUR2 mutant mouse was previously generated by disrupting the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), where a glibenclamide action site was located. In the mutant ventricular myocytes, a non-conventional glibenclamide-insensitive (10 μM), ATP-sensitive current (IKATPn) was detected in 33% of single-channel recordings with an average amplitude of 12.3±5.4 pA per patch, an IC50 to ATP inhibition at 10 μM, and a mean burst duration at 20.6±1.8 ms. Newly designed SUR2-isoform or variant-specific antibodies identified novel SUR2 short forms in the sizes of 28 and 68 kDa in addition to a 150-kDa long form in the sarcolemmal membrane of wild-type (WT) heart. We hypothesized that channels constituted by these short forms that lack NBD1, confer IKATPn. The absence of the long form in the mutant corresponded to loss of the conventional glibenclamide-sensitive KATP currents (IKATP) in isolated cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells but the SUR2 short forms remained intact. Nested exonic RT-PCR in the mutant indicated that the short forms lacked NBD1 but contained NBD2. The SUR2 short forms co-immunoprecipitated with Kir6.1 or Kir6.2 suggesting that the short forms may function as hemi-transporters reported in other eukaryotic ABC transporter subgroups. Our results indicate that different KATP compositions may co-exist in cardiac sarcolemmal membrane. PMID:18001767

  3. 48 CFR 52.249-1 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form). 52.249-1 Section 52.249-1 Federal Acquisition... (Fixed-Price) (Short Form). As prescribed in 49.502(a)(1), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form) (APR 1984) The Contracting Officer, by written...

  4. General population norms of the Swedish short forms of oral health impact profile.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; John, M T; Hakeberg, M; Nilner, K; List, T

    2014-04-01

    We reported the development and psychometric evaluation of a Swedish 14-item and a five-item short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile. The 14-item version was derived from the English-language short form developed by Slade in1997. The five-item version was derived from the German-language short form developed by John et al. in 2006. Validity, reliability and normative values for the two short form summary scores were determined in a random sample of the adult Swedish population (response rate: 46%, N = 1366 subjects). Subjects with sufficient OHRQoL information to calculate a summary score (N = 1309) were on average 50·1 ± 17.4 years old, and 54% were women. Short form summary scores correlated highly with the 49-item OHIP-S (r ≥ 0.97 for OHIP-S14, r ≥ 0.92 for OHIP-S5) and with self-report of oral health (r ≥ 0.41). Reliability, measured with Cronbach's alpha (0.91 for OHIP-S14, 0.77 for OHIP-S5), was sufficient. In the general population, 50% of the subjects had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points and 10% had ≥11 points, respectively. Among subjects with their own teeth only and/or fixed dental prostheses and with partial removable dental prostheses, 50% of the population had ≥2 OHIP-S14 score points, and 10% had ≥11 points. For subjects with complete dentures, the corresponding figures were 3 and 24 points. OHIP-S5 medians for subjects in the three population groups were 1, 1 and 2 points. Swedish 14-item and 5-item short forms of the OHIP have sufficient psychometric properties and provide a detailed overview about impaired OHRQoL in Sweden. The norms will serve as reference values for future studies. PMID:24447237

  5. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles. PMID:19851789

  6. Measuring the phenomenology of autobiographical memory: A short form of the Memory Experiences Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2016-01-01

    The Memory Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) is a theoretically driven and empirically validated 63-item self-report scale designed to measure 10 phenomenological qualities of autobiographical memories: Vividness, Coherence, Accessibility, Time Perspective, Sensory Details, Visual Perspective, Emotional Intensity, Sharing, Distancing and Valence. To develop a short form of the MEQ to use when time is limited, participants from two samples (N = 719; N = 352) retrieved autobiographical memories, rated the phenomenological experience of each memory and completed several scales measuring psychological distress. For each MEQ dimension, the number of items was reduced by one-half based on item content and item-total correlations. Each short-form scale had acceptable internal consistency (median alpha = .79), and, similar to the long-form version of the scales, the new short scales correlated with psychological distress in theoretically meaningful ways. The new short form of the MEQ has similar psychometric proprieties as the original long form and can be used when time is limited. PMID:25894806

  7. Vivid Motor Imagery as an Adaptation Method for Head Turns on a Short-Arm Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, N. J.; Mast, F. W.; Natapoff, A.; Paloski, W. H.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial gravity (AG) has been proposed as a potential countermeasure to the debilitating physiological effects of long duration space flight. The most economical means of implementing AG may be through the use of a short-radius (2m or less) centrifuge. For such a device to produce gravitational forces comparable to those on earth requires rotation rates in excess of 20 revolutions per minute (rpm). Head turns made out of the plane of rotation at these rates, as may be necessary if exercise is combined with AG, result in cross-coupled stimuli (CCS) that cause adverse side effects including motion sickness, illusory sensations of motion, and inappropriate eye movements. Recent studies indicate that people can adapt to CCS and reduce these side effects by making multiple head turns during centrifuge sessions conducted over consecutive days. However, about 25% of the volunteers for these studies have difficulty tolerating the CCS adaptation paradigm and often drop out due to motion sickness symptoms. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether vivid motor imagery could be used as a pseudostimulus for adapting subjects to this unique environment. Twenty four healthy human subjects (14 males, 10 females), ranging in age from 21 to 48 years (mean 33, sd 7 years) took part in this study. The experimental stimuli were produced using the NASA JSC short-arm centrifuge (SAC). Subjects were oriented supinely on this device with the nose pointed toward the ceiling and head centered on the axis of rotation. Thus, centrifuge rotation was in the body roll plane. After ramp-up the SAC rotated clockwise at a constant rate of 23 rpm, producing a centrifugal force of approximately 1 g at the feet. Semicircular canal CCS were produced by having subjects make yaw head turns from the nose up (NU) position to the right ear down (RED) position and from RED to NU. Each head turn was completed in about one second, and a 30 second recovery period separated consecutive head

  8. Research: Care Delivery Development and validation of the Diabetes Medication System Rating Questionnaire-Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Peyrot, M; Xu, Y; Rubin, R R

    2014-01-01

    Aims To develop and validate a short form of the 54-item Diabetes Medication System Rating Questionnaire that maintains the domains and performance characteristics of the long-form questionnaire. Methods Data from the Diabetes Medication System Rating Questionnaire validation study were analysed to select items representing the nine scales (convenience, negative events, interference, self-monitoring of blood glucose burden, efficacy, social burden, psychological well-being, treatment satisfaction and treatment preference). The resulting 20-item Diabetes Medication System Rating Questionnaire Short-Form was administered online, with validated criterion measures of treatment satisfaction and medication adherence, with a retest within 2 weeks. Participants were US adults (N = 413) with Type 2 diabetes using oral agents alone; insulin by syringe and/or pen with or without oral agents; or glucagon-like peptide-1 agents. Most participants (82%) completed the retest. Results The median inter-item agreement of scales was 0.76 and the total composite (mean of all items except treatment preference) was 0.88. The median test-retest reliability of scales was 0.86, and of the total composite was 0.95. All statistically significant correlations between Diabetes Medication System Rating Questionnaire Short-Form scales and criterion measures of treatment satisfaction and adherence were in the expected direction. The median correlation of the Diabetes Medication System Rating Questionnaire Short-Form with corresponding criterion measures of treatment satisfaction was 0.59; the mean correlation of the same Diabetes Medication System Rating Questionnaire Short-Form measures with adherence was 0.42. The Diabetes Medication System Rating Questionnaire Short-Form scales were more powerful predictors of adherence than were the criterion measures of treatment satisfaction. The Diabetes Medication System Rating Questionnaire Short-Form scales differentiated between those taking different

  9. Validation of a proposed WOMAC short form for patients with hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to propose a Spanish Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) short form based on previously shortened versions and to study its validity, reliability, and responsiveness for patients with hip osteoarthritis undergoing total hip replacement (THR). Methods Prospective observational study of two independent cohorts (788 and 445 patients, respectively). Patients completed the WOMAC and the Short Form (SF)-36 questionnaires before THR and 6 months afterward. Patients received the questionnaires by mailing, and two reminder letters were sent to patients who had not replied the questionnaire. Based on two studies from the literature, we selected the two shortened domains, the pain domain composed of three items and the function domain composed of eight items. Thus, we proposed an 11-items WOMAC short form. A complete validation process was performed, including confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis, and a study of reliability, responsiveness, and agreement measured by the Bland-Altman approach. Results The mean age was about 69 years and about 49% were women. CFA analyses confirmed the two-factor model. The pain and function domains fit the Rasch model. Stability was supported with similar results in both cohorts. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were high, 0.74 and 0.88. The highest correlations in convergent validity were found with the bodily pain and physical function SF-36 domains. Significant differences were found according to different pain and function severity scales, supporting known-groups validity. Responsiveness parameters showed large changes (effect sizes, 2.11 and 2.29). Agreement between the WOMAC long and short forms was adequate. Conclusions Since short questionnaires result in improved patient compliance and response rates, it is very useful to have a shortened WOMAC version with the same good psychometric properties as the original version. The Spanish WOMAC short form

  10. Using Short Forms of Several Classroom Environment Scales to Assess and Improve Classroom Psychosocial Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darrell L.; Fraser, Barry J.

    Economical, short forms of three measures were developed to facilitate science teachers' use of classroom climate assessments. The Classroom Environment Scale (CES) is a 24-item measure requiring a true or false response for each item. The My Class Inventory (MCI) is a 25-item measure requiring a yes or no response for each item. The…

  11. Validity of the Short Form of the Parenting Stress Index for Fathers of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Faldowski, Richard A.; Shears, Jeffrey; Ayoub, Catherine; Hart, Andrea D.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of two scales of the parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF) in a low-income sample of fathers of toddlers. The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the parental distress and parent-child dysfunctional interaction subscales were assessed for 696 fathers in a multi-site study of Early Head Start.…

  12. The Development and Validation of an Italian Short Form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Santamaria, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate a short form of the Adolescent Friendship Attachment Scale that evaluates best friend's attachment considering three styles: Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant. The scale demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure as found in the long…

  13. The Life Attitudes Schedule--Short Form: Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Adolescent Suicide Proneness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Rohling, Martin L.

    2003-01-01

    Life Attitudes Schedule--Short Form (LAS-SF) was administered to 1,742 high school students in 3 states. Psychometric properties for LAS-SF items and total score were very good, and LAS-SF was correlated with almost all the examined risk behaviors, illustrating the broad range of problems measured by the instrument. Clinical and research uses for…

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Waechter, Randall; Gonzalez, Andrea; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in child maltreatment research, accurate measurement of exposure remains a key issue. In this study, we evaluated a short form (CEVQ-SF) of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire (CEVQ) in a sample of adolescents involved with child protection services in an urban city in Ontario, Canada. Focusing on the two most…

  15. Psychometric Properties of a Proposed Short Form of the BASC Teacher Rating Scale--Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosky, Daniel J.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2013-01-01

    A 25 item short form of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC) Teacher Rating Scale--Preschool (TRS-P) was developed by the BASC authors to serve as an emotional/behavioral indicator for an academic intervention study targeting preschool-aged students. The BASC screener is thought to fulfill a need for an abbreviated behavior rating…

  16. Validity of Verbal IQ as a Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Robert W.; Wildman, Robert W., II

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the Verbal IQ as a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was investigated using the criteria proposed by Resnick and Entin. The WAIS was administered to 100 psychiatric patients. There was no significant difference between the means of the Verbal and Full Scale IQs. (Author)

  17. The Physician Values in Practice Scale-Short Form: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy; Hartung, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to develop and test a short form of the 60-item Physician Values in Practice Scale (PVIPS). The PVIPS, which draws on the theory of work adjustment for its theoretical base, measures personal values specific to medical occupations. In Study 1, 217 first- and final-year medical students completed a Web-based…

  18. A Factor Analytic Study of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Adult Short Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Janet; Wilson, George V.

    1988-01-01

    A factor analysis was conducted on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory-Adult Short Form using 237 college students and 43 female office workers in Australia. Factors were found corresponding with three of the four subscales: general self, social self-peers, and home-parents (family). No factor related to the school-academic (work) subscale. (SLD)

  19. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…

  20. Confirming the Structural Validity of the My Class Inventory -- Short Form Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariani, Melissa; Villares, Elizabeth; Sink, Christopher A.; Colvin, Kimberly; Kuba, Summer Perhay

    2015-01-01

    Researchers analyzed data collected from elementary school students (N = 893) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the My Class Inventory--Short Form Revised (MCI-SFR). A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted resulting in a good fit for a four-factor model, which corresponds to the instrument's four scales (Cohesion,…

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Mental Health Continuum-Short Form in an Adolescent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    There have been few research studies to examine the positive mental health of Asian adolescents. The aim here is to examine the factorial structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent/discriminant validity of a Korean version of the Mental Health Continuum-short form (K-MHC-SF), a newly developed self-report scale for…

  2. Contrasting State-of-the-Art in the Machine Scoring of Short-Form Constructed Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared short-form constructed responses evaluated by both human raters and machine scoring algorithms. The context was a public competition on which both public competitors and commercial vendors vied to develop machine scoring algorithms that would match or exceed the performance of operational human raters in a summative high-stakes…

  3. The nociceptive withdrawal reflex does not adapt to joint position change and short-term motor practice

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Zachary A

    2013-01-01

    The nociceptive withdrawal reflex is a protective mechanism to mediate interactions within a potentially dangerous environment. The reflex is formed by action-based sensory encoding during the early post-natal developmental period, and it is unknown if the protective motor function of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex in the human upper-limb is adaptable based on the configuration of the arm or if it can be modified by short-term practice of a similar or opposing motor action. In the present study, nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evoked by a brief train of electrical stimuli applied to digit II, 1) in five different static arm positions and, 2) before and after motor practice that was opposite (EXT) or similar (FLEX) to the stereotyped withdrawal response, in 10 individuals. Withdrawal responses were quantified by the electromyography (EMG) reflex response in several upper limb muscles, and by the forces and moments recorded at the wrist. EMG onset latencies and response amplitudes were not significantly different across the arm positions or between the EXT and FLEX practice conditions, and the general direction of the withdrawal response was similar across arm positions. In addition, the force vectors were not different after practice in either the practice condition or between EXT and FLEX conditions. We conclude the withdrawal response is insensitive to changes in elbow or shoulder joint angles as well as remaining resistant to short-term adaptations from the practice of motor actions, resulting in a generalized limb withdrawal in each case. It is further hypothesized that the multisensory feedback is weighted differently in each arm position, but integrated to achieve a similar withdrawal response to safeguard against erroneous motor responses that could cause further harm. The results remain consistent with the concept that nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are shaped through long-term and not short-term action based sensory encoding. PMID:24555075

  4. Development of a Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: the FFNI-SF.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Emily D; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Campbell, W Keith; Widiger, Thomas A; Crego, Cristina; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) is a 148-item self-report inventory of 15 traits designed to assess the basic elements of narcissism from the perspective of a 5-factor model. The FFNI assesses both vulnerable (i.e., cynicism/distrust, need for admiration, reactive anger, and shame) and grandiose (i.e., acclaim seeking, arrogance, authoritativeness, entitlement, exhibitionism, exploitativeness, grandiose fantasies, indifference, lack of empathy, manipulativeness, and thrill seeking) variants of narcissism. The present study reports the development of a short-form version of the FFNI in 4 diverse samples (i.e., 2 undergraduate samples, a sample recruited from MTurk, and a clinical community sample) using item response theory. The validity of the resultant 60-item short form was compared against the validity of the full scale in the 4 samples at both the subscale level and the level of the grandiose and vulnerable composites. Results indicated that the 15 subscales remain relatively reliable, possess a factor structure identical to the structure of the long-form scales, and manifest correlational profiles highly similar to those of the long-form scales in relation to a variety of criterion measures, including basic personality dimensions, other measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and indicators of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Grandiose and vulnerable composites also behave almost identically across the short- and long-form versions. It is concluded that the FFNI-Short Form (FFNI-SF) offers a well-articulated assessment of the basic traits comprising grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, particularly when assessment time is limited. PMID:25774640

  5. Adaptations of the vestibular system to short and long-term exposures to altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. L.

    2003-10-01

    Long-term space flight creates unique environmental conditions to which the vestibular system must adapt for optimal survival of a given organism. The development and maintenance of vestibular connections are controlled by environmental gravitational stimulation as well as genetically controlled molecular interactions. This paper describes the effects of hypergravity on axonal growth and dendritic morphology, respectively. Two aspects of this vestibular adaptation are examined: (1) How does long-term exposure to hypergravity affect the development of vestibular axons? (2) How does short-term exposure to extremely rapid changes in gravity, such as those that occur during shuttle launch and landing, affect dendrites of the vestibulocerebellar system? To study the effects of longterm exposures to altered gravity, embryonic rats that developed in hypergravity were compared to microgravity-exposed and control rats. Examination of the vestibular projections from epithelia devoted to linear and angular acceleration revealed that the terminal fields segregate differently in rat embryos that gestated in each of the gravitational environments.To study the effects of short-term exposures to altered gravity, mice were exposed briefly to strong vestibular stimuli and the vestibulocerebellum was examined for any resulting morphological changes. My data show that these stimuli cause intense vestibular excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, which induce up-regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and other morphological changes that are comparable to those seen in long-term depression. This system provides a basis for studying how the vestibular environment can modify cerebellar function, allowing animals to adapt to new environments.

  6. Adaptive Data-based Predictive Control for Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Jonathan Spencer; Acosta, Diana Michelle; Phan, Minh Q.

    2010-01-01

    Data-based Predictive Control is an emerging control method that stems from Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC computes current control action based on a prediction of the system output a number of time steps into the future and is generally derived from a known model of the system. Data-based predictive control has the advantage of deriving predictive models and controller gains from input-output data. Thus, a controller can be designed from the outputs of complex simulation code or a physical system where no explicit model exists. If the output data happens to be corrupted by periodic disturbances, the designed controller will also have the built-in ability to reject these disturbances without the need to know them. When data-based predictive control is implemented online, it becomes a version of adaptive control. The characteristics of adaptive data-based predictive control are particularly appropriate for the control of nonlinear and time-varying systems, such as Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) aircraft. STOL is a capability of interest to NASA because conceptual Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) transport aircraft offer the ability to reduce congestion in the terminal area by utilizing existing shorter runways at airports, as well as to lower community noise by flying steep approach and climb-out patterns that reduce the noise footprint of the aircraft. In this study, adaptive data-based predictive control is implemented as an integrated flight-propulsion controller for the outer-loop control of a CESTOL-type aircraft. Results show that the controller successfully tracks velocity while attempting to maintain a constant flight path angle, using longitudinal command, thrust and flap setting as the control inputs.

  7. Short Form health surveys and related variants in spinal cord injury research: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Whitehurst, David G. T.; Engel, Lidia; Bryan, Stirling

    2014-01-01

    Context ‘Short Form’ health surveys – such as the SF-36 and SF-12 – are widely used in medical research. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is no exception, despite oft-cited concerns regarding measurement properties for populations with physical impairment. Objective To provide a comprehensive overview of the use of Short Form health surveys and their variants within the SCI literature. Methods Papers published between database inception and September 2012 were identified from 11 electronic databases; a supplementary reference list search was also conducted. Data extraction focused on details regarding the range of different Short Form surveys and variants used in SCI research, the respective frequency of use, the nature of reporting (complete versus partial reporting) and the method of survey administration. Results One hundred seventy-four papers were identified. Thirty-six-item Short Form health surveys were frequently administered as complete instruments (n = 82); in 69 of these 82 studies (84%), it was not clearly stated which 36-item version had been used (e.g. SF-36v1, SF-36v2, RAND-36). Data for individual items and domains were often reported (29% of identified studies), indicating significant partial use of standardized measures. Modified variants of standardized health surveys were administered in 12 studies. Conclusion Although standardized Short Form health surveys are common within SCI research, attempts to add, delete, or modify items have resulted in a number of variants, often with minimal supportive psychometric evidence. Using established, generic outcome measures is appealing for a number of reasons. However, validity is paramount and requires further explicit consideration within the SCI research community. PMID:24559417

  8. Patient Experience and Satisfaction with Inpatient Service: Development of Short Form Survey Instrument Measuring the Core Aspect of Inpatient Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Eliza L. Y.; Coulter, Angela; Hewitson, Paul; Cheung, Annie W. L.; Yam, Carrie H. K.; Lui, Siu fai; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Yeoh, Eng-kiong

    2015-01-01

    Patient experience reflects quality of care from the patients’ perspective; therefore, patients’ experiences are important data in the evaluation of the quality of health services. The development of an abbreviated, reliable and valid instrument for measuring inpatients’ experience would reflect the key aspect of inpatient care from patients’ perspective as well as facilitate quality improvement by cultivating patient engagement and allow the trends in patient satisfaction and experience to be measured regularly. The study developed a short-form inpatient instrument and tested its ability to capture a core set of inpatients’ experiences. The Hong Kong Inpatient Experience Questionnaire (HKIEQ) was established in 2010; it is an adaptation of the General Inpatient Questionnaire of the Care Quality Commission created by the Picker Institute in United Kingdom. This study used a consensus conference and a cross-sectional validation survey to create and validate a short-form of the Hong Kong Inpatient Experience Questionnaire (SF-HKIEQ). The short-form, the SF-HKIEQ, consisted of 18 items derived from the HKIEQ. The 18 items mainly covered relational aspects of care under four dimensions of the patient’s journey: hospital staff, patient care and treatment, information on leaving the hospital, and overall impression. The SF-HKIEQ had a high degree of face validity, construct validity and internal reliability. The validated SF-HKIEQ reflects the relevant core aspects of inpatients’ experience in a hospital setting. It provides a quick reference tool for quality improvement purposes and a platform that allows both healthcare staff and patients to monitor the quality of hospital care over time. PMID:25860775

  9. Classification of short-lived objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    "Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also short-lived, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between short-lived and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify short-lived objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of short-lived objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize short-lived objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The

  10. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-France Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Anxiety and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouyaud, Jacques; Vignoli, Emmanuelle; Dosnon, Odile; Lallemand, Noelle

    2012-01-01

    The CAAS-France Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from moderate to good. The factor structure was…

  11. Development and Validation of Short Forms of Some Instruments Measuring Student Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Fisher, Darrell L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development/validation of short forms of Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ), My Class Inventory (MCI), and Classroom Environment Scale (CES). In addition to these forms measuring perceptions of actual classroom environment, ICEQ and CES short forms measuring preferred classroom environment were also developed.…

  12. The Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form: Reliability and Factorial Validity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascitelli, Andréa N.; Rojahn, Johannes; Nicolaides, Vias C.; Moore, Linda; Hastings, Richard P.; Christian-Jones, Ceri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Behaviour Problems Inventory-Short Form (BPI-S) is a spin-off of the BPI-01 that was empirically developed from a large BPI-01 data set. In this study, the reliability and factorial validity of the BPI-S was investigated for the first time on newly collected data from adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The sample…

  13. Validity and Reliability of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form in Chinese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The psychometric profiles of the widely used International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF) in Chinese youth have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPAQ-SF using a sample of Chinese youth. Method: One thousand and twenty-one youth (M[subscript age] = 14.26 ±…

  14. Stress Recovery Based h-Adaptive Finite Element Simulation of Sheet Forming Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohd.; Singh, Devinder

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, stress recovery techniques based adaptive finite element analysis of sheet forming operations is presented. An adaptive two dimensional finite element computer code allows the analysis of sheet forming operations and results in distribution of adaptively refined mesh, effective strain, and punch load, stress and strain rate tensor in the domain that has been developed. The recovery scheme for determining more accurate stress field is based on the least squares fitting of the computed stresses in an element patch surrounding and including a particular node. The solution error is estimated on the basis of an energy norm. It is shown with the help of an illustrative example of axi-symmetric stretching of a metal blank by a hemispherical punch that the adaptive analysis may be usefully employed to predict accurately deformation process, the seats of large deformations and locations of possible instability.

  15. Stress Recovery Based h-Adaptive Finite Element Simulation of Sheet Forming Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohd.; Singh, Devinder

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, stress recovery techniques based adaptive finite element analysis of sheet forming operations is presented. An adaptive two dimensional finite element computer code allows the analysis of sheet forming operations and results in distribution of adaptively refined mesh, effective strain, and punch load, stress and strain rate tensor in the domain that has been developed. The recovery scheme for determining more accurate stress field is based on the least squares fitting of the computed stresses in an element patch surrounding and including a particular node. The solution error is estimated on the basis of an energy norm. It is shown with the help of an illustrative example of axi-symmetric stretching of a metal blank by a hemispherical punch that the adaptive analysis may be usefully employed to predict accurately deformation process, the seats of large deformations and locations of possible instability.

  16. Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Denney, David A; Ringe, Wendy K; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-08-01

    Full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) administration can be time-consuming and may not be necessary when intelligence quotient estimates will suffice. Estimated Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI) scores were derived from nine dyadic short forms using individual regression equations based on data from a clinical sample (n = 113) that was then cross validated in a separate clinical sample (n = 50). Derived scores accounted for 70%-83% of the variance in FSIQ and 77%-88% of the variance in GAI. Predicted FSIQs were strongly associated with actual FSIQ (rs = .73-.88), as were predicted and actual GAIs (rs = .80-.93). Each of the nine dyadic short forms of the WAIS-IV was a good predictor of FSIQ and GAI in the validation sample. These data support the validity of WAIS-IV short forms when time is limited or lengthier batteries cannot be tolerated by patients. PMID:26058660

  17. An adaptive nonlinear predictor with orthogonal escalator structure for short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q.C.; Grady, W.M.; Crawford, M.M.; Anderson, G.M.

    1989-02-01

    An adaptive Hammerstein model with an orthogonal escalator structure as well as a lattice structure for joint processes is developed for short-term load forecasting from one hour to several hours in the future. The method uses a Hammerstein nonlinear time-varying functional relationship between load and temperature. Parameters in both linear and nonlinear parts of the predictor are updated systematically using a scalar orthogonalization procedure. Matrix operations are avoided, thereby allowing better model tracking ability, numerical properties, and performance. Prediction results using actual load-temperature data demonstrate that this algorithm performs better than the commonly used matrix-oriented recursive least-square algorithm (RLS) for one-hour-ahead forecasts.

  18. Comparative validity of two WAIS-R short forms with clients of low IQ.

    PubMed

    Haynes, J P

    1985-03-01

    This study investigated the validity of two- and four-subtest combinations as estimates of WAIS-R Full Scale IQ among clients of low IQ (N = 100). Differences between the short-form means were small and nonsignificant. The correlation between Full Scale IQ and two-subset estimates was .86 and was .92 for the four-subtest estimate. These account for 74% and 85% of the variance, respectively. The two-subtest form correctly classified 69% of the subjects by intelligence category, and the four-subtest form correctly classified 85%. It was concluded the four-subtest form is superior as a screening device when complete administration of the WAIS-R is not feasible. PMID:3980752

  19. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Italian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Breadth of Interests, Quality of Life, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)-Italian Form consists of four 6-item scales, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The 24-item CAAS-Italian Form is identical to the International Form 2.0. The factor structure was…

  20. Short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude in children compared with adults.

    PubMed

    Kriemler, S; Radtke, T; Bürgi, F; Lambrecht, J; Zehnder, M; Brunner-La Rocca, H P

    2016-02-01

    As short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude (HA) exposure has not yet been studied in children, we assessed acute mountain sickness (AMS), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at rest and maximal exercise capacity (CPET) at low altitude (LA) and HA in pre-pubertal children and their fathers. Twenty father-child pairs (11 ± 1 years and 44 ± 4 years) were tested at LA (450 m) and HA (3450 m) at days 1, 2, and 3 after fast ascent (HA1/2/3). HVR was measured at rest and CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. AMS severity was mild to moderate with no differences between generations. HVR was higher in children than adults at LA and increased at HA similarly in both groups. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) relative to body weight was similar in children and adults at LA and decreased significantly by 20% in both groups at HA; maximal heart rate did not change at HA in children while it decreased by 16% in adults (P < 0.001). Changes in HVR and VO2 peak from LA to HA were correlated among the biological child-father pairs. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory adaptation to altitude seems to be at least partly hereditary. Even though children and their fathers lose similar fractions of aerobic capacity going to high altitude, the mechanisms might be different. PMID:25648726

  1. Adaptations in muscle activity to induced, short-term hindlimb lameness in trotting dogs.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Stefanie; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Muscle tissue has a great intrinsic adaptability to changing functional demands. Triggering more gradual responses such as tissue growth, the immediate responses to altered loading conditions involve changes in the activity. Because the reduction in a limb's function is associated with marked deviations in the gait pattern, understanding the muscular responses in laming animals will provide further insight into their compensatory mechanisms as well as help to improve treatment options to prevent musculoskeletal sequelae in chronic patients. Therefore, this study evaluated the changes in muscle activity in adaptation to a moderate, short-term, weight-bearing hindlimb lameness in two leg and one back muscle using surface electromyography (SEMG). In eight sound adult dogs that trotted on an instrumented treadmill, bilateral, bipolar recordings of the m. triceps brachii, the m. vastus lateralis and the m. longissimus dorsi were obtained before and after lameness was induced. Consistent with the unchanged vertical forces as well as temporal parameters, neither the timing nor the level of activity changed significantly in the m. triceps brachii. In the ipsilateral m. vastus lateralis, peak activity and integrated SEMG area were decreased, while they were significantly increased in the contralateral hindlimb. In both sides, the duration of the muscle activity was significantly longer due to a delayed offset. These observations are in accordance with previously described kinetic and kinematic changes as well as changes in muscle mass. Adaptations in the activity of the m. longissimus dorsi concerned primarily the unilateral activity and are discussed regarding known alterations in trunk and limb motions. PMID:24236207

  2. Adaptations of the vestibular system to short and long-term exposures to altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L.

    Long-term space flight creates unique environmental conditions to which the vestibular system must adapt for optimal survival. We are studying two aspects of this vestibular adaptation: (1) How does long-term exposure to microgravity and hypergravity affect the development of vestibular afferents? (2) How does short- term exposure to extremely rapid changes in gravity, such as those that occur during launch and landing, affect the vestibular system. During space flight the gravistatic receptors in the otolith organs are effectively unloaded. In hypergravity conditions they are overloaded. However, the angular acceleration receptors of the semicircular canals receive relatively normal stimulation in both micro- and hypergravity.Rat embryos exposed to microgravity from gestation day 10 (prior to vestibular function) until gestation day 20 (vestibular system is somewhat functional) showed that afferents from the posterior vertical canal projecting to the medial vestibular nucleus developed similarly in microgravity, hypergravity, and in controls . However, afferents from the saccule showed delayed development in microgravity as compared to development in hypergravity and in controls. Cerebellar plasticity is crucial for modification of sensory-motor control and learning. Thus we explored the possibility that strong vestibular stimuli would modify cerebellar motor control (i.e., eye movement, postural control, gut motility) by altering the morphology of cerebellar Purkinje cells. To study the effects of short-term exposures to strong vestibular stimuli we focused on structural changes in the vestibulo-cerebellum that are caused by strong vestibular stimuli. Adult mice were exposed to various combinations of constant and/or rapidly changing angular and linear accelerations for 8.5 min (the time length of shuttle launch). Our data shows that these stimuli cause intense excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, inducing up-regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis

  3. While We Wait for Life, Life Passes: The Time Metaphors Questionnaire-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Sobol-Kwapinska, Malgorzata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Nosal, Czeslaw

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a short version of the Time Metaphors Questionnaire (TMQ; Sobol-Kwapinska & Nosal, 2009 ). The original TMQ consists of 95 items and was designed to measure time conceiving. Because completing the TMQ is very time-consuming, this research develops a short form of this questionnaire-Time Metaphors Questionnaire-Short Form (TMQ-SF). A sample of 990 Polish adults completed the TMQ. One-half of the sample was used to construct the TMQ-SF by selecting items based on the exploratory factor analysis. The other half of the sample was used to cross-validate the factorial structure of the TMQ-SF by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The TMQ-SF presented high internal consistency and a clear three-factor structure. The convergent and discriminant validity were assessed based on comparison with the Big Five factors of personality, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, time perspective, and mindfulness. PMID:27410054

  4. Pulse-forming-line based on-chip short pulse generator.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huan; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-04-01

    A traditional pulse generation circuit based on the pulse-forming-line (PFL) is implemented in a commercial 0.13 μm digital CMOS technology. A meandered on-chip coplanar waveguide is used as the PFL, and CMOS transistor is used as switch in the Cadence Spectre simulation. The circuit sample is fabricated and tested. Pulses of ∼170 ps durations and 120-200 mV amplitudes are obtained when the power supply is tuned from 1.2 V to 2 V. The results show that the traditional PFL based circuit can be implemented in standard CMOS technology for on-chip short pulse generation. Furthermore, the PFL circuits significantly extend the short pulse generation capabilities of CMOS technology. PMID:25933879

  5. Pulse-forming-line based on-chip short pulse generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Huan; Wang, Haiyang

    2015-04-01

    A traditional pulse generation circuit based on the pulse-forming-line (PFL) is implemented in a commercial 0.13 μm digital CMOS technology. A meandered on-chip coplanar waveguide is used as the PFL, and CMOS transistor is used as switch in the Cadence Spectre simulation. The circuit sample is fabricated and tested. Pulses of ˜170 ps durations and 120-200 mV amplitudes are obtained when the power supply is tuned from 1.2 V to 2 V. The results show that the traditional PFL based circuit can be implemented in standard CMOS technology for on-chip short pulse generation. Furthermore, the PFL circuits significantly extend the short pulse generation capabilities of CMOS technology.

  6. Adaptive Filtering for Large Space Structures: A Closed-Form Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, H. E.; Schaechter, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    In a previous paper Schaechter proposes using an extended Kalman filter to estimate adaptively the (slowly varying) frequencies and damping ratios of a large space structure. The time varying gains for estimating the frequencies and damping ratios can be determined in closed form so it is not necessary to integrate the matrix Riccati equations. After certain approximations, the time varying adaptive gain can be written as the product of a constant matrix times a matrix derived from the components of the estimated state vector. This is an important savings of computer resources and allows the adaptive filter to be implemented with approximately the same effort as the nonadaptive filter. The success of this new approach for adaptive filtering was demonstrated using synthetic data from a two mode system.

  7. Validity of the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and a Four-Subtest WISC-III Short Form with Adolescent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Anthony; Browne, Janet; Schmidt, Fred; Boer, Marian

    1997-01-01

    The validity of a four-subtest short form of the third edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) was evaluated with 42 adolescent offenders. Findings support the clinical use of the short form as a good estimate of WISC-III full-scale IQ. (SLD)

  8. 48 CFR 52.249-1 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form). 52.249-1 Section 52.249-1 Federal Acquisition... Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form) (APR 1984) The Contracting Officer, by written notice... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.249-1 Termination for Convenience of the...

  9. Construction of a Danish CDI Short Form for Language Screening at the Age of 36 Months: Methodological Considerations and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vach, Werner; Bleses, Dorthe; Jorgensen, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Several research groups have previously constructed short forms of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) for different languages. We consider the specific aim of constructing such a short form to be used for language screening in a specific age group. We present a novel strategy for the construction, which is applicable…

  10. German Translation and Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire Short Form (CSQ-SF-D)

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Quentin J. M.; Renz, Daniel; Petzschner, Frederike; Berwian, Isabel; Stoppel, Christian; Haker, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations. Methods The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects. Results The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D) including only 27 of the 72 items. Conclusions The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers. PMID:26934499

  11. Validation of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form among Portuguese juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Barroso, Ricardo; Poiares, Carlos; Oliveira, João Pedro; Torrealday, Ohiana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form (BPAQ-SF) among Portuguese juvenile delinquents. With a total sample of 237 male participants, subdivided into an incarcerated forensic sample (n=192) and a community sample (n=45), the Portuguese version of the BPAQ-SF demonstrated good psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, predictive validity and known-groups validity that generally justify its use among Portuguese youth. Statistically significant associations were found with drug use and alcohol abuse. PMID:26303901

  12. Evaluation of a Short-Form of the Berg Card Sorting Test

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Christopher J.; Mueller, Shane T.; Gray, Hilary M.; Raber, Jacob; Piper, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    The Psychology Experimental Building Language http://pebl.sourceforge.net/ Berg Card Sorting Test is an open-source neurobehavioral test. Participants (N = 207, ages 6 to 74) completed the Berg Card Sorting Test. Performance on the first 64 trials were isolated and compared to that on the full-length (128 trials) test. Strong correlations between the short and long forms (total errors: r = .87, perseverative response: r = .83, perseverative errors r = .77, categories completed r = .86) support the Berg Card Sorting Test-64 as an abbreviated alternative for the full-length executive function test. PMID:23691107

  13. Readdressing gender bias in the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory-short form.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Paula L; Mullis, Ann K

    2002-12-01

    The short form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was evaluated for gender bias. The authors replicated a study by L. Francis and D. James (1998) and administered the SEI to 361 middle and high school students (146 boys, 2l5 girls). They found that gender bias existed in 6 of the 25 items on the SEI, with 5 of those items favoring boys. Because recent literature indicates that male and female adolescents experience problems in different areas of their lives, the authors suggest that researchers consider such differences when selecting items for a standardized measure. PMID:12495227

  14. Factor structure of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short form for restaurant employees.

    PubMed

    Hancer, Mura; George, R Thomas

    2004-02-01

    The factor structure of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire short form for nonsupervisory restaurant employees was explored in questions among 2000 employees of three full-service restaurant chains operating in midwestern United States. A total of 2000 surveys were distributed to hourly employees of the three chains. From the mailing, 924 surveys were returned and found useable, a 46.2% response rate. Principal factors analysis identified a four-factor structure for the employees, in contrast to the original two-factor structure, but as in other studies the structure was multifactorial. PMID:15077790

  15. Short-Term Adaptation of Conditioned Fear Responses Through Endocannabinoid Signaling in the Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Kamprath, Kornelia; Romo-Parra, Hector; Häring, Martin; Gaburro, Stefano; Doengi, Michael; Lutz, Beat; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2011-01-01

    The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are both known to have crucial roles in the processing of fear and anxiety, whereby they appear to be especially involved in the control of fear states. However, in contrast to many other brain regions including the cortical subregions of the amygdala, the existence of CB1 in the CeA remains enigmatic. In this study we show that CB1 is expressed in the CeA of mice and that CB1 in the CeA mediates short-term synaptic plasticity, namely depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) and inhibition (DSI). Moreover, the CB1 antagonist AM251 increased both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses in CeA neurons. Local application of AM251 in the CeA in vivo resulted in an acutely increased fear response in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm. Upon application of AM251 in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) in an otherwise identical protocol, no such acute behavioral effects were detected, but CB1 blockade resulted in increased fear responses during tone exposures on the subsequent days. Moreover, we observed that the efficacy of DSE and DSI in the CeA was increased on the day following fear conditioning, indicating that a single tone-shock pairing resulted in changes in endocannabinoid signaling in the CeA. Taken together, our data show the existence of CB1 proteins in the CeA, and their critical role for ensuring short-term adaptation of responses to fearful events, thereby suggesting a potential therapeutic target to accompany habituation-based therapies of post-traumatic symptoms. PMID:20980994

  16. An atypical form of cervicofacial actinomycosis treated with short but intensive antibiotic regimen

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kaushal Mahendra; Karagir, Amol; Kanitkar, Sampada; Koppikar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Human actinomycosis is a rare soft tissue infection caused by Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria Actinomyces israelii, a commensal of the oral cavity. The major clinical forms of actinomycosis are cervicofacial, thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forms. The cervicofacial region is most commonly affected. Actinomycosis is sometimes difficult to diagnose and it should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases. We report a patient who came with tooth pain and extra-oral swelling which later on presented as multiple draining sinuses. Our initial suspicion was dento-alveolar abscess or osteomyelitis. However, a culture of the discharge and subsequent biopsy revealed actinomycetes, confirming cervicofacial actinomycosis, but presenting itself not as the typical ‘lumpy jaw’. The patient was successfully treated conservatively with a short but intensive antibiotic course. PMID:23580677

  17. Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms for Assessing Client Needs and Functioning in Addiction Treatment.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D Dwayne; Joe, George W; Knight, Kevin; Rowan-Szal, Grace A; Gray, Julie S

    2012-01-01

    The TCU Short Forms contain a revised and expanded set of assessments for planning and managing addiction treatment services. They are formatted as brief (1-page) forms to measure client needs and functioning, including drug use severity and history (TCUDS II), criminal thinking and cognitive orientation (CTSForm), motivation and readiness for treatment (MOTForm), psychological functioning (PSYForm), social relations and functioning (SOCForm), and therapeutic participation and engagement (ENGForm). These instruments facilitate optically-scanned data entry, computerized scoring, and rapid graphical feedback for clinical decisions. The present study (based on 5,022 inmates from eight residential prison treatment programs) examines evidence on scale reliabilities and measurement structures of these tools. Results confirmed their integrity and usefulness as indicators of individual and group-level therapeutic dynamics. PMID:22505795

  18. Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms for Assessing Client Needs and Functioning in Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    SIMPSON, D. DWAYNE; JOE, GEORGE W.; KNIGHT, KEVIN; ROWAN-SZAL, GRACE A.; GRAY, JULIE S.

    2012-01-01

    The TCU Short Forms contain a revised and expanded set of assessments for planning and managing addiction treatment services. They are formatted as brief (1-page) forms to measure client needs and functioning, including drug use severity and history (TCUDS II), criminal thinking and cognitive orientation (CTSForm), motivation and readiness for treatment (MOTForm), psychological functioning (PSYForm), social relations and functioning (SOCForm), and therapeutic participation and engagement (ENGForm). These instruments facilitate optically-scanned data entry, computerized scoring, and rapid graphical feedback for clinical decisions. The present study (based on 5,022 inmates from eight residential prison treatment programs) examines evidence on scale reliabilities and measurement structures of these tools. Results confirmed their integrity and usefulness as indicators of individual and group-level therapeutic dynamics. PMID:22505795

  19. On- and off-axis statistical behavior of adaptive-optics-corrected short-exposure Strehl ratio.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Thierry; Conan, Jean-Marc

    2004-07-01

    Statistical behavior of the adaptive-optics- (AO-) corrected short-exposure point-spread function (PSF) is derived assuming a perfect correction of the phase's low spatial frequencies. Analytical expressions of the Strehl ratio (SR) fluctuations of on- and off-axis short-exposure PSFs are obtained. A theoretical expression of the short SR angular correlation is proposed and used to derive a definition of an anisoplanatic angle for AO-corrected images. Several applications of the analytical expressions are proposed: AO performance characterization, postprocessing imaging, light coupling into fiber, and exoplanet detection from a ground-based telescope. PMID:15260259

  20. Development of a Short Form of the Five-Factor Borderline Inventory.

    PubMed

    DeShong, Hilary L; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N; Miller, Joshua D; Widiger, Thomas A; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    The Five-Factor Borderline Inventory (FFBI) is a 120-item dimensional measure of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that was developed from the description of BPD from the perspective of the Five-Factor Model. The FFBI includes 12 subscales and 1 total score. The current study created a short form of the FFBI (FFBI-SF) using item response theory analyses based on an undergraduate student sample that completed the FFBI. Based on the results, the final FFBI-SF included 48 items, with 4 items per subscale. The construct validity of the short form was compared with the original FFBI in five additional samples. The FFBI-SF showed strong convergence with other BPD scales and comparable convergent and discriminant validity with the FFM compared with the FFBI. The correlational profiles generated by the total score and subscales were highly convergent. Results of the current study suggest that the FFBI-SF may be an accessible and useful assessment tool of BPD. PMID:25882163

  1. Discriminating Children with Autism from Children with Learning Difficulties with an Adaptation of the Short Sensory Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Justin; Tsermentseli, Stella; Cummins, Omar; Happe, Francesca; Heaton, Pamela; Spencer, Janine

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine the extent to which children with autism and children with learning difficulties can be discriminated from their responses to different patterns of sensory stimuli. Using an adapted version of the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), sensory processing was compared in 34 children with autism to 33 children with typical…

  2. The Cultural Adaptation Process of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students on Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Nathan William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short-term study abroad programs. The specific objectives of this study were to describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout…

  3. The Effects of Short-Lasting Anti-Saccade Training in Homonymous Hemianopia with and without Saccadic Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Lévy-Bencheton, Delphine; Pélisson, Denis; Prost, Myriam; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Salemme, Roméo; Pisella, Laure; Tilikete, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Homonymous Visual Field Defects (HVFD) are common following stroke and can be highly debilitating for visual perception and higher level cognitive functions such as exploring visual scene or reading a text. Rehabilitation using oculomotor compensatory methods with automatic training over a short duration (~15 days) have been shown as efficient as longer voluntary training methods (>1 month). Here, we propose to evaluate and compare the effect of an original HVFD rehabilitation method based on a single 15 min voluntary anti-saccades task (AS) toward the blind hemifield, with automatic sensorimotor adaptation to increase AS amplitude. In order to distinguish between adaptation and training effect, 14 left- or right-HVFD patients were exposed, 1 month apart, to three trainings, two isolated AS task (Delayed-shift and No-shift paradigm), and one combined with AS adaptation (Adaptation paradigm). A quality of life questionnaire (NEI-VFQ 25) and functional measurements (reading speed, visual exploration time in pop-out and serial tasks) as well as oculomotor measurements were assessed before and after each training. We could not demonstrate significant adaptation at the group level, but we identified a group of nine adapted patients. While AS training itself proved to demonstrate significant functional improvements in the overall patient group, we could also demonstrate in the sub-group of adapted patients and specifically following the adaptation training, an increase of saccade amplitude during the reading task (left-HVFD patients) and the Serial exploration task, and improvement of the visual quality of life. We conclude that short-lasting AS training combined with adaptation could be implemented in rehabilitation methods of cognitive dysfunctions following HVFD. Indeed, both voluntary and automatic processes have shown interesting effects on the control of visually guided saccades in different cognitive tasks. PMID:26778986

  4. Hamstring Architectural and Functional Adaptations Following Long vs. Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training

    PubMed Central

    Guex, Kenny; Degache, Francis; Morisod, Cynthia; Sailly, Matthieu; Millet, Gregoire P.

    2016-01-01

    Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle) and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques) parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML) vs. short muscle length (SML). Both groups performed eight sessions of 3–5 × 8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p < 0.01, medium effect size) in the SML and by 9.3% (p < 0.001, large effect size) in the LML group. The pennation angle did not change (p = 0.83) in the SML and tended to decrease by 0.7° (p = 0.09, small effect size) in the LML group. The concentric optimum angle tended to decrease by 8.8° (p = 0.09, medium effect size) in the SML and by 17.3° (p < 0.01, large effect size) in the LML group. The eccentric optimum angle did not change (p = 0.19, small effect size) in the SML and tended to decrease by 10.7° (p = 0.06, medium effect size) in the LML group. The concentric peak torque did not change in the SML (p = 0.37) and the LML (p = 0.23) groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p < 0.01, small effect size) and 17.9% (p < 0.001, small effect size) in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r = −0.57, p < 0.01). These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and

  5. Hamstring Architectural and Functional Adaptations Following Long vs. Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training.

    PubMed

    Guex, Kenny; Degache, Francis; Morisod, Cynthia; Sailly, Matthieu; Millet, Gregoire P

    2016-01-01

    Most common preventive eccentric-based exercises, such as Nordic hamstring do not include any hip flexion. So, the elongation stress reached is lower than during the late swing phase of sprinting. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of hamstring architectural (fascicle length and pennation angle) and functional (concentric and eccentric optimum angles and concentric and eccentric peak torques) parameters following a 3-week eccentric resistance program performed at long (LML) vs. short muscle length (SML). Both groups performed eight sessions of 3-5 × 8 slow maximal eccentric knee extensions on an isokinetic dynamometer: the SML group at 0° and the LML group at 80° of hip flexion. Architectural parameters were measured using ultrasound imaging and functional parameters using the isokinetic dynamometer. The fascicle length increased by 4.9% (p < 0.01, medium effect size) in the SML and by 9.3% (p < 0.001, large effect size) in the LML group. The pennation angle did not change (p = 0.83) in the SML and tended to decrease by 0.7° (p = 0.09, small effect size) in the LML group. The concentric optimum angle tended to decrease by 8.8° (p = 0.09, medium effect size) in the SML and by 17.3° (p < 0.01, large effect size) in the LML group. The eccentric optimum angle did not change (p = 0.19, small effect size) in the SML and tended to decrease by 10.7° (p = 0.06, medium effect size) in the LML group. The concentric peak torque did not change in the SML (p = 0.37) and the LML (p = 0.23) groups, whereas eccentric peak torque increased by 12.9% (p < 0.01, small effect size) and 17.9% (p < 0.001, small effect size) in the SML and the LML group, respectively. No group-by-time interaction was found for any parameters. A correlation was found between the training-induced change in fascicle length and the change in concentric optimum angle (r = -0.57, p < 0.01). These results suggest that performing eccentric exercises lead to several architectural and

  6. The short form of CheA couples chemoreception to CheA phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, A J; McNamara, B P; Stewart, R C

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells express two forms of the chemotaxis-associated CheA protein, CheAL and CheAS, as the result of translational initiation at two distinct in-frame initiation sites in the gene cheA. The long form, CheAL, plays a crucial role in chemotactic signal transduction. As a histidine protein kinase, it first autophosphorylates at amino acid His-48; then, it phosphorylates two other chemotaxis proteins, CheY and CheB. The short form, CheAS, lacks the amino-terminal 97 amino acids of CheAL and, therefore, does not contain the site of autophosphorylation. However, it does retain a functional kinase domain. As a consequence, CheAS can mediate transphosphorylation of kinase-deficient CheAL variants. Here we demonstrate in vitro that CheAS also can mediate transphosphorylation of a CheAL variant that lacks the C-terminal segment, a portion of the protein which is thought to interact with CheW and the chemoreceptors. The presence of CheW and the chemoreceptor Tsr enhances this activity and results in modulation of the transphosphorylation rate in response to the Tsr ligand, L-serine. Because CheAS can mediate this activity, it can restore chemotactic ability to Escherichia coli cells that express this truncated CheAL variant. Images PMID:8045878

  7. [A short form of the positions on nursing diagnosis scale: development and psychometric testing].

    PubMed

    Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; O'Ferrall-González, Cristina; Gabaldón-Bravo, Eva Maria; González-Domínguez, Maria Eugenia; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Frandsen, Anna J; Martínez-Sabater, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The Positions on Nursing Diagnosis (PND) is a scale that uses the semantic differential technique to measure nurses' attitudes towards the nursing diagnosis concept. The aim of this study was to develop a shortened form of the Spanish version of this scale and evaluate its psychometric properties and efficiency. A double theoretical-empirical approach was used to obtain a short form of the PND, the PND-7-SV, which would be equivalent to the original. Using a cross-sectional survey design, the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability), construct (exploratory factor analysis, known-groups technique and discriminant validity) and criterion-related validity (concurrent validity), sensitivity to change and efficiency of the PND-7-SV were assessed in a sample of 476 Spanish nursing students. The results endorsed the utility of the PND-7-SV to measure attitudes toward nursing diagnosis in an equivalent manner to the complete form of the scale and in a shorter time. PMID:24601134

  8. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of a short-form of the EMBU among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongquan; Wang, Li; Zhang, Lisong

    2012-02-01

    The present study used a sample of Chinese adolescents and validated a short-form of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran: One's Memories of Upbringing (s-EMBU) assessing perceived parental rearing styles. A Chinese revision of the s-EMBU by the authors was administered to a total of 779 high school students, ages 11 to 19 years. Exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample yielded a three-factor solution of Rejection, Emotional Warmth, and Overprotection, accounting for 47.1% of the total variance onthe father form and 48.8% of the total variance on the mother form. Then, confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the three-factor model to the data in the other half of the sample. The three subscales consisted of 6, 6, and 7 items, respectively. Scores on these subscales had Cronbach alphas ranging from .71 to .81, indicating adequate internal consistency. These psychometric properties suggest its applicability for research with Chinese adolescents. PMID:22489392

  9. Short dry period management improves peripartum ruminal adaptation in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jolicoeur, M S; Brito, A F; Santschi, D E; Pellerin, D; Lefebvre, D; Berthiaume, R; Girard, C L

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the improvement in postpartum energy balance frequently reported in cows under short dry period management could be due to an improvement in ruminal function related to the reduction in the number of diet changes before calving. Six multiparous and 6 primiparous Holstein cows equipped with ruminal cannula were assigned to 6 blocks of 2 cows each according to parity, projected milk production at 305 d, and expected calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to either a conventional (CDP; 63.2 ± 2.0 d) or a short dry period (SDP; 35.2 ± 2.0 d) management in a randomized complete block design. The CDP cows were fed a far-off diet until 28 d before calving, followed by a prepartum diet, whereas SDP cows received only the prepartum diet. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet. Milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded daily and milk composition, weekly. Blood samples were taken twice a week during the first 4 wk postcalving and weekly otherwise. Omasal and ruminal samples were collected approximately 3 wk prior and 3 wk after calving. From 28 d before calving until calving, when the 2 groups of cows were fed the same prepartum diet, there was no effect of the dry period length management on DMI, plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, and glucose and nutrient digestibility in the rumen. However, CDP cows tended to have lower ruminal pH and higher ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acids than SDP cows. From calving to 60 d in milk, daily DMI was higher for SDP than for CDP cows (22.3 ± 0.44 vs. 20.7 ± 0.30 kg), but milk production and milk concentrations and yields of fat, protein, and total solids were not affected by the dry period length management. After calving, body weight loss was reduced and body condition score tended to increase more rapidly for SDP than for CDP cows. Nutrient digestibility in the rumen, expressed in

  10. Validity, Reliability, and Potential Bias of Short Forms of Students' Evaluation of Teaching: The Case of UAE University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2013-01-01

    Students' opinions continue to be a significant factor in the evaluation of teaching in higher education institutions. The purpose of this study was to psychometrically assess short students evaluation of teaching (SET) forms using the UAE University form as a model. The study evaluated the form validity, reliability, the overall question,…

  11. Incremental Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    PubMed

    Siegling, A B; Vesely, Ashley K; Petrides, K V; Saklofske, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized. PMID:25830494

  12. Short-Time Beta Relaxation in Glass-Forming Liquids Is Cooperative in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-02-01

    Temporal relaxation of density fluctuations in supercooled liquids near the glass transition occurs in multiple steps. Using molecular dynamics simulations for three model glass-forming liquids, we show that the short-time β relaxation is cooperative in nature. Using finite-size scaling analysis, we extract a growing length scale associated with beta relaxation from the observed dependence of the beta relaxation time on the system size. We find, in qualitative agreement with the prediction of the inhomogeneous mode coupling theory, that the temperature dependence of this length scale is the same as that of the length scale that describes the spatial heterogeneity of local dynamics in the long-time α -relaxation regime.

  13. Validation of the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form With Minority Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Jung; Gopalan, Geetha; Harrington, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There has been little examination of the structural validity of the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form (PSI-SF) for minority populations in clinical contexts in the Unites States. This study aimed to test prespecified factor structures (one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models) of the PSI-SF. Methods This study used confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 240 predominantly Black and Latino caregivers of children with behavioral difficulties. Results The three-factor model fit was reasonable, and the criterion validity for the subscale and total scores was good supporting continued cautious use of the PSI-SF for clinical minority populations. Conclusions The PSI-SF could be integrated as part of screening and intake assessment procedures, which could allow social work practitioners to make more informed decisions about treatment planning, as well as facilitate conversations with caregivers around identifying sources of stress and developing healthy coping strategies.

  14. Measuring Effortful Control Using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form: Modeling Matters.

    PubMed

    Backer-Grøndahl, Agathe; Nærde, Ane; Ulleberg, Pål; Janson, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Effortful control (EC) is an important concept in the research on self-regulation in children. We tested 2 alternative factor models of EC as measured by the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF; Putnam & Rothbart, 2006 ) in a large sample of preschoolers (N = 1,007): 1 lower order and 1 hierarchical second-order structure. Additionally, convergent and predictive validity of EC as measured by the CBQ-VSF were investigated. The results supported a hierarchical model. Moderate convergent validity of the second-order latent EC factor was found in that it correlated with compliance and observed EC tasks. Both CBQ-VSF EC measures were also negatively correlated with child physical aggression. The results have implications for the measurement, modeling, and interpretation of EC applying the CBQ. PMID:26156045

  15. Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's Version: Validation of a Short Form.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vitor A; Sousa, Vanda; Marchante, Marta

    2016-08-01

    The Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's version, Short Form (QACSE-P-SF) allows teachers to assess their students' social and emotional competencies, having been designed for program evaluation. Thirty-nine teachers completed the QACSE-P-SF, regarding 657 students (fourth to ninth grades). Factor analyses supported a six-factor structure with acceptable internal consistency. Sex differences were found with teachers reporting girls as having higher scores on Self-Control, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, and Responsible Decision Making. Developmental differences were also found with fourth-grade students presenting higher levels of Social Awareness and Relationship Skills than older students. The final version of the QACSE-P-SF is composed by 30 items, organized into six scales and less time consuming than the previous version for teachers who need to assess full classes. PMID:27356548

  16. The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form: Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ju-Ri; Lee, Eun-Ho; Lee, Sun-Woo; Jeong, Eu-gene; Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Dongsoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Experiencing traumatic events in childhood is related to various psychiatric problems in adulthood, and a comprehensive tool for measuring childhood trauma is necessary in this field. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties, and factor structure of the Korean version of the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF). ETISR-SF measures the childhood trauma, including physical, and emotional sexual abuse, as well as general traumas. Methods A clinical and nonclinical samples comprising of 97 subjects from a local community, and 207 patients with the ETISR-SF, were assessed. Other tools, including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used to assess clinical symptoms. Additional data from 69 college students was used to examine the test-retest reliability. Results The original four-factor model was supported by the confirmatory factor analysis scale [χ2 (351, n=304)=3374.025, p<0.001, TLI=0.969, CFI=0.972, RMSEA=0.030]. The ETISR-SF was found to be a reliable instrument (Cronbach's α=0.869). Comparison of the ETISR-SF scores discriminated the clinical group from that of the control group. The measure showed good convergent and divergent validity, in that the scores were correlated higher with the scores on the CTQ-SF (0.691) than with the scores on the BDI or BAI (0.424, 0.397 respectively). The ETISR-SF was found to be temporally stable, showing the moderate to high correlation (0.844). Conclusion These findings suggest that the Korean version of the ETISR-SF appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of reported childhood trauma. PMID:22993521

  17. Secondary structure and zinc ligation of human recombinant short-form stromelysin by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR.

    PubMed

    Gooley, P R; Johnson, B A; Marcy, A I; Cuca, G C; Salowe, S P; Hagmann, W K; Esser, C K; Springer, J P

    1993-12-01

    Stromelysin-1, a member of the matrix metalloendoprotease family, is a zinc protease involved in the degradation of connective tissue in the extracellular matrix. As a step toward determining the structure of this protein, multidimensional heteronuclear NMR experiments have been applied to an inhibited truncated form of human stromelysin-1. Extensive 1H, 13C, and 15N sequential assignments have been obtained with a combination of three- and four-dimensional experiments. On the basis of sequential and short-range NOEs and 13C alpha chemical shifts, two helices have been delineated, spanning residues Asp-111 to Val-127 and Leu-195 to Ser-206. A third helix spanning residues Asp-238 to Gly-247 is characterized by sequential NOEs and 13C alpha chemical shifts, but not short-range NOEs. The lack of the latter NOEs suggests that this helix is either distorted or mobile. Similarly, sequential and interstrand NOEs and 13C alpha chemical shifts characterize a four-stranded beta-sheet with three parallel strands (Arg-100 to Ile-101, Ile-142 to Ala-147, Asp-177 to Asp-181) and one antiparallel strand (Ala-165 to Tyr-168). Two zinc sites have been identified in stromelysin [Salowe et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 4535-4540]. The NMR spectral properties, including chemical shift, pH dependence, and proton coupling of the imidazole nitrogens of six histidine residues (151, 166, 179, 201, 205, and 211), invariant in the matrix metalloendoprotease family, suggest that these residues are zinc ligands. NOE data indicate that these histidines form two clusters: one ligates the catalytic zinc (His-201, -205, and -211), and the other ligates a structural zinc (His-151, -166, and -179). Heteronuclear multiple quantum correlated spectra and specific labeling experiments indicate His-151, -179, -201, -205, and -211 are in the N delta 1H tautomer and His-166 is in the N epsilon 2H tautomer. PMID:8241164

  18. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  19. Adaptation to short photoperiods augments circadian food anticipatory activity in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Sean P; Prendergast, Brian J

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Both the light-dark cycle and the timing of food intake can entrain circadian rhythms. Entrainment to food is mediated by a food entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO) that is formally and mechanistically separable from the hypothalamic light-entrainable oscillator. This experiment examined whether seasonal changes in day length affect the function of the FEO in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters housed in long (LD; 15 h light/day) or short (SD; 9h light/day) photoperiods were subjected to a timed-feeding schedule for 10 days, during which food was available only during a 5h interval of the light phase. Running wheel activity occurring within a 3h window immediately prior to actual or anticipated food delivery was operationally-defined as food anticipatory activity (FAA). After the timed-feeding interval, hamsters were fed ad libitum, and FAA was assessed 2 and 7 days later via probe trials of total food deprivation. During timed-feeding, all hamsters exhibited increases FAA, but FAA emerged more rapidly in SD; in probe trials, FAA was greater in magnitude and persistence in SD. Gonadectomy in LD did not induce the SD-like FAA phenotype, indicating that withdrawal of gonadal hormones is not sufficient to mediate the effects of photoperiod on FAA. Entrainment of the circadian system to light markedly affects the functional output of the FEO via gonadal hormone-independent mechanisms. Rapid emergence and persistent expression of FAA in SD may reflect a seasonal adaptation that directs behavior toward sources of nutrition with high temporal precision at times of year when food is scarce. PMID:24666779

  20. Adaptation to short photoperiods augments circadian food anticipatory activity in Siberian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Sean P.; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Both the light-dark cycle and the timing of food intake can entrain circadian rhythms. Entrainment to food is mediated by a food entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO) that is formally and mechanistically separable from the hypothalamic light-entrainable oscillator. This experiment examined whether seasonal changes in day length affect the function of the FEO in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters housed in long (LD; 15 h light/day) or short (SD; 9 h light/day) photoperiods were subjected to a timed-feeding schedule for 10 days, during which food was available only during a 5 h interval of the light phase. Running wheel activity occurring within a 3 h window immediately prior to actual or anticipated food delivery was operationally-defined as food anticipatory activity (FAA). After the timed-feeding interval, hamsters were fed ad libitum, and FAA was assessed 2 and 7 days later via probe trials of total food deprivation. During timed-feeding, all hamsters exhibited increases FAA, but FAA emerged more rapidly in SD; in probe trials, FAA was greater in magnitude and persistence in SD. Gonadectomy in LD did not induce the SD-like FAA phenotype, indicating that withdrawal of gonadal hormones is not sufficient to mediate the effects of photoperiod on FAA. Entrainment of the circadian system to light markedly affects the functional output of the FEO via gonadal hormone-independent mechanisms. Rapid emergence and persistent expression of FAA in SD may reflect a seasonal adaptation that directs behavior toward sources of nutrition with high temporal precision at times of year when food is scarce. PMID:24666779

  1. An Examination of the Short Form of the Need for Cognition Scale Applied in an Australian Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsterlee, Robert; Ho, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Studied the factor structure of the Need for Cognition Scale (NFC) (J. Cohen, E. Scotland, and D. Wolfe, 1955) (short form) with samples of 510 and 697 Australian adults. Results support the use of the short version of the NFC with Australian samples. (SLD)

  2. The effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire: short form.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Lusia; Waters, Anne

    2005-03-01

    The schema concept has had an important role in both early and more recent accounts of psychopathology. Schemas are underlying cognitive structures that are thought to create vulnerability to disorders, because they act as templates for the perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Recent approaches to the understanding and treatment of personality disorders give schemas particular prominence, and the concept of early maladaptive schemas forms the cornerstone of Young's (1999) schema-focused cognitive therapy. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire--short form (YSQ-S; Young, 1998). A sample of 50 non-clinical participants completed the YSQ-S on three different occasions: in neutral mood, and following happy and depressed mood inductions. The results of 30 participants with full data sets showed that emotional deprivation and defectiveness scores increased after the depressed mood induction, whereas entitlement scores increased after the happy mood induction. The results are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of vulnerability to psychopathology, and future directions for research are suggested. PMID:15826405

  3. Monkeys have a limited form of short-term memory in audition.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2012-07-24

    A stimulus trace may be temporarily retained either actively [i.e., in working memory (WM)] or by the weaker mnemonic process we will call passive short-term memory, in which a given stimulus trace is highly susceptible to "overwriting" by a subsequent stimulus. It has been suggested that WM is the more robust process because it exploits long-term memory (i.e., a current stimulus activates a stored representation of that stimulus, which can then be actively maintained). Recent studies have suggested that monkeys may be unable to store acoustic signals in long-term memory, raising the possibility that they may therefore also lack auditory WM. To explore this possibility, we tested rhesus monkeys on a serial delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task using a small set of sounds presented with ~1-s interstimulus delays. Performance was accurate whenever a match or a nonmatch stimulus followed the sample directly, but it fell precipitously if a single nonmatch stimulus intervened between sample and match. The steep drop in accuracy was found to be due not to passive decay of the sample's trace, but to retroactive interference from the intervening nonmatch stimulus. This "overwriting" effect was far greater than that observed previously in serial DMS with visual stimuli. The results, which accord with the notion that WM relies on long-term memory, indicate that monkeys perform serial DMS in audition remarkably poorly and that whatever success they had on this task depended largely, if not entirely, on the retention of stimulus traces in the passive form of short-term memory. PMID:22778411

  4. Monkeys have a limited form of short-term memory in audition

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brian H.; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2012-01-01

    A stimulus trace may be temporarily retained either actively [i.e., in working memory (WM)] or by the weaker mnemonic process we will call passive short-term memory, in which a given stimulus trace is highly susceptible to “overwriting” by a subsequent stimulus. It has been suggested that WM is the more robust process because it exploits long-term memory (i.e., a current stimulus activates a stored representation of that stimulus, which can then be actively maintained). Recent studies have suggested that monkeys may be unable to store acoustic signals in long-term memory, raising the possibility that they may therefore also lack auditory WM. To explore this possibility, we tested rhesus monkeys on a serial delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task using a small set of sounds presented with ∼1-s interstimulus delays. Performance was accurate whenever a match or a nonmatch stimulus followed the sample directly, but it fell precipitously if a single nonmatch stimulus intervened between sample and match. The steep drop in accuracy was found to be due not to passive decay of the sample’s trace, but to retroactive interference from the intervening nonmatch stimulus. This “overwriting” effect was far greater than that observed previously in serial DMS with visual stimuli. The results, which accord with the notion that WM relies on long-term memory, indicate that monkeys perform serial DMS in audition remarkably poorly and that whatever success they had on this task depended largely, if not entirely, on the retention of stimulus traces in the passive form of short-term memory. PMID:22778411

  5. Life Satisfaction Index: Italian version and validation of a short form.

    PubMed

    Franchignoni, F; Tesio, L; Ottonello, M; Benevolo, E

    1999-01-01

    The Life Satisfaction Index-version A (LSIA) is a 20-item questionnaire providing a cumulative score acknowledged as a valid index of quality of life. In the present study, an Italian version was produced through validated procedures of repeated back-translations. The final Italian version (LSIA.it) was administered to 90 healthy subjects (55 women; aged 40-65 yr, median 51). Cronbach alpha was 0.74, in agreement with previous studies on English, Greek, and Spanish versions, suggesting satisfactory internal consistency of the scale. Also in agreement with previous studies, factor analysis identified three factors (mood tone, zest for life, and congruence between desired and achieved goals), with eigenvalues of 2.80, 1.72, and 1.34, respectively. Nine of the original 20 items were dropped because of inconsistency with the overall scale and/or because of ambiguous loading onto the extracted factors. The resulting 11-item short form (LSI-11) had alpha = 0.69 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sample adequacy = 0.65. In our sample, the mean score of LSIA.it was almost the same as that previously reported in the literature for LSIA, and the correlation between LSIA and LSI-11 was very high (r = 0.91). In a test-retest trial, the cumulative score of LSI-11 showed a percentage of agreement ranging from 73.9 to 100 and Cohen's k statistic for reliability ranging from 0.51 to 1. The individual items of the LSI-11 presented substantial (k > 0.6) to excellent (k > 0.8) levels of agreement. The responsiveness of LSIA and LSI-11 during a hospital stay for 30 consecutive inpatients for medical rehabilitation programs, as measured by effect size, was 0.57 and 0.63, respectively. The results suggest that (1) the LSIA it has cultural equivalence with the English LSIA and that (2) the 11-item short form of LSIA is not only simpler but also more valid from a psychometric standpoint. PMID:10574165

  6. The Psychological Well-Being and Sociocultural Adaptation of Short-Term International Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although…

  7. Outcome-adaptive randomization for a delayed outcome with a short-term predictor: imputation-based designs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ok; Liu, Chunyan; Hu, Feifang; Lee, J Jack

    2014-10-15

    Delay in the outcome variable is challenging for outcome-adaptive randomization, as it creates a lag between the number of subjects accrued and the information known at the time of the analysis. Motivated by a real-life pediatric ulcerative colitis trial, we consider a case where a short-term predictor is available for the delayed outcome. When a short-term predictor is not considered, studies have shown that the asymptotic properties of many outcome-adaptive randomization designs are little affected unless the lag is unreasonably large relative to the accrual process. These theoretical results assumed independent identical delays, however, whereas delays in the presence of a short-term predictor may only be conditionally homogeneous. We consider delayed outcomes as missing and propose mitigating the delay effect by imputing them. We apply this approach to the doubly adaptive biased coin design (DBCD) for motivating pediatric ulcerative colitis trial. We provide theoretical results that if the delays, although non-homogeneous, are reasonably short relative to the accrual process similarly as in the iid delay case, the lag is also asymptotically ignorable in the sense that a standard DBCD that utilizes only observed outcomes attains target allocation ratios in the limit. Empirical studies, however, indicate that imputation-based DBCDs performed more reliably in finite samples with smaller root mean square errors. The empirical studies assumed a common clinical setting where a delayed outcome is positively correlated with a short-term predictor similarly between treatment arm groups. We varied the strength of the correlation and considered fast and slow accrual settings. PMID:24889540

  8. Bloodstream form pre-adaptation to the tsetse fly in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Eva; Rojas, Federico; Mony, Binny M.; Szoor, Balazs; MacGregor, Paula; Matthews, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    African trypanosomes are sustained in the bloodstream of their mammalian hosts by their extreme capacity for antigenic variation. However, for life cycle progression, trypanosomes also must generate transmission stages called stumpy forms that are pre-adapted to survive when taken up during the bloodmeal of the disease vector, tsetse flies. These stumpy forms are rather different to the proliferative slender forms that maintain the bloodstream parasitaemia. Firstly, they are non proliferative and morphologically distinct, secondly, they show particular sensitivity to environmental cues that signal entry to the tsetse fly and, thirdly, they are relatively robust such that they survive the changes in temperature, pH and proteolytic environment encountered within the tsetse midgut. These characteristics require regulated changes in gene expression to pre-adapt the parasite and the use of environmental sensing mechanisms, both of which allow the rapid initiation of differentiation to tsetse midgut procyclic forms upon transmission. Interestingly, the generation of stumpy forms is also regulated and periodic in the mammalian blood, this being governed by a density-sensing mechanism whereby a parasite-derived signal drives cell cycle arrest and cellular development both to optimize transmission and to prevent uncontrolled parasite multiplication overwhelming the host. In this review we detail recent developments in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underpin the production of stumpy forms in the mammalian bloodstream and their signal perception pathways both in the mammalian bloodstream and upon entry into the tsetse fly. These discoveries are discussed in the context of conserved eukaryotic signaling and differentiation mechanisms. Further, their potential to act as targets for therapeutic strategies that disrupt parasite development either in the mammalian bloodstream or upon their transmission to tsetse flies is also discussed. PMID:24294594

  9. Comparative 5-year results of short hip total hip arthroplasty with Ti- or CoCr-neck adapters.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Ralf H; Steffen, Reinhard

    2015-03-01

    This prospective study investigated revision after modular short stem implantation. Results are presented for 2 different types of neck adapters (titanium and cobalt-chromium [CoCr]). Eighty-five patients with titanium adapters and 87 patients with CoCr adapters underwent follow-up examination after an average of 5.7 and 5.2 years, respectively. Mean patient age was 57 years in both groups. Indications were primary osteoarthritis (80%), cup dysplasia (14%), and other (6%). Mean Harris Hip Scores were 98 and 99 points (titanium and CoCr groups, respectively). Ninety percent and 96% of patients were very satisfied or satisfied (titanium and CoCr groups, respectively); 3% of patients in both groups were dissatisfied. Pain decreased from visual analog scale score 7 and 6 preoperatively to 0.37 and 0.15 postoperatively for the titanium and CoCr groups, respectively. No joint dislocation occurred. Six patients needed revision within the first year (2 for infection, 1 for via falsa position, and 2 for aseptic loosening in the titanium group, and 1 for aseptic loosening in the CoCr group). Nine revisions occurred due to neck adapter failure (titanium group). Primary standard stems were used in all revisions. Excluding material-related adapter failures in the titanium group, the 5-year survival rate was 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.9-97.6 for titanium) and 99% (95% CI, 93.7-99.8 for CoCr). No radiographic signs of loosening were seen at last follow-up. Fine sclerotic lines were detected in Gruen zones 1 (17.2%) and 2 (14%), hypertrophies in zone 3 (4.3%), and periprosthetic cancellous bone compressions in zone 6 (75.8%). No adapter fractures occurred for CoCr components. The treatment and anchoring system of the short stem studied yielded good results and allowed revision using standard stems in all patients. PMID:25826630

  10. Bifactor analysis of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF).

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Gideon P; du Plessis, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    This report examined the factor structure of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) using bifactor analysis to evaluate a general well-being factor and the three group factors that correspond with emotional, social, and psychological well-being. Using a sample of 902 South African psychology students (M age=21.1 yr., SD=2.7), the MHC-SF was examined using confirmatory factor models, (1) a one-factor model conceptualizing well-being as unidimensional, (2) a correlated three-factor model corresponding with Keyes' model, and (3) a bifactor solution with a general well-being factor and three orthogonalized group factors. The bifactor solution fitted the best and evidenced a strong general well-being factor and three comparatively weak residualized group factors. These findings contribute to the literature by facilitating an examination of the strength of a general well-being factor as contrasted with the multidimensional components of emotional, social, and psychological well-being and advance a case for the interpretation of both the general and multidimensional components. The results inform considerations regarding the employ of the scale in statistical procedures such as multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling. PMID:25730745

  11. Measurement development and validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF).

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie B; Ernst Kossek, Ellen; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-07-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees' family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine whether the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803

  12. Short-form Ron is a novel determinant of ovarian cancer initiation and progression.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Katherine M; Wang, Luyao; Welm, Alana L; Bieniasz, Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    Short-form Ron (sfRon) is an understudied, alternative isoform of the full-length Ron receptor tyrosine kinase. In contrast to Ron, which has been shown to be an important player in many cancers, little is known about the role of sfRon in cancer pathogenesis. Here we report the striking discovery that sfRon expression is required for development of carcinogen-induced malignant ovarian tumors in mice. We also show that sfRon is expressed in several subtypes of human ovarian cancer including high-grade serous carcinomas, which is in contrast to no detectable expression in healthy ovaries. In addition, we report that introduction of sfRon into OVCAR3 cells resulted in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, activation of the PI3K and PDK1 pathway, and inhibition of the MAPK pathway. We demonstrated that sfRon confers an aggressive cancer phenotype in vitro characterized by increased proliferation and migration, and decreased adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the in vivo studies show that OVCAR3 tumors expressing sfRon exhibit significantly more robust growth and spreading to the abdominal cavity when compared with the parental sfRon negative OVCAR3 cells. These data suggest that sfRon plays a significant role in ovarian cancer initiation and progression, and may represent a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27551332

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Young Hee; Rim, Hyo Deog; Won, Seung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) is a self-report measure of early maladaptive schemas and is currently in its third revision; it is available in both long (YSQ-L3) and short (YSQ-S3) forms. The goal of this study was to develop a Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and establish its psychometric properties in a Korean sample. Methods A total of 542 graduate medical students completed the Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and several other psychological scales. A subsample of 308 subjects completed the Korean YSQ-S3 both before and after a 2-year test-retest interval. Correlation, regression, and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the data. Results The internal consistency of the 90-item Korean YSQ-S3 was 0.97 and that of each schema was acceptable, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.90. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.46 to 0.65. Every schema showed robust positive correlations with most psychological measures. The confirmatory factor analysis for the 18-factor structure originally proposed by Young, Klosko, and Weishaar (2003) showed that most goodness-of-fit statistics were indicative of a satisfactory fit. Conclusion These findings support the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the YSQ-S3. PMID:26207121

  14. Measurement Development and Validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine if the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803

  15. Short form of the Changes in Outlook Questionnaire: Translation and validation of the Chinese version

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CiOQ) is a self-report instrument designed to measure both positive and negative changes following the experience of severely stressful events. Previous research has focused on the Western context. The aim of this study is to translate the short form of the measure (CiOQ-S) into simplified Chinese and examine its validity and reliability in a sample of Chinese earthquake survivors. Method The English language version of the 10-item CiOQ was translated into simplified Chinese and completed along with other measures in a sample of earthquake survivors (n = 120). Statistical analyses were performed to explore the structure of the simplified Chinese version of CiOQ-S (CiOQ-SCS), its reliability and validity. Results Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted to test the structure of the CiOQ-SCS. The reliability and convergent validity were also assessed. The CiOQ-SCS demonstrated a similar factor structure to the English version, high internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety and depression, coping and social support. Conclusion The data are comparable to those reported for the original version of the instrument indicating that the CiOQ-SCS is a reliable and valid measure assessing positive and negative changes in the aftermath of adversity. However, the sampling method cannot permit us to know how representative our samples were of the earthquake survivor population. PMID:22530984

  16. Short-form Ron is a novel determinant of ovarian cancer initiation and progression

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Katherine M.; Wang, Luyao; Welm, Alana L.; Bieniasz, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Short-form Ron (sfRon) is an understudied, alternative isoform of the full-length Ron receptor tyrosine kinase. In contrast to Ron, which has been shown to be an important player in many cancers, little is known about the role of sfRon in cancer pathogenesis. Here we report the striking discovery that sfRon expression is required for development of carcinogen-induced malignant ovarian tumors in mice. We also show that sfRon is expressed in several subtypes of human ovarian cancer including high-grade serous carcinomas, which is in contrast to no detectable expression in healthy ovaries. In addition, we report that introduction of sfRon into OVCAR3 cells resulted in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, activation of the PI3K and PDK1 pathway, and inhibition of the MAPK pathway. We demonstrated that sfRon confers an aggressive cancer phenotype in vitro characterized by increased proliferation and migration, and decreased adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the in vivo studies show that OVCAR3 tumors expressing sfRon exhibit significantly more robust growth and spreading to the abdominal cavity when compared with the parental sfRon negative OVCAR3 cells. These data suggest that sfRon plays a significant role in ovarian cancer initiation and progression, and may represent a promising therapeutic target for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:27551332

  17. Short-Form Ron Promotes Spontaneous Breast Cancer Metastasis through Interaction with Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuemei; Zhao, Ling; DeRose, Yoko S.; Lin, Yi-Chun; Bieniasz, Magdalena; Eyob, Henok; Buys, Saundra S.; Neumayer, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been the subject of intense investigation due to their widespread deregulation in cancer and the prospect of developing targeted therapeutics against these proteins. The Ron RTK has been implicated in tumor aggressiveness and is a developing target for therapy, but its function in tumor progression and metastasis is not fully understood. We examined Ron activity in human breast cancers and found striking predominance of an activated Ron isoform known as short-form Ron (sfRon), whose function in breast tumors has not been explored. We found that sfRon plays a significant role in aggressiveness of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. sfRon expression was sufficient to convert slow-growing, nonmetastatic tumors into rapidly growing tumors that spontaneously metastasized to liver and bones. Mechanistic studies revealed that sfRon promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis through interaction with p85, the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Inhibition of PI3K activity, or introduction of a single mutation in the p85 docking site on sfRon, completely eliminated the ability of sfRon to promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. These findings reveal sfRon as an important new player in breast cancer and validate Ron and PI3K as therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:22207901

  18. Collateral Report of Psychopathy: Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Iyican, Susan; Sommer, Johannah M.; Kini, Sheetal; Babcock, Julia C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality syndrome comprised of interpersonal, affective, and behavioral features that has emerged as a correlate of intimate partner violence perpetration. One commonly used self-report measure of psychopathy is the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form. The current study employed a multi-trait, multi-method approach to test convergent and discriminant validity of the measure in partner-violent couples by comparing males’ self-report of psychopathy to the informant report of their female partner (N = 114). It was hypothesized that the female partner-report of the male’s psychopathy would be highly correlated with the male report of his own psychopathy, thus providing evidence for the construct validity and interrater reliability of the PPI-SF. Analyses found that male and female reports were correlated significantly on the two major factors of the PPI-SF. Furthermore, the female-report explained a significant amount of variance over and above men’s self-report on PAI scales designed to indicate antisocial personality traits. PMID:26213500

  19. Evaluation of the Iranian Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form in Community-dwelling Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfipour, Mohammad; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Faramarzi, Elnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to assess agreement and diagnostic accuracy of the Iranian version of Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF) against the original MNA, as a gold standard in community-dwelling elderly. Methods: The full MNA and 9-item MNA-SF comprising questions regarding clinical status, dietary assessment and self-perception of health status and nutri-tion together with mid-arm and calf circumference measurements without in-cluding the body mass index (BMI) were completed for 205 volunteers aged 65 or older recruited from all over Markazi Province (Iran). Correlation, diagnostic accuracy and agreement between the MNA-SF and full MNA were calculated. Results: The MNA and the MNA-SF classified 45.4% and 64.4% of the sub-jects as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Substantial agree-ment between the MNA-SF and full MNA was observed (Kappa=0.633). The MNA-SF correlated strongly with the full MNA (r=0.868, P<0.001). The MNA-SF showed high sensitivity (96.77%) and negative predictive values (95.89%), relatively high specificity (62.5%) and positive predictive values (68.18%) and fair accuracy (Area under curve =0.796). Conclusion: Iranian MNA-SF seems to be an applicable screening tool for quick detection of malnutrition or at risk of malnutrition in community-dwelling elderly especially when BMI is unavailable. PMID:26290825

  20. Short Form of the Chinese Version Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth Scale

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Lo, Fu-Sung; Chen, Bai-Hsiun; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Lee, Yann-Jinn

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the psychometric properties of the short form of the Chinese version Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth scale (C-DQOLY-SF). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A 30-item C-DQOLY-SF was administered to 371 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, correlation with HbA1c, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were used to examine the psychometric characteristics of C-DQOLY-SF. RESULTS A 25-item questionnaire with three correlated second-order factor structures best fitted data. Scores on the 25-item C-DQOLY-SF significantly correlated with HbA1c values. Cronbach’s α and ICCs of each scale and subscale ranged from 0.77 to 0.90 and from 0.70 to 0.92, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The C-DQOLY-SF has satisfactory reliability and validity. The C-DQOLY-SF can be conveniently used in clinical settings to assess the quality of life of adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:21788630

  1. Odor-context effects in free recall after a short retention interval: a new methodology for controlling adaptation.

    PubMed

    Isarida, Takeo; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kubota, Takayuki; Koga, Miho; Katayama, Yu; Isarida, Toshiko K

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated context effects of incidental odors in free recall after a short retention interval (5 min). With a short retention interval, the results are not confounded by extraneous odors or encounters with the experimental odor and possible rehearsal during a long retention interval. A short study time condition (4 s per item), predicted not to be affected by adaptation to the odor, and a long study time condition (8 s per item) were used. Additionally, we introduced a new method for recovery from adaptation, where a dissimilar odor was briefly presented at the beginning of the retention interval, and we demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique. An incidental learning paradigm was used to prevent overshadowing from confounding the results. In three experiments, undergraduates (N = 200) incidentally studied words presented one-by-one and received a free recall test. Two pairs of odors and a third odor having different semantic-differential characteristics were selected from 14 familiar odors. One of the odors was presented during encoding, and during the test, the same odor (same-context condition) or the other odor within the pair (different-context condition) was presented. Without using a recovery-from-adaptation method, a significant odor-context effect appeared in the 4-s/item condition, but not in the 8-s/item condition. Using the recovery-from-adaptation method, context effects were found for both the 8- and the 4-s/item conditions. The size of the recovered odor-context effect did not change with study time. There were no serial position effects. Implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:24222319

  2. Why Be a Shrub? A Basic Model and Hypotheses for the Adaptive Values of a Common Growth Form

    PubMed Central

    Götmark, Frank; Götmark, Elin; Jensen, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs are multi-stemmed short woody plants, more widespread than trees, important in many ecosystems, neglected in ecology compared to herbs and trees, but currently in focus due to their global expansion. We present a novel model based on scaling relationships and four hypotheses to explain the adaptive significance of shrubs, including a review of the literature with a test of one hypothesis. Our model describes advantages for a small shrub compared to a small tree with the same above-ground woody volume, based on larger cross-sectional stem area, larger area of photosynthetic tissue in bark and stem, larger vascular cambium area, larger epidermis (bark) area, and larger area for sprouting, and faster production of twigs and canopy. These components form our Hypothesis 1 that predicts higher growth rate for a small shrub than a small tree. This prediction was supported by available relevant empirical studies (14 publications). Further, a shrub will produce seeds faster than a tree (Hypothesis 2), multiple stems in shrubs insure future survival and growth if one or more stems die (Hypothesis 3), and three structural traits of short shrub stems improve survival compared to tall tree stems (Hypothesis 4)—all hypotheses have some empirical support. Multi-stemmed trees may be distinguished from shrubs by more upright stems, reducing bending moment. Improved understanding of shrubs can clarify their recent expansion on savannas, grasslands, and alpine heaths. More experiments and other empirical studies, followed by more elaborate models, are needed to understand why the shrub growth form is successful in many habitats. PMID:27507981

  3. Why Be a Shrub? A Basic Model and Hypotheses for the Adaptive Values of a Common Growth Form.

    PubMed

    Götmark, Frank; Götmark, Elin; Jensen, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs are multi-stemmed short woody plants, more widespread than trees, important in many ecosystems, neglected in ecology compared to herbs and trees, but currently in focus due to their global expansion. We present a novel model based on scaling relationships and four hypotheses to explain the adaptive significance of shrubs, including a review of the literature with a test of one hypothesis. Our model describes advantages for a small shrub compared to a small tree with the same above-ground woody volume, based on larger cross-sectional stem area, larger area of photosynthetic tissue in bark and stem, larger vascular cambium area, larger epidermis (bark) area, and larger area for sprouting, and faster production of twigs and canopy. These components form our Hypothesis 1 that predicts higher growth rate for a small shrub than a small tree. This prediction was supported by available relevant empirical studies (14 publications). Further, a shrub will produce seeds faster than a tree (Hypothesis 2), multiple stems in shrubs insure future survival and growth if one or more stems die (Hypothesis 3), and three structural traits of short shrub stems improve survival compared to tall tree stems (Hypothesis 4)-all hypotheses have some empirical support. Multi-stemmed trees may be distinguished from shrubs by more upright stems, reducing bending moment. Improved understanding of shrubs can clarify their recent expansion on savannas, grasslands, and alpine heaths. More experiments and other empirical studies, followed by more elaborate models, are needed to understand why the shrub growth form is successful in many habitats. PMID:27507981

  4. Performance of the CES-D and Its Short Forms in Screening Suicidality and Hopelessness in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Liu, Ka Yuet; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2007-01-01

    A measurement scale should be short and quick to complete if it is to be practically useful. Drawing on data from a community-based survey of 2,178 people in Hong Kong, we compared five short forms (5- to 10-item) and the original version (20-item) of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) in predicting…

  5. Accelerated gradient-based free form deformable registration for online adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Gang; Liang, Yueqiang; Yang, Guanyu; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Baosheng; Yin, Yong; Li, Dengwang

    2015-04-01

    The registration of planning fan-beam computed tomography (FBCT) and daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a crucial step in adaptive radiation therapy. The current intensity-based registration algorithms, such as Demons, may fail when they are used to register FBCT and CBCT, because the CT numbers in CBCT cannot exactly correspond to the electron densities. In this paper, we investigated the effects of CBCT intensity inaccuracy on the registration accuracy and developed an accurate gradient-based free form deformation algorithm (GFFD). GFFD distinguishes itself from other free form deformable registration algorithms by (a) measuring the similarity using the 3D gradient vector fields to avoid the effect of inconsistent intensities between the two modalities; (b) accommodating image sampling anisotropy using the local polynomial approximation-intersection of confidence intervals (LPA-ICI) algorithm to ensure a smooth and continuous displacement field; and (c) introducing a 'bi-directional' force along with an adaptive force strength adjustment to accelerate the convergence process. It is expected that such a strategy can decrease the effect of the inconsistent intensities between the two modalities, thus improving the registration accuracy and robustness. Moreover, for clinical application, the algorithm was implemented by graphics processing units (GPU) through OpenCL framework. The registration time of the GFFD algorithm for each set of CT data ranges from 8 to 13 s. The applications of on-line adaptive image-guided radiation therapy, including auto-propagation of contours, aperture-optimization and dose volume histogram (DVH) in the course of radiation therapy were also studied by in-house-developed software. PMID:25767898

  6. Accelerated gradient-based free form deformable registration for online adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Gang; Liang, Yueqiang; Yang, Guanyu; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Baosheng; Yin, Yong; Li, Dengwang

    2015-04-01

    The registration of planning fan-beam computed tomography (FBCT) and daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a crucial step in adaptive radiation therapy. The current intensity-based registration algorithms, such as Demons, may fail when they are used to register FBCT and CBCT, because the CT numbers in CBCT cannot exactly correspond to the electron densities. In this paper, we investigated the effects of CBCT intensity inaccuracy on the registration accuracy and developed an accurate gradient-based free form deformation algorithm (GFFD). GFFD distinguishes itself from other free form deformable registration algorithms by (a) measuring the similarity using the 3D gradient vector fields to avoid the effect of inconsistent intensities between the two modalities; (b) accommodating image sampling anisotropy using the local polynomial approximation-intersection of confidence intervals (LPA-ICI) algorithm to ensure a smooth and continuous displacement field; and (c) introducing a ‘bi-directional’ force along with an adaptive force strength adjustment to accelerate the convergence process. It is expected that such a strategy can decrease the effect of the inconsistent intensities between the two modalities, thus improving the registration accuracy and robustness. Moreover, for clinical application, the algorithm was implemented by graphics processing units (GPU) through OpenCL framework. The registration time of the GFFD algorithm for each set of CT data ranges from 8 to 13 s. The applications of on-line adaptive image-guided radiation therapy, including auto-propagation of contours, aperture-optimization and dose volume histogram (DVH) in the course of radiation therapy were also studied by in-house-developed software.

  7. Further statistical and clinical validity for the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Ames, Gretchen E; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Grothe, Karen B; Clark, Matthew M

    2015-08-01

    Identifying barriers to long-term adherence to reduced energy intake and increased physical activity level is critically important for obese patients seeking weight loss treatment. Previous research has identified that one such barrier is low eating self-efficacy or poor confidence in one's ability to control eating behavior in the presence of challenging situations. Accordingly, a valid, brief measure of eating self-efficacy for longitudinal assessment of weight loss and regain is needed. The purpose of this study was to test the internal consistency and clinical validity of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form (WEL-SF). Participants were 1740 consecutive obese patients who presented for a psychological evaluation in consideration for bariatric surgery. Median BMI was 44.9 (range: 35.0-111.9), age 48.7years (range: 18.9-77.3years), and patients were predominantly female (71.1%) and Caucasian (90.8%). The median WEL-SF total score was 56 (range: 0-80) and Cronbach's alpha measuring internal consistency was 0.92 with a one-factor structure. In terms of clinical validation, lower WEL-SF total scores were significantly associated with higher rates of binge eating episodes (P<0.0001), food addiction severity and dependence (P<0.0001), night eating syndrome (P<0.0001), depression (P<0.0001), and anxiety (P<0.0001). In contrast, higher WEL-SF total scores were associated with higher weight management self-efficacy (P<0.0001) and motivation to make positive lifestyle changes (P<0.0001). Taken together, these findings suggest that the WEL-SF is a psychometrically valid clinically meaningful measure of eating self-efficacy. PMID:26042918

  8. Merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in short-period stellar binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Ilya; de Mink, Selma E.

    2016-05-01

    We explore a newly proposed channel to create binary black holes of stellar origin. This scenario applies to massive, tight binaries where mixing induced by rotation and tides transports the products of hydrogen burning throughout the stellar envelopes. This slowly enriches the entire star with helium, preventing the build-up of an internal chemical gradient. The stars remain compact as they evolve nearly chemically homogeneously, eventually forming two black holes, which we estimate typically merge 4-11 Gyr after formation. Like other proposed channels, this evolutionary pathway suffers from significant theoretical uncertainties, but could be constrained in the near future by data from advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected merger rate over cosmic time to explore the implications and uncertainties. Our default model for this channel yields a local binary black hole merger rate of about 10 Gpc-3 yr-1 at redshift z = 0, peaking at twice this rate at z = 0.5. This means that this channel is competitive, in terms of expected rates, with the conventional formation scenarios that involve a common-envelope phase during isolated binary evolution or dynamical interaction in a dense cluster. The events from this channel may be distinguished by the preference for nearly equal-mass components and high masses, with typical total masses between 50 and 110 M⊙. Unlike the conventional isolated binary evolution scenario that involves shrinkage of the orbit during a common-envelope phase, short time delays are unlikely for this channel, implying that we do not expect mergers at high redshift.

  9. Portuguese Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Halley M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    In the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) was included as a tentative disorder worthy of future research. Since then, several psychometric instruments to assess IGD have emerged in the literature, including the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF), the most brief tool available to date. Research on the effects of IGD in Portugal has been minimal and may be due to the lack of a psychometrically validated tool to assess this construct within this particular cultural background. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Portuguese IGDS9-SF. A total of 509 adolescents were recruited to the present study. Construct validity of the IGDS9-SF was assessed in two ways. First, confirmatory factor analysis was performed to investigate the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF in the sample, and the unidimensional structure of the IGDS9-SF fitted the data well. Second, nomological validation of the IGDS9-SF was carried out and the nomological network analyzed was replicated as expected, further supporting the construct validity of the IGDS9-SF. Criterion validity of the IGDS9-SF was also established using key criterion variables. Finally, the IGDS9-SF also showed satisfactory levels of reliability using several indicators of internal consistency. Based on the results found, the IGDS9-SF appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Portuguese adolescents and further research on IGD in Portugal is warranted. PMID:26974853

  10. Analysis of the short form-36 (SF-36): the beta-binomial distribution approach.

    PubMed

    Arostegui, Inmaculada; Núñez-Antón, Vicente; Quintana, José M

    2007-03-15

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important indicator of health status and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) is a generic instrument to measure it. Multiple linear regression (MLR) is often used to study the relationship of HRQoL with patients' characteristics, though HRQoL outcomes tend to be not normally distributed, skewed and bounded (e.g. between 0 and 100). A sample of 193 patients with eating disorders has been analysed to assess the performance of the MLR under non-normality conditions. Normal distribution was rejected for seven out of the eight domains. A beta-binomial distribution is suggested to fit the SF-36 scores. The beta-binomial distribution is not rejected for five out of the eight domains. Thus, a beta-binomial regression (BBR) is suggested to analyse the SF-36 scores. Results using MLR and BBR have been compared for real and simulated data. Performance of the BBR is shown to be better than MLR in the HRQoL domains with few ordered categories and very similar to MLR in the more continuous domains. Moreover, the interpretation of the estimates obtained with BBR is clinically more meaningful. A common technique of statistical analysis is preferable for all the HRQoL dimensions. Therefore, the BBR approach is recommended not only to detect significant predictors of HRQoL when SF-36 is used, but also to analyse and interpret the effect of several explanatory variables on HRQoL. Further work is required to test the better performance of BBR against standard methods for other HRQoL outcomes, populations or interventions. PMID:16795124

  11. In search of parsimony: reliability and validity of the Functional Performance Inventory-Short Form

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Nancy Kline; Knebel, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The 65-item Functional Performance Inventory (FPI), developed to quantify functional performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has been shown to be reliable and valid. The purpose of this study was to create a shorter version of the FPI while preserving the integrity and psychometric properties of the original. Patients and methods: Secondary analyses were performed on qualitative and quantitative data used to develop and validate the FPI long form. Seventeen men and women with COPD participated in the qualitative work, while 154 took part in the mail survey; 54 completed 2-week reproducibility assessment, and 40 relatives contributed validation data. Following a systematic process of item reduction, performance properties of the 32-item short form (FPI-SF) were examined. Results: The FPI-SF was internally consistent (total scale α = 0.93; subscales: 0.76–0.89) and reproducible (r = 0.88; subscales: 0.69–0.86). Validity was maintained, with significant (P < 0.001) correlations between the FPI-SF and the Functional Status Questionnaire (activities of daily living, r = 0.71; instrumental activities of daily living, r = 0.73), Duke Activity Status Index (r = 0.65), Bronchitis-Emphysema Symptom Checklist (r = −0.61), Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory (r = 0.61) and Cantril’s Ladder of Life Satisfaction (r = 0.63), and Katz Adjustment Scale for Relatives (socially expected activities, r = 0.51; free-time activities, r = −0.49, P < 0.01). The FPI-SF differentiated patients with an FEVl% predicted greater than and less than 50% (t = 4.26, P < 0.001), and those with severe and moderate levels of perceived severity and activity limitation (t = 9.91, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Results suggest the FPI-SF is a viable alternative to the FPI for situations in which a shorter instrument is desired. Further assessment of the instrument’s performance properties in new samples of patients with COPD is warranted. PMID:21191436

  12. Simple construct evaluation with latent class analysis: An investigation of Facebook addiction and the development of a short form of the Facebook Addiction Test (F-AT).

    PubMed

    Dantlgraber, Michael; Wetzel, Eunike; Schützenberger, Petra; Stieger, Stefan; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    In psychological research, there is a growing interest in using latent class analysis (LCA) for the investigation of quantitative constructs. The aim of this study is to illustrate how LCA can be applied to gain insights on a construct and to select items during test development. We show the added benefits of LCA beyond factor-analytic methods, namely being able (1) to describe groups of participants that differ in their response patterns, (2) to determine appropriate cutoff values, (3) to evaluate items, and (4) to evaluate the relative importance of correlated factors. As an example, we investigated the construct of Facebook addiction using the Facebook Addiction Test (F-AT), an adapted version of the Internet Addiction Test (I-AT). Applying LCA facilitates the development of new tests and short forms of established tests. We present a short form of the F-AT based on the LCA results and validate the LCA approach and the short F-AT with several external criteria, such as chatting, reading newsfeeds, and posting status updates. Finally, we discuss the benefits of LCA for evaluating quantitative constructs in psychological research. PMID:26931108

  13. Interacting Adaptive Processes with Different Timescales Underlie Short-Term Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ghazizadeh, Ali; Shadmehr, Reza

    2006-01-01

    Multiple processes may contribute to motor skill acquisition, but it is thought that many of these processes require sleep or the passage of long periods of time ranging from several hours to many days or weeks. Here we demonstrate that within a timescale of minutes, two distinct fast-acting processes drive motor adaptation. One process responds weakly to error but retains information well, whereas the other responds strongly but has poor retention. This two-state learning system makes the surprising prediction of spontaneous recovery (or adaptation rebound) if error feedback is clamped at zero following an adaptation-extinction training episode. We used a novel paradigm to experimentally confirm this prediction in human motor learning of reaching, and we show that the interaction between the learning processes in this simple two-state system provides a unifying explanation for several different, apparently unrelated, phenomena in motor adaptation including savings, anterograde interference, spontaneous recovery, and rapid unlearning. Our results suggest that motor adaptation depends on at least two distinct neural systems that have different sensitivity to error and retain information at different rates. PMID:16700627

  14. Enhancing Collaborative Learning through Dynamic Forms of Support: The Impact of an Adaptive Domain-Specific Support Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakostas, A.; Demetriadis, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has strongly emphasized the value of providing student support of either fixed (e.g. collaboration scripts) or dynamic form (e.g. adaptive supportive interventions). Currently, however, there is not sufficient evidence corroborating the potential of adaptive support methods to improve…

  15. Differences in bill form of the oystercatcher haematopus ostralegus; a dynamic adaptation to specific foraging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swennen, C.; De Bruijn, L. L. M.; Duiven, P.; Leopold, M. F.; Marteijn, E. C. L.

    In wintering European oystercatchers 3 bill types: pointed, chisel-shaped, and blunt were found as well as their intermediates. The distribution of the different bill types varied widely in both time and space. Pointed bills had a larger mean length than both chisel-shaped and blunt bills, and occurred more often in young birds than in adults, and more often in females than in males. On an average, females had longer bills than males. In oystercatchers in the Wadden Sea area bill length was found to increase with age, but in the Delta area no increase was found. In semi-natural cage experiments each bill type proved to be most suitable for a specific manner of localization and handling of prey. Bills of individual oystercatchers were shown to change shape when the bird was forced to change its feeding method. A change in method accompanied by a gradual change in bill form only caused a temporary loss of feeding efficiency. It is concluded that differences in bill length influence prey choice and feeding method and hence induce different bill forms. Age- and sex-dependent differences in bill length and form, together with the ability of the individual to adapt bill form and feeding behaviour, enable the oystercatcher to lessen interspecific competition and to respond to changing environmental conditions.

  16. Adult zebrafish intestine resection: a novel model of short bowel syndrome, adaptation, and intestinal stem cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Schall, K. A.; Holoyda, K. A.; Grant, C. N.; Levin, D. E.; Torres, E. R.; Maxwell, A.; Pollack, H. A.; Moats, R. A.; Frey, M. R.; Darehzereshki, A.; Al Alam, D.; Lien, C.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of significant intestinal length from congenital anomaly or disease may lead to short bowel syndrome (SBS); intestinal failure may be partially offset by a gain in epithelial surface area, termed adaptation. Current in vivo models of SBS are costly and technically challenging. Operative times and survival rates have slowed extension to transgenic models. We created a new reproducible in vivo model of SBS in zebrafish, a tractable vertebrate model, to facilitate investigation of the mechanisms of intestinal adaptation. Proximal intestinal diversion at segment 1 (S1, equivalent to jejunum) was performed in adult male zebrafish. SBS fish emptied distal intestinal contents via stoma as in the human disease. After 2 wk, S1 was dilated compared with controls and villus ridges had increased complexity, contributing to greater villus epithelial perimeter. The number of intervillus pockets, the intestinal stem cell zone of the zebrafish increased and contained a higher number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells after 2 wk of SBS. Egf receptor and a subset of its ligands, also drivers of adaptation, were upregulated in SBS fish. Igf has been reported as a driver of intestinal adaptation in other animal models, and SBS fish exposed to a pharmacological inhibitor of the Igf receptor failed to demonstrate signs of intestinal adaptation, such as increased inner epithelial perimeter and BrdU incorporation. We describe a technically feasible model of human SBS in the zebrafish, a faster and less expensive tool to investigate intestinal stem cell plasticity as well as the mechanisms that drive intestinal adaptation. PMID:26089336

  17. Mutual Information Item Selection Method in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing with Short Test Length

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) purports to combine the strengths of both CAT and cognitive diagnosis. Cognitive diagnosis models aim at classifying examinees into the correct mastery profile group so as to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of each examinee whereas CAT algorithms choose items to determine those…

  18. THE ADAPTABILITY OF SHORT-SEASON SOYBEAN GENOTYPES TO VARYING LONGITUDINAL REGIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present paper, we studied the adaptability of northern soybean genotypes (maturity groups 00-II) to two very distant locations with similar latitudes. One is Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro, where the varieties have been developed, while the other is Memuro on the island of Hokkaido in Japan....

  19. Ventricular structure, function, and mechanics at high altitude: chronic remodeling in Sherpa vs. short-term lowlander adaptation.

    PubMed

    Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip N; Hughes, Michael G; Stöhr, Eric J; Cotter, James D; Nio, Amanda Q X; Shave, Rob

    2014-08-01

    Short-term, high-altitude (HA) exposure raises pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and decreases left-ventricular (LV) volumes. However, relatively little is known of the long-term cardiac consequences of prolonged exposure in Sherpa, a highly adapted HA population. To investigate short-term adaptation and potential long-term cardiac remodeling, we studied ventricular structure and function in Sherpa at 5,050 m (n = 11; 31 ± 13 yr; mass 68 ± 10 kg; height 169 ± 6 cm) and lowlanders at sea level (SL) and following 10 ± 3 days at 5,050 m (n = 9; 34 ± 7 yr; mass 82 ± 10 kg; height 177 ± 6 cm) using conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. At HA, PASP was higher in Sherpa and lowlanders compared with lowlanders at SL (both P < 0.05). Sherpa had smaller right-ventricular (RV) and LV stroke volumes than lowlanders at SL with lower RV systolic strain (P < 0.05) but similar LV systolic mechanics. In contrast to LV systolic mechanics, LV diastolic, untwisting velocity was significantly lower in Sherpa compared with lowlanders at both SL and HA. After partial acclimatization, lowlanders demonstrated no change in the RV end-diastolic area; however, both RV strain and LV end-diastolic volume were reduced. In conclusion, short-term hypoxia induced a reduction in RV systolic function that was also evident in Sherpa following chronic exposure. We propose that this was consequent to a persistently higher PASP. In contrast to the RV, remodeling of LV volumes and normalization of systolic mechanics indicate structural and functional adaptation to HA. However, altered LV diastolic relaxation after chronic hypoxic exposure may reflect differential remodeling of systolic and diastolic LV function. PMID:24876358

  20. Ventricular structure, function, and mechanics at high altitude: chronic remodeling in Sherpa vs. short-term lowlander adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ainslie, Philip N.; Hughes, Michael G.; Stöhr, Eric J.; Cotter, James D.; Nio, Amanda Q. X.; Shave, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Short-term, high-altitude (HA) exposure raises pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and decreases left-ventricular (LV) volumes. However, relatively little is known of the long-term cardiac consequences of prolonged exposure in Sherpa, a highly adapted HA population. To investigate short-term adaptation and potential long-term cardiac remodeling, we studied ventricular structure and function in Sherpa at 5,050 m (n = 11; 31 ± 13 yr; mass 68 ± 10 kg; height 169 ± 6 cm) and lowlanders at sea level (SL) and following 10 ± 3 days at 5,050 m (n = 9; 34 ± 7 yr; mass 82 ± 10 kg; height 177 ± 6 cm) using conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. At HA, PASP was higher in Sherpa and lowlanders compared with lowlanders at SL (both P < 0.05). Sherpa had smaller right-ventricular (RV) and LV stroke volumes than lowlanders at SL with lower RV systolic strain (P < 0.05) but similar LV systolic mechanics. In contrast to LV systolic mechanics, LV diastolic, untwisting velocity was significantly lower in Sherpa compared with lowlanders at both SL and HA. After partial acclimatization, lowlanders demonstrated no change in the RV end-diastolic area; however, both RV strain and LV end-diastolic volume were reduced. In conclusion, short-term hypoxia induced a reduction in RV systolic function that was also evident in Sherpa following chronic exposure. We propose that this was consequent to a persistently higher PASP. In contrast to the RV, remodeling of LV volumes and normalization of systolic mechanics indicate structural and functional adaptation to HA. However, altered LV diastolic relaxation after chronic hypoxic exposure may reflect differential remodeling of systolic and diastolic LV function. PMID:24876358

  1. Improvements in Social and Adaptive Functioning Following Short-Duration PRT Program: A Clinical Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventola, Pamela; Friedman, Hannah E.; Anderson, Laura C.; Wolf, Julie M.; Oosting, Devon; Foss-Feig, Jennifer; McDonald, Nicole; Volkmar, Fred; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is an empirically validated behavioral treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of the current study was to assess the efficacy of PRT for ten cognitively-able preschool-aged children with ASD in the context of a short-duration (4-month) treatment model. Most research on PRT used…

  2. My Class Inventory-Short Form as an Accountability Tool for Elementary School Counselors to Measure Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.; Spencer, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    A psychometric study with more than 2,800 upper-elementary-age students examined the reliability and factorial validity of the My Class Inventory-Short Form (MCI-SF). Factor analytic and structural equation modeling results suggested that the original measure is a less than satisfactory approach to appraise various dimensions of classroom climate.…

  3. Examining Concurrent Validity and Predictive Utility for the Addiction Severity Index and Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankow, Jennifer; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Knight, Kevin; Meason, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Treatment providers need tools that are designed to identify risk, treatment needs, and monitor client engagement. These are essential components in substance abuse treatment for offender populations. In this study, the authors evaluated a flexible set of one-page modular assessments known as the Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms and…

  4. Efficacy of the Satz-Mogel Short Form WAIS-R for Tumor Patients with Lateralized Lesions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The predictive power of the short-form Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale of P. Satz and S. Mogel to provide equivalent information about IQ scores and age-corrected scale scores was not differentially affected by the side of the lesion for 63 patients with brain tumors. (SLD)

  5. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form among French University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudron, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability and the factor structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSES-SF) among French university students. Based on a sample of 650 respondents, the alpha coefficients indicated high reliability for total scores but not for the subscale scores with values of 0.70 and…

  6. The Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ-SF): A Validation Study with Federal Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.

    2006-01-01

    The 12-item short form of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ-SF) was originally developed by Bryant and Smith (2001) and modified and confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis with mentally ill offenders by Diamond, Wang, and Buffington-Vollum (2005). In the current study, construct validity of the BPAQ-SF was assessed with a sample…

  7. Comparison of the K-BIT with Short Forms of the WAIS-R in a Neuropsychological Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Norman; Engelhart, Charles I.

    1997-01-01

    The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) (A. S. Kaufman and N. L. Kaufman, 1990) was compared with short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) using results from 64 referrals to a neuropsychology service. Advantages of each test are noted and their use discussed. (SLD)

  8. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  9. A Validation Study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Known-Groups Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups…

  10. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  11. A Study Investigating the Feasibility of Creating a Short Form of the WISC-R for Disabled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David M.; Otts, David A.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of creating a short form of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) for use in a clinical setting with disabled readers. The subjects were 100 clients ages six to sixteen of the Belser-Parton Reading Center at the University of Alabama whose files contained scores…

  12. Toward a Brief Multidimensional Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Quotient Inventory-Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James D. A.; Keefer, Kateryna V.; Wood, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Although several brief instruments are available for the emotional intelligence (EI) construct, their conceptual coverage tends to be quite limited. One notable exception is the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:S), which measures multiple EI dimensions in addition to a global EI index. Despite the unique advantage offered by…

  13. Testing the Arabic short form versions of the Parental-Caregivers Perceptions Questionnaire and the Family Impact Scale in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Riyami, I.A.; Thomson, W.M.; Al-Harthi, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    Short form versions of the Parental-Caregivers Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS) have been developed for use as measures of oral health-related quality of life in dental research. Objectives (1) To translate the original English short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS and examine their validity, and (2) to describe the impact of early childhood caries on oral health-related quality of life in young Omani children and their families. Methods Parents/caregivers of children awaiting treatment for early childhood caries completed the P-CPQ and FIS at the Military Dental Center in Oman. Data were obtained from 191 families (representing a 94.1% participation rate). A global Oral Health Quality of Life (OHRQoL) item was used concurrently to examine the scales’ validity. Results The cross-sectional concurrent validity of the short form version of the P-CPQ was apparent in the significant gradient across the response categories of the global OHRQoL item, but the FIS short form version did not perform as well. Conclusion The P-CPQ appears to be valid, but further investigation of the FIS is required, along with examination of the scales’ responsiveness to change. PMID:26792967

  14. Clarifying Problems and Offering Solutions for Correlated Error when Assessing the Validity of Selected-Subtest Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Todd A.; Christensen, Bruce K.

    2008-01-01

    The correlation between a short-form (SF) test and its full-scale (FS) counterpart is a mainstay in the evaluation of SF validity. However, in correcting for overlapping error variance in this measure, investigators have overattenuated the validity coefficient through an intuitive misapplication of P. Levy's (1967) formula. The authors of the…

  15. A Comparison of the Psychometric Properties of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Full-Length and Short-Form Versions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Rebecca M.; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have…

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form in Preschool Children Using Parent and Teacher Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Wilson, Shauna B.

    2013-01-01

    Temperament is a developmentally important construct, hierarchically comprised of several lower-order dimensions subsumed under effortful control, negative affectivity, and surgency. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form (CBQ-VSF) was developed as a brief measure of the higher-order factors of temperament to aid researchers in…

  17. An Examination of the Structure of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (Short Form) among Italian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presti, Alessandro Lo; Pace, Francesco; Mondo, Marina; Nota, Laura; Casarubia, Provvidenza; Ferrari, Lea; Betz, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the factor structure of Career Decision Self-Efficacy scale-short form in a sample of Italian high school adolescents. confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the degree to which a one-factor structure and a five-factor structure provided the best fit. In view of available research the five-factor structure…

  18. An Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of the Adapted Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) among Turkish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study adapted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Short Version (MARS-SV) into Turkish and investigated the validity and reliability of the adapted instrument. Twenty-five bilingual experts agreed on the language validity, and 49 Turkish language experts agreed on the conformity and understandability of the scale's items. Thirty-two subject…

  19. Development of a Short Form of the Attitudes toward Mathematics Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Existing instruments designed to measure mathematics attitudes were too long, dated, or assessed with only western samples. To address this issue, a shortened version of the Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory (short ATMI) which measures four subscales--;enjoyment of mathematics, motivation to do mathematics, self-confidence in mathematics, and…

  20. An Adaptive Resonance Theory account of the implicit learning of orthographic word forms.

    PubMed

    Glotin, H; Warnier, P; Dandurand, F; Dufau, S; Lété, B; Touzet, C; Ziegler, J C; Grainger, J

    2010-01-01

    An Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) network was trained to identify unique orthographic word forms. Each word input to the model was represented as an unordered set of ordered letter pairs (open bigrams) that implement a flexible prelexical orthographic code. The network learned to map this prelexical orthographic code onto unique word representations (orthographic word forms). The network was trained on a realistic corpus of reading textbooks used in French primary schools. The amount of training was strictly identical to children's exposure to reading material from grade 1 to grade 5. Network performance was examined at each grade level. Adjustment of the learning and vigilance parameters of the network allowed us to reproduce the developmental growth of word identification performance seen in children. The network exhibited a word frequency effect and was found to be sensitive to the order of presentation of word inputs, particularly with low frequency words. These words were better learned with a randomized presentation order compared with the order of presentation in the school books. These results open up interesting perspectives for the application of ART networks in the study of the dynamics of learning to read. PMID:19903528

  1. Long-Term Retention Explained by a Model of Short-Term Learning in the Adaptive Control of Reaching

    PubMed Central

    Joiner, Wilsaan M.; Smith, Maurice A.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive theoretical, psychophysical, and neurobiological work has focused on the mechanisms by which short-term learning develops into long-term memory. Better understanding of these mechanisms may lead to the ability to improve the efficiency of training procedures. A key phenomenon in the formation of long-term memory is the effect of over learning on retention—discovered by Ebbinghaus in 1885: when the initial training period in a task is prolonged even beyond what is necessary for good immediate recall, long-term retention improves. Although this over learning effect has received considerable attention as a phenomenon in psychology research, the mechanisms governing this process are not well understood, and the ability to predict the benefit conveyed by varying degrees of over learning does not yet exist. Here we studied the relationship between the duration of an initial training period and the amount of retention 24 h later for the adaptation of human reaching arm movements to a novel force environment. We show that in this motor adaptation task, the amount of long-term retention is predicted not by the overall performance level achieved during the training period but rather by the level of a specific component process in a multi-rate model of short-term memory formation. These findings indicate that while multiple learning processes determine the ability to learn a motor adaptation, only one provides a gateway to long-term memory formation. Understanding the dynamics of this key learning process may allow for the rational design of training and rehabilitation paradigms that maximize the long-term benefit of each session. PMID:18784273

  2. Fast response and high sensitivity to microsaccades in a cascading-adaptation neural network with short-term synaptic depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Jian-Fang; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-04-01

    Microsaccades are very small eye movements during fixation. Experimentally, they have been found to play an important role in visual information processing. However, neural responses induced by microsaccades are not yet well understood and are rarely studied theoretically. Here we propose a network model with a cascading adaptation including both retinal adaptation and short-term depression (STD) at thalamocortical synapses. In the neural network model, we compare the microsaccade-induced neural responses in the presence of STD and those without STD. It is found that the cascading with STD can give rise to faster and sharper responses to microsaccades. Moreover, STD can enhance response effectiveness and sensitivity to microsaccadic spatiotemporal changes, suggesting improved detection of small eye movements (or moving visual objects). We also explore the mechanism of the response properties in the model. Our studies strongly indicate that STD plays an important role in neural responses to microsaccades. Our model considers simultaneously retinal adaptation and STD at thalamocortical synapses in the study of microsaccade-induced neural activity, and may be useful for further investigation of the functional roles of microsaccades in visual information processing.

  3. Administration of a DPP-IV Inhibitor Enhances the Intestinal Adaptation in a Mouse Model of Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okawada, Manabu; Holst, Jens J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucagon-like peptide-2(GLP-2) induces small intestine mucosal epithelial cell (EC) proliferation; and may have benefit for patients suffering from short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, GLP-2 is rapidly inactivated in vivo by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). Therefore, we hypothesized that selectively inhibiting DPPIV would prolong the circulating life of GLP-2 and lead to increased intestinal adaptation after development of SBS. Methods 8-week old C57BL/6J mice underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection and were treated with either sitagliptin, a DPPIV-inhibitor (DPPIV-I), starting 1 day before surgery versus placebo. DPPIV-I efficacy was assessed 3 days after resection, including intestinal morphology, EC apoptosis and EC proliferation. Adaptive mechanisms were assessed with quantitative real-time PCR, and plasma bioactive GLP-2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULT Body weight loss and peripheral blood glucose levels did not change compared to SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment led to significant increases in villus height and crypt depth. DPPIV-I treatment did not significantly change EC apoptosis rates, but significantly increased crypt EC proliferation versus placebo-SBS controls. DPPIV-I treatment markedly increased mRNA expression of β-catenin and c-myc in ileal mucosa. Plasma GLP-2 levels significantly increased(~40.9%) in DPPIV-I-SBS mice. Conclusions DPPIV- I treatment increased SBS adaptation, and may potentially be useful for SBS patients. PMID:21719060

  4. The Adaptation of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Elementary Form into Turkish, Language Validity, and Preliminary Psychometric Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Balgalmis, Esra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale- Elementary Form (MARS-E, Suinn, 1988) into Turkish by first doing the translation of its items and then the preliminary psychometric investigation of the Turkish form. The study included four different samples: 30 bilingual language experts, 50 Turkish language…

  5. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, on intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thymann, Thomas; Stoll, Barbara; Mecklenburg, Lars; Burrin, Douglas G; Vegge, Andreas; Qvist, Niels; Eriksen, Thomas; Jeppesen, Palle B; Sangild, Per T

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal short bowel syndrome following massive gut resection is associated with malabsorption of nutrients. The intestinotrophic factor glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) improves gut function in adult patients with short bowel syndrome, but its effect in pediatric patients remains unknown. Our objective was to test the efficacy of the long-acting synthetic human GLP-2 analogue, teduglutide (ALX-0600), in a neonatal piglet jejunostomy model. Two-day-old pigs were subjected to resection of 50% of the small intestine (distal part), and the remnant intestine was exteriorized on the abdominal wall as a jejunostomy. All pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 7 days and a single daily injection of the following doses of teduglutide: 0.01 (n = 6), 0.02 (n = 6), 0.1 (n = 5), or 0.2 mg · kg · day (n = 6), and compared with placebo (n = 9). Body weight increment was similar for all 4 teduglutide groups but higher than placebo (P < 0.05). There was a dose-dependent increase in weight per length of the remnant intestine (P < 0.01) and fractional protein synthesis rate in the intestine was increased in the 0.2 mg · kg · day group versus placebo (P < 0.001); however, functional and structural endpoints including activity of digestive enzymes, absorption of enteral nutrients, and immunohistochemistry (Ki67, villin, FABP2, ChgA, and GLP-2R) were not affected by the treatment. Teduglutide induces trophicity on the remnant intestine but has limited acute effects on functional endpoints. Significant effects of teduglutide on gut function may require a longer adaptation period and/or a more frequent administration of the peptide. In perspective, GLP-2 or its analogues may be relevant to improve intestinal adaptation in pediatric patients with short bowel syndrome. PMID:24399211

  6. Measuring psychological trauma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Pace, Natalie; Heinemann, Allen W.; Choi, Seung W.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a Psychological Trauma item bank with patient and provider focus groups, cognitive interviews, and item response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit, differential item functioning (DIF) and precision. Setting We tested a 31-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Veterans Administration hospital. Participants A total of 716 individuals with SCI completed the trauma items Results The 31 items fit a unidimensional model (CFI=0.952; RMSEA=0.061) and demonstrated good precision (theta range between 0.6 and 2.5). Nine items demonstrated negligible DIF with little impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank contains 19 items Conclusion The SCI-QOL Psychological Trauma item bank is a psychometrically robust measurement tool from which a short form and a computer adaptive test (CAT) version are available. PMID:26010967

  7. Measuring resilience after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Victorson, David; Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Weiland, Brian; Choi, Seung W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury - Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Resilience item bank and short form. Design Using a mixed-methods design, we developed and tested a resilience item bank through the use of focus groups with individuals with SCI and clinicians with expertise in SCI, cognitive interviews, and item-response theory based analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 32-item pool at several medical institutions across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI completed the Resilience items. Results A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.968; RMSEA = 0.074) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −3.1 and 0.9). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes we found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 21 retained items. Conclusion This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Resilience item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010971

  8. Mutation at the circadian clock gene EARLY MATURITY 8 adapts domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare) to short growing seasons

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Sebastien; Turner, Adrian S.; Gruszka, Damian; Christodoulou, Vangelis; Davis, Seth J.; von Korff, Maria; Laurie, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The circadian clock is an autonomous oscillator that produces endogenous biological rhythms with a period of about 24 h. This clock allows organisms to coordinate their metabolism and development with predicted daily and seasonal changes of the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both evolutionary fitness and agricultural productivity. Nevertheless, we show that commercial barley varieties bred for short growing seasons by use of early maturity 8 (eam8) mutations, also termed mat-a, are severely compromised in clock gene expression and clock outputs. We identified EAM8 as a barley ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) and demonstrate that eam8 accelerates the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth and inflorescence development. We propose that eam8 was selected as barley cultivation moved to high-latitude short-season environments in Europe because it allowed rapid flowering in genetic backgrounds that contained a previously selected late-flowering mutation of the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1. We show that eam8 mutants have increased expression of the floral activator HvFT1, which is independent of allelic variation at Ppd-H1. The selection of independent eam8 mutations shows that this strategy facilitates short growth-season adaptation and expansion of the geographic range of barley, despite the pronounced clock defect. PMID:22566625

  9. Assessing quality of life in patients with chronic leg ulceration using the Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J; McCullagh, Lynn; Moffatt, Christine J

    2003-02-01

    Clinician awareness of the importance of recognizing, assessing, and ultimately addressing the negative impact of chronic wounds on patient quality of life is increasing. One hundred, eighteen (118) patients (average age 78 years) participated in a study to evaluate the use of the Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 for assessing the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic leg ulceration. Most patients (104, 88%) were treated at home by community nurses. A medical history was obtained and patients completed the Short Form-36 questionnaire at baseline and after 12 weeks of receiving standard ulcer care. Published normative data were used to ascertain the effect of leg ulcers on health-related quality of life. Short Form-36 responsiveness was determined by comparing baseline and 12-week scores. Results suggest that the questionnaire is reliable for five of eight Short Form-36 domains (alpha > 0.8), with the remainder alpha > 0.7. Compared to age-sex adjusted published normative scores, patients with leg ulcers had significantly lower mean scores in the following domains: role-emotional (d = 28.6, P <0.001), social functioning (d = 22.8, P <0.001), role-functioning (d = 20.8, P <0.001), role-physical (d = 20.7, P <0.001), and bodily pain (d = 12.3, P <0.001). Short Form-36 scores barely changed between baseline and the 12-week assessment, but bodily pain improved in the 31 patients whose ulcers healed during that time (d = 14.6, P = 0.006; SRM = 0.60). Pain did not improve in patients whose ulcers remained open (d = -2.1, P = 0.45). Compared to patients whose ulcers did not heal, patients with healed ulcers experienced greater improvements in the following domains: body pain (d = 16.8, P = 0.003), mental health (d = 9.4, P = 0.013), role-physical (d = 19.7, P = 0.06), role-emotional (d = 17.2, P = 0.12), and vitality (d = 9.0, P = 0.052). The results of this study suggest that leg ulcers reduce patient quality of life and that the Short Form-36 can be used

  10. The African American Acculturation Scale II: Cross-Validation and Short Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Studied African American culture, using a new, shortened, 33-item African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS-33) to assess the scale's validity and reliability. Comparisons between the original form and AAAS-33 reveal high correlations, however, the longer form may be sensitive to some beliefs, practices, and attitudes not assessed by the short…

  11. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  12. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Original and Short Form of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in Detained Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik; Hawes, Samuel W; Bijttebier, Patricia; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the self-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in 191 detained female adolescents (M = 15.76, SD = 1.02). Evidence supporting the validity of the ICU scores was generally weak, largely due to poor functioning of the Unemotional subscale. Results from confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated support for a recently proposed shortened version of the ICU consisting of two subscales (Callousness and Uncaring). Both subscales showed acceptable to good internal consistency. This short-form version also improved criterion validity, though some issues regarding its convergent validity need further consideration. In conclusion, this study suggests that a short-form version of the ICU that includes a subset of the original items may hold promise as an efficient and valid method for assessing CU traits. PMID:26493393

  14. Short form of Spanish version of the WISC-IV for intelligence assessment in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Dasi, Carmen; Soler, Maria J; Bellver, Vicente; Ruiz, Juan C

    2014-12-01

    In educational settings, quick assessments of intelligence are often required to screen children with potential special needs. The WISC-IV is administered individually and takes between one and two hours to complete. Given its widespread use in Spain, a short-form of the Spanish version is likely to be of use to professionals. The goal of this research was to develop a short form of the WISC-IV that can be performed in approximately half an hour. Data obtained in 100 elementary school children were analyzed following the criteria of Resnick and Entin (1971) . The results showed that the most accurate estimation of intelligence was achieved with a combination of the Vocabulary, Block Design, Letter-Number Sequencing, and Coding subtests. PMID:25539178

  15. A psychometric evaluation of the Personality Assessment Inventory - short form clinical scales in an inpatient psychiatric sample.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samuel J; Siefert, Caleb J; Shorey, Hal S; Antonius, Daniel; Shiva, Andrew; Kehl-Fie, Kendra; Blais, Mark A

    2009-12-30

    Few studies have assessed the psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory short-form (PAI-SF) clinical scales, and none have conducted these evaluations using participants from psychiatric inpatient units. The present study evaluated item-level tests of scaling assumptions of the PAI-SF using a large (N=503) clinical sample of participants who completed the PAI during their admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Internal consistency reliability was high across scales, and tests of item-scale convergence and discrimination generally confirmed hypothesized item groupings. Scale-level correlations supported unique variance being measured by each scale. Finally, agreement between the PAI short- and full-form scales was found to be high. The results are discussed with regards to scale interpretation. PMID:19879654

  16. Proposal of a short-form version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Leonardo Pozza; Lindemann, Ivana Loraine; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Mintem, Gicele; Bender, Eliana; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. METHODS Two samples were used to test the results obtained in the analyses in two distinct scenarios. One of the studies was composed of 230 low income families from Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, and the other was composed of 15,575 women, whose data were obtained from the 2006 National Survey on Demography and Health. Two models were tested, the first containing seven questions, and the second, the five questions that were considered the most relevant ones in the concordance analysis. The models were compared to the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy parameters were calculated, as well as the kappa agreement test. RESULTS Comparing the prevalence of food insecurity between the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and the two models, the differences were around 2 percentage points. In the sensitivity analysis, the short version of seven questions obtained 97.8% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively, while specificity was 100% in both studies. The five-question model showed similar results (sensitivity of 95.7% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively). In the Pelotas sample, the kappa test of the seven-question version totaled 97.0% and that of the five-question version, 95.0%. In the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, the two models presented a 99.0% kappa. CONCLUSIONS We suggest that the model with five questions should be used as the short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, as its results were similar to the original scale with a lower number of questions. This version needs to be administered to other populations in Brazil in order to allow for the adequate assessment of the validity parameters. PMID:25372169

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,…

  18. Short loop length and high thermal stability determine genomic instability induced by G-quadruplex-forming minisatellites

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Aurèle; Adrian, Michael; Samazan, Frédéric; Heddi, Brahim; Hamon, Florian; Serero, Alexandre; Lopes, Judith; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Phan, Anh Tuân; Nicolas, Alain

    2015-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4) are polymorphic four-stranded structures formed by certain G-rich nucleic acids, with various biological roles. However, structural features dictating their formation and/or functionin vivo are unknown. InS. cerevisiae, the pathological persistency of G4 within the CEB1 minisatellite induces its rearrangement during leading-strand replication. We now show that several other G4-forming sequences remain stable. Extensive mutagenesis of the CEB25 minisatellite motif reveals that only variants with very short (≤ 4 nt) G4 loops preferentially containing pyrimidine bases trigger genomic instability. Parallel biophysical analyses demonstrate that shortening loop length does not change the monomorphic G4 structure of CEB25 variants but drastically increases its thermal stability, in correlation with thein vivo instability. Finally, bioinformatics analyses reveal that the threat for genomic stability posed by G4 bearing short pyrimidine loops is conserved inC. elegans and humans. This work provides a framework explanation for the heterogeneous instability behavior of G4-forming sequencesin vivo, highlights the importance of structure thermal stability, and questions the prevailing assumption that G4 structures with short or longer loops are as likely to formin vivo. PMID:25956747

  19. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language. PMID:26083380

  20. Behavioural adaptations of birds to environments where evaporation is high and water is in short supply.

    PubMed

    Davies, S J

    1982-01-01

    1. Behaviour that reduces the heat load or evaporation experienced by birds living in arid areas is reviewed. Many species have evolved hunting behaviour that enables them to remain inactive during the hottest parts of the day and thus greatly reduce the amount of metabolic heat that they need to dissipate. Flights to water are made at low ambient temperatures, either early in the morning or late in the evening. Fighting is rare in many species of desert birds, avoiding the excess generation of heat by this activity. Many arid zone birds maintain long-lasting pair bonds, avoiding the necessity for active, elaborate display before breeding and again reducing activity. 2. The observations on nomadism are discussed. No unifying principles that might control the behaviour of birds seeking widely separated areas of abundance of food have yet emerged. 3. Some species have evolved mechanisms, embodied in behavioural characteristics, that ensure that the eggs and chicks are sheltered from high temperatures and are provided with adequate moisture. 4. Birds have evolved many different kinds of behavioural adaptation to arid zones and representatives from many avian families live there, apparently successfully. PMID:6124344

  1. Spectral indices of cardiovascular adaptations to short-term simulated microgravity exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Berk, M.; Grande, K. J.; Charles, J. B.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effects of exposure to microgravity on the baseline autonomic balance in cardiovascular regulation using spectral analysis of cardiovascular variables measured during supine rest. Heart rate, arterial pressure, radial flow, thoracic fluid impedance and central venous pressure were recorded from nine volunteers before and after simulated microgravity, produced by 20 hours of 6 degrees head down bedrest plus furosemide. Spectral powers increased after simulated microgravity in the low frequency region (centered at about 0.03 Hz) in arterial pressure, heart rate and radial flow, and decreased in the respiratory frequency region (centered at about 0.25 Hz) in heart rate. Reduced heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region indicates reduced parasympathetic influence on the heart. A concurrent increase in the low frequency power in arterial pressure, heart rate, and radial flow indicates increased sympathetic influence. These results suggest that the baseline autonomic balance in cardiovascular regulation is shifted towards increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic influence after exposure to short-term simulated microgravity.

  2. Adaptation of healthy adult cats to select dietary fibers in vivo affects gas and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barry, K A; Wojcicki, B J; Bauer, L L; Middelbos, I S; Vester Boler, B M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2011-10-01

    Nine young adult (1.73 ± 0.03 yr) male cats were used to determine the effects of microbial adaptation to select dietary fiber sources on changes in pH in vitro and on total and hydrogen gas, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), and branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) production. Cats were adapted to diets containing 4% cellulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), or pectin for 30 d before fecal sampling. Each cat was used as a single donor, and fecal inoculum was reacted with each of the aforementioned fiber substrates. Adaptation to dietary FOS resulted in a greater change in pH when exposed to FOS than pectin (adaptation × substrate, P < 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, adaptation to dietary FOS or pectin increased hydrogen gas production (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.021). Adaptation to dietary FOS increased acetate and total SCFA production when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.001). When exposed to the FOS substrate, propionate production tended to increase with adaptation to dietary cellulose (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.060). The BCFA + valerate tended to decrease with adaptation to dietary FOS when exposed to FOS substrate in vitro (adaptation × substrate, P = 0.092). Fructooligosaccharides resulted in the greatest change in pH and production of total gas (P < 0.001), hydrogen gas (P < 0.001), acetate (P < 0.001), propionate (P < 0.001), butyrate (P < 0.001), total SCFA (P < 0.001), and total BCFA + valerate production (P < 0.001). Adaptation to the FOS or pectin diet increased production of hydrogen gas with FOS and pectin substrates. Adaptation to pectin increased (P = 0.033) total gas production with FOS and pectin substrates. Overall, adaptation to either FOS or pectin led to greater SCFA and gas production, but adaptation to FOS resulted in the greatest effect overall. PMID:21531846

  3. An 8-Item Short Form of the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) Among Young Swiss Men.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Iglesias, Katia; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Emerging adulthood is a period of life transition, in which youths are no longer adolescents but have not yet reached full adulthood. Measuring emerging adulthood is crucial because of its association with psychopathology and risky behaviors such as substance use. Unfortunately, the only validated scale for such measurement has a long format (Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood [IDEA]-31 items). This study aimed to test whether a shorter form yields satisfactory results without substantial loss of information among a sample of young Swiss men. Data from the longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors were used (N = 5,049). IDEA, adulthood markers (e.g., parenthood or financial independence), and risk factors (i.e., substance use and mental health issues) were assessed. The results showed that an 8-item, short-form scale (IDEA-8) with four factors (experimentation, negativity, identity exploration, and feeling in between) returned satisfactory results, including good psychometric properties, high convergence with the initial scale, and strong empirical validity. This study was a step toward downsizing a measure of emerging adulthood. Indeed, this 8-item short form is a good alternative to the 31-item long form and could be more convenient for surveys with constraints on questionnaire length. Moreover, it should help health care practitioners in identifying at-risk populations to prevent and treat risky behaviors. PMID:24973242

  4. Interactions between concentric form-from-structure and face perception revealed by visual masking but not adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Feczko, Eric; Shulman, Gordon L.; Petersen, Steven E.; Pruett, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from diverse subfields of vision research suggest a potential link between high-level aspects of face perception and concentric form-from-structure perception. To explore this relationship, typical adults performed two adaptation experiments and two masking experiments to test whether concentric, but not nonconcentric, Glass patterns (a type of form-from-structure stimulus) utilize a processing mechanism shared by face perception. For the adaptation experiments, subjects were presented with an adaptor for 5 or 20 s, prior to discriminating a target. In the masking experiments, subjects saw a mask, then a target, and then a second mask. Measures of discriminability and bias were derived and repeated measures analysis of variance tested for pattern-specific masking and adaptation effects. Results from Experiment 1 show no Glass pattern-specific effect of adaptation to faces; results from Experiment 2 show concentric Glass pattern masking, but not adaptation, may impair upright/inverted face discrimination; results from Experiment 3 show concentric and radial Glass pattern masking impaired subsequent upright/inverted face discrimination more than translational Glass pattern masking; and results from Experiment 4 show concentric and radial Glass pattern masking impaired subsequent face gender discrimination more than translational Glass pattern masking. Taken together, these findings demonstrate interactions between concentric form-from-structure and face processing, suggesting a possible common processing pathway. PMID:24563526

  5. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Choi, Seung W.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a self-reported measure of the subjective impact of pressure ulcers on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) as part of the SCI quality of life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration testing, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory-based psychometric analysis. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale. Results 189 individuals with traumatic SCI who experienced a pressure ulcer within the past 7 days completed 30 items related to pressure ulcers. CFA confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. IRT analyses were conducted. A constrained Graded Response Model with a constant slope parameter was used to estimate item thresholds for the 12 retained items. Conclusions The 12-item SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale is unique in that it is specifically targeted to individuals with spinal cord injury and at every stage of development has included input from individuals with SCI. Furthermore, use of CFA and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The scale may be administered in its entirety or as a 7-item “short form” and is available for both research and clinical practice. PMID:26010965

  6. Validation of the Full and Short-Form Self-Help Involvement Scale Against the Rasch Measurement Model

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Karen M.; Conrad, Kendon J.; Passetti, Lora L.; Funk, Rodney R.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders (SUDs) are one of the nation’s most costly problems in terms of dollars, disability, and death. Self-help programs are among the varied recovery support options available to address SUD, and evaluation of these programs depends on good measurement. There exists an unmet need for a psychometrically sound, brief, efficient measure of self-help involvement for individuals with SUD that is valid across different substances and age-groups. Methods Using data from 2,101 persons presenting for SUD treatment, the full 21-item Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Self-Help Involvement Scale (SHIS) and a newly developed 11-item short-form version were validated against the Rasch measurement model and each other. Differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed by primary substance and age. Results Both versions met Rasch psychometric criteria. The full scale had minor misfit with no DIF for alcohol, marijuana, or opioids but a few instances of DIF for amphetamine and cocaine users as well as for age, in that youth tended to endorse several easier items more frequently than did adults. The 11-item short form had neither misfit nor DIF by substance and only minor DIF by age was highly correlated with the full version and was relatively more efficient. Criterion-related validity was supported for both. Conclusions Both the long and short versions of SHIS are psychometrically sound measures of a more comprehensive conceptualization of self-help involvement for SUDs that can be used as part of an in-depth assessment or as a short measure that lessens respondent burden. PMID:26275980

  7. Item Response Theory Analysis and Differential Item Functioning across Age, Gender and Country of a Short Form of the Advanced Progressive Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models were applied to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arthur and Day's Advanced Progressive Matrices-Short Form (APM-SF; 1994) [Arthur and Day (1994). "Development of a short form for the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test." "Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54," 395-403] in order to test…

  8. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  9. HD 140283: A STAR IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD THAT FORMED SHORTLY AFTER THE BIG BANG

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; VandenBerg, Don A.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Harmer, Dianne E-mail: nelan@stsci.edu E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org

    2013-03-01

    HD 140283 is an extremely metal-deficient and high-velocity subgiant in the solar neighborhood, having a location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where absolute magnitude is most sensitive to stellar age. Because it is bright, nearby, unreddened, and has a well-determined chemical composition, this star avoids most of the issues involved in age determinations for globular clusters. Using the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured a trigonometric parallax of 17.15 {+-} 0.14 mas for HD 140283, with an error one-fifth of that determined by the Hipparcos mission. Employing modern theoretical isochrones, which include effects of helium diffusion, revised nuclear reaction rates, and enhanced oxygen abundance, we use the precise distance to infer an age of 14.46 {+-} 0.31 Gyr. The quoted error includes only the uncertainty in the parallax, and is for adopted surface oxygen and iron abundances of [O/H] = -1.67 and [Fe/H] = -2.40. Uncertainties in the stellar parameters and chemical composition, especially the oxygen content, now contribute more to the error budget for the age of HD 140283 than does its distance, increasing the total uncertainty to about {+-}0.8 Gyr. Within the errors, the age of HD 140283 does not conflict with the age of the Universe, 13.77 {+-} 0.06 Gyr, based on the microwave background and Hubble constant, but it must have formed soon after the big bang.

  10. Proteus virulence: involvement of the pore forming alpha-hemolysin (a short review).

    PubMed

    Tóth, V; Emódy, L

    2000-01-01

    The genus Proteus belongs to the tribe of Proteae in the family of Enterobacteriaceae, and consists of five species: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. morganii, P. penneri and P. myxofaciens. They are distinguished from the rest of Enterobacteriaceae by their ability to deaminate phenylalanine and tryptophane. They hydrolyze urea and gelatin and fail to ferment lactose, mannose, dulcitol and malonate; and do not form lysine and arginine decarboxylase or beta-galactosidase [1]. Colonies produce distinct "burned chocolate" odor and frequently show the characteristics of swarming motility on solid media. P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. morganii are widely recognized human pathogens. They have been isolated from urinary tract infections, wounds, ear, and nosocomial bacteremic infections, often in immuncompromised patients [2-6]. P. myxofaciens has no clinical interest to this time. P. penneri as species nova was nominated by the recommendation of Hickman and co-workers [7]. Formerly it was recognized as P. vulgaris biogroup 1 or indole negative P. vulgaris [8, 9]. Although it has been less commonly isolated from clinical samples than the other three human pathogenic Proteus species, it has nevertheless been connected with infections of the urinary tract, wounds and has been isolated from the feces of both healthy and diarrheic individuals [10-12]. Potential virulence factors responsible for virulence of Proteae are: IgA protease, urease, type3 fimbriae associated with MR/K haemagglutinins of at least two antigenic types, endotoxin, swarming motility and HlyA and/or HpmA type hemolysins [for review see ref. 13]. In the followings we give a survey of accumulated concepts about the position and characteristics of HlyA type alpha-hemolysins both in general and with emphasis on virulence functions in the tribe of Proteae. PMID:11056765